Note: This page contains sample records for the topic variegata linn grown from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats.  

PubMed

The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. PMID:21572659

Pani, Saumya R; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K

2011-04-01

2

Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats  

PubMed Central

The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy.

Pani, Saumya R.; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K.

2011-01-01

3

Evaluation of effects of Bauhinia variegata stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice.  

PubMed

Bauhinia variegata Linn (family: Caesalpiniaceae), popularly known as Rakta Kanchnar, is a medium-sized tree found throughout India. The stem bark of B. variegata (BV) is used traditionally in the treatment of asthma, jaundice, tuberculosis, leprosy, and skin diseases. In the present study, we have investigated the role of aqueous (BVA) and ethanol (BVE) extracts of the plant against milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia in albino mice. The results of the study revealed that pretreatment with both the extracts caused significant reduction in the total leukocyte and eosinophil counts in animals in dose-dependent manner. From these results, it can be concluded that the plant BV is having antieosinophilic activity. PMID:22171306

Mali, Ravindra G; Dhake, Avinash S

2011-04-01

4

Comparative studies on cellular behaviour of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) grown in vivo and in vitro for early detection of somaclonal variation.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2?mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09? ?m² to 35.66 ± 0.10? ?m² and 142.90 ± 0.59? ?m² to 165.05 ± 0.58? ?m², respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period. PMID:23766703

Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

2013-05-22

5

The re-stocking of captive-bred ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) into the Betampona Reserve, Madagascar: methodology and recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since November 1997 the Madagascar Fauna Group has released 13 captive-bred black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) into the Betampona Reserve in eastern Madagascar. The release programme has three major aims: (1) to assess the ability of captive-bred V. v. variegata to adapt to life in their natural habitat; (2) to investigate the contribution that such a release

Adam Britt; Charles Welch; Andrea Katz; Bernard Iambana; Ingrid Porton; Randall Junge; Graham Crawford; Cathy Williams; David Haring

2004-01-01

6

Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: from isolation to potential medicinal applications.  

PubMed

Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K(i), 0.1 x 10(-9)M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI. PMID:20435016

Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Lin, Peng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun

2010-05-08

7

Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a new triterpene saponin from Bauhinia variegata leaves.  

PubMed

A new triterpene saponin, named as 23-hydroxy-3alpha-[O-alpha-L-1C4-rhamnopyranosyl-(1"-->4')-O-alpha-L-4C1-arabinopyranosyl-oxy]olean-12-en-28-oic acid O-alpha-L-1C4-rhamnopyranosyl-(1"'-->4")-O-beta-D-4C1-glucopyranosyl-(1"-->6"')-O-beta-D-4C1-glucopyranosyl ester (9), was isolated from the leaves of Bauhinia variegata Linn. In addition, six flavonoid compounds along with two cinnamic acid derivatives were isolated and identified based on their chromatographic properties, and chemical and spectral data (ESI-high resolution-MSn, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC). Compound 9 was found to be nontoxic (LD50) and to have significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. It also showed a slight antischistosomal activity. PMID:20158149

Mohamed, Mona A; Mammoud, Madeha R; Hayen, Heiko

8

Isolation and Structure Determination of a Benzofuran and a Bis-Nor-Isoprenoid from Aspergillus Niger Grown on the Water Soluble Fraction of Morinda Citrifolia Linn. Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new benzofuran and a bis-nor-isoprenoid, blumenol C, hitherto unreported from this source. The structures of these have been elucidated as 5-benzofuran carboxylic acid-6-formyl methyl ester (1) and 4-(3?(R)-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5, trimethyl-cyclohex-2-en-1-one (2) respectively through spectroscopic studies. The NMR data (including 1D, 2D techniques) and stereochemistry at C-3? of Compound 2 is also being reported

Bina S. Siddiqui; Fouzia A. Sattar Ismail; Tahsin Gulzar; Sabira Begum

2003-01-01

9

Liquid CO 2 extraction of Murraya paniculata Linn. flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murraya paniculata (Linn.) Jack syn M. exotica Linn. commonly known as orange jessamine is grown in gardens for its large clusters of fragrant flowers. Extraction of the fresh flowers with liquid CO2 provides a floral extract in 0.64% yields. The major components in the extract were phenyl ethyl alcohol (3.3%), indole (1.2%), E-nerolidol (7.6%), benzyl benzoate (7.0%), phenyl ethyl benzoate

Prasant Kumar Rout; Y. Ramachandra Rao; Satyanarayan Naik

2010-01-01

10

Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Bishkhapra)  

PubMed Central

World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. is a herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal constituent of T. portulacastrum Linn. is ecdysterone and the other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2’-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. are traditionally used as analgesic, stomachic, laxative, treatment of blood disease, anemia, inflammation, and night blindness. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic. This article compiles all updated information related to T. portulacastrum Linn. Scientifically proved activities are co-related with traditional concepts. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. The novelty and applicability of T. portulacastrum are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concepts.

Shivhare, Manoj K.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

2012-01-01

11

Linn Cove Viaduct.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The film shows the construction of the Linn Cove Viaduct, part of the Blue Ridge Parkway. This bridge was built by an innovative construction method, which allowed it to be built from the top down without disturbing the landscape. It took four years to bu...

1994-01-01

12

Mint virus X: a novel potexvirus associated with symptoms in ‘Variegata’ mint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Mentha?×?gracilis ‘Variegata’, an ornamental mint clone first described about 200 years ago, exhibits virus-like vein banding symptoms. Double-stranded\\u000a RNA and virion isolations revealed the presence of three viruses in a ‘Variegata’ plant. Cloning and sequencing disclosed\\u000a that one of the viruses was a previously unidentified species with similarities to members of the Flexiviridae family, designated as Mint virus X (MVX).

I. E. Tzanetakis; J. D. Postman; R. R. Martin

2006-01-01

13

Mitochondrial DNA variation in the hybridizing fire-bellied toads, Bombina bombina and B. variegata.  

PubMed

Using five restriction enzymes, geographical variation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Bombina bombina and B. variegata was studied in samples from 20 locations. Each restriction enzyme produced a species-specific fragment pattern. B. bombina haplotypes A and B were closely related to each other. In contrast, haplotypes A and B of B. variegata formed two distinct lineages. A very distinctive haplotype (C) was found in the Carpathian Mountains, whereas two other haplotypes, D and E (differing by a single AvaI site), were present in western Europe and the Balkans, respectively. Populations polymorphic for haplotypes D and E occurred in the central Balkans where the haplotypes could replace each other clinally. mtDNA sequence divergence between B. bombina and B. variegata was estimated as 6.0-8.1% and 4.7-5.2% between type C and types D/E of B. variegata. The latter divergence is contrary to allozyme and morphological data that place the western and Carpathian B. v. variegata together (Nei's D = 0.07) and separate them from the Balkan subspecies B. v. scabra (Nei's D = 0.18). Broad interspecific correlation among morphology, allozymes and mtDNA types in European fire-bellied toads argues that, despite continuous hybridization (interrupted perhaps during Pleistocene glacial maxima), little or no mtDNA introgression between the species has occurred outside the narrow hybrid zones that separate these parapatric species. PMID:10886652

Szymura, J M; Uzzell, T; Spolsky, C

2000-07-01

14

Chemoprevention and cytotoxic effect of Bauhinia variegata against N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver tumors and human cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (EBV) was evaluated in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN, 200mg\\/kg) induced experimental liver tumor in rats and human cancer cell lines. Oral administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (250mg\\/kg) effectively suppressed liver tumor induced by DEN as revealed by decrease in DEN induced elevated levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT),

B. Rajkapoor; B. Jayakar; N. Murugesh; D. Sakthisekaran

2006-01-01

15

Antimutagenicity of some flowers grown in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenicity of dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts of Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn., Curcuma sessilis Gage, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ixora coccinea Linn., Millingtonia hortensis Linn., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Plumeria obtusa Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Rhinacanthus nasutus ((Linn.) Kurz.) and Syzygium malaccense ((Linn.) Merr.& Perry) before and after nitrite treatment was firstly investigated in the Ames test. Their antimutagenicity against

O. Wongwattanasathien; K. Kangsadalampai; L. Tongyonk

2010-01-01

16

Depth-related variation in epiphytic communities growing on the brown alga Lobophora variegata in a Caribbean coral reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lobophora variegata is a dominant macroalga on coral reefs across the Caribbean. Over the last two decades, it has expanded its vertical distribution to both shallow and deep reefs along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, Southern Caribbean. However, the ecological implications of this expansion and the role of L. variegata as a living substratum are poorly known. This study compared epiphytic algal communities on L. variegata blades along two depth transects (6-40 m). The epiphytic community was diverse with a total of 70 species of which 49 were found directly attached to L. variegata. The epiphytic community varied significantly between blade surface, depth and site. The greatest number of genera per blade was found growing on the underside of the blades regardless of site and depth. Filamentous red algae (e.g. Neosiphonia howei) were commonly found on the upperside of the blades over the whole depth gradient, whereas the underside was mainly colonized by calcifying (e.g. Hydrolithon spp., Jania spp., Amphiroa fragillissima), fleshy red algae (e.g. Champia spp., Gelidiopsis spp., Hypnea spinella) and foliose brown alga (e.g. Dictyota spp.). Anotrichum tenue, a red alga capable of overgrowing corals, was a common epiphyte of both blade surfaces. L. variegata plays an important role as a newly available substratum. Thus, its spread may influence other algal species and studies of benthic macroalgae such as L. variegata should also take into consideration their associated epiphytic algal communities.

Fricke, A.; Titlyanova, T. V.; Nugues, M. M.; Bischof, K.

2011-12-01

17

Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal with an intrinsically erratic food supply by virtue of its reproductive biology and social behavior.

Balko, E.A.; Underwood, H.B.

2005-01-01

18

[Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of different shading (light transmittance 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) on the photosynthesis characteristics of two ornamental foliage plants Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata. After shading for six weeks, the net photosynthesis rates of two plants measured ex situ under natural light enhanced, compared to those measured in situ, and, with the increase of shading degree, the net photosynthetic rates had an increasing trend, with the maximum being 9.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Photinia x frasery and 8.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Aucuba japonica var. variegata. In the meantime, the transpiration rates of the two plants increased significantly. Shading increased the chlorophyll a, b, and a+b contents and the chlorophyll/carotenoids ratio, decreased the chlorophyll a/b, but less affected the carotenoids content. The phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegate was 2.08 and 3.21, and 0.55 and 1.60, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of the two plants were relatively stable, indicating the minor influence of external environment factors on pigments. Aucuba japonica var. variegata had a higher shading tolerance than Photinia x frasery. PMID:22007450

Zhang, Cong-ying; Fang, Yan-ming; Ji, Hong-li; Ma, Cheng-tao

2011-07-01

19

Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities.  

PubMed

The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11-222.67?mg?QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40?mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5?mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10-40? ? g/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90-99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts. PMID:24093108

Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K; Pandey, Abhay K

2013-09-05

20

Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11–222.67?mg?QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40?mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5?mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10–40??g/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90–99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K.; Pandey, Abhay K.

2013-01-01

21

Phortica variegata as an intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda under natural conditions: Evidence for pathogen transmission by a male arthropod vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about Phortica variegata (Drosophilidae, Steganinae), the intermediate host of the eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), is confined to experimental studies. To investigate the role P. variegata plays in the transmission of T. callipaeda under natural conditions, the population dynamics of these flies in the natural environment and their feeding preferences (on vegetables and\\/or animal lachrymal secretions) were examined. From

D. Otranto; C. Cantacessi; G. Testini; R. P. Lia

2006-01-01

22

Characterization of the molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi plant extracts against the fasciola vector Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

The molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata leaf and Mimusops elengi bark was studied against vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. The toxicity of both plants was time and concentration-dependent. Among organic extracts, ethanol extracts of both plants were more toxic. Toxicity of B. variegata leaf ethanolic extract (96h LC50- 14.4 mg/L) was more pronounced than M. elengi bark ethanolic extract (96h LC50-15.0 mg/L). The 24h LC50 of column purified fraction of B. variegata and M. elengi bark were 20.3 mg/L and 18.3 mg/L, respectively. Saponin and quercetin were characterized and identified as active molluscicidal component. Co-migration of saponin (Rf 0.48) and quercetin (Rf 0.52) with column purified bark of M. elengi and leaf of B. variegata on thin layer chromatography demonstrate same Rf value i.e. 0.48 and 0.52, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the possibility of using M. elengi and/or B. variegata as potent molluscicide. PMID:22634884

Singh, Kanchan Lata; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

23

Laterality in semi-free-ranging black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata): head-tilt correlates with hand use during feeding.  

PubMed

Previous studies in human and chimpanzee infants have identified a predictive relationship between early rightward head orientation and later right hand use. Data from lemurs suggest a leftward bias in hand preference, but there are no data on head positioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between head and hand preferences in the black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata). Ruffed lemurs rotate the head vertically during chewing in a behavior called head-tilting. Frequency of head-tilting and bouts of unimanual hand use were measured during normal feeding in a semi-free-ranging population of lemurs. Subjects were provisioned at feeding platforms twice daily with fresh fruits, vegetables, and other food items. Sampling was spontaneous and all observations were videotaped. No group-level bias was found for head-tilting, but a left hand bias emerged for hand use. A positive relationship was found between direction of head-tilting preference and direction of hand use preference such that left head-tilts increased as left hand use increased. Furthermore, left head-tilts increased as the degree of hand preference lateralization increased. When the hand used to bring food to the mouth just before head-tilting was examined, there was a strong bias for the left hand to precede left head-tilts. For right head-tilts, however, lemurs were equally likely to use either hand before head-tilting. Overall a strong relationship was found between the left hand and left head-tilting in black and white ruffed lemurs, suggesting a common link between these behaviors. However, the direction of bias was different from that seen in human and chimpanzee studies. Additional studies on patterns of laterality would be informative for understanding how laterality has changed across the primate order and the adaptive significance of laterality in primates. PMID:19771585

Nelson, Eliza L; O'Karma, Jaime M; Ruperti, Felicia S; Novak, Melinda A

2009-12-01

24

Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeography of the European fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata supports their independent histories.  

PubMed

Exact location and number of glacial refugia still remain unclear for many European cold-blooded terrestrial vertebrates. We performed a fine-scaled multilocus phylogeographic analysis of two Bombina species combining mitochondrial variation of 950 toads from 385 sites and nuclear genes (Rag-1, Ncx-1) from a subset of samples to reconstruct their colonization and contemporary variation patterns. We identified the lowlands northwest of the Black Sea and the Carpathians to be important refugial areas for B. bombina and B. variegata, respectively. This result emphasizes the importance of Central European refugia for ectothermic terrestrial species, far north of the Mediterranean areas regarded as exclusive glacial refugia for the animals. Additional refugia for B. variegata have been located in the southern Apennines and Balkans. In contrast, no evidence for the importance of other east European plains as refugial regions has been found. The distribution of mtDNA and Ncx-1 variation suggests the presence of local refugia near the Black Sea for B. bombina; however, coalescent simulations did not allow to distinguish whether one or two refugia were present in the region. Strong genetic drift apparently accompanied postglacial expansions reducing diversity in the colonization areas. Extended sampling, coupled with the multilocus isolation with migration analysis, revealed a limited and geographically restricted gene flow from the Balkan to Carpathian populations of B. variegata. However, despite proximity of inferred B. bombina and B. variegata refugia, gene exchange between them was not detected. PMID:21749513

Fijarczyk, Anna; Nadachowska, Krystyna; Hofman, Sebastian; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Babik, Wies?aw; Stuglik, Micha?; Gollmann, Günter; Choleva, Lukáš; Cog?lniceanu, Dan; Vukov, Tanja; Džuki?, George; Szymura, Jacek M

2011-07-13

25

140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to provide information about the Linn Cove viaduct. Looking south-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

26

Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal\\u000a activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Geetha Gopalakrishnan

2008-01-01

27

Biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) onto brown seaweed, Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux): kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the biosorption performance of raw and chemically modified biomass of the brown seaweed Lobophora variegata for removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The biosorption capacity was significantly altered by pH of the solution\\u000a delineating that the higher the pH, the higher the Cd(II) and Pb(II) removal. Kinetic and isotherm experiments were carried\\u000a out at

Bhavanath Jha; Shaik Basha; Santlal Jaiswar; Biswajit Mishra; Mukund C. Thakur

2009-01-01

28

Arsenic uptake by two vegetables grown in two soils amended with As-bearing animal manures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organoarsenicals are widely used as growth promoters in animal feed, resulting in unabsorbed arsenic (As) left in animal manures. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the growth and As uptake of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor Linn, a crop with an axial root system) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, a crop with a fibrous root system) grown in a paddy

Li-Xian Yao; Guo-Liang Li; Zhi Dang; Zhao-Huan He; Chang-Min Zhou; Bao-Mei Yang

2009-01-01

29

Temperature-dependent chemical components accumulation in Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) during overwintering.  

PubMed

Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) is a widespread predator of aphid and has been reported as the most important naturally occurring enemy of aphids, in many countries. In this study, fluctuating levels of cryoprotectants in nonoverwintering and overwintering coccinellids were assessed in field and natural overwintering sites in Hamadan, Iran, from September of 2010 to June of 2011. Moreover, accumulations of polyols were investigated in response to subzero temperatures. Results demonstrated that concentrations of cryoprotectants changed during the study period under natural conditions. Large amounts of metabolic reserves, in the form of glycogen, accumulated before overwintering. Glycogen began to breakdown but polyols accumulated when ambient temperature decreased from October to December. Overwintering coccinellids displayed a threefold increase in levels of trehalose and a fivefold increase in levels of glucose and total cryoprotectants, but there was even a 45-fold increase in myo-inositol content when subzero temperatures were experienced. It was suggested that myo-inositol and glucose are the major cryoprotectants components in this species. In tests for cold response, the optimal temperature for polyol synthesis seems to be below -3°C. From November to February, all the collected coccinellids that had been kept at 10°C in the laboratory were dead after 30 d, indicating that high temperatures were not favorable for overwintering of this population. Moreover, exposure to high temperatures resulted in rapid catabolism of sugar alcohols. This result demonstrated significant correlation between ambient temperature decrease and accumulation of polyols, suggesting that low temperatures are responsible for polyols synthesis in this species. PMID:23575029

Hamedi, N; Moharramipour, S; Barzegar, M

2013-04-01

30

Immunostimulant effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to explore the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. (family: Capparidaceae) leaves on neutrophil adhesion test, humoral response to sheep red blood cells, delayed-type hypersensitivity, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression.Pre-treatment of water extract (300mg\\/kg, oral) of Capparis zeylanica evoked a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibres. The augmentation

B. V. Ghule; G. Murugananthan; P. D. Nakhat; P. G. Yeole

2006-01-01

31

Effects of Centella Asiatica Linn. Leaves and Garcinia Mangostana Linn. hull on the Healing of Dermal Wounds in Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diabetes is a condition which is known to be associated with a variety of connective tissue abnormalities which contribute to impaired wound healing, leading to the chronic ulcer formation. Centella asiatica Linn. and Garcinia mangostana Linn. are widely used as Thai traditional medicine including wound treatment. However, the effects of both plant extracts in diabetic condition had not been

Jirat Nganlasom; Tunda Suttitum; Dusit Jirakulsomchok; Anucha Puapairoj

2008-01-01

32

HYBRIDIZATION OF BOMBINA BOMBINA AND B. VARIEGATA (ANURA, DISCOGLOSSIDAE) AT A SHARP ECOTONE IN WESTERN UKRAINE: COMPARISONS ACROSS TRANSECTS AND OVER TIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bombina bombina and B. variegata are two anciently diverged toad taxa that have adapted to different breeding habitats yet hybridize freely in zones of overlap where their parapatric distributions meet. Here, we report on a joint genetic and ecological analysis of a hybrid zone in the vicinity of Stryi in western Ukraine. We used five unlinked allozyme loci, two nuclear

Alexey Yanchukov; Sebastian Hofman; Jacek M. Szymura; Sergey V. Mezhzherin; Sviatoslav Y. Morozov-Leonov; Nicholas H. Barton; Beate Nürnberger

2006-01-01

33

Evolution of Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata (Anura: Discoglossidae) in the Carpathian Basin: A history of repeated mtDNA introgression across species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and geographic location of hybrid zones change through time. Current patterns result from present and historical population–environment interactions that act on each of the hybridizing taxa. This is particularly evident for species involved in complex hybrid zones, such as that formed by the toad species Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata (Anura: Discoglossidae), which interact along extensive areas in

Judit Vörös; Marina Alcobendas; Iñigo Martínez-Solano; Mario García-París

2006-01-01

34

Synthesis of different-sized silver nanoparticles by simply varying reaction conditions with leaf extracts of Bauhinia variegata L.  

PubMed

Green synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the crucial requirements in today's climate change scenario all over the world. In view of this, leaf extract (LE) of Bauhinia variegata L. possessing strong antidiabetic and antibacterial properties has been used to synthesise silver nanoparticles (SNP) in a controlled manner. Various-sized SNP (20-120?nm) were synthesised by varying incubation temperature, silver nitrate and LE concentrations. The rate of SNP synthesis and their size increased with increase in AgNO(3) concentration up to 4?mM. With increase in LE concentration, size and aggregation of SNP was increased. The size and aggregation of SNP were also increased at temperatures above and below 40°C. This has suggested that size and dispersion of SNP can be controlled by varying reaction components and conditions. Polarity-based fractionation of B. variegata LE has suggested that only water-soluble fraction is responsible for SNP synthesis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the attachment of polyphenolic and carbohydrate moieties to SNP. The synthesised SNPs were found stable in double distilled water, BSA and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). On the contrary, incubation of SNP with NaCl induced aggregation. This suggests the safe use of SNP for various in vivo applications. PMID:22423864

Kumar, V; Yadav, S K

2012-03-01

35

Effect of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata and its recombinant isoform on surgically induced skin wounds in a murine model.  

PubMed

Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL) and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1). Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7). nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds. PMID:22064270

Neto, Luiz Gonzaga do Nascimento; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Bastos, Rafaela Mesquita; Evaristo, Francisco Flávio Vasconcelos; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves de; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

2011-11-07

36

Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: II. Intraspecific patterns.  

PubMed

Based on a year-long field study in northeastern Madagascar, I summarize annual patterns of niche use (food patch size, diet, forest height, and forest site) in two sympatric lemurs, Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons. Furthermore, I examine intraspecific patterns of niche use according to sex, season, and reproductive stage in these two lemurs that differ in terms of energetic investment in reproduction. Lemurs as a group provide a special opportunity to test hypotheses concerning sex differences in niche use. Due to their body size monomorphism and seasonal, synchronous pattern of breeding, it is possible to directly evaluate whether sex differences in diet reflect high energetic investment in reproduction by females. Results confirm the hypothesis that intraspecific variation in niche use (e.g., sex differences, seasonal differences) would be more pronounced in V. v. rubra than in E. f. albifrons, due in large measure to the former's relatively high energetic investment in reproduction: 1a) Dietary sex differences in V. v. rubra are most pronounced during costly reproductive stages and involve acquisition of low-fiber, high-protein plant foods. Females of both species consume more seasonally available low-fiber protein (young leaves, flowers) relative to conspecific males during the hot dry season, but only in V. v. rubra females is this pattern also evident during gestation and lactation. 1b) The diets of female V. v. rubra and female E. f. albifrons are more similar to each other than are the diets of conspecific males and females in the case of V. v. rubra. This is not uniformly the case for female E. f. albifrons. This finding confirms a hypothesis put forward in Vasey ([2000] Am J Phys Anthropol 112:411-431) that energetic requirements of reproductive females drive niche separation more than do the energetic requirements of males. 1c) Both species synchronize most or all of lactation with seasonal food abundance and diversity. E. f. albifrons shows a more protracted period of synchrony, and this may contribute to its wide biogeographic distribution in Madagascar. 2) Sex differences and seasonal differences in microhabitat use reflect intraspecific patterns of thermoregulation, predator avoidance, and in the case of V. v. rubra, reproduction. One important factor selecting for body size monomorphism in lemurs appears to be the tight synchrony between lactation and periods of food abundance afforded by annual, seasonal breeding. PMID:12012369

Vasey, Natalie

2002-06-01

37

Shelf-Life Extension of Nigerian Pepper (Capsicum Frutescens Linn and Capsicum Annuum Linn) Following Gamma Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shelf-life extension of two types of Nigerian pepper (Capsicum frutescens linn and Capsicum annuum linn) was determined after gamma irradiation from a Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiator, Model Gamma Cell 220. Capsicum frutescens linn "Atarodo, Hausa type" and "Atarodo, Ibadan local" were studied while Capsicum annuum linn "Sombo" was also studied within a period of fifty four days. The samples were irradiated with different gamma doses ranging from 0.5 â?? 4.0 kGy. The result obtained showed that, the shelflife extension of Capsicum frutescens linn "Atarodo Hausa type" is forty-two days, while that of Capsicum frutescens linn "Atarodo Ibadan local" is forty eight days while the shelf-life extension of Capsicum annuum linn "Sombo" is fiftyâ??four days. The optimum dose for the shelf-life extension of the pepper studied was 1.0 kGy. The irradiation of these food composites has clearly revealed the merits of food preservation by irradiation through considerable shelf-life extension without degrading the quality of the food irradiated.

Owoade, L. R.; Ademola, J. A.

2012-06-01

38

Tuberculostatic activity of henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn.).  

PubMed

The tuberculostatic activity of the herb henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn.) was tested in vitro and in vivo. On Lowenstein Jensen medium, the growth of tubercle bacilli from sputum and of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was inhibited by 6 micrograms/ml of the herb. In vivo studies on guinea pigs and mice showed that the herb at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight led to significant resolution of experimental tuberculosis following infection with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. PMID:2125156

Sharma, V K

1990-12-01

39

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review  

PubMed Central

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant.

Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, B. G.; Rana, D. G.

2010-01-01

40

[Xanthones from leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn].  

PubMed

To study the xanthones from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., several chromatography methods were employed to isolate the constituents. Investigation on the CHCl3 extract led to the isolation of a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A (1) and four known compounds, which were pancixanthone A (2), gerontoxanthone B (3), jacareubin (4) and pyranojacareubin (5). Among them, compound 2 was obtained from this plant firstly, and compound 3 was obtained for the first time from this genus. The structure of inophyxanthone A (1) was identified as 1, 3, 5-trihydroxy-2-(1, 1-dimethylallyl)xanthone by spectral analysis. PMID:19408685

Li, Yuan; Li, Zhan-Lin; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Li, Dan-Yi; Zhang, Hui; Hua, Hui-Ming

2009-02-01

41

Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry  

PubMed Central

Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus.

Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

2013-01-01

42

Physical Characteristics and Optimum Land Utilization, Linn County, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Linn County has for a number of years conducted basic planning studies. These studies have aided the development of city comprehensive plans, guided the development of parks, recreation areas, roads and other public facilities and stimulated the adoption ...

1970-01-01

43

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON CURCUMA AMADA (LINN.) RHIZOME (ZINGIBERACEAE)  

PubMed Central

The macroscopic and microscopic characters, physical constant values, extractive values, ash values and the behaviour of powder drug on treatment with different chemical regents, microchemical and histochemical analyses were conducted to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters of Curcuma amada linn. (Zingiberaceae).

Chitra, M.; Thoppil, J.E.

2002-01-01

44

Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8) was determined.

Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Chin Chin, Sieo; Hamid, Muhajir

2013-01-01

45

Two new flavones from Tridax procumbens Linn.  

PubMed

Two new flavones, 8,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxy-6-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl flavone (1) and 6,8,3'-trihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (2) were isolated from Tridax procumbens Linn., together with the four known compounds puerarin (3), esculetin (4), oleanolic acid (5) and betulinic acid (6). The structures of the two new flavones were elucidated based on chemical analysis and spectral methods (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS). The antioxidant activity of the two new flavones were evaluated by two methods, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and the data showed that compounds 1 and 2 have certain antioxidant activity, with the antioxidant activity of compound 2 being stronger than that of compound 1. PMID:20877227

Xu, Runsheng; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke

2010-09-09

46

Immunostimulant effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to explore the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. (family: Capparidaceae) leaves on neutrophil adhesion test, humoral response to sheep red blood cells, delayed-type hypersensitivity, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. Pre-treatment of water extract (300 mg/kg, oral) of Capparis zeylanica evoked a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibres. The augmentation of humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells by ethanolic and water extracts (150-300 mg/kg) is evidenced by increase in antibody titres in mice. A dose-related increase in both primary and secondary antibody titre was observed. Oral administration of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica leaves, at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg in mice, dose dependently potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Immunomodulatory activity was also assessed by serological and haematological tests. Capparis zeylanica extracts prevented myelosuppression in mice treated with cyclophosphamide drug. The study comprised the acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanol and water extracts. PMID:16766150

Ghule, B V; Murugananthan, G; Nakhat, P D; Yeole, P G

2006-11-24

47

Neuropharmacological activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn.  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the recent years, plants containing flavonoids have gained much more interest in research area, as they are found to be specific ligands for benzodiazepine receptors. Material and Methods: In our investigation, we evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of petroleum, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Lippia nodiflora Linn. With experimental models using test such as potentiation of diazepam-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity, motor coordination, exploratory behavior pattern, elevated plus maze and maximal electroshock convulsions. Diazepam at doses of 5, 4, and 1 mg/kg served as standard. Results: Results showed that the ethanolic extract of L. nodifl ora at both doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) and its chloroform extract at a higher dose of 500 mg/kg produced central inhibitory (sedative) effects, anticonvulsant effect and anxiolytic effect in mice. Values were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) when compared to the control group. The petroleum ether extract of plant at both dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) did not produce any central effects. Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say that the ethanolic and chloroform extracts showed the central inhibitory activity due to the presence of fl avonoids and this fact was also supported by the finding that the petroleum ether extract did not show any central effect and flavonoids were not found in it.

Thirupathy, Kumaresan P.; Tulshkar, Asish; Vijaya, C.

2011-01-01

48

Hybridization of Bombina bombina and B. variegata (Anura, Discoglossidae) at a sharp ecotone in western Ukraine: comparisons across transects and over time.  

PubMed

Bombina bombina and B. variegata are two anciently diverged toad taxa that have adapted to different breeding habitats yet hybridize freely in zones of overlap where their parapatric distributions meet. Here, we report on a joint genetic and ecological analysis of a hybrid zone in the vicinity of Stryi in western Ukraine. We used five unlinked allozyme loci, two nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms and a mitochondrial DNA haplotype as genetic markers. Parallel allele frequency clines with a sharp central step occur across a sharp ecotone, where transitions in aquatic habitat, elevation, and terrestrial vegetation coincide. The width of the hybrid zone, estimated as the inverse of the maximum gradient in allele frequency, is 2.3 km. This is the smallest of four estimates derived from different clinal transects across Europe. We argue that the narrow cline near Stryi is mainly due to a combination of habitat distribution and habitat preference. Adult toads show a preference for either ponds (B. bombina) or puddles (B. variegata), which is known to affect the distribution of genotypes within the hybrid zones. At Stryi, it should cause a reduction of the dispersal rate across the ecotone and thus narrow the cline. A detailed comparison of all five intensively studied Bombina transects lends support to the hypothesis that habitat distribution plus habitat preference can jointly affect the structure of hybrid zones and, ultimately, the resulting barriers to gene flow between differentiated gene pools. This study also represents a resampling of an area that was last studied more than 70 years ago. Our allele-frequency clines largely coincide with those that were described then on the basis of morphological variation. However, we found asymmetrical introgression of B. variegata genes into B. bombina territory along the bank of a river. PMID:16637503

Yanchukov, Alexey; Hofman, Sebastian; Szymura, Jacek M; Mezhzherin, Sergey V; Morozov-Leonov, Sviatoslav Y; Barton, Nicholas H; Nürnberger, Beate

2006-03-01

49

Anthelmintic Activity of Rhizomes of Nymphaea rubra Linn.  

PubMed

The Anthelmintic activity of petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform extract of rhizomes of Nymphaea rubra Linn were evaluated separately and the activities were compared with that of Albendazole. The petroleum ether, ethanol and chloroform extract exhibited dose dependent activity. The ethanolic extract showed remarkable Anthelmintic activity. PMID:22557358

Behera, S K; Mohapatra, T K; Dash, Vikash

2010-01-01

50

Anthelmintic Activity of Rhizomes of Nymphaea rubra Linn  

PubMed Central

The Anthelmintic activity of petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform extract of rhizomes of Nymphaea rubra Linn were evaluated separately and the activities were compared with that of Albendazole. The petroleum ether, ethanol and chloroform extract exhibited dose dependent activity. The ethanolic extract showed remarkable Anthelmintic activity.

Behera, S. K.; Mohapatra, T. K.; Dash, Vikash

2010-01-01

51

Application of Dr. Linn's Recommendations for Developing Accountability Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considered recommendations made by R. Linn (2000) and made a preliminary determination of the degree of cohesion between the Arkansas Comprehensive Testing, Assessment, and Accountability (ACTAAP) program and those recommendations. The ACTAAP appears to be an exemplary program in the early stages of development. (SLD)

Mulvenon, Sean W.; Ganley, Barbara J.

2001-01-01

52

In vitro organogenesis from leaf explants of Annona squamosa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoot formation was induced from excised leaf explants of Annona squamosa Linn. (custard apple) seedlings on a Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing benzylaminopurine and kinetin. Various auxins in combination with the above medium produced callusing of the explants. In an investigation of environmental factors affecting shoot induction it was seen that the maximum number of shoots were obtained

S. Nair; P. K. Gupta; M. V. Shirgurkar; A. F. Mascarenhas

1985-01-01

53

Antioxidant properties of different fractions of Vitex negundo Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitex negundo Linn. (VN), belonging to family Verbenaceae, is an aromatic shrub distributed throughout India. In the ayurvedic system of medicine it is used as a drug of choice to manage pain, inflammation and other related diseases. It contains many polyphenolic compounds, terpenoids, glycosidic iridoids and alkaloids. Since polyphenolic compounds have high antioxidant potential, the antioxidant potency of V. negundo

Om Prakash Tiwari; Yamini B. Tripathi

2007-01-01

54

Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on curcuma amada (linn.) rhizome (zingiberaceae).  

