Sample records for variegata linn grown

  1. In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Bauhinia variegata Linn

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, G.P.; Ashok, Purnima

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. for in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark and root of B. variegata Linn. were prepared and assessed for in vitro antioxidant activity by various methods namely total reducing power, scavenging of various free radicals such as 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide. The percentage scavenging of various free radicals were compared with standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA). The extracts were also evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton WR-1339 (iso-octyl polyoxyethylene phenol)-induced hyperlipidemic albino rats by estimating serum triglyceride, very low density lipids (VLDL), cholesterol, low-density lipids (LDL), and high-density lipid (HDL) levels. Result: Significant antioxidant activity was observed in all the methods, (P < 0.01) for reducing power and (P < 0.001) for scavenging DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals. The extracts showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) in cholesterol at 6 and 24 h and (P < 0.05) at 48 h. There was significant reduction (P < 0.01) in triglyceride level at 6, 24, and 48 h. The VLDL level was also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced from 24 h and maximum reduction (P < 0.01) was seen at 48 h. There was significant increase (P < 0.01) in HDL at 6, 24, and 48 h. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of B. variegata Linn. can effectively decrease plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and VLDL and increase plasma HDL levels. In addition, the alcoholic and aqueous extracts have shown significant antioxidant activity. By the virtue of its antioxidant activity, B. variegata Linn. may show antihyperlipidemic activity. PMID:20177495

  2. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Pani, Saumya R; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K

    2011-04-01

    The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. PMID:21572659

  3. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Saumya R.; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K.

    2011-01-01

    The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy. PMID:21572659

  4. A New Flavone Glycoside, 5Hydroxy 7,3?,4?,5?-Tetra-Methoxyflavone 5-O-?-D-Xylopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-Rhamnopyranoside from Bauhinia Variegata Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Yadava; V. M. S. Reddy

    2001-01-01

    A new flavone glycoside m.f. C30H36O15, m.p. 252–253°C, [M] 636 (EIMS) was isolated from the acetone soluble fraction of the concentrated 95% ethanolic extract of the seeds of Bauhinia variegata (Linn). It was identified as 5-hydroxy7,3?,4?,5?-tetra-methoxyflavone 5-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) by various colour reactions, chemical degradations and spectral techniques.

  5. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Arambewela, L. S. R.; Ratnasooriya, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96) and significant (P ? 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ? 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ? 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity. PMID:24812474

  6. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 ?M after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments. PMID:25240852

  7. The inherited enzymatic defect in porphyria variegata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ch. Deybach; H. Verneuil; Y. Nordmann

    1981-01-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity and ferrochelatase activity have been measured in blood lymphocytes from patients with porphyria variegata, and from some members of the family of one patient; the mean activity of protoporphyrinogen oxidase from patients was about 50% of that in lymphocytes from normal subjects; similar results were obtained from asymptomatic carriers in two generations of the patient's family. This

  8. The re-stocking of captive-bred ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) into the Betampona Reserve, Madagascar: methodology and recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Britt; Charles Welch; Andrea Katz; Bernard Iambana; Ingrid Porton; Randall Junge; Graham Crawford; Cathy Williams; David Haring

    2004-01-01

    Since November 1997 the Madagascar Fauna Group has released 13 captive-bred black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) into the Betampona Reserve in eastern Madagascar. The release programme has three major aims: (1) to assess the ability of captive-bred V. v. variegata to adapt to life in their natural habitat; (2) to investigate the contribution that such a release

  9. The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley: A Prospective Bioindicator for Ag Contamination in Tropical Coastal Waters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley: A Prospective Bioindicator determined in the brown alga Lobophora variegata, using radiotracer techniques. Results indicate that this widely distributed alga could be a useful bioindicator species for surveying silver contamination

  10. Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

    2012-10-01

    General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO(2) levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO(2) and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1)) under two levels of CO(2) (360 and 860 ?L L(-1), respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO(2) than under ambient CO(2) for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1), the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO(2) was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient CO(2) with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO(2) significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in promoting utilization of CO(2) fertilization for improvement of phytoextraction of soils contaminated with radionuclides. PMID:22507353

  11. Antitumour activity of Bauhinia variegata on Dalton's ascitic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rajkapoor, B; Jayakar, B; Murugesh, N

    2003-11-01

    The antitumour activity of the ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (EBV) has been evaluated against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. A significant enhancement of mean survival time of EBV-treated tumour bearing mice was found with respect to control group. EBV treatment was found to enhance peritoneal cell counts. After 14 days of inoculation, EBV is able to reverse the changes in the haemotological parameters, protein and PCV consequent to tumour inoculation. PMID:14522440

  12. Mint virus X: a novel potexvirus associated with symptoms in ‘Variegata’ mint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. E. Tzanetakis; J. D. Postman; R. R. Martin

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  Mentha?×?gracilis ‘Variegata’, an ornamental mint clone first described about 200 years ago, exhibits virus-like vein banding symptoms. Double-stranded\\u000a RNA and virion isolations revealed the presence of three viruses in a ‘Variegata’ plant. Cloning and sequencing disclosed\\u000a that one of the viruses was a previously unidentified species with similarities to members of the Flexiviridae family, designated as Mint virus X (MVX).

  13. Antifeedants from Chinese medicinal herb, Erythrina variegata var. orientalis, against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Long; Chu, Sha Sha; Jiang, Guo Hua; Liu, Shao Liang

    2012-02-01

    The screening for insecticidal principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the stem bark of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis possessed significant feeding deterrence against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the stem bark extract of E. variegata var. orientalis resulted in the isolation of two alkaloids, identified as erysopine and erysovine from their spectroscopic data. Erysopine and erysovine possessed antifeedant activity against S. zeamais adults with EC50 values of 108.5 and 89.7 ppm, respectively. PMID:22474945

  14. (1 S )-1Ethyl2-Methylpropyl 3,13-Dimethylpentadecanoate: Major Sex Pheromone Component of Paulownia Bagworm, Clania variegata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regine Gries; Grigori Khaskin; Zhong-Xing Tan; Bo-Guang Zhao; G. G. Skip King; Aleksander Miroshnychenko; Guo-Qiang Lin; Marc Rhainds; Gerhard Gries

    2006-01-01

    The Paulownia bagworm, Clania variegata Snell. (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), is one of the most significant forest defoliators in China. In gas chromatographic (GC)–electroantennographic detection analyses of pheromone gland extracts of female C. variegata on three GC columns (DB-5, DB-23, DB-210), two compounds (A and B) elicited strong responses from male antennae. The more abundant component B was isolated by high-performance liquid

  15. Depth-related variation in epiphytic communities growing on the brown alga Lobophora variegata in a Caribbean coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, A.; Titlyanova, T. V.; Nugues, M. M.; Bischof, K.

    2011-12-01

    Lobophora variegata is a dominant macroalga on coral reefs across the Caribbean. Over the last two decades, it has expanded its vertical distribution to both shallow and deep reefs along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, Southern Caribbean. However, the ecological implications of this expansion and the role of L. variegata as a living substratum are poorly known. This study compared epiphytic algal communities on L. variegata blades along two depth transects (6-40 m). The epiphytic community was diverse with a total of 70 species of which 49 were found directly attached to L. variegata. The epiphytic community varied significantly between blade surface, depth and site. The greatest number of genera per blade was found growing on the underside of the blades regardless of site and depth. Filamentous red algae (e.g. Neosiphonia howei) were commonly found on the upperside of the blades over the whole depth gradient, whereas the underside was mainly colonized by calcifying (e.g. Hydrolithon spp., Jania spp., Amphiroa fragillissima), fleshy red algae (e.g. Champia spp., Gelidiopsis spp., Hypnea spinella) and foliose brown alga (e.g. Dictyota spp.). Anotrichum tenue, a red alga capable of overgrowing corals, was a common epiphyte of both blade surfaces. L. variegata plays an important role as a newly available substratum. Thus, its spread may influence other algal species and studies of benthic macroalgae such as L. variegata should also take into consideration their associated epiphytic algal communities.

  16. Effect of wild flowers on oviposition of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Isabel; Núñez-Pérez, Etelvina; Tizado, Emilio Jorge

    2008-12-01

    Marginal vegetation in crops is very important for natural enemies and their pest control capacity. The effects of Brassica nigra L. (Brassicaceae), Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae), and Sonchus oleraceous L. (Asteraceae) flowers as supplemental food on the number of eggs laid during 7 d and on the preoviposition time in Hippodamia variegata (Goeze, 1777) were studied in the laboratory under conditions of several densities of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, 1776). The results show the presence of flowers of Brassica and Sonchus increased egg production 1.44X and doubled the pre-oviposition period (2.13X). This suggests that the availability of flowers of Brassica and Sonchus as supplemental foods (pollen and nectar) in the marginal vegetation of crops can serve to improve reproductive performance of H. variegata, specifically under conditions of prey limitation. Thus, the increase in fitness of this predator allows a better response to changes in pest density. PMID:19133458

  17. A biological assessment of Glypta variegata (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) as a parasitoid of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Cossentine; E. K. Deglow; L. B. M. Jensen; A. M. R. Bennett

    2007-01-01

    In laboratory trials, Glypta variegata, a common endoparasitoid of leafrollers in North America, successfully parasitized first through third instar Choristoneura rosaceana and first to fourth instar Pandemis limitata. Significantly more second instar C.rosaceana were parasitized when temperatures fluctuated between 30.3 and 12.0°C (16 L:8 D) than when temperatures fluctuated between 17.5 and 4.0°C (12 L:12 D), similar to fall conditions

  18. Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balko, E.A.; Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal with an intrinsically erratic food supply by virtue of its reproductive biology and social behavior.

  19. Phortica variegata as an intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda under natural conditions: Evidence for pathogen transmission by a male arthropod vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Otranto; C. Cantacessi; G. Testini; R. P. Lia

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge about Phortica variegata (Drosophilidae, Steganinae), the intermediate host of the eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), is confined to experimental studies. To investigate the role P. variegata plays in the transmission of T. callipaeda under natural conditions, the population dynamics of these flies in the natural environment and their feeding preferences (on vegetables and\\/or animal lachrymal secretions) were examined. From

  20. The tropical brown alga Lobophora variegata as a bioindicator of mining1 contamination in the New Caledonia lagoon: a field transplantation study2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The tropical brown alga Lobophora variegata as a bioindicator of mining1 contamination in the New field and laboratory studies have identified the alga Lobophora variegata as a good21 candidate key contaminants, i.e. Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr,25 Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn. Algae from clean and contaminated

  1. In vitro clonal propagation of Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon (barangi): a rare and threatened medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sharma; S. K. Rai; D. K. Purshottam; M. Jain; D. Chakrabarty; A. Awasthi; K. N. Nair; Ashok Kumar Sharma

    2009-01-01

    An in vitro process for rapid clonal propagation of Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon, a rare and threatened medicinal shrub, has been developed. Nodal stem segments having axillary bud, taken from\\u000a field-grown plant, showed bud-break within 15 days of culture on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) (Physiol Plant 15:473–497,\\u000a 1962) medium supplemented with 0.25 mg\\/l each of 6-benzylaminopurine and indole-3-acetic acid along with

  2. Growth and cesium uptake responses of Phytolacca americana Linn. and Amaranthus cruentus L. grown on cesium contaminated soil to elevated CO2 or inoculation with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54, or in combination.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirong; Liao, Shangqiang; Guo, Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Ruigang; Zhou, Xiaomin

    2011-12-30

    Growth and cesium uptake responses of plants to elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, can be explored for clean-up of contaminated soils, and this induced phytoextraction may be better than the natural process. The present study used open-top chambers to investigate combined effects of Burkholderia sp. D54 inoculation and elevated CO(2) (860 ?L L(-1)) on growth and Cs uptake by Phytolacca americana and Amaranthus cruentus grown on soil spiked with various levels of Cs (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). Elevated CO(2) and bacterial inoculation, alone or in combination, significantly increased biomass production with increased magnitude, ranging from 22% to 139% for P. americana, and 14% to 254% for A. cruentus. Total tissue Cs in both plants was significantly greater for bacterial inoculation treatment singly, and combined treatments of bacterial inoculation and elevated CO(2) than for the control treatment in most cases. Regardless of CO(2) concentrations and bacterial inoculation, A. cruentus had higher tissue Cs concentration, Cs transfer factors and concentration ratios than P. americana, but they had slightly different contents of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that combined effects of elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation with regard to plant ability to grow and remove radionuclides from soil can be explored for CO(2)- and microbe-assisted phytoextraction technology. PMID:22074893

  3. Identification of fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn.: A pharmacognostical approach.

    PubMed

    Kevalia, Jignesh; Patel, Bhupesh

    2011-10-01

    Gokshura is a well-known Ayurvedic drug that is used in many preparations. Botonically it is identified as Tribulus terrestris Linn., especially the roots and fruits of the plant. But instead the fruits of another plant Pedalium murex Linn. are commonly used and the drug is frequently substituted. Pharmacognostical study has been carried out to identify the distinguishing features, both morphological and microscopic, of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn. This knowledge should help reduce the problem of substitution of the genuine drug. PMID:22661853

  4. Variation in mycorrhizal performance in the epiphytic orchid Tolumnia variegata in vitro : the potential for natural selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tupac Otero; Paul Bayman; James D. Ackerman

    2005-01-01

    Symbiotic seed germination is a critical stage in orchid life histories. Natural selection may act to favor plants that efficiently use mycorrhizal fungi. However, the necessary conditions for natural selection – variation, heritability, and differences in fitness – have not been demonstrated for either orchid or fungus. With the epiphytic orchid Tolumnia variegata as a model system, we ask the

  5. Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeography of the European fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata supports their independent histories.

    PubMed

    Fijarczyk, Anna; Nadachowska, Krystyna; Hofman, Sebastian; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Babik, Wies?aw; Stuglik, Micha?; Gollmann, Günter; Choleva, Lukáš; Cog?lniceanu, Dan; Vukov, Tanja; Džuki?, George; Szymura, Jacek M

    2011-08-01

    Exact location and number of glacial refugia still remain unclear for many European cold-blooded terrestrial vertebrates. We performed a fine-scaled multilocus phylogeographic analysis of two Bombina species combining mitochondrial variation of 950 toads from 385 sites and nuclear genes (Rag-1, Ncx-1) from a subset of samples to reconstruct their colonization and contemporary variation patterns. We identified the lowlands northwest of the Black Sea and the Carpathians to be important refugial areas for B. bombina and B. variegata, respectively. This result emphasizes the importance of Central European refugia for ectothermic terrestrial species, far north of the Mediterranean areas regarded as exclusive glacial refugia for the animals. Additional refugia for B. variegata have been located in the southern Apennines and Balkans. In contrast, no evidence for the importance of other east European plains as refugial regions has been found. The distribution of mtDNA and Ncx-1 variation suggests the presence of local refugia near the Black Sea for B. bombina; however, coalescent simulations did not allow to distinguish whether one or two refugia were present in the region. Strong genetic drift apparently accompanied postglacial expansions reducing diversity in the colonization areas. Extended sampling, coupled with the multilocus isolation with migration analysis, revealed a limited and geographically restricted gene flow from the Balkan to Carpathian populations of B. variegata. However, despite proximity of inferred B. bombina and B. variegata refugia, gene exchange between them was not detected. PMID:21749513

  6. Efficacy evaluation of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Jeevan Ranjan; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Samanta, Indranil; Pal, Subodh; Khan, Madhuchhanda; Patra, Nimai Charan; Sarkar, Uttam; Maji, Asit Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the effect of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat. Materials and Methods: Mastitis was induced by intracisternal inoculation of coagulase positive S. aureus (J638) at the concentration of 2000 colony forming units. Group I animals were treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone at 20 mg/kg intravenously, and Group II animals were treated with once daily oral administration of B. variegata L. stem bark powder at 6 g/kg for 7 days followed by maintenance dose at 3 g/kg for next 7 days along with repeated dose of the antibiotic at 20 mg/kg intravenously at 4 days interval. Results: No significant improvement in the clinical condition of the udder was noticed in the group treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone alone. However, in the group treated with B. variegata L. stem bark powder along with repeated dose of ceftriaxone, no S. aureus colony was seen at 96 h and onwards in milk samples with a marked decrease in somatic cell count and milk alkaline phosphatase activity and increased lactoperoxidase activity. Further, plasma and milk concentration of ceftriaxone/ceftizoxime was increased, which indicated antibacterial, bioenhancing and antiinflammatory properties of the bark powder. The Group II animals also exhibited marked reduction in polymorphonuclear cells and fibrous tissue indicating antifibrotic property of B. variegata L. Conclusion: B. variegata L. stem bark powder can be considered as an effective adjunct therapy to intravenous ceftriaxone in S. aureus chronic mastitis in goat. PMID:25298668

  7. Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Geetha Gopalakrishnan

    2008-01-01

    In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal\\u000a activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

  8. On the biosorption, by brown seaweed, Lobophora variegata , of Ni(II) from aqueous solutions: equilibrium and thermodynamic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaik Basha; Santlal Jaiswar; Bhavanath Jha

    2010-01-01

    The biosorption equilibrium isotherms of Ni(II) onto marine brown algae Lobophora variegata, which was chemically-modified by CaCl2 were studied and modeled. To predict the biosorption isotherms and to determine the characteristic parameters for process\\u000a design, twenty-three one-, two-, three-, four- and five-parameter isotherm models were applied to experimental data. The interaction\\u000a among biosorbed molecules is attractive and biosorption is carried

  9. Chemoprevention and cytotoxic effect of Bauhinia variegata against N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver tumors and human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rajkapoor, B; Jayakar, B; Murugesh, N; Sakthisekaran, D

    2006-04-01

    The chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (EBV) was evaluated in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg) induced experimental liver tumor in rats and human cancer cell lines. Oral administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (250 mg/kg) effectively suppressed liver tumor induced by DEN as revealed by decrease in DEN induced elevated levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, gamma glutamate transpeptidase (GGTP), lipid peroxidase (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The extract produced an increase in enzymatic antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels and total proteins when compared to those in liver tumor bearing rats. The histopathological changes of liver samples were compared with respective controls. EBV was found to be cytotoxic against human epithelial larynx cancer (HEp2) and human breast cancer (HBL-100) cells. These results show a significant chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata against DEN induced liver tumor and human cancer cell lines. PMID:16257158

  10. Linn Parish April 24th, 2014

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Linn Parish April 24th, 2014 $15 million health clinic envisioned in Spokane's U some of Spokane's largest players in the health care field are planning a $15 million primary-care clinic in Spokane's University District that would serve as a training ground for new physicians

  11. Pharmacognosy of Cassia Alata Linn – leaves

    PubMed Central

    Mohideen, S.; Sasikala, E.; ARUHAJ, P.

    2005-01-01

    Cassia alata Linn, Commonly known as semaiagathi in Tamil is well known for its various medicinal properties in Indian systems of medicine. Various parts of this plant are used as vermicide, astringent, purgative, expectorant and to treat skin diseases. The present work deals with the anatomy, quantitative microscopy, physical constants and fluorescence analysis of the plant leaves. PMID:22557177

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Prey Requirements of two Aphidophagous Coccinellids, Adalia tetraspilota and Hippodamia variegata

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mohd Abas; Khan, Akhtar Ali

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of two prey species, Aphis pomi De Geer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), for two generalist aphidophagous coccinellids, Adalia tetraspilota (Hope) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), at various abundance levels was investigated under laboratory conditions. While both A. pomi and B. brassicae were found to be suitable, the predators performed better when feeding upon B. brassicae. The prey densities affected the developmental parameters of the two predators appreciably. Optimal growth and development was noted in the prey density range of 40–80 aphids per day per predator. Both species and abundance levels of prey significantly affected the larval period of the two predators. Appreciable variation in survivorship of larvae, prepupal and pupal period, and adult weight was noted by varying the prey species and prey abundance. Longer reproductive period (oviposition period) and shorter non-reproductive periods (pre-oviposition and post-oviposition periods) were noted for females that fed on B. brassicae as compared to those that fed on A. pomi. Reproductive output was appreciably higher for females that fed on B. brassicae, and the fecundity decreased drastically under food shortage. PMID:25373219

  13. Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action. PMID:22096323

  14. Characterization of cadmium-resistant endophytic fungi from Salix variegata Franch. in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China.

    PubMed

    An, Hongmei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Xinfei; Huang, Qian; Yuan, Shenhong; Yang, Xingyong; Dong, Jinyan

    2015-07-01

    The community and Cd-resistance of endophytic fungi from roots of Salix variegata Franch. collected from the water-level-fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China, were investigated. A total of 53 strains were isolated and identified to 13 morphotaxa, in which Chromosporium, Fusarium and Gonatobotrys were dominant genera. Among them, 27 isolates were selected to measure their resistance to 0.02mgml(-1) Cd(2+) and 11 were growth stimulated (Tolerance index>100%). Of these active isolates, four dark septate endophyte (DSE) isolates (Paraphaeosphaeria sp. SR46, Pyrenochaeta sp. SR35, Rhizopycnis vagum SR37 and R. vagum SR44) were further tested for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Cd and SR46 was found to be the most tolerant isolate with MIC of 0.39mgml(-1). Additionally, the maximum uptake values of these DSEs ranged from 3.01 to 7.89mgg(-1), but there was no significant correlation between metal uptake with fungal biomass and metal tolerance. Subsequently, a pot experiment was conducted for investigating the impact of SR46 on corn seedlings in Cd-enriched soil. The results obtained suggested that SR46 reduced the Cd bioaccumulation of plant under low (100mgkg(-1)) Cd stress and enhanced the Cd translocation from root zone to aerial parts under high (200mgkg(-1)) Cd stress. Besides, it promoted plant growth without Cd stress. These findings indicated S. variegata harbors an endophytic fungal flora showing a high genetic diversity as well as a high level of metal resistance to Cd that has potential values in cadmium cycling and restoration of plant, soil and water system. PMID:26070690

  15. Taxonomic revision of the Australian arid zone lizards Gehyra variegata and G. montium (Squamata, Gekkonidae) with description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Mark N; Sistrom, Mark J; Donnellan, Stephen C; Hutchinson, Rhonda G

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomy of central Australian populations of geckos of the genus Gehyra has been uncertain since chromosomal studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s revealed considerable heterogeneity and apparently independent patterns of morphological and karyotypic diversity. Following detailed molecular genetic studies, species boundaries in this complex have become clearer and we here re-set the boundaries of the three named species involved, G. variegata (Duméril & Bibron, 1836), G. montium Storr, 1982, and G. nana King, 1982, and describe three new species. Two of the new species, G. moritzi and G. pulingka, include populations formerly assigned to either G. montium or G. nana Storr, 1982, while the third, G. versicolor, includes all of the eastern Australian populations formerly assigned to G. variegata. PMID:24943424

  16. Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Chin Chin, Sieo; Hamid, Muhajir

    2013-01-01

    Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8) was determined. PMID:23662136

  17. Hybridization of Bombina bombina and B. variegata (Anura, Discoglossidae) at a sharp ecotone in western Ukraine: comparisons across transects and over time.

    PubMed

    Yanchukov, Alexey; Hofman, Sebastian; Szymura, Jacek M; Mezhzherin, Sergey V; Morozov-Leonov, Sviatoslav Y; Barton, Nicholas H; Nürnberger, Beate

    2006-03-01

    Bombina bombina and B. variegata are two anciently diverged toad taxa that have adapted to different breeding habitats yet hybridize freely in zones of overlap where their parapatric distributions meet. Here, we report on a joint genetic and ecological analysis of a hybrid zone in the vicinity of Stryi in western Ukraine. We used five unlinked allozyme loci, two nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms and a mitochondrial DNA haplotype as genetic markers. Parallel allele frequency clines with a sharp central step occur across a sharp ecotone, where transitions in aquatic habitat, elevation, and terrestrial vegetation coincide. The width of the hybrid zone, estimated as the inverse of the maximum gradient in allele frequency, is 2.3 km. This is the smallest of four estimates derived from different clinal transects across Europe. We argue that the narrow cline near Stryi is mainly due to a combination of habitat distribution and habitat preference. Adult toads show a preference for either ponds (B. bombina) or puddles (B. variegata), which is known to affect the distribution of genotypes within the hybrid zones. At Stryi, it should cause a reduction of the dispersal rate across the ecotone and thus narrow the cline. A detailed comparison of all five intensively studied Bombina transects lends support to the hypothesis that habitat distribution plus habitat preference can jointly affect the structure of hybrid zones and, ultimately, the resulting barriers to gene flow between differentiated gene pools. This study also represents a resampling of an area that was last studied more than 70 years ago. Our allele-frequency clines largely coincide with those that were described then on the basis of morphological variation. However, we found asymmetrical introgression of B. variegata genes into B. bombina territory along the bank of a river. PMID:16637503

  18. Antifungal activity of essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and sweet fennel (Ocimum gratissimum Linn.): Alternative strategies to control pathogenic fungi in organic rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apinya Piyo; Pitipong Thobunluepop

    This in vitro study was aimed to evaluate the mycelium growth and spore germination inhibition properties of Thai medicinal essential oils. The oil from two species of Thai medicinal plant; Basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn) and Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum linn.), were applied against 7 species of rice pathogenic fungi; Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium proliferatum, Pyricularia

  19. Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranee Jaiarj; Paranee Khoohaswan; Yuwadee Wongkrajang; Penchom Peungvicha; Potjanee Suriyawong; M. L. Sumal Saraya; Orawan Ruangsomboon

    1999-01-01

    The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g\\/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the

  20. Synthesis of all the four stereoisomers of (1? S)-1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate, the major component of the sex pheromone of Paulownia bagworm, Clania variegata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Mori; Takuya Tashiro

    2009-01-01

    All the four stereoisomers of (1?S)-1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate, the major component of the sex pheromone of Clania variegata, were synthesized by starting from (R)- or (S)-2-methylbutan-1-ol, (R)- or (S)-citronellal, and (S)-2-methylpentan-3-ol. Olefin cross metathesis was employed as the key reaction.

  1. The look of Ireland: The representation of Ireland in Gael Linn's \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mairead Pratschke

    2005-01-01

    Gael Linn's Amharc Éireann (literally translated as Look at Ireland) film series began in 1956 as monthly short documentary films on topics of domestic interest and was transformed in 1959 to weekly newsreels. It was a cultural nationalist project sponsored by Gael Linn, a newly-formed Irish language protection organization whose mandate was the revitalisation of the Irish language through the

  2. UPPER PLEISTOCENE GULO GULO (LINNE , 1758) REMAINS FROM THE SRBSKO CHLUM-KOMIN HYENA

    E-print Network

    UPPER PLEISTOCENE GULO GULO (LINNE´ , 1758) REMAINS FROM THE SRBSKO CHLUM-KOMIN HYENA DEN CAVE sites. The Gulo gulo Linne´ material was found in one of the largest Ice Age spotted-hyena dens of carnivore scavenging. The absence of juvenile G. gulo suggests possible importation of the wolverines

  3. A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We disagree with Mr. Linn?s interpretation of our paper, ?High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness?.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

  4. 136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  5. STUDIES OF PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILES OF DANSONIA DIGITATA linn.