PubMed

The macroscopic and microscopic characters, physical constant values, extractive values, ash values and the behaviour of powder drug on treatment with different chemical regents, microchemical and histochemical analyses were conducted to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters of Curcuma amada linn. (Zingiberaceae). PMID:22557083

Chitra, M; Thoppil, J E

2002-10-01

55

Molecular diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia associated with Lablab purpureus (Linn.) grown in Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an introduced plant, Lablab purpureus serves as a vegetable, herbal medicine, forage and green manure in China. In order to investigate the diversity of rhizobia associated with this plant, a total of 49 rhizobial strains isolated from ten provinces of Southern China were analyzed in the present study with restriction fragment length polymorphism and\\/or sequence analyses of housekeeping genes

Yue Li Chang; En Tao Wang; Xin Hua Sui; Xiao Xia Zhang; Wen Xin Chen

2011-01-01

56

Molecular diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia associated with Lablab purpureus (Linn.) grown in Southern China.  

PubMed

As an introduced plant, Lablab purpureus serves as a vegetable, herbal medicine, forage and green manure in China. In order to investigate the diversity of rhizobia associated with this plant, a total of 49 rhizobial strains isolated from ten provinces of Southern China were analyzed in the present study with restriction fragment length polymorphism and/or sequence analyses of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, IGS, atpD, glnII and recA) and symbiotic genes (nifH and nodC). The results defined the L. purpureus rhizobia as 24 IGS-types within 15 rrs-IGS clusters or genomic species belonging to Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Ensifer (synonym of Sinorhizobium) and Mesorhizobium. Bradyrhizobium spp. (81.6%) were the most abundant isolates, half of which were B. elkanii. Most of these rhizobia induced nodules on L. purpureus, but symbiotic genes were only amplified from the Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium leguminosarum strains. The nodC and nifH phylogenetic trees defined five lineages corresponding to B. yuanmingense, B. japonicum, B. elkanii, B. jicamae and R. leguminosarum. The coherence of housekeeping and symbiotic gene phylogenies demonstrated that the symbiotic genes of the Lablab rhizobia were maintained mainly through vertical transfer. However, a putative lateral transfer of symbiotic genes was found in the B. liaoningense strain. The results in the present study clearly revealed that L. purpureus was a promiscuous host that formed nodules with diverse rhizobia, mainly Bradyrhizobium species, harboring different symbiotic genes. PMID:21498018

Chang, Yue Li; Wang, En Tao; Sui, Xin Hua; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Chen, Wen Xin

2011-04-16

57

Safety evaluation of ambrette ( Abelmoschus moschatus linn) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of ambrette (Abelmoschus moschatus Linn), after selective extraction of fragrance from the seed coat, are flaked and extracted with hexane to obtain a fatty\\u000a oil. The FA composition and iodine value of the oil indicate it possesses saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated\\u000a FA in ratios close to the recommendations of the United Nations World Health Organization; these characteristics make

Y. R. Rao; K. S. Jena; D. Sahoo; P. K. Rout; Shakir Ali

2005-01-01

58

BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn  

PubMed Central

The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p<0.001) effect was observed.

Sundari, S. Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T.; Jaswanth, A.; Valarmathy, R

2004-01-01

59

BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn.  

PubMed

The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p<0.001) effect was observed. PMID:22557124

Sundari, S Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T; Jaswanth, A; Valarmathy, R

2004-01-01

60

256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway construction within its length. With is super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time. Looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

61

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

62

Direct shoot regeneration from nodal explants of Sida cordifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to initiate multiple shoots from mature nodal explants of Sida cordifolia Linn. High frequency of regeneration was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l?1 6-benzylaminopurine, 0.5 mg l?1 ?-naphthalene acidic acid, 1.0 mg l?1 adenine sulfate, and 10% (v\\/v) coconut milk. Multiple shoots were initiated within 21 d and the above media was capable of

I. Sivanesan; Byoung Ryong Jeong

2007-01-01

63

Comparative Screening of Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. and Ethanolic Extract of Cleome gynandra Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The assesement of immunomodulatory activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. (75, 150 and 300 mg\\/kg, p.o.) and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cleome gynandra Linn. (50, 100 and 200 mg\\/kg, p.o.) were done by carbon clearance method for non-specific immunity, haemagglutination antibody titre method for humoral immunity and footpad swelling method for

Kalpesh Gaur; M. L. Kori; R. K. Nema

64

Enhancement of insulin release from the beta-cell line INS-1 by an ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata and its major constituent roseoside.  

PubMed

Plants of the genus Bauhinia are used in several countries worldwide for the treatment of diabetes, and several related species have been shown to have hypoglycaemic effects in vivo in both normoglycaemic and alloxan- and streptozotocin-treated animal models. In this study, the insulin-secreting cell line INS-1 was used to examine the effects of the crude ethanolic extract of leaves of B. variegata L. var. Candida Voidt and its major metabolite (6 S,7 E,9 R)-9-hydroxymegastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9- beta-glycopyraroside (roseoside) on insulinotropic activity. The crude extracts and the major metabolite were shown to increase insulin secretion in a dose-dependant manner. PMID:20143296

Frankish, Neil; de Sousa Menezes, Fábio; Mills, Clive; Sheridan, Helen

2010-02-08

65

Antimutagenicity of some flowers grown in Thailand.  

PubMed

The mutagenicity of dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts of Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn., Curcuma sessilis Gage, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ixora coccinea Linn., Millingtonia hortensis Linn., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Plumeria obtusa Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Rhinacanthus nasutus ((Linn.) Kurz.) and Syzygium malaccense ((Linn.) Merr.& Perry) before and after nitrite treatment was firstly investigated in the Ames test. Their antimutagenicity against the product of the reaction mixture of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model in the absence of metabolic activation on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 was evaluated. The results showed that none of the samples was mutagenic. Most nitrite-treated samples but dichloromethane extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Plumeria obtusa, Syzygium malaccense, methanol extract of Syzygium malaccense and water extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were mutagenic. The nitrite treated methanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera exhibited the highest mutagenicity on both strains. All dichloromethane extracts of flowers decreased the mutagenicity induced by the product of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model on both tester strains. Methanol extract of Curcuma sessilis and Punica granatum (15 mg/plate) showed the highest antimutagenic activity in TA 98 and TA 100, respectively. The protective effects of these flower extracts might be due to the presence of antimutagenic components that were supposed to be flavonoids. PMID:20100534

Wongwattanasathien, O; Kangsadalampai, K; Tongyonk, L

2010-01-25

66

Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Leaves of Melastoma malabathricum Linn.  

PubMed Central

The antidiarrhoeal effect of the water extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (Melastomataceae) leaves were investigated by employing four experimental models of diarrhea in Swiss mice. Melastoma malabathricum water extract treated mice showed significant reduction in the fecal output and protected them from castor oil-induced diarrhoea. The extract also reduced the intestinal fluid secretion induced by magnesium sulphate and gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration in the mice. No mortality and visible signs of general weakness was observed in the mice following the test extract administration up to 2000 mg/kg dose.

Sunilson, J. A. J.; Anandarajagopal, K.; Kumari, A. V. A. G.; Mohan, S.

2009-01-01

67

Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Leaves of Melastoma malabathricum Linn.  

PubMed

The antidiarrhoeal effect of the water extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (Melastomataceae) leaves were investigated by employing four experimental models of diarrhea in Swiss mice. Melastoma malabathricum water extract treated mice showed significant reduction in the fecal output and protected them from castor oil-induced diarrhoea. The extract also reduced the intestinal fluid secretion induced by magnesium sulphate and gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration in the mice. No mortality and visible signs of general weakness was observed in the mice following the test extract administration up to 2000 mg/kg dose. PMID:20376227

Sunilson, J A J; Anandarajagopal, K; Kumari, A V A G; Mohan, S

2009-11-01

68

Chemical composition of essential oil from Calligonum polygonoides Linn.  

PubMed

The essential oil from air dried buds and roots of Calligonum polygonoides Linn., has been extracted from dry steam distillation and analysed for chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 10 compounds were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, accounting for 68.42% and 82.12% total contents of the essential oils of buds and roots, respectively. It contains a complex mixture of terpenoids, hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, acid derivatives and ketones. The main component of essential oil was ethyl homovanillate (11.79%) in buds and drimenol (29.42%) in roots. PMID:22574752

Samejo, Muhammad Qasim; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

2012-05-11

69

Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae)  

PubMed Central

This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.

Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

2012-01-01

70

Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids from Lantana camara LINN.  

PubMed

Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids, namely lantanoic acid (1) and camaranoic acid (2), and six known compounds such as lantic acid, camarinic acid, camangeloyl acid, camarinin, oleanonic acid, and ursonic acid were isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara LINN. Structures of the new constituents were elucidated by chemical transformation and spectral studies including 1D ((1)H- and (13)C-NMR) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), (1)H-(1)H total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), J-resolved, (1)H-detected heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC)) NMR spectroscopy. PMID:18758109

Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

2008-09-01

71

Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical investigation of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f.  

PubMed

Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f. (Syn: Pandanus fascicularis Lamk) belongs to the family Pandanacea, is a palm like small tree or shrub, which usually grow in old world tropics and few warm temperate regions. Mostly all parts are medicinally used. In the present study, histological, physical, powdered characteristics and preliminary phytochemical investigations were carried out on the leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f. PMID:22557302

Chilakwad, Sneha R; Manjunath, K P; Akki, Kusum S; Savadi, R V; Deshpande, Netravati

2008-10-01

72

Analgesic effect of Lepidium sativum Linn. (Chandrashura) in experimental animals.  

PubMed

Lepidium sativum Linn, which is known as "Aselio" locally, is frequently used by the villagers for the treatment of Sandhivata (osteoarthritis), with good therapeutic relief. Here, we have to observe the analgesic activity of the seed of Lepidium sativum Linn in albino rats and Swiss albino mice with different parameters. The analgesic study was performed with acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice, formaldehyde-induced paw licking response in rats and tail flick response in mice. Experiments were carried out in two groups - therapeutic dose group and double dose group - with comparison with the control group. In the acetic acid-induced writhing syndrome, latency of onset was highly significantly increased in the therapeutic dose group and significant increase was found in the double dose group. In the formaldehyde-induced paw licking response, the test drug produced significant inhibition of neurogenic pain in the double dose group and significant inhibition of inflammatory pain in the therapeutic dose group. In the tail flick response, the test drug produced a mild to moderate effect in the therapeutic dose group and also in the double dose group. PMID:22131742

Raval, Nita D; Ravishankar, B

2010-07-01

73

Evidence for asymmetrical divergence-gene flow of nuclear loci, but not mitochondrial loci, between seabird sister species: blue-footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) Boobies.  

PubMed

Understanding the process of speciation requires understanding how gene flow influences divergence. Recent analyses indicate that divergence can take place despite gene flow and that the sex chromosomes can exhibit different levels of gene flow than autosomes and mitochondrial DNA. Using an eight marker dataset including autosomal, z-linked, and mitochondrial loci we tested the hypothesis that blue-footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies diverged from their common ancestor with gene flow, paying specific attention to the differences in gene flow estimates from nuclear and mitochondrial markers. We found no gene flow at mitochondrial markers, but found evidence from the combined autosomal and z-linked dataset that blue-footed and Peruvian boobies experienced asymmetrical gene flow during or after their initial divergence, predominantly from Peruvian boobies into blue-footed boobies. This gene exchange may have occurred either sporadically between periods of allopatry, or regularly throughout the divergence process. Our results add to growing evidence that diverging species can remain distinct but exchange genes. PMID:23614045

Taylor, Scott A; Anderson, David J; Friesen, Vicki L

2013-04-17

74

Evidence for Asymmetrical Divergence-Gene Flow of Nuclear Loci, but Not Mitochondrial Loci, between Seabird Sister Species: Blue-Footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) Boobies  

PubMed Central

Understanding the process of speciation requires understanding how gene flow influences divergence. Recent analyses indicate that divergence can take place despite gene flow and that the sex chromosomes can exhibit different levels of gene flow than autosomes and mitochondrial DNA. Using an eight marker dataset including autosomal, z-linked, and mitochondrial loci we tested the hypothesis that blue-footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies diverged from their common ancestor with gene flow, paying specific attention to the differences in gene flow estimates from nuclear and mitochondrial markers. We found no gene flow at mitochondrial markers, but found evidence from the combined autosomal and z-linked dataset that blue-footed and Peruvian boobies experienced asymmetrical gene flow during or after their initial divergence, predominantly from Peruvian boobies into blue-footed boobies. This gene exchange may have occurred either sporadically between periods of allopatry, or regularly throughout the divergence process. Our results add to growing evidence that diverging species can remain distinct but exchange genes.

Taylor, Scott A.; Anderson, David J.; Friesen, Vicki L.

2013-01-01

75

Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae).  

PubMed

This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species. PMID:23929991

Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

2012-07-01

76

Vitiquinolone - A quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

2013-09-07

77

Studi efektivitas sediaan gel antiseptik tangan ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn.) Antiseptic activity evaluation of piper leave from Piper betle Linn extract in hand gel antiseptic preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that piper leaves (sirih) from Piper betle Linn has been used traditionally as medicine, for example for mouthwash and wound curing. The usage of hand gels antiseptic preparation was getting increased in the current time as the incidence of desease caused by virus and bacteria like SARS appears.This research was aimed to develop preparation of hand gels

Retno Sari; Fakultas Farmasi

2006-01-01

78

Anxiolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn in mice using experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn (Amaranthaceae). Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were used. Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera (MEAA) was administered in the doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. Hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration (LDE) tests were used for determination of anxiolytic activity. Results: The methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in HB test. The extract also significantly increased the time spent and the number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE test, the extract produced significant increase in time spent and number of crossings and decreased the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearing, assisted rearing and the squares crossed. Conclusion: In the present study, MEAA exhibited anxiolytic activity which might be attributed to its phyto-constituents viz. alkaloid, steroid and triterpenes. Since Achyranthes aspera is ubiquitous and abundantly grown, it could be a fairly economical therapeutic agent for management of anxiety disorders.

Barua, Chandana C.; Talukdar, Archana; Begum, Shameem Ara; Borah, Prabodh; Lahkar, Mangala

2012-01-01

79

Evaluation of hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Our aim of the study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in guinea pigs. Adult guinea pigs of either sex were divided into seven groups: group 1 - normal diet; group 2 - high fat diet; group 3 and 4 - normal diet plus leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 mL/kg, respectively; group 5 and 6- high fat diet with leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 mL/kg, respectively; group 7 - high fat diet plus atorvastatin (3 mg/kg). Above diet treatment was given for six weeks and drug was given during last three weeks. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, VLDL-c, HDL-c) was performed in each group of animals before and at the end of six weeks. Histological study of aorta, liver and kidney was done in group 1, 2, 6 and 7 and blood cell count was done in animals that were treated juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. before and after juice administration. Simultaneous administration of leaf juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 mL/kg prevents the rise of serum lipid parameters and decreases the fatty changes in the tissue induced by high fat diet, whereas in the dose of 1 mL/kg not only counteracts the elevation, but also significantly (p < 0.05) reduces the serum level LDL-c and the ratio of total cholesterol and HDL-c. Leaf juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. possesses significant lipid lowering and anti atherosclerotic activity. PMID:22125959

Patel, Yogesh; Vadgama, Vishalkumar; Baxi, Seema; Chandrabhanu; Tripathi, B

80

In vitro H+ -K+ ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was undertaken to study in vitro H+ -K+ ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Materials and Mathods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents from extract was quantified and H+ -K+ ATPase inhibition assay was performed in presence of different concentrations of standard (omeprazole) and methanol extract. Results: Extract showed significant (*P < 0.05) proton pump inhibitory activity in the goat gastric mucosal homogenate which was comparable to standard. Conclusions: These findings showed that methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis Linn. is potent inhibitor of proton pump.

Yadav, Priyanka; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Rai, Gopal

2012-01-01

81

Graphic Grown Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

Kim, Ann

2009-01-01

82

Graphic Grown Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

Kim, Ann

2009-01-01

83

Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf.  

PubMed

Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 ?g/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:22171295

Panda, Sujogya K; Padhi, L P; Mohanty, G

2011-01-01

84

Antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn (Henna) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity of henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn) obtained from different regions of Oman against a wide array of micro-organisms. Methods Fresh henna samples were obtained from different regions of Oman as leaves and seeds. 100 g fresh and dry leaves and 50 g of fresh and dry seeds were separately soaked in 500 mL of ethanol for three days, respectively, with frequent agitation. The mixture was filtered, and the crude extract was collected. The crude extract was then heated, at 48 °C in a water bath to evaporate its liquid content. The dry crude henna extract was then tested for its antibacterial activity using well-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility technique. Henna extracts were investigated for their antibacterial activity at different concentrations against a wide array of different micro-organisms including a laboratory standard bacterial strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662) (P. aeruginosa) and eleven fresh clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from patients attending the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH). 2-Hydroxy-p-Nathoqinone-Tech (2-HPNT, MW=174.16, C10H6O3) was included as control (at 50% concentration) along with the henna samples tested. Results Henna samples demonstrated antibacterial activity against all isolates but the highest susceptibility was against P. aeruginosa with henna samples obtained from Al-sharqyia region. Conclusions Omani henna from Al-sharqyia region demonstrates high in vitro anti-P. aeruginosa activity compared with many henna samples from different regions of Oman.

Habbal, O; Hasson, SS; El-Hag, AH; Al-Mahrooqi, Z; Al-Hashmi, N; Al-Bimani, Z; Al-Balushi, MS; Al-Jabri, AA

2011-01-01

85

Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea.

Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N. V.

2010-01-01

86

Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.  

PubMed

In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl(4)-) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:22690244

Mondal, Arijit; Karan, Sanjay Kumar; Singha, Tanushree; Rajalingam, D; Maity, Tapan Kumar

2012-05-29

87

Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts.

Mondal, Arijit; Karan, Sanjay Kumar; Singha, Tanushree; Rajalingam, D.; Maity, Tapan Kumar

2012-01-01

88

Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds.

Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

2011-01-01

89

Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds.

Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

2013-01-01

90

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn)  

PubMed Central

The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 ?g/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value.

Mulla, W. A.; Salunkhe, V. R.; Kuchekar, S. B.; Qureshi, M. N.

2009-01-01

91

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn  

PubMed Central

In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity.

Purnima, A.; Koti, B. C.; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Jaji, M. S.; Swamy, A. H. M. Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y. V.; Sadiq, A. Jaffar

2010-01-01

92

Field evaluation of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach Linn. seeds against cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae), and its predator Coccinella septempunctata Linn. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of Melia azedarach seeds were tested against cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, and its predator Coccinella septempunctata in a cabbage field. The field experiment was conducted at Bridge to Israel children village farm, around the vicinity of Tewodros campus, University of Gondar, where the cabbage was grown fully organically. A field experiment was started in the middle of April

Gebremariam Kibrom; Kahsay Kebede; Gebrelibanos Weldehaweria; Goyetom Dejen; Selemawit Mekonen; Ershan Gebreegziabher; Raja Nagappan

2012-01-01

93

Studies on the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oil from Cyperus rotundus Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sesquiterpene caryophyllene in its alcohol form has been identified for the first time from the essential oil of the tubers of Cyperus rotundus Linn. The structure of the alcohol has been identified by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Bioefficacy of the oil and its hydrocarbon, ketonic and alcoholic fractions is reported for maize and mungbean.

R. S. Dhillon; S. Singh; S. Kundra; A. S. Basra

1993-01-01

94

Skull Asymmetry, Ear Structure and Function, and Auditory Localization in Tengmalm's Owl, Aegolius funereus (Linne)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ear apertures in the skin of Tengmalm's owl, Aegolius funereus (Linne) (Strigiformes), are slit-like and ca. 24 mm long. This equals the height of the skull. The ear opening in the skin is bounded by a continuous fold of skin that is developed into a preaural and a postaural flap. The preaural flap carries the facial disk feathers that

R. A. Norberg

1978-01-01

95

Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn.  

PubMed

Lantanilic acid, camaric acid and oleanolic acid possessing nematicidal activity were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. through bio-assay guided fractionation. These compounds exhibited 98%, 95% and 70% mortality respectively against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita at 0.5% concentration. Conventional nematicide furadan showed 100% mortality at this concentration. PMID:16010828

Qamar, F; Begum, S; Raza, S M; Wahab, A; Siddiqui, B S

2005-09-01

96

Diurnal fluctuations in oxygen release from roots of Acorus calamus Linn in a modeled constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen is known to be released from plant roots, but has seldom been quantified for wetland plants. Our study aims to quantify oxygen release from the roots of one wetland species in China, and use this knowledge as a basis for future modeling. We measured diurnal fluctuations in oxygen release from the roots of Acorus calamus Linn in a modeled

C. Dong; W. Zhu; M. Gao; L. F. Zhao; J. Y. Huang; Y. Q. Zhao

2011-01-01

97

AntiDiabetic Activity of Terminalia Catappa Linn. Leaf Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of suggested anti diabetic potential, effect of aqueous and cold extracts of Terminalia Catappa Linn (Combretaceae) leaves, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan- induced diabetic rats was investigated. All the extracts of Terminalia Catappa produced a significant anti diabetic activity at dose levels of 1\\/5 th of their lethal doses. Concurrent histological studies

SYED MANSOOR AHMED; VRUSHABENDRA SWAMY BM; P GOPKUMAR; R DHANAPAL

98

Antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers (ACF) was screened for its antioxidant effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats. An appreciable decrease in peroxidation products viz thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides was observed in heart tissues of ACF treated diabetic rats. The decreased activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and

G. Manonmani; V. Bhavapriya; S. Kalpana; S. Govindasamy; T. Apparanantham

2005-01-01

99

Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. leaves and flowers extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of aqueous extract of C. ternatea leaves and flowers on serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, protein, urea, creatinine were examined in control and extract treated diabetic rats. Glycogen was examined both in the liver

P. Daisy; Kanakappan Santosh; M. Rajathi

100

Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antilipid peroxidative effect of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre (Leguminosae) flowers (PpEt) in normal rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia, elevated lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)] and disturbed nonenzymatic [Vitamin E, Vitamin C and glutathione] and enzymatic antioxidants status were noticed in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The

R. Punitha; S. Manoharan

2006-01-01

101

Effect of soil sodicity on the growth, yield and chemical composition of groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A replicated field experiment was conducted to study the effect of exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) on the yield, chemical composition, protein and oil content and uptake of nutrients by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea Linn.) variety M-13. ESP over 15 delayed germination and emergence of flowers. There was continuous decrease in dry matter yield at 30 and 60 days of growth,

S. B. Singh; I. P. Abrol

1985-01-01

102

The Rasch Model in Vertical Equating of Tests: A Critique of Slinde and Linn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer generated data are used to show that Slinde and Linn's criticism of the usefulness of the Rasch model for equating (EJ 189 585) may have been the result of an artifact produced by the manner in which the samples were chosen in their study. (CTM)

Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

1979-01-01

103

Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

104

Acetyl cholinesterase inhibition potential and antioxidant activities of ferulic acid isolated from Impatiens bicolor Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid was isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Impatiens bicolor Linn. and identified by X-ray analysis. The acetylcholine esterase inhibition, radical scavenging activity (DPPH scavenging assay) and FRAP assay were carried out on the compound. It was found that the effect of ferulic acid was strongly dose dependent i.e., 25 - 175 µg\\/ml in DPPH assay, 50 - 150

Durre Shahwar; Shafiq Ur Rehman; Muhammad Asam Raza

105

IN VITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF MIMUSOPS ELENGI LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, antioxidant potential of the methanol extract of the leaves of Mimusops elengi Linn. was evaluated by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. The extract showed significant activities in all antioxidant assays compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value

M. R. Saha; S. M. R. Hasan; R. Akter; M. M. Hossain; M. S. Alam; M. A. Alam; M. E. H. Mazumder

2008-01-01

106

Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. leaf extract in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. (MECP) (Family: Verbenaceae) for its anti-diarrhoeal potential against several experimental models of diarrhoea in Wistar albino rats. MECP showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea and PGE2 induced enteropooling in rats. The extract also showed a significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility

Sheba Rani; Nazeer Ahamed; Sangeetha Rajaram; Radha Saluja; S. Thenmozhi; T. Murugesan

1999-01-01

107

Anticancer activity of aerial parts of Aerva lanata Linn Juss ex Schult against Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and AimTraditional medicine has a long history of serving people all over the world. In recent years, the use of traditional medicine information in cancer research received considerable interest. Aerva lanata Linn Juss has been used in traditional and folklore medicine for the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of methanol

R. Rajesh; K. Chitra; Padmaa M. Paarakh; N. Chidambaranathan

2011-01-01

108

Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical analysis of different market samples of Ashoka (Saraca indica Linn)  

PubMed Central

Different market samples of Ashoka (Saraca indica Linn) were analyzed to screen the genuinity of the samples available in the market in the name of Ashoka. All the samples were subjected for Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical analysis and found that all the samples were derived from the different botanical sources.

Nataraj, H R; Hiremanth, S K

2009-01-01

109

Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical analysis of different market samples of Ashoka (Saraca indica Linn).  

PubMed

Different market samples of Ashoka (Saraca indica Linn) were analyzed to screen the genuinity of the samples available in the market in the name of Ashoka. All the samples were subjected for Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical analysis and found that all the samples were derived from the different botanical sources. PMID:22557344

Nataraj, H R; Hiremanth, S K

2009-10-01

110

Antioxidant properties of different fractions of tubers from Pueraria tuberosa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (PT), Leguminosae, is a perennial climber, growing throughout tropical parts of India. In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, it is used as a drug of choice to manage pain, inflammation and other related diseases. The antioxidant potency of P. tuberosa was investigated for the first time. Total antioxidant capacity was determined using an ABTS?+ assay. Lipid peroxidation

Nidhi Pandey; J. K. Chaurasia; O. P. Tiwari; Yamini B. Tripathi

2007-01-01

111

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of in vitro free radical scavenging activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of the leaves of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of T. divaricata were prepared with successive extraction in a soxhlet apparatus. Each extract was selected to study the free radical scavenging activity by superoxide scavenging assay method. It was found that the aqueous extract contained carbohydrates, glycosides,

Sachin Jain; Avijeet Jain; Neetesh Jain; D. K. Jain; Neelam Balekar

2010-01-01

112

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Studies on the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. is extensively used in Indian traditional and folklore medicines to cure various human ailments. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and sugars. In vitro antibacterial studies on the ethanolic leaf extracts were carried out on ten medically important bacterial strains, including Salmonella typimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia,

M. Sathiya; P. Parimala; K. Muthuchelian

2008-01-01

113

The use of Psidium guajava Linn. in treating wound, skin and soft tissue infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial potential of the crude leaves extracts of Psidium guajava Linn. against some bacteria associated with surgical wound, burns, skin and soft tissue infections were investigated under different conditions. Phytochemical screening of the crude leaves extracts revealed the presence of some bioactive compounds that have been associated with antimicrobial activities. Aqueous extracts was more potent in inhibiting the growth

El-Mahmood Muhammad Abubakar

114

Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lantanilic acid, camaric acid and oleanolic acid possessing nematicidal activity were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. through bio-assay guided fractionation. These compounds exhibited 98%, 95% and 70% mortality respectively against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita at 0.5% concentration. Conventional nematicide furadan showed 100% mortality at this concentration.

F. Qamar; S. Begum; S. M. Raza; A. Wahab; B. S. Siddiqui

2005-01-01

115

Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Evaluation of the leaves of Bauhinia purpurea Linn.  

PubMed

Various pharmacognostic parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, chemomicroscopy and behaviour of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the leaves of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (Family Caesalpinaceae). Phytochemical screening of the plant part with various solvents revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, phytosterols, saponins and glycosides in it. PMID:22557422

Pahwa, S; Mazumder, R; Bhattacharya, S; Kumari, S; Mazumder, A; Singh, D P

2010-10-01

116

Study on anti-diabetic activities of crude methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) sourced from five different host trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycemic activities of dried leaves of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) (Loranthaceae), parasitic on Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica, were evaluated in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated (intraperitoneally) with 200mg\\/kg of the respective methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.), glibenclamide (positive control), and 20% (v\\/v) Tween

P. O. Osadebe; G. B. Okide; I. C. Akabogu

2004-01-01

117

Effect of new rotenoid glycoside from the fruits of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE on the growth of human immune cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new compound, rotenoid isoflavone glycoside named, 6?-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-12a-hydroxydalpanol was isolated from the methanolic (MeOH) fruit extract of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE by means of multi-stage column chromatography. Immuno-modulatory activities of this new glycoside were compared with\\u000a the partitioned fractions of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE. Both of the fractions and purified single compound showed a 19% relatively low cytotoxicity at a maximum concentration

Hak Ju Lee; Ha Young Kang; Cheol Hee Kim; Hyo Sung Kim; Min Chul Kwon; Sang Moo Kim; Il Shik Shin; Hyeon Yong Lee

2006-01-01

118

Protective Effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Leaf Extract on Gastric Lesions in Experimental Animals.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to study the anti-ulcer activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Capparis zeylanica Linn on experimental animal models. The methanol extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves was investigated for anti-ulcer activity against aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. HCl-Ethanol induced ulcer in mice and indomethacin induced ulcer in rats at 200 mg/kg body weight p.o. A significant (p<0.01, p<0.001) anti-ulcer activity was observed in all the models. Pylorus ligation showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. It also showed 88.5% ulcer inhibition in HCl-ethanol induced ulcer and 83.78% inhibition in indomethacin induced ulcer. PMID:23407576

Sini, Karanayil R; Sinha, Barij N; Rajasekaran, Aiyolu

2011-01-01

119

Glycogen contents in the rat uterus: response to Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. extracts.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts (50%), as well the benzene extracts, of H. rosa-sinensis Linn. have reduced significantly the glycogen contents in the uterus of adult rat. Both the extracts exhibit a clear-cut dose-response relation. The inhibition in glycogen contents increases as the dose is increased. Of the 2, benzene extract seems to be more potent. The results are due to antiestrogenic nature of the extracts. PMID:477902

Prakash, A O

1979-08-15

120

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants\\/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation

Neeru Vasudeva; S. K. Sharma

2008-01-01

121

Glycogen contents in the rat uterus: Response to Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ethanolic extracts (50%), as well the benzene extracts, ofH. rosa-sinensis Linn. have reduced significantly the glycogen contents in the uterus of adult rat. Both the extracts exhibit a clear-cut dose-response relation. The inhibition in glycogen contents increases as the dose is increased. Of the 2, benzene extract seems to be more potent. The results are due to antiestrogenic nature

Anand O. Prakash

1979-01-01

122

Partial purification of a hypoglycemic fraction from the unripe fruits of Momordica charantia Linn (bitter gourd)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method was developed to purify partially an orally active hypoglycemic fraction from the unripe fruits ofMomordica charantia Linn. The residue after centrifugation of the fruit juice was extracted with ethanol and the concentrated ethanolic extract\\u000a was further extracted with diethyl ether. In normal rabbits after oral administration, the ether extract at a dose of 0.75\\u000a g\\/kg body wt

Subbiah Pugazhenthi; P. Suryanarayana Murthy

1995-01-01

123

Oxidative Stress and the Role of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in experimental diabetes mellitus was evaluated. Albino rats, non-diabetic and diabetic [those injected with alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg body weight) intraperitoneally to induce diabetes mellitus, blood glucose in the range of 200–300 mg dl, were used in the study. Cumin (0.25 g kg body weight in

Dhandapani Surya; Ramasamy Subramanian Vijayakumar; Namasivayam Nalini

2005-01-01

124

Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Activities of Extracts from the Fruit Hull of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidative and neuroprotective activities of various extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn., GM). Materials and Methods: Four extracts: water, 50% ethanol, 95% ethanol and ethyl acetate, were used. The antioxidative activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay at extract concentrations of 1, 10, 50 and

Wanlop Weecharangsan; Praneet Opanasopit; Monrudee Sukma; Tanasait Ngawhirunpat; Uthai Sotanaphun; Pongpan Siripong

2006-01-01

125

Isolation and structural elucidation of chemical constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruits ofMorinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new constituent, morinaphthalenone (1), and three known constituents, scopoletin (2), 1, 3-dimethoxy-anthraquinone (3) and 1, 2-dihydroxy-anthraquinone (4). The structures of these isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY-45,\\u000a HMQC, HMBC) techniques, as well as by comparison with published values.

Bina S. Siddiqui; Fouzia A. Sattar; Fayaz Ahmad; Sabira Begum

2007-01-01

126

Snake venom neutralising factor from the root extract of Emblica officinalis Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The folk use of the Indian medicinal plant Emblica officinalis Linn. root extract and its active compound (Pthalate in nature) against snake venom has been established in experimental animal\\u000a models. From the root extract of Emblica officinalis, a compound was isolated through silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined by UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR & EIMS studies. The

S. Sarkhel; A. K. Chakravarty; R. Das; Aparna Gomes; A. Gomes

2011-01-01

127

Effect of dried fruits of Solanum nigrum LINN against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.  

PubMed

Ethanol extract of Solanum nigrum LINN was investigated for its hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanol extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity. The activity was evaluated using biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The histopathological changes of liver sample in treated animals were compared with respect to control. PMID:14600413

Raju, Kuppuswamy; Anbuganapathi, Govindaraju; Gokulakrishnan, Velusamy; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Jayakar, Balasundarm; Manian, Sellamuthu

2003-11-01

128

Comparative pharmacogonostic studies of genuine and commercial samples of trianthema decandra linn.  

PubMed

Trianthema decandra Linn. (Fam ficoidaceae) Commonly known a "Vellai sharunai'on Tamil and Punaranavi in Sanskrit the roots are used in hepatitis, asthma and suppression of menses the genuine and tree commercial samples of the root of R. Decandra in have been compared pharmacognostically for the first time in the present investigation all the pharmacognostic findings reveal adulteration in the commercial samples. PMID:22556996

Gopalakrishnan, S; Venkataraman, R

2000-07-01

129

Determination of Rutin in Amaranthus spinosus Linn. Whole Plant Powder by HPTLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, precise and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for the determination\\u000a of rutin in the whole plant powder of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. Rutin has been reported to have anti-diabetic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activity. A\\u000a methanol extract of the whole plant powder was used for the experimental work. The concentration of rutin in the whole plant

V. L. Suryavanshi; P. A. Sathe; M. M. Baing; G. R. Singh; S. N. Lakshmi

2007-01-01

130

Biodiesel production and optimization from Calophyllum inophyllum linn oil (honne oil)--a three stage method.  

PubMed

The present work examines the production of a biodiesel from a non-edible oil namely honne oil (Calophyllum inophyllum linn). A three stage process viz., pre-treatment, alkali catalyzed transesterification and post treatment adopted for the production is discussed. The reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, temperature and time have been optimized for the production of biodiesel. The yield of biodiesel from the honne oil under the optimized conditions is found to be 89%. PMID:19505820

Venkanna, B K; Venkataramana Reddy, C

2009-06-07

131

Aphrodisiac activity of methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice.  

PubMed

The aphrodisiac properties of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn. have been evaluated in mice by observing the mounting behaviour. The methanol extract of P. incarnata exhibited significant aphrodisiac behaviour in male mice at all doses, i.e. 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Amongst these, the highest activity was observed with the 100 mg/kg dose when the mountings were calculated about 95 min after the administration of the test extracts. PMID:12722149

Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

2003-04-01

132

Determination of marker constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. and their quantitation by HPTLC and HPLC.  

PubMed

Four marker constituents, namely, onocer-7-ene-3 alpha, 21 beta-diol, delta-amyrin, delta-amyrone and 3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl of an Ayurvedic crude drug Cissus quadrangularis Linn. are defined for standardisation purposes. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrahydroxybiphenyl has been isolated for the first time from this drug. The contents of the marker constituents were quantitatively determined by HPTLC and HPLC methods in samples collected from five different geographic zones of India. PMID:11705245

Mehta, M; Kaur, N; Bhutani, K K

133

Hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent of Rubia cordifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent isolated from Rubia cordifolia Linn., were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Rubiadin at a dose of 50, 100 and 200mg\\/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase

Guntupalli M. Mohana Rao; Chandana V. Rao; Palpu Pushpangadan; Annie Shirwaikar

2006-01-01

134

Phanginin A–K, diterpenoids from the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. led to isolation of 11 cassane-type diterpenes, named phanginin A–K (1–11). The skeleton present in compounds 1–8 is rather unusual, consisting of a cassane-type diterpene with an ether bridge between C-19\\/C-20 in compounds 1–6 and C-11\\/C-20 in compounds 7 and 8. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of

Orapun Yodsaoue; Sarot Cheenpracha; Chatchanok Karalai; Chanita Ponglimanont; Suchada Chantrapromma; Hoong-Kun Fun; Akkharawit Kanjana-Opas

2008-01-01

135

The reversible antifertility effect of Piper betle Linn. on Swiss albino male mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the antifertility effect of an extract (alcoholic) of the leaf-stalk of Piper betle Linn., one set of experiments with two different doses in Swiss male albino mice were evaluated. Initially, 500 mg of the leaf-stalk extractive for 30 days and then 1000 mg for next 30 days\\/animal\\/day\\/kg body weight were administered orally. The extract reduced fertility to 0%

Madhumita Sarkar; Paramita Gangopadhyay; Bidyut Basak; Kausiki Chakrabarty; Julie Banerji; Purnima Adhikary; Asima Chatterjee

2000-01-01

136

Potent antiulcerogenic activity of ethanol extract of leaf of Piper betle Linn by antioxidative mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of an ethanolic extract of leaf ofPiper betle linn at a dose of 200mg\\/kg body weight, orally administered to rats for ten consecutive days, was found to possess a significant\\u000a protective action against gastric lesions induced by indomethacin. The extract pretreatment resulted in significant increase\\u000a in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, increase in mucus, hexosamine and total

Biswajit Majumdar; Susri Ray Chaudhuri; Arun Ray; Sandip K Bandyopadhyay

2002-01-01

137

An evaluation of toxicity of Taxus baccata Linn. (Talispatra) in experimental animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A toxicological study was performed in albino mice and rat with methanolic extract and isolated alkaloid of Taxus baccata Linn. (family: Taxaceae). LD50 study showed the higher toxic activity in stem (TXA-1,2,3) as compared with leaf (TXB-1,2,3) extract. As the extract were further fractionated into crude alkaloids and purified by chromatography the toxicity of these fractions were found to be

K Shanker; N. K. R Pathak; V. P Trivedi; J. P. N Chansuria; V. B Pandey

2002-01-01

138

Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on liver injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. Wistar rats weighing 200+/-10g were administered a single dose of DEN (200mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and left for 30 days. For hepatoprotective studies, ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of C. fistula Linn. (500mg/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered daily for 30 days. AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, gamma-GT and bilirubin were estimated in serum and liver tissue. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), SOD and CAT were also estimated in liver tissue as markers of oxidative stress. DEN induced hepatotoxicity in all the treated animals were evident by elevated serum ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels and a simultaneous fall in their levels in the liver tissue after 30 days. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidenced by increased LPO and fall in the activities of SOD and CAT. ELE administration for 30 days prevented the DEN induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. In conclusion, it was observed that ELE of C. fistula Linn. protects the liver against DEN induced hepatic injury in rats. PMID:17289008

Pradeep, Kannampalli; Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor Raj; Gobianand, Kuppannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

2006-12-30

139

????????????????????????? ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) ??????????? (Acorus calamus Linn.) ????????????????????? ????????????????? Inhibitory Effect of Extracts from Clove ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) and Sweet flag (Acorus calamus Linn. ) on Some Pathogenic Bacteria ??????? ?????????1*, ????? ????????1, ???? ?????????1 , ???? ?????1, ????????? ?????????2 ??? ????? ??????????1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts of Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison and Acorus calamus Linn. at concentrations of 3.3% and 33%. were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this study. Using paper disc diffusion method, Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison extract at 33% could inhibit all strains better than 3.3%. Inhibition of the extract on MRSA

Yingmanee Tragoolpua; Matcha Porn-in; Ranu Yucharoen; Narumol Thongwai

140

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots.  

PubMed

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400 mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

Vasudeva, Neeru; Sharma, S K

2008-03-01

141

Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. on oestrous cycle & reproductive organs in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. on the estrous cycle and reproductive organs was studied in female albino rats. Depending on the dose and duration of treatment, the benzene extract of the flowers disrupted the estrous cycle. Treatment for 30 days resulted in a significant (p less than .05) reduction in the weight of the ovaries, uterus, and pituitary gland. Ovarian follicular atresia and uterine atrophy were observed. Treatment resulted in degranulated gonadotrophs in the pituitary, with the extent of damage being dose-dependent. PMID:1035904

Kholkute, S D; Chatterjee, S; Udupa, K N

1976-11-01

142

A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions.  

PubMed

Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds. PMID:22131723

Asha, K V; Rajashekhara, N; Chauhan, M G; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, P P

2010-04-01

143

A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions  

PubMed Central

Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds.

Asha, K. V.; Rajashekhara, N.; Chauhan, M.G.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, P. P.

2010-01-01

144

Hepatoprotective effect of Bacoside-A, a major constituent of Bacopa monniera Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacoside-A (B-A) was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against d-GalN induced liver injury in rats. B-A is a major constituent isolated from the plant Bacopa monniera Linn. B-A (10mg\\/kg of body weight) was administered orally once daily for 21 days and then d-GalN (300mg\\/kg of body weight) was injected on 21st day after final administration of B-A. B-A reduces the

T. Sumathi; A. Nongbri

2008-01-01

145

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Fractions of Cassia auriculata Linn. in Alloxan Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p<0.001) in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids. PMID:20046718

Surana, S J; Gokhale, S B; Jadhav, R B; Sawant, R L; Wadekar, Jyoti B

146

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Fractions of Cassia auriculata Linn. in Alloxan Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p<0.001) in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids.

Surana, S. J.; Gokhale, S. B.; Jadhav, R. B.; Sawant, R. L.; Wadekar, Jyoti B.

2008-01-01

147

A new antioxidant xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air-dried fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana Linn. were extracted with 85% ethanol. Furthermore, a new xanthone, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2,5-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-6?,6?-dimethyl-4?,5?-dihydropyrano[2?,3??:?7,8]xanthone, along with five known xanthones related to their antioxidant activity was purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified using spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, MS). The antioxidant activities were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capability. An activity-guided isolation and

Yan Zhao; Jin-Ping Liu; Dan Lu; Ping-Ya Li; Lian-Xue Zhang

2010-01-01

148

Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle extracts on freshwater algae.  

PubMed

To pursue an effective way to control freshwater algae, four extracts from a submerged macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle were tested to study its inhibitory effects on Anabaena flos-aquae FACHB-245 and Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick FACHB-9. Extract with the highest inhibiting ability was further studied in order to reveal the inhibitory mechanism. The results demonstrated that H. verticillata extracts inhibited the growth of A. flos-aquae and C. pyrenoidosa, and methanol extract had the highest inhibiting ability. The mechanism underlying the algal growth inhibition involves the superoxide anion radical generation that induces the damage of cell wall and release of intracellular components. PMID:22210445

Zhang, T-T; He, M; Wu, A-P; Nie, L-W

2012-01-01

149

Molecular characterization of ten cultivars of Canna lilies (Canna Linn.) using PCR based molecular markers (RAPDs and ISSRs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular markers like RAPD and ISSR were used to study the genomic affinity among 10 cultivars of Canna lilies (Canna linn.). 15 numbers of decamer oligonucleotide primers produced a total of 103 bands out of which 20 were monomorphic and among the polymorphic bands there were 16 unique bands. Three ISSR primers produced 27 bands among which there were 21

Biswabijayinee Patra; Laxmikanta Acharya; Arup Kumar Mukherjee; Manoj Kumar Panda; Pratap Chandra Panda

150

CORROSION INHIBITION OF CARBON STEEL IN LOW CHLORIDE MEDIA BY AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of white flower, namely, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in an aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Clhas been evaluated by the mass loss method. The flower extract (FE) shows good IE. In the presence of Zn, excellent IE is shown by the flower extract. A synergistic effect

K. Anuradha; R. Vimala; B. Narayanasamy; J. Arockia Selvi; Susai Rajendran

2007-01-01

151

Surface Ultrastructural Studies on the Germination, Penetration and Conidial Development of Aspergillus Flavus Link : Fries Infecting Silkworm, Bombyx Mori Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillosis is a common disease of the silkworm Bombyx mori Linn., caused by an insect mycopathogen Aspergillus flavus Link : Fries. The present study reveals the germination, penetration and conidial development of A. flavus on the larval integument of B. mori under SEM. Four different strains (NB18, KA, NB4D2 and NB7) of B. mori was surface inoculated with ca. of

Vineet Kumar; G. P. Singh; A. M. Babu

2004-01-01

152

FT-IR AND SEM-EDS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS, ECLIPTA ALBA HASSK AND ECLIPTA PROSTRATA LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared and energy dispersive X-ray spectra of plant parts (leaf, stem, and root) of the medicinal plants Eclipta alba Hassk and Eclipta prostrata Linn were recorded. The vibrational assignments, intensities and wave number (cm-1) of dominant peak were obtained from absorption spectra. Probable assignments of the bands were made with respect to the components present in the samples. The microphotograph

S. MURUGANANTHAM; G. ANBALAGAN; N. RAMAMURTHY

153

Hepatoprotective Effects of Arctium lappa Linne on Liver Injuries Induced by Chronic Ethanol Consumption and Potentiated by Carbon Tetrachloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol\\/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection

Song-Chow Lin; Chia-Hsien Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Yun-Ho Lin; Chin-Fa Chen; I-Cheng Chen; Li-Ya Wang

2002-01-01

154

Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of a Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) phytotherapeutic gel and miconazole (Daktarin® oral gel) against three standard streptococci strains (mutans ATCC 25175, sanguis ATCC 10577 and mitis ATCC 9811), S. mutans clinically isolated and Candida albicans either alone or in association. The effect of minimum inhibitory concentrations of the gels

Maria do Socorro; Vieira PEREIRA; Maria Helena Pereira; Maria do Socorro Vieira Pereira; Jane Sheila Higino; Maria Helena Pereira Peixoto

2006-01-01

155

Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg\\/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly

C Vijaya; M Ramanathan; B Suresh

156

Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim.

Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

2011-01-01

157

Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing.

Santram, Lodhi; Singhai, AK

2011-01-01

158

Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn  

PubMed Central

In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 ?g/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 ?g/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 ×, 1250-5 ?g/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity.

Sousa, Erlanio O.; Silva, Natalya F.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; Lima, Sidney G.; Costa, Jose Galberto M.

2010-01-01

159

Ethanol extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn enhances sperm output in healthy Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), among other factors, have been implicated in the aetiology of male infertility. Thus, the roles of antioxidants at improving sperm production and quality are being investigated. The present study was designed to assess the effect of the ethanol extract of fresh leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on the sperm parameters of healthy male Wistar rats. A total of 18 rats, weighing between 108-124 g, were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were administered 250 mg/kg/d and 500 mg/kg/d of guava leaf extract (GLE) orally for 53 days respectively. Group 3 animals received normal saline. Sperm count increased from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 57.1+/-0.2 (x10(6)) in group 1 animals, and from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 72.3+/-0.4 (x10(6)) in group 2 animals. Similarly, dose-dependent increases in the percentages of motile spermatozoa were observed in GLE-treated animals compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. possess beneficial effects on sperm production and quality, and may thus improve the sperm parameters of infertile males with oligospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia. PMID:19205576

Akinola, O B; Oladosu, O S; Dosumu, O O

2007-06-01

160

Effect of leaf extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. on spatial learning and memory in rats.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the nootropic activity of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves in rats. The raw material of Capparis zeylanica leaves was successively extracted with petroleum ether and methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus and macerated to form an aqueous extract. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated for their effect on spatial learning and memory in rats using the Morris water maze task. Three doses (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg; p.o.) of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica were administered for 7 successive days to separate groups of animals. Results showed that both the extracts significantly enhanced memory, as shown by decrease in escape latency time. Furthermore, methanolic and aqueous extracts in all doses tested significantly increased the time spent in the target quadrant during the probe trial, indicating retention of spatial memory of the location of a previously placed platform in the target quadrant. These findings indicate that methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves have potent nootropic activity. The anti-oxidant property of Capparis zeylanica may contribute favorably to the memory enhancement effect. However, further studies are needed to identify the exact mechanism of action. PMID:22261859

Solanki, Ruchi; Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Singh, Ranjit

2012-01-20

161

Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice  

PubMed Central

The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil.

Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

2010-01-01

162

A new antioxidant xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn.  

PubMed

The air-dried fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana Linn. were extracted with 85% ethanol. Furthermore, a new xanthone, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2,5-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':7,8]xanthone, along with five known xanthones related to their antioxidant activity was purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified using spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, MS). The antioxidant activities were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capability. An activity-guided isolation and purification process were used to identify the components, showing the strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity of G. mangostana. PMID:20954095

Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jin-Ping; Lu, Dan; Li, Ping-Ya; Zhang, Lian-Xue

2010-10-01

163

Minor secondary metabolic products from the stem bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. displaying antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

Four new iridoids viz., plumeridoids A, B, and C and epiplumeridoid C were isolated from the stem bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. together with twenty-four known compounds viz., 1-( P-hydroxyphenyl)propan-1-one, isoplumericin, plumericin, dihydroplumericin, allamcin, fulvoplumerin, allamandin, plumieride, P- E-coumaric acid, 2,6-dimethoxy- P-benzoquinone, scopoletin, cycloart-25-en-3 beta,24-diol, 2,4,6-trimethoxyaniline, ajunolic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, beta-amyrin acetate, betulinic acid, lupeol and its acetate, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl octacosanoate, glucoside of beta-sitosterol, and a mixture of common sterols (stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol). Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic data including HREIMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, NOESY) and by comparison with published data. All but one of thirteen tested compounds exhibited antifungal, antialgal, and/or antibacterial activities. PMID:19937550

Kuigoua, Guy Merlin; Kouam, Simeon F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Schulz, Barbara; Green, Ivan R; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Krohn, Karsten

2009-11-20

164

Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea  

PubMed Central

To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen.

Daswani, Poonam G.; Brijesh, S.; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz J.

2011-01-01

165

Evaluation of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. for anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Linn.) Sw. for anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory action of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. pulcherrima (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) (CPE and CPA) were evaluated by cotton pellet granuloma models. Pylorus ligation and aspirin induced ulcer models were employed for evaluating antiulcer activity for both the extracts. Ulcerogenic potential of CP was also evaluated. Result: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. pulcherrima significantly decreased (P<0.01) the granuloma tissue development. CPE and CPA at both the doses exhibited significant (P<0.01) antiulcer activity by decreasing the ulcer score in both the ulcer models and it was not ulcerogenic. Conclusion: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of C. pulcherrima (CPE and CPA) possess significant anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities.

Sharma, Vivek; Rajani, G.P.

2011-01-01

166

Anti-diabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea Linn. seeds in rats.  

PubMed

Celosia argentea Linn. commonly known as "Cocks Comb" and its seeds are widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of an alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea seeds (ACAS) on blood glucose and body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ACAS was found to reduce the increase of blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (27.8% at 250 mg/kg and 38.8% at 500 mg/kg body weight). Chronic administration of ACAS significantly (p<0.01) reduced the blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats for two weeks. Also the extract prevented a decrease in body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that the ACAS possesses anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:11995938

Vetrichelvan, Thangarasu; Jegadeesan, Maniappan; Devi, Bangaru Adigalar Uma

2002-04-01

167

Phanginin A-K, diterpenoids from the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn.  

PubMed

The first chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. led to isolation of 11 cassane-type diterpenes, named phanginin A-K (1-11). The skeleton present in compounds 1-8 is rather unusual, consisting of a cassane-type diterpene with an ether bridge between C-19/C-20 in compounds 1-6 and C-11/C-20 in compounds 7 and 8. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the X-ray structure of phanginin A (1) is reported. Only phanginin I (9) exhibited cytotoxic effect against KB cell line with IC50 value of 4.4 microg/ml. PMID:18178229

Yodsaoue, Orapun; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Karalai, Chatchanok; Ponglimanont, Chanita; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit

2008-03-01

168

CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae).  

PubMed

In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group. Doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight protected the mice against maximal electroshock seizure, and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid. Prominent analgesic activity was observed using the hot plate method. The paw licking time was delayed significantly. The extract also displayed prominent smooth muscle relaxant activity. The results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. quadrangularis roots possess anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties. PMID:22435569

Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Saraf, Shubhini A; Gupta, Rajiv

2010-03-01

169

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2011-06-12

170

Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh), belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC50values, all the extracts’ concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae) leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases.

Patel, Avani; Patel, Amit; Patel, Amit; Patel, N. M.

2010-01-01

171

Insecticidal and genotoxic activity of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823  

PubMed Central

Background Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to eradicate mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance. Plants provide a reservoir of biochemical compounds; among these compounds some have inhibitory effect on mosquitoes. In the present study the larvicidal, adulticidal and genotoxic activity of essential oil of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say was explored. Methods Essential oil was isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia Linn. Larvicidal and adulticidal bioassay of Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out by WHO method. Genotoxic activity of samples was determined by comet assay. Identification of different compounds was carried out by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. Results LC50 and LC90 values of essential oil were 63.38±6.30 and 99.02±16.63 ppm, respectively against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.057±0.007 and 0.109±0.014 mg/cm2 respectively against adult Cx. quinquefasciatus,. Genotoxicity of adults was determined at 0.034 and 0.069 mg/cm2. The mean comet tail length was 6.2548±0.754 ?m and 8.47±0.931 ?m and the respective DNA damage was significant i.e. 6.713% and 8.864% in comparison to controls. GCMS analysis of essential oil revealed 20 compounds. The major eight compounds were caryophyllene oxide (40.79%), phenol,4-(3,7-dimethyl-3-ethenylocta-1,6-dienyl) (20.78%), caryophyllene (17.84%), ?-humulene (2.15%), (+)- aromadendrene (1.57%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetra hydro-1,6-dimethyle-4-(1-methyl)-, (1S-cis) (1.53%), trans- caryophyllene (0.75%), and methyl hexadecanoate (0.67%). Conclusion Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present work revealed that the essential oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for mosquito control.

2013-01-01

172

A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae)  

PubMed Central

Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant.

Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

2011-01-01

173

The butanol fraction of Eclipta prostrata (Linn) effectively reduces serum lipid levels and improves antioxidant activities in CD rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eclipta prostrata (Linn) has been used as a traditional medicinal plant to prevent lipidemia and atherosclerosis in Asia. However, its functional properties and the underlying mechanism of action have not been clearly defined. This study was conducted to elucidate the biological basis for hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of E prostrata. Charles River Sprague-Dawley CD rats (specific pathogen-free\\/viral antibody-free Crj\\/Bgi male,

Dae-Ik Kim; Sung-Hyen Lee; Jin-Ho Choi; Hyun Soon Lillehoj; Mi-Hee Yu; Gun-Soon Lee

2008-01-01

174

In vivo induction of multiple shoots for scaling up of propagation of tree mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Linn.) Sav. (Rhizophoraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo shoot induction in hypocotyls and rooting of the regenerated shoots of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Linn.) Sav., was standardised as a new method of vegetative propagation. Rooting response of the air-layers made from multiple shoots with the aid of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (IAA+IBA) by pre-girdling is studied. Multiple shoots were induced in 80 % of the hypocotyls treated

U. C. Basak; P. Das

175

Chloroplast RNA populations in dark-grown, light-grown, and greening Euglena gracilis.  

PubMed

RNA preparations from dark-grown, light-grown, and greening Euglena gracilis have been compared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by hybridization to Euglena chloroplast DNA. Chloroplast ribosomal RNA is not detected in dark-grown cells; its abundance increases in greening cells over a 72 hr period until the concentration characteristic of light-grown cells is reached. Other RNA species complementary to chloroplast DNA are present in comparable abundance in light-grown, dark-grown, and greening cells. PMID:5002821

Brown, R D; Haselkorn, R

1971-10-01

176

A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta  

PubMed Central

Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other.

Rajashekhara, N.; Sharma, P. P.

2010-01-01

177

Studies on the active components and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn. from southern China  

PubMed Central

Background: The total flavonoid (TF) and total phenolic (TP) contents of the ethanol extracts of the whole plant, stem, leaf, and seed of Mimosa pudica Linn belonging to the genus Mimosa (Family: Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae), which originates from the subtropical regions of southern China, were determined in this experiment. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts and 5 flavonoid monomers of M. pudica Linn. were also evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, correlation analysis was also made in the present study. Results: The results showed that leaf extracts contained the highest amount of TF and TP, and the content was significantly higher than that found in other parts of the plant. Moreover, the sequence of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was as follows: leaf > the whole plant > seed > stem; the sequence of the 5 flavonoid monomers was as follows: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahydroxy-6-C-[?-D-apiose-(1?4)]-?-D-glycopyranosyl flavone (1) > isorientin (2) > orientin (3) > isovitexin (4) > vitexin (5), and the antioxidant activity of compound 1 is equivalent to the synthetic antioxidant trolox or a bit stronger than trolox, and significant correlations were found among the active ingredient contents and the results of antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The present study suggested that M. pudica Linn. could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants.

Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke; Zhou, Wen-long; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Ping

2011-01-01

178

Chloroplast RNA Populations in Dark-Grown, Light-Grown, and Greening Euglena gracilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA preparations from dark-grown, light-grown, and greening Euglena gracilis have been compared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by hybridization to Euglena chloroplast DNA. Chloroplast ribosomal RNA is not detected in dark-grown cells; its abundance increases in greening cells over a 72 hr period until the concentration characteristic of light-grown cells is reached. Other RNA species complementary to chloroplast DNA are

Ronald D. Brown; Robert Haselkorn

1971-01-01

179

Rapid and easy identification of Illicium verum Hook. f. and its adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. by fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography.  

PubMed

Illicium verum Hook. f. is used as an herbal tea to treat colic pain in infants. Reports suggest that Star anise herbal tea may be adulterated with Illicium anisatum Linn. A short and rapid method using microscopy and gas chromatography (GC) was developed to detect I. anisatum Linn., an adulterant in the powdered mixture of I. verum. Anatomical differences in the epicarp cells of I. verum and I. anisatum fruits were clearly defined as examined under fluorescent microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A GC method was developed for quick identification of possible I. anisatum adulteration with I. verum. PMID:16001842

Joshi, Vaishali C; Srinivas, Pullela V; Khan, Ikhlas A

180

Antipsychotic-like activity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). Methods In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC) at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and methamphetamine ( 5 mg/kg, i.p) injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ) was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. Results The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o) significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. Conclusions The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies are warranted to identify the active principles responsible for the antipsychotic activity of noni.

2012-01-01

181

Arsenic uptake by two vegetables grown in two soils amended with As-bearing animal manures.  

PubMed

Organoarsenicals are widely used as growth promoters in animal feed, resulting in unabsorbed arsenic (As) left in animal manures. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the growth and As uptake of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor Linn, a crop with an axial root system) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, a crop with a fibrous root system) grown in a paddy soil (PS) and a lateritic red soil (LRS) amended with 2% and 4% (w/w) As-bearing chicken manure and pig manure, respectively. Soils without any fertilizers were the controls. The biomass, As contents and total As uptake of the shoots, As transfer factors (TFs) from roots to shoots and the root/shoot (R/S) ratios of water spinach were significantly higher than those of amaranth (p<0.0015). The biomass, total As uptake and R/S ratios showed significant difference for soil types (p<0.0031). Manure amendments increased the biomass of both vegetables, reduced the As contents in amaranth but increased those in water spinach. The As contents were negatively correlated with the biomass in amaranth, but positive correlation was observed for water spinach. The total As uptake by amaranth was decreased in PS and insignificantly affected in LRS by manure application, but that by water spinach was significantly increased in both soils. We suggest that the higher As uptake by water spinach might be related to its root structure and R/S ratio. Heavy application of As-bearing animal manures should be avoided in water spinach. PMID:18929443

Yao, Li-Xian; Li, Guo-Liang; Dang, Zhi; He, Zhao-Huan; Zhou, Chang-Min; Yang, Bao-Mei

2008-09-05

182

Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats  

PubMed Central

The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2%?w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use.

Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.

2011-01-01

183

Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well.

Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

2012-01-01

184

Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi): an ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of cancer.  

PubMed

Ocimum sanctum Linn., commonly known as 'Tulsi' or 'Holy Basil', is considered to be the most sacred herb of India. Several anatomical parts of O. sanctum are known to have an impressive number of therapeutic properties and accordingly find use in several traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Scientific investigations have shown that O. sanctum has a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities. The presence of an impressive number of phytoconstituents in O. sanctum could explain its exceptional beneficial effects. Although several recent articles provide an overview of the various pharmacological properties of O. sanctum, the use of this herb for either prevention or therapy of oncologic diseases has not been exclusively and critically discussed in the literature. The present review critically and comprehensively examines the current knowledge on the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of O. sanctum. The review also examines, in detail, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of O. sanctum. Finally, we discuss the role of synergy, current limitations, and future directions of research toward the effective use of this ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. PMID:23629478

Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bishayee, Anupam

2013-08-01

185

Evaluation of Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: A Novel Phytofood from Ladakh.  

PubMed

Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?70-90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2 (-) scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

Kaur, Tarandeep; Hussain, Khadim; Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

2013-08-02

186

Flood of June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin, Linn County, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred on June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin in Linn County, Iowa, following thunderstorm activity over east-central Iowa. The rain gage at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, recorded a 24-hour rainfall of 4.76 inches at 6:00 p.m. on June 4th. Radar indications estimated as much as 6 inches of rain fell in the headwaters of the Indian Creek Basin. Peak discharges on Indian Creek of 12,500 cubic feet per second at County Home Road north of Marion, Iowa, and 24,300 cubic feet per second at East Post Road in southeast Cedar Rapids, were determined for the flood. The recurrence interval for these peak discharges both exceed the theoretical 500-year flood as computed using flood-estimation equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Information about the basin and flood history, the 2002 thunderstorms and associated flooding, and a profile of high-water marks are presented for selected reaches along Indian and Dry Creeks.

Eash, David A.

2004-01-01

187

Anti-proliferative and antioxidative activities of Thai noni/Yor (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) leaf extract.  

PubMed

In this study the leaves of the Thai noni/Yor, (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) were extracted by several methods and evaluated against human cancer cell lines: KB (human epidermoid carcinoma), HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma) and HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines as well as a Vero (African green monkey kidney) cell line, employing the MTT colorimetric method, comparing it to damnacanthal, rutin, and scopoletin. The dichloromethane extract of the fresh leaf showed a better inhibitory effect against KB and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 21.67 and 68.50 microg/ml, respectively. The dichloromethane extract of dried leaves revealed cytotoxicity against the KB cell line with an IC50 value of 39.00 microg/ml. Other extracts, as well as rutin and scopoletin, showed reduced anti-proliferative effects on all cancer cell lines (IC50 103 to over 600 microg/ml). Interestingly, the damnacanthal had potent cytotoxicity against all cancer cell lines and Vero cell lines. These results suggest Thai noni extracts may be safer than the pure compounds, due to their higher safety ratios, which is a good indicator for possible cancer treatment. Several non-aqueous extracts from the leaves showed antioxidant properties, giving IC50 values of 0.20-0.35 mg/ml. It can be concluded the leaves of M. citrifolia may have benefit as a food supplement for chemoprevention against epidermoid and cervical cancers. PMID:20578533

Thani, Wasina; Vallisuta, Omboon; Siripong, Pongpan; Ruangwises, Nongluck

2010-03-01

188

Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.  

PubMed

Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states. PMID:21548805

Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; da Conceicão Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

2011-05-06

189

Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts mitigate UVB-induced erythema.  

PubMed

Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaves have been used in tropical folk medicine to treat topical inflammation and burns. A carbomer gel base, containing the ethanol extract and juice pressed from the leaves, was evaluated for potential allergenic properties in a repeat-insult patch test in 49 volunteers. To investigate the topical photo-protective properties, the combined ethanol extract and leaf juice were evaluated in a UVB-induced erythema model in 25 volunteers. The crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves was also evaluated in vitro for potential anti-inflammatory activity in a histamine H-1 receptor antagonism assay. There was no evidence of allergenic potential in the repeat-insult patch test. When the combination of ethanol extract and leaf juice was applied, the UVB dose required to induce erythema was almost 3.5 times greater than with untreated skin (P < 0.001). In the histamine H-1 receptor-binding assay, the crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves inhibited receptor binding by 57%. These results suggest that M. citrifolia leaves are safe for topical use and may be useful in mitigating UVB-induced injury to the skin. PMID:19283442

West, Brett J; Deng, Shixin; Palu, Afa K; Jensen, C Jarakae

2009-03-13

190

Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (?G(o)). The values of K(ao) and ?G(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction. PMID:22713934

Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

2012-07-01

191

Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study  

PubMed Central

Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules.

Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

2012-01-01

192

Antifertility effect of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract in female albino rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of oral administration of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract on fertility index, uterine weight and various histological and biochemical parameters of uterus were studied in the adult cyclic Wistar rats. Average number of embryos and implantation losses in the pregnant animals treated with dharek seed extract was also studied. The extract was prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on per kg body weight basis. The results indicated a reduction in fertility index and average number of embryos in mated rats treated with the dharek extract. Pre-implantation, post-implantation and total prenatal mortalities were increased in rats treated with dharek seed extract during early (D1-D7) and late (D7-D18) stages of gestation period at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1). Histological studies showed a significant reduction in myometrial thickness, uterine gland diameter, luminal diameter of uterine glands and luminal epithelial cell height in rats treated with dharek seed extract at 1mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1) for 18 days. Pits and folds in luminal epithelial, mitotic activity in luminal and glandular epithelial cells of uterus were observed to be absent. Biochemically, a significant increase in protein and glycogen contents was observed. Thus, in conclusion, the application of this plant extract in rodent control programme may help to elevate the socioeconomic status of the society. PMID:17948733

Mandal, Reshu; Dhaliwal, Patwant Kaur

2007-10-01

193

Antioxidant activity of some polyphenol constituents of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus amarus Linn.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus amarus Linn is a widely distributed tropical medicinal plant highly valued for its therapeutic properties. The antioxidant activity of some of its principal constituents, namely amariin, 1-galloyl-2,3-dehydrohexahydroxydiphenyl (DHHDP)-glucose, repandusinic acid, geraniin, corilagin, phyllanthusiin D, rutin and quercetin 3-O-glucoside were examined for their ability to scavenge free radicals in a range of systems including 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)/ferrylmyoglobin, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and pulse radiolysis. In addition, their ability to protect rat liver mitochondria against oxidative damage was determined by measuring the ROO* radical induced damage to proteins and lipids and *OH radical induced damage to plasmid DNA. The compounds showed significant antioxidant activities with differing efficacy depending on the assays employed. Amariin, repandusinic acid and phyllanthusiin D showed higher antioxidant activity among the ellagitannins and were comparable to the flavonoids, rutin and quercetin 3-O-glucoside. PMID:18796238

Londhe, Jayant S; Devasagayam, Thomas P A; Foo, L Yeap; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S

2008-01-01

194

Comparative powder microscopy of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe and Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd.  

PubMed

Medicinal plant materials are being adulterated in commerce due to many reasons such as similar morphological features, same name as written in classical text, presence of similar active principles in the substituted plant etc., that may badly affect the therapeutic activity of the finished products. Therefore, systematic identification is becoming essential in order to produce standardized finished herbal products. The present study includes two medicinal plant rhizomes; Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Heenaratta) and A. galanga (Linn.) Willd (Aratta) whose microscopical build up was different from each other and was assessed by standard Pharmacognostical methods. Diagnostic identification characters of A. calcarata were compound starch grins, triangular-shaped starch grains, and plenty of simple starch grains in one parenchyma cell compared to that of A. galanga. Diamond-shaped silica crystals were found only on A. galanga rhizome powder. Present study has revealed an easy technique to identify two similar medicinal plant materials microscopically and this method can also be employed to detect the degree of adulteration in powdered raw medicinal plant materials as well. PMID:23723656

Wijayasiriwardena, Chandima; Premakumara, Sirimal

2012-07-01

195

Comparative powder microscopy of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe and Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plant materials are being adulterated in commerce due to many reasons such as similar morphological features, same name as written in classical text, presence of similar active principles in the substituted plant etc., that may badly affect the therapeutic activity of the finished products. Therefore, systematic identification is becoming essential in order to produce standardized finished herbal products. The present study includes two medicinal plant rhizomes; Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Heenaratta) and A. galanga (Linn.) Willd (Aratta) whose microscopical build up was different from each other and was assessed by standard Pharmacognostical methods. Diagnostic identification characters of A. calcarata were compound starch grins, triangular-shaped starch grains, and plenty of simple starch grains in one parenchyma cell compared to that of A. galanga. Diamond-shaped silica crystals were found only on A. galanga rhizome powder. Present study has revealed an easy technique to identify two similar medicinal plant materials microscopically and this method can also be employed to detect the degree of adulteration in powdered raw medicinal plant materials as well.