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakirubha, T; Ramprasath, D; Karunambigai, K; Nagavalli, D; Hemalatha, S

    2004-01-01

    The macroscopic characters of the whole plant, physical constant values, extractive values, preliminary phyto-chemical tests, fluorescence characters under ultra-violet light after treatment with different reagents of the powdered leaves form the tree of Adansonia digitata linn., [Bombacaceae] were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the methanolic extract of the plant was also performed. These studies will help in identification of this plant for further research. PMID:22557153

  6. Correct Identification of Passiflora incarnata Linn., a Promising Herbal Anxiolytic and Sedative.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

    2001-01-01

    Passiflora incarnata Linn. and Passiflora edulis Sims are the two important plants of the family Passifloraceae that have often been reported as synonymous because of their identical morphological and microscopic characteristics. P. incarnata is a popular sedative and anxiolytic, whereas, P. edulis is rarely reported to possess significant central nervous system depressant activity. P. edulis, as the name of the species reflects, is mainly grown for edible purposes. During a survey of literature on the genus Passiflora, it was noticed that in many references the two plants are mentioned synonymously. The designation by Sir William J. Hooker in 1843, followed by the citation of P. edulis as the synonym of P. incarnata in Index Kewensis of 1895, not only substantiated the controversial identity but also caused confusion to researchers. The prevailing confusion might have led to improper selection of the bioactive plant, thereby accounting for inconclusive and contradictory pharmacological reports on either of the two plants. In this work, we establish key identification parameters to differentiate P. incarnata from P. edulis. Various leaf constants such as vein-islet number, vein-termination number, stomatal number, and stomatal index are different for the two species. Physicochemical parameters such as ash values and extractive values and the thin layer chromatography profile of the petroleum ether extract of P. incarnata and P. edulis are also distinct and different. Various clinical uses of P. incarnata for anxiety and allied diseases are discussed. PMID:12639407

  7. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases. PMID:24811803

  8. Indonesian medicinal plants. XXI. Inhibitors of Na+/H+ exchanger from the bark of Erythrina variegata and the roots of Maclura cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Mahmud, T; Yoshioka, N; Shibuya, H; Kitagawa, I

    1997-10-01

    Through bioassay-guided separation of the methanol extracts of Indonesian medicinal plants, three inhibitors of the Na+/H+ exchange system, erythrinin B (2), euchrenone b10 (3), and 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthen-9-one (4), were isolated from the bark of Erythrina variegata (Fabaceae) (for 2) and the roots of Maclura cochinchinensis (Moraceae) (for 2, 3, 4). Compounds 2, 3, and 4 significantly inhibited the Na+/H+ exchange system of arterial smooth muscle cells, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.25, 1.25, and 10 micrograms/ml, respectively. Three new prenylated xanthones named isocudraniaxanthones B (5) and A (7) and isoalvaxanthone (9) were also isolated from M. cochinchinensis and the chemical structures were elucidated on the bases of their chemical and physicochemical properties. PMID:9353889

  9. The maintenance of reproductive isolation in a mosaic hybrid zone between the fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata.

    PubMed

    Vines, T H; Köhler, S C; Thiel, M; Ghira, I; Sands, T R; MacCallum, C J; Barton, N H; Nürnberger, B

    2003-08-01

    Mosaic hybrid zones arise when ecologically differentiated taxa hybridize across a network of habitat patches. Frequent interbreeding across a small-scale patchwork can erode species differences that might have been preserved in a clinal hybrid zone. In particular, the rapid breakdown of neutral divergence sets an upper limit to the time for which differences at marker loci can persist. We present here a case study of a mosaic hybrid zone between the fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata (Anura: Discoglossidae) near Apahida in Romania. In our 20 x 20 km study area, we detected no evidence of a clinal transition but found a strong association between aquatic habitat and mean allele frequencies at four molecular markers. In particular, pure populations of B. bombina in ponds appear to cause massive introgression into the surrounding B. variegata gene pool found in temporary aquatic sites. Nevertheless, the genetic structure of these hybrid populations was remarkably similar to those of a previously studied transect near Pescenica (Croatia), which had both clinal and mosaic features: estimates of heterozygote deficit and linkage disequilibrium in each country are similar. In Apahida, the observed strong linkage disequilibria should stem from an imperfect habitat preference that guides most (but not all) adults into the habitats to which they are adapted. In the absence of a clinal structure, the inferred migration rate between habitats implies that associations between selected loci and neutral markers should break down rapidly. Although plausible selection strengths can maintain differentiation at those loci adapting the toads to either permanent or temporary breeding sites, the divergence at neutral markers must be transient. The hybrid zone may be approaching a state in which the gene pools are homogenized at all but the selected loci, not dissimilar from an early stage of sympatric divergence. PMID:14503629

  10. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Arshad H

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  11. A new biologically active flavonol glycoside from Psoralea corylifolia (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Yadava, R N; Verma, Vikash

    2005-08-01

    A new biologically active flavonol glycoside (1) mp 264-265 degrees C, C32H38O20, [M]+ 742 (EIMS) has been isolated from the methanol-soluble fraction of the defatted seeds of Psoralea corylifolia (Linn.). It was characterised as the new flavonol glycoside 3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavone-3'-O-alpha-L-xylopyranosyl(1-->3)-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside by several colour reactions, spectral analysis and chemical degradations. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity against various bacteria and fungi. PMID:16087643

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of Sapindus trifoliatus Linn.

    PubMed

    Arul, B; Kothai, R; Jacob, Philip; Sangameswaran, B; Sureshkumar, K

    2004-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of Sapindus trifoliatus Linn. was studied in wister rats using the carrageenan induced left hind paw edema, carrageenan induced pleurisy and cotton pellet induced granuloma model. The ethanolic extract (150 mg/kg, p.o.) produced the inhibition of carrageenan induced rat paw edema. It also showed an inhibitory effect on leukocyte migration and a reduction on the pleural exudates as well as reduction on the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma method. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract produced significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control. PMID:15927924

  13. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Smith, F Andrew; Wang, Youshan; Chen, Baodong

    2008-09-01

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 microm nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. PMID:18060670

  15. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Cleome viscosa Linn. extract

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishant Kumar; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae) against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: Leaf powder of Cleome viscosa was extracted with ethanol. The hepatoprotective activity of the extract was assessed in CCI4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Various biochemical parameters were estimated and histopathological studies were also performed on rat liver. The hepatoprotective activity was also supported by determining a functional parameter, i.e. thiopental-induced sleep of mice poisoned with CCl4. Results: The test material was found effective as hepatoprotective, through in vivo and histopathological studies. The extract was found to be effective in shortening the thiopental induced sleep in mice poisoned with CCl4. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was comparable to that of silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective agent. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that ethanolic extract of Cleome viscosa has significant hepatoprotective activity. PMID:20177580

  16. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of Coldenia procumbens Linn.

    PubMed

    Arul, B; Kothai, R; Sureshkumar, K; Christina, A J M

    2005-07-01

    Anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Coldenia procumbens Linn. was studied in Wister rats using the carrageenan induced left hind paw edema, carrageenan induced pleurisy and cotton pellet induced granuloma model. The ethanolic extract (150 mg/kg, p.o.) produced the inhibition of carrageenan induced rat paw edema. It also showed an inhibitory effect on leukocyte migration and a reduction on the pleural exudates as well as reduction on the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma method. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract produced significant (P<0.001) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control. PMID:16380339

  18. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300?ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  19. Development and anti-microbial potential of topical formulations containing Cocos nucifera Linn.

    PubMed

    Sheshala, Ravi; Ying, Ling Teck; Hui, Ling Shiau; Barua, Ankur; Dua, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve better treatment for local wounds and bacterial infections, topical formulations containing Cocos nucifera Linn. were developed. These formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and antimicrobial efficacy against various strains of microorganisms. Semisolid formulations containing 5% w/w of Cocos nucifera Linn. were prepared by employing different dermatological bases and were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, rheological properties, FTIR-spectroscopic analysis, thermodynamic stability and stability studies. The antimicrobial activity of each prepared formulation was determined using disk-diffusion method against various strains of microorganisms. All the prepared formulations were found to be stable and exhibited suitable physicochemical characteristics including pH, viscosity and spreadability which are necessary for an ideal topical preparation, in addition to strong antimicrobial activity. Carbopol gel base was found to be the most suitable dermatological base for Cocos nucifera Linn. in comparsion to other bases. Cocos nucifera Linn. formulations showed great potential for wounds and local bacterial infections. Moreover, carbopol gel base with its aesthetic appeal was found to be a suitable dermatological base for Cocos nucifera Linn. semisolid formulation as it had demonstrated significant physicochemical properties and greater diffusion when assessed using disk- diffusion method. PMID:23746224

  20. Antidiabetic effect of seeds of Strychnos potatorum Linn. in a streptozotocin-induced model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Asish; Chatterjee, Suparna; Chowdhury, Rama; Sen, Sangita; Sarkar, Dipak; Chatterjee, Mitali; Das, Jayasree

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic effect of seeds of Strychnos potatorum Linn. was evaluated in a model of diabetes mellitus using streptozotocin (40 mg/kg b.w., i.p.). Changes in fasting blood sugar were estimated periodically for 12 weeks along with weekly measurement of body weight, food and water intake for 4 weeks. The antidiabetic effects were compared with glipizide as the reference hypoglycemic drug. Strychnos potatorum Linn. (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reduced fasting blood sugar, the effects being comparable with glipizide (40 mg/kg, p.o.), an established hypoglycemic drug. It also increased body weight along with decreased food and water intake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Taken together, Strychnos potatorum Linn. shows promise as an effective hypoglycemic compound worthy of future pharmacological investigations. PMID:23061291

  1. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) ?g/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) ?g/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) ?g/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) ?g/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) ?g/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

  2. Hepatoprotection by Elephantopus scaber Linn. in CCl4-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, M G; Latha, M S

    2001-10-01

    The efficacy of the medicinal plant Elephantopus scaber Linn. (Asteraceae), to prevent carbon teterachloride (CCI4)-induced chronic liver dysfunction in the rats was examined by determining different biochemical markers in serum and tissues. In serum, liver function marker enzymes like aspartate aminotrasferase (AST), alanine aminotrasferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and also protein were evaluated. The concentrations of total lipid, cholesterol and phospholipids were studied in serum and the different tissues. The concentration of serum triglycerides was also studied. The biochemical changes induced by CCI4 in different tissues particularly in the liver tissue improved following treatment with E. scaber Linn. The results suggest the hepatoprotective effect of this medicinal plant. PMID:11883157

  3. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Arijit; Karan, Sanjay Kumar; Singha, Tanushree; Rajalingam, D.; Maity, Tapan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:22690244

  4. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

  5. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn).

    PubMed

    Mulla, W A; Salunkhe, V R; Kuchekar, S B; Qureshi, M N

    2009-05-01

    The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 mug/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value. PMID:20490298

  6. Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Jaiarj, P; Khoohaswan, P; Wongkrajang, Y; Peungvicha, P; Suriyawong, P; Saraya, M L; Ruangsomboon, O

    1999-11-01

    The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the extract, (P < 0.01). However, the anticough activity is less potent than that of 3 mg/kg dextromethorphan which decreased frequency of cough by 78% (P < 0.01). An experiment on isolated rat tracheal muscle showed that the extract directly stimulated muscle contraction and also synergized with the stimulatory effect of pilocarpine. This effect was antagonized by an atropine. Moreover, growth of Staphylococcus aureus and beta-streptococcus group A, as determined by the disc diffusion method, was inhibited by water, methanol and chloroform extract of dry guava leaves (P < 0.001). The LD50 of guava leaf extract was more than 5 g/kg, p.o. These results suggest that guava leaf extract is recommended as a cough remedy. PMID:10619385

  7. Assessment of Antiobesity Potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Seed

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Neerja; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Vasudeva, Neeru

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenols, total flavonoids, and total saponin content), and the antiobesity effect of ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. seed (EAA) by employing in vitro and in vivo models. In in vitro study, the inhibitory activity of EAA on pancreatic amylase and lipase was measured. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of EAA along with lipid emulsion to Swiss albino mice. The EAA inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevations of plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. Furthermore, the antiobesity effect of EAA (900?mg/kg) was assessed in mice fed a high-fat diet with or without EAA for 6 weeks. EAA significantly suppressed the increase in body, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights, and serum parameters, namely; total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol level. The anti obesity effects of EAA in high-fat-diet-treated mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. Histopathological effects of EAA on the liver of mice were also assessed. PMID:22919417

  8. Bioactivity studies on Cassia alata Linn. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, Irene M; Canlas, Arlyn P; Pascua, Marcy Paul I; Sabando, May N; Soliven, Leen Aloha P

    2002-03-01

    The hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Cussia alata Linn. were tested for their antimutagenic, antifungal, analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, the hexane extract was analgesic as it reduced the number of squirms induced by acetic acid by 59.5%. Both the hexane and EtOAc extracts exhibited antiinflammatory activity at a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse with a 65.5% and 68.2% decrease in carrageenan-induced inflammation, respectively. The chloroform extract was antimutagenic, at a dosage of 2 mg/20 g mouse, with a 65.8% inhibition in the mutagenicity of tetracycline. It was also the most active against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, at a concentration of 50 mg/mL but it had no activity against Candida albicans. The hexane and EtOAc extracts showed some activity against both organisms, with the EtOAc extract being more active against C. albicans. The EtOAc extract was hypoglycaemic. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, it decreased the blood sugar level of mice by 58.3%. Pharmacological studies showed that all extracts caused an immediate decrease in motor activity, enophthalmus, hyperemia, micturition and diarrhoea. At a dosage of 150 mg/20 g mouse, the EtOAc extract caused paralysis, screen grip loss and enophthalmus accompanied by drooping and closure of the eyelids. PMID:11933153

  9. Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sujogya K.; Padhi, L. P.; Mohanty, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 ?g/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:22171295

  10. Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sujogya K; Padhi, L P; Mohanty, G

    2011-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 ?g/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:22171295

  11. Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds. PMID:21966166

  12. Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn

    PubMed Central

    Purnima, A.; Koti, B. C.; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Jaji, M. S.; Swamy, A. H. M. Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y. V.; Sadiq, A. Jaffar

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:21218059

  13. SIZE, AGE, SEXUAL MATURITY; AND SEX RATIO IN OCEAN QUAHOGS, ARCTICA ISLANDICA LINNE,

    E-print Network

    SIZE, AGE, SEXUAL MATURITY; AND SEX RATIO IN OCEAN QUAHOGS, ARCTICA ISLANDICA LINNE, OFF LONG) and moderate (491 tubule development. Only 28 clams were fully mature. Age and growth were assessed from most other bivalves, lack external characteristics for a de- termination of sex, maturation

  14. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walaiporn Tongjaroenbuangam; Nootchanart Ruksee; Piyanete Chantiratikul; Noppakun Pakdeenarong; Watee Kongbuntad; Piyarat Govitrapong

    2011-01-01

    The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes neuronal death in the CA3 layer of the hippocampus, which has been associated with learning and memory impairments. This study aimed to examine the ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) extract and its derivatives (quercetin and rutin) to protect neuronal function and improve learning and memory deficits in mice subjected

  15. J. Linnes BE 428 Device and Diagnostic Design Fall 2014 COURSE DESCRIPTION

    E-print Network

    Vajda, Sandor

    of biomedical devices and diagnostics. The course is designed for undergraduates in their Sophomore and Junior studies of biomedical device designs and hands-on prototyping sessions are used extensively throughoutJ. Linnes BE 428 Device and Diagnostic Design Fall 2014 COURSE DESCRIPTION Course BE 428 Device

  16. Activity of tabanids (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae) attacking the reptiles Caiman crocodilus (Linn.) (Alligatoridae) and Eunectes murinus (Linn.) (Boidae), in the central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ruth L M; Henriques, Augusto L; Rafael, José A

    2002-01-01

    Tabanid females are better known as hematophagous on man and other mammals, and linked to mechanical transmission of parasites. The association between tabanids and reptiles is poorly known, but has been gaining more corroboration through experiments and occasional observation in the tropics. The present study was conducted at a military base (CIGS/BI-2), situated 54 km from Manaus, Amazonas, in a small stream in a clearing (02 degrees 45'33"S; 59 degrees 51'03"W). Observations were made monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, during two consecutive days. At the same time, other vertebrate animals were offered, including humans. However in this paper only data obtained on a common caiman, Caiman crocodilus (Linn.), and an anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Linn.), in diurnal observations from 05:30 a.m. to 18:30 p.m., will be discussed. A total of 254 tabanid specimens were collected, 40 from the anaconda and 214 from the caiman. Four tabanid species were recorded on these two reptiles: Stenotabanus cretatus Fairchild, S. bequaerti Rafael et al., Phaeotabanus nigriflavus (Kröber) and Tabanus occidentalis Linn. Diurnal activities showed species-specific patterns. The first three species occurred only in the dry season. T. occidentalis occurred during the whole observation period, and with increased frequency at the end of the dry season. We observed preferences for body area and related behavior of the host. Observations on the attack of tabanids on one dead caiman are also presented. PMID:11992164

  17. Effect of new rotenoid glycoside from the fruits of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE on the growth of human immune cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hak Ju Lee; Ha Young Kang; Cheol Hee Kim; Hyo Sung Kim; Min Chul Kwon; Sang Moo Kim; Il Shik Shin; Hyeon Yong Lee

    2006-01-01

    A new compound, rotenoid isoflavone glycoside named, 6?-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-12a-hydroxydalpanol was isolated from the methanolic (MeOH) fruit extract of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE by means of multi-stage column chromatography. Immuno-modulatory activities of this new glycoside were compared with\\u000a the partitioned fractions of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE. Both of the fractions and purified single compound showed a 19% relatively low cytotoxicity at a maximum concentration

  18. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm?1 (–OH), 1660?cm?1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm?1 (–COO–), 1414?cm?1 (–COO–), and 1219?cm?1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  19. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm(-1) (-OH), 1660?cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414?cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219?cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  20. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Sonibare, Mubo A.; Adeniran, Adedapo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+?-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results More than 80% shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30% whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. PMID:25182434

  1. Cholinergic basis of memory-strengthening effect of Foeniculum vulgare Linn.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer's disease. Nootropic agents are used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of Foeniculum vulgare Linn. extract as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent in mice. Methanolic extract of the whole plant of F. vulgare Linn. administered for eight successive days ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) and aging- induced memory deficits in mice. The passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral model for assessing memory. F. vulgare extract increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in mice significantly. Hence, F. vulgare can be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:17004908

  2. Aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris Linn induces cell growth arrest and apoptosis by down-regulating NF-?B signaling in liver cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye Jin Kim; Jin Chul Kim; Jung Sun Min; Mi-jee Kim; Ji Ae Kim; Myung Ho Kor; Hwa Seung Yoo; Jeong Keun Ahn

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevanceA medicinal herb Tribulus terrestris Linn has been used to treat various diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma.The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) in liver cancer cells.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of phenethyl isothiocyanate, an active ingredient of Raphanus sativus Linne

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phil-Dong Moon; Na-Ra Han; Hyun-Ja Jeong; Hyung-Min Kim

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an active ingredient of Raphanus sativus Linne (Cruciferae). However, regulatory mechanism of PEITC involved in caspase-1 signalling has not been fully elucidated in mast cells. First, PEITC inhibited the production of IL-6 through the inhibition of caspase-1\\/receptor-interacting protein 2, followed by regulation of NF-?B\\/I?B? pathway or p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases. Second, PEITC

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of ‘TAF’ an active fraction from the plant Barleria prionitis Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Singh; S. Bani; D. K. Gupta; B. K. Chandan; A. Kaul

    2003-01-01

    ‘TAF’ fraction from the methanol–water extract of Barleria prionitis Linn. was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities against different acute and chronic animal test models. It exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity against different inflammagens like carrageenan, histamine and dextran. The anti-inflammatory activity in adrenalectomised rats was maintained showing that the effect of fraction ‘TAF’ is not activated by the pituitary–adrenal axis.

  5. Aphrodisiac activity of methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

    2003-04-01

    The aphrodisiac properties of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn. have been evaluated in mice by observing the mounting behaviour. The methanol extract of P. incarnata exhibited significant aphrodisiac behaviour in male mice at all doses, i.e. 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Amongst these, the highest activity was observed with the 100 mg/kg dose when the mountings were calculated about 95 min after the administration of the test extracts. PMID:12722149

  6. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

  7. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeru Vasudeva; S. K. Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants\\/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation

  8. Supernumerary chromosomes in the human bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linn. (Cimicidae:Hemiptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norihiro Ueshima

    1967-01-01

    The chromosome complement in the human bed bug, Cimex lectulariusLinn., is 26+X1X2Y in the male and 26+X1X1X2X2 in the female. However, a population from Cairo, Egypt has 4 supernumerary X chromosomes. In the hybrid between the Berkeley population (with no supernumeraries) and the Cairo population (with 4 supernumeraries), the behavior of supernumeraries was observed during embryogenesis and oogenesis as well

  9. Comparative pharmacogonostic studies of genuine and commercial samples of trianthema decandra linn.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, S; Venkataraman, R

    2000-07-01

    Trianthema decandra Linn. (Fam ficoidaceae) Commonly known a "Vellai sharunai'on Tamil and Punaranavi in Sanskrit the roots are used in hepatitis, asthma and suppression of menses the genuine and tree commercial samples of the root of R. Decandra in have been compared pharmacognostically for the first time in the present investigation all the pharmacognostic findings reveal adulteration in the commercial samples. PMID:22556996

  10. Partial purification of a hypoglycemic fraction from the unripe fruits of Momordica charantia Linn (bitter gourd)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subbiah Pugazhenthi; P. Suryanarayana Murthy

    1995-01-01

    A new method was developed to purify partially an orally active hypoglycemic fraction from the unripe fruits ofMomordica charantia Linn. The residue after centrifugation of the fruit juice was extracted with ethanol and the concentrated ethanolic extract\\u000a was further extracted with diethyl ether. In normal rabbits after oral administration, the ether extract at a dose of 0.75\\u000a g\\/kg body wt

  11. Snake venom neutralising factor from the root extract of Emblica officinalis Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sarkhel; A. K. Chakravarty; R. Das; Aparna Gomes; A. Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The folk use of the Indian medicinal plant Emblica officinalis Linn. root extract and its active compound (Pthalate in nature) against snake venom has been established in experimental animal\\u000a models. From the root extract of Emblica officinalis, a compound was isolated through silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined by UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR & EIMS studies. The

  12. Lepidium sativum Linn.: a current addition to the family of mucilage and its applications.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Patil, Prasant D; Patel, Bhumit N

    2014-04-01

    Mucilage from the last decades has been found to be very attractive, interesting and useful in development of desired pharmaceutical dosage forms. Various applications of plant based mucilage have a wide potentiality in drug formulations. Lepidium sativum Linn. (family: Brassicaceae) is one of the mucilage containing fast growing, edible annual herb. Its various parts (roots, leaves and seeds) have been used to treat various human ailments. It mainly contains alkaloids, saponins, anthracene glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavanoids, and sterols as chief phytochemical constituents. Its seed extracts have been screened for various biological activities like hypotensive, anti-microbial, bronchodilator, hypoglycemic and allelopathic, whereas its seed coat mucilage has been isolated using different methods to make it effective excipient of desired functionality as a part of pharmaceutical applications. Through keen references of reported work on Lepidium sativum Linn., in this review, we have focused on its seed coat mucilage isolation methods, chemical constituents, pharmacological profile and versatile application of Lepidium sativum Linn. PMID:24418343

  13. Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Kannampalli; Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor Raj; Gobianand, Kuppannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

    2007-04-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on liver injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. Wistar rats weighing 200+/-10g were administered a single dose of DEN (200mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and left for 30 days. For hepatoprotective studies, ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of C. fistula Linn. (500mg/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered daily for 30 days. AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, gamma-GT and bilirubin were estimated in serum and liver tissue. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), SOD and CAT were also estimated in liver tissue as markers of oxidative stress. DEN induced hepatotoxicity in all the treated animals were evident by elevated serum ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels and a simultaneous fall in their levels in the liver tissue after 30 days. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidenced by increased LPO and fall in the activities of SOD and CAT. ELE administration for 30 days prevented the DEN induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. In conclusion, it was observed that ELE of C. fistula Linn. protects the liver against DEN induced hepatic injury in rats. PMID:17289008

  14. Evaluation of antiarthritic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds in Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rat model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Strychnos potatorum Linn (Loganiaceae) is a moderate sized tree found in southern and central parts of India, Sri Lanka and Burma. In traditional system of medicine, Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds were used for various ailments including inflammation, diabetes etc. To investigate the folkloric use of the seeds the present study was carried out on Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Methods The present study states the effect of the aqueous extract (SPE) and the whole seed powder (SPP) of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds on the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritic rat paw edema, body weight changes and alterations in haematological and biochemical parameters in both developing and developed phases of arthritis. Histopathology of proximal interphalangeal joints and radiology of hind legs were studied. Results In FCA induced arthritic rats, there was significant increase in rat paw volume and decrease in body weight increment, whereas SPP and SPE treated groups, showed significant reduction in paw volume and normal gain in body weight. The altered haematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR) and biochemical parameters (blood urea, serum creatinine, total proteins and acute phase proteins) in the arthritic rats were significantly brought back to near normal by the SPP and SPE treatment at the dose of 200 mg/kg/p.o in both developing and developed phases of arthritis. Further the histopathological and radiological studies revealed the antiarthritic activity of SPP and SPE by indicating fewer abnormalities in these groups when compared to the arthritic control group. Conclusion In conclusion, both SPP and SPE at the specified dose level of 200 mg/kg, p.o. showed reduction in rat paw edema volume and it could significantly normalize the haematological and biochemical abnormalities in adjuvant induced arthritic rats in both developing and developed phases of FCA induced arthritis. Further the histopathological and radiological studies confirmed the antiarthritic activity of SPP and SPE. PMID:20939932

  15. Antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Umesh Jayantarao; Savali, Anil Sidram; Jirankali, Manjunath C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The antianaphylactic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seed extract was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced anaphylaxis and mast cell stabilization was studied by using peritoneal mast cells of rats. The possible antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization mechanism was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced mast cell activation and level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells. Materials and Methods: Anaphylactic shock in mice was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of 8 mg/kg compound 48/80, prior to induction of anaphylaxis the animals were treated with S. potatorum Linn. seed extract administered orally 1 h before administration of compound 48/80, the rate mortality was observed in each group of animals. Mast cell stabilization was seen by preincubation of mast cells with the compound 48/80 and the extracts. Results: This study indicates that the chloroform, petroleum ether, and methanolic extracts were shown potent and has significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) inhibitory effects on compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction and mast cell activation. This compound also inhibited significantly compound 48/80 induced increased level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells. Conclusion: We conclude from this study that the different extracts of S. potatorum seed have potent antianaphylactic activity through mast cell stabilization and inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. The inhibitory effect of S. potatorum Linn. on release of histamine and nitric oxide protects from compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction may be through blocking vasodilatation, decrease vascular resistance, hypotension and tachycardia induced by immunogenic agent used in this study. PMID:22022171

  16. Determination of antioxidant capacity, ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of Crotalaria juncea Linn in vitro inhibitory activity of Crotalaria Juncea Linn.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, Sathis Kumar; Banji, David; Avasarala, Harani; Banji, Otilia

    2014-06-01

    The present study involves the determination of antioxidant capacity and in vitro ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of the Crotalaria juncea Linn extract. The content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the extracts was estimated by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activity on goat liver lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid emulsion were determined and ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity was also evaluated. All the extracts had shown antioxidant property, ?-amylase, and lipase inhibitory properties. Aqueous extract was found to show maximum antioxidant activity on goat liver. Antilipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity were determined to be 66.94 ± 0.616 (p < .01) and 59.54 ± 0.2 (p < .01), respectively. Maximum ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities of 71.42 ± 1.37 (p < .01) and 57.14 ± 2.74% (p < .01), respectively, were exhibited by macerated methanol extract. The results had shown that all the extracts exhibited low inhibition and antioxidant activity as compared to standard. PMID:24670121

  17. ????????????????????????? ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) ??????????? (Acorus calamus Linn.) ????????????????????? ????????????????? Inhibitory Effect of Extracts from Clove ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) and Sweet flag (Acorus calamus Linn. ) on Some Pathogenic Bacteria ??????? ?????????1*, ????? ????????1, ???? ?????????1 , ???? ?????1, ????????? ?????????2 ??? ????? ??????????1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingmanee Tragoolpua; Matcha Porn-in; Ranu Yucharoen; Narumol Thongwai

    Crude extracts of Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison and Acorus calamus Linn. at concentrations of 3.3% and 33%. were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this study. Using paper disc diffusion method, Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison extract at 33% could inhibit all strains better than 3.3%. Inhibition of the extract on MRSA

  18. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots

    PubMed Central

    Vasudeva, Neeru

    2008-01-01

    Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400?mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

  19. Note: A new biologically active flavonol glycoside from Psoralea corylifolia (Linn.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Yadava; Vikash Verma

    2005-01-01

    A new biologically active flavonol glycoside (1) mp 264–265°C, C32H38O20, [M] 742 (EIMS) has been isolated from the methanol-soluble fraction of the defatted seeds of Psoralea corylifolia (Linn.). It was characterised as the new flavonol glycoside 3,5,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavone-3?-O-?-l-xylopyranosyl(1?3)-O-?-l-arabinopyranosyl(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside by several colour reactions, spectral analysis and chemical degradations. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity against various bacteria and fungi.