Wijayasiriwardena, Chandima; Premakumara, Sirimal

2012-01-01

196

Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit  

PubMed Central

Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application.

llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

2012-01-01

197

Chronic toxicity study of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze seeds in albino rats  

PubMed Central

In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the body weight, organ weight and bone marrow cytology to a significant extent. Among the 18 hematological parameters studied, significant changes were observed in three parameters, namely, significant decrease in hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and hematocrit. Of 16 biochemical parameters studied, significant changes were observed in 5 parameters, namely, decrease in total protein, albumin, bilirubin and significant increase in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride. The histopathology of 18 organs revealed changes such as fatty changes, glomerular congestion and tubular hemorrhage in the kidneys, decrease in the cellularity of the spleen, epithelial disruption in jejunum, decrease in spermatogenesis in the testis, epithelial proliferation in ventral prostate and decrease in epithelial proliferation in the uterus. Thus, toxicity profile obtained from the present study shows that B. monosperma seeds are likely to produce toxic effect when administered in a powder form.

Donga, Shilpa; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Ashok, B. K.; Mishtry, I. U.

2011-01-01

198

Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.  

PubMed

Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

2012-12-01

199

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay.

Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

200

Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

2012-07-01

201

Antinociceptive activity of the methanolic extract of Kaempferia galanga Linn. in experimental animals.  

PubMed

Kaempferia galanga Linn. (Zingiberaceae) presents many chemical constituents of the volatile oil extracted from the rhizome. The rhizome of Kaempferia galanga is used by people in many regions for relieving toothache, abdominal pain, muscular swelling and rheumatism. In this study we investigated the antinociceptive activity in mice and rats using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, hot plate and tail-flick tests. The extract at test doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. clearly demonstrated antinociceptive activity in all tests. This activity was dose- and time-dependent. The extract administered at 200 mg/kg, p.o. had a stronger antinociceptive effect than aspirin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) but less than morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.). Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) abolished the antinociceptive action of both morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and the extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) in a similar manner. In conclusion, the methanol extract of Kaempferia galanga markedly demonstrated the antinociceptive action in experimental animals. The antinociceptive mechanisms appear to be both peripherally and centrally mediated actions and the opioid receptors are probably involved. Therefore, our studies support the use in traditional medicine of Kaempferia galanga against pain caused by various disorders. PMID:18486374

Ridtitid, Wibool; Sae-Wong, Chutha; Reanmongkol, Wantana; Wongnawa, Malinee

2008-04-11

202

Mutagenicity of Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw & Suvatabandhu and antimutagenicity of Thunbergia laurifolia Linn.  

PubMed

Thunbergia laurifolia Linn has been reputed to have antitoxic effects for all toxic substances. In this present study, we evaluated its effect against the mutagenicity induced by aqueous extracts from Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw & Suvatabundhu in male rats. The formation of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes was induced by oral administration of an aqueous extract of P. mirifica at the doses of 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg to the rats for 30 days. The results were that the extracts of P. mirifica at doses of 600 and 800 mg/kg acted as a mutagenic agent by inducing higher frequencies of micronuclei as compared to the controls. For the antimutagenic test, P. mirifica extract at a dose of 600 mg/kg (minimal effective dose) was mixed with fresh and dried extracts of T. laurifolia in proportions of 7:3 and 1:1, respectively. The results of 4-week-treatment indicated that aqueous extracts of T. laurifolia, prepared by both fresh and dry methods, could significantly inhibit the induction of micronuclei as induced by P. mirifica. It could be concluded from the results that, under certain circumstances, T. laurifolia exhibits a significant antimutagenic activity. The use of P. mirifica and T. laurifolia as fusion herbal medicines is suggested. PMID:16438216

Saenphet, K; Kantaoop, P; Saenphet, S; Aritajat, S

2005-01-01

203

A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.  

PubMed

Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

2010-10-01

204

Study on anti-diabetic activities of crude methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) sourced from five different host trees.  

PubMed

The hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycemic activities of dried leaves of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) (Loranthaceae), parasitic on Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica, were evaluated in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated (intraperitoneally) with 200 mg/kg of the respective methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.), glibenclamide (positive control), and 20% (v/v) Tween 20 solution (negative control). The sugar levels of the withdrawn blood samples were determined by o-toluidine spectrophotometric method. The studies indicate that the crude methanolic extract of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) exhibited statistically significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.001) and anti-hyperglycemic (P < 0.001) activities in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats, respectively. The hypoglycaemic effect was found to be dose-dependent. The maximum effect of the mistletoe extract (400 mg/kg) from Persea americana on alloxan-induced diabetic rats was found to be statistically comparable with that of the positive control, glibenclamide, at 24 h after administration, with a percentage reduction of blood sugar levels of 82.59 and 83.34%, respectively. Acute toxicity tests of the methanolic extracts of Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica host trees in mice gave LD(50) values of 11650, 11650, 5900, 5900 and 5900 mg/kg, respectively, which are all within the practically non-toxic range. The methanolic extract of African mistletoe was found to be a good candidate for alternative and/or complimentary medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus. The leaves of the Eastern Nigerian species of the African mistletoe harvested from Kola acuminata, Azadirchta indica and Baphia nitda host trees exhibited comparatively better anti-hyperglycemic activities among the host trees studied. PMID:15507325

Osadebe, P O; Okide, G B; Akabogu, I C

2004-12-01

205

NUTRITION OF CONTAINER-GROWN CHRISTMAS CACTI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and lime additions to container-grown Schlumbergera x buckleyi were examined in two experiments. In each case rooted cuttings were grown in peat\\/perlite (1:1, v\\/v), with three plants per pot, for 17 months in a heated greenhouse. Foliage growth and flowering were strongly enhanced by added N and fertilization of between 1800

M. I. Spurway; M. B. Thomas

2001-01-01

206

Polymorphs of Rubrene Crystal Grown from Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of rubrene were grown by slow cooling of solutions in various solvents. Hexagonal single crystals were obtained from p-xylene, whereas parallelogram-shaped crystals were grown from aniline. Both types of crystal were obtained from propan-1-ol. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the hexagonal and parallelogram-shaped crystals belonged to the orthorhombic system and the triclinic system, respectively. The triclinic crystals showed much poorer carrier mobilities than did the orthorhombic crystals.

Matsukawa, Takeshi; Yoshimura, Masashi; Uchiyama, Masahito; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Nakao, Akiko; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Takeya, Junichi; Kitaoka, Yasuo; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo

2010-08-01

207

Physico-Phytochemical investigation and Anti-inflammatory screening of Capsicum annum L. and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R. Br.  

PubMed

Capsicum annum L. (Family: Solanaceae) and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R.Br. (Family: Asclepiadaceae) are commonly used in Tamilnadufor treating various ailments in the native system of medicine. The hydroalcoholic extracts of both plants at dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight showed demonstrable anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced hind paw model in rats. Nevertheless, the overall anti-inflammatory activity exhibited by the extracts are found to be less as compared with that of standard drug Indometacin. Preliminary physico-phytochemical analysis of the plants in question were attempted. The results are highlighted and discussed. PMID:22557366

Vijayalakshmi, K; Shyamala, R; Thirumurugan, V; Sethuraman, M; Rajan, S; Badami, Shrishailappa; Mukherjee, Pulok K

2010-04-01

208

Physico-Phytochemical investigation and Anti-inflammatory screening of Capsicum annum L. and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R. Br  

PubMed Central

Capsicum annum L. (Family: Solanaceae) and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R.Br. (Family: Asclepiadaceae) are commonly used in Tamilnadufor treating various ailments in the native system of medicine. The hydroalcoholic extracts of both plants at dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight showed demonstrable anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced hind paw model in rats. Nevertheless, the overall anti-inflammatory activity exhibited by the extracts are found to be less as compared with that of standard drug Indometacin. Preliminary physico-phytochemical analysis of the plants in question were attempted. The results are highlighted and discussed.

Vijayalakshmi, K.; Shyamala, R.; Thirumurugan, V.; Sethuraman, M.; Rajan, S.; Badami, Shrishailappa; Mukherjee, Pulok K.

2010-01-01

209

Structural characterization of a heteropolysaccharide isolated from hot water extract of the stems of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. ( Amaranthus gangeticus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-soluble polysaccharide (PS-I), isolated from the aqueous extract of the stems of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. (Amaranthus gangeticus L.), was found to consist of l-arabinose, methyl-d-galacturonate, d-galactose, and 3-O-Ac-l-rhamnose in a molar ratio of nearly 1:1:1:1. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR studies (1H, 13C, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC), the

Ramsankar Sarkar; Chanchal K. Nandan; Soumitra Mandal; Pradip Patra; Debsankar Das; Syed. S. Islam

2009-01-01

210

Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 ± 0.49 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 ± 0.87 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion and gastric ulcers in ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl induced and 90% ethanol-induced ulcer models.

Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

2009-01-01

211

Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats.  

PubMed

Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly attenuated the elevated serum total cholesterol and triglycerides with an increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-fat diet- induced hyperlipidaemic rats. The standard drugs atorvastatin in the former and gemfibrozil in the latter studies showed slightly better effects. PMID:19405383

Vijaya, C; Ramanathan, M; Suresh, B

2009-03-01

212

The study of using RGB color sensor to measure the Curcuminiods amount in Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) and Zedoary (Curcuma Zedoarie Rose.) by comparing colors with HSL system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the use of RGB color sensor to measure amount of Curcuminoids in Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) and Zedoary (Curcuma Zedoarie Rose.). The measured data of fresh Turmeric sample from the color sensor in HSL (hue saturation lightness) was then compared with amount of Curcuminoids obtained by conventional method of UV-spectrophotometry. The mathematical relationship between these two kinds

Sarawut Supannarach; Dusit Thanapatay

2008-01-01

213

Far infrared-assisted extraction followed by capillary electrophoresis for the determination of bioactive constituents in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a method based on capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection and far infrared-assisted extraction has been developed for the determination of rutin, gentisic acid, and quercetin in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn. The effects of detection potential, irradiation time, and the voltage applied on the infrared generator were investigated to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The detection

Haotian Duan; Yi Chen; Gang Chen

2010-01-01

214

Spatial distribution and species composition of tree seeds and seedlings under the canopy of the shrub, Chromolaena odorata Linn., in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution and species composition of tree seedlings and seeds under the canopy of the shrub, Chromolaena odorata Linn., were investigated at a 4ha disturbed site that was surrounded by natural forests on two sides. For the seedling study, one hundred and eight 5m2 circular plots were established systematically (at 20m intervals) with a random start point. For the

Y. A. K Honu; Q. L Dang

2002-01-01

215

Observations on the role of the honey bee and bumble bee as pollinators of white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) in the Timaru district and Mackenzie country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations on the role of the honey bee and the bumble bee in the pollination of white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) were made in the Timaru District and Mackenzie Country of New Zealand over 2 seasons.Bumble bees were of no importance in the Timaru area, although they played an important part in the Mackenzie Country, where honey bee densities were

T. Palmer-Jones; I. W. Forster; G. L. Jeffery

1962-01-01

216

Suppressive effects of wild bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata ser.) fruit extracts on inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyBitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is used to treat various diseases including inflammation. A wild species of bitter gourd, Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata ser. (WBG), is considered to be more potent in disease prevention than is bitter gourd; however, little is known about the biological and physiological characteristics of WBG.

Chong-Kuei Lii; Haw-Wen Chen; Wen-Tzu Yun; Kai-Li Liu

2009-01-01

217

Consumption choices concerning the genetically engineered, organically grown, and traditionally grown foods: An experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

While debate over the new agricultural biotechnology has been relatively muted, food may come under increased scrutiny when consumers confront new products. The American public may demand regulations such as labeling. To test the influence of defining\\/labeling products, an experiment gave subjects choices between organically and traditionally grown or between genetically engineered and traditionally grown food for lunch. Logistic regression

Patrick Stewart

2000-01-01

218

Hepatoprotective role of Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench., on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Chronic liver disease has become a global health problem. The research for prominent herbal agents for the management of liver diseases is widely increased. Objective: The root of Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench., (Malvaceae) has been used as a remedy for liver disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the ethanol extract of A. esculentus root. Materials and method: The antioxidant effect was assessed using DPPH and hydroxy radical scavenging assays. The hepatoprotective effect of the extract was evaluated using CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell line and Wistar rats by estimating the levels of hepatic and antioxidant markers. Results: The extract of A. esculentus showed IC50 values of 270.99 and 532.86?µg/mL for DPPH and hydroxy radical scavenging assays, respectively. The incubation of HepG2 cells with CCl4 drastically decreased the cell viability and increased the leakage of transaminases. Pre-treatment with the extract significantly restored the cell death by 31.25 and 39.04% at 200 and 400?µg/mL concentrations, respectively. The reduction of ALT leakage by the treatment was 18.62, 38.59 and 52.15% compared to the CCl4 treated cells at 100, 200 and 400?µg/mL, respectively. In in-vivo experiments also the treatment reduced the levels of transaminases, ALP, MDA, total bilirubin and hepatic TNF? levels as well as increased the antioxidant levels in a dose dependent manner. Histological observations of liver sections showed reduction in steatosis, necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: The results substantiated the hepatoprotective activity of A. esculentus through its antioxidant capacity. PMID:23581558

Saravanan, Subramanian; Pandikumar, Perumal; Pazhanivel, Natesan; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2013-05-17

219

Trypsin inhibitors from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds: purification, properties, and amino acid sequences.  

PubMed

Two trypsin inhibitors, LA-1 and LA-2, have been isolated from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The isoelectric point is at pH 4.55 for LA-1 and at pH 5.85 for LA-2. The Stokes radius of each inhibitor is 11.4 A. The fluorescence emission spectrum of each inhibitor is similar to that of the free tyrosine. The biomolecular rate constant of acrylamide quenching is 1.0 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 0.8 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2 and that of K2HPO4 quenching is 1.6 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 1.2 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2. Analysis of the circular dichroic spectra yields 40% alpha-helix and 60% beta-turn for La-1 and 45% alpha-helix and 55% beta-turn for LA-2. Inhibitors LA-1 and LA-2 consist of 28 and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. They lack threonine, alanine, valine, and tryptophan. Both inhibitors strongly inhibit trypsin by forming enzyme-inhibitor complexes at a molar ratio of unity. A chemical modification study suggests the involvement of arginine of LA-1 and lysine of LA-2 in their reactive sites. The inhibitors are very similar in their amino acid sequences, and show sequence homology with other squash family inhibitors. PMID:8924202

Haldar, U C; Saha, S K; Beavis, R C; Sinha, N K

1996-02-01

220

Pharmacognostic Standardization, Physico- and Phytochemical Evaluation of Amaranthus Spinosus Linn. Root  

PubMed Central

Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Amaranthaceae) is found throughout India. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because it is a medicinal plant employed in the Indian traditional system of medicine. Pharmacognostic standardization; physico-and phytochemical evaluation of the roots of Amaranthus spinosus was carried out, to determine its macro-and microscopical characters, and also some of its quantitative standards. Microscopical studies were done by using the trinocular microscope. Total ash, water-soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, sulfated ash values, and alcohol-and water-soluble extractive values were determined for physico-chemical evaluations. A preliminary phytochemical screening was also done to detect different phytoconstituents. Microscopically, the root showed cork, cortex, stellar region, and calcium oxalate crystals. Powder microscopy showed anamalous secondary growth in between the xylem vessels and Calcium Oxalate crystals in the cortex region. Total ash was approximately three times more than acid insoluble and water soluble ash. The ethanol soluble extractive was approximately the same as the water soluble extractive. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the Petroleum-ether extract using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (6 : 1), showed six spots. In the chloroform extract, using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (4 : 1) nine spots were seen, and in the ethanol extract, using Chloroform: Methanol (93 : 7), only four spots were observed, using Iodine vapor as a viewing medium. Phytochemically, the root exhibited terpenes, alkaloids, glycosides, and sugars. These findings might be useful to supplement information with regard to its identification parameters, which are assumed significant in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs, in the present scenario, which lacks regulatory laws to control the quality of herbal drugs.

Jhade, D; Ahirwar, D; Jain, R; Sharma, NK; Gupta, S

2011-01-01

221

Evaluation of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic potential of Tridax procumbens (Linn.)  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Family-Asteraceae; common name-Dhaman grass) is common herb found in India. Traditionally, the tribal inhabitants of Udaipur district in Rajasthan (India) uses the leaf powder (along with other herb) orally to treat diabetes. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of whole plant of T. procumbens using 50%methanol. The extract was tested for acute and sub-chronic anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats and for acute toxicity test among normal rats. Observations on body weight as well as on the oral glucose tolerance levels were also recorded. Results Oral administration of acute and sub chronic doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt.) of T. procumbens extract showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, however the decline in blood sugar levels in normal rats was not observed. In acute study the maximum percent blood glucose reduction (68.26% at 250 mg/kg and 71.03% at 500 mg/kg body weight) in diabetic rats was observed at 6 h. The anti-hyperglycemic effects were not dependent of dose and the OGTT and Body weight supported the antihyperglycemic action of the drug. The results of anti-diabetic effect of T. procumbens were compared with the reference standard drug Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.wt.). Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, T. procumbens for the treatment of diabetes mellitus with corrections in body weight and oral glucose tolerance and no visible signs or symptoms of toxicity in normal rats indicating a high margin of safety. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

2009-01-01

222

Chemopreventive properties and molecular mechanisms of the bioactive compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne is a traditional Chinese rose tea and has been effectively used in folk medicines for treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions. H. sabdariffa aqueous extracts (HSE) were prepared from the dried flowers of H. sabdariffa L., which are rich in phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In this review, we discuss the chemopreventive properties and possible mechanisms of various H. sabdariffa extracts. It has been demonstrated that HSE, H. sabdariffa polyphenol-rich extracts (HPE), H. sabdariffa anthocyanins (HAs), and H. sabdariffa protocatechuic acid (PCA) exert many biologic effects. PCA and HAs protected against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl droperoxide (t-BHP) in rat primary hepatocytes. In rabbits fed cholesterol and human experimental studies, these studies imply HSE could be pursued as atherosclerosis chemopreventive agents as they inhibit LDL oxidation, foam cell formation, as well as smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. The extracts also offer hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver marker enzymes in experimental hyperammonemia. PCA has also been shown to inhibit the carcinogenic action of various chemicals in different tissues of the rat. HAs and HPE were demonstrated to cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in leukemia and gastric cancer. More recent studies investigated the protective effect of HSE and HPE in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy. From all these studies, it is clear that various H. sabdariffa extracts exhibit activities against atherosclerosis, liver disease, cancer, diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. These results indicate that naturally occurring agents such as the bioactive compounds in H. sabdariffa could be developed as potent chemopreventive agents and natural healthy foods. PMID:21291361

Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong

2011-01-01

223

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of flower extract of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Millingtonia hortensis Linn is an abundant resource of flavonoids, which might be beneficial in protecting liver tissue from injury. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of M. hortensis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanism involved therein were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents. 30 adult Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups. Control group received vehicle, group-2 received CCl4 alone (1 ml/kg body weight, intraperitonially), groups 3 - 5 received the ethanolic flower extract in 2 dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg) and Curcumin (100 mg/kg) as a standard for 8 days orally, followed by CCl4 as a single dose on the 8th day. 48 hours later, blood was withdrawn, serum was subjected to biochemical assessments, and liver homogenate was examined for lipid peroxides, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopatological studies. Results: CCl4 treatment produced a profound increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, hepatic marker enzymes and bilirubin content compared with the control (P < 0.05). Pre-treatment with the flower extract of M. hortensis significantly enhanced the levels of endogenous antioxidants and reduced the levels of hepatic marker enzymes in relation to the CCl4 treated group (P < 0.05). Balloning degeneration and fatty changes in hepatocytes was prevented by pre-treatment with the flower extract. Conclusion: The antioxidant nature of the flower extract of M. hortensis could be responsible for averting damage to the liver.

Babitha, S.; Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J. F.

2012-01-01

224

Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats and mice.  

PubMed

In many parts of Africa, the leaf, stem-bark, and roots of Psidium guajava Linn. (Family: Myrtaceae) are used traditionally for the management, control, and/or treatment of an array of human disorders. In an effort to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical properties of P. guajava leaf, and probe its efficacy and safety, the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory and analgesic properties of the plant's leaf aqueous extract in some experimental animal paradigms. The antiinflammatory property of the aqueous leaf extract was investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal (paw) edema, while the analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated by the "hot-plate" and "acetic acid" test models of pain in mice. Diclofenac (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were used respectively as standard, reference antiinflammatory and analgesic agents for comparison. P. guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) inhibition of fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation (edema) in rats. The plant extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. The numerous tannins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, ellagic acid, triterpenoids, guiajaverin, quercetin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant are speculated to account for the observed antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of the plant's leaf extract. In summary, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that the leaf aqueous extract of P. guajava possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical, folkloric uses of the plant in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions in some rural communities of Africa. PMID:17003849

Ojewole, J A O

2006-09-01

225

Wood quality from fast-grown plantations  

SciTech Connect

As forestry becomes more intensive and as forestry operations move toward the tropical areas, an increasing proportion of the wood available to the industry will come from young, fast-grown plantations. The wood of such trees, especially from the conifers, is so different that it will have a major effect on utilization and product standards. Acceptability of wood from fast-grown plantations will change as solid wood and paper quality standards change. Some of the primary effects on wood and products from fast-grown plantations are discussed in this paper. The wood is very suitable for some products and poor for others. The paper reports on conifers and hardwoods separately, with a large section on Eucalyptus.

Zobel, B.

1981-01-01

226

Inorganic nanostructures grown on graphene layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a review of current research activities on the hybrid heterostructures of inorganic nanostructures grown directly on graphene layers, which can be categorized primarily as zero-dimensional nanoparticles; one-dimensional nanorods, nanowires, and nanotubes; and two-dimensional nanowalls. For the hybrid structures, the nanostructures exhibit excellent material characteristics including high carrier mobility and radiative recombination rate as well as long-term stability while graphene films show good optical transparency, mechanical flexibility, and electrical conductivity. Accordingly, the versatile and fascinating properties of the nanostructures grown on graphene layers make it possible to fabricate high-performance optoelectronic and electronic devices even in transferable, flexible, or stretchable forms. Here, we review preparation methods and possible device applications of the hybrid structures consisting of various types of inorganic nanostructures grown on graphene layers.

Park, Won Il; Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Nam-Jung; Yi, Gyu-Chul

2011-09-01

227

Oxidation Properties of Vapor Grown Graphite Fibers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oxidation behavior of a novel carbon fiber has been determined using a Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) technique in flowing air (52 ml/min) at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1100 C. The oxidation rates of three preparations of vapor grown carbon fi...

M. L. Lake R. Y. Lin J. K. Hickok K. K. Brito

1988-01-01

228

Melt-Grown Oxide-Metal Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research is designed to develop melt-grown oxide-metal composite structures for high field electron emission testing. A number of refractory oxide-metal mixtures (i.e. UO2-W, stabilized ZrO2 and HfO2-W, UO2-Ta, and the rare earth oxides of Gd2O3, Nd2...

A. T. Chapman J. F. Benzel J. K. Cochran R. K. Feeney F. W. Long

1973-01-01

229

Consumer Attitudes Toward Organically Grown Lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research shows that approximately 29 percent of lettuce purchasers in California expect to purchase an organically grown lettuce product in the future. Organic lettuce purchasers are more likely to be female, have a higher household income and a higher level of education. Consumers are concerned with the freshness, quality, price, and environmental impact of the lettuce they purchase. The

Marianne McGarry; Bradey Johnson Wolf; Kerry Cochran; Lynn Hamilton

230

Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 ?M). When tested on K+ (80 mM)-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 ?M)-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 ?M), caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml) also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml). The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic component(s) was separated in the organic fraction, whereas the spasmogenic component was concentrated in the aqueous fraction. Conclusion These results indicate that A. spinosus possesses laxative activity partially mediated through cholinergic action. The spasmolytic effect was mediated through calcium channel blocking (CCB), while bronchodilator activity through a combination of ?-adrenergic and CCB pathways, which may explain the traditional uses of A. spinosus in gut and airways disorders.

2012-01-01

231

Antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract.  

PubMed

Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that some members of Anacardiaceae family possess antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects in man and mammalian experimental animals. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory, analgesic and antidiabetic properties of the stem-bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica Linn., M. indica a member of the Anacardiaceae family, in rats and mice. The stem-bark powder of M. indica was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The analgesic effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the hot-plate and acetic acid test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the stem-bark extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. M. indica stem-bark aqueous extract (MIE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (p<0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and caused significant (p<0.05-0.001) hypoglycemic effects in rats. It is suggested that the analgesic effects of MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) may be peripherally and centrally mediated. The different chemical constituents of the plant, especially the polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, mangiferin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant may be involved in the observed antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects of the plant's extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant in the management and control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management of adult-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus in some rural African communities. PMID:16273134

Ojewole, J A O

2005-10-01

232

Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method. PMID:22900261

Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

2012-10-01

233

Structural characterization of a heteropolysaccharide isolated from hot water extract of the stems of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. (Amaranthus gangeticus L.).  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide (PS-I), isolated from the aqueous extract of the stems of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. (Amaranthus gangeticus L.), was found to consist of L-arabinose, methyl-D-galacturonate, D-galactose, and 3-O-Ac-L-rhamnose in a molar ratio of nearly 1:1:1:1. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC), the structure of the repeating unit of the PS-I is determined as: -->5)-alpha-L-Araf-(1-->4)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-3-O-Ac-beta-L-Rhap-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Gal-A6Me-(1--> PMID:19804879

Sarkar, Ramsankar; Nandan, Chanchal K; Mandal, Soumitra; Patra, Pradip; Das, Debsankar; Islam, Syed S

2009-09-17

234

Antioxidant and Antilipid Peroxidation Potential of Supercritical Fluid Extract and Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Vitex Negundo Linn.  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extract and ethanol extract of Vitex negundo Linn. were subjected to the chromatographic evaluation for identification of their constituents. Free radical scavenging activity of both extracts was studied by subjecting them to DPPH assay. IC50 values of ethanol and supercritical fluid extract of Vitex negundo indicate that ethanol extract has stronger reducing potential and ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to the supercritical fluid extract. The in vivo effect of extracts on lipid peroxidation was studied using ethanol induced oxidative stress model in rat. Ingestion of extracts for 14 days exhibited significant reduction in plasma MDA level of stressed animals. Ethanol extract exhibited higher in vivo antilipid peroxidation potential as compared to supercritical fluid extract which correlated well with radical scavenging potential of extract.

Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

2011-01-01

235

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2.

Habib, M. Rowshanul

2009-01-01

236

Protective effects of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on genotoxins-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.  

PubMed

The modifying effects of the aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus Linn.) on cisplatin (CIS), cyclophosphamide (CPH), mitomycin-C (MMC) and urethane (URE) induced alterations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Three doses of saffron (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) were orally administered to mice for 5 consecutive days prior to administration of genotoxins. A significant reduction in the extent of lipid peroxidation with a concomitant increase in the liver enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GST, GPx) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione) were observed in saffron pretreated animals compared with the genotoxins alone treated animals. However, the modulatory effects were not always dose dependent. Our data suggest that saffron may exert its chemopreventive effects by modulation of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and detoxification systems. PMID:12820227

Premkumar, K; Abraham, Suresh K; Santhiya, S T; Ramesh, A

2003-06-01

237

Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al. [ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

Plaut, Annette S.; Wurstbauer, Ulrich; Pinczuk, Aron; Garcia, Jorge M.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.

2013-06-01

238

Carbon Nanocapsules Grown on Carbon Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanocapsules grown on pitch-based carbon fibers were investigated by high-resolution electron microscopy. It was found that they were formed during heating up to 2000° C in 1 atm N2 gas. Two types of nanocapsules were found: one was a capsule enclosing a CaS single crystal and the other was a cubic hollow capsule. The growth mechanism of these carbon nanocapsules was discussed by comparing the structures of particles formed at several temperatures.

Kusunoki, Michiko; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Kon, Jun-ichi

1995-03-01

239

Purification of three orally active hypoglycemic compounds Kakara Ib, IIIa 1 and IIIb 1 from the unripe fruits of Momordica charantia Linn (Bitter gourd)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three orally active hypoglycemic compounds Kakara Ib, IIIa1 and IIIb1 were purified from the unripe fruits ofMomordica charantia Linn (bitter gourd). Powder of the dried fruits was extracted with benzene and the extract was purified further by sillicic\\u000a acid column chromatography. They were homogeneous by HPLC. Kakara Ib (400 mg\\/kg), IIIa1 (100 mg\\/kg) and IIIb1 (300 mg\\/kg) improved glucose tolerance

S. Pugazhenthi; P. S. Murthy

1996-01-01

240

150 kDa glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne stimulates caspase-3 activation and reduces inducible nitric oxide production in HCT116 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the apoptotic effects of glycoprotein (SNL glycoprotein, 150-kDa) isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne, which has been used as an antipyretic and anticancer agent in folk medicine. We found that SNL glycoprotein consists of carbohydrate content (69.74%) and protein content (30.26%), which contains more than 50% hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine and proline.

Sei-Jung Lee; Kye-Taek Lim

2006-01-01

241

The scanning electron microscopic study of the infection and conidial development of Aspergillus tamarii Kita on its host, the silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of Aspergillosis on the integument of the silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn., was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Aspergillosis is a fungal disease caused by an insect mycopathogen Aspergillus tamarii Kita, which infects the silkworms in countries where sericulture (the rearing of silkworms)is prevalent. The present study\\u000a showed the course of infection and the conidial development of A. tamarii on

Vineet Kumar

2007-01-01

242

Nucleolus in clinostat-grown plants  

SciTech Connect

The clinostat is an apparatus that is used to mimic zero gravity in studies of plant growth in the absence of gravitropic response. Clinostat-grown tissue cultures of carrot exhibit significant increases both in the number of nuclei containing more than one nucleolus and in nucleolar volume. Oat seedlings germinated and grown on clinostats exhibit a decreased rate of shoot elongation, increased tissue sensitivity to applied auxin, and an increased response to gravitropic stimulation. Clinostat treatment clearly affects plant metabolism. The nucleolus is the region in the nucleus where ribosome synthesis and assembly take place. The 18S, 5.8S, and 25S ribosomal genes, in tandem units, are located in the nucleolus. Ribosomes orchestrate the production of all proteins that are necessary for the maintenance of cell growth, development, and survival. A full study of the effects of nullification of gravitropism, by clinostat rotation, on nucleolar development in barley has been initiated. The authors study developmental changes of nucleolar number and diameter in clinostat-grown root tissues. Preliminary results show that barley roots exhibit changes in nucleolar number and diameter. Growth rates of barley root and shoot also appear to be reduced, in measurements of both length and weight.

Shen-Miller, J.; Dannenhoffer, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Hinchman, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-05-01

243

Thick AlN layers grown by HVPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of aluminum nitride layers grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on 2in sapphire and silicon carbide (SiC) substrates are described. Thickness of grown AlN layers ranged from 1 to 20?m for the material grown on sapphire and from 5 to 75?m for the material grown on SiC. The layers were free of cracks. Surface morphology, crystal quality, electrical

O. Kovalenkov; V. Soukhoveev; V. Ivantsov; A. Usikov; V. Dmitriev

2005-01-01

244

Mercury zinc telluride epilayers grown by LPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Hg(0.84)Zn(0.16)Te epilayers in a horizontal, open tube, slider boat system by liquid-phase epitaxy on CdTe and Cd(0.76)Zn(0.24)Te substrates is discussed. X-ray Laue back reflection, diffraction rocking curves, surface morphology, cross-sectional view and infrared transmission spectra made possible the study of the grown structures. It is found that by growing the epilayers on the nearly lattice matched Cd(0.76)Zn(0.24)Te

A. Sher; D. Eger; A. Zemel; H. Feldstein; A. Raizman

1985-01-01

245

Mercury zinc telluride epilayers grown by LPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of Hg(0.84)Zn(0.16)Te epilayers in a horizontal, open tube, slider boat system by liquid-phase epitaxy on CdTe and Cd(0.76)Zn(0.24)Te substrates is discussed. X-ray Laue back reflection, diffraction rocking curves, surface morphology, cross-sectional view and infrared transmission spectra made possible the study of the grown structures. It is found that by growing the epilayers on the nearly lattice matched Cd(0.76)Zn(0.24)Te substrates, significant improvement in the epilayer quality was obtained.

Sher, A.; Eger, D.; Zemel, A.; Feldstein, H.; Raizman, A.

1985-08-01

246

Nanolasers grown on silicon-based MOSFETs.  

PubMed

We report novel indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) nanopillar lasers that are monolithically grown on (100)-silicon-based functional metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) at low temperature (410 °C). The MOSFETs maintain their performance after the nanopillar growth, providing a direct demonstration of complementary metal-oxide-semiconudctor (CMOS) compatibility. Room-temperature operation of optically pumped lasers is also achieved. To our knowledge, this is the first time that monolithically integrated lasers and transistors have been shown to work on the same silicon chip, serving as a proof-of-concept that such integration can be extended to more complicated CMOS integrated circuits. PMID:22714204

Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Ko, Wai Son; Ng, Kar Wei; Chen, Roger; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

2012-05-21

247

Fermentation characteristics of Fusariumoxysporum grown on acetate.  

PubMed

In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusariumoxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F.oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8%w/v while glucose was consumed preferentially to acetate. The activity of isocitrate lyase was high when cells were grown on acetate and acetate plus glucose indicating an activation of the glyoxylate cycle. Investigation of the metabolic fingerprinting and footprinting revealed higher levels of intracellular and extracellular TCA cycle intermediates when F.oxysporum cells were grown on mixtures of acetate and glucose compared to growth on only glucose. Our data support the hypothesis that a higher flux through TCA cycle during acetate consumption could significantly increase the pool of NADH, resulting in the activation of succinate-propionate pathway which consumes reducing power (NADH) via conversion of succinate to propionyl-CoA and produce propionate. PMID:18304808

Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Olsson, Lisbeth; Christakopoulos, Paul

2008-03-04

248

Phytochemical phenolics in organically grown vegetables.  