  20. A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Asha, K. V.; Rajashekhara, N.; Chauhan, M.G.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds. PMID:22131723

  1. A new biologically active flavone glycoside from the seeds of Cassia fistula (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Yadava, R N; Verma, Vikash

    2003-03-01

    A new bioactive flavone glycoside 1 [mp 252-254 degrees C, C28H32O16, [M]+ 624 (EIMS)] was isolated from the acetone soluble fraction of the defatted seeds of Cassia fistula (Linn.). It was characterized as a new bioactive flavone glycoside 5,3',4'-tri-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside by several colour reactions, spectral analysis and chemical degradations. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity. PMID:12608640

  2. Antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Manonmani, G; Bhavapriya, V; Kalpana, S; Govindasamy, S; Apparanantham, T

    2005-02-10

    Aqueous extract of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers (ACF) was screened for its antioxidant effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats. An appreciable decrease in peroxidation products viz thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides was observed in heart tissues of ACF treated diabetic rats. The decreased activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione in diabetic rats were brought back to near normal range upon ACF treatment. These results suggest that ACF has got promising antioxidative activity in alloxan diabetic rats. PMID:15652272

  3. Antispasmodic activity of the tertiary base of Daucus carota, Linn. seeds.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, S S; Sen, S P; Sanyal, A K; Das, P K

    1979-01-01

    A nitrogen containing base responding to Mayer's test and Dragendorff's reagent for tertiary bases has been isolated from the seeds of Daucus carota Linn. The effects of the base as its bromide have been studied on smooth muscles of ileum, uterus, blood vessels and trachea of different species of animals. The tertiary base has been found to have papaverine like nonspecific smooth muscle relaxant and spasmolytic activity, but its activity was found to be about one-tenth of that of papaverine. PMID:521127

  4. A new labdane-type diterpene from the bark of Juniperus chinensis Linn.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-I; Chen, Wen-Ching; Shao, Yi-Yuan; Yeh, Guey-Ru; Yang, Ning-Sun; Chiang, Wenchang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    From the bark of Juniperus chinensis Linn., a new labdane-type diterpene, methyl 14,15-dihydroxy-8(17),12E-labdadien-19-oate (1a), together with nine known compounds, trans-communic acid, cis-communic acid, 15,16-bisnor-13-oxo-8(17),11E-labdadien-19-oic acid, sandaracopimaric acid, 7-oxosandaracopimaric acid, sugiol, 7-oxototarol, alpha-cedrol and beta-sitosteryl-1-O-beta-glucopyranoside were isolated. The structures of those compounds were elucidated based on spectral analysis and chemical evidences. PMID:18855216

  5. Urease inhibitory activity of ursane type sulfated saponins from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saleha Suleman; Khan, Ajmal; Khan, Afsar; Wadood, Abdul; Farooq, Umar; Ahmed, Amir; Zahoor, Aqib; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Sener, Bilge; Erdemoglu, Nurgun

    2014-02-15

    Five ursane type sulfated saponins have been isolated from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. (locally called Chashum). The urease inhibitory effects of these compounds have been investigated for the first time as well as their molecular docking studies have also been carried out to check the structure-activity relationship. The IC50 values of these compounds could not be found due to paucity of the samples. The molecular docking studies were performed only for the most active compound mono sodium salt of 3?,23-di-O-sulfonyl-23-hydroxyurs-20(21)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (Zygofaboside A; 1). PMID:24182987

  6. Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn.: An analysis by ABTS .+ decolorization assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ponnan Arumugam; Perumal Ramamurthy; Sathiyavedu Thyagarajan Santhiya; Arabandi Ramesh

    Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free ra- dicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage. Mentha spicata Linn ., commonly called spearmint, belongs to the family lamiaceae. It was selected in the present study because Menth a extracts have antioxidant properties due to the presence of eugenol, caffeic acid,

  7. Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Vijaya; M Ramanathan; B Suresh

    Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg\\/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly

  8. Local management practices influence the viability of the baobab ( Adansonia digitata Linn.) in different land use types, Cinzana, Mali

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shivcharn S Dhillion; Gunnar Gustad

    2004-01-01

    In west Africa, the alarming rate of land use intensification and the assumed deterioration of parkland species calls for assessments of locally valued non-timber forest product (NTFP) yielding populations. This study focused on the baobab tree, Adansonia digitata Linn., in Cinzana, Mali. Here by conducting biological inventories in different land use types and interviews we addressed the following central questions.

  9. CORROSION INHIBITION OF CARBON STEEL IN LOW CHLORIDE MEDIA BY AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS LINN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Anuradha; R. Vimala; B. Narayanasamy; J. Arockia Selvi; Susai Rajendran

    2007-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of white flower, namely, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in an aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Clhas been evaluated by the mass loss method. The flower extract (FE) shows good IE. In the presence of Zn, excellent IE is shown by the flower extract. A synergistic effect

  10. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of wild bitter melon ( Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Jing Wu; Lean-Teik Ng

    2008-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser. (Cucurbitaceae), also known as “Shan Ku Gua”, is a wild variety of bitter melon (BM) in Taiwan. The size of its fruits is only about one-fifth of the commonly seen BM. It is commonly consumed as vegetable and also used as a popular folk medicine. In this study, the antioxidant and free radical scavenging

  11. Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

  12. Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Erlânio O.; Silva, Natálya F.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; Lima, Sidney G.; Costa, José Galberto M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 ?g/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 ?g/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 ×, 1250-5 ?g/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

  13. A new flavonol glycoside from the Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Haibing; Liu, Huixin; Yuan, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. belonging to the family Malvaceae is a kind of one year herbage plant, which is one of the most important vegetables widely grown in Nigeria for its tender fruits and young leaves. It's easy to be cultivated and grows well in both tropical and temperate zones, that is, it is widely planted from Africa to Asia, South European to America. A new flavonol glycoside characterized as 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-4??-O-methyl flavonol -3-O-?-D- glucopyranoside (1) has been isolated from the fruit of A. esculentus together with one known compound 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy flavonol -3-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including 2-D NMR and mass (MS) spectra. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The present work deals with the isolation, identification and antioxidant activity of the two compounds. Materials and Methods: The compounds were isolated by Diaion HP-20, Sephedex LH-20 column chromatography methods, their structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by two assays, e.g., DPPH and FRAP. Results: Two flavonol glycosides have been isolated from the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus L. for the first time, and the compound 1 was a new compound, the compound 2 was isolated from the plant for the first time. Conclusion: The results show that the two flavonol glycosides have strong ability for scavenging DPPH and FRAP free radical by the experiment of antioxidant activities, so A. esculentus may be a natural antioxidants resource. PMID:22438657

  14. Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn. showed remarkable antihyperglycemic activity due to its possible systematic effect involving in the pancreatic and extra pancreatic mechanism. Forever, the antihyperlipidemic activity was exerted possible by lowering the higher level of lipid profile and decreasing the intercalated disc space in the heart. The antioxidant activity of extract was due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increasing the SOD, GPx and CAT. It was corroborate that the extract shown the Paederia foetida Linn leaves potential to be act as antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties. PMID:24564866

  15. Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Krunal A.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

    2013-01-01

    In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

  16. Hyperascyrones A-H, polyprenylated spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives from Hypericum ascyron Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hucheng; Chen, Chunmei; Liu, Junjun; Sun, Bin; Wei, Guangzheng; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jinwen; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Yonghui

    2015-07-01

    Eight polyprenylated spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives (PSAPs), hyperascyrones A-H, were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum ascyron Linn., together with six known analogs. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and their absolute configurations were determined by electronic circular dichroism calculations (ECD, Gaussian 09). Structures of previously reported tomoeones C, D, G, and H were revised. Hyperascyrones A-H were evaluated for their cytotoxic and anti-HIV-1 activities, with hyperascyrones C and G exhibiting significant cytotoxicities against HL-60 cell lines with IC50 values of 4.22 and 8.36?M, respectively. In addition, the chemotaxonomic significance of these compounds was also discussed. PMID:25800107

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of Chandrashura (Lepidium sativum Linn.) an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Raval, Nita D; Ravishankar, B; Ashok, B K

    2013-07-01

    Lepidium sativum Linn. (Chandrashura) of Family Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) is being used by the people of Gujarat for treating inflammatory condition like arthritis. To evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity, Charles Foster albino rats were selected and experiments were carried out in three groups, therapeutic dose group, twice of therapeutic dose group and control group. In Carrageenan-induced paw oedema, the test drug produced moderate anti-inflammatory activity; however, the effect did not show statistically significant activity due to variation in the data of the control group. In formaldehyde-induced paw oedema in rats, the test drug produced moderate to significant suppression. This indicates that Chandrashura has a strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of fibroblasts and also probably has connective tissue modulation effect. PMID:24501528

  18. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of Pavetta indica Linn. leaf extract (family: Rubiaceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Subhash C; Mohana Lakshmi, S; Ashok Kumar, C K; Sur, Tapas K; Boominathan, R

    2003-08-01

    The anti-inflammatory potential of methanol extract of Pavetta indica Linn. leaves (Family: Rubiaceae) was evaluated against several models of inflammation such as carragenin, histamine and dextran induced pedal inflammation in rats. The extract showed 48.41%, 41.10% and 24.22% inhibition respectively; when compared to that of control animals. The effect was comparable with that of the standard drug indomethacin, a standard non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Simultaneous subplantar administration of the extract and carrageenin in a mixture helps in differentiating true anti-inflammatory action from an apparent anti-inflammatory effect due to counter-irritant activity. The methanol extract also effectively and significantly reduced cotton pellet induced granuloma. The percentage of inhibition was 62.78 at the dose 500 mg/kg, thereby suggesting its activity in the proliferative phase of the inflammatory process. PMID:12916086

  19. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Jamkhande, Prasad G.; Wattamwar, Amruta S.

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (??? niú x?n gu?; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  20. Chemistry and hepatoprotective activity of an active fraction from Barleria prionitis Linn. in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Chandan, B K; Prabhakar, A; Taneja, S C; Singh, J; Qazi, G N

    2005-05-01

    Iridoid enriched fraction IF from the ethanol-water extract of aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Barleria prionitis Linn. was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in various acute and chronic animal test models of hepatotoxicity. It afforded significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride, galactosamine and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Silymarin, was used as reference hepatoprotective. In the safety evaluation study the oral LD50 was found to be more than 3000 mg/kg, with no signs of abnormalities or any mortality observed for 15 days period under observation after single dose of drug administration whereas intraperitoneal LD50 was found to be 2530 mg/kg+/-87 mg/kg. SE (n=10) in mice. The studies revealed significant and concentration dependent hepatoprotective potential of 'IF' as it reversed the majority of the altered hepatic parameters in experimental liver damage in rodents. PMID:16106393

  1. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

  2. Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

    2014-02-01

    Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-?-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98?±?7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

  3. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

  4. Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Daswani, Poonam G.; Brijesh, S.; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2011-01-01

    To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen. PMID:21713044

  5. Antioxidative responses of Salvinia (Salvinia natans Linn.) to aluminium stress and it's modulation by polyamine.

    PubMed

    Mandal, C; Ghosh, N; Maiti, Saborni; Das, K; Gupta, Sudha; Dey, N; Adak, M K

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidative stress response of free-floating aquatic fern (Salvinia natans Linn.) was studied under increasing toxic amount of aluminium (Al) and its modulation by exogenous application of polymaine. Increased levels of superoxide (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) species from affected tissues suggested that plants were undergoing oxidative stress and it was concominant with increased accumulation of Al in a dose dependent manner. Application of polyamine like putrescine (Put) led to a decrease in oxidative stress as revealed by reduced level of O2 (-) and H2O2. Al toxicity resulted into decreased biomass that was ameliorated by the application of Put. The changes observed in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and protein oxidation also indicated that plats are undergoing Al induced oxidative stress. In order to circumvent the oxidative stress resulting from Al toxicity, plants enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant pathways were active. The ratio of both oxidized and reduced cellular glutathione exhibited significant variation in response to Al stress and was improved upon Put treatment. Peroxidase and glutathione were upregulated whereas catalse was downregulated under varying doses of Al. Isozyme profile of above enzymes also showed a trend with increasing amount of Al. The nuclear disintegration study using comet assay was indicative of Al induced oxidative stress. In the present study, we have explored the antioxidative response of aquatic fern Salvinia natans Linn in response to Al toxicity. The application of polyamine Put improved the overall antioxidative response and thus would make it a better candidate to be used as hyper accumulator of Al and other toxic metals. PMID:24381441

  6. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

  7. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

    2011-07-01

    Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant. PMID:22279376

  8. Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Avani; Patel, Amit; Patel, Amit; Patel, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh), belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC50values, all the extracts’ concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae) leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:21808558

  9. Antiulcerogenic potential of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds on aspirin plus pyloric ligation-induced ulcers in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Sanmugapriya, E; Venkataraman, S

    2007-05-01

    Strychnos potatorum (Fam: Loganiaceae) Linn seeds are useful in the treatment of gastropathy in Indian traditional system of medicine. The present study describes the antiulcerogenic potential of S. potatorum Linn seeds on aspirin plus pyloric ligation (Aspirin+PL)-induced gastric ulcer model to substantiate its folklore claim. The seed powder (SPP) and aqueous extract of the seeds (SPE) at two doses 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. prevented ulcer formation by decreasing acid secretory activity and increasing the mucin activity in rats. The antiulcerogenic potential was further confirmed by the histopathological studies of stomach mucosa. The results indicate that SPP and SPE exhibit antiulcerogenic activity by both antisecretory and mucoprotective actions. The mucoprotective action of SPP and SPE may be due to the presence of polysaccharides in seeds. The antiulcerogenic potential of SPP and SPE was compared with the standard antiulcer drug, ranitidine. PMID:17317130

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song-Chow Lin; Chia-Hsien Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Yun-Ho Lin; Chin-Fa Chen; I-Cheng Chen; Li-Ya Wang

    2002-01-01

    Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n=10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol\\/80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n=10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml\\/kg carbon tetrachloride

  11. Fast Plants Grown in Light and Dark

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lauffer, Hedi Baxter

    Photograph of two five-day-old Standard Fast Plants grown in Bottle Growing Systems--one grown with full light, one grown in the dark. This is a good example of a quick way to stimulate discussion about the matter and energy sources and needs that germinating seeds have in comparison to seedlings or plants.

  12. Monitoring of the active layer at Kapp Linne', SVALBARD 1972-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerman, J.

    2003-04-01

    The active layer has been monitored at ten sites in the vicinity of Kapp Linné, (78o03'42" 13o37'07") Svalbard during the period 1972 - 2002. The ten sites differ in elevation, distance from the sea, vegetation cover, substrate and active periglacial processes. From 1994 the International permafrost Association "CALM" standard grids, with measurement within 100x100m squares, has been applied. Microclimate and soil temperatures have been monitored by data logger covering levels form 2 m above to 7m below the ground. The macroclimate is covered by complete data series from the nearby weather station at Kapp Linne’, covering the period 1912 to 2002. A number of periglacial processes, especially slope processes, are monitored parallel with the active layer. The mean active layer for the sites varies between 1,13m and 0,43m. The deepest active layer is found in the exposed, well drained raised beach ridges and the shallowest in the bogs. The interannual variability during the observation period do not correlate well with the MAAT but better with the summer climate, June - August mean or DDT. The data clearly illustrate colder summers during the period 1972 to 1983 and after that steadily increasing summer temperatures. The active layer follows the same general pattern with good correlations. There are several surface indications as a response to the deepening active layer especially in the bogs. Thermokarst scars appear frequently and a majority of the palsa like mounds and pounus have disappeared. A drastic change in the vegetation on the bogs has also occurred, from dry heath to wet Carex vegetation. In summary the observations from Kapp Linne’ are; 1. A clear trend towards milder summers, 2. A clear trend towards deeper active layers, 3. All sites show a similar pattern, 4. The bogs are getting strikingly wetter, 5. Mounds in the bog sites are disappearing, 6. The slow slope processes are getting accelerated, 7. Thermokarst depressions and scars are appearing in a small scale at all sites, 8. Soil temperatures are increasing at all levels down to 7 m.

  13. Mint oil (Mentha spicata Linn.) offers behavioral radioprotection: a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion study.

    PubMed

    Haksar, A; Sharma, A; Chawla, R; Kumar, Raj; Lahiri, S S; Islam, F; Arora, M P; Sharma, R K; Tripathi, R P; Arora, Rajesh

    2009-02-01

    Mentha spicata Linn. (mint), a herb well known for its gastroprotective properties in the traditional system of medicine has been shown to protect against radiation-induced lethality, and recently its constituents have been found to possess calcium channel antagonizing properties. The present study examined the behavioral radioprotective efficacy of mint oil (obtained from Mentha spicata), particularly in mitigating radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which has been proposed as a behavioral endpoint that is mediated by the toxic effects of gamma radiation on peripheral systems, primarily the gastrointestinal system in the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Intraperitoneal administration of Mentha spicata oil 10% (v/v), 1 h before 2 Gy gamma radiation, was found to render significant radioprotection against CTA (p < 0.05), by blocking the saccharin avoidance response within 5 post-treatment observational days, with the highest saccharin intake being observed on day 5. This finding clearly demonstrates that gastroprotective and calcium channel antagonizing properties of Mentha spicata can be effectively utilized in preventing radiation-induced behavioral changes. PMID:18853399

  14. Study on the diuretic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S; Murugesan, T; Maiti, K; Ghosh, L; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    2001-11-01

    Methanol extract of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds (SPSE) was evaluated for its diuretic activity in Wistar albino rats. The SPSE was administered at the graded doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight. The parameters which were taken into account during the experimental on each rat were: total urine volume (corrected for water intake during the test period), body weight before and after the experiment, and the concentration of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in urine. The total urine volumes of the SPSE (600 mg/kg)-treated rats were evaluated nearly two and half fold then compared with the control (saline treated) group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions) and anions (chloride ions) also increased significantly with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide. The increase of cations in the urine on treatment with Strychnospotatorum seed extract (SPSE) was dose-dependent. This effect supports the use of the Strychnos potatorum seeds as a diuretic in folk remedies. PMID:11824523

  15. Protective Effect of Thunbergia laurifolia (Linn.) on Lead Induced Acetylcholinesterase Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2013-01-01

    Thunbergia laurifolia (linn., TL), a natural phenolic compound, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The current study ascertains the total phenolic content present in TL aqueous leaf extract and also examines the antioxidant ability of the extract in preserving acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of mice exposed to lead in vivo and in vitro model. Mice were given lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1?g/L) together with TL 100 and 200?mg/kg/day. The result showed that Pb induced AChE dysfunction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. TL significantly prevented Pb induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner which was indicated by comparatively better performance of TL treated mice in Morris Water Maze Swimming Test and increased AChE activity in the tissue sample collected from the brains of these mice. TL also exhibited the greatest amount of phenolic content, which has a significant positive correlation with its antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggested that the total phenolic compounds in TL could exhibit antioxidant and in part neuroprotective properties. It may play a potential treatment strategy for Pb contamination. PMID:24455676

  16. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi): an ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-08-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn., commonly known as 'Tulsi' or 'Holy Basil', is considered to be the most sacred herb of India. Several anatomical parts of O. sanctum are known to have an impressive number of therapeutic properties and accordingly find use in several traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Scientific investigations have shown that O. sanctum has a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities. The presence of an impressive number of phytoconstituents in O. sanctum could explain its exceptional beneficial effects. Although several recent articles provide an overview of the various pharmacological properties of O. sanctum, the use of this herb for either prevention or therapy of oncologic diseases has not been exclusively and critically discussed in the literature. The present review critically and comprehensively examines the current knowledge on the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of O. sanctum. The review also examines, in detail, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of O. sanctum. Finally, we discuss the role of synergy, current limitations, and future directions of research toward the effective use of this ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. PMID:23629478

  17. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies.

    PubMed

    Gautam, M K; Goel, R K

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

  18. Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extracts inhibit acetylcholinesterase and improve cognition in rats with experimentally induced dementia.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Mani, Vasudevan; Ashok Dundapa, Taranalli; Watanabe, Kenichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2011-09-01

    Cognitive disorders such as dementia, attention deficits, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been well investigated. However, effective interventions for the promotion and progression of AD are unavailable to date. The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous (300 and 500 mg/kg) and alcoholic (300 and 500 mg/kg) extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves as an antidementic and anticholinesterase agent and also as an immunostimulant in rats. Maximal electroshock, atropine, and cyclosporine were used to induce dementia. The passive avoidance task was used for assessing memory. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was estimated in different parts of the brain, and immune status was studied using dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) skin sensitivity tests. In all the three models both aqueous and alcoholic O. sanctum extracts decreased the time taken to reach the shock-free zone and the number of mistakes and significantly decreased the AChE activity in rats. O. sanctum treatment significantly increased the induration in the DNCB skin test. Therefore, O. sanctum was shown to be useful for the management of experimentally induced cognitive dysfunctions in rats. PMID:21812651

  19. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

  20. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of methanolic leaf and root extracts of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamilla, Linggam; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea) is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. This study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of C. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models. Materials and Methods: The different antinociception models such as hot plate, tail-flick and formalin tests were used along with naloxone (a non-selective opioid antagonist) to establish the antinociceptive activity of both leaf and root extracts. Results: Both C. ternatea leaf and root extracts markedly demonstrated antinociceptive action in experimental animals. Results of formalin test showed that the antinociceptive activity of the extracts may be mediated at both central and peripheral level. Moreover, the results of hot plate and tail-flick tests further implies that C. ternatea root extract mediates antinociceptive activity centrally at supraspinal and spinal levels whereas, the C. ternatea leaf extract's antinociceptive activity is mediated centrally at supraspinal level only. It is believed that the opioid receptors are probably involved in antinociceptive activity of both C. ternatea root extract. Conclusions: Our studies support the traditional use of C. ternatea leaf and root against pain. The extracts can also be utilised as a new source of central analgesics in treatment of pain. PMID:25298581

  1. Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; da Conceicão Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

    2011-10-01

    Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states. PMID:21548805

  2. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    PubMed Central

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

  3. Cancer chemopreventive potential of luteolin-7-O-glucoside isolated from Ophiorrhiza mungos Linn.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Arul Albert; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Michael, Gabriel Paulraj; Al Numair, Khalid S

    2011-01-01

    The anticarcinogenic potential of the phytocompound Luteolin-7-O-Glucoside (LUT7G), isolated from the leaves of Ophiorrhiza mungos Linn, was studied against 4 different cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM, AGS, MCF-7, and A549) and normal VERO cell line. The ability of LUT7G to induce apoptosis was determined by its antiradical activity, DNA fragmentation, expression of ?-catenin, and chemopreventive efficacy in vivo by administering rats with DMH (20 mg/kg b.w., s.c.) for 4 consecutive wk and supplementing with 3 different doses throughout the experimental period of 16 wk. LUT7G scavenged 80% of DPPH radicals generated in vitro at 1000 ?M and suppressed the expression of ?-catenin to 40% at 120 ?M concentrations. LUT7G induced apoptosis by scavenging ROS and suppressing the expression of ?-catenin in COLO 320 DM cells and effectively inhibited ACF development in DMH-induced experimental carcinogenesis. Hence LUT7G can be a potent anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis. PMID:21161823

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of 'TAF' an active fraction from the plant Barleria prionitis Linn.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Bani, S; Gupta, D K; Chandan, B K; Kaul, A

    2003-04-01

    'TAF' fraction from the methanol-water extract of Barleria prionitis Linn. was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities against different acute and chronic animal test models. It exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity against different inflammagens like carrageenan, histamine and dextran. The anti-inflammatory activity in adrenalectomised rats was maintained showing that the effect of fraction 'TAF' is not activated by the pituitary-adrenal axis. Significant anti-arthritic activity was observed in adjuvant-induced polyarthritis test in rats. 'TAF' also showed inhibition of vascular permeability and leucocytes migration in vivo into the site of inflammatory insult.Ibuprofen (Cadilla India Ltd., Mumbai) was used as a standard reference drug. The oral (p.o.) LD(50) was more than 3000mg/kg, with no signs of abnormalities or any mortality observed for 15 days after single-dose drug administration. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) LD(50) was found to be 2530mg/kg (+/-87mg/kg S.E.) [Proceedings of Society of Experimental Biological Medicine 57 (1944) 261]. PMID:12639739

  5. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M.; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R. R. B.; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

  6. Cholinesterase inhibition activity of Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. an edible leafy vegetable from West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, Santanu; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2012-01-01

    Maesilea quadrifolia Linn. (Marsileaceae) is a leafy vegetable well known in India. The current study aims to explore the phytochemical profile of M. quadrifolia and investigate its anti-cholinesterase potential. The methanol extract of the plant was subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening (total alkaloidal content, saponin content and phenol content) and its anti-cholinesterase potential was tested by TLC bioautography and other screening methods using acytylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The study revealed that the extract contains various classes of phytoconstituents including steroids, saponins, alkaloids and other polyphenols. Total alkaloid, phenolic and saponin contents were found to be 19.3?mg?g?¹ and 158.5?±?1.02?mg?g?¹ as gallic acid equivalents and 2.63?mg?g?¹ of the extract, respectively. The TLC bioautography method exhibited the inhibition of both enzymes. In a microtiter plate assay, the IC?? values of the extract for AChE and BChE were found to be 51.89?±?0.24?µg?mL?¹ and 109.43?±?2.82?µg?mL?¹, respectively. These findings suggest that M. quadrifolia is a potential lead as an AChE and BChE inhibitor, which may be useful in the management of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21978132

  7. Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

    2012-07-01

    The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Anti-proliferative and antioxidative activities of Thai noni/Yor (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Thani, Wasina; Vallisuta, Omboon; Siripong, Pongpan; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2010-03-01

    In this study the leaves of the Thai noni/Yor, (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) were extracted by several methods and evaluated against human cancer cell lines: KB (human epidermoid carcinoma), HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma) and HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines as well as a Vero (African green monkey kidney) cell line, employing the MTT colorimetric method, comparing it to damnacanthal, rutin, and scopoletin. The dichloromethane extract of the fresh leaf showed a better inhibitory effect against KB and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 21.67 and 68.50 microg/ml, respectively. The dichloromethane extract of dried leaves revealed cytotoxicity against the KB cell line with an IC50 value of 39.00 microg/ml. Other extracts, as well as rutin and scopoletin, showed reduced anti-proliferative effects on all cancer cell lines (IC50 103 to over 600 microg/ml). Interestingly, the damnacanthal had potent cytotoxicity against all cancer cell lines and Vero cell lines. These results suggest Thai noni extracts may be safer than the pure compounds, due to their higher safety ratios, which is a good indicator for possible cancer treatment. Several non-aqueous extracts from the leaves showed antioxidant properties, giving IC50 values of 0.20-0.35 mg/ml. It can be concluded the leaves of M. citrifolia may have benefit as a food supplement for chemoprevention against epidermoid and cervical cancers. PMID:20578533

  9. Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dada, E. O.; Ekundayo, F. O.; Makanjuola, O. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms. PMID:24711746

  10. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Materials and Methods: Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Results: Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study. PMID:24501447

  11. Physico-chemical properties of Tecoma stans Linn. seed oil: a new crop for vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Mokbli, Sadok; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    Tecoma stans Linn. is known to have various medicinal and therapeutic properties. However, to our knowledge, no information is available regarding their seed oils. In this study, the fatty acid (FA) compositions, physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacities of T. stans seed oils (TSOs) were investigated. The oil content of the seeds was 15%. The FAs of the TSOs were analysed by GC-MS. ?-Linolenic (45.47%), oleic (23.56%), linoleic (11.48%), palmitic (6.09%) and stearic (4.12%) acids were the major detected FAs. ?-Linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, unusually FAs, were also present (1.04% and 6.65%, respectively). The total tocol content in the TSOs was found to be 266.06 mg/100 g. The main component was ?-tocopherol (78.93%). The total phenolic content (168.69 mg GAE/100 g oil) and total flavonoid content (5.54 mg CE/g oil) were also determined in the TSOs. PMID:25813239

  12. Microscopic evaluation and seasonal variations of anthraquinone glycosides of cultivated Cassia fistula Linn.

    PubMed

    Abo, K A; Adeyemi, A A; Sobowale, A O

    2001-01-01

    In this report, we present the results of the microscopy, seasonal variations and spectrophotometric estimation of hydroxy-anthraquinone glycosides of culitivated Cassia fistula Linn. The total glycoside contents ofthe morphological parts of this species at different stages of growth are also presented. The study shows that anthraquinone glycosides are concentrated in the leaves (1.75%) and flowers (1.58%) at peak flowering. Notable seasonal variations were observed in the cultivated species. Hydroxyanthraquinones reached peak levels druing the months of September (1.08%) and October (2.20%). There was a significant drop (P < 0.05) in glycoside content during most part of the rainy season. It has been established that anthraquinone glycosides, rather than the aglycones, are the active forms and hence an estimation of the total glycoside content of a sample is a reliable indication of biological activity. The advantages of using the natural anthraquinone laxative when the glycoside content is highest are discussed. The study has provided useful information on the best period for harvesting the morphological parts of C. fistula for drug development. PMID:14510141

  13. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study.

    PubMed

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M; Thakar, Anup B; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-07-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

  14. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

  15. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  16. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Talpate, Karuna A.; Bhosale, Uma A.; Zambare, Mandar R.; Somani, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea Linn. (EECT) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activity in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Antihyperglycemic activity of EECT was studied in normal fasted and glucose fed hyperglycemic and epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats by estimating fasting serum glucose (FSG) by glucose oxidisae or peroxidase enzymatic method. Antioxidant activity of EECT was studied by assaying lipid peroxide/Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide, catalase (CAT) and glutathione levels in diabetic rats. The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by decreasing FSG in all hyperglycemic models except epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats; in which improvement in FSG was observed only with EECT in 400 mg/kg dose, whereas significant decrease in TBARS (P < 0.001), nitric oxide (P < 0.001) and significant increase in SOD (P < 0.001), CAT (P < 0.01) and reduced glutathione levels (P < 0.001) was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) compared to diabetic control group. The results indicated that EECT has remedial effects on hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:24696583

  17. Study on anti-diabetic activities of crude methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) sourced from five different host trees.

    PubMed

    Osadebe, P O; Okide, G B; Akabogu, I C

    2004-12-01

    The hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycemic activities of dried leaves of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) (Loranthaceae), parasitic on Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica, were evaluated in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated (intraperitoneally) with 200 mg/kg of the respective methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.), glibenclamide (positive control), and 20% (v/v) Tween 20 solution (negative control). The sugar levels of the withdrawn blood samples were determined by o-toluidine spectrophotometric method. The studies indicate that the crude methanolic extract of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) exhibited statistically significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.001) and anti-hyperglycemic (P < 0.001) activities in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats, respectively. The hypoglycaemic effect was found to be dose-dependent. The maximum effect of the mistletoe extract (400 mg/kg) from Persea americana on alloxan-induced diabetic rats was found to be statistically comparable with that of the positive control, glibenclamide, at 24 h after administration, with a percentage reduction of blood sugar levels of 82.59 and 83.34%, respectively. Acute toxicity tests of the methanolic extracts of Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica host trees in mice gave LD(50) values of 11650, 11650, 5900, 5900 and 5900 mg/kg, respectively, which are all within the practically non-toxic range. The methanolic extract of African mistletoe was found to be a good candidate for alternative and/or complimentary medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus. The leaves of the Eastern Nigerian species of the African mistletoe harvested from Kola acuminata, Azadirchta indica and Baphia nitda host trees exhibited comparatively better anti-hyperglycemic activities among the host trees studied. PMID:15507325

  18. Optimisation of phenolics recovery from Vitex agnus-castus Linn. leaves by high-pressure and temperature extraction.

    PubMed

    Lataoui, Mohammed; Seffen, Mongi; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Perego, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    To optimise recovery of phenolics from Vitex agnus-castus Linn., a non-conventional high-pressure (2-24 bar) and temperature (100-180°C) extraction method was used under nitrogen atmosphere with methanol as a solvent. Optimal temperature was between 100 and 140°C, and optimal extraction time was about one half that of conventional solid/liquid extraction at room temperature. Final yields of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, o-diphenols and anthocyanins extraction were 2.0, 3.0, 2.5 and 11-fold those obtained by conventional extraction. PMID:24404955

  19. Protective effect of Hypericum perforatum Linn (St. John's wort) against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis on human neuroblastoma cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi-Hyeon Jang; Taeck-Hyun Lee; Min-Chul Shin; Geon-Ho Bahn; Jong-Woo Kim; Dong-Hoon Shin; Ee-Hwa Kim; Chang-Ju Kim

    2002-01-01

    The medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum Linn, commonly known as St. John's wort, has been used as an antidepressant. To investigate whether St. John's wort possesses a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, flow cytometry analysis, DNA fragmentation assay, and caspase-3 enzyme assay were

  20. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    PubMed

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction. PMID:23648758

  1. Far infrared-assisted extraction followed by capillary electrophoresis for the determination of bioactive constituents in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haotian Duan; Yi Chen; Gang Chen

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a method based on capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection and far infrared-assisted extraction has been developed for the determination of rutin, gentisic acid, and quercetin in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn. The effects of detection potential, irradiation time, and the voltage applied on the infrared generator were investigated to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The detection

  2. Onset of puberty and ovarian steroidogenesis following adminstration of methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. stem and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gupta; U. K. Mazumder; D. K. Pal; S. Bhattacharya

    2003-01-01

    The effect of methanolic extract (ME) of Cuscuta reflexa stem Roxb. and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed on the onset of reproductive maturity and the ovarian steroidogenesis was studied by means of biochemical techniques. ME of Cuscuta reflexa stem and Corchorus olitorius seed treatment causes a remarkable delay in sexual maturation as evidenced by the age at vaginal opening and apperance

  3. Vitamin C content of organically grown produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organically grown produce is the fastest growing sector of fresh market sales in the U.S. While accounting for only 3% of total produce sales, it is growing by 20% per year. There has been much debate over the relative health merits of organically grown fruits and vegetables. Most consumers believ...

  4. ANTIPLAQUE AND ANTIGINGIVITIS EFFECTS OF A GEL CONTAINING PUNICA GRANATUM LINN EXTRACT. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Alexandre Daher Yunes; Maia, Juliana Lemos; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; de Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract were evaluated using a 21-day partial-mouth experimental model of gingivitis. Methods: 23 volunteers participated in this cross-over, doubleblind study, carried out in 2 phases of 21 days each. For each period of the experiment, an acrylic toothshield was made for each volunteer to carry the test or placebo gel as well as to avoid brushing of the 4 experimental teeth (posterior teeth in the lower left quadrant). The subjects were randomly assigned to use either the placebo gel (control group) or the test gel (experimental group) and were instructed to brush the remaining teeth normally 3 times a day. On days 0 and 21, the visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded. Results: The results did not show statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups for either of the indices (VPI and GBI). Conclusion: The gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract was not efficient in preventing supragingival dental plaque formation and gingivitis. PMID:19089066

  5. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    SciTech Connect

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 ?m. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  6. Arsenic toxicity in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.): significance of potassium nutrition.

    PubMed

    Umar, Shahid; Gauba, Nidhi; Anjum, Naser A; Siddiqi, Tariq O

    2013-09-01

    In a hydroponic culture, experiments were performed to study the influence of potassium (K) supplementation (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg L(-1)) on the arsenic (As; 0, 8, and 10 mg L(-1))-accrued changes in growth traits (plant biomass, root-shoot length) and the contents of lepidine, As and K, in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) at 10 days after treatment. The changes in these traits were correlated with shoot proline content, protein profile, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11). In general, As-alone treatments significantly decreased the growth traits but lead to significant enhancements in shoot proline and enzyme activities. K-supplementation to As-treated L. sativum seedlings decreased shoot-As content, reduced As-induced decreases in growth traits but enhanced the content of shoot proline, and the activities of the studied enzymes maximally with K100 + As8 and As10 mg L(-1). Both 8 and 10 mg L(-1) of As drastically downregulated the shoot proteins ranging from 43-65 kDa. With As10 mg L(-1), there was a total depletion of protein bands below 23 kDa; however, K80 mg L(-1) maximally recovered and upregulated the protein bands. Additionally, protein bands were downregulated (at par with As-alone treatment) above K80 mg L(-1) level. Interestingly, As-stress increased lepidine content in a dose-dependent manner which was further augmented with the K-supplementation. It is suggested that K protects L. sativum against As-toxicity by decreasing its accumulation and strengthening antioxidant defense system and protein stability. PMID:23529401

  7. Influence of various host plants on the consumption and utilization of food by Pieris brassicae (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ansari, M S; Hasan, F; Ahmad, N

    2012-04-01

    Pieris brassicae (Linn.) is a destructive cosmopolitan pest of cruciferous crops. It is present wherever its host plants occur, and it is considered to be one of the most widely distributed of all the Lepidoptera. We investigated the affect of various host plants on the food consumption and utilization by P. brassicae. We quantified consumption of food, larval duration, pupal duration and weight on cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), radish (Raphanus sativus), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and mustard (Brassica campestris) under laboratory conditions. Insect-host relationships can be better understood by knowing the rate of food consumption, its digestibility and conversion of food eaten to body tissue. The consumption of food generally increased with the advancement of larval age. In our study we found that consumption of food was highest on radish and lowest on broccoli. The highest consumption of a particular host does not always indicate greater suitability of that host, until and unless other factors like consumption index (CI), relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), approximate digestibility (AD) and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) are also considered. In the current investigation, factors like CI, RGR, ECI and ECD were highest on cabbage. Low body weight of pupa is associated with rapid development. On cabbage, the weight of pupa of both sexes was found lowest. Thus, from the present study, it can be concluded that cabbage is a more suitable host for P. brassicae than other host plants evaluated. Hence, on cabbage, the values of Waldbauer indices were highest and P. brassicae developed with a faster rate. PMID:22030306

  8. Study of alpha-amylase and urease inhibitory activities of Melilotus indicus (Linn.) All.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Dildar; Younas, Saba; Anwer-Mughal, Qaria Mumtaz

    2014-01-01

    Melilotus indicus (Linn.) All. is a small herb distributed throughout Pakistan and has a number of ethnomedicinal uses. It is also consumed as a vegetable. In the present work, we are reporting the alpha-amylase and urease inhibitory activities of methanolic extract of M. indicus and its sub-fractions in different solvents. Both the methanolic extract and its fractions in chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water showed remarkable inhibitory activities against alpha-amylase with the IC50 values being 1.29, 1.45, 1.07, 1.45 and 2.10 mg/mL respectively. The efficacy of the methanolic extract was comparable with that of acarbose (1.20 mg/mL), while the ethyl acetate fraction was more potent. The urease inhibitory activities of methanolic extract and chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were more prominent with IC50 values being 0.95, 0.89, 1.53, 0.98 and 4.90 ?g/mL respectively. The activity of methanolic extract was slightly higher than that of thiourea (0.97 ?g/mL) which in turn was slightly higher than that of n-butanolic fraction. The chloroform fraction showed the highest anti-urease activity. All the plant samples showed enzyme inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, they were manifold more effective against urease than alpha-amylase. The combination of the plant extract with acarbose considerably increased the potency of the latter. The findings suggest that enzyme inhibitory activities of the vegetable M. indicus may have pharmacological significance against diabetes mellitus and gastrointestinal ulcers. PMID:24374453

  9. Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400?mg/kg and 900?mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6?weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900?mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26?mg/g, 1.4?mg/g and 1.19??g/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes. PMID:22943464

  10. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Tongjaroenbuangam, Walaiporn; Ruksee, Nootchanart; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Pakdeenarong, Noppakun; Kongbuntad, Watee; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2011-10-01

    The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes neuronal death in the CA3 layer of the hippocampus, which has been associated with learning and memory impairments. This study aimed to examine the ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) extract and its derivatives (quercetin and rutin) to protect neuronal function and improve learning and memory deficits in mice subjected to dexamethasone treatment. Learning and memory functions in mice were examined using the Morris water maze test. The results showed that the mice treated with dexamethasone had prolonged water maze performance latencies and shorter time spent in the target quadrant while mice pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prior to dexamethasone treatment showed shorter latencies and longer time spent in target quadrant. Morphological changes in pyramidal neurons were observed in the dexamethasone treated group. The number of CA3 hippocampal neurons was significantly lower while pretreated with quercetin, rutin or okra attenuated this change. Prolonged treatment with dexamethasone altered NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus. Pretreatment with quercetin, rutin or okra extract prevented the reduction in NMDA receptor expression. Dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation was examined using the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry technique. The number of BrdU-immunopositive cells was significantly reduced in dexamethasone-treated mice compared to control mice. Pretreatment with okra extract, either quercetin or rutin was found to restore BrdU-immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that quercetin, rutin and okra extract treatments reversed cognitive deficits, including impaired dentate gyrus (DG) cell proliferation, and protected against morphological changes in the CA3 region in dexamethasone-treated mice. The precise mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of these plant extracts should be further investigated. PMID:21740943

  11. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application

    PubMed Central

    Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (?), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient. PMID:25426443

  12. Nocardia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the coastal rhizosphere of Artemisia Linn., China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Wei; Feng, Wei-Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Bai, Juan-Luan; Yuan, Bo; Ju, Xiu-Yun; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Ji-Hong; Lv, Ai-Jun; Qin, Sheng

    2015-07-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain KLBMP S0043(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Artemisia Linn. collected from the coastal region of Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, in east China and was studied in detail for its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain KLBMP S0043(T) is a member of the genus Nocardia. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that strain KLBMP S0043(T) is closely related to Nocardia asteroides NBRC 15531(T) (97.61 %) and Nocardia neocaledoniensis SBHR OA6(T) (97.38 %); similarity to other type strains of the genus Nocardia was found to be less than 97.2 %. The organism has chemical and morphological features consistent with its classification in the genus Nocardia such as meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan and arabinose and galactose as the diagnostic sugars. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-8(H4?-cycl). Mycolic acids were detected. The diagnostic phospholipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The predominant cellular fatty acids were identified as C16:0, C18:0, C18:1?9c, 10-methyl C18:0 [tuberculostearic acid (TBSA)] and summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c/C16:1?6c). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 71.4 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strain from its most closely related strains. Based on morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain KLBMP S0043(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP S0043(T) (=CGMCC 4.7204 (T) = KCTC 29678(T)). PMID:25896308

  13. Materials science: Semiconductors grown large and thin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2015-04-01

    Atomically thin layers of semiconductors called transition-metal dichalcogenides have been grown uniformly on the square-centimetre scale -- paving the way for the ultimate miniaturization of electronic applications. See Letter p.656

  14. Comparison Of LEC-Grown And VGF-Grown GaSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijnen, L.; Brunton, R.; Grant, I. R.

    2004-11-01

    GaSb 2? diameter ingots doped with Tellurium have been grown by Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) on a (1 0 0) orientation. The ingots were grown in quartz crucibles with the use of an encapsulant and both 6 mm diameter and 50 mm diameter seeds. Twinning in the seed or in the cone of the crucible occurred in almost all cases when a 6 mm diameter seed was used, while using full-diameter (50 mm ID) seeds with a carefully controlled diameter resulted in single-crystal growth. The quality of the VGF-grown GaSb:Te from both 6 mm and full-diameter seeds has been compared to our commercially produced Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) grown GaSb. The donor density and raman spectra of the VGF-grown GaSb are comparable to the electronic properties of LEC-grown GaSb, but slightly lower mobilities for the VGF-material are observed. The etch pit density (EPD) in VGF-grown GaSb from 6 mm diameter seeds is extremely low, around 5 per cm2. As expected the EPD of LEC-grown GaSb is significantly higher, due to the higher stress induced in the material during growth. Interestingly, the EPD for GaSb grown by VGF from full diameter seeds is comparable to the EPD from LEC-grown material. It is believed that seeding in VGF-growth induces stress and, therefore, a higher EPD. The use of small seeds ensures that dislocations can grow out. The crystal quality of the three materials is compared by comparing the X-ray rocking curves. LEC-grown GaSb and VGF-grown GaSb from full-diameter and 6 mm diameter seeds show a FWHM of 14.6, 15.1, and 20.7 arcsec, respectively.

  15. Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

    2012-10-01

    Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method. PMID:22900261

  16. Comparative physico-chemical profile of Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds processed through water and Nimbu Swarasa (lemon juice).

    PubMed

    Roy, Sudipta; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, Vinay J

    2013-10-01

    Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.), known as Indian liquorice, is reputed as one of the world's most deadly but most beautiful seed belonging to the family Fabaceae, characterised under the Upavisha (semi-poisonous drugs) and used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Gunja only after proper Shodhana (purification procedures) in different media such as Godugdha (cow's milk), Kanji (sour gruel), etc., Apart from the classical methods, some traditional practitioners use Nimbu Swarasa for the Shodhana of Gunja seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to carry out Shodhana of Gunja seeds using Nimbu Swarasa and water. This study revealed differences in physico-chemical parameters of purified samples, in comparison to raw drugs. PMID:24696580

  17. Protective effects of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on genotoxins-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, K; Abraham, Suresh K; Santhiya, S T; Ramesh, A

    2003-06-01

    The modifying effects of the aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus Linn.) on cisplatin (CIS), cyclophosphamide (CPH), mitomycin-C (MMC) and urethane (URE) induced alterations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Three doses of saffron (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) were orally administered to mice for 5 consecutive days prior to administration of genotoxins. A significant reduction in the extent of lipid peroxidation with a concomitant increase in the liver enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GST, GPx) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione) were observed in saffron pretreated animals compared with the genotoxins alone treated animals. However, the modulatory effects were not always dose dependent. Our data suggest that saffron may exert its chemopreventive effects by modulation of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and detoxification systems. PMID:12820227

  18. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans. PMID:25159859

  19. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2014-11-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  20. The nonpeptide ?-eudesmol from Juniperus virginiana Linn. (Cupressaceae) inhibits ?-agatoxin IVA-sensitive Ca 2+ currents and synaptosomal 45 Ca 2+ uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Asakura; Toshiyuki Kanemasa; Kazuyuki Minagawa; Kiyomi Kagawa; Mitsuyoshi Ninomiya

    1999-01-01

    Recently, the ?-agatoxin IVA (?-Aga-IVA)-sensitive Ca2+ channel has been demonstrated to play an important role in the physiological neurotransmitter release in mammalian nerve terminals. In this study, we demonstrate that ?-eudesmol from Juniperus virginiana Linn. (Cupressaceae) inhibits ?-Aga-IVA-sensitive Ca2+ channels in rat brain synaptosomes and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Thirty millimolar KCl-induced 45Ca2+ uptake into the synaptosomes was inhibited by ?-Aga-IVA

  1. Protective effects of burdock ( Arctium lappa Linne) on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bor-Sen Wang; Gow-Chin Yen; Lee-Wen Chang; Wen-Jye Yen; Pin-Der Duh

    2007-01-01

    The protective effects of burdock (Arctium lappa Linne) on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and nitric oxide production were investigated. The results showed that methanolic extracts of burdock (MEB) and their major components, chlorogenic acid (CHA) and caffeic acid (CA), showed marked antioxidant activity against oxidative damage of liposome (p<0.05), deoxyribose (p<0.05) and protein (p<0.05). In addition, at a concentration

  2. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years especially, under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 microns, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 microns. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be discussed in detail.

  3. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Vujisic, L.; Szofran, F. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years, especially under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 micrometers, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5 mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 micrometers. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be discussed in detail.

  4. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  5. Rice Plants Grown With and Without Endophytes

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These rice plants show the difference in growth of rice plants exposed to salt when grown with and without endophytes, which are mutually beneficial microscopic fungi that live in most plants. The plant on the left was colonized with a fungi that made it salt-tolerant, but it wasn't exposed to ...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat tails”), or may be misshapen or slightly rough. Such pears do not ripen properly for ordinary canning...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat tails”), or may be misshapen or slightly rough. Such pears do not ripen properly for ordinary canning...

  8. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. PMID:23073108

  9. Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers

    SciTech Connect

    Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States) [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain)] [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2013-06-17

    We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

  10. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Biswas, D; Yoganandam, G P; Dey, A; Deb, L

    2013-03-01

    To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16(th) days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

  11. Genotoxic assessment of calcium hypochlorite and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds-two commonly used water purifying agents.

    PubMed

    Neelamkavil, Sandhya Vincent; Thoppil, John E

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The role of water in our daily lives cannot be highlighted enough, and ensuring the availability of pure water is an urgent need. Bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds are commonly used in water purification as a disinfectant and anticoagulant, respectively, yet their safety levels have not been analyzed so far. Hence, a genotoxic assessment was conducted using Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay. Reduction in mitotic index and increase in abnormality percentage was observed for both, but this effect was dose dependent. All values were statistically significant at p<0.05%. Bleaching powder was found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic compared with the control. Abnormality percentage was found to be significantly high when compared with the positive control. Chromosome aberrations like binucleate condition, micronuclei formation, stickiness, and lesions could only be observed in root meristems treated with positive control and bleaching powder. The seeds of S. potatorum expressed mild cytotoxicity, but the genotoxic effect was found to be negligible when compared with positive control. Other chromosome aberrations observed included chromosome bridges, c-metaphases, chromosome laggards, shift in microtubule organizing centre, polyploidy, early movement of chromosomes, vagrant chromosomes, as well as diagonal, disturbed, and scattered arrangement of chromosomes. Thus, the genotoxic effect of bleaching powder warns people to use a safer choice of S. potatorum in water purification, whenever possible, as in the condition of muddy, coagulated water. PMID:25411981

  12. Plant regeneration from organogenic callus and assessment of clonal fidelity in Elephantopus scaber Linn., an ethnomedicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jyothi; Thomas, T Dennis

    2015-04-01

    An efficient callus induction and plant regeneration system has been standardized for an ethnomedicinal plant, Elephantopus scaber Linn. Two explants i. e. seeds and leaf segments were used for callus induction. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5.0 ?M 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) and 0.5 ?M kinetin (Kn) gave the optimum frequency (89 %) of callus induction from seed explant. The results showed that the highest response in terms of percent callus regenerating (91 %) and number of shoots (56) per culture was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 6.0 ?M N6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 1.5 ?M ? naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The best rooting of regenerated shoots was obtained on half strength MS medium supplemented with 6.0 ?M indole-3- butyric acid (IBA). On this medium, 100 % of the shoots produced roots with a mean number of 3.2 roots per shoot. The positive role of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) along with potting mix has been well established in the present study. Of the various potting mix employed for plant acclimatization, the highest response of 100 % plant survival was noticed when autoclaved garden soil, sand (2:1) and VAM was utilized as potting mix. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) were used to establish the clonal fidelity of regenerated plantlets and the banding profiles from callus derived plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant, thus ascertaining the true-to-type nature of these plants. PMID:25964719

  13. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Xiaoyu

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the optimum extraction conditions for maximum recovery of the content of total phenolics (TPC) and total antioxidant abilities were analyzed for Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology. The effects of ethanol percentage (X1 ,%), ultrasonic power (X2 , W) and extraction temperature (X3 , °C) on the total phenolic content (Y1 ) and antioxidant ability (Y2 ) were evaluated. A second-order polynomial model produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.9942, P < 0.0001) and antioxidant ability (R(2) = 0.9966, P < 0.0001). The optimized conditions were ethanol concentration of 61.0%, ultrasonic power of 308.6 W, extraction temperature of 51.1°C for TPC and 60.5%, 311.4 W, 51.6°C for antioxidant ability, the predicted values agreed well with the experimental values. Results implied that the major phenolic compounds in obtained extracts as chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-gal/glu, quercetin-3-xyl/ara, phloretin-2-xyloside, quercetin-3- rhamnoside, and phloridzin. PMID:23436450

  14. Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2012-01-01

    Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs. PMID:23983327

  15. Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.