PubMed

Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with risks for several chronic diseases in humans. Phytochemicals, and in particular, phenolic compounds, present in plant foods may be partly responsible for these health benefits through a variety of mechanisms. Since environmental factors play a role in a plant's production of secondary metabolites, it was hypothesized that an organic agricultural production system would increase phenolic levels. Cultivars of leaf lettuce, collards, and pac choi were grown either on organically certified plots or on adjacent conventional plots. Nine prominent phenolic agents were quantified by HPLC, including phenolic acids (e. g. caffeic acid and gallic acid) and aglycone or glycoside flavonoids (e. g. apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin). Statistically, we did not find significant higher levels of phenolic agents in lettuce and collard samples grown organically. The total phenolic content of organic pac choi samples as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, however, was significantly higher than conventional samples (p < 0.01), and seemed to be associated with a greater attack the plants in organic plots by flea beetles. These results indicated that although organic production method alone did not enhance biosynthesis of phytochemicals in lettuce and collards, the organic system provided an increased opportunity for insect attack, resulting in a higher level of total phenolic agents in pac choi. PMID:16302198

Young, Janice E; Zhao, Xin; Carey, Edward E; Welti, Ruth; Yang, Shie-Shien; Wang, Weiqun

2005-12-01

249

Compound semiconductor nanotube materials grown and fabricated  

PubMed Central

A new GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP compound semiconductor nanotube material structure was designed and fabricated in this work. A thin, InGaAs-strained material layer was designed in the nanotube structure, which can directionally roll up a strained heterostructure through a normal wet etching process. The compound semiconductor nanotube structure was grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. A good crystalline quality of InGaP, InGaAs, and GaAs materials was obtained through optimizing the growth condition. The fabricated GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP semiconductor nanotubes, with a diameter of 300 to 350 nm and a length of 1.8 to 2.0 ?m, were achieved through normal device fabrication.

2011-01-01

250

Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. PMID:23073108

Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

2012-09-11

251

Effects of a Chinese Herbal Medicine, Guan-Jen-Huang (Aeginetia indica Linn.), on Renal Cancer Cell Growth and Metastasis.  

PubMed

Aeginetia indica Linn. (Guan-Jen-Huang, GJH), a traditional Chinese herb, has the potential to be an immunomodulatory agent. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of GJH in the treatment of renal cancer. Concentration-effect curves for the influence of GJH on cellular proliferation showed a biphasic shape. Besides, GJH had a synergistic effect on cytotoxicity when combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)which may be due to the alternation of the chemotherapeutic agent resistance-related genes and due to the synergistic effects on apoptosis. In addition, treatment with GJH extract markedly reduced 786-O cell adherence to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and decreased 786-O cell migration and invasion. In a xenograft animal model, GJH extract had an inhibitory effect on tumor cell-induced metastasis. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in 786-O cells was significantly decreased by treatment with GJH extract through inactivation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). These results suggest that GJH extract has a synergistic effect on apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents and an inhibitory effect on cell adhesion, migration, and invasion, providing evidence for the use of water-based extracts of GJH as novel alternative therapeutic agents in the treatment of human renal cancer. PMID:22028734

Liu, Yu-Huei; Li, Meng-Luen; Hsu, Meng-Yu; Pang, Ya-Yueh; Chen, I-Ling; Chen, Ching-Kuei; Tang, Sai-Wen; Lin, Hsuan-Yuan; Lin, Jung-Yaw

2011-10-18

252

Field note: phytoremediation of petroleum sludge contaminated field using sedge species, Cyperus rotundus (Linn.) and Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to degrade total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in a petroleum sludge contaminated site (initial TPH concentration of 65,000-75,000 mg kg(-1)) with two native sedge species namely Cyperus rotundus (Linn.) and Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. Fertilized and unfertilized treatments were maintained separately to record the influence of fertilizer in TPH degradation. The average biomass production (twenty plants from each treatment) of C. rotundus was 345.5 g and that of C. brevifolius was 250.6 g in fertilized soil during 360 days. Decrease in soil TPH concentration was higher in fertilized soil (75% for C. rotundus and 64% for C. brevifolius) than in unfertilized soil (36% for C. rotundus and 32% for C. brevifolius). In unvegetated treatments, decrease in soil TPH concentration in fertilized (12%) and unfertilized soil (8%) can be attributed to natural attenuation and microbial degradation. TPH accumulation in roots and shoots was significantly higher in fertilized soil in comparison to unfertilized soils (p < 0.05). Most probable number (MPN) in planted treatments was significantly higher than in unplanted treatments (p < 0.05). PMID:23819282

Basumatary, Budhadev; Saikia, Rubul; Das, Hamendra Chandra; Bordoloi, Sabitry

2013-01-01

253

Selected hydrogeologic data from the Cedar Rapids Area, Benton and Linn counties, Iowa, October 1992 through March 1996  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The city of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, obtains its water supply from shallow wells screened in the alluvial aquifer along the Cedar River. A cooperative study between the city of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and the U.S. Geological Survey was started in March 1992 to assess the water quality and water quantity of the ground-water resource. This report summarizes selected hydrogeologic data collected from October 1992 through March 1996. Information collected includes water quality (major ions, nutrients, and pesticides), ground-water levels, multiprobe-instrument (water levels, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen monitored at 15-, 30-, or 60-minute intervals), well information (location, casing type, screen interval, and depth), and geophysical seismic- refraction and seismic-reflection data (estimated depth to bedrock and alluvial thickness along the Cedar River). Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected from domestic, municipal, observation, and industrial wells and the Cedar River. Well-construction data for more than 300 wells in the Cedar Rapids area in Benton and Linn Counties, Iowa, were compiled primarily from records on file with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Geologic Survey Burea (Iowa City).

Schnoebelen, D. J.; Schulmeyer, P. M.

1996-01-01

254

Ontogenesis of the collapsed layer during haustorium development in the root hemi-parasite Santalum album Linn.  

PubMed

The structure and development of collapsed layers of the haustorium were studied in Santalum album Linn. Through light and transmission electron microscopy, it was shown that the collapsed layers originated from starch-containing cells when the haustorium developed an internal gland, thickened gradually and ultimately developed into the mantle, which, combined with the sucker, buckled the host root. We report on the presence of inter-collapsed layers for the first time. These layers develop after penetration into the host and are located between the intrusive tissues and the vascular meristematic region, gradually linking the collapsed layers and remains around the sucker. The proliferation of cells in the meristematic region and the 'host tropism' of cortical layers contribute to pressure within the haustorium and result in development of the collapsed layers. Besides, starch-containing cells that turn into collapsed layers are vulnerable to pressure as they lack a large vacuole, have uneven cell wall thickness and a loose cell arrangement. We proposed that the functions of collapsed layers are to efficiently assure that cell inclusion and energy concentrate at the inner meristematic region and are recycled to affect penetration, reinforce the physical connection between the sandalwood haustorium and host root, and supply space for haustorial development. PMID:23590414

Yang, X; Zhang, X; Teixeira da Silva, J A; Liang, K; Deng, R; Ma, G

2013-04-17

255

Protective effect of Cassia fistula Linn. on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular damage and oxidative stress in ethanol pretreated rats.  

PubMed

Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), found in many commonly consumed foods, is widely reported to induce cancer in animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the leaf extract of the medicinal plant Cassia fistula Linn. against diethylnitrosamine induced liver injury in ethanol pretreated rats. Albino Wistar rats, pretreated with ethanol for 15 days, were administered a single dose of DEN. Thirty days after DEN administration, hepatotocellular damage was observed histologically, along with elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, ?-GT and bilirubin and a simultaneous fall in the levels of the marker enzymes in the liver tissue. Liver oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a decrease in enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants activities. Oral administration of the ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula for 30 days to ethanol + DEN treated rats significantly improved the above alterations in the markers of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress, resulting in the reversal of most of the parameters studied and were comparable to the standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin. PMID:21157638

Pradeep, Kannampalli; Raj Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor; Gobianand, Kupannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

2010-05-07

256

Wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) extract and its bioactive components suppress Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of wild bitter melons (WBM; Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) on Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation and to identify the bioactive components. Our results showed that ethyl acetate (EA) extract of WBM fruit in vitro potently suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels in P. acnes-stimulated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, concomitant intradermal injection of WBM EA extract in mice effectively attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. To further investigate the bioactive components, we found that both saponifiable (S) and nonsaponifiable (NS) fractions of WBM EA extract significantly suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine and MMP-9 levels. Phytol and lutein, identified in the NS fraction, also inhibited cytokine production. Moreover, S and NS fractions of EA extract, phytol and lutein, activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and ? in the transactivation assay. Our results suggested that PPAR? or PPAR? signalling may contribute, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory activity of WBM. PMID:22953813

Hsu, Chin; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Li, You-Yi; Wu, Wen-Huey; Huang, Ching-Jang; Tsai, Po-Jung

2012-05-22

257

Some morphological and anatomical studies of leaves and flowers of Murraya paniculata (Jack) Linn. in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

In the present study, various explants of Murraya paniculata (Jack) Linn., such as cotyledons, shoots and young stems were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) under 25 +/- 1 degree C with 16 h light and 8 h dark and also 8 h light and 16 h dark to obtain complete plant regeneration. In vitro flowering was observed from shoot explants cultured on MS supplemented with 0.5-2.0 mg L(-1) Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) and also on MS basal medium under similar conditions. The leaves and flowers obtained from both in vivo and in vitro conditions were examined and compared. Morphological studies such as leaf clearing, epidermal peeling were studied using light and scanning electron microscope. Macromorphological studies of the flowers produced from in vivo and in vitro conditions were also examined. Morphologically, there were no differences between in vivo and in vitro flowers except the flowers produced from tissue culture systems were smaller in size with protruding stigmas. Differences were also found in the number of layers of palisade cells and the presence or absence of epicuticle layer of the leaves. Leaves produced from tissue culture system were smaller in size with membranous texture. Stomata were present only on the abaxial surfaces of both in vivo and in vitro leaves but the stomata were raised above the epidermis in the latter. PMID:18810972

Taha, Rosna Mat; Haron, Noorma Wati

2008-04-01

258

Coulomb breakup reactions of 11Li in the coupled-channel 9Li+n+n model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the three-body Coulomb breakup of a two-neutron halo nucleus 11Li. We use the coupled-channel 9Li+n+n three-body model, which includes the coupling between last neutron states and the various two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) configurations in 9Li due to the tensor and pairing correlations. The three-body scattering states of 11Li are described by using the combined methods of complex scaling and the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The calculated breakup cross section successfully reproduces the experiments. The large mixing of the s state in the halo ground state of 11Li is shown to play an important role in the explanation of shape and strength of the breakup cross section. In addition, we predict the invariant mass spectra for binary subsystems of 11Li. It is found that the two kinds of virtual s states of 9Li-n and n-n systems in the final three-body states of 11Li largely contribute to make low-lying peaks in the invariant mass spectra. On the other hand, in the present analysis, it is suggested that the contributions of the p-wave resonances of 10Li are hardly confirmed in the spectra.

Kikuchi, Yuma; Myo, Takayuki; Kat?, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Kiyomi

2013-03-01

259

Anti-urolithiatic effect of ethanolic extract of pedalium murex linn. Fruits on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi.  

PubMed

Purpose: To evaluate effect of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits on experimentalmodel of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided in 6 groups.Normal controls received distilled water for 28 days. Other five groups received ethylene glycol(1% v/v) in distilled water for 28 days. Pedalium murex ethanolic extract was given 200 mg/kgand 400 mg/kg orally in distilled water for 28 days in prophylactic groups (III and IV) and from15th to 28th days in treatment groups (V and VI). The urea, creatinine, random blood sugar, aspartateaminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and calcium weremeasured on 28th day. 24 hr urinary oxalate and volume were measured on day 0 and 28. On day28, kidneys were removed, weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Calcium oxalatecrystallization was evaluated by renal histopathology and in-vitro method of mineralization.All parameters were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis or one-way ANOVA with post-hoc test.Results: Pedalium murex showed significant improvement in renal function and kidney weight inprophylactic groups as compared to ethylene glycol controls. It did not show any effect on urinaryoxalate, urine volume and any other serological parameters. Calcium oxalate crystallization wassignificantly reduced in all the Pedalium murex treated groups (P < .05). Calcium oxalate and phosphatemineralization were also inhibited by 33% and 57%.Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex fruits possess significant activity for preventionof renal calculi. PMID:24078501

Mandavia, Divyesh R; Patel, Mahendra K; Patel, Jayshree C; Anovadiya, Ashish P; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu Rajkishor

2013-09-26

260

A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats  

PubMed Central

Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema.

Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, BK; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

2011-01-01

261

Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves  

PubMed Central

To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16th days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future.

Biswas, D.; Yoganandam, G. P.; Dey, A.; Deb, L.

2013-01-01

262

Effect of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaf soluble solids on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of aqueous and ethanol soluble solid extracts of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaves on hypoglycemia and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide were injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type 2 diabetes. Acute and long-term feeding tests were carried out, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to follow the changes in plasma glucose and insulin levels was performed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extracts in diabetic rats.The results of acute and long-term feeding tests showed a significant reduction in the blood sugar level in diabetic rats fed with either the aqueous or ethanol extract of guava leaves (p < 0.05). Long-term administration of guava leaf extracts increased the plasma insulin level and glucose utilization in diabetic rats. The results also indicated that the activities of hepatic hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in diabetic rats fed with aqueous extracts were higher than in the normal diabetic group (p < 0.05). On the other hand, diabetic rats treated with the ethanol extract raised the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (p < 0.05) only. The experiments provided evidence to support the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extract and the health function of guava leaves against type 2 diabetes. PMID:18819164

Shen, Szu-Chuan; Cheng, Fang-Chi; Wu, Ning-Jung

2008-11-01

263

Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

In this study, the optimum extraction conditions for maximum recovery of the content of total phenolics (TPC) and total antioxidant abilities were analyzed for Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology. The effects of ethanol percentage (X1 ,%), ultrasonic power (X2 , W) and extraction temperature (X3 , °C) on the total phenolic content (Y1 ) and antioxidant ability (Y2 ) were evaluated. A second-order polynomial model produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.9942, P < 0.0001) and antioxidant ability (R(2) = 0.9966, P < 0.0001). The optimized conditions were ethanol concentration of 61.0%, ultrasonic power of 308.6 W, extraction temperature of 51.1°C for TPC and 60.5%, 311.4 W, 51.6°C for antioxidant ability, the predicted values agreed well with the experimental values. Results implied that the major phenolic compounds in obtained extracts as chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-gal/glu, quercetin-3-xyl/ara, phloretin-2-xyloside, quercetin-3- rhamnoside, and phloridzin. PMID:23436450

Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Xiaoyu

2013-04-23

264

Nutritional, microbial and organoleptic qualities of fish patties prepared from carp (Cyprinus carpio Linn.) of three weight groups.  

PubMed

Fish patty from common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linn.) which has low consumer preference due to the presence of intramuscular spines was developed and the effects of fish weight and the type of extender on product quality were determined. Six different types of fish patties were prepared by using the fish belonging to 3 weight groups (250-500 g, 501-750 g, and 751-1,000 g) and using 2 extenders (boiled potato and corn flour). Patties containing potato had higher moisture (70.6-73.3%), protein (31.5-32.7%) and lipid (3.3-4.6%) contents than those with corn flour (60-65.2, 27.8-33.3, 2.6-3.8%, respectively). Cooking decreased protein but increased lipid, soluble sugars, and gross energy contents of patties. Corn flour used patties gave higher cooking yield than those with boiled potato. These also had higher fat retention capacity and gross energy values. The 501-750 g group patties containing boiled potato had significantly higher scores for texture and overall acceptability. PMID:23572741

Sehgal, Harjeet S; Shahi, Meenakshi; Sehgal, Gurpreet K; Thind, Sukhcharan S

2010-10-29

265

Effect of Mimosa pudica (Linn.) extract on anxiety behaviour and GABAergic regulation of 5-HT neuronal activity in the mouse.  

PubMed

Mimosa pudica (Linn.) (M. pudica L.) is a plant used in some countries to treat anxiety and depression. In the present study we investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of M. pudica L. on mouse anxiety-like behaviour using the elevated T maze, and on regulation of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuronal activity using an in-vitro mouse brain slice preparation. Acute treatment with M. pudica L. extract had an anxiolytic effect on behaviour in the elevated T maze, specifically on inhibitory avoidance behaviour. Acute application of the extract alone had no effect on the activity of DRN 5-HT neurones. However, when co-applied with the GABA(A) receptor agonist THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol), the extract enhanced the inhibitory effect of the THIP on DRN 5-HT neurones. These observed effects of M. pudica L. on both behaviour and GABA modulation of 5-HT neuronal activity are similar to the effects of diazepam, the established anxiolytic and positive modulator of the GABA(A) receptor. This study suggests that the aqueous extract of M. pudica L. contains a positive modulator of GABA(A) receptor function and provides impetus for further investigation of the neuropharmacologically active constituents of the extract. PMID:21427203

Ayissi Mbomo, Rigobert; Gartside, Sasha; Ngo Bum, Elizabeth; Njikam, Njifutie; Okello, Ed; McQuade, Richard

2011-03-22

266

Isolation of a haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) from the Indian venomous butterfish (Scatophagus argus, Linn) sting extract.  

PubMed

A haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) was isolated and purified from the spine extract of the Indian venomous butterfish, S. argus Linn, by two step ion exchange chromatography. The toxin was homogeneous in native and SDS-PAGE gel. SDS-molecular weight of the toxin was found to be 18.1 +/- 0.09 kDa. SA-HT produced severe haemorrhage on stomach wall but devoid of cutaneous haemorrhage. UV, EDTA, trypsin, protease, cyproheptadine, indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid and BW755C treatment significantly antagonized the haemorrhagic activity of SA-HT. The toxin produced dose and time dependent oedema on mice hind paw, which was significantly encountered by cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW755C. SA-HT increased capillary permeability on guinea pig dorsal flank. On isolated guineapig ileum, rat fundus and uterus, SA-HT produced slow contraction which was completely antagonised by prostaglandin blocker SC19220. On isolated rat duodenum, SA-HT produced slow relaxation. SA-HT significantly increased plasma plasmin, serum MDA level and decreased serum SOD level indicating the possible involvement of cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. PMID:15233468

Karmakar, S; Muhuri, D C; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

2004-05-01

267

Protective effect of Hypericum perforatum Linn (St. John's wort) against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis on human neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

The medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum Linn, commonly known as St. John's wort, has been used as an antidepressant. To investigate whether St. John's wort possesses a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, flow cytometry analysis, DNA fragmentation assay, and caspase-3 enzyme assay were performed on SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells. Cells treated with H(2)O(2) exhibited several apoptotic features, while those pre-treated with St. John's wort prior to H(2)O(2) exposure showed a decreased occurrence of apoptotic features. In addition, pre-treatment with St. John's wort inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced increase in caspase-3 enzyme activity. These results suggest that St. John's wort may exert a protective effect against H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells. PMID:12165406

Jang, Mi-Hyeon; Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Shin, Min-Chul; Bahn, Geon-Ho; Kim, Jong-Woo; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Ee-Hwa; Kim, Chang-Ju

2002-08-30

268

Green coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shell extract of green coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

2013-08-01

269

MBE grown iron-based nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in magnetic nanostructures has increased rapidly because of their potential applications in a number of magnetic nanotechnologies such as high-density magnetic recording media, magnetic field sensors, magnetic nanoprobes for spin-polarized microscopy and cell manipulation in biomedical technology. Successful incorporation of ferromagnetic nanostructures in semiconductors may open a new area in spintronic applications. In this study, two kinds of Fe-based nanostructures were grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique, namely, Fe quantum dots (QDs) and Fe nanowires (NWs). For Fe QDs, a multilayer magnetic QD sample containing 5 layers of Fe QDs embedded in 6 layers of ZnS spacer was grown on a GaP(100) substrate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations reveal that the Fe QDs are single crystalline with spherical shape of diameters around 3 to 4 nm and area density of 1.5 x 1012 cm-2 . Its zero-field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) curves measured at low field (100 Oe) show the magnetic relaxation effect with a blocking temperature around 26 K. The hysteresis loop measured at 5 K shows a coercivity of 83 Oe, confirming the slow relaxation process and coercivity enhancement attributed to the nanoparticle nature of the sample. To study the transport property of Fe QDs, a Au/ZnS/Fe-QDs/ZnS/n+-GaAs Schottky-barrier structure containing 5 layers of Fe QDs was fabricated on a n+-GaAs(100) substrate. Its current-voltage (I-V) characteristics measured from 5 to 295 K display negative differential resistance (NDR) for temperature . 50 K, which is caused by the presence of Fe QDs. The highest peak-to-valley current ratio obtained at 5 K is as high as 15:1. Staircase-like I-V characteristic was also observed at low temperature in some devices fabricated from this structure. Possible mechanisms that can account for the observed unusual I-V characteristics in this structure were discussed. Two types of self-assembled Fe NWs were grown on ZnS/GaP(100) surface under high growth/annealing temperature. The Type-A Fe NWs orient along the ZnS[110] direction with irregular shape, while the type-B Fe NWs orient along either the ZnS[180] or [810] direction with seemingly straight shape. Detailed HRTEM and selected area diffraction (SAD) studies reveal that both types were single-crystalline with their elongated axis along the Fe<100> direction family possibly due to the fact that the easy axis of Fe is along this direction. We have proposed a mean-field model to explain the slight misalignment of the type-B Fe NWs. The I-V characteristic of a single type-B Fe NW measured at room temperature displays a straight line nature corresponding to a resistivity about 2.3 x 10-7Om.

Lok, Shu Kin

270

78 FR 24979 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FV13-932-1 IR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased...handling of olives grown in California. Assessments...began January 1 and ends December 31. The assessment rate will remain in effect indefinitely unless...Marketing Specialist, or Rose Aguayo, Acting...

2013-04-29

271

76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0010; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum...be conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor...order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The...

2011-03-23

272

GaN Nanowires Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique properties of GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy are reviewed. These properties include the absence of residual strain, exclusion of most extended defects, long photoluminescence lifetime, low surface recombination ve- locity, and high mechanical quality factor. The high purity of the nanowires grown by this method allows for controllable n- type doping. P-type doping presents more challenges

Kris A. Bertness; Norman A. Sanford; Albert V. Davydov

2011-01-01

273

Laser Properties of a Vapor-Grown Ruby.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large crystals of ruby (Al2O3:Cr(+3)) were grown from the vapor. The crystals have high optical and structural perfection. Laser studies were performed at 77K. The threshold for laser actions for vapor grown ruby compares favorable with that of material g...

J. R. O'Connor P. S. Schaffer R. A. Bradbury

1966-01-01

274

Void formation in gallium arsenide crystals grown in microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two crystals of selenium doped gallium arsenide (SeGaAs) were grown in the crystal growth furnace (CGF), during the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1). Both of these crystals contained voids and three theories were proposed to explain the formation of these voids: (1) Evolution of dissolved argon from the liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) grown crystal could have resulted in the

M. L. Kaforey; J. M. Bly; D. H. Matthiesen

1997-01-01

275

Tracking of dislocations in gel-grown gypsum single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sparingly soluble calcium sulphate dihydrate (gypsum) crystals are grown by the gel method, derived from the diffusion of calcium chloride into the set gel containing ammonium sulphate. By etching (010) matched cleavages (of gypsum grown by above method) with analar grade nitric acid as well as successively etching a thin flake, it has been established that the tracks of dislocations

K. S. Raju

1985-01-01

276

Pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes grown on crabmeat.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes as influenced by growth on crabmeat at 5 and 10 degrees C was studied. Crabmeat was inoculated with L. monocytogenes V7 (ca. 10(4) CFU/g) and incubated for up to 14 days at 5 and 10 degrees C. At selected incubation times, L. monocytogenes was removed from crabmeat by washing with 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), and populations were determined by surface plating on LiCl-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar. Buffered suspensions were then centrifuged, and the resulting pellets were suspended in phosphate buffer containing 10% glycerol and stored at -18 degrees C. Thawed, diluted suspensions of cells were tested for pathogenicity by intraperitoneal injection into immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised mice. L. monocytogenes cells recovered from crabmeat and then recultured in tryptose phosphate broth (TPB), as well as cells which had not been passed through crabmeat but had been cultured in TPB, were likewise harvested, suspended in buffered 10% glycerol, frozen, thawed, diluted, and tested for pathogenicity by intraperitoneal injection. Growth on crabmeat at 5 and 10 degrees C did not have a significant effect on pathogenicity. The population of L. monocytogenes necessary to kill about 50% of the immunocompromised mice in each test set within 7 days was about 10(4) CFU, and this result was not significantly affected by storage temperature of the crabmeat or type of substrate, i.e., crabmeat or TPB, on which it had grown.

Brackett, R E; Beuchat, L R

1990-01-01

277

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha.

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

278

Brazilein, a compound isolated from Caesalpinia sappan Linn., induced growth inhibition in breast cancer cells via involvement of GSK-3?/?-Catenin/cyclin D1 pathway.  

PubMed

Caesalpinia sappan Linn. has long been used in traditional medicine in China. Here, the anticancer activity of brazilein, a compound isolated from C. sappan Linn. was investigated. MTT assay showed that the IC50 value of brazilein against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells was 7.23±0.24?mol/L. PI staining and flow cytometry analysis indicated that brazilein caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Western blot and RT-PCR assay demonstrated that cyclin D1, a key factor of the G1 to S phase progression, was downregulated in a concentration-dependent manner by brazilein treatment. Further Western blot and RNA interference assay showed that brazilein treatment activated GSK-3? and following reduced ?-Catenin protein, which accounted for the downregulation of cyclin D1 and blockage of cell cycle at G1 phase. Together, all these results illustrated that brazilein induced growth inhibition of breast cancer cells and downregulation of GSK-3?/?-Catenin pathway was involved in its action mechanism. PMID:23948132

Tao, Li-Yang; Li, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Jian-Ye

2013-08-13

279

Inhibition of melanogenesis versus antioxidant properties of essential oil extracted from leaves of Vitex negundo Linn and chemical composition analysis by GC-MS.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidative properties of the essential oil extracted from leaves of V. negundo Linn and the analysis of the chemical composition of this essential oil. The efficacy of the essential oil was evaluated spectrophotometrically, whereas the volatile chemical compounds in the essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that the essential oil effectively suppresses murine B16F10 tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and showed potent reducing power versus metal-ion chelating properties in a dose-dependent pattern. The chemical constituents in the essential oil are sesquiterpenes (44.41%), monoterpenes (19.25%), esters (14.77%), alcohols (8.53%), aromatic compound (5.90%), ketone (4.96%), ethers (0.4%) that together account for 98.22% of its chemical composition. It is predicted that the aromatic compound in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from V. negundo Linn leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells and showed potent antioxidant activities. The essential oil can thereby serve as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant. PMID:22466851

Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tzu-Yun; Chang, Long-Zen; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-03-30

280

Diamond films grown from fullerene precursors  

SciTech Connect

Fullerene precursors have been shown to result in the growth of diamond films from argon microwave plasmas. In contradistinction to most diamond films grown using conventional methane-hydrogen mixtures, the fullerene-generated films are nanocrystalline and smooth on the nanometer scale. They have recently been shown to have friction coefficients approaching the values of natural diamond. It is clearly important to understand the development of surface morphology during film growth from fullerene precursors and to elucidate the factors leading to surface roughness when hydrogen is present in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) gas mixtures. To achieve these goals, we are measuring surface reflectivity of diamond films growing on silicon substrates over a wide range of plasma processing conditions. A model for the interpretation of the laser interferometric data has been developed, which allows one to determine film growth rate, rms surface roughness, and bulk losses due to scattering and absorption. The rms roughness values determined by reflectivity are in good agreement with atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. A number of techniques, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and near-edge x-ray absorption find structure (NEXAFS) measurements, have been used to characterize the films. A mechanism for diamond-film growth involving the C{sub 2} molecule as a growth species will be presented. The mechanism is based on (1) the observation that the optical emission spectra of the fullerene- containing plasmas are dominated by the Swan bands of C{sub 2} and (2) the ability of C{sub 2} to insert directly into C-H and C-C bonds with low activation barriers, as shown by recent theoretical calculations of reactions of C{sub 2} with carbon clusters.

Gruen, D.M.; Zuiker, C.D.; Krauss, A.R.

1995-07-01

281

Bactericidal Activity of Methanol Extracts of Crabapple Mangrove Tree (Sonneratia caseolaris Linn.) Against Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The crabapple mangrove tree, Sonneratia caseolaris Linn. (Family: Sonneratiaceae), is one of the foreshore plants found in estuarine and tidal creek areas and mangrove forests. Bark and fruit extracts from this plant have previously been shown to have an anti-oxidative or cytotoxic effect, whereas flower extracts of this plant exhibited an antimicrobial activity against some bacteria. According to the traditional folklore, it is medicinally used as an astringent and antiseptic. Hence, this investigation was carried out on the extract of the leaves, pneumatophore and different parts of the flower or fruit (stamen, calyx, meat of fruit, persistent calyx of fruit and seeds) for antibacterial activity using the broth microdilution method. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against five antibiotic-sensitive species (three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria) and six drug-resistant species (Gram-positive i.e. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Gram-negative i.e. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant–Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acenetobacter baumannii). The methanol extracts from all tested parts of the crabapple mangrove tree exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but was mainly a bactericidal against the Gram-negative bacteria, including the multidrug-resistant strains, when compared with only bacteriostatic on the Gram-positive bacteria. Using Soxhlet apparatus, the extracts obtained by sequential extraction with hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate revealed no discernable antibacterial activity and only slightly, if at all, reduced the antibacterial activity of the subsequently obtained methanol extract. Therefore, the active antibacterial compounds of the crabapple mangrove tree should have a rather polar structure.

Yompakdee, C.; Thunyaharn, S.; Phaechamud, T.

2012-01-01

282

Effects of allelochemical extracted from water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes Linn.) on the growth, microcystin production and release of Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

This study explored the optimisation of a method of extracting allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., identified the optimal dose range for the allelochemicals' anti-algal effect and investigated their impact on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as the production and release of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Based on measured changes in algal cell density and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content, the allelochemicals were confirmed to have the strongest anti-algal effect with the lowest half-effect concentration of 65 mg L(-1) when they were extracted using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent, 1:20 g mL(-1) as the extraction ratio and 1 h as the extraction time. The allelochemicals extracted from P. stratiotes using this optimal method exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of algae when used within a dose range of 60-100 mg L(-1); the relative inhibitory ratio reached 50-90 %, and Chl-a content reduced 50-75 % in algae cell cultures within 3-7 days. In addition, the extracted allelochemical compounds demonstrated no significant impact on the extracellular release of MC-LR during the culturing period. The amount of intracellular MC-LR per 10(6) algal cells increased depending on the increasing dose of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes after 7 days of culturing and maintained stability after 16 days. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium. Therefore, the application of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes to inhibit M. aeruginosa has a high degree of ecological safety and can be adopted in practical applications for treating water subjected to algae blooms because the treatment can effectively inhibit the proliferation of algal cells without increasing the release of cyanotoxin. PMID:23653319

Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Chen, Junren; Ye, Jinyun

2013-05-08

283

The butanol fraction of Eclipta prostrata (Linn) effectively reduces serum lipid levels and improves antioxidant activities in CD rats.  

PubMed

Eclipta prostrata (Linn) has been used as a traditional medicinal plant to prevent lipidemia and atherosclerosis in Asia. However, its functional properties and the underlying mechanism of action have not been clearly defined. This study was conducted to elucidate the biological basis for hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of E. prostrata. Charles River Sprague-Dawley CD rats (specific pathogen-free/viral antibody-free Crj/Bgi male, 180 +/- 10 g) were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 mg (control), 25 mg (E25), 50 mg (E50), or 100 mg (E100) of a freeze-dried butanol fraction of E. prostrata per kilogram of diet for 6 weeks. Serum triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the E50 and E100 groups by 9.8% to 19.0% and by 10.7% to 13.4%, respectively, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly reduced in the same groups by 10.3% to 13.0% compared with the untreated control group. The E50 and E100 groups also showed significantly increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (13.0%-19.1%) compared with the control group. Atherogenic indices were decreased by 9.8% to 30.5% in all groups fed diets supplemented with E. prostrata. Furthermore, serum hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxide, and oxidized protein levels were significantly decreased in the E50 and E100 groups. These results clearly demonstrate the effects of E. prostrata on serum lipid and oxidative metabolism in rats. The health-promoting effects of E. prostrata, which were demonstrated in this study in a rat model, may have implications for atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia in humans. PMID:19083459

Kim, Dae-Ik; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lillehoj, Hyun Soon; Yu, Mi-Hee; Lee, Gun-Soon

2008-08-01

284

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

2009-01-01

285

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

2010-01-01

286

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

2013-01-01

287

Optical studies of MOVPE-grown GaN layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoluminescence and reflectance studies of MOVPE grown GaN samples were performed. From reflectance measurements optical constants were calculated by means of Kramers-Kronig analysis in the energy region 0 divided by 6 eV.

Mariusz Ciorga; Krzysztof Jezierski; Leszek Bryja; Jan Misiewicz; Regina Paszkiewicz; Ryszard Korbutowicz; Marek Panek; Bogdan Paszkiewicz; Marek J. Tlaczala; Ib Trabjerg

1999-01-01

288

MBE Grown Nitrides for High Temperature Electronics Using Conformal Substrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this project, GaN has been grown on lithium gallate with much improved structural quality, excellent optical properties and much improved electrical properties superior nitride properties resulted from a detailed investigation and understanding of ...

A. S. Brown N. M. Jokerst G. May P. Kohl

1999-01-01

289

Response of Chemostat Grown Enteric Bacteria to Chlorine Dioxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of antecedent growth conditions on the sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated. The two organisms were grown in a defined medium supplemented with glucose either in the chemostat or in batch culture, an...