    PubMed

    Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

    2013-12-01

    Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, ?-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum. PMID:24266685

  16. Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2011-07-01

    Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardrakaswarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds. PMID:22529660

  17. A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, Bk; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

    2011-10-01

    Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

  18. Hypolipidemic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chawda, Hiren M; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Parmar, Pravin H; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root (HCS) were evaluated in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C), atherogenic indices and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, and CK-MB) were performed in each group at 0 days and at the end of 60 days. Histological study of liver and kidney was done in groups 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in HCS and its antioxidant activity were evaluated by the DPPH assay. Both doses of HCS decreased serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices (P < 0.05). HCS has lipid lowering, immunosuppressive and antioxidant properties, and mays have value in atherosclerosis prevention. The higher dose of HCS also reduced serum AST, ALP, and LDH levels and rosuvastatin increased AST and ALP levels (P < 0.05). Histology of the liver showed decreased lipid accumulation and improvement in hepatocytes in HCS-treated animals. The antioxidant activity of HCS may be responsible for its lipid lowering and cytoprotective action. HCS had significant lipid lowering and antioxidant activity, which; may be due to the phenolic compounds. HCS may be a safe and cost effective alternative to current statin therapy for patients with dyslipidaemia. PMID:25480512

  19. Lipid lowering effect of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide from Allium cepa Linn in high cholesterol diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Kumud; Augusti, K T

    2007-02-12

    The lipid lowering action of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCS) isolated from Allium cepa Linn (family: Liliaceae) was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats fed on 1% cholesterol diet, in comparison to the hypolipidemic drug gugulipid. Administration of SMCS at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight for 45 days ameliorated the hyperlipidemic condition. The lipid profile in serum and tissues showed that concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids were significantly reduced when compared to their untreated counterparts. The total lipoprotein lipase activity in the adipose tissue was decreased with also a decrease in the free fatty acid levels in serum and tissues. The activities of the lipogenic enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme as also of HMG CoA reductase in the tissues remained low on treatment indicating that both the drugs did not favor lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis in the hyperlipidemic animals. The fecal excretion of bile acids and sterols was further increased upon treatment with the drugs. The results are directive to that both gugulipid and SMCS cause reduction of endogenous lipogenesis, increase catabolism of lipids and subsequent excretion of metabolic by-products through the intestinal tract. However, gugulipid is a better drug than SMCS at a low dose of 50mg/kg body weight. PMID:16987625

  20. Synthesis, activity, and QSAR studies of tryptamine derivatives on third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Linn.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rafael R B; Brito, Thaysnara B; Nepel, Angelita; Costa, Emmanoel V; Barison, Andersson; Nunes, Rogéria S; Santos, Roseli L C; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2014-01-01

    Special attention has been given to the mosquito Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae) owing to numerous dengue epidemic outbreaks worldwide. Failure to control vector spreading is accounted for unorganized urban growth and resistance to larvicides and insecticides. Therefore, researchers are currently searching for new and more efficient larvicides and insecticides to aid dengue control measures. Triptamine is known to affect insect behavior, development, and physiology. Expression of this compound in plants has reduced the growth rate of herbivore insects. In view of these facts, it was of our interest to synthesize triptamine amide derivatives as potential larvicides against Ae. aegypti, establishing a Structure-Activity Relationship. Eleven amide derivatives of triptamine were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their larvicidal activity against third-instar Ae. aegypti larvae. N-(2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-2,2,2-trichloroacetamide exhibited the highest overall larvicidal potency, while N-(2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)ethyl) acetamide displayed the lowest larvicidal potency. A regression equation correlating the larvicidal activity with Log P was obtained. We have found a clear relationship between the larvicidal activity of non-chlorinated compounds and Log P. Analysis of the relationship between Log P and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti may be useful in the evaluation of potential larvicidal compounds. PMID:24295020

  1. Comparative study of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.).

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2010-04-01

    The phytoconstituents of essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) were analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituents were aromatic-turmerone (24.4%), alpha-turmerone (20.5%) and beta-turmerone (11.1%) in fresh rhizome and aromatic-turmerone (21.4%), alpha-santalene (7.2%) and aromatic-curcumene (6.6%) in dry rhizome oil. Whereas, in oleoresins, the major components were alpha-turmerone (53.4%), beta-turmerone (18.1%) and aromatic-turmerone (6.2%) in fresh and aromatic-turmerone (9.6%), alpha-santalene (7.8%) and alpha-turmerone (6.5%) in dry rhizome. Results showed that alpha-turmerone, a major component in fresh rhizomes is only minor one in dry rhizomes. Also, the content of beta-turmerone in dry rhizomes is less than a half amount found in fresh rhizomes. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by various lipid peroxidation assays as well as DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating methods. The essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh rhizomes have higher antioxidant properties as compared dry ones. PMID:20096323

  2. Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-01-01

    Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

  3. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zakiah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

  4. Selected hydrogeologic data from the Cedar Rapids Area, Benton and Linn counties, Iowa, October 1992 through March 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnoebelen, D.J.; Schulmeyer, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The city of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, obtains its water supply from shallow wells screened in the alluvial aquifer along the Cedar River. A cooperative study between the city of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and the U.S. Geological Survey was started in March 1992 to assess the water quality and water quantity of the ground-water resource. This report summarizes selected hydrogeologic data collected from October 1992 through March 1996. Information collected includes water quality (major ions, nutrients, and pesticides), ground-water levels, multiprobe-instrument (water levels, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen monitored at 15-, 30-, or 60-minute intervals), well information (location, casing type, screen interval, and depth), and geophysical seismic- refraction and seismic-reflection data (estimated depth to bedrock and alluvial thickness along the Cedar River). Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected from domestic, municipal, observation, and industrial wells and the Cedar River. Well-construction data for more than 300 wells in the Cedar Rapids area in Benton and Linn Counties, Iowa, were compiled primarily from records on file with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Geologic Survey Burea (Iowa City).

  5. Protective effect of Cassia fistula Linn. on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular damage and oxidative stress in ethanol pretreated rats.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Kannampalli; Raj Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor; Gobianand, Kupannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

    2010-01-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), found in many commonly consumed foods, is widely reported to induce cancer in animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the leaf extract of the medicinal plant Cassia fistula Linn. against diethylnitrosamine induced liver injury in ethanol pretreated rats. Albino Wistar rats, pretreated with ethanol for 15 days, were administered a single dose of DEN. Thirty days after DEN administration, hepatotocellular damage was observed histologically, along with elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, ?-GT and bilirubin and a simultaneous fall in the levels of the marker enzymes in the liver tissue. Liver oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a decrease in enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants activities. Oral administration of the ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula for 30 days to ethanol + DEN treated rats significantly improved the above alterations in the markers of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress, resulting in the reversal of most of the parameters studied and were comparable to the standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin. PMID:21157638

  6. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract induces hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Tchikaya, Francis Olivier; Bantsielé, Guy Bernard; Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Datté, Jacques Yao; Yapo, Paul Angoue; Zirihi, Noel Guedé; Offoumou, Michel Atté

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models. PMID:22654226

  7. Nanoelectronic biosensors based on CVD grown graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinxi Huang; Xiaochen Dong; Yumeng Shi; Chang Ming Li; Lain-Jong Li; Peng Chen

    2010-01-01

    Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by

  8. Bacterial decontamination of on-grown Artemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Tolomei; Chris Burke; Bradley Crear; Jeremy Carson

    2004-01-01

    The bacterial load of on-grown Artemia was manipulated using a variety of commercially available enrichment DHA boosters, selected algal species (Skeletonema costatum; Nannochloropsis oculata; Tetraselmis suecica; Chaetoceros muelleri), and ozone to decontaminate enteric and external surfaces, respectively. Enrichment in C. muelleri over a 6-h period, with an additional algal exchange mid-enrichment, provided the most efficient method for enteric decontamination as

  9. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown,

    E-print Network

    Atwater, Harry

    ) tomography has been used to probe the concentration of Au in 100 nm diameter Si wires grown by chemical vapor) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has been used to spatially localize single Au atoms within 15 nm diameter Si wires grown by CVD at 450 °C,14 as well as 30 nm diameter Si wires grown

  10. Nucleolus in clinostat-grown plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shen-Miller, J.; Dannenhoffer, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Hinchman, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The clinostat is an apparatus that is used to mimic zero gravity in studies of plant growth in the absence of gravitropic response. Clinostat-grown tissue cultures of carrot exhibit significant increases both in the number of nuclei containing more than one nucleolus and in nucleolar volume. Oat seedlings germinated and grown on clinostats exhibit a decreased rate of shoot elongation, increased tissue sensitivity to applied auxin, and an increased response to gravitropic stimulation. Clinostat treatment clearly affects plant metabolism. The nucleolus is the region in the nucleus where ribosome synthesis and assembly take place. The 18S, 5.8S, and 25S ribosomal genes, in tandem units, are located in the nucleolus. Ribosomes orchestrate the production of all proteins that are necessary for the maintenance of cell growth, development, and survival. A full study of the effects of nullification of gravitropism, by clinostat rotation, on nucleolar development in barley has been initiated. The authors study developmental changes of nucleolar number and diameter in clinostat-grown root tissues. Preliminary results show that barley roots exhibit changes in nucleolar number and diameter. Growth rates of barley root and shoot also appear to be reduced, in measurements of both length and weight.

  11. Inhibitory effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. on bacterial mutagenesis and aberrant crypt focus forma? tion in the rat colon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sawitree Chiampanichayakul; Keiko Kataoka; Hideki Arimochi; Tomomi Kuwahara; Haruyuki Nakayama; Usanee Vinitketkumnuen; Yoshinari Ohnishi

    2001-01-01

    Antimutagenicity and chemopreventive activity of an 80%-ethanol extract of bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn.) against the formation of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was investigated. The bitter melon extract was nonmutagenic and inhibited the mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine, and aflatoxin B1 in the Salmonella mutation assay. To examine the inhibitory effect of bitter melon on AOM-induced

  12. Development of HPLC method by UV-VIS detection for the quantification of phenolic acids in different Ocimum sanctum Linn. extracts.

    PubMed

    Shafqatullah; Khan, Rasool; Hassan, Waseem; Hussain, Arshad; Asadullah; Rehman, Khaliqur; Ali, Javid

    2014-09-01

    A simple and rapid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of five phenolic acids including Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid, Syringic acid, Benzoic acid and Vanillic acid by HPLC with UV-VIS detector. These Phenolic acids were separated by analytical column Intersil ODS-3 C18, a gradient elution system of ACN and acidified water solution with 1ml/min flow rate and quantified in a total run of 30 minutes at 210nm wavelength. In the quantitative analysis of these compounds showed good regression (0.995-0.999). The limit of detection [LOD] and limit of quantification [LOQ] of these compounds were in the range of 0.15-0.46 and 0.42-2.47 ?g/mL. The average recoveries were between 95.8-103.1% and their RSD values were less than 3.34%. By the proposed method Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid and Syringic acid were found and quantified in Methanolic, Ethanolic and Acetonic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. While the two other phenolic acids benzoic acid and vanillic acid was not found in the extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. PMID:25176382

  13. Assessment of the cytotoxic and anti-viral potential of aqueous extracts from different parts of Acacia nilotica (Linn) Delile against Peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Raheel, Rizwana; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ejaz, Sohail; Javeed, Aqeel; Altaf, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV); a negative sense single stranded RNA enveloped virus that causes Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is dramatically affecting the health status of ruminants all around the world resulting in extensive economical losses in livestock sector. Acacia nilotica (Linn) Delile; a tannin-rich medicinal plant distributed throughout subcontinent, is traditionally used as food for ruminants and possesses anti-viral potential against different RNA viruses. In the current study, aqueous extracts from the bark, leaves and pods of A. nilotica (Linn) Delile indica were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and anti-viral activities against PPRV by adopting MTT colorimetric assay and anti-viral assay using Vero cell line. Aqueous extract from the leaves presented significantly better (P<0.05) anti-PPRV activities in comparison to pods extract. On the contrary, bark extract did not show any anti-viral activity. The data presented in the study could pave a way toward the discovery of novel anti-viral chemicals in the plants against PPRV and other viral diseases. PMID:23262040

  14. Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation. PMID:25374344

  15. In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of Sida rhombifolia Linn (Malvaceae) against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhoea. Acute toxicity of the most active extract was determined and major bioactive components were screened. Methods The agar disc diffusion and the agar dilution method were used for the determination of inhibition diameters and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) respectively. The acute toxicity study was performed according WHO protocol. Results The aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) was the most active with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 - 23.6 mm, however at 200 ?g/dic this activity was relatively weak compared to gentamycin. The MICs of the aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) varied from 49.40 to 78.30 ?g/ml. Salmonella dysenteriae was the most sensitive (49.40 ?g/ml). For the acute toxicity study, no deaths of rats were recorded. However, significant increase of some biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine (CRT) were found. The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins Conclusion The results showed that the aqueous-methanol extract of S. rhombifolia exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Some toxic effects were found when rats received more than 8 g/kg bw of extract. Antibacterial; Enterobacteria; Acute toxicity; Phytochemical analysis PMID:20663208

  16. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis Linn. flowers against 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, Pandian; Thippeswamy, Boreddy Shivanandappa; Veerapur, Veeresh Prabakar; Bansal, Punit; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry K

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and nitric oxide mechanisms have been recently proposed in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity. The compounds, having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects, have been suggested for neuroprotection in different experimental models. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and neuroprotective activities. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats by observing behavioral changes, OS and striatal damage in rat brain. Adult female Wistar rats were pretreated with vehicle or COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by cotreatment with 3-NP (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for the next 7 days. At the end of the treatment schedule, rats were evaluated for alterations in sensory motor functions and short-term memory. Animals were sacrificed and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione, total thiols, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and nitrite. A set of brain slices was used for the evaluation of neuronal damage in the striatal region of the brain. 3-NP caused significant alterations in animal behavior, oxidative defense system evidenced by raised levels of LPO and nitrite concentration, and depletion of antioxidant levels. It also produced a loss of neuronal cells in the striatal region. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and striatal neuronal loss in 3-NP-treated animals. The present study shows that COE is protective against 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties of COE may be responsible for its neuroprotective action. PMID:23590827

  17. Histological studies of neuroprotective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. on neuronal loss induced by dexamethasone treatment in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Issuriya, Acharaporn; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn

    2014-10-01

    Long term exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) is associated with brain damage especially in the hippocampus via the oxidative stress pathway. Previously, an ethanolic extract from Curcuma longa Linn. (CL) containing the curcumin constituent has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. However, its neuroprotective property on brain histology has remained unexplored. This study has examined the effects of a CL extract on the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive (GFAP-ir) astrocytes in the hippocampus of Dx treated male rats. It showed that 21 days of Dx treatment (0.5mg/kg, i.p. once daily) significantly reduced the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus, but not in the CA2 area. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) was found to significantly restore neuronal densities in the CA1 and dentate gyrus. In addition, Dx treatment also significantly decreased the densities of the GFAP-ir astrocytes in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) failed to protect the loss of astrocytes in these sub-areas. These findings confirm the neuroprotective effects of the CL extract and indicate that the cause of astrocyte loss might be partially reduced by a non-oxidative mechanism. Moreover, the detection of neuronal and glial densities was suitable method to study brain damage and the effects of treatment. PMID:25440530

  18. Biochemical Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Extract and Fraction of Cassia fistula Linn. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Jarald, E E; Joshi, S B; Jain, D C; Edwin, S

    2013-07-01

    Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae) such as petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). PMID:24302797

  19. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p < 0.05-0.001) of the fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation of the rat hind paw. However, the antiinflammatory effect of the plant extract was found to be approximately 8-15 times less than that of diclofenac. Coadministration of grapefruit juice (5 ml/kg p.o.) with A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p < 0.05-0.001) the antiinflammatory effects of the crude plant extract and diclofenac on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria. PMID:15148523

  20. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  1. Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, A. J.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Hammel, P. C., E-mail: hammel@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Amamou, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Kawakami, R. K. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidth—an often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1?nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

  2. Perfect crystals grown from imperfect interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Falub, Claudiu V.; Medu?a, Mojmír; Chrastina, Daniel; Isa, Fabio; Marzegalli, Anna; Kreiliger, Thomas; Taboada, Alfonso G.; Isella, Giovanni; Miglio, Leo; Dommann, Alex; von Känel, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of advanced devices increasingly requires materials with different properties to be combined in the form of monolithic heterostructures. In practice this means growing epitaxial semiconductor layers on substrates often greatly differing in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. With increasing layer thickness the relaxation of misfit and thermal strains may cause dislocations, substrate bowing and even layer cracking. Minimizing these drawbacks is therefore essential for heterostructures based on thick layers to be of any use for device fabrication. Here we prove by scanning X-ray nanodiffraction that mismatched Ge crystals epitaxially grown on deeply patterned Si substrates evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface. We show that relaxing thermal and misfit strains result just in lattice bending and tiny crystal tilts. We may thus expect a new concept in which continuous layers are replaced by quasi-continuous crystal arrays to lead to dramatically improved physical properties. PMID:23880632

  3. Induced superconductivity in graphene grown on rhenium.

    PubMed

    Tonnoir, C; Kimouche, A; Coraux, J; Magaud, L; Delsol, B; Gilles, B; Chapelier, C

    2013-12-13

    We report a new way to strongly couple graphene to a superconductor. The graphene monolayer has been grown directly on top of a superconducting Re(0001) thin film and characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We observed a moiré pattern due to the mismatch between Re and graphene lattice parameters that we have simulated with ab initio calculations. The density of states around the Fermi energy appears to be position dependent on this moiré pattern. Tunneling spectroscopy performed at 50 mK shows that the superconducting behavior of graphene on Re is well described by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory and stands for a very good interface between the graphene and its metallic substrate. PMID:24483689

  4. Vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ciminelli, D.L.; Kearns, K.M. [Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Ragland, W.R. [Univ. of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCF) offer a unique opportunity for carbon fiber composites to expand into a multitude of new markets due to their low cost of only $3 to 5 per pound. Additionally, VGCFs are extremely graphitic and have demonstrated the highest thermal conductivity of any graphite material. Pyrograf-III{reg_sign}, a VGCF produced by Applied Sciences, Inc (ASI), is a small diameter (0.1 {mu}m) fiber with a high aspect ratio (100- 1000). The primary interest of the work is for thermal management applications. The focus of the work has been developing novel process methodologies for these unusual fibers using phenolic and epoxy resin to produce low cost composites. The development of VGCF composites is being performed through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) between ASI and the Materials Directorate (WL/ML), Wright Laboratory, United States Air Force.

  5. Interactive effects of selenium and mercury on the restoration potential of leaves of the medicinal plant, Portulaca oleracea Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Thangavel; A Shahira Sulthana; V Subburam

    1999-01-01

    Leaves of Portulaca oleracea have the potential of regeneration, when grown in a distilled water medium. The two heavy metals, Se and Hg individually and in combination affected both shoot and root development. They completely arrested shoot development at all concentrations. However, they produced concentration-dependent changes in the development of roots, which ranged from their complete inhibition to variation in

  6. Recent results in characterization of melt-grown and quench-melt- grown YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Poeppel, R.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gangopadhyay, A.K. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-02-01

    From the standpoint of applications, melt-grown (MG) and quench-melt-grown (QMG) bulk YBCO superconductors are of considerable interest. In this paper, we studied the intragranular critical current density (J{sub c}), the apparent pinning potential (U{sub o}), and the irreversibility temperature (T{sub irr}) of MG and QMG samples and compared the results to those for conventionally sintered YBCO. A systematic increase in U{sub o} and a slower drop in J{sub c} with temperature indicate a systematic improvement in flux-pinning properties in progressing from the sintered YBCO to QMG and MG samples. Weaker pinning is observed in the QMG YBCO than in the MG samples.

  7. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780...STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet...Section 13(b)(15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities...

  8. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780...STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet...Section 13(b)(15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities...

  9. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...AMS-FV-11-0010; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum...be conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor...order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The...

  10. Breakdown Current Density of CVD-Grown Multilayer Graphene Interconnects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyeong-Jae Lee; Anantha P. Chandrakasan; Jing Kong

    2011-01-01

    Graphene wires have been fabricated from large-area multilayer graphene sheets grown by chemical vapor deposition. As the methane concentration increases, a larger percentage of thicker graphene layers are grown. The multilayer graphene sheets have an average thickness of 10-20 nm with sheet resistances between 500 and 1000 ?\\/sq. The sheet resistance shows a strong correlation with the average surface roughness.

  11. Thermoelectic properties of CVD grown large area graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andriy Sherehiy

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is based on experimental work on thermoelectric properties of CVD grown large area graphene. The thermoelectric power (TEP) of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) grown large area graphene transferred onto a Si\\/SiO 2_substrate was measured by simply attaching two miniature thermocouples and a resistive heater. Availability of such large area graphene facilitates straight forward TEP measurement without the use

  12. Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanfang H. Levine; Patricia A. Bisbee; Jeffrey T. Richards; Michele N. Birmele; Ronald L. Prior; Michele Perchonok; Mike Dixon; Neil C. Yorio; Gary W. Stutte; Raymond M. Wheeler

    2008-01-01

    This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and

  13. Carboxylate metabolism in sugar beet plants grown with excess Zn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sagardoy; F. Morales; R. Rellán-Álvarez; A. Abadía; J. Abadía; A. F. López-Millán

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Zn excess on carboxylate metabolism were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown hydroponically in a growth chamber. Root extracts of plants grown with 50 or 100?M Zn in the nutrient solution showed increases in several enzymatic activities related to organic acid metabolism, including citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, when compared to activities in control

  14. BRIEF REPORT Morphology of fibroblasts grown on substrates formed

    E-print Network

    Waldman, Stephen D.

    , and alignment. Bovine fibroblasts grown on aligned carbon nano- tubes for a period of 2 weeks were found to have. Vertically grown multiwall carbon nano- tubes (MWNTs) on the surface of a silicon substrate can carbon nanotubes Felix L.-Y. Yuen Æ Gene Zak Æ Stephen D. Waldman Æ Aristides Docoslis Received: 15 May

  15. MBE grown iron-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lok, Shu Kin

    Interest in magnetic nanostructures has increased rapidly because of their potential applications in a number of magnetic nanotechnologies such as high-density magnetic recording media, magnetic field sensors, magnetic nanoprobes for spin-polarized microscopy and cell manipulation in biomedical technology. Successful incorporation of ferromagnetic nanostructures in semiconductors may open a new area in spintronic applications. In this study, two kinds of Fe-based nanostructures were grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique, namely, Fe quantum dots (QDs) and Fe nanowires (NWs). For Fe QDs, a multilayer magnetic QD sample containing 5 layers of Fe QDs embedded in 6 layers of ZnS spacer was grown on a GaP(100) substrate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations reveal that the Fe QDs are single crystalline with spherical shape of diameters around 3 to 4 nm and area density of 1.5 x 1012 cm-2 . Its zero-field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) curves measured at low field (100 Oe) show the magnetic relaxation effect with a blocking temperature around 26 K. The hysteresis loop measured at 5 K shows a coercivity of 83 Oe, confirming the slow relaxation process and coercivity enhancement attributed to the nanoparticle nature of the sample. To study the transport property of Fe QDs, a Au/ZnS/Fe-QDs/ZnS/n+-GaAs Schottky-barrier structure containing 5 layers of Fe QDs was fabricated on a n+-GaAs(100) substrate. Its current-voltage (I-V) characteristics measured from 5 to 295 K display negative differential resistance (NDR) for temperature . 50 K, which is caused by the presence of Fe QDs. The highest peak-to-valley current ratio obtained at 5 K is as high as 15:1. Staircase-like I-V characteristic was also observed at low temperature in some devices fabricated from this structure. Possible mechanisms that can account for the observed unusual I-V characteristics in this structure were discussed. Two types of self-assembled Fe NWs were grown on ZnS/GaP(100) surface under high growth/annealing temperature. The Type-A Fe NWs orient along the ZnS[110] direction with irregular shape, while the type-B Fe NWs orient along either the ZnS[180] or [810] direction with seemingly straight shape. Detailed HRTEM and selected area diffraction (SAD) studies reveal that both types were single-crystalline with their elongated axis along the Fe<100> direction family possibly due to the fact that the easy axis of Fe is along this direction. We have proposed a mean-field model to explain the slight misalignment of the type-B Fe NWs. The I-V characteristic of a single type-B Fe NW measured at room temperature displays a straight line nature corresponding to a resistivity about 2.3 x 10-7Om.

  16. Microhardness studies of vapour grown tin (II) sulfide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, S. S.; Kunjomana, A. G.; Ramesh, K.

    2015-06-01

    Earth abundant tin sulfide (SnS) has attracted considerable attention as a possible absorber material for low-cost solar cells due to its favourable optoelectronic properties. Single crystals of SnS were grown by physical vapour deposition (PVD) technique. Microindentation studies were carried out on the cleaved surfaces of the crystals to understand their mechanical behaviour. Microhardness increased initially with the load, giving sharp maximum at 15 g. Quenching effect has increased the microhardness, while annealing reduced the microhardness of grown crystals. The hardness values of as-grown, annealed and quenched samples at 15 g load are computed to be 99.69, 44.52 and 106.29 kg/mm2 respectively. The microhardness of PVD grown crystals are high compared to CdTe, a leading low-cost PV material. The as-grown faces are found to be fracture resistant.

  17. Irrigation frequency alters nutrient uptake in container-grown Rhododendron plants grown with different rates of nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of irrigation frequency (same amount of water per day given at different times) on nutrient uptake of container-grown evergreen Rhododendron ‘P.J.M. Compact’ (PJM) and ‘English Roseum’ (ER) and deciduous Rhododendron ‘Gibraltar’ (AZ) grown with different rates of nitrogen (N) fertilize...

  18. Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is coated on U.S. currency. After deposition, the growth is carried out in a hot-filament chemical vapor deposition apparatus. A tungsten hot filament placed in the flow of H2 at a temperature greater than 1,600 C creates atomic hydrogen, which serves to reduce the Fe catalyst into a metallic state. The catalyst can now precipitate SWNTs in the presence of growth gases. The gases used for the experiments reported are C2H2, H2O, and H2, at rates of 2, 2, and 400 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm), respectively. In order to retain the flakes, a cage is constructed by spot welding stainless steel or copper mesh to form an enclosed area, in which the flakes are placed prior to growth. This allows growth gases and atomic hydrogen to reach the flakes, but does not allow the flakes, which rapidly nucleate SWNTs, to escape from the cage.

  19. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989...OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules... § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California....

  20. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989...OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules... § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California....

  1. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989...OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules... § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California....

  2. Diamond films grown from fullerene precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, D.M.; Zuiker, C.D.; Krauss, A.R.

    1995-07-01

    Fullerene precursors have been shown to result in the growth of diamond films from argon microwave plasmas. In contradistinction to most diamond films grown using conventional methane-hydrogen mixtures, the fullerene-generated films are nanocrystalline and smooth on the nanometer scale. They have recently been shown to have friction coefficients approaching the values of natural diamond. It is clearly important to understand the development of surface morphology during film growth from fullerene precursors and to elucidate the factors leading to surface roughness when hydrogen is present in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) gas mixtures. To achieve these goals, we are measuring surface reflectivity of diamond films growing on silicon substrates over a wide range of plasma processing conditions. A model for the interpretation of the laser interferometric data has been developed, which allows one to determine film growth rate, rms surface roughness, and bulk losses due to scattering and absorption. The rms roughness values determined by reflectivity are in good agreement with atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. A number of techniques, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and near-edge x-ray absorption find structure (NEXAFS) measurements, have been used to characterize the films. A mechanism for diamond-film growth involving the C{sub 2} molecule as a growth species will be presented. The mechanism is based on (1) the observation that the optical emission spectra of the fullerene- containing plasmas are dominated by the Swan bands of C{sub 2} and (2) the ability of C{sub 2} to insert directly into C-H and C-C bonds with low activation barriers, as shown by recent theoretical calculations of reactions of C{sub 2} with carbon clusters.

  3. Auxin Transport Is Required for Hypocotyl Elongation in Light-Grown but Not Dark-Grown Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Philip J.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Estelle, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Many auxin responses are dependent on redistribution and/or polar transport of indoleacetic acid. Polar transport of auxin can be inhibited through the application of phytotropins such as 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). When Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown in the light on medium containing 1.0 ?m NPA, hypocotyl and root elongation and gravitropism were strongly inhibited. When grown in darkness, however, NPA disrupted the gravity response but did not affect elongation. The extent of inhibition of hypocotyl elongation by NPA increased in a fluence-rate-dependent manner to a maximum of about 75% inhibition at 50 ?mol m?2 s?1 of white light. Plants grown under continuous blue or far-red light showed NPA-induced hypocotyl inhibition similar to that of white-light-grown plants. Plants grown under continuous red light showed less NPA-induced inhibition. Analysis of photoreceptor mutants indicates the involvement of phytochrome and cryptochrome in mediating this NPA response. Hypocotyls of some auxin-resistant mutants had decreased sensitivity to NPA in the light, but etiolated seedlings of these mutants were similar in length to the wild type. These results indicate that light has a significant effect on NPA-induced inhibition in Arabidopsis, and suggest that auxin has a more important role in elongation responses in light-grown than in dark-grown seedlings. PMID:9489005

  4. Laboratory evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of Anacardium occidentale Linn (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark extracts in rats.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2003-04-01

    This study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of stem-bark extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., of the Anacardiaceae family, in normal (normoglycemic) and in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Young adult, male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the test rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 90 mg/kg). In one set of experiments, graded doses of the aqueous and methanolic stem-bark extracts of A. occidentale (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) were separately administered to groups of fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. In another set of experiments, 800 mg/kg p.o. of the aqueous or methanolic extract of the plant, a dose which produced maximal hypoglycemic effects in both fasted normal and diabetic rats in the previous set of experiments, were used. The hypoglycemic effects of single doses (i.e., 800 mg/kg p.o.) of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous and methanolic extracts were compared with those of insulin (5 microU/kg s.c.) and glibenclamide (0.2 mg/kg p.o.) in both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. Following acute treatment, relatively moderate-to-high doses of A. occidentale stem-bark extracts (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (p< 0.05-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. On their own, both insulin (5 microU/kg s.c.) and glibenclamide (0.2 mg/kg p.o.) produced significant reductions (p< 0.01-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of the fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. At single doses of 800 mg/kg p.o., A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous and methanolic extracts significantly reduced (p< 0.001) the mean basal blood glucose concentrations of fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic effect of the methanolic plant extract was found to be slightly more pronounced than that of the aqueous plant extract in both the normal and diabetic rats examined. A. occidentale contains a diverse group of chemical compounds. Since methanol extractives of plants usually contain many chemical compounds, each of which is capable of producing definite biological activities via different mechanisms, it is difficult to draw any logical conclusion on the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of such a diverse mixture of chemical compounds contained in the plant extracts used in this study. While it is possible that the hypoglycemic effects of the plant extracts may be due, at least in part, to their terpenoid and/or coumarin contents, the mechanism of their hypoglycemic action remains largely speculative. However, this is unlikely to be due to the stimulation of pancreatic beta-cells and subsequent secretion of insulin. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous or methanolic extract is less potent than insulin as an antidiabetic agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that it possesses hypoglycemic activity, and thus lends credence to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of adult-onset, type-2 diabetes mellitus among the Yoruba-speaking people of Western Nigeria. PMID:12743624

  5. At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups

    MedlinePLUS

    ... At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. For up-to-date health information tailor-made just for ...

  6. GaN grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Kong; Meixin, Feng; Jin, Cai; Hui, Wang; Huaibing, Wang; Hui, Yang

    2015-04-01

    High-quality gallium nitride (GaN) film was grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) and investigated using XRD and SEM. It was found that the optimum thickness of the GaN buffer layer on the NPSS is 15 nm, which is thinner than that on micro-patterned sapphire substrates (MPSS). An interesting phenomenon was observed for GaN film grown on NPSS:GaN mainly grows on the trench regions and little grows on the sidewalls of the patterns at the initial growth stage, which is dramatically different from GaN grown on MPSS. In addition, the electrical and optical properties of LEDs grown on NPSS were characterized. Project supported by the Suzhou Nanojoin Photonics Co., Ltd and the High-Tech Achievements Transformation of Jiangsu Province, China (No.BA2012010).

  7. Magnetoresistance enhancement in epitaxial magnetite films grown on vicinal substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Arora; R. G. S. Sofin; I. V. Shvets

    2005-01-01

    The magnetoresistance (MR) behavior of epitaxial magnetite Fe3O4 grown on low-vicinal (small miscut) and high-vicinal (large miscut) MgO substrates is compared. Magnetization measurements on Fe3O4 films on high-vicinal substrates showed reduced magnetic moment as compared with the films grown on low-vicinal MgO, which correlates well with the expected reduction in magnetic moment due to step edge induced additional antiphase boundaries

  8. Structural transformation of vapor grown carbon nanofibers studied by HRTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Lawrence; Lesley M. Berhan; Arunan Nadarajah

    2008-01-01

    Vapor grown carbon nanofibers have been extensively manufactured and investigated in recent years. In this study commercially\\u000a available vapor grown carbon nanofibers subjected to different processing and post processing conditions were studied employing\\u000a high resolution TEM images. The analysis showed that the fibers consist primarily of conical nanofibers, but can contain a\\u000a significant amount of bamboo nanofibers. Most conical nanofibers

  9. Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanfang H. Levine; Patricia A. Bisbee; Jeffrey T. Richards; Michele N. Birmele; Ronald L. Prior; Michele Perchonok; Mike Dixon; Neil C. Yorio; Gary W. Stutte; Raymond M. Wheeler

    2008-01-01

    This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12kPa,

  10. Characterization of crotonate grown Clostridium kluyveri by its assimilatory metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf K. Thauer; Kurt Jungermann; Joseph Wenning; Karl Decker

    1968-01-01

    Considerable behavioral differences were observed during growth of Clostridium kluyveri on ethanol-acetate and on crotonate media. The identity of the crotonate grown Clostridium with the ethanol grown Clostridium kluyveri was therefore established by three characteristic biosynthetic routes: 1. ribose is synthesized from CO2 and acetate via pyruvate, triose phosphate and a non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, 2. reduced one-carbon units are

  11. Photoemission electronic states of epitaxially grown magnetite films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Zalecki; A. Ko?odziejczyk; J. Korecki; N. Spiridis; M. Zaj?c; A. Koz?owski; Z. K?kol; D. Antolak

    2007-01-01

    The valence band photoemission spectra of epitaxially grown 300? single crystalline magnetite films were measured by the angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS) at 300K. The samples were grown either on MgO(001) (B termination) or on (001) Fe (iron-rich A termination), thus intentionally presenting different surface stoichiometry, i.e. also different surface electronic states. Four main features of the electron photoemission at

  12. Magnesium diffusion profile in GaN grown by MOVPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Benzarti; I. Halidou; Z. Bougrioua; T. Boufaden; B. El Jani

    2008-01-01

    The diffusion of magnesium has been studied in GaN layers grown on sapphire substrate by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor-phase-epitaxy (MOVPE) in a “home-made” reactor. Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to visualise the Mg profiles in two kinds of multi-sublayer GaN structures. One structure was grown with a variable flow of Ga precursor (TMG) and the second one with

  13. Terahertz Photomixing in Low-Temperature-Grown GaAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Brown; S. Verghese; K. A. McIntosh

    1998-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low-temperature-grown (LTG) GaAs offers the combination of sub-picosecond photocarrier lifetime and high breakdown,electric field (> 5x105 V\\/cm), and is grown in epitaxial films having excellent quality for microelectronic fabrication. A THz photoconductive,mixer (photomixer) is formed on these films by patterning low-capacitance planar electrodes coupled to a coplanar antenna. The photomixer is conveniently pumped,by two frequency-offsetdiode-laser beams focused on the

  14. Defect density characterization of detached-grown germanium crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Szoke, J.; Szofran, F. R.

    2002-02-01

    Several (1 1 1)-oriented, Ga-doped germanium crystals were grown in pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) containers by the Bridgman and the detached Bridgman growth techniques. Growth experiments in closed-bottom pBN containers resulted in nearly completely detached-grown crystals, because the gas pressure below the melt can build up to a higher pressure than above the melt. With open-bottom tubes the gas pressure above and below the melt is balanced during the experiment, and thus no additional force supports the detachment. In this case the crystals grew attached to the wall. Etch pit density (EPD) measurements along the axial growth direction indicated a strong improvement of the crystal quality of the detached-grown samples compared to the attached samples. Starting in the seed with an EPD of 6-8×10 3 cm -2 it decreased in the detached-grown crystals continuously to about 200-500 cm -2. No significant radial difference between the EPD on the edge and the middle of these crystals exists. In the attached grown samples the EPD increases up to a value of about 2-4×10 4 cm -2 (near the edge) and up to 1×10 4 cm -2 in the middle of the sample. Thus the difference between the detached- and the attached-grown crystals with respect to the EPD is approximately two orders of magnitude.

  15. Defect Density Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Szoke, J.; Szofran, F. R.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several (111)-oriented, Ga-doped germanium crystals were grown in pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) containers by the Bridgman and the detached Bridgman growth techniques. Growth experiments in closed-bottom pBN containers resulted in nearly completely detached-grown crystals, because the gas pressure below the melt can build up to a higher pressure than above the melt. With open-bottom tubes the gas pressure above and below the melt is balanced during the experiment, and thus no additional force supports the detachment. In this case the crystals grew attached to the wall. Etch pit density (EPD) measurements along the axial growth direction indicated a strong improvement of the crystal quality of the detached-grown samples compared to the attached samples. Starting in the seed with an EPD of 6-8 x 10(exp 3)/square cm it decreased in the detached-grown crystals continuously to about 200-500/square cm . No significant radial difference between the EPD on the edge and the middle of the crystal exists. In the attached grown samples the EPD increases up to a value of about 2-4 x 10(exp 4)/square cm (near the edge) and up to 1 x 10(exp 4)/square cm in the middle of the sample. Thus the difference between the detached- and the attached-grown crystals with respect to the EPD is approximately two orders of magnitude.

  16. E. P. R. CHARACTERIZATION OF p-TYPE AS GROWN AND Cl-COMPENSATED THM GROWN CdTe

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    199 E. P. R. CHARACTERIZATION OF p-TYPE AS GROWN AND Cl-COMPENSATED THM GROWN CdTe A. GOLTZENE électronique ont été observés dans du CdTe de haute résistivité, de type p ; à 4 K, on observe toujours des intense à g = 1,830 ± 0,002. Dans CdTe, fortement dopé au Cl, une raie à g = 2,003 ± 0,001 est déjà

  17. Defect studies in 4H- Silicon Carbide PVT grown bulk crystals, CVD grown epilayers and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrappa, Shayan M.

    Silicon Carbide [SiC] which exists as more than 200 different polytypes is known for superior high temperature and high power applications in comparison to conventional semiconductor materials like Silicon and Germanium. The material finds plethora of applications in a diverse fields due to its unique properties like large energy bandgap, high thermal conductivity and high electric breakdown field. Though inundated with superior properties the potential of this material has not been utilized fully due to impeding factors such as defects especially the crystalline ones which limit their performance greatly. Lots of research has been going on for decades to reduce these defects and there has been subsequent improvement in the quality as the diameter of SiC commercial wafers has reached 150mm from 25mm since its inception. The main focus of this thesis has been to study yield limiting defect structures in conjunction with several leading companies and national labs using advanced characterization tools especially the Synchrotron source. The in depth analysis of SiC has led to development of strategies to reduce or eliminate the density of defects by studying how the defects nucleate, replicate and interact in the material. The strategies discussed to reduce defects were proposed after careful deliberation and analysis of PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers. Following are some of the results of the study: [1] Macrostep overgrowth mechanism in SiC was used to study the deflection of threading defects onto the basal plane resulting in stacking faults. Four types of stacking faults associated with deflection of c/c+a threading defects have been observed to be present in 76mm, 100mm and 150mm diameter wafers. The PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers in study were subjected to contrast studies using synchrotron white beam X-ray topography [SWBXT]. The SWBXT image contrast studies of these stacking faults with comparison of calculated phase shifts for postulated fault vectors by macrostep overgrowth of surface outcrops, has revealed faults to be of four types of which one of the following are discussed in detail which is the Shockley faults. The fault vector were determined by taking into account the contrast from stacking faults in SWBXT undergoing phase shift as the X-ray wave fields cross the fault plane. The deflected dislocations onto the basal plane were responsible for the stacking faults and were observed to be detrimental to the devices grown on them as they replicate to the epilayer. In the wafers studied at different stages of the SiC crystal boule resulted in reduction of threading defects as they at certain stage get deflected out of the crystal causing drop of defects density. [2] A novel technique known as the Ray Tracing Simulation was used to determine the sense of c/c+a dislocations obtained via Grazing-Incidence X-ray Topography. Determination of the complete sense and burgers vector of these dislocations was very important to augment our proposed models on stacking faults associated with these defects. Orientation contrast mechanism in X- ray diffraction topography was previously determined to be the dominant factor in SiC by our group and the same principles were used for the simulation. The results were surmised after extensive comparison between experimental and simulation images for the c+2a defects. [3] With the BPD density down to a record level of few hundred per square centimeter in several wafers in multiple regions made it possible to observe the conversion of sessile Threading Edge Dislocations [TED] to glissile BPDs with this repeating multiple times. Previously the high density of Basal Plane Dislocations [BPD] prevented from discerning the details accurately in the SiC images taken by SWBXT. The contribution of SWBXT in accurately categorizing the nature of dislocations in SiC has enabled the crystal growth community to incorporate strategies to mitigate their influence. One of them has been recognizing BPDs as deformation induced defects which have led to the development of

  18. Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

  19. Diversity in Butane Monooxygenases among Butane-Grown Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hamamura, Natsuko; Storfa, Ryan T.; Semprini, Lewis; Arp, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Butane monooxygenases of butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora, Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, and an environmental isolate, CF8, were compared at the physiological level. The presence of butane monooxygenases in these bacteria was indicated by the following results. (i) O2 was required for butane degradation. (ii) 1-Butanol was produced during butane degradation. (iii) Acetylene inhibited both butane oxidation and 1-butanol production. The responses to the known monooxygenase inactivator, ethylene, and inhibitor, allyl thiourea (ATU), discriminated butane degradation among the three bacteria. Ethylene irreversibly inactivated butane oxidation by P. butanovora but not by M. vaccae or CF8. In contrast, butane oxidation by only CF8 was strongly inhibited by ATU. In all three strains of butane-grown bacteria, specific polypeptides were labeled in the presence of [14C]acetylene. The [14C]acetylene labeling patterns were different among the three bacteria. Exposure of lactate-grown CF8 and P. butanovora and glucose-grown M. vaccae to butane induced butane oxidation activity as well as the specific acetylene-binding polypeptides. Ammonia was oxidized by all three bacteria. P. butanovora oxidized ammonia to hydroxylamine, while CF8 and M. vaccae produced nitrite. All three bacteria oxidized ethylene to ethylene oxide. Methane oxidation was not detected by any of the bacteria. The results indicate the presence of three distinct butane monooxygenases in butane-grown P. butanovora, M. vaccae, and CF8. PMID:10508093

  20. Diversity in butane monooxygenases among butane-grown bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, N; Storfa, R T; Semprini, L; Arp, D J

    1999-10-01

    Butane monooxygenases of butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora, Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, and an environmental isolate, CF8, were compared at the physiological level. The presence of butane monooxygenases in these bacteria was indicated by the following results. (i) O(2) was required for butane degradation. (ii) 1-Butanol was produced during butane degradation. (iii) Acetylene inhibited both butane oxidation and 1-butanol production. The responses to the known monooxygenase inactivator, ethylene, and inhibitor, allyl thiourea (ATU), discriminated butane degradation among the three bacteria. Ethylene irreversibly inactivated butane oxidation by P. butanovora but not by M. vaccae or CF8. In contrast, butane oxidation by only CF8 was strongly inhibited by ATU. In all three strains of butane-grown bacteria, specific polypeptides were labeled in the presence of [(14)C]acetylene. The [(14)C]acetylene labeling patterns were different among the three bacteria. Exposure of lactate-grown CF8 and P. butanovora and glucose-grown M. vaccae to butane induced butane oxidation activity as well as the specific acetylene-binding polypeptides. Ammonia was oxidized by all three bacteria. P. butanovora oxidized ammonia to hydroxylamine, while CF8 and M. vaccae produced nitrite. All three bacteria oxidized ethylene to ethylene oxide. Methane oxidation was not detected by any of the bacteria. The results indicate the presence of three distinct butane monooxygenases in butane-grown P. butanovora, M. vaccae, and CF8. PMID:10508093

  1. Chloroform cometabolism by butane-grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and methane-grown Methylosinus trichosporium

    E-print Network

    Semprini, Lewis

    Chloroform cometabolism by butane-grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 63 (9): 3607-3613 SEP 1997 Abstract: Chloroform (CF) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae

  2. Studies on hepatoprotective and antioxidant actions of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds on CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Sanmugapriya, E; Venkataraman, S

    2006-04-21

    Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds are used in the Indian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of hepatopathy, nephropathy, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, gastropathy, bronchitis, chronic diarrhoea, strangury, renal and vesicle calculi, diabetes and eye diseases. The present study describes the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the seed powder (SPP) and aqueous extract (SPE) of Strychnos potatorum seeds against CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury. Hepatic injury was achieved by injecting 3 ml/kg, s.c. of CCl4 in equal proportion with olive oil. Both SPP and SPE at the doses 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. offered significant (p < 0.001) hepatoprotective action by reducing the serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). They also reduced the elevated levels of ALP and serum bilirubin. Reduced enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidant levels and elevated lipid peroxide levels were restored to normal by administration of SPP and SPE. Histopathological studies further confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of SPP and SPE when compared with the CCl4 treated control groups. The results obtained were compared with Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.), the standard drug. In conclusion, SPE (200 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant hepatoprotective activity similar to that of the standard drug, Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.). PMID:16388923

  3. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250?mm?×?4.6?mm, 5??), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water?:?methanol?:?glacial acetic acid (65?:?34?:?1?v/v). The flow rate was 1.0?mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310?nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617?min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10??g/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  4. Lupeol Is One of Active Components in the Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne That Inhibits LMP1-Induced NF-?B Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yoon-Jae

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that seventy percent ethanol extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIE) strongly reduces Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) survival by inhibiting virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-induced NF-?B activation. To identify an active compound(s) in CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-?B activation, activity-guided fractionation was employed. The CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE strongly reduced LMP1-induced NF-?B activation and LCL viability with relatively low cytotoxic effects on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF), HeLa or Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL41) cells. Furthermore, lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, was identified in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE to attenuate LMP1-induced NF-?B activation and LCL viability. This study demonstrates that lupeol is one of active compounds in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-?B activation and reduces NF-?B-dependent LCL viability. PMID:24303085

  5. Therapy with methanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb and Ocimum sanctum Linn reverses dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in alloxan induced type I diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prem Kumar; Baxi, Darshee; Banerjee, Sudip; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-07-01

    Methanolic extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb (P. marsupium) and Ocimum sanctum Linn (O. sanctum) were prepared separately and then administered to both non-diabetic and alloxan induced diabetic adult female Wistar rats as a mixture of both at a dosage of 500mg/kg body weight, and its effect was checked on serum and tissue lipids together with corticosterone, estrogen and progesterone profile. Further, tissue load of metabolites (cholesterol), enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status together with lipid peroxidation levels and serum markers of hepatic and renal damage were also assessed. Results of the present study strongly support the possibility of this herbal combination in humans to meet the objective of achieving a holistic amelioration and cure of diabetes as, the herbal extract mixture of P. marsupium and O. sanctum has succeeded in not only rectifying dyslipidemia but also in restoring the endogenous antioxidant levels to the pre diabetic status. Herbal preparations are ideal candidates of choice and in this context, the present combination of P. marsupium and O. sanctum provides compelling evidence for a holistic efficacy in amelioration of associated diabetic manifestations/dysregulations. PMID:21106356

  6. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 ?g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 ?g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ? 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  7. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40?mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200??g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6??g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ?1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100?mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40?mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60?mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5?mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5?mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  8. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  9. Isolation of beta-mannanase from Cocos nucifera Linn haustorium and its application in the depolymerization of beta-(1,4)-linked D-mannans.

    PubMed

    Soumya, Rema S; Abraham, Emilia T

    2010-05-01

    Beta-mannanase was extracted from coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) haustorium and purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and sepharose 6B-lectin affinity chromatography. Coconut beta-mannanase is an acidic protein with a pI of 3.75. The molecular mass of coconut beta-mannanase (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) was found to be 44 kDa and was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The optimum temperature and pH for enzyme activity was 70 degrees C and 5.2. The enzyme was used for the preparation of neutraceutical dietary supplement from galactomannans of guar gum and tender coconut kernel having a beta-(1,4)-linked D-mannose backbone. Depolymerized guar gum has 92% of oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of 3 and 7. Tender coconut kernel has a degree of polymerization of 9-39 oligosaccharides along with disaccharides and trisaccharides. Hence this mannanase will be useful to depolymerize beta-(1,4)-linked D-mannose polysaccharides from most plant sources to produce prebiotics in a cost-effective technique. PMID:20085503

  10. Investigation of Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in Type 1 Diabetic Rats: An Identification of Possible Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, S.; Asokkumar, K.; Uma Maheswari, M.; Ravi, T. K.; Sivashanmugam, A. T.; Saravanan, S.; Rajasekaran, A.; Dharman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant properties of the root of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus root (EESIR) 100 and 200?mg/kg to the STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) reduction in blood glucose and increase in body weight compared to diabetic control rats. Both the doses of EESIR-treated diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) alteration in elevated lipid profile levels than diabetic control rats. The EESIR treatment in diabetic rats produced significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels than diabetic control rats. Administration of EESIR 200?mg/kg produced significant (P < .01) higher antioxidant activity than EESIR 100?mg/kg. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EESIR revealed the presence of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin. In conclusion, EESIR possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect will help to prevent diabetic complications, and these actions are possibly due to presence of above biomarkers. PMID:20953435

  11. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals by plants grown under hydroponic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick A. Herklotz; Prakash Gurung; Brian Vanden Heuvel; Chad A. Kinney

    2010-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) and Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa) were chosen for a proof of concept study to determine the potential uptake and accumulation of human pharmaceuticals by plants. These plants were grown hydroponically under high-pressure sodium lamps in one of two groups including a control and test group exposed to pharmaceuticals. The control plants were irrigated with

  12. Dieldrin uptake by vegetable crops grown in contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Donnarumma; Valter Pompi; Alessandro Faraci; Elisa Conte

    2009-01-01

    The aim of these trials was to study the distribution of dieldrin in soil and its translocation to roots and the aerial parts of vegetable crops grown in greenhouses and fields. The main objectives were to characterize dieldrin accumulation in plant tissues in relation to the levels of soil contamination; uptake capability among plants belonging to different species, varieties and

  13. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  14. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacities of Alabama – Grown Thornless Blackberries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Wei S. Kao; Floyd M. Woods; William A. Dozier; Robert C. Ebel; Monte Nesbitt; Junbae Jee; Deacue Fields

    2008-01-01

    Total phenolics (TPH), flavonoids (TF), monomeric anthocyanins (ACY), and Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacities (VCEAC) utilizing ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays were determined for five fully ripened blackberries cultivars (‘Loch Ness’, ‘Navaho’, ‘Arapaho’, ‘Apache’, and ‘Triple Crown’) of Rubus spp. grown in Alabama. The ABTS and DPPH methods were highly correlated (R?=?0.897) and the ABTS method was better for

  15. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Cormode; Collin Reynolds; Brian Leroy

    2011-01-01

    The electronic properties of CVD grown graphene were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. Mono and multi layered samples were prepared by growth on copper and transferred to 300 nm SiO2 substrates. Raman spectroscopy mapping was used to determine the thickness of the samples as well as characterize regions of higher disorder as evidenced by an increased D peak. The samples

  16. STM and STS studies of CVD grown graphene nanoribbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoting Jia; Minghu Pan; Sreekar Bhaviripudi; Vincent Meunier; Jing Kong; Mildred Dresselhaus

    2011-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are quasi one dimensional structures which have unique transport properties, and have a potential to open a bandgap at small ribbon widths. They have been extensively studied in recent years due to their high potential for future electronics applications. We have experimentally found some GNRs in our CVD grown graphene layers. In this work, we investigated the

  17. Bioengineered Dental Tissues Grown in the Rat Jaw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Duailibi; M. T. Duailibi; W. Zhang; R. Asrican; J. P. Vacanti; P. C. Yelick

    2008-01-01

    Our long-term objective is to develop methods to form, in the jaw, bioengineered replacement teeth that exhibit physical properties and functions similar to those of natural teeth. Our results show that cultured rat tooth bud cells, seeded onto biodegradable scaffolds, implanted into the jaws of adult rat hosts and grown for 12 weeks, formed small, organized, bioengineered tooth crowns, containing

  18. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  19. Textured strontium ferrite thin films grown by PLD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Garc??a; E. de Posada; L. Ponce; J. L. Sanchez; S D??az; E. Pedrero; F. Fernandez; P. Bartolo-Perez; J. L. Pena; R. Diamant; J. A. M. Pereira

    2001-01-01

    Textured strontium ferrite thin films has been grown at room temperature using a Nd:YAG laser. The spectroscopic study of the produced plasma revealed that the expansion velocities of the species are of the order of 106 cm\\/s, which could explain the obtained texture. The stoichiometric analysis shows a small oxygen reduction in the films due to the absence of a

  20. MBE-grown InGaAs photocathodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loig E. Bourree; David R. Chasse; P. L. Stephan Thamban; Robert Glosser

    2003-01-01

    The material constitution of modern photocathodes (i.e. third generation) has remained a constant for almost two decades. The active GaAs layer is grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and processed to create a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface for photoemission. Thus, these types of cathodes are limited in their spectral response by the band gap energy of the

  1. Spectrophotometric phytochrome measurements in light-grown Avena sativa L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merten Jabben I; Gerald F. Deitzer

    1978-01-01

    Phytochrome was studied spectrophotometrically in Avena sativa L. seedlings that had been grown for 6 d in continous white fluorescent light from lamps. Greening was prevented through the use of the herbicide San 9789. When placed in the light, phytochrome (Ptot) decreased with first order kinetics (t1\\/2 ˜ 2 h) but reached a stable low level (˜2.5% of the dark

  2. Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

    2008-06-01

    Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 ?g ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 ?g ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth. PMID:23100719

  3. Drug/substance reversal effects of a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn.--a brief perspective.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep

    2003-12-01

    The present work is a mini-review of the author's original work on the plant Passiflora incarnata Linn., which is used in several parts of the world as a traditional medicine for the management of anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy and morphine addiction. A tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) has been isolated from the bioactive methanol extract of this plant, which has been proposed in the author's earlier work to be responsible for the biological activities of this plant. The BZF moiety has exhibited significantly encouraging results in the reversal of tolerance and dependence of several addiction-prone psychotropic drugs, including morphine, nicotine, ethanol, diazepam and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, during earlier pharmacological studies conducted by the author. In addition to this, the BZF moiety has exhibited aphrodisiac, libido-enhancing and virility-enhancing properties in 2-year-old male rats. When administered concomitantly with nicotine, ethanol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for 30 days in male rats, the BZF also prevented the drug-induced decline in sexuality in male rats. Because the BZF moiety isolated from P. incarnata is a tri-substituted derivative of alpha-naphthoflavone (7,8-benzoflavone), a well-known aromatase-enzyme inhibitor, the mode of action of BZF has been postulated to be a neurosteroidal mechanism vide in which the BZF moiety prevents the metabolic degradation of testosterone and upregulates blood - testosterone levels in the body. As several flavonoids (e.g. chrysin, apigenin) and other phytoconstituents also possess aromatase-inhibiting properties, and the IC50 value of such phytomoieties is the main factor determining their biochemical efficacy, by altering their chemical structures to attain a desirable IC50 value new insights in medical therapeutics can be attained, keeping in view the menace of drug abuse worldwide. PMID:14690874

  4. Flower Bud Transcriptome Analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and Primary Investigation of Drought Induced Flowering: Pathway Construction and G-Quadruplex Prediction Based on Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRX?39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants. PMID:25738565

  5. Clinical study on the effect of decoction of Pavetta indica Linn. in treatment of Purishaja Krimi with special reference to Enterobius vermicularis infestation.