M. S. Harakeh J. C. Hoff A. Matin

1985-01-01

290

Reactivity of gold thin films grown on iridium: Hydrogen dissociation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociative adsorption of H2 (D2) on Au thin films grown on an Ir{111} surface has been studied with temperature-programmed desorption using a quadrupole mass spectrometer and nuclear reaction analysis. Thin Au{111} films are epitaxially grown on Ir{111}, as confirmed by low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. H2 (D2) was dissociatively adsorbed on these Au{111} films, although it is well

Michio Okada; Shouhei Ogura; Wilson Agerico Diño; Markus Wilde; Katsuyuki Fukutani; Toshio Kasai

2005-01-01

291

Microbial oxidation of cumene by octane-grown cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported that eight glucose-grown microbial cultures out of 1229 screened oxidize the alkyl side-chain of 2-phenylpropane (cumene) stereospecifically. Now, we have adapted these cultures to grow on n-octane and found that their cumene oxidation activities increased more than 30 times. We also found an additional 11 cultures (ten bacteria, one actinomycete) that oxidized cumene when grown on octane

C. T. Hou; M. A. Jackson; M. O. Bagby; L. A. Becker

1994-01-01

292

Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crowth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum 1. cv Super DwarO plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O, evolution\\/photosynthetic photon flux den- sity response curves of leaf samples revealed that the C0,-saturated photosynthetic rate at

Baishnab C. Tripathy; Christopher S. Brown; Howard C. Levine; Abraham D. Krikorian

1996-01-01

293

Structural transformation of vapor grown carbon nanofibers studied by HRTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor grown carbon nanofibers have been extensively manufactured and investigated in recent years. In this study commercially\\u000a available vapor grown carbon nanofibers subjected to different processing and post processing conditions were studied employing\\u000a high resolution TEM images. The analysis showed that the fibers consist primarily of conical nanofibers, but can contain a\\u000a significant amount of bamboo nanofibers. Most conical nanofibers

Joseph G. Lawrence; Lesley M. Berhan; Arunan Nadarajah

2008-01-01

294

Characterization of sodium chloride crystals grown in microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

NaCl crystals grown by the evaporation of an aqueous salt solution in microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS) were characterized and compared to salt crystals grown on earth. NaCl crystallized as thin wafers in a supersaturated film of 200–700?m thickness and 50mm diameter, or as hopper cubes in 10mm diameter supersaturated spheres. Neutron diffraction shows no change in crystal

Pietro Fontana; Jürg Schefer; Donald Pettit

2011-01-01

295

Heat Capacity Study of Solution Grown Crystals of Isotactic Polystyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed measurements of the specific heat capacity on isotactic polystyrene (iPS) crystals grown from dilute solution. Solution grown crystal (SGC) samples had larger crystal fractions and greatly reduced rigid amorphous fractions compared to their bulk cold-crystallized counterparts. Heat capacity studies were performed from below the glass transition temperature to above the melting temperature by using quasi-isothermal temperature modulated

Hui Xu; Peggy Cebe

2005-01-01

296

Adsorption of Pb(II) on activated carbon prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn.: kinetics, isotherms, pH, and ionic strength studies.  

PubMed

Low-cost activated carbon was prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn. (PL) by phosphoric acid activation. Its ability to adsorb Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions was examined. Through SEM, XRD, BET, and FTIR analyses, the PL-activated carbon (PLAC) was found to have a porous structure with a surface area of about 1400 m(2)/g. Carboxyl groups played an important role in the adsorption of Pb(II) through blocking studies. The sorption system followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model, and the equilibrium time was obtained after 30 min. The adsorption isotherms were simulated well by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Pb(II) on PLAC was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength, indicating an ion-exchange mechanism. Regeneration studies showed that PLAC could be used several times by desorption with an HCl reagent. PMID:20362430

Wang, Li; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Ran; Li, Ye; Li, Cong; Zhang, Chenglu

2010-04-01

297

Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat.  

PubMed

Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers. PMID:11540734

Bishop, D L; Levine, H G; Kropp, B R; Anderson, A J

1997-11-01

298

Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space.  

PubMed Central

Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

Tripathy, B C; Brown, C S; Levine, H G; Krikorian, A D

1996-01-01

299

Shock initiation experiments on ratchet grown PBX 9502  

SciTech Connect

This study compares the shock initiation behavior of PBX 9502 pressed to less than nominal density (nominal density is 1.890 {+-} 0.005 g/cm{sup 3}) with PBX 9502 pressed to nominal density and then ''ratchet grown'' to low density. PBX 9502 is an insensitive plastic bonded explosive consisting of 95 weight % dry-aminated tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) and 5 weight % Kel-F 800 plastic binder. ''Ratchet growth'' - an irreversible increase in specific volume - occurs when an explosive based on TATB is temperature cycled. The design of our study is as follows: PBX 9502, all from the same lot, received the following four treatments. Samples in the first group were pressed to less than nominal density. These were not ratchet grown and used as a baseline. Samples in the second group were pressed to nominal density and then ratchet grown by temperature cycling 30 times between -54 C and +80 C. Samples in the final group were pressed to nominal density and cut into 100 mm by 25.4 mm diameter cylinders. During thermal cycling the cylinders were axially constrained by a 100 psi load. Samples for shock initiation experiments were cut perpendicular (disks) and parallel (slabs) to the axial load. The four sample groups can be summarized with the terms pressed low, ratchet grown/no load, axial load/disks, and axial load/slabs. All samples were shock initiated with nearly identical inputs in plate impact experiments carried out on a gas gun. Wave profiles were measured after propagation through 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm of explosive. Side by side comparison of wave profiles from different samples is used as a measure of relative sensitivity. All reduced density samples were more shock sensitive than nominal density PBX 9502. Differences in shock sensitivity between ratchet grown and pressed to low density PBX 9502 were small, but the low density pressings are slightly more sensitive than the ratchet grown samples.

Gustavsen, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Darla G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olinger, Barton W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deluca, Racci [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pierce, Timothy H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Nathaniel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

300

Thermal stability of corrugated epitaxial graphene grown on Re(0001).  

PubMed

We report on a novel approach to determine the relationship between the corrugation and the thermal stability of epitaxial graphene grown on a strongly interacting substrate. According to our density functional theory calculations, the C single layer grown on Re(0001) is strongly corrugated, with a buckling of 1.6 Å, yielding a simulated C 1s core level spectrum which is in excellent agreement with the experimental one. We found that corrugation is closely knit with the thermal stability of the C network: C-C bond breaking is favored in the strongly buckled regions of the moiré cell, though it requires the presence of diffusing graphene layer vacancies. PMID:21699318

Miniussi, E; Pozzo, M; Baraldi, A; Vesselli, E; Zhan, R R; Comelli, G; Mente?, T O; Niño, M A; Locatelli, A; Lizzit, S; Alfè, D

2011-05-25

301

Thermal Stability of Corrugated Epitaxial Graphene Grown on Re(0001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel approach to determine the relationship between the corrugation and the thermal stability of epitaxial graphene grown on a strongly interacting substrate. According to our density functional theory calculations, the C single layer grown on Re(0001) is strongly corrugated, with a buckling of 1.6 Å, yielding a simulated C 1s core level spectrum which is in excellent agreement with the experimental one. We found that corrugation is closely knit with the thermal stability of the C network: C-C bond breaking is favored in the strongly buckled regions of the moiré cell, though it requires the presence of diffusing graphene layer vacancies.

Miniussi, E.; Pozzo, M.; Baraldi, A.; Vesselli, E.; Zhan, R. R.; Comelli, G.; Mente?, T. O.; Niño, M. A.; Locatelli, A.; Lizzit, S.; Alfè, D.

2011-05-01

302

Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.  

PubMed

Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract. PMID:23885412

Purivirojkul, Watchariya

2012-01-01

303

The Nesting Syndrome: Grown Children Living at Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parents across the nation are experiencing the phenomenon of adult children returning home to live with their parents after brief or extended excursions into independent living, or of adult children reluctant to move out until their financial or lifestyle expectations are guaranteed. Referring to these grown children as "nesters," this book…

Wiener, Valerie

304

Law Enforcement Efforts to Control Domestically Grown Marijuana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The amount of marijuana grown in the United States is increasing. It accounted for an estimated 15 percent of the total amount of marijuana available in the United States in 1982 compared with an estimated 9 percent in 1981. Controlling domestic marijuana...

1984-01-01

305

Response of young hydroponically grown tomato plants to phenolic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic acids—excreted both as root exudates and by microorganisms—are of interest in cultivation systems of different horticultural crops since they have been claimed to accumulate in closed hydroponic growing systems. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the phytotoxic effects when hydroponically grown tomato plants are exposed to phenolic acids in the root environment. The tomato plants were

V Jung; E Olsson; S Caspersen; H Asp; P Jensén; B. W Alsanius

2004-01-01

306

SIMS response functions for MBE grown delta layers in silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIMS response functions and depth resolution parameters have been measured using O2+ primary ions at normal incidence and 45°, for a range of silicon MBE grown epilayers containing ultrathin buried layers or ``deltas'' doped with B. Growth and decay slopes and differential shifts are shown to be species dependent. For B, the depth resolution is superior at normal incidence, and

R. D. Barlow; M. G. Dowsett; H. S. Fox; R. A. A. Kubiak; S. M. Newstead

1992-01-01

307

Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Grown in Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-Distilled volatiles of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) grown in Cuba were analyzed by GC\\/MS. Among the 25 compounds identified, thymol (34.60%), ?-terpinene (17.61%) and p-cymene (17.65%) were the mjaor constituents.

Jorge A. Pino; Mirna Estarrón; Victor Fuentes

1997-01-01

308

Regulation of tyrosinase in human melanocytes grown in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tyrosinase, the enzyme that controls the synthesis of melanin, is a unique product of melanocytes. Normal and malignant human melanocytes grown in culture were used to study the factors that regulate the expression of tyrosinase. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that newly synthesized tyrosinase appeared as a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was processed to a protein with

R. Halaban; S. H. POMERANTZ; S. MARSHALL; D. T. LAMBERT; A. B. LERNER

1983-01-01

309

Studies of fluoride absorption by plants grown in perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perlite is best known for its use in plant growth media. Perlite contains fluoride which is released in appreciable quantities when it is immersed in water. There has been much concern recently about possible phytotoxicity due to available fluoride in growth media containing perlite. In the work reported lettuce, potatoes, tomatoes and petunias were grown in a media containing 75%

George J. Doss; Leigh E. St. John; Donald J. Lisk

1977-01-01

310

High production of prodigiosin by Serratia marcescens grown on ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serratia marcescens S389, isolated as an ethanol-utilizing bacterium, produced prodigiosin at up to 3 mg ml-1 when grown on ethanol and with the omission of inorganic phosphate and NaCl from the medium. This yield was some 200-fold greater than that previously reported.

Song Cang; Makoto Sanada; Osamu Johdo; Shinji Ohta; Yasunori Nagamatsu; Akihiro Yoshimoto

2000-01-01

311

76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent fiscal years from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of olives grown in California. Assessments upon olive handlers are used by the Committee to fund reasonable and necessary expenses......

2011-03-04

312

Spectrophotometric phytochrome measurements in light-grown Avena sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochrome was studied spectrophotometrically in Avena sativa L. seedlings that had been grown for 6 d in continous white fluorescent light from lamps. Greening was prevented through the use of the herbicide San 9789. When placed in the light, phytochrome (Ptot) decreased with first order kinetics (t1\\/2 ˜ 2 h) but reached a stable low level (˜2.5% of the dark

Merten Jabben I; Gerald F. Deitzer

1978-01-01

313

Dielectric relaxation in thermally grown SiO2films  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive investigation of the dielectric properties of thermally grown silicon dioxide films was performed in the temperature range from 400°C to 525°C. Principally, the variation of dissipation factor with frequency was observed at various applied peak fields and oxide thicknesses. In the temperature and frequency domain investigated, a large peak in the dissipation factor occurred. This peak corresponded to

P. J. Burkhardt

1966-01-01

314

Marketing Locally Grown Food Products in Globally Branded Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research study measures the perception patrons of a McDonald's restaurant for locally grown food products used in standard menu items. A survey questionnaire attempts to determine differences in consumer knowledge regarding the use of local Swiss food products and whether an increase in frequency of patronizing the restaurant will occur as a result of this program. The issue of

Michael Vieregge; Nancy Scanlon; James Huss

2007-01-01

315

Regenerative switching device using MBE-grown gallium arsenide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new form of two-state switching device is proposed which is formed entirely within the semiconductor bulk during epitaxial growth. The predicted switching action is demonstrated using MBE-grown gallium arsenide and the device is shown to have optical sensitivity. The device is amenable to simple design rules and is free of the 'forming' state often associated with the tunnel MIS

C. E. C. Wood; L. F. Eastman; K. Board; K. Singer; R. Malik

1982-01-01

316

Uptake of human pharmaceuticals by plants grown under hydroponic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) and Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa) were chosen for a proof of concept study to determine the potential uptake and accumulation of human pharmaceuticals by plants. These plants were grown hydroponically under high-pressure sodium lamps in one of two groups including a control and test group exposed to pharmaceuticals. The control plants were irrigated with

Patrick A. Herklotz; Prakash Gurung; Brian Vanden Heuvel; Chad A. Kinney

2010-01-01

317

MBE-grown InGaAs photocathodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material constitution of modern photocathodes (i.e. third generation) has remained a constant for almost two decades. The active GaAs layer is grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and processed to create a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface for photoemission. Thus, these types of cathodes are limited in their spectral response by the band gap energy of the

Loig E. Bourree; David R. Chasse; P. L. Stephan Thamban; Robert Glosser

2003-01-01

318

Properties of low-temperature grown carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of carbon nanotubes was investigated using a hot filament assisted CVD system. The silicon and glass substrates coated with catalyst were kept in a CVD furnace tube and the carbon nanotubes were grown by a hot filament assisted decomposition of methane (CH4). Argon (Ar) was used as carrier for carbon. It was found that carbon nanotubes could be

Kun Guo; Ahalapitiya H. Jayatissa

2007-01-01

319

PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT REMOVAL BY PERIPHYTON GROWN IN DAIRY MANURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growing algae to scrub nutrients from manure presents an alternative to the current practice of land application and provides utilizable algal biomass as an end product. Previous studies in our laboratory on manure from two different dairy farms showed that removal by periphyton grown on ATS (algal...

320

Micro nutrient uptake of glasshouse cucumbers grown on rockwool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of micro elements by cucumbers grown on rockwool was investigated in a series of experiments. The elements studied in the experiments consisted of iron, manganese, zinc, boron, copper and molybdenum. Five different levels of each of these elements were compared.The deficiency and excess symptoms were described and the fruit yields were recorded. The trace element contents of the

C. Sonneveld; S. S. de Bes

1984-01-01

321

Energy content of tropical grasses and legumes grown for bioenergy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biomass samples of the tropical grasses Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Staph, Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick, Brachiaria decumbens Staph, Panicum maximum Jacq., Pennistetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng and three species of the tropical legume Stylosanthes grown in Mato Grosso do Su...

322

Impact of Environmental Pollution on Contamination of Locally Grown Roughage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vávrová M., H. Zlámalová Gargo‰ová, E. ·ucman: Impact of Environmental Pollution on Contamination of Locally Grown Roughage. Acta Vet. Brno 2002, 71: 389-400. Contamination of ration components and roughage fed to dairy cows and finishing bulls in two different agricultural ecosystems in the district of Uherské Hradi ‰tû (localities Buchlovice and Stupava) was monitored. Whereas the site Buchlovice was characterised

M. VÁVROVÁ; H. ZLÁMALOVÁ GARGO

323

Simulating competition between cereal and lucerne grown in mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data collected from a field experiment in NE Victoria was compared with simulated wheat and lucerne grown in mixture (companion crop) and wheat in monoculture, using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM). Detailed field soil measurements along with specific management inputs were used to parameterise the model, while observed cereal and lucerne production data were used to assess model performance.

Rob Harris; Donald Gaydon; William Bellotti; Murray Unkovich; Michael Robertson

324

Conductance switching of thermally grown SiO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements of the electrical conductivity of thermally grown SiO2 switched into a high-conductance state are presented. A p-n junction formed under a non-self-healed breakdown filament is found to control the current of the high-conductance state.

C. W. Wilmsen; M. C. Allender

1974-01-01

325

PLUTONIUM UPTAKE BY PLANTS GROWN IN SOLUTION CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Plants grown in aquatic systems were shown to rapidly accumulate large amounts of plutonium, about 40% of which was removed by washing. Detergent removed debris, most of which consisted of particles larger than 0.8 micrometers. After removing a portion of the bound Pu by rinsing ...

326

Herbivore responses to plants grown in enriched carbon dioxide atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our initial study of sagebrush and grasshopper responses to elevated and historical carbon dioxide atmospheres is complete and has been accepted for publication. The study on Biomass Allocation Patterns of Defoliated Sagebrush Grown Under Two Levels of Carbon Dioxide has completed and the manuscript has been submitted for publication. We have completed the study of plant growth under two nutrient

Lincoln

1990-01-01

327

Influence of yeast quality on performance of gnotobiotically grown Artemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using axenically grown Artemia, a model system was developed to evaluate the effect of bacteria on the survival and development of this crustacean. Two strains of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in all experiments as feed for Artemia: a wild-type strain and its mnn9 mutant, defective in the synthesis of mannoproteins in the outer cell wall. The genetic background,

Antonio Marques; Jean-Marie François; Jean Dhont; Peter Bossier; Patrick Sorgeloos

2004-01-01

328

Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacities of Alabama – Grown Thornless Blackberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total phenolics (TPH), flavonoids (TF), monomeric anthocyanins (ACY), and Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacities (VCEAC) utilizing ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays were determined for five fully ripened blackberries cultivars (‘Loch Ness’, ‘Navaho’, ‘Arapaho’, ‘Apache’, and ‘Triple Crown’) of Rubus spp. grown in Alabama. The ABTS and DPPH methods were highly correlated (R?=?0.897) and the ABTS method was better for

Ming-Wei S. Kao; Floyd M. Woods; William A. Dozier; Robert C. Ebel; Monte Nesbitt; Junbae Jee; Deacue Fields

2008-01-01

329

Cardiac Surgery for Grown-Up Congenital Heart Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cardiac surgery performed from 1991 to 1994 in a unit dedicated specifically for grown-up congenital heart (GUCH) patients was reviewed to determine the frequency of various procedures, incidence of first and reoperations, early mortality, and its determinants. The 295 patients, aged 16 to 77 years (31 ± 13), had 307 operations. First operations (n = 128, 42%) were most

Annie Dore; D. Luke Glancy; Susan Stone; Victor D Menashe; Jane Somerville

1997-01-01

330

Succinic Acid Synthesis by Ethanol-Grown Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The synthesis of succinic acid in ethanol-containing media has been tested in 32 yeasts of different genera (Debaryomyces, Candida, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Torulopsis). The capability of succinic acid synthesis was revealed in 29 strains, from which two most effective produ- cers were selected. When grown in a fermentor under high aeration in mineral medium with pulsed addition of ethanol, the

Svetlana V. Kamzolova; Alsu I. Yusupova; Emiliya G. Dedyukhina; Tatiana I. Chistyakova; Tatiana M. Kozyreva; Igor G. Morgunov

2009-01-01

331

Changes in litter quality with CO{sub 2} enrichment: Pot-grown vs. field-grown plants  

SciTech Connect

There is wide-spread concern that decomposition rates will be reduced in an enriched-CO{sub 2} world, leading to changes in nutrient cycling dynamics. Observations of changes in litter quality - i.e., reduced N concentrations and increased lignin:N or C:N ratios - underlie this concern. Much of the published data results from studies on plants grown in pots. In studies utilizing pot-grown plants, litter C:N ratios averaged 46% higher at elevated CO{sub 2} and lignin:N was 52% higher. In contrast, no differences in litter quality due to CO{sub 2} enrichment were seen in any studies in which plants were grown in the ground. We grew sugar maple (Acer saccharum L.) in open-top chambers, either in the ground or in buried pots containing soil from the chamber. Seedlings were exposed to factorial combinations of CO{sub 2} (ambient or ambient + 30 Pa CO{sub 2}) and temperature (ambient or ambient + 4{degrees}C). First year foliar litter was collected as it abscised and analyzed for N and lignin using near-infrared spectroscopy. Comparison of litter produced at elevated CO{sub 2} by the field-grown seedlings to that of the potted seedlings may lend insight into the limitations of extrapolating from potted plants to natural ecosystems.

O`Neill, E.G.; Norby, R.J.; Irwin, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-06-01

332

TEM study of diamond films grown from fullerene precursors  

SciTech Connect

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) techniques are applied to study the microstructure of diamond films grown from fullerene precursors. Electron diffraction and electron energy loss spectra (EELS) collected from the diamond films correspond to that of bulk diamond. Microdiffraction, high resolution images and EELS help determine that the first diamond grains that nucleate from fullerene precursors generally form on a thin amorphous carbon interlayer and seldom directly on the silicon substrate. Grain size measurements reveal nanocrystalline diamond grains. Cross section TEM images show that the nanocrystalline diamond grains are equiaxed and not columnar nor dendritic. The microstructure of small equiaxed grains throughout the film thickness is believed responsible for the very smooth surfaces of diamond films grown from fullerene precursors.

Csencsits, R.; Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.; Zuiker, C.

1995-11-01

333

Conductivity and scaling properties of chemically grown granular silver films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address room-temperature conductivities of chemically grown silver films. Disordered, granular silver films are grown using a modified Tollens reaction. Thick, polycrystalline films are transparent at visible wavelengths, with crystallinity similar to that of silver powders. The measured conductivities are close to those measured by I. V. Antonets, L. N. Kotov, S. V. Nekipelov, and Ye. A. Golubev, Tech. Phys. 49, 306 (2004) in amorphous silver films, however the thickness where bulk conductivity is reached is anomalously high. While measured resistance values do not obey a scaling relation in thickness, accounting for the films' structural porosity through geometrical rescaling of the thickness leads to emergence of the well-known percolation power-law scaling, albeit that of two-dimensional percolating films.

Peterson, M. S. M.; Deutsch, M.

2009-09-01

334

THz probe studies of MBE grown epitaxial GaAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built a THz time-domain spectrometer driven by a sub-15fs pulse duration mode-locked Ti:Al203 laser. Using THz time-domain spectroscopy with photoconductive antenna for THz generation and electro-optic sampling for detection as well as photoexcited THz spectroscopy, we measured the carrier concentrations and mobilities of epitaxially grown undoped GaAs samples to be used in photoconductive antenna production. The samples were grown at 600 °C to 1 ?m effective layer thickness on top of a 650 ?m SI-GaAs wafer. The resistivities, mobilities and the carrier concentrations were measured and calculated by the van der Pauw method under the magnetic field. These Hall effect measurements and the THz probe studies were compared with each other. The measurements and calculations obtained electronically are compared optically using the Drude Model for the conductivity and mobility.

Köseo?lu, D.; Güllü, H. H.; Altan, H.

2009-11-01

335

Diatom cells grown and baked on a functionalized mica surface.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the cultivation of diatom cells on a functionalized mica surface and the preparation of frustules on a mica surface by baking. Diatom cells were successfully grown on a mica surface treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. After baking at 400 degrees C for 2 h, frustule structures without the organic components of the diatom cells were successfully observed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the frustules deformed and became slender when a sample was baked at 800 degrees C for 2 h. Our method is effective for the direct characterization of frustule structures and physical properties without changing the configuration of the diatom cells grown on the mica surface. PMID:19669502

Umemura, Kazuo; Noguchi, Yusuke; Ichinose, Takuya; Hirose, Yo; Kuroda, Reiko; Mayama, Shigeki

2008-06-24

336

Inversion domains in GaN grown on sapphire  

SciTech Connect

Planar defects observed in GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire have been identified as inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) by a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, multiple dark field imaging, and convergent beam electron diffraction techniques. Films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metalorganic vapor deposition (MOCVD), and hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) were investigated and all were found to contain IDBs. The IDBs in the MBE and HVPE films extended from the interface to the film surface and formed columnar domains that ranged in width from 3 to 20 nm in the MBE films and up to 100 nm in the HVPE films. For the films investigated, the MBE films had the highest density, and the MOCVD films had the lowest density of IDBs. The nucleation of inversion domains (IDs) may result from step-related inhomogeneities of the GaN/sapphire interface. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Romano, L.T.; Northrup, J.E. [Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); OKeefe, M.A. [National Center of Electron Microscopy, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1996-10-01

337

Effect of Processing on Proximate Composition, Antinutritional and Toxic Contents of Kernels from Cucurbitaceae Species Grown in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry seeds of melon—Citrullus vulgaris_Schrad, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf. syn. Colocynthis citrullus Linn. O. Ktze, Cucumeropsis mannii Naud (Cult.) syn. Cucumeropsis edulis (Hook.f) Cogn. and gourd—Lagenaria sicceraria var. 1 (Molina) were used. The effects of germination, toasting and boiling on proximate composition, phytic acid, oxalate, total phenols, hydrocyanic acid and saponin contents were determined on control and treated samples. Apart

G. I. O. Badifu

2001-01-01

338

Microscale defect kinetics in melt-grown GaAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research on the kinetics of defects in melt-grown GaAs involved crystal growth experiments and post-growth treatments of crystals combined with extensive characterization of electronic properties related to defects. In our crystal growth experiments we used an especially constructed Czochralski-type puller equipped with a vertical magnetic field for the growth of GaAs under conditions of suppressed convection. We have identified

Harry C. Gatos; Jacek Logowski

1986-01-01

339

GeSi infrared photodetectors grown by rapid thermal CVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

GexSi1-x infrared detectors grown by Rapid Thermal CVD are demonstrated. External quantum efficiency of 7% at (lambda) equals 1.32 micrometers and eye-diagram at 1.5 Gbit\\/s are obtained for Ge.29Si.71 waveguide pin detectors. It is shown that external quantum efficiency is limited by fiber to waveguide coupling efficiency. These, along with system considerations suggest that with further improvements, such devices can

Bahram Jalali; Luis Naval; Anthony A. Levi; George P. Watson

1993-01-01

340

Generational Differences in Gender Attitudes Between Parents and Grown Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined generational differences in gender attitudes between parents and grown offspring, including the extent\\u000a to which these differences vary in families with daughters vs families with sons and in African American vs European American\\u000a families. Participants included 158 African American and European American men and women (aged 22 to 49 years), their mothers,\\u000a and their fathers (N?=?474) recruited predominantly

Kelly E. Cichy; Eva S. Lefkowitz; Karen L. Fingerman

2007-01-01

341

Gasification and Surface Modification of Vapor-Grown Carbon Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCF) were produced from a methane-hydrogen mixture on a reconstituted graphite support using the\\u000a [Fe3(CO)12] complex as catalyst precursor. The fibers thus produced were submitted to different oxidative treatments: nitric acid, oxygen\\u000a plasma and partial gasification with air or carbon dioxide. The original and the oxidised fibers were characterised by X-ray\\u000a diffraction, SEM, AFM, nitrogen adsorption, XPS

J. L. Figueiredo; P H. Serp

342

Phosphorus nutrition and water deficits in field-grown soybeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus and water deficits are important limiting factors in agricultural production. A field experiment was carried out\\u000a with soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) to determine whether the effect of water stress on field-grown soybean changes with soil P availability, and\\u000a whether soil water content affects plant P nutrition. The soil was a Sadler series (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Glossic Fragiudalf)\\u000a located

Flavio H. Gutiérrez-boem; Grant W. Thomas

1999-01-01

343

pH sensor properties of electrochemically grown iridium oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open-circuit potential of an electrochemically grown iridium oxide film is measured and shows a pH sensitivity between ?60 and ?80 mV\\/pH. This sensitivity is found to depend on the state of oxidation of the iridium oxide film; for a higher state of oxidation (or more of the oxide in the high valence state), the sensitivity is also higher. This

W. Olthuis; M. A. M. Robben; P. Bergveld; M. Bos; Linden van der W. E

1990-01-01

344

C84 thin films grown epitaxially on mica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-crystalline C84 thin films grown epitaxially on a cleaved surface of mica have been investigated by electron microscopy. The C84 molecules formed a face-centered-cubic lattice (lattice parameter a=1.59+\\/-0.02 nm), with the orientation relationship, (111)[1¯10]C84||(001)[100]mica. Among the fcc C60, C70, and C84 crystals, a nearly linear relation between the lattice parameters and the fullerene diameters is found.

Yahachi Saito; Tadanobu Yoshikawa; Naoya Fujimoto; Hisanori Shinohara

1993-01-01

345

OrgansofGibberellin Synthesis inLight-Grown Sunflower Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summnary.Thesites ofgibberellin (GA)synthesis inlight grown sunflower plants were studied. Theresults oforgan excision andtheexogenous application ofindole acetic acidandgibberellic acidindicated thatgibberellin synthesis occurred inthe young leaves oftheapical bud.Thiswas substantiated using a combination ofdiffu- sionandextraction techniquies. Diffusion ofsuinflower apical budson agar for20 hoursrevealed a level ofgibberellin greaterthanthatobtained bysolvent extraction ofa similar numberofapices, indicating thatsynthesis ofgibberellin was occurring inthoseapices during thediffusion period. Thegibberellin level

I. D. J. Phillips

346

Pyrolytic carbon nanotubes from vapor-grown carbon fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of as-grown and heat-treated pyrolytic carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) produced by hydrocarbon pyrolysis are discussed on the basis of a possible growth process. The structures are compared with those of nanotubes obtained by the arc method (ACNT; arc-formed carbon nanotubes). PCNTs, with and without secondary pyrolytic deposition (which results in diameter increase) are found to form during pyrolysis of

Morinobu Endo; Kenji Takeuchi; Kiyoharu Kobori; Katsushi Takahashi; Harold W. Kroto; A. Sarkar

1995-01-01

347

Diatom Cells Grown and Baked on a Functionalized Mica Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the cultivation of diatom cells on a functionalized mica surface and the preparation of frustules on a mica\\u000a surface by baking. Diatom cells were successfully grown on a mica surface treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. After\\u000a baking at 400?C for 2 h, frustule structures without the organic components of the diatom cells were successfully observed\\u000a by scanning electron microscopy and atomic

Kazuo Umemura; Yusuke Noguchi; Takuya Ichinose; Yo Hirose; Reiko Kuroda; Shigeki Mayama

2008-01-01

348

Photochemical oxidation of CVD-grown single layer graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CVD-grown single layer graphene undergoes rapid photochemical oxidation in the presence of ultraviolet light and oxygen. The oxidation results in a homogeneous decay of the graphitic material; no nanoscale line cracks or pits were observed with an atomic force microscope. The conductivity of the graphene film decreases with an increasing degree of oxidation. It is crucial to understand and enhance the photochemical stability of graphene for its long term use as a transparent conducting material.

Zhao, Shichao; Surwade, Sumedh P.; Li, Zhiting; Liu, Haitao

2012-09-01

349

Coevaporation phosphorus doping in Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus-doped Si epilayers with bulk-like mobilities were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (Si-MBE) by coevaporation of phosphorus from a tin phosphide source. The behaviour of P doping as a function of growth parameters and of “potential enhanced doping” indicates a non-unity, almost growth-temperature independent incorporation efficiency with negligible surface segregation -a unique combination among coevaporated dopants in Si-MBE.

Kubiak, R. A. A.; Patel, G.; Leong, W. Y.; Houghton, R.; Parker, E. H. C.

1986-11-01

350

Activation Mechanism in InGaN Grown by MOVPE  

SciTech Connect

Activation mechanism in unintentionally-doped InGaN epilayers grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy was investigated as depending on In mole fraction. The samples were evaluated by variable temperature Hall effect measurements. For all samples n-type conductivity was found to be dominated by a donor with activation energy between 2.48 meV and 14.2 meV.

Yildiz, A.; Lisesivdin, S. B.; Acar, S.; Kasap, M. [Department of Physics, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

2007-04-23

351

Nitric acid oxidation of vapor grown carbon nanofibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor grown carbon nanofibers (Pyrograf III™) with 100–300 nm diameters and ?10–100 ?m lengths were oxidized in 69–71 wt.% nitric acid (115 °C) for various times (10 min to 24 h). These fibers were remarkably oxidation-resistant. XPS (O1s) showed that the surface atomic oxygen percent increased from 6.3 to 18.3–22.5% for 10–90 min oxidations followed by a drop to 14–15%

Priya V. Lakshminarayanan; Hossein Toghiani; Charles U. Pittman Jr.

2004-01-01

352

Study on the optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KDP crystals were grown at growth rates from 5.0 to 19.0 mm/d. Transmittance, laser damage threshold and light scatter were detected. It has been shown that laser damage thresholds of KDP crystals decrease with the increase of the absorption coefficients. Large-scale impurity is an important factor that causes light absorption in UV range and reduces the damage threshold.

Ye, Liwang; Li, Zhengdong; Su, Genbo; Zhuang, Xinxin; Zheng, Guozong

2007-07-01

353

Carbonic anhydrase activity in acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell extracts (27000xg supernatant) of acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri were found to have carbonic anhydrase activity (0.41 U\\/mg protein), which was lost upon heating or incubation with proteinase K. The activity was inhibited by Diamox (apparent Ki=0.5 mM), by azide (apparent Ki=1 mM), and by cyanide (apparent Ki=0.02 mM). These and other properties indicate that the archaebacterium contains the enzyme

Marion Karrasch; Michael Bott; Rudolf K. Thauer

1989-01-01

354

Laterally grown ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the growth of ZnO nanowires on ZnO:Ga\\/glass templates and the fabrication of laterally grown ZnO nanowire ethanol sensors. It was found that growth direction of the nanowires depends strongly on growth parameters. It was also found that resistivity of the fabricated sensor decreased upon ethanol gas injection. By introducing 1500ppm ethanol gas, it was found that the device

Ting-Jen Hsueh; Cheng-Liang Hsu; Shoou-Jinn Chang; I-Cherng Chen

2007-01-01

355

Nutritional composition of water hyacinths grown on domestic sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrient analysis of water hyacinths grown in sewage wastewaters was conducted. Crude protein averaged 32.9% dry weight\\u000a in the leaves, where it was most concentrated. The amino acid content of water hyacinth leaves was found to compare favorably\\u000a with that of soybean and cottonseed meal. The vitamin and mineral content of dried water hyacinths met or exceeded the FAO

B. C. Wolverton; Rebecca C. Mcdonald

1978-01-01

356

Electric Breakdown of Solution-Grown Polyethylene Films without Spherulite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-healing breakdown tests are made at room temperature on solution-grown polyethylene (PE) films without heat treatment. The non heat-treated film has no spherulite and consists of randomly oriented lamellae, in contrast to the heat-treated film consisting of two-dimensional spherulites. The variation of electric strength with voltage rising speed and voltage polarity gives a feature similar to the previous results for

Keiichi Kitagawa; Goro Sawa; Masayuki Ieda

1982-01-01

357

Soil Carbon Storage by Switchgrass Grown for Bioenergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown for bioenergy production require data on soil organic carbon (SOC) change and harvested C yields to accurately\\u000a estimate net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, nearly all information on SOC change under switchgrass has been based\\u000a on modeled assumptions or small plot research, both of which do not take into account

M. A. Liebig; M. R. Schmer; K. P. Vogel; R. B. Mitchell

2008-01-01

358

Highly oriented ?-alumina films grown by pulsed laser deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly oriented thin films of ?-alumina have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si(111). The influence of the substrate temperature on the film growth was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ablation at temperatures between room temperature and 850°C gave rise to incorporated crystalline aluminium (Al), while the stoichiometric and highly oriented ?-Al2O3 films were

B. Hirschauer; S. Söderholm; G. Chiaia; U. O. Karlsson

1997-01-01

359

MBE-Grown II-VI and Related Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructures of II-VI semiconductor materials could potentially offer novel and superior physical (in particular, optoelectronic) properties with respect to their bulk counterparts. Herein, we present our most recent research on several II-VI and related nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique. These include a ZnSe nanograting. This nanograting structure was realized at the surface of Fe/ZnSe bilayers grown on GaAs(001) substrates by thermal annealing. A model based on an Ewald construction is presented to explain its unusual reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns. The formation mechanism of this one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure is possibly related to surface energy minimization, together with an Fe-Se exchange interaction and Fe-induced decomposition of several top ZnSe atomic layers during thermal annealing. Another nanostructure investigated was the ZnS Schottky barrier embedded with Fe quantum dots (QDs). Here, a Au/ZnS/Fe-QDs/ZnS/ n +-GaAs(100) Schottky barrier structure containing five layers of spherical Fe quantum dots with a diameter of ~3 nm was fabricated. Its I- V characteristic measured from 5 K to 295 K displays negative differential resistance (NDR) for temperature ?50 K. Staircase-like I- V characteristics were also observed at low temperature in some devices fabricated from this structure. Possible mechanisms that can account for the observed unusual I- V characteristic in this structure are presented. Finally, laterally grown Fe nanowires (NWs) on a ZnS surface were prepared. Under high growth/annealing temperature, two types of Fe NWs with specific orientations can be grown on the ZnS(100) surface. We propose a mean-field model that the torque exerted by type A Fe NWs could effectively turn the two components of type B Fe NWs slightly toward the ZnS [110] direction, leading to the observed misalignment of type B Fe NWs.