    PubMed

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Rajapaksha, R P V J; Rathnayaka, R L Y U; Premakeerthi, W M S A; Premathilaka, S

    2013-07-01

    Pavetta indica Linn. (Family: Rubiaceae; Sanskrit name: Papata) is 2-5 m tall, shrub or small tree with opposite branches and grows in the Asia - Pacific region including Sri Lanka. Purishaja Krimi is one of the worm infestations described in Ayurveda. Enterobius vermicularis is among the most common of worms affecting children and adults. E. vermicularis is considered as one type of Purishaja Krimi. Sri Lankan traditional and ayurvedic physicians use P. indica to treat different ailments including Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis) infestations successfully. Since no scientific studies have been undertaken to study these effects so far, the present clinical study was carried out to evaluate the effect of P. indica in treatment of E. vermicularis infestation. Fifty patients between age of 5 and 12 years (Group A and B) and 50 patients between 13 and 65 years (Group C and D) with symptoms of E. vermicularis infestations such as itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea or constipation and presence of ova in stools were selected. Two decoction of the trail drug with different concentration was prepared. Group A and Group B were treated with 60 ml of decoction 1 and 60 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Group C and Group D were treated with 120 ml of decoction 2 and 120 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Groups A and C showed complete or partial reduction of symptoms, that is; itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea and also ova of E. vermicularis were absent in stools after treatment with P. indica. Decoction of P. indica can be recommended as an effective treatment for Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis infestation). PMID:24501518

  6. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

  7. TEM study of diamond films grown from fullerene precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Csencsits, R.; Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.; Zuiker, C.

    1995-11-01

    Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) techniques are applied to study the microstructure of diamond films grown from fullerene precursors. Electron diffraction and electron energy loss spectra (EELS) collected from the diamond films correspond to that of bulk diamond. Microdiffraction, high resolution images and EELS help determine that the first diamond grains that nucleate from fullerene precursors generally form on a thin amorphous carbon interlayer and seldom directly on the silicon substrate. Grain size measurements reveal nanocrystalline diamond grains. Cross section TEM images show that the nanocrystalline diamond grains are equiaxed and not columnar nor dendritic. The microstructure of small equiaxed grains throughout the film thickness is believed responsible for the very smooth surfaces of diamond films grown from fullerene precursors.

  8. Present and future applications of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Teresa, J. M.; Fernández-Pacheco, A.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, magnetic nanostructures are routinely grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). In the present article, we review the milestones produced in the topic in the past as well as the future applications of this technology. Regarding past milestones, we highlight the achievement of high-purity cobalt and iron deposits, the high lateral resolution obtained, the growth of 3D magnetic deposits, the exploration of magnetic alloys and the application of magnetic deposits for Hall sensing and in domain-wall conduit and magnetologic devices. With respect to future perspectives of the topic, we emphasize the potential role of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID for applications related to highly integrated 2D arrays, 3D nanowires devices, fabrication of advanced scanning-probe systems, basic studies of magnetic structures and their dynamics, small sensors (including biosensors) and new applications brought by magnetic alloys and even exchange biased systems.

  9. Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D.; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-07-01

    Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moore’s law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits.

  10. Radial segregation in VGF-RMF grown germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellmann, M. P.; Pätzold, O.; Gärtner, G.; Möller, H. J.; Stelter, M.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper experimental results of the radial dopant segregation in Ge:Ga single crystals grown by the vertical gradient freeze technique with a rotating magnetic field are presented. The segregation is analysed on the basis of the carrier concentration measured by means of Hall effect and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In growth without the field the carrier concentration increases towards the axis, whereas much more uniform radial concentration profiles are found in crystals grown under the influence of the rotating field indicating a pronounced impact of the melt flow on the dopant segregation. Apparently, the accumulation of the Ga solute near the centre of the melt during growth under natural buoyancy is reduced by the electromagnetically induced flow. This phenomenon is discussed with respect to analytical and numerical results published recently.

  11. Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moore's law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits. PMID:24999601

  12. Electron diffraction studies on CVD grown bi-layered graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingam, Kiran; Karakaya, Mehmet; Podila, Ramakrishna; Quin, Haijun; Rao, Apparao; Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC USA 29634. Team; Advanced Materials Research Laboratories, Clemson University, Anderson, SC USA 29625 Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Graphene has generated enormous interest in the scientific community due to its peculiar properties like electron mobility, thermal conductivity etc. Several recent reports on exfoliated graphene emphasized the role of layer stacking on the electronic and optical properties of graphene in case of bi-layered and few layered graphene and several synthesis techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Copper foils are employed to prepare graphene for applications at a large scale. However, a correlated study pertinent to the stacking order in CVD grown graphene is still unclear. In this work, using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction analysis we analyzed the preferred misorientation angles in a CVD grown bi-layered graphene and also the role of Cu crystal facets on the graphene stacking order will be presented.

  13. Magneto-transport of large CVD-grown graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Whiteway; Victor Yu; Josianne Lefebvre; Robert Gagnon; Michael Hilke

    2010-01-01

    We present magnetoresistance measurements on large scale monolayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper. The graphene layer was transferred onto SiO2\\/Si via PMMA and thermal release tape for transport measurements. The resulting centimeter-sized graphene samples were measured at temperatures down to 30mK in a magnetic field. We observe a very sharp peak in resistance at zero field,

  14. Electronic properties of CVD graphene grown on copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helin Cao; Qingkai Yu; Luis A. Jauregui; Jifa Tian; Wei Wu; Zhihong Liu; Romaneh Jalilian; Daniel K. Benjamin; Zhigang Jiang; Jiming Bao; Steven S. Pei; Yong P. Chen

    2010-01-01

    We report the electronic properties of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper foils at ambient pressure. Large size graphene films (4 inch*4 inch) are synthesized and transferred to SiO2\\/Si substrate. Raman mapping demonstrates that the films consist primarily of monolayer graphene (up to ˜90% area coverage). Low temperature transport measurements are performed on devices made from such

  15. Thermoelectric properties of CVD grown large area graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andriy Sherehiy; Ruwantha Jayasinghe; Robert Stallard; Gamini Sumanasekera; Anton Sidorov; Daniel Benjamin; Zhigang Jiang; Qingkai Yu; Wei Wu; Jiming Bao; Zhihong Liu; Steven Pei; Yong Chen

    2010-01-01

    The thermoelectric power (TEP) of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) grown large area graphene transferred onto a Si\\/SiO2 substrate was measured by simply attaching two miniature thermocouples and a resistive heater. Availability of such large area graphene facilitates straight forward TEP measurement without the use of any microfabrication processes. All investigated graphene samples showed a positive TEP ˜ + 30 muV\\/K

  16. Spectral Response of THM Grown CdZnTe Crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Chen; Salah A. Awadalla; Fraser Harris; Pinghe Lu; Robert Redden; Glenn Bindley; Antonio Copete; Jaesub Hong; Jonathan Grindlay; Mark Amman; Julie S. Lee; Paul Luke; Irfan Kuvvetli; Carl Budtz-Jorgensen

    2008-01-01

    The spectral response of several crystals grown by the Traveling Heater Method (THM) were investigated. An energy resolution of 0.98% for a Pseudo Frisch-Grid of 4 times 4 times 9 mm3 and 2.1% FWHM for a coplanar-grid of size 11 times 11 times 5 mm3 were measured using 137Cs-662 keV. In addition a 4% FWHM at 122 keV has also

  17. Nano transfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOEpatents

    Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN); Guillorn, Michael A. (Ithaca, NY); Ilic, Bojan (Ithaca, NY); Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Knoxville, TX); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-03-27

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoconduit material coupled to a surface of the substrate. The substrate defines an aperture and the nanoconduit material defines a nanoconduit that is i) contiguous with the aperture and ii) aligned substantially non-parallel to a plane defined by the surface of the substrate.

  18. Diversity in Butane Monooxygenases among Butane-Grown Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NATSUKO HAMAMURA; RYAN T. STORFA; LEWIS SEMPRINI; DANIEL J. ARP

    1999-01-01

    Butane monooxygenases of butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora, Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, and an environmental isolate, CF8, were compared at the physiological level. The presence of butane monooxygenases in these bacteria was indicated by the following results. (i) O2 was required for butane degradation. (ii) 1-Butanol was produced during butane degradation. (iii) Acetylene inhibited both butane oxidation and 1-butanol production. The responses to

  19. Fungicidal control of Phthium Aphanidermatum in hydroponically grown tomatoes 

    E-print Network

    Acra, Michel Aftim

    1979-01-01

    FUNGICIDAL CONTROL OF PYTHIUM APHANIDERMATUM IN HYDROPONICALLY GROMN TOMATOES A Thesis by MICHEL AFTIM ACRA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AILM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Horticulture FUNGICIDAL CONTROL OF PYTHIUM APHANIDERMATUM IN HYDROPONICALLY GROWN TOMATOES A Thesis by MICHEL AFTIM ACRA Approved as to style and content by: (Co~as n of Com ' pe (Co-Chairman of~ ommittee...

  20. Arsenic uptake and speciation in vegetables grown under greenhouse conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Smith; A. L. Juhasz; J. Weber

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of arsenic (As) by vegetables is a potential human exposure pathway. The speciation of As in vegetables is\\u000a an important consideration due to the varying toxicity of different As species. In this study, common Australian garden vegetables\\u000a were hydroponically grown with As-contaminated irrigation water to determine the uptake and species of As present in vegetable\\u000a tissue. The highest

  1. Multilayer Permalloy films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rook; A. M. Zeltser; J. O. Artman; D. E. Laughlin; M. H. Kryder; R. M. Chrenko

    1991-01-01

    Single and multilayer [111]-textured films of Permalloy and Cu were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on (111) Si substrates. The magnetic properties of the films were measured by ferromagnetic resonance and M-H loop tracer. The microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction. Even the single-layer films had lower easy axis coercivity Hce (≊0.6

  2. Preparation of vapor-grown carbon fibers from deoiled asphalt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongzhen Yang; Xuguang Liu; Bingshe Xu; Tianbao Li

    2006-01-01

    Vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCFs) with high-purity have been successfully prepared from the thermal cracking of deoiled asphalt (DOA) with ferrocene as catalyst by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in argon atmosphere and characterized systematically by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Results showed that VGCFs with a diameter of 150–200nm and

  3. Furnace grown gate oxynitride using nitric oxide (NO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshio Okada; Philip J. Tobin; Kimberly G. Reid; Rama I. Hegde; Bikas Maiti; Sergio A. Ajuria

    1994-01-01

    Gate oxynitride was grown in NO for the first time. This approach can provide a tight N accumulation near the Si\\/SiO2 interface. Much lower thermal budget is required for an NO process than for an N2O process to produce an oxynitride with useful properties. Submicron MOSFET's with NO oxynitride showed superior current drive characteristics and comparable hot carrier immunity to

  4. pH sensor properties of electrochemically grown iridium oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Olthuis; M. A. M. Robben; P. Bergveld; M. Bos; Linden van der W. E

    1990-01-01

    The open-circuit potential of an electrochemically grown iridium oxide film is measured and shows a pH sensitivity between ?60 and ?80 mV\\/pH. This sensitivity is found to depend on the state of oxidation of the iridium oxide film; for a higher state of oxidation (or more of the oxide in the high valence state), the sensitivity is also higher. This

  5. Magnetite films grown directly on organic semiconductor layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Dediu; E. Arisi; I. Bergenti; A. Riminucci; M. Murgia; G. Ruani

    2006-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) films were grown directly on thin layers of two organic semiconductors (p-conjugated oligomers), 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3) and sexitiophene (T6) by pulsed electron beam deposition, also called channel spark ablation (CSA), for which spin injection effects have been demonstrated at low and room temperatures. The room temperature ferromagnetism for both kind of films found by magneto-optical Kerr rotation (MOKE)

  6. Femtosecond laser processing of protein crystals grown in agarose gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Hasenaka; Shigeru Sugiyama; Mika Hirose; Noriko Shimizu; Tomoya Kitatani; Yoshinori Takahashi; Hiroaki Adachi; Kazufumi Takano; Satoshi Murakami; Tsuyoshi Inoue; Yusuke Mori; Hiroyoshi Matsumura

    2009-01-01

    Manual manipulation of protein crystals is often required in order to obtain X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, but the success of the manual operation depends on the experience and fortuity of the operators. Here, we demonstrated the processing of protein crystals grown in semi-solid agarose gel using a femtosecond laser. This high-precision, reproducible processing could be achieved without unsealing the crystallization

  7. MBE-Grown II-VI and Related Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sou, I. K.; Lok, S. K.; Wang, G.; Wang, N.; Wong, G. K. L.

    2010-07-01

    Nanostructures of II-VI semiconductor materials could potentially offer novel and superior physical (in particular, optoelectronic) properties with respect to their bulk counterparts. Herein, we present our most recent research on several II-VI and related nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique. These include a ZnSe nanograting. This nanograting structure was realized at the surface of Fe/ZnSe bilayers grown on GaAs(001) substrates by thermal annealing. A model based on an Ewald construction is presented to explain its unusual reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns. The formation mechanism of this one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure is possibly related to surface energy minimization, together with an Fe-Se exchange interaction and Fe-induced decomposition of several top ZnSe atomic layers during thermal annealing. Another nanostructure investigated was the ZnS Schottky barrier embedded with Fe quantum dots (QDs). Here, a Au/ZnS/Fe-QDs/ZnS/ n +-GaAs(100) Schottky barrier structure containing five layers of spherical Fe quantum dots with a diameter of ~3 nm was fabricated. Its I- V characteristic measured from 5 K to 295 K displays negative differential resistance (NDR) for temperature ?50 K. Staircase-like I- V characteristics were also observed at low temperature in some devices fabricated from this structure. Possible mechanisms that can account for the observed unusual I- V characteristic in this structure are presented. Finally, laterally grown Fe nanowires (NWs) on a ZnS surface were prepared. Under high growth/annealing temperature, two types of Fe NWs with specific orientations can be grown on the ZnS(100) surface. We propose a mean-field model that the torque exerted by type A Fe NWs could effectively turn the two components of type B Fe NWs slightly toward the ZnS [110] direction, leading to the observed misalignment of type B Fe NWs.

  8. Pyrolytic carbon nanotubes from vapor-grown carbon fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morinobu Endo; Kenji Takeuchi; Kiyoharu Kobori; Katsushi Takahashi; Harold W. Kroto; A. Sarkar

    1995-01-01

    The structure of as-grown and heat-treated pyrolytic carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) produced by hydrocarbon pyrolysis are discussed on the basis of a possible growth process. The structures are compared with those of nanotubes obtained by the arc method (ACNT; arc-formed carbon nanotubes). PCNTs, with and without secondary pyrolytic deposition (which results in diameter increase) are found to form during pyrolysis of

  9. Nitric acid oxidation of vapor grown carbon nanofibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priya V. Lakshminarayanan; Hossein Toghiani; Charles U. Pittman Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Vapor grown carbon nanofibers (Pyrograf III™) with 100–300 nm diameters and ?10–100 ?m lengths were oxidized in 69–71 wt.% nitric acid (115 °C) for various times (10 min to 24 h). These fibers were remarkably oxidation-resistant. XPS (O1s) showed that the surface atomic oxygen percent increased from 6.3 to 18.3–22.5% for 10–90 min oxidations followed by a drop to 14–15%

  10. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States. 982...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative...Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States....

  11. Plant Disease / February 2003 177 Suppression of Powdery Mildew on Greenhouse-Grown Cucumber by Addition

    E-print Network

    Schuerger, Andrew C.

    Plant Disease / February 2003 177 Suppression of Powdery Mildew on Greenhouse-Grown Cucumber, FL 32830 Powdery mildew (PM) of greenhouse- grown cucumber plants, caused by Sphaerotheca fuliginea agents (3,10). Silicon also has been tested as a control agent for PM on greenhouse-grown cucumber

  12. Atomistic Stress Fluctuation at Surfaces and Edges of Epitaxially Grown Silver

    E-print Network

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Atomistic Stress Fluctuation at Surfaces and Edges of Epitaxially Grown Silver Nanorods Saw-Wai Hla of epitaxially grown silver nanorods on a -MoTe2 surface have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy peculiarities occurring at surfaces and edges of epitaxially grown silver nanorods on a (001) van der Waals

  13. 78 FR 24331 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...AMS-FV-12-0028; FV12-922-2 FIR] Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington...prescribed under the marketing order for apricots grown in designated Counties in Washington...CFR 922), regulating the handling of apricots grown in designated counties in...

  14. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  15. Hyperspectral imaging for detecting pathogens grown on agar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Line, John E.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

    2007-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth pattern, color, etc.) of colonies grown on agar plates has been widely used to tentatively differentiate organisms. However, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate target organisms like Campylobacters from other contaminants grown together on the same agar plates. A hyperspectral imaging system operating at the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral region from 400 nm to 900 nm was set up to measure spectral signatures of 17 different Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter subspecies. Protocols for culturing, imaging samples and for calibrating measured data were developed. The VNIR spectral library of all 17 organisms commonly encountered in poultry was established from calibrated hyperspectral images. A classification algorithm was developed to locate and identify Campylobacters, non-Campylobacter contaminants, and background agars with 99.29% accuracy. This research has a potential to be expanded to detect other pathogens grown on agar media.

  16. Femtosecond laser processing of protein crystals grown in agarose gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenaka, Hitoshi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Hirose, Mika; Shimizu, Noriko; Kitatani, Tomoya; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi

    2009-12-01

    Manual manipulation of protein crystals is often required in order to obtain X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, but the success of the manual operation depends on the experience and fortuity of the operators. Here, we demonstrated the processing of protein crystals grown in semi-solid agarose gel using a femtosecond laser. This high-precision, reproducible processing could be achieved without unsealing the crystallization trays by using a focused femtosecond laser. We confirmed that the gel-immobilized crystals of hen egg white lysozyme, glucose isomerase and thaumatin could be processed by this technique. In contrast, the processing of protein crystals grown in non-gelled solution triggered polycrystallization or was unsuccessful. The processed gel-grown lysozyme crystal was subsequently captured by a nylon loop without difficulty and mounted onto the goniometer head of the XRD equipment for XRD data collection. The statistics of the obtained XRD data indicated that laser irradiation has little influence on crystallinity, suggesting that the processed protein crystals are virtually suitable for X-ray analysis. This approach provides a reliable method of processing protein crystals and may lead to an automated system for protein crystal processing.

  17. MBE-grown InGaAs photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourree, Loig E.; Chasse, David R.; Thamban, P. L. Stephan; Glosser, Robert

    2003-02-01

    The material constitution of modern photocathodes (i.e. third generation) has remained a constant for almost two decades. The active GaAs layer is grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and processed to create a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface for photoemission. Thus, these types of cathodes are limited in their spectral response by the band gap energy of the GaAs. There is interest in extending this range past 1000nm while preserving a high quantum efficiency (QE). This would allow taking advantage of an increased luminescence of night sky in the infrared. MOCVD grown InGaAs photocathodes have a photoresponse (PR) in the near infrared. Still, a major drawback to date has been its low QE. We believe that the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to grow this alloy will permit the fabrication of a higher quality device beyond today's standards, with improved equivalent background illumination and higher QE over a 700nm to 1100nm spectral range. To demonstrate this concept two reflection mode InGaAs photocathode were grown. These cathodes were NEA activated with Cs:O in situ in the MBE reactor after their growth and their PR recorded. Following the activation, optical characterization techniques (i.e. photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy) were employed to probe electron and phonon energy to relate fundamental material parameters to the observed PR. The collected information is being used to correct and enhance growth characteristics to increase spectral response and QE.

  18. Chloroform Cometabolism by Butane-Grown CF8 Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and Methane Grown Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natsuko Hamamura; Cynthia Page; Tulley Long; Lewis Semprini; Daniel J. Arp

    1997-01-01

    Chloroform (CF) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and to that by a known CF degrader, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. All three butane-grown bacteria were able to degrade CF at rates comparable to that of M. trichosporium. CF degradation by all four bacteria required O2. Butane inhibited CF

  19. Photosynthetic ability in dark-grown Reboulia hemisphaerica and Barbula unguiculata cells in suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Takio, S; Akita, C; Ngumi, V W; Takami, S

    1990-03-01

    Suspension cultured cells of the liverwort, Reboulia hemisphaerica and of the moss, Barbula unguiculata were independently subcultured in the medium containing 2% glucose in the dark or in the light for more than one year, and the photosynthetic activities of the final cultures were determined. Throughout the culture period light-grown cells of both species contained high amount of chlorophyll (4 to 34 ?g mg(-1) dry weight) and showed a high photosynthetic activity (10 to 84 ?mol O2 mg(-1) chlorophyll h(-1)). Dark-grown cells of R. hemisphaerica showed the same level of chlorophyll content and photosynthetic O2 evolving activity as light-grown cells. Although chlorophyll content in dark-grown B. unguiculata cells was ten-fold lower than that in light-grown cells, the photosynthetic activity of these dark-grown cells was higher than that of light-grown cells based on chlorophyll content. PMID:24232674

  20. Washing practices on the microflora on Georgia-grown cantaloupes.

    PubMed

    Akins, E Deann; Harrison, Mark A; Hurst, William

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, several foodborne illness outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of cantaloupe. Cantaloupes can be contaminated with pathogens anywhere from the field to the packing line. In the United States, cantaloupes are handled and packed differently in each state. Georgia-grown cantaloupes are brought to sheds, washed, and packed, whereas California-grown cantaloupes are field packed. In this study, the microbiological status of cantaloupes produced by four Georgia growers that use various washing and packing practices was assessed to determine the influence of these different practices. The facilities were visited four times during the harvest season. Aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and coliforms on these Georgia-grown cantaloupes were enumerated in transport trailers, after washing, and after packing. Samples also were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. In sheds 1 and 4, a chlorinated dump tank was used to wash melons. In sheds 2 and 3, heated water with chlorine was used in the dump tanks. Although there was a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the populations of the aerobic bacteria and E. coli between the transport trailer and the dump tank for sheds 1 and 4, the reduction was less than 0.5 log CFU/cm2. The temperatures of the water in the dump tanks at sheds 2 and 3 were not high enough to effectively reduce the microbial populations evaluated. Populations on the melons increased slightly (< 0.5 log CFU/cm2) after the melons were removed from the dump tank, suggesting possible contamination after washing. PMID:18236661

  1. Characterization of metal oxide layers grown on CVD graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubayashi, Akitomo; Abel, Joseph; Prasad Sinha, Dhiraj; Lee, Ji Ung; LaBella, Vincent P. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Growth of a fully oxidized aluminum oxide layer with low surface roughness on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. This is accomplished by the deposition of a 0.2 nm thick titanium seed layer on the graphene prior to the deposition of the aluminum under ultra high vacuum conditions, which was subsequently oxidized. The stoichiometry and surface roughness of the oxide layers were measured for a range of titanium and aluminum depositions utilizing ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. These fully oxidized films are expected to produce good dielectric layers for use in graphene based electronic devices.

  2. Low defect, high purity crystalline layers grown by selective deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D. (inventors); Daud, T.

    1985-01-01

    The purity and perfection of a semiconductor is improved by depositing a patterned mask of a material impervious to impurities of the semiconductor on a surface of a blank. When a layer of semiconductor is grown on the mask, the semiconductor will first grow from the surface portions exposed by the openings in the mask and will bridge the connecting portions of the mask to form a continuous layer having improved purity, since only the portions overlying the openings are exposed to defects and impurities.

  3. Inversion domains in AlN grown on (0001) sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Paduano, Q.S.; Weyburne, D.W.

    2003-08-25

    Al-polarity inversion domains formed during AlN layer growth on (0001) sapphire were identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They resemble columnar inversion domains reported for GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire. However, for AlN, these columns have a V-like shape with boundaries that deviate by 2 {+-} 0.5{sup o} from the c-axis. TEM identification of these defects agrees with the post-growth surface morphology as well as with the microstructure revealed by etching in hot aqueous KOH.

  4. Characterization of MBE-grown Semiconductor Materials for Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dinghao

    The research described in this dissertation involved the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize II-VI and III-V compound semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and dilute-nitride alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and intended for photovoltaic applications. The morphology of CdTe QDs prepared by the post-annealing MBE method were characterized by various microscopy techniques including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and high-angle annular-dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). Extensive observations revealed that the of QD shapes were not well-defined, and the QD size and spatial distribution were not determined by the amount of CdTe deposition. These results indicated that the formation of II-VI QDs using a post-annealing treatment did not follow the conventional growth mechanism for III-V and IV-IV materials. The structural properties of dilute-nitride GaAsNx films grown using plasma-assisted MBE were characterized by TEM and HAADF-STEM. A significant amount of the nitrogen incorporated into the dilute nitride films was found to be interstitial, and that fluctuations in local nitrogen composition also occurred during growth. Post-growth partial relaxation of strain resulted in the formation of {110}-oriented microcracks in the sample with the largest substitutional nitrogen composition. Single- and multi-layered InAs QDs grown on GaAsSb/GaAs composite substrates were investigated using HR-TEM and HAADF-STEM. Correlation between the structural and optoelectronic properties revealed that the GaAsSb barrier layers had played an important role in tuning the energy-band alignments but without affecting the overall structural morphology. However, according to both XRD measurement and electron microscopy the densities of dislocations increased as the number of QD layers built up. An investigation of near-wetting layer-free InAs QDs incorporated with AlAs/GaAs spacer layers was carried out. The microscopy observations revealed that both embedded and non-embedded near-wetting layer-free InAs QDs did not have well-defined shapes unlike conventional InAs QDs. According to AFM analysis and plan-view TEM characterization, the InAs QDs incorporated with spacer layers had smaller dot density and more symmetrical larger sizes with an apparent bimodal size distribution (two distinct families of large and small dots) in comparison with conventional InAs QDs grown without any spacer layer.