Sou, I. K.; Lok, S. K.; Wang, G.; Wang, N.; Wong, G. K. L.

2010-07-01

360

Chemical surface passivation of silicon nanowires grown by APCVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are attractive candidate for solar cells and surface passivation has been recognized an important fabrication steps solar cells. The SiNWs were grown on p-type Si (100) substrate by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the atomic bonding and microstructural aspect of silicon

Bhabani S. Swain; Bibhu P. Swain; Nong M. Hwang

2010-01-01

361

Establishment Stand Thresholds for Switchgrass Grown as a Bioenergy Crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season (C4) perennial grass and a potential bioenergy crop. On-farm switchgrass field scale trials, which were initiated to obtain economic production information for switchgrass grown as a bioenergy crop in the northern Plains, provided information on establishment year stands and post-establish- ment year yields and stands both within and across fields and were used

M. R. Schmer; K. P. Vogel; R. B. Mitchell; L. E. Moser; K. M. Eskridge; R. K. Perrin

2006-01-01

362

InN-based layers grown by modified HVPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains results on InN and InGaN growth by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) on various substrates including sapphire and GaN\\/sapphire, AlGaN\\/sapphire, and AlN\\/sapphire templates. The growth processes are carried out at atmospheric pressure in a hot wall reactor in the temperature range from 500 to 750 °C. Continuous InN layers are grown on GaN\\/sapphire template substrates. Textured InN

A. Syrkin; A. Usikov; V. Soukhoveev; O. Kovalenkov; V. Ivantsov; V. Dmitriev; C. Collins; E. Readinger; N. Shmidt; V. Davydov; S. Nikishin; V. Kuryatkov; D. Song; D. Rosenbladt; Mark Holtz

2006-01-01

363

Microscale defect kinetics in melt-grown GaAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research on the kinetics of defects in melt-grown GaAs involved crystal growth experiments and post-growth treatments of crystals combined with extensive characterization of electronic properties related to defects. In our crystal growth experiments we used an especially constructed Czochralski-type puller equipped with a vertical magnetic field for the growth of GaAs under conditions of suppressed convection. We have identified for the first time a beneficial effect of the magnetic field for the compensation ratio and electron mobility (Ref. 1). Experiments on doping with oxygen of GaAs crystals grown by the Horizontal Bridgman technique have revealed an anomalous silicon segregation behavior governed by chemical reactions in a closed growth ampul rather than standard impurity distribution during the solidification (Refs. 2 and 3). Experiments on fast growth of GaAs by the LEC technique using pulling rates of up to 2 inch/h showed a significant decrease of EL2 concentration with increasing the pulling rate. We have shown that this effect originates from fast cooling of the crystal grown under high pulling rates (Ref. 4). We have essentially completed a detailed study on the effects of plastic deformation on deep levels in GaAs (Refs. 5, 6). This study combined electrical and optical characterization of crystals subjected to plastic deformation at 400 C.

Gatos, Harry C.; Logowski, Jacek

1986-08-01

364

Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes  

SciTech Connect

Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

2000-03-01

365

Induced abnormality in Mir- and Earth grown Super Dwarf wheat.  

PubMed

Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing 'Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples. PMID:12580182

Bubenheim, D L; Stieber, J; Campbell, W F; Salisbury, F B; Levinski, M; Sytchev, V; Podolsky, I; Chernova, L; Pdolsky, I

2003-01-01

366

Hydrodynamic effects on BHK cells grown as suspended natural aggregates.  

PubMed

Baby hamster kidney (BHK) cell aggregates grown in stirred vessels with different working volumes and impeller sizes were characterized. Using batch cultures, the range of agitation rates studied (25-100 rpm) led to aggregates with maximum sizes of 150 mum. Necrotic centers were not observed and cell specific productivity was independent of aggregate size. High cell viability was found for both single and adherent cells without an increase in cell death when agitation rate was increased. The increase in agitation rate affected aggregates by reducing their size and increasing their concentration and cell concentration in aggregates, while increasing the fraction of free cells in suspension. The experimental relationship between aggregate size and power dissipation rate per unit of mass was close to -1/4, suggesting a correlation with a critical turbulence microscale; this was independent of vessel scale and impeller geometry over the range investigated. Viscous stresses in the viscous dissipation subrange (below Kolmogoroff eddies) appear to be responsible for aggregate breakage. Under intense agitation BHK cells grown in the absence of microcarriers existed as aggregates without cell damage, whereas cells grown on the surface of microcarriers were largely reduced. This is a clear advantage for scaleup purposes if aggregates are used as a natural immobilization system in stirred vessels. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18623322

Moreira, J L; Alves, P M; Aunins, J G; Carrondo, M J

1995-05-20

367

SEM of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection in Cell Cultures Grown on Aluminum Foil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection of cells grown in culture. First attempts to resolve virions on the surface of cells grown on glass were unsuccessful because of electron charging. Aluminu...

J. D. White A. T. McManus

1975-01-01

368

75 FR 5898 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...cranberries produced in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey,...

2010-02-05

369

75 FR 20514 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...cranberries produced in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey,...

2010-04-20

370

78 FR 24333 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...produced in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey,...

2013-04-25

371

77 FR 52595 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...cranberries produced in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey,...

2012-08-30

372

Fabrication of Radiation Detectors with HgI sub 2 Crystals Grown from a Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mercuric Iodide crystals grown from a solution of molecular complexes with dimethylsulfoxide have been evaluated as gamma -ray and X-ray room temperature detectors. Compared with materials grown from the vapor phase these crystals are characterized by a l...

A. Friant J. Mellet C. Saliou T. Mohammed Brahim

1979-01-01

373

Treatment of dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana with a brassinosteroid-biosynthesis inhibitor, brassinazole, induces some characteristics of light-grown plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   When a brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor, brassinazole (Brz), was applied at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2??M,\\u000a Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh seedlings grown in the dark exhibited morphological features of light-grown plants, i.e. short hypocotyls, expanded\\u000a cotyledons, and true leaves, in a dose-dependent manner. Control (non Brz-treated) seedlings grown in the dark for 40?d did\\u000a not develop leaf primordia. However,

N. Nagata; Y. K. Min; T. Nakano; T. Asami; S. Yoshida

2000-01-01

374

Chloroform Cometabolism by Butane-Grown CF8 Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and Methane Grown Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroform (CF) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and to that by a known CF degrader, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. All three butane-grown bacteria were able to degrade CF at rates comparable to that of M. trichosporium. CF degradation by all four bacteria required O2. Butane inhibited CF

Natsuko Hamamura; Cynthia Page; Tulley Long; Lewis Semprini; Daniel J. Arp

1997-01-01

375

78 FR 2908 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-12-0045; FV12-905-1 PR] Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in...regulates the handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in...regulating the handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown...

2013-01-15

376

78 FR 14236 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-12-0052; FV12-905-2 PR] Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in...Federal marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in...regulating the handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown...

2013-03-05

377

78 FR 24327 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-12-0045; FV12-905-1 FR] Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in...regulates the handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in...regulating the handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown...

2013-04-25

378

78 FR 52079 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Relaxing Size and Grade...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-13-0009; FV13-905-2 FIR] Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in...under the marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in...regulating the handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown...

2013-08-22

379

78 FR 28115 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Relaxing Size and Grade...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-13-0009; FV13-905-2 IR] Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in...under the marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in...regulating the handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown...

2013-05-14

380

78 FR 32068 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-12-0052; FV12-905-2 FR] Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in...Federal marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in...regulating the handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown...

2013-05-29

381

Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medium-size crystal (64 × 63 × 43 mm) of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) was grown for one day from the 8 mm cubic seed crystal with a growth rate over 30 mm\\/day. The spectral transmittance, second-harmonic generation (SHG) property and laser damage threshold of the rapidly grown crystals were measured. The comparison with those of conventionally grown KDP crystal

K. Fujioka; S. Matsuo; T. Kanabe; H. Fujita; M. Nakatsuka

1997-01-01

382

29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780.505 ...Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime...Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

2013-07-01

383

29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations. 780.506 Section 780...Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime...Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.506 Dependence of...

2013-07-01

384

Longevity and Fecundity of Japanese Beetle ( Popillia japonica ) on Foliage Grown Under Elevated Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 experience physiological changes that inßuence their suitability as food. Previous studies have found increased insect herbivory on plants grown under elevated CO2. To determine effects of consuming foliage of soybean (Glycine max) grown under elevated CO2 on adult survivorship and fecundity,

Bridget F. O’Neill; Arthur R. Zangerl; Evan H. DeLucia; May R. Berenbaum

2008-01-01

385

Comparative floral development of Mir-grown and ethylene-treated, earth-grown Super Dwarf wheat.  

PubMed

To study plant growth in microgravity, we grew Super Dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Svet growth chamber onboard the orbiting Russian space station, Mir, and in identical ground control units at the Institute of BioMedical Problems in Moscow, Russia. Seedling emergence was 56% and 73% in the two root-module compartments on Mir and 75% and 90% on earth. Growth was vigorous (produced ca. 1 kg dry mass), and individual plants produced 5 to 8 tillers on Mir compared with 3 to 5 on earth-grown controls. Upon harvest in space and return to earth, however, all inflorescences of the flight-grown plants were sterile. To ascertain if Super Dwarf wheat responded to the 1.1 to 1.7 micromoles mol-1 atmospheric levels of ethylene measured on the Mir prior to and during flowering, plants on earth were exposed to 0, 1, 3, 10, and 20 micromoles mol-1 of ethylene gas and 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 from 7 d after emergence to maturity. As in our Mir wheat, plant height, awn length, and the flag leaf were significantly shorter in the ethylene-exposed plants than in controls; inflorescences also exhibited 100% sterility. Scanning-electron-microscopic (SEM) examination of florets from Mir-grown and ethylene-treated, earth-grown plants showed that development ceased prior to anthesis, and the anthers did not dehisce. Laser scanning confocal microscopic (LSCM) examination of pollen grains from Mir and ethylene-treated plants on earth exhibited zero, one, and occasionally two, but rarely three nuclei; pollen produced in the absence of ethylene was always trinucleate, the normal condition. The scarcity of trinucleate pollen, abrupt cessation of floret development prior to anthesis, and excess tillering in wheat plants on Mir and in ethylene-containing atmospheres on earth build a strong case for the ethylene on Mir as the agent for the induced male sterility and other symptoms, rather than microgravity. PMID:12033229

Campbell, W F; Salisbury, F B; Bugbee, B; Klassen, S; Naegle, E; Strickland, D T; Bingham, G E; Levinskikh, M; Iljina, G M; Veselova, T D; Sytchev, V N; Podolsky, I; McManus, W R; Bubenheim, D L; Stieber, J; Jahns, G

2001-08-01

386

Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. and their inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Graded concentrations (0.1-100 mg/mL reaction mixture) of the methanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., its water-soluble fraction as well as compounds isolated from this fraction were tested for their inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in vitro. Both the methanolic extract and its water-soluble fraction showed significant inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity in vitro. On screening the activity of the compounds isolated from the water-soluble fraction, its high inhibitory activity was attributed to the presence of quercetin-7-O-galactoside which showed a high potent inhibition of the enzyme activity reaching 100% at 100 mg/mL reaction mixture. Phytochemical investigations of the water-soluble fraction were also carried out and afforded ten polyphenolic compounds including two new natural compounds, namely kaempferol-7-O-[6'''-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-beta-D-glucosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] and scutellarein-6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside). The chemical structure of the isolated compounds was elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral data. PMID:22191209

Salib, Josline Y; Daniel, Enas N; Hifnawy, Mohamed S; Azzam, Shadia M; Shaheed, Iman B; Abdel-Latif, Sally M

387

Brucine, an alkaloid from seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn., represses hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and metastasis: the role of hypoxia inducible factor 1 pathway.  

PubMed

Brucine is an alkaloid derived from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. which have long been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China. HCC prognosis can be greatly influenced by metastasis. There has thus far been little research into brucine as a source of anti-metastasis activity against HCC. In this study, we revealed that brucine dramatically repressed HepG2 and SMMC-7721 HCC cell migration with few cytotoxic effects. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor mediating cell migration and invasion. Brucine suppressed HIF-1-dependent luciferase activity in HepG2 cells. The transcriptions of four known HIF-1 target genes involved in HCC metastasis, i.e., fibronectin, matrix metallopeptidase 2, lysyl oxidase, and cathepsin D, were also attenuated after brucine treatment. Experiments in vivo showed that an intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 15 mg/kg of brucine resulted in dose-dependent decreases in the lung metastasis of H22 ascitic hepatoma cells. Moreover, a dosage of brucine at 15 mg/kg exhibited very low toxic effects to tumor-bearing mice. Consistently, brucine downregulated expression levels of HIF-1 responsive genes in vivo. Our current study demonstrated the capacity of brucine in suppressing HCC cell migration in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. The inhibition of the HIF-1 pathway is implicated in the anti-metastasis activity of brucine. PMID:23933019

Shu, Guangwen; Mi, Xue; Cai, Jian; Zhang, Xinlin; Yin, Wu; Yang, Xinzhou; Li, You; Chen, Lvyi; Deng, Xukun

2013-08-07

388

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

389

Plant regeneration through callus organogenesis and true-to-type conformity of plants by RAPD analysis in Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC.  

PubMed

An efficient plant regeneration protocol was established for an endangered ethnomedicinal plant Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC. Morphogenic calli were produced from 96 % of the cultures comprising the immature leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (4.0 mg?l(-1)) in combination with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 0.8 mg?l(-1)). For callus regeneration, various concentrations of BA (1.0-5.0 mg?l(-1)) or thidiazuron (TDZ; 1.0-5.0 mg?l(-1)) alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.2-1.0 mg?l(-1)) were used. Highest response of shoot regeneration was observed on MS medium fortified with TDZ (4.0 mg?l(-1)) and IAA (0.5 mg?l(-1)) combination. Here, 100 % cultures responded with an average number of 22.3 shoots per gram calli. Inclusion of indole-3-butyric acid in half MS medium favored rooting of recovered shoots. Out of 45 rooted plants transferred to soil, 40 survived. Total DNA was extracted from the leaves of the acclimatized plants of D. gangeticum. Analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA using 13 arbitrary decanucleotide primers showed the genetic homogeneity in all the ten plants regenerated from callus with parental plant, suggesting that shoot regeneration from callus could be used for the true-to-type multiplication of this plant. PMID:23340869

Cheruvathur, Meena K; Abraham, Jyothi; Thomas, T Dennis

2013-01-23

390

Distribution of major xanthones in the pericarp, aril, and yellow gum of mangosteen (garcinia mangostana linn.) fruit and their contribution to antioxidative activity.  

PubMed

Xanthone compounds in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) fruit have been reported to have biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and the major xanthone compounds in mangosteen are ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin. The objectives of this research were to quantify and qualify the major xanthones in each part of the mangosteen fruit with and without yellow gum from the point of view of effective utilization of agricultural product. Quantitative evaluation revealed that yellow gum had extremely high amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin (382.2 and 144.9 mg/g on a wet basis, respectively) followed by pericarp and aril. In mangosteen fruit with yellow gum inside, xanthones seemed to have shifted from the pericarp and to have concentrated in a gum on the surface of aril, and there was almost no difference between the amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin in whole fruits with and without yellow gum. Pericarp and yellow gum showed much higher radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential than the aril. PMID:23649258

Sukatta, Udomlak; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Okadome, Hiroshi; Sotome, Itaru; Nanayama, Kazuko; Thanapase, Warunee; Isobe, Seiichiro

2013-05-07

391

Inversion domains in AlN grown on (0001) sapphire  

SciTech Connect

Al-polarity inversion domains formed during AlN layer growth on (0001) sapphire were identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They resemble columnar inversion domains reported for GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire. However, for AlN, these columns have a V-like shape with boundaries that deviate by 2 {+-} 0.5{sup o} from the c-axis. TEM identification of these defects agrees with the post-growth surface morphology as well as with the microstructure revealed by etching in hot aqueous KOH.

Jasinski, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Paduano, Q.S.; Weyburne, D.W.

2003-08-25

392

Self-doping effects in epitaxially grown graphene  

SciTech Connect

Self-doping in graphene has been studied by examining single-layer epitaxially grown graphene samples with differing characteristic lateral terrace widths. Low energy electron microscopy was used to gain real-space information about the graphene surface morphology, which was compared with data obtained by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the effect of the monolayer graphene terrace width on the low energy dispersions. By altering the graphene terrace width, we report significant changes in the electronic structure and quasiparticle relaxation time of the material, in addition to a terrace width-dependent doping effect.

Siegel, David A.; Zhou, Shuyun Y.; El Gabaly, Farid; Fedorov, Alexei V.; Schmid, Andreas K.; Lanzara, Alessandra

2008-09-19

393

Spherical Nb single crystals containerlessly grown by electrostatic levitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spherical Nb (Tm=2750 K) single crystals were grown via containerless electrostatic levitation (ESL). Samples became spherical at melting in levitation and undercooled typically 300-450 K prior to nucleation. As-processed samples were still spherical without any macroscopic shape change by solidification showing a uniform dendritic surface morphology. Crystallographic {111} planes exposed in equilateral triangular shapes on the surface by preferential macroetching and spotty back-reflection Laue patterns confirm the single crystal nature of the ESL-processed Nb samples. No hysteresis in magnetization between zero field and field cooling also implies a clean defect-free condition of the spherical Nb single crystals.

Sung, Y. S.; Takeya, H.; Hirata, K.; Togano, K.

2003-05-01

394

Polycrystalline MBE-grown GaAs for solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This paper will discuss initial studies of thin-film GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy for use in developing a thin-film GaAs solar cell. Photocurrent and photoluminescence intensity are related to the material morphology as a function of growth conditions. Growth temperature and V/III ratio have a dramatic effect on the photocurrent. However, it seems likely that even after optimizing such growth parameters, it will be necessary to provide substrates that can provide templates to enhance grain size from the start of thin-film growth.

Friedman, D. J.; Kurtz, Sarah R.; Kibbler, A. E.; Al-Jassim, M.; Jones, K.; Keyes, B.; Matson, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

1997-02-15

395

Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron spectromicroscopy, while the structural and crystalline properties are studied by TEM and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the suspended graphene membrane locally shows electronic properties comparable with those of samples prepared by micromechanical cleaving of graphite. Measurements show that the area of high quality suspended graphene is limited by the folding of the graphene during the transfer.

Bignardi, Luca; van Dorp, Willem F.; Gottardi, Stefano; Ivashenko, Oleksii; Dudin, Pavel; Barinov, Alexei; de Hosson, Jeff Th. M.; Stöhr, Meike; Rudolf, Petra

2013-09-01

396

Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition.  

PubMed

We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron spectromicroscopy, while the structural and crystalline properties are studied by TEM and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the suspended graphene membrane locally shows electronic properties comparable with those of samples prepared by micromechanical cleaving of graphite. Measurements show that the area of high quality suspended graphene is limited by the folding of the graphene during the transfer. PMID:23945527

Bignardi, Luca; van Dorp, Willem F; Gottardi, Stefano; Ivashenko, Oleksii; Dudin, Pavel; Barinov, Alexei; De Hosson, Jeff Th M; Stöhr, Meike; Rudolf, Petra

2013-08-15

397

Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (Linn.) Enhances Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Facilitates Osteoblastogenesis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation rate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (osteoblastogenesis) and extracellular matrix calcification. This study also aimed to determine the additive effect of osteogenic media and Cissus quadrangularis on proliferation, differentiation and calcification. METHODS MSCs were cultured in media with or without Cissus quadrangularis for 4 weeks and were then stained for alkaline phosphatase. Extracellular matrix calcification was confirmed by Von Kossa staining. marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultures in control media and osteogenic media supplemented with Cissus quadrangularis extract (100, 200, 300 ?g/mL) were also subjected to a cell proliferation assay (MTT). RESULTS Treatment with 100, 200 or 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhanced the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into ALP-positive osteoblasts and increased extracellular matrix calcification. Treatment with 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis also enhanced the proliferation rate of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cells grown in osteogenic media containing Cissus quadrangularis exhibited higher proliferation, differentiation and calcification rates than did control cells. CONCLUSION The results suggest that Cissus quadrangularis stimulates osteoblastogenesis and can be used as preventive/ alternative natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis.

Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR; Rao, Muddanna S; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan; Muttigi, Manjunatha S

2009-01-01

398

LWIR HgCdTe Detectors Grown on Ge Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) HgCdTe p-on- n double-layer heterojunctions (DLHJs) for infrared detector applications have been grown on 100 mm Ge (112) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The objective of this current work was to grow our baseline p-on- n DLHJ detector structure (used earlier on Si substrates) on 100 mm Ge substrates in the 10 ?m to 11 ?m LWIR spectral region, evaluate the material properties, and obtain some preliminary detector performance data. Material characterization techniques included are X-ray rocking curves, etch pit density (EPD) measurements, compositional uniformity determined from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) transmission, and doping concentrations determined from secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Detector properties include resistance-area product (RoA), spectral response, and quantum efficiency. Results of LWIR HgCdTe detectors and test structure arrays (TSA) fabricated on both Ge and silicon (Si) substrates are presented and compared. Material properties demonstrated include X-ray full-width of half-maximum (FWHM) as low as 77 arcsec, typical etch pit densities in mid 106 cm-2 and wavelength cutoff maximum/minimum variation <2% across the full wafer. Detector characteristics were found to be nearly identical for HgCdTe grown on either Ge or Si substrates.

Vilela, M. F.; Lofgreen, D. D.; Smith, E. P. G.; Newton, M. D.; Venzor, G. M.; Peterson, J. M.; Franklin, J. J.; Reddy, M.; Thai, Y.; Patten, E. A.; Johnson, S. M.; Tidrow, M. Z.

2008-09-01

399

Nutritional studies with Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown on inorganic sulfur sources.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa was grown on a succinate-basal salts medium supplemented with various inorganic sulfur compounds as its sole source of sulfur. The organism was able to grow on the sodium salts of sulfide, thiosulfate, tetrathionate, dithionite, metabisulfite, sulfite, or sulfate, but not on those of dithionate. Analyses of the culture media after 24 h of growth indicated accumulation of sulfate from each inorganic sulfur source except sulfate. Manometric studies with resting cells obtained by growth on each of these sulfur sources yielded net oxygen uptake for all substrates except sulfite and dithionate. Similar results were obtained with extracts from these cells by spectrophotometric techniques. Thiosulfate oxidase activity appeared to be induced by growth on sulfide, thiosulfate, or tetrathionate, with little or no activity observed when cells were grown on inorganic sulfur sources of higher oxidative states. Metabisulfite oxidase appeared to be associated with growth on all inorganic sulfur compounds. Rhodanese activity appeared to be constitutively present, and its activity, observed only in soluble fraction, seemed independent of the growth medium employed. Thiosulfate and tetrathionate oxidase activities were studied in greater detail than some of the other sulfur oxidases, and both were found to be distributed between particulate and soluble fractions.

Schook, L B; Berk, R S

1978-01-01

400

Chemical and microstructural characterization of thermally grown alumina scales  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program has been initiated to evaluate the chemical, microstructural, and mechanical integrity of thermally grown oxide scales to establish requirements for improved corrosion performance in terms of composition, structure, and properties. Iron aluminides of several compositions were selected for the study. Oxidation studies were conducted in air and oxygen environments at 1000{degrees}C. The results showed that the scaling kinetics followed a parabolic rate law but that the rates in early stages of oxidation were significantly greater than in later stages; the difference could be attributed to the presence of fast-growing transient iron oxides in the layer during the early stages. Further, scale failure occurred via gross spallation, scale cracking, and nodule formation and was influenced by alloy composition. Auger electron spectroscopy of Ar-exposed specimens of ternary Fe-Cr-Al alloy showed sulfur on the gas/scale side of the interface; the sulfur decreased as the exposure time increased. Raman spectroscopy and ruby fluorescence were used to examine the scale development as a function of oxidation temperature. Ruby-line shift is used to examine phase transformations in alumina and to calculate compressive strains in thermally grown scales.

Natesan, K.; Richier, C.; Veal, B.W. [and others

1995-09-01

401

Structural Characterization of Nanoporous Pd Films Grown Via Ballistic Deposition  

SciTech Connect

Nanoporous Pd films were vapor-deposited onto an oxidized Mo(100) substrate at 22 K and various dosing angles. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of N2 was used to determine the surface area of the Pd films immediately after deposition at 22 K, and following annealing. The surface area of Pd films was found to depend dramatically on the Pd dosing angle and annealing temperature. Pd films grown at 22 K with a 85{sup o} deposition angle exhibit the highest surface area of 120 m2/g. Ex situ SEM imaging reveals that these films consist of a tilted array of nanocrystalline filaments. The annealing studies show that the films densify upon annealing and lose approximately 50% of their surface area by 300 K and are almost completely dense by 500 K. Pd deposition at elevated temperatures (< 300 K) produces denser Pd films compared to those grown at 22 K. Growth above 300 K leads to dewetting of Pd from the substrate.

Kim, Jooho; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.

2005-07-20

402

Striations, swirls, and stacking faults in Czochralski-grown silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled thermal annealing and oxidation treatments of wafers obtained from seed-end and tang-end regions of (100)-oriented, 75 mm diameter, Czochralski-grown, silicon single crystals are described. The radial variation of resistivity was characterized, defects studied by preferential etching and optical microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was carried out on selected samples. In the p-type as well as n-type crystals studied in this work, the relative radial gradient as well as the magnitude of resistivity are greater at the seed-end than at the tang-end. The effects of annealing, pre-annealing, and thermal oxidation treatments are described. The swirl patterns, as revealed by preferential etching, showed that they are pronounced in seed-end wafers and are almost absent in tang-end wafers. Bulk-type stacking faults were generated after argon annealing at 1050 C. TEM work done in this investigation showed that as-grown CZ silicon defect structure consists of an assortment of precipitates, small dislocation lines, helical type of long dislocation line, and another long linear defect with periodically spaced nodes.

Rao, K. V.

403

Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health. PMID:23326371

Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

2013-01-09

404

Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.

Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

405

Transfer of CVD-grown monolayer graphene onto arbitrary substrates.  

PubMed

Reproducible dry and wet transfer techniques were developed to improve the transfer of large-area monolayer graphene grown on copper foils by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The techniques reported here allow transfer onto three different classes of substrates: substrates covered with shallow depressions, perforated substrates, and flat substrates. A novel dry transfer technique was used to make graphene-sealed microchambers without trapping liquid inside. The dry transfer technique utilizes a polydimethylsiloxane frame that attaches to the poly(methyl methacrylate) spun over the graphene film, and the monolayer graphene was transferred onto shallow depressions with 300 nm depth. The improved wet transfer onto perforated substrates with 2.7 ?m diameter holes yields 98% coverage of holes covered with continuous films, allowing the ready use of Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study the intrinsic properties of CVD-grown monolayer graphene. Additionally, monolayer graphene transferred onto flat substrates has fewer cracks and tears, as well as lower sheet resistance than previous transfer techniques. Monolayer graphene films transferred onto glass had a sheet resistance of ?980 ?/sq and a transmittance of 97.6%. These transfer techniques open up possibilities for the fabrication of various graphene devices with unique configurations and enhanced performance. PMID:21894965

Suk, Ji Won; Kitt, Alexander; Magnuson, Carl W; Hao, Yufeng; Ahmed, Samir; An, Jinho; Swan, Anna K; Goldberg, Bennett B; Ruoff, Rodney S

2011-09-06

406

Heat Capacity Study of Solution Grown Crystals of Isotactic Polystyrene  

SciTech Connect

We have performed measurements of the specific heat capacity on isotactic polystyrene (iPS) crystals grown from dilute solution. Solution grown crystal (SGC) samples had larger crystal fractions and greatly reduced rigid amorphous fractions compared to their bulk cold-crystallized counterparts. Heat capacity studies were performed from below the glass transition temperature to above the melting temperature by using quasi-isothermal temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and standard DSC. Two or three endotherms are observed, which represent the melting of crystals. The small rigid amorphous fraction relaxes in a wide temperature range from just above the glass transition temperature to just below the first crystal melting endotherm. As in bulk iPS, 1 multiple reversing melting was found in iPS SGCs, supporting the view that double melting in iPS may be due to dual thermal stability distribution existing along one single lamella.2 The impact of reorganization and annealing on the melt endotherms was also investigated. Annealing occurs as a result of the very slow effective heating rate of the quasi-isothermal measurements compared to standard DSC. The improvement of crystal perfection through annealing causes the reversing melting endotherms to occur at a temperature higher than the endotherms seen in the standard DSC scan.

Xu,H.; Cebe, P.

2005-01-01

407

Organically Grown Food Provides Health Benefits to Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

The “organic food” market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H.

2013-01-01

408

Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part II. Sludge-grown algae as feeds for aquatic organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms.

Wong, M. H.; Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.

1996-05-01

409

The protective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats via upregulation of Nrf2.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the potentially protective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. extract (CLE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 50 or 100mg/kg of CLE or 100mg/kg of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) for 14 days before CCl4 administration. In addition, the CLE control group was pretreated with 100mg/kg CLE for only 14 days. Three hours after the final treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (20mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally to each group. After the completion of this phase of the experiment, food and water were removed 12 h prior to the next step. The rats were then anesthetized by urethane and their blood and liver were collected. It was observed that the aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities of the serum, and the hepatic malondialdehyde levels had significantly decreased in the CLE group when compared with the CCl4-treated group. The antioxidant activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities, in addition to glutathione content, had increased considerably in the CLE group compared with the CCl4-treated group. Phase II detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, were found to have significantly increased in the CLE group as opposed to the CCl4-treated group. The content of Nrf2 was determined by Western blot analysis. Pretreated CLE increased the level of nuclear translocated Nrf2, and the Nrf2 then increased the activity of the antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. These results indicate that CLE has protective effects against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, via activities of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes, and through the activation of nuclear translocated Nrf2. PMID:20890099

Lee, Hyeong-Seon; Li, Li; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Bilehal, Dinesh; Li, Wei; Lee, Dong-Seok; Kim, Yong-Ho

2010-09-01

410

Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9?g/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug. PMID:22797325

Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

2012-07-01

411

Drug/substance reversal effects of a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn.--a brief perspective.  

PubMed

The present work is a mini-review of the author's original work on the plant Passiflora incarnata Linn., which is used in several parts of the world as a traditional medicine for the management of anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy and morphine addiction. A tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) has been isolated from the bioactive methanol extract of this plant, which has been proposed in the author's earlier work to be responsible for the biological activities of this plant. The BZF moiety has exhibited significantly encouraging results in the reversal of tolerance and dependence of several addiction-prone psychotropic drugs, including morphine, nicotine, ethanol, diazepam and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, during earlier pharmacological studies conducted by the author. In addition to this, the BZF moiety has exhibited aphrodisiac, libido-enhancing and virility-enhancing properties in 2-year-old male rats. When administered concomitantly with nicotine, ethanol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for 30 days in male rats, the BZF also prevented the drug-induced decline in sexuality in male rats. Because the BZF moiety isolated from P. incarnata is a tri-substituted derivative of alpha-naphthoflavone (7,8-benzoflavone), a well-known aromatase-enzyme inhibitor, the mode of action of BZF has been postulated to be a neurosteroidal mechanism vide in which the BZF moiety prevents the metabolic degradation of testosterone and upregulates blood - testosterone levels in the body. As several flavonoids (e.g. chrysin, apigenin) and other phytoconstituents also possess aromatase-inhibiting properties, and the IC50 value of such phytomoieties is the main factor determining their biochemical efficacy, by altering their chemical structures to attain a desirable IC50 value new insights in medical therapeutics can be attained, keeping in view the menace of drug abuse worldwide. PMID:14690874

Dhawan, Kamaldeep

2003-12-01

412

Modestobacter roseus sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the coastal halophyte Salicornia europaea Linn., and emended description of the genus Modestobacter.  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete, designated strain KLBMP 1279(T), was isolated from surface-sterilized roots of a coastal halophyte, Salicornia europaea Linn., collected from Jiangsu Province, in the east of China. The taxonomic status of this organism was established using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain KLBMP 1279(T) was closely related to Modestobacter marinus 42H12-1(T) (99.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Modestobacter versicolor CP153-2(T) (98.4%) and Modestobacter multiseptatus AA-826(T) (97.5%). Chemotaxonomic characteristics were consistent with its assignment to the genus Modestobacter in that the isolate had meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall, MK-9(H4) as major menaquinone and a polar lipid profile containing diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, two unknown aminophospholipids and an unknown phospholipid. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0 and C17:1?8c. The DNA G+C content was 71.7 mol%. However, DNA-DNA hybridization assays as well as physiological and biochemical analyses differentiated strain KLBMP 1279(T) from its closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence, the isolate KLBMP 1279(T) represents a novel species of the genus Modestobacter, for which the name Modestobacter roseus sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is KLBMP 1279(T) (=KCTC 19887(T)=NBRC 108673(T)=DSM 45764(T)). An emended description of the genus Modestobacter is also proposed. PMID:23148095

Qin, Sheng; Bian, Guang-Kai; Zhang, Yue-Ji; Xing, Ke; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Liu, Chang-Hong; Dai, Chuan-Chao; Li, Wen-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Hong

2012-11-12

413

Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photocurrent spectroscopy was used to measure the infrared absorption of germanium-tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy. To study dependence on Sn composition, the photocurrent was measured at 100 K on alloys of Ge1-xSnx with atomic percentages of Sn up to 9.8%. The optical absorption coefficient was calculated from the photocurrent, and it was found that the absorption edge and extracted bandgap energy decreased with increasing Sn content. For all Ge1-xSnx samples, a fundamental bandgap below that of bulk Ge was observed, and a bandgap energy as low as 0.624 eV was found for a Sn percentage of 9.8% at 100 K.