  5. Scientists Inspect Plant Grown onboard the ISS in 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Astroculture (tm) unit is growing plants on its second flight on the International Space Station. Dr. Weijia Zhou (left), director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects soybeans grown in the plant growth unit aboard ISS in 2002. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Partnership Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

  6. Defects in GaSe grown by Bridgman method.

    PubMed

    Kokh, K A; Atuchin, V V; Gavrilova, T A; Kozhukhov, A; Maximovskiy, E A; Pokrovsky, L D; Tsygankova, A R; Saprykin, A I

    2014-12-01

    Optical quality GaSe crystals have been grown by vertical Bridgman method. The structural properties and micromorphology of a cleaved GaSe(001) surface have been evaluated by RHEED, SEM and AFM. The cleaved GaSe(001) is atomically flat with as low roughness as ?0.06 nm excepting local hillock type defects. The hillock-type formations are round-shaped with a bottom diameter of ?200 nm and a height of ?20-35 nm. The drastic depletion of the hillock material by gallium has been indicated by EDX measurements. PMID:25182595

  7. Very high efficiency triple junction solar cells grown by MOVPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Stan; D. Aiken; B. Cho; A. Cornfeld; J. Diaz; V. Ley; A. Korostyshevsky; P. Patel; P. Sharps; T. Varghese

    2008-01-01

    The GaInP\\/GaInAs\\/Ge triple junction (3J) space cell technology is nearing practical achievable conversion efficiency limits of ?30% under 1-sun AM0 illumination. We present solar cell device-modeling results that indicate the GaInP\\/GaAs\\/GaInAs architecture with optimal bandgap energies will produce an additional 4% output power relative to the present GaInP\\/GaInAs\\/Ge 3J space cell technology. We have grown the GaInP\\/GaAs\\/GaInAs 3J cell on

  8. Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-13

    We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

  9. Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through innovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystals growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a disease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Champion Deivanaygam, a researcher at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, assists in this work. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  10. Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through irnovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystal growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a desease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Dr. Marianna Long, associate director of the Center of Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, is a co-investigator on the research. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  11. Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Potu, Bhagath K; Nampurath, Gopalan K; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna R; Prasad, Keerthana; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Dharmavarapu, Praveen K; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, Kumar MR

    2009-01-01

    The increasing incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its related fractures have become global health issues in the recent days. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease; it is characterized by a rapid loss of mineralized bone tissue. Hormone replacement therapy has proven efficacious in preventing bone loss but not desirable to many women due to its side-effects. Therefore we are in need to search the natural compounds for a treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in women with no toxic effects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ), a plant used in folk medicine, on an osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. In this experiment, healthy female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control (OVX). Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) and petroleum-ether extract of CQ (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 months. The findings were assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (an osteoblastic marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (an osteoclastic marker) in upper end of femur. The study revealed for the first time that the petroleum-ether extract of CQ reduced bone loss, as evidenced by the weight gain in femur, and also reduced the osteoclastic activity there by facilitating bone formation when compared to the OVX group. The osteoclastic activity was confirmed by TRAP staining, and the bone formation was assessed by ALP staining in the femur sections. The color intensity of TRAP and ALP enzymes from the images were evaluated by image analysis software developed locally. The effect of CQ was found to be effective on both enzymes, and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The biological activity of CQ on bone may be attributed to the phytogenic steroids present in it. PMID:19736603

  12. Nanopillar lasers directly grown on silicon with heterostructure surface passivation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Ren, Fan; Ng, Kar Wei; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2014-07-22

    Single-crystalline wurtzite InGaAs/InGaP nanopillars directly grown on a lattice-mismatched silicon substrate are demonstrated. The nanopillar growth is in a core-shell manner and gives a sharp, defect-free heterostructure interface. The InGaP shell provides excellent surface passivation effect for InGaAs nanopillars, as attested by 50-times stronger photoluminescence intensities and 5-times greater enhancements in the carrier recombination lifetimes, compared to the unpassivated ones. A record value of 16.8% internal quantum efficiency for InGaAs-based nanopillars was attained with a 50-nm-thick InGaP passivation layer. A room-temperature optically pumped laser was achieved from single, as-grown InGaAs nanopillars on silicon with a record-low threshold. Superior material qualities of these InGaP-passivated InGaAs nanopillars indicate the possibility of realizing high-performance optoelectronic devices for photovoltaics, optical communication, semiconductor nanophotonics, and heterogeneous integration of III-V materials on silicon. PMID:24892949

  13. Organically Grown Food Provides Health Benefits to Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H.

    2013-01-01

    The “organic food” market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health. PMID:23326371

  14. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health. PMID:23326371

  15. Physical properties of vapour grown indium monotelluride platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunjomana, A. G.; Chandrasekharan, K. A.; Teena, M.

    2015-02-01

    Indium monotelluride (InTe) crystals were grown from vapour phase under different temperature gradients by employing physical vapour deposition (PVD) method. The morphology of these crystals such as whiskers, needles, platelets etc., strongly depends on the temperature distribution in the horizontal dual zone furnace. InTe platelets were deposited by setting the temperature of the charge (TC) and growth (TS) zones at 1073 K and 773 K (?T=300 K), respectively, for different growth periods (24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). The surface growth features have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopes, which indicate layer growth mechanism for all the crystals. Various crystals grown under ?T=200 K and 300 K (retaining TS invariant) were examined by X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. InTe samples exhibited consistent lattice parameters, density and atomic percentage, establishing stoichiometry and chemical homogeneity. The results obtained for Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, power factor, dislocation density and microhardness are found to be reproducible as well. The vapour deposited InTe platelets are mechanically stable and possess high value of TEP, which ensure their practical application in thermoelectric power generation.

  16. Mechanoresponses of human primary osteoblasts grown on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kroustalli, A; Kotsikoris, V; Karamitri, A; Topouzis, S; Deligianni, D

    2015-03-01

    Bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties. A good understanding of these mechanosensory mechanisms in bone has the potential to provide new strategies in the highly evolving field of bone tissue engineering. The aim of the present investigation was to study the interactive effects of local mechanical stimuli on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/osteoblast interface, using an in vitro model that allows the study of cell growth, attachment and differentiation. Strain was applied at physiological levels [strain magnitudes 500 microstrain (??), at frequency of load application 0.5 Hz]. The effect of mechanical strain and substrate was thus studied by measuring the messenger RNA expression of alkaline phosphatase, vinculin, collagen 1A, and integrins ?1, ?3, ?4, and ?v, using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The osteoblasts grown on MWCNTs displayed quick adaptation to the new environment by modulating the expression of key adhesion integrins. Furthermore, the addition of mechanical strain interplayed with the extracellular matrix and was efficiently transduced by cells grown on MWCNTs, providing stronger adhesion and survival. MWCNTs are therefore a material perfectly compatible with osteoblast differentiation, adhesion, and growth, and should be further evaluated, to derive new-generation biomaterial scaffolds for the treatment of skeletal defects which require bone reconstruction. PMID:24910375

  17. Characterization of Cellulolytic Bacterial Cultures Grown in Different Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2013-01-01

    Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200?rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1?:?0.2, 1?:?0.3, 1?:?0.4, and 1?:?0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067?DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885?ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248?DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842?ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC. PMID:24319380

  18. Magnetoresistance enhancement in epitaxial magnetite films grown on vicinal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, S. K.; Sofin, R. G. S.; Shvets, I. V.

    2005-10-01

    The magnetoresistance (MR) behavior of epitaxial magnetite Fe3O4 grown on low-vicinal (small miscut) and high-vicinal (large miscut) MgO substrates is compared. Magnetization measurements on Fe3O4 films on high-vicinal substrates showed reduced magnetic moment as compared with the films grown on low-vicinal MgO, which correlates well with the expected reduction in magnetic moment due to step edge induced additional antiphase boundaries (APBs) with out-of-plane shift vectors. The MR is significantly higher (12.3% at 2T ) for a 45nm Fe3O4 film on high-vicinal substrate than that observed (7.2% at 2T ) for a film on low-vicinal substrate. A strong anisotropy in the MR is observed in correlation with the direction of atomic step edges. In addition to the increase in MR, the field dependency of the MR is also modified. The observed modification in the magnetotransport behavior of epitaxial Fe3O4 films is attributed to an enhanced spin scattering arising due to the presence of atomic height steps that lead to the formation of a greater density of antiferromagnetically coupled APBs.

  19. Analysis of Phase Separation in Czochralski Grown Single Crystal Ilmenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, R.; Powell, Kirk St. A.; Loregnard, Kieron R.; Lin, Sy-Chyi; Muthusami, Jayakumar; Zhou, Feng; Pandey, R. K.; Brown, Geoff; Hawley, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Ilmenite (FeTiOs) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with an energy gap of 2.58 eV. Ilmenite has properties suited for radiation tolerant applications, as well as a variety of other electronic applications. Single crystal ilmenite has been grown from the melt using the Czochralski method. Growth conditions have a profound effect on the microstructure of the samples. Here we present data from a variety of analytical techniques which indicate that some grown crystals exhibit distinct phase separation during growth. This phase separation is apparent for both post-growth annealed and unannealed samples. Under optical microscopy, there appear two distinct areas forming a matrix with an array of dots on order of 5 pm diameter. While appearing bright in the optical micrograph, atomic force microscope (AFM) shows the dots to be shallow pits on the surface. Magnetic force microscope (MFM) shows the dots to be magnetic. Phase identification via electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) indicates two major phases in the unannealed samples and four in the annealed samples, where the dots appear to be almost pure iron. This is consistent with micrographs taken with a scanning probe microscope used in the magnetic force mode. Samples that do not exhibit the phase separation have little or no discernible magnetic structure detectable by the MFM.

  20. How good can CVD-grown monolayer graphene be?

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingyan; Huang, Huixin; Ma, Xiaomeng; Huang, Le; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-12-21

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is considered the most promising method for pushing graphene into commercial products. However, CVD grown graphene is usually of low quality. In this work we explore how good can CVD-derived monolayer graphene be. Through the combinational optimization of the main processes of growth, transfer, device fabrication and measurements, we show that the optimized CVD graphene can present performance comparable to mechanical exfoliated ones: in particular, high carrier mobility at room temperature on the Si/SiO2 substrate, perfect electron-hole symmetry and excellent uniformity (the mobility ranged from 5000 to 12,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with an average mobility of ? 8800 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 50% were higher than 10,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). In addition we found that the adsorbed oxygen and water molecules on graphene lead to p-type doping in graphene, and transferred charges bring charged impurity scattering to the transporting carriers in the graphene channel. It is therefore necessary to carry out electrical measurements under vacuum to obtain high intrinsic carrier mobility CVD grown graphene. PMID:25381813

  1. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21-47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. PMID:24890330

  2. Chloroform Cometabolism by Butane-Grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and Methane-Grown Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, N; Page, C; Long, T; Semprini, L; Arp, D J

    1997-09-01

    Chloroform (CF) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and to that by a known CF degrader, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. All three butane-grown bacteria were able to degrade CF at rates comparable to that of M. trichosporium. CF degradation by all four bacteria required O(inf2). Butane inhibited CF degradation by the butane-grown bacteria, suggesting that butane monooxygenase is responsible for CF degradation. P. butanovora required exogenous reductant to degrade CF, while CF8 and M. vaccae utilized endogenous reductants. Prolonged incubation with CF resulted in decreased CF degradation. CF8 and P. butanovora were more sensitive to CF than either M. trichosporium or M. vaccae. CF degradation by all three butane-grown bacteria was inactivated by acetylene, which is a mechanism-based inhibitor for several monooxygenases. Butane protected all three butane-grown bacteria from inactivation by acetylene, which indicates that the same monooxygenase is responsible for both CF and butane oxidation. CF8 and P. butanovora were able to degrade other chlorinated hydrocarbons, including trichloroethylene, 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. In addition, CF8 degraded 1,1,2-trichloroethane. The results indicate the potential of butane-grown bacteria for chlorinated hydrocarbon transformation. PMID:16535693

  3. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Memphis 37 Grown in HEp-2 Cells Causes more Severe Disease in Lambs than Virus Grown in Vero Cells

    PubMed Central

    Derscheid, Rachel J.; van Geelen, Albert; McGill, Jodi L.; Gallup, Jack M.; Cihlar, Tomas; Sacco, Randy E.; Ackermann, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants and young children. A small percentage of these individuals develop severe and even fatal disease. To better understand the pathogenesis of severe disease and develop therapies unique to the less-developed infant immune system, a model of infant disease is needed. The neonatal lamb pulmonary development and physiology is similar to that of infants, and sheep are susceptible to ovine, bovine, or human strains of RSV. RSV grown in Vero (African green monkey) cells has a truncated attachment G glycoprotein as compared to that grown in HEp-2 cells. We hypothesized that the virus grown in HEp-2 cells would cause more severe clinical symptoms and cause more severe pathology. To confirm the hypothesis, lambs were inoculated simultaneously by two different delivery methods (intranasal and nebulized inoculation) with either Vero-grown or HEp-2-grown RSV Memphis 37 (M37) strain of virus to compare viral infection and disease symptoms. Lambs infected with HEp-2 cell-derived virus by either intranasal or nebulization inoculation had significantly higher levels of viral RNA in lungs as well as greater clinical disease including both gross and histopathologic lesions compared to lambs similarly inoculated with Vero-grown virus. Thus, our results provide convincing in vivo evidence for differences in viral infectivity that corroborate previous in vitro mechanistic studies demonstrating differences in the G glycoprotein expression by RSV grown in Vero cells. PMID:24284879

  4. Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part II. Sludge-grown algae as feeds for aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. H.; Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.

    1996-05-01

    This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms.

  5. Sludge-Grown Algae for Culturing Aquatic Organisms: Part II. Sludge-Grown Algae as Feeds for Aquatic Organisms

    PubMed

    Wong; Hung; Chiu

    1996-05-01

    This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae (Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms. PMID:8661608

  6. Confocal Raman studies in determining crystalline nature of PECVD grown Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Nafis; Sivadasan, A. K.; Amirthapandian, S.; Bhargav, P. Balaji; Bhattacharya, S.; Ramasamy, P.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Tyagi, A. K.; Dhara, S.

    2015-06-01

    Silicon nanowires of diameter ˜200 nm and length of 2-4 µm are grown in the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique using nanoclustered Au catalyst assisted vapour-liquid-solid process. The crystallinity in the as-grown and annealed samples is studied using confocal Raman spectroscopic studies. Amorphous phase is formed in the as-grown samples. Structural studies using high resolution transmission electron microscopy confirm the polycrystalline nature in the annealed sample.

  7. Osmotic Properties of Spheroplasts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Grown at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, R. J.; Rose, A. H.

    1970-01-01

    Spheroplasts were prepared from cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 366, grown at 30 or 15 C, by incubating cells with snail-gut juice after pretreatment with 2-mercaptoethanol. Walls of cells grown batchwise or in continuous culture at 15 C were more resistant to digestion with snail juice than walls on cells grown under the same conditions as 30 C. Spheroplasts lysed when suspended in hypotonic solutions of mannitol. The resistance of spheroplasts to osmotic lysis tended to increase when the test temperature was lowered below 30 C. The increased resistance was greater with spheroplasts from cells grown at 15 C. Cations, especially Ca2+, protected spheroplasts against osmotic lysis. In general, the protective effects, measured at 30 C, were smaller with spheroplasts from cells grown at 15 C compared with 30 C. Citrate and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) decreased the resistance of spheroplasts to osmotic lysis. On the whole, the decrease was greater with spheroplasts from cells grown at 30 C rather than 15 C. In the presence of EDTA, spheroplasts from cells grown at 30 C were less resistant to osmotic lysis at 5 C than at 30 C; when spheroplasts from cells grown at 15 C were similarly examined, they were more resistant to lysis at 5 C than at 30 C. Spheroplast membranes from cells grown at 15 C had slightly but significantly greater contents of Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, and Na+ compared with spheroplast membranes from cells grown at 15 C. Mg2+ and Ca2+ were more easily extracted with EDTA from membranes of 30 C-grown cells than from 15 C-grown cells. PMID:4986757

  8. Photoluminescence-dark-spot-free AlGaAs grown on Si substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Wada; Koichi Iwabu; Shiro Sakai; Masuo Fukui

    1992-01-01

    GaAs and AlGaAs are grown on an UCGAS (undercut GaAs on Si) in which a part of the GaAs layer grown on Si substrate is separated from the substrate by the post-growth processing. The grown layers are characterized by the high-magnification (×1600) photoluminescence image which is capable of visualizing the very small (less than 1 ?m) dark spots in the

  9. Photoacclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) cultures grown outdoors in photobioreactors and open ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Torzillo; Cecilia Faraloni; Ana M. Silva; Ji?i Kopecký; Jan Pilný; Ji?i Masojídek

    2012-01-01

    The acclimation to high light of Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultures grown outdoors both in an open pond and in tubular photobioreactors (PBRs) was studied by means of chlorophyll fluorescence, pigment analysis and growth. Cultures grown in PBRs (5-cm tube diameter) at two biomass concentrations (0.3 and 0.6?g?l) were compared with a culture grown in a 10-cm deep open pond (0.3?g?l). Therefore,

  10. Lipid composition of slash pine tissue cultures grown with lunar and earth soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Baur, P. S.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lipid analyses were conducted on slash pine tissues grown in culture in the presence of lunar (Apollo 15) and earth soils. Significant reductions in the total lipids, fatty acids, and sterol components were found in the tissues grown in contact with each of the soils employed when compared to the control. Tissues grown with lunar soil showed the greatest reductions. These results are discussed with respect to previous ultrastructural studies on similarly treated slash pine tissues and lipid analyses on tobacco tissue cultures.

  11. High resolution diffraction imaging of crystals grown in microgravity and closely related terrestrial crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, B.; Dobbyn, R.; Black, D.; Burdette, H.; Kuriyama, M.; Spal, R.; Vandenberg, L.; Fripp, A.; Simchick, R.; Lal, R.

    1991-01-01

    Irregularities found in three crystals grown in space, in four crystals grown entirely on the ground were examined and compared. Irregularities were observed in mercuric iodide, lead tin telluride, triglycine sulfate, and gallium arsenide by high resolution synchrotron x radiation diffraction imaging. Radiation detectors made from mercuric iodide crystals grown in microgravity were reported to perform far better than conventional detectors grown from the same material under full gravity. Effort is now underway to reproduce these 'space' crystals, optimize their properties, and extend comparable superiority to other types of materials.

  12. Nondestructive electroluminescence characterization of as-grown semiconductor optoelectronic device structures using

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Sandip

    Nondestructive electroluminescence characterization of as-grown semiconductor optoelectronic device for publication 9 December 1999 We describe an arrangement for nondestructive electroluminescence measurements

  13. Degradation by Streptomyces viridosporus T7A of plant material grown under elevated CO2 conditions.

    PubMed

    Ball, A S

    1991-11-15

    The biodegradability of plant material derived from wheat grown under different concentrations of atmospheric CO2 was investigated using the lignocarbohydrate solubilising actinomycete, Streptomyces viridosporus. Growth of S. viridosporus and solubilisation of lignocarbohydrate were highest when wheat grown at ambient CO2 concentrations (350 ppm) was used as C-source. Growth of S. viridosporus and solubilisation were reduced when the plant material was derived from wheat grown at 645 ppm CO2. The results suggest that modifications in plant structure occur when wheat is grown under conditions of elevated atmospheric CO2 which make it more resistant to microbial digestion. PMID:1778436

  14. Dieldrin uptake by vegetable crops grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Lucia; Pompi, Valter; Faraci, Alessandro; Conte, Elisa

    2009-06-01

    The aim of these trials was to study the distribution of dieldrin in soil and its translocation to roots and the aerial parts of vegetable crops grown in greenhouses and fields. The main objectives were to characterize dieldrin accumulation in plant tissues in relation to the levels of soil contamination; uptake capability among plants belonging to different species, varieties and cultivars. The presence of the contaminant was quantified by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results showed a translocation of residues in cucurbitaceous fruits and flowers confirming that zucchini, cucumber and melon are crops with high uptake capability. The maximum level of dieldrin residue at 0.01 mg/kg was found to be a threshold value to safeguard the quality production of cucurbits. Tomato, lettuce and celery were identified as substitute crops to grow in contaminated fields. PMID:20183049

  15. Indium Nitride and Indium Gallium Nitride layers grown on nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, R. F.; Cherns, D.; Goff, L. E.; Novikov, S. V.; Foxon, C. T.; Fischer, A. M.; Ponce, F. A.

    2013-11-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy has been used to grow InN layers on both Si and SiC substrates and In0.5Ga0.5N layers on Si substrates using a nanorod precursor array. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that nanorods grown first under N-rich conditions, and then under more metal-rich conditions to promote lateral growth are free of dislocations until coalescence occurs. At coalescence, dislocations are introduced at grain boundaries. These are predominantly twist boundaries, with better epitaxial alignment seen on SiC substrates. The lateral growth of In0.5Ga0.5N is shown to be cubic, tentatively ascribed to the growth of basal plane stacking faults at the start of the lateral growth and the low growth temperatures used.

  16. Carbon films grown from plasma on III-V semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, J. J.; Warner, J. D.; Liu, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Dielectric carbon films were grown on n- and p-type GaAs and InP substrates using plasmas generated at 30 KHz from gaseous hydrocarbons. The effect of gas source, flow rate, and power on film growth were investigated. Methane and n-butane gases were utilized. The flow rate and power ranged from 30 to 50 sccm and 25 to 300 W, respectively. AES measurements show only carbon to be present in the films. The relative Ar ion sputtering rate (3 KeV) of carbon depends on the ratio power/pressure. In addition, the degree of asymmetry associated with the carbon-semiconductor interface is approximately power-independent. SIMS spectra indicate different H-C bonding configurations to be present in the films. Band gaps as high as 3.05 eV are obtained from optical absorption studies.

  17. Native defects in MBE-grown CdTe

    SciTech Connect

    Olender, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Makosa, Andrzej; Tkaczyk, Zbigniew; Kolkovsky, Valery; Karczewski, Grzegorz [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-12-04

    Deep-level traps in both n- and p-type CdTe layers, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates, have been investigated by means of deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Four of the traps revealed in the DLTS spectra, which displayed exponential kinetics for capture of charge carriers into the trap states, have been assigned to native point defects: Cd interstitial, Cd vacancy, Te antisite defect and a complex formed of the Te antisite and Cd vacancy. Three further traps, displaying logarithmic capture kinetics, have been ascribed to electron states of treading dislocations generated at the mismatched interface with the substrate and propagated through the CdTe layer.

  18. Efficacy of broth-grown Pasteurella multocida bacterins in ducklings.

    PubMed

    Layton, H W

    1984-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (PM) isolates produced dense growth in tryptic soy broth and modified tryptose broth (MTB) when the media were continuously shaken or aerated. In carboys containing 15 liters of aerated MTB, the growth exceeded an absorbance of 0.9 and contained about 10(10) colony-forming units per ml. Bacterins prepared from PM isolates grown in MTB were injected subcutaneously into ducklings at 2 and 3 weeks of age. Such ducklings experienced significantly less mortality than unimmunized controls following homologous challenge at 4, 5, or 6 weeks of age. Similar protection was provided against challenge by a heterologous isolate (same serotype). Six-week-old ducklings given a single injection of an oil-emulsified PM bacterin developed immunity that lasted for 8 weeks. PMID:6525129

  19. Para-Sexiphenyl Layers Grown On Light Sensitive Polymer Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Simbrunner, C.; Höfler, T.; Moser, A.; Werzer, O.; Kunert, B.; Trimmel, G.; Kern, W.; Resel, R.; Sitter, H.

    In this contribution the deposition of Para-sexiphenyl (PSP) layers on poly (diphenyl bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylate) (PPNB) by Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE) is reported. It is demonstrated that pre-treating the substrate by UV-illumination induces a clear change in the morphology of the grown PSP films due to the polarity modification of the substrate surface. PPNB surface polarity increases when illuminated by UV via photo-Fries rearrangement. By detailed atomic force microscopy analysis the influence on the growth kinetics by the substrate temperature, deposition time and particularly by the UVtreatment of the substrate was investigated. A high crystalline order of the films is underlined by the observation of growth spirals and terraced islands, providing mono-layer step heights of standing PSP-molecules.

  20. Some karyological observations on plants grown in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.; Oconnor, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess whether cell division in a plant root would be affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Root materials from sunflower, oat, and mung bean plants grown on STS-2 and STS-3 were utilized for the experiments. It is found that all oat, sunflower, and mung seedlings showed a reduced number of cells in division as they went through their first cell division cycle on earth when compared to their ground controls. A significant number of oat, mung, and sunflower plantlets exhibited random root orientation and the lack of strictly orthotropic growth of their shoot systems in the flight samples. In addition, it is found that the mung roots were apparently least affected in terms of their cytology despite the fact that their roots were often randomly oriented.

  1. Fluoride waveguide lasers grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starecki, Florent; Bolaños, Western; Brasse, Gurvan; Benayad, Abdelmjid; Doualan, Jean-Louis; Braud, Alain; Moncorgé, Richard; Camy, Patrice

    2013-03-01

    High optical quality rare-earth-doped LiYF4 (YLF) epitaxial layers were grown on pure YLF substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). Thulium, praseodymium and ytterbium YLF crystalline waveguides co-doped with gadolinium and/or lutetium were obtained. Spectroscopic and optical characterization of these rare-earth doped waveguides are reported. Internal propagation losses as low as 0.11 dB/cm were measured on the Tm:YLF waveguide and the overall spectroscopic characteristics of the epitaxial layers were found to be comparable to bulk crystals. Laser operation was achieved at 1.87 ?m in the Tm3+ doped YLF planar waveguide with a very good efficiency of 76% with respect to the pump power. Lasing was also demonstrated in a Pr3+ doped YLF waveguide in the red and orange regions and in a Yb3+:YLF planar waveguide at 1020 nm and 994 nm.

  2. Electronic properties of CVD graphene grown on copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Helin; Yu, Qingkai; Jauregui, Luis A.; Tian, Jifa; Wu, Wei; Liu, Zhihong; Jalilian, Romaneh; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Jiang, Zhigang; Bao, Jiming; Pei, Steven S.; Chen, Yong P.

    2010-03-01

    We report the electronic properties of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper foils at ambient pressure. Large size graphene films (4 inch*4 inch) are synthesized and transferred to SiO2/Si substrate. Raman mapping demonstrates that the films consist primarily of monolayer graphene (up to ˜90% area coverage). Low temperature transport measurements are performed on devices made from such CVD graphene. The ``half-integer'' quantum Hall effect, which is the hall-mark of mono-layer graphene, has been observed in these devices. We also observe the ambipolar field effect and weak localization, which allow us to extract carrier mobility ˜3000cm^2/Vs and phase coherence length ˜300nm at 1.5K.

  3. Electrical currents through full-grown and maturing Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, K R

    1979-01-01

    An extracellular vibrating electrode was used to map the current pattern around Xenopus laevis oocytes. Current was found to enter the animal hemisphere and leave the vegetal hemisphere; in fully grown oocytes from which the follicle cells