Coppinger, Matthew; Hart, John; Bhargava, Nupur; Kim, Sangcheol; Kolodzey, James

2013-04-01

414

Hyperfine-field spectrum of epitaxially grown bcc cobalt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hyperfine-field spectrum of the bcc phase of a 357-romanÅ-thick metallic cobalt film, epitaxially grown on a GaAs substrate, has been determined by spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance. The peak of the distribution of hyperfine fields in bcc Co occurs at 167 MHz, much lower than the value found for fcc Co (217 MHz), suggesting that the moment in the bcc phase is lower than that of the fcc phase, in agreement with the measurements of Prinz, but in disagreement with recent theoretical calculations (assuming that no significant structural differences exist between theory and experiment). The full width of the distribution is 75 MHz, seven times greater than that found in thin fcc Co films. X-ray rocking-curve measurements yield a linewidth of 118 arc seconds, implying too low a dislocation density to explain the observed NMR line broadening.

Riedi, P. C.; Dumelow, T.; Rubinstein, M.; Prinz, G. A.; Qadri, S. B.

1987-09-01

415

Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-11-08

416

Improved Sellmeier equation for congruently grown lithium tantalate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a Sellmeier equation that describes the refractive index dispersion of congruently grown LiTaO3, accurate from 0.3 to 5 ?m and from 23 to above 200°C. Data were acquired by two different ways: directly by the minimal deviation technique in the visible and near-infrared range and indirectly by quasi-phase-matched optical parametric generation in PPLT in the mid-infrared range. The data was fit to a Sellmeier equation based on two oscillators in the UV and an infrared correction. The resulting equation accurately predicts the tuning curves for optical parametric generation in the infrared, as well as the correct quasi-phase-matching conditions for frequency conversion into the ultraviolet by second-harmonic generation.

Barboza, N. A.; Cudney, R. S.

2009-06-01

417

Defect analysis in Czochralski-grown Yb:FAP crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth-induced defects in Yb:FAP crystals grown by the Czochralski method have been investigated by optical microscopy, chemical etching, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Anisotropic etching features have been observed on two FAP crystal planes: (0 0 0 1) and (101¯0). The shape of etch pits on the (0 0 0 1) plane is hexagonal, while the etch pits on the (101¯0) plane have a variety of irregular shapes. It is also found that the density of etch pit varies along the boule. Based on the experimental observations, the formation mechanisms of growth defects are discussed, and methods for reducing the growth-induced defect concentration is proposed.

Song, Pingxin; Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Xiaodong; Deng, Peizhen; Xu, Jun

2006-01-01

418

Spintronic properties of graphene films grown on Ni(111) substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene is believed to be a promising candidate for spintronic applications. In this study, we investigate the electronic, magnetic, and, especially, spintronic properties of graphene films grown on Ni(111) substrate using relativistic density-functional calculations. Enhanced Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC), with a magnitude of up to 20 meV--several orders of magnitude larger than the intrinsic SOC strength in freestanding graphene--is found at the graphene-Ni(111) interface. The hybridization between graphene's pz states and Ni's 3d states magnetizes the interfacial carbon atoms and induces a sizable exchange splitting in the ? band of the graphene sheet. The calculated results agree well with the recently reported experimental data and provide a deep understanding of the spintronic behavior of graphene in contact with a 3d-ferromagnet.

Gong, S. J.; Li, Z. Y.; Yang, Z. Q.; Gong, Cheng; Duan, Chun-Gang; Chu, J. H.

2011-08-01

419

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195

Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

2013-03-01

420

High-quality InP nanoneedles grown on silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we report the growth of self-assembled, catalyst-free InP nanoneedles on Si substrate by low-temperature metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. With a characteristic core-shell growth mode, the nanostructure size is scalable with growth time, and InP/InGaAs/InP double-heterostructure is demonstrated. Single crystalline wurtzite InP nanoneedles essentially free of stacking faults and polytypism are achieved. The internal quantum efficiency of as-grown unpassivated InP nanoneedles can reach as high as 15% at room temperature. Laser oscillation is realized from single InP nanoneedle under optical pump. These promising results reveal the potential of integrating InP nanoneedle optoelectronic devices with traditional silicon.

Ren, Fan; Wei Ng, Kar; Li, Kun; Sun, Hao; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

2013-01-01

421

Electric Breakdown of Solution-Grown Polyethylene Films without Spherulite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-healing breakdown tests are made at room temperature on solution-grown polyethylene (PE) films without heat treatment. The non heat-treated film has no spherulite and consists of randomly oriented lamellae, in contrast to the heat-treated film consisting of two-dimensional spherulites. The variation of electric strength with voltage rising speed and voltage polarity gives a feature similar to the previous results for the heat-treated films and is again interpreted in terms of roughness of the top surface and space charge formation. The electric strength free from both surface roughness and space charge is higher for the non heat-treated films than for the heat-treated films in which breakdown occurs at spherulite boundaries.

Kitagawa, Keiichi; Sawa, Goro; Ieda, Masayuki

1982-08-01

422

Para-Sexiphenyl Layers Grown On Light Sensitive Polymer Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution the deposition of Para-sexiphenyl (PSP) layers on poly (diphenyl bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylate) (PPNB) by Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE) is reported. It is demonstrated that pre-treating the substrate by UV-illumination induces a clear change in the morphology of the grown PSP films due to the polarity modification of the substrate surface. PPNB surface polarity increases when illuminated by UV via photo-Fries rearrangement. By detailed atomic force microscopy analysis the influence on the growth kinetics by the substrate temperature, deposition time and particularly by the UVtreatment of the substrate was investigated. A high crystalline order of the films is underlined by the observation of growth spirals and terraced islands, providing mono-layer step heights of standing PSP-molecules.

Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Simbrunner, C.; Höfler, T.; Moser, A.; Werzer, O.; Kunert, B.; Trimmel, G.; Kern, W.; Resel, R.; Sitter, H.

423

Proximity effect in MBE grown bismuth chalcogenide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological insulators (TIs) comprise a new state of matter which provides access to novel physics. Of the set of materials that have exhibited spectroscopic evidence of topologically protected surface states, bismuth chalcogenide systems have garnered particular interest due to their relatively large nominal bulk band gap and single Dirac cone near the Fermi surface. We are studying the superconducting proximity effect in MBE grown thin films of Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and ternary compounds. After in situ deposition of a low temperature superconductor, the films are patterned into devices containing a matrix of superconducting islands of tunable size and density on top of the TI layer. We discuss growth optimization, device processing, the role of the superconductor-TI interface, and proximity effect transport results.

Mulcahy, Brian; Zheng, Mao; Zhang, Can; Dove, Allison; Yoscovits, Zachary R.; Olson, Gustaf; Eckstein, James N.

2013-03-01

424

Ancient maize from Chacoan great houses: Where was it grown?  

PubMed Central

In this article, we compare chemical (87Sr/86Sr and elemental) analyses of archaeological maize from dated contexts within Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to potential agricultural sites on the periphery of the San Juan Basin. The oldest maize analyzed from Pueblo Bonito probably was grown in an area located 80 km to the west at the base of the Chuska Mountains. The youngest maize came from the San Juan or Animas river floodplains 90 km to the north. This article demonstrates that maize, a dietary staple of southwestern Native Americans, was transported over considerable distances in pre-Columbian times, a finding fundamental to understanding the organization of pre-Columbian southwestern societies. In addition, this article provides support for the hypothesis that major construction events in Chaco Canyon were made possible because maize was brought in to support extra-local labor forces.

Benson, Larry; Cordell, Linda; Vincent, Kirk; Taylor, Howard; Stein, John; Farmer, G. Lang; Futa, Kiyoto

2003-01-01

425

Understanding the defect structure of solution grown zinc oxide  

SciTech Connect

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconducting oxide with many potential applications in various optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Much effort has been made to understand the ZnO structure and its defects. However, one major issue in determining whether it is Zn or O deficiency that provides ZnO its unique properties remains. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an ideal, atom specific characterization technique that is able to probe defect structure in many materials, including ZnO. In this paper, comparative studies of bulk and aqueous solution grown ({<=}90 Degree-Sign C) ZnO powders using XAS and x-ray pair distribution function (XPDF) techniques are described. The XAS Zn-Zn correlation and XPDF results undoubtedly point out that the solution grown ZnO contains Zn deficiency, rather than the O deficiency that were commonly reported. This understanding of ZnO short range order and structure will be invaluable for further development of solid state lighting and other optoelectronic device applications. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO powders have been synthesized through an aqueous solution method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Defect structure studied using XAS and XPDF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn-Zn correlations are less in the ZnO powders synthesized in solution than bulk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn vacancies are present in the powders synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EXAFS and XPDF, when used complementary, are useful characterization techniques.

Liew, Laura-Lynn [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sankar, Gopinathan, E-mail: g.sankar@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Handoko, Albertus D. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Goh, Gregory K.L., E-mail: g-goh@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2012-05-15

426

InGaN violet laser diodes grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the first InGaN quantum well laser diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Devices were grown by gas-source MBE using ammonia as a source of nitrogen and elemental group III sources. The devices were grown on commercially available GaN template substrates. The lasers consist of a separate confinement heterostructure including an active region consisting of three In0.1Ga0.9N

J. Heffernan; M. Kauer; S. E. Hooper; V. Bousquet; K. Johnson

2004-01-01

427

Mineral and Ascorbic Acid Concentrations of Greenhouse and Field-Grown Vegetables: Implications for Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable nutritional quality is related to concentrations of antioxidants and other phytonutrients. In Iran, vegetables can be produced in soil in climate-controlled greenhouses. Limited information is available on the quality of greenhouse-grown vegetables compared to field-grown vegetables. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, P, K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and ascorbic acid in greenhouse- and field-grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), cucumber

F. Aghili; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; M. Afyuni; M. Mobli

2012-01-01

428

Optical investigations of ZnSe crystals grown by the seeded vapour phase transport technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical properties of ZnSe bulk crystals grown by the seeded physical vapour phase transport technique (SPVT) were studied by low-temperature photoluminescence and room-temperature stimulated emission measurements. Large strain-free ZnSe single crystals with a diameter as large as 5 cm have been grown uniformly without twinning by the SPVT technique. A variety of ZnSe samples, the as-grown and post-growth treated

J. M. Hays; W. Shan; X. H. Yang; J. J. Song; E. Cantwell

1992-01-01

429

Photoacclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) cultures grown outdoors in photobioreactors and open ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acclimation to high light of Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultures grown outdoors both in an open pond and in tubular photobioreactors (PBRs) was studied by means of chlorophyll fluorescence, pigment analysis and growth. Cultures grown in PBRs (5-cm tube diameter) at two biomass concentrations (0.3 and 0.6?g?l) were compared with a culture grown in a 10-cm deep open pond (0.3?g?l). Therefore,

Giuseppe Torzillo; Cecilia Faraloni; Ana M. Silva; Ji?i Kopecký; Jan Pilný; Ji?i Masojídek

2012-01-01

430

X-ray topography of microgravity-grown ribonuclease S crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystals of the enzyme RNase S were grown at micro and unit gravity using a dialysis-based dynamically controlled device. Crystals were grown at 24°C on space shuttle flights STS 93 and STS 95. Control crystals were grown simultaneously in ground laboratories using identical equipment. Sizes, shapes, populations, and diffraction resolution have been compared and the crystals analyzed by X-ray topography.

D. Travis Gallagher; Carrie Stover; David Charlton; Leonard Arnowitz; David R. Black

2003-01-01

431

Thick GaN layers grown by HVPE: Influence of the templates  

Microsoft Academic Search

GaN layers of various thicknesses (40–350?m) were grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) on sapphire substrates and on the metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown GaN\\/Al2O3 templates. The quality of the grown layers on these two types of substrates is compared and studied by using diffraction interference contrast optical microscopy (DIC-OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-Raman (?-Raman), and high-resolution X-ray

H. Ashraf; J. L. Weyher; G. W. G. van Dreumel; A. Gzregorzyck; P. R. Hageman

2008-01-01

432

Effect of in-situ oxygen on the electronic properties of graphene grown by carbon molecular beam epitaxy grown  

SciTech Connect

We report that graphene grown by molecular beam epitaxy from solid carbon (CMBE) on (0001) SiC in the presence of unintentional oxygen exhibits a small bandgap on the order of tens of meV. The presence of bandgaps is confirmed by temperature dependent Hall effect and resistivity measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements suggest that oxygen incorporates into the SiC substrate in the form of O-Si-C and not into the graphene as graphene oxide or some other species. The effect is independent of the carrier type of the graphene. Temperature dependent transport measurements show the presence of hopping conduction in the resistivity and a concurrent disappearance of the Hall voltage. Interactions between the graphene layers and the oxidized substrate are believed to be responsible for the bandgap.

Park, Jeongho; Mitchel, W. C.; Back, Tyson C. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate (AFRL/RXPS), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States); Elhamri, Said [Department of Physics, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States)

2012-03-26

433

Evidence that an internal carbonic anhydrase is present in 5% CO/sub 2/-grown and air-grown Chlamydomonas. [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO/sub 2/. Both air-grown cells, that have a CO/sub 2/ concentrating system, and 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells also accumulated some C/sub i/, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO/sub 2/ fixation by high CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase.

Moroney, J.V.; Togasaki, R.K.; Husic, H.D.; Tolbert, N.E.

1987-07-01

434

Uniformity of dc and rf performance of MBE-grown AlGaN\\/GaN HEMTS on HVPE-grown buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

AlGaN\\/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on 2 in. diameter GaN buffer layers grown by hydride vapor epitaxy (HVPE) on sapphire substrates. HEMTs with 1 ?m gate length displayed excellent dc and rf performance uniformity with up to 258 separate devices measured for each parameter. The drain–source saturation current was 561 mA with

J. K. Gillespie; R. C. Fitch; N. Moser; T. Jenkins; J. Sewell; D. Via; A. Crespo; A. M. Dabiran; P. P. Chow; A. Osinsky; M. A. Mastro; D. Tsvetkov; V. Soukhoveev; A. Usikov; V. Dmitriev; B. Luo; S. J. Pearton; F. Ren

2003-01-01

435

Production and postharvest characteristics of Rosa hybrida L. Meijikatar'' grown in pots under carbon dioxide enrichment  

SciTech Connect

The effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on growth, photosynthesis, and postharvest characteristics of Meijikatar'' potted roses were determined. Plants were grown in 350, 700, or 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter until they reached 50% flower bud coloration and then were placed into dark storage for 5 days at 4 or 16C. Plants grown in 700 or 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter reached the harvest stage earlier and were taller at harvest than plants produced in 350 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter, but there were no differences in the number of flowers and flower buds per plant among CO[sub 2] treatments. Plants grown in early spring were taller and had more flowers and flower buds than plants grown in late winter. shoot and root growth of plants grown in 700 or 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter were higher than in plants produced in 350 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter, with plants grown in early spring showing greater increases than plants grown in late winter. Immediately after storage, plants grown in 350 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter and stored at 4C had the fewest etiolated shoots, while plants grown in 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter and stored at 16C had the most. Five days after removal from storage, chlorophyll concentration of upper and lower leaves had been reduced by [approximately]50% from the day of harvest. Carbon dioxide enrichment had no effect on postharvest leaf chlorosis, but plants grown in early spring and stored at 16C had the most leaf chlorosis while plants grown in late winter and stored at 4C had the least leaf chlorosis.

Clark, D.G.; Kelly, J.W.; Rajapakse, N.C. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Horticulture)

1993-09-01

436

Electron transport in acetate-grown Methanosarcina acetivorans  

PubMed Central

Background Acetate is the major source of methane in nature. The majority of investigations have focused on acetotrophic methanogens for which energy-conserving electron transport is dependent on the production and consumption of H2 as an intermediate, although the great majority of acetotrophs are unable to metabolize H2. The presence of cytochrome c and a complex (Ma-Rnf) homologous to the Rnf (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation) complexes distributed in the domain Bacteria distinguishes non-H2-utilizing Methanosarcina acetivorans from H2-utilizing species suggesting fundamentally different electron transport pathways. Thus, the membrane-bound electron transport chain of acetate-grown M. acetivorans was investigated to advance a more complete understanding of acetotrophic methanogens. Results A component of the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CdhAE) was partially purified and shown to reduce a ferredoxin purified using an assay coupling reduction of the ferredoxin to oxidation of CdhAE. Mass spectrometry analysis of the ferredoxin identified the encoding gene among annotations for nine ferredoxins encoded in the genome. Reduction of purified membranes from acetate-grown cells with ferredoxin lead to reduction of membrane-associated multi-heme cytochrome c that was re-oxidized by the addition of either the heterodisulfide of coenzyme M and coenzyme B (CoM-S-S-CoB) or 2-hydoxyphenazine, the soluble analog of methanophenazine (MP). Reduced 2-hydoxyphenazine was re-oxidized by membranes that was dependent on addition of CoM-S-S-CoB. A genomic analysis of Methanosarcina thermophila, a non-H2-utilizing acetotrophic methanogen, identified genes homologous to cytochrome c and the Ma-Rnf complex of M. acetivorans. Conclusions The results support roles for ferredoxin, cytochrome c and MP in the energy-conserving electron transport pathway of non-H2-utilizing acetotrophic methanogens. This is the first report of involvement of a cytochrome c in acetotrophic methanogenesis. The results suggest that diverse acetotrophic Methanosarcina species have evolved diverse membrane-bound electron transport pathways leading from ferredoxin and culminating with MP donating electrons to the heterodisulfide reductase (HdrDE) for reduction of CoM-S-S-CoB.

2011-01-01

437

Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs  

SciTech Connect

High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V[sub Ga]. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1[mu]m. Gallium vacancies, V[sub Ga], was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10[sup 19] cm[sup [minus]3] Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As[sub Ga] in the layer. As As[sub Ga] increases, photoquenchable As[sub Ga] decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As[sub Ga] content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga[sub As], as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As[sub Ga]-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V[sub Ga] enhanced diffusion of As[sub Ga] to As precipitates. The supersaturated V[sub GA] and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As[sub Ga]-related defects gives 2.0 [plus minus] 0.3 eV and 1.5 [plus minus] 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As[sub Ga] and V[sub Ga]. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As[sub Ga]-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 [plus minus] 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As[sub Ga]-Be[sub Ga] pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

Bliss, D.E.

1992-11-01

438

Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs  

SciTech Connect

High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V{sub Ga}. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1{mu}m. Gallium vacancies, V{sub Ga}, was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3} Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As{sub Ga} in the layer. As As{sub Ga} increases, photoquenchable As{sub Ga} decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As{sub Ga} content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga{sub As}, as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As{sub Ga}-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V{sub Ga} enhanced diffusion of As{sub Ga} to As precipitates. The supersaturated V{sub GA} and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As{sub Ga}-related defects gives 2.0 {plus_minus} 0.3 eV and 1.5 {plus_minus} 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As{sub Ga} and V{sub Ga}. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As{sub Ga}-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 {plus_minus} 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As{sub Ga}-Be{sub Ga} pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

Bliss, D.E.

1992-11-01

439

Similarity in Several Properties of Psychrophilic Bacteria Grown at Low and Moderate Temperatures1  

PubMed Central

Several properties of psychrophilic pseudomonads were studied with cells grown in batch culture in nutrient broth at 2 and 30 C. No differences were observed in the size, catalase activity, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or protein content of cells grown at either temperature. The importance of comparing physiologically similar cells is discussed. Images

Frank, Hilmer A.; Reid, Ann; Santo, Leatrice M.; Lum, Norma A.; Sandler, Sandra T.

1972-01-01

440

Anisotropy study of garnet films grown over substrates populated with gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anisotropy of garnet films grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) over (100)-oriented garnet substrates populated with gold nanoparticles is studied. The results of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and optical hysteresis loop measurements as well as optical images of domain structures of LPE-grown garnet films are presented and discussed.

Lang, G.; Bowen, D.; Hung, L.; Krafft, C.; Mayergoyz, I.

2012-04-01

441

Spectroscopic and Thermal Studies of Gel-Grown Copper Malonate Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper malonate crystals were grown using silica gel as the growth medium. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT Raman). The thermal decomposition of the compound was investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) measurements.

Mathew, Varghese; Joseph, Jochan; Jacob, Sabu; Xavier, Lizymol; Abraham, K. E.

442

76 FR 31295 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FV11-916/917-6] Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal...Federal marketing orders for nectarines and peaches grown in California (orders). Continuance...among growers of California nectarines and peaches in January and February 2011. Fewer...

2011-05-31

443

76 FR 43533 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Suspension of Handling Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FV11-916/917-5 FIR] Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Suspension of Handling...specified under the California nectarine and peach marketing orders (orders). The interim...regulating the handling of nectarines and peaches grown in California, hereinafter...

2011-07-21

444

Helicopter Parents and Landing Pad Kids: Intense Parental Support of Grown Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Popular media describe adverse effects of helicopter parents who provide intense support to grown children, but few studies have examined implications of such intense support. Grown children (N = 592, M age = 23.82 years, 53% female, 35% members of racial/ethnic minority groups) and their parents (N = 399, M age = 50.67 years, 52% female; 34%…

Fingerman, Karen L.; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Wesselmann, Eric D.; Zarit, Steven; Furstenberg, Frank; Birditt, Kira S.

2012-01-01

445

76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-10-0109; FV11-945-1] Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties...conducted among eligible producers of Irish potatoes in certain designated counties in Idaho...order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in the production area....

2011-01-25

446

Morphology and x-ray characterization of acenaphthene, fluoranthene, and pyrene crystals grown by sublimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of relatively large of acenaphthene, fluoranthene and pyrene crystals grown from vapor phase by plate sublimation method, is described. In order to characterize the intrinsic structure perfection of such grown crystals the X-ray examinations have been performed. The observed morphologies of these crystals have been compared with that predicted from PBC theory by Hartman-Perdok, model growth conditions (vacuum,

Bernard Marciniak; Ewa Rozycka-Sokolowska; A. Balinska; W. Pawliuk

2001-01-01

447

Platy Alpha-SiC Single Crystals Grown from Solvent Silicon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Platy alpha-SiC crystals of 2-3 mm in diameter were grown in high-density graphite crucibles with high-purity solvent silicon after 5 hours' heating at 2200C. The crystals obtained consisted mainly of 6H. When compared with crystals grown by sublimation, ...

M. Mitomo Y. Inomata Z. Inoue

1972-01-01

448

78 FR 62963 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Suspension of Handling Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-13-0040; FV13-922-1 IR] Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington...requirements prescribed under the Washington apricot marketing order (order) for the remainder...The order regulates the handling of apricots grown in designated counties in...

2013-10-23

449

7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar... Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.44 Class 9; foreign-grown types other than...

2013-01-01

450

Plant Spacing Effects on Microclimate and Rhizoctonia Web Blight Development in Container-grown Azalea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani and binucleate Rhizoctonia spp., is an annual problem in compact cultivars of container-grown azalea (Rhododendron spp.) in the Gulf Coast states. Increasing the space between plants is commonly recom- mended for suppression of the disease, but experimental evidence for the effectiveness of this cultural practice in container-grown azalea is lacking. During the summers

Warren E. Copes

2005-01-01

451

Chiral and non-chiral nutations in Arabidopsis roots grown on the random positioning machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arabidopsis thaliana roots grown on a vertically set plate do not elongate straight down the gravitational vector, but by making waves and coils, and by con- spicuously slanting towards the right-hand. This behaviour, in a previous paper, was ascribed to the simultaneous effect of three processes: circumnuta- tion, positive gravitropism and negative thigmotrop- ism. However, when the plants are grown

S. Piconese; G. Tronelli; P. Pippia; F. Migliaccio

2003-01-01

452

29 CFR 780.813 - âCounty where cotton is grown  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780...STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet...Section 13(b)(15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities...

2013-07-01

453

Crystallographic finite element modeling for dislocation generation in semiconductor crystals grown by VGF process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation and multiplication of dislocations in Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Indium Phosphide (InP) single crystals grown by the Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) process is predicted using a transient crystallographic finite element model. This transient model is developed by coupling microscopic dislocation motion and multiplication to macroscopic plastic deformation in the slip system of the grown crystals during their growth

Gary Sheu

2005-01-01

454

75 FR 64681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-10-0077; FV10-983-3 CR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and...California, Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio producers to determine whether they...marketing order regulating the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona,...

2010-10-20

455

Lead levels of edibles grown in contaminated residential soils: a field survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants grown in lead contaminated soils can accumulate lead from the adherence of dust and translocation into the plant tissue.In order to evaluate the potential health hazard due to the consumption of plants grown in residential gardens contaminated by lead, a survey of the lead concentrations in a typical array of edible vegetables, fruits and herbs was conducted.Samples of garden

Mary E. Finster; Kimberly A. Gray; Helen J. Binns

2003-01-01

456

Lead levels of edibles grown in contaminated residential soils: a field survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants grown in lead contaminated soils can accumulate lead from the adherence of dust and translocation into the plant tissue. In order to evaluate the potential health hazard due to the consumption of plants grown in residential gardens contaminated by lead, a survey of the lead concentrations in a typical array of edible vegetables, fruits and herbs was conducted. Samples

Mary E. Finster; Kimberly A. Gray; Helen J. Binns

2004-01-01

457

Studies on the respiratory system of aerobically (Dark) and anaerobically (Light) grown Rhodospirillum rubrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A major part of the respiratory activity of light grown cells of Rhodospirillum rubrum is associated with a system identical with that found in dark grown cells.2.The specific activity of NADH and succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c reductase on a protein basis is the same in the particulate fraction from photosynthetic and aerobic cells. In contrast, the NADH and succinate

A. Thore; D. L. Keister; A. San Pietro

1969-01-01

458

Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of III-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is now widespread in applications such as indicator lamps, display panels, backlighting for liquid-crystal display TVs and computer screens, traffic lights, etc. To meet the huge market demand and lower the manufacturing cost, the LED industry is moving fast from 2 inch to 4 inch and recently to 6 inch wafer sizes. Although Al2O3 (sapphire) and SiC remain the dominant substrate materials for the epitaxy of nitride LEDs, the use of large Si substrates attracts great interest because Si wafers are readily available in large diameters at low cost. In addition, such wafers are compatible with existing processing lines for 6 inch and larger wafers commonly used in the electronics industry. During the last decade, much exciting progress has been achieved in improving the performance of GaN-on-Si devices. In this contribution, the status and prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si substrates are reviewed. The issues involved in the growth of GaN-based LED structures on Si and possible solutions are outlined, together with a brief introduction to some novel in situ and ex situ monitoring/characterization tools, which are especially useful for the growth of GaN-on-Si structures.

Zhu, D.; Wallis, D. J.; Humphreys, C. J.

2013-10-01

459

Stoichiometric magnetite grown by infrared nanosecond pulsed laser deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a versatile technique for the fabrication of nanostructures due to the possibilities it offers to control size and shape of nanostructured deposits by varying the laser parameters. Magnetite nanostructures are currently promising materials to be used in computing, electronic devices and spintronic applications. For all these uses the fabrication of uniform nanostructured pure magnetite thin films is highly advantageous. In PLD of magnetite, the laser irradiation wavelength and substrate temperature crucially affect the composition, crystallinity, surface structure and the magnetic properties of the grown samples. This work shows that the use of nanosecond IR laser at 1064 nm enhances the quality of the resulting magnetite thin films, compared to the extensively used UV wavelengths. Deposition at 1064 nm, upon heating the substrate at 750 K, produces thin films constituted by stoichiometric magnetite nanoparticles with sharp edges and sizes ranging from 80 to 150 nm, with a Verwey transition at 119 K and a coercivity of 232 Oe at room temperature, close to those of pure bulk magnetite. Thus, IR-PLD of self-prepared hematite sintered targets constitutes a low-cost procedure of fabrication of pure magnetite nanostructured thin films.

Sanz, Mikel; Oujja, Mohamed; Rebollar, Esther; Marco, José F.; de la Figuera, Juan; Monti, Matteo; Bollero, Alberto; Camarero, Julio; Pedrosa, Francisco J.; García-Hernández, Mar; Castillejo, Marta

2013-10-01

460

Aquatic worms grown on biosolids: biomass composition and potential applications.  

PubMed

The increasing production of biological waste sludge from wastewater treatment plants is a problem, because stricter legislation inhibits the use of traditional disposal methods. The use of the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus can minimise sludge production. Because the worms can feed and grow on this waste sludge, valuable compounds that are present in the sludge can be recovered by the worms. This paper describes a systematic approach for finding possible applications of the produced biomass. The worm biomass mainly consists of protein and smaller fractions of fat, sugar and ash. It also contains low concentrations of heavy metals. The potential produced amount is relatively small, compared to other waste streams, and is produced decentrally. Therefore, the most promising applications are specific components of the biomass, for example specific amino acids or fatty acids. However, until the process is optimized and there is a stable supply of worms, the focus should be on simple applications, later on followed by specific applications, depending on the market demand. Worm biomass grown on clean sludges has a broader application potential, for example as consumption fish feed. PMID:19748777

Elissen, H J H; Mulder, W J; Hendrickx, T L G; Elbersen, H W; Beelen, B; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N

2009-09-12

461

Ethylene Inhibits Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus Grown on Peanuts  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus synthesize aflatoxins when they grow on a variety of susceptible food and feed crops. These mycotoxins are among the most carcinogenic naturally occurring compounds known and they pose significant health risks to humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that ethylene and CO2 act alone and together to reduce aflatoxin synthesis by A. parasiticus grown on laboratory media. To demonstrate the potential efficacy of treatment of stored seeds and grains with these gases, we tested ethylene and CO2 for ability to inhibit aflatoxin accumulation on Georgia Green peanuts stored for up to 5 days. We demonstrated an inverse relationship between A. parasiticus spore inoculum size and the level of toxin accumulation. We showed that ethylene inhibits aflatoxin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner on peanuts; CO2 also inhibits aflatoxin synthesis over a narrow dose range. Treatments had not discernable effect on mold growth. These observations support further exploration of this technology to reduce aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops in the field and during storage.

Gunterus, A.; Roze, L.V.; Beaudry, R.; Linz, J. E.

2007-01-01

462

Properties of salt-grown uranium single crystals.  

SciTech Connect

Recently single crystals of {alpha}-uranium were grown from a liquid salt bath. The electrical, magnetic and thermal properties of these crystals have been surveyed. The ratio of the room temperature resistivity of these crystals to the saturation value at low temperature is three times larger than any previously reported demonstrating that the crystals are of higher purity and quality than those in past work. The resistive signatures of the CDW transitions at 43, 37 and 22 K are obvious to the naked eye. The transition at 22 K exhibits temperature hysteresis that increases with magnetic field. In addition the superconducting transition temperature from resistivity is 820 mK and the critical field is 80 mT. Contrary to earlier work where the Debye temperature ranged from 186 to 218 K, the Debye temperature extracted from the heat capacity is 254 K in good agreement with the predicted value of 250 K. Magnetoresistance, Hall effect and magnetic susceptibility measurements are underway. In time, measurements made on these crystals may help us to understand the origin of superconductivity and its relation to the CDW transitions in pure uranium.

Cooley, J. C. (Jason C.); Hanrahan, R. J. (Robert J.); Hults, W. L. (William L.); Lashley, J. C. (Jason C.); Manley, M. E. (Michael E.); Mielke, C. H. (Charles H.); Smith, J. L. (James L.); Thoma, D. J. (Dan J.); Clark, R. G. (Robert G.); Hamilton, A. R.; O'Brien, J. L. (Jeremy L.); Gay, E. C. (Eddie C.); Lumpkin, N. E.; McPheeters, C. C. (Charles C.); Willit, J.; Schmiedeshoff, G. M. (George M.); Touton, S. (Sharon); Woodfield, B. F. (Brian F.); Lang, B. E. (Brian E.); Boerio-Goates, Juliana

2001-01-01

463

Spin Excitations in As-Grown Electron-Doped PLCCO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconductivity in the cuprates is introduced through doping of charge carriers into CuO2 planes. In the case of hole doped YBa2Cu3O6+x, holes are introduced in a controlled and relatively simple manner through doping oxygen atoms into the chains in the basal plane. For electron-doped cuprates such as Pr1-xLaCexCuO4 (PLCCO), the introduction of charge carriers via Ce-doping is insufficient to induce superconductivity, and the compounds must be annealed in low oxygen environment to remove a tiny amount of oxygen in order to induce superconductivity. This extra step towards obtaining an electron doped superconductor imposes a problem but also provides an opportunity in understanding the role of magnetism in the superconductivity of electron doped superconductors. By comparing the spin wave exchange couplings of non-superconducting as-grown PLCCO with equivalent data from its superconducting counterpart, we directly determined the effect of annealing and superconductivity on spin excitations, without having to worry about the effect of chemical disorder induced by substitution that must be done in hole-doped materials.

Liu, Mengshu; Dai, Pengcheng; Adroja, Devashibhai; Perring, Toby; Zhao, Jun

2013-03-01

464

Sodium chloride on Si(100) grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium chloride (NaCl) films were grown on an Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface at near room temperature by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The atomic structure and growth mode of the prototypical ionic materials on the covalent bonded semiconductor surface is examined by synchrotron core-level x-ray photoemission spectrum (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and first-principles calculations. The Si 2p, Na 2p, and Cl 2p core-level spectra together indicate that adsorbed NaCl molecules at submonolayer coverage [i.e., below 0.4 monolayer (ML)] partially dissociate and form Si-Cl species, and that a significant portion of the dangling-bond characteristics of the clean surface remains after NaCl deposition of 1.8 MLs. The deposition of 0.65-ML NaCl forms a partially ordered adlayer, which includes NaCl networks, Si-Cl species, adsorbed Na species, and isolated dangling bonds. The STM results revealed that the first adlayer consists of bright protrusions which form small c(2 × 4) and (2 × 2) patches. Above 0.65 ML, the two-dimensional NaCl double-layer growth proceeds on top of the first adlayer.

Chung, Jen-Yang; Li, Hong-Dao; Chang, Wan-Heng; Leung, T. C.; Lin, Deng-Sung

2011-02-01

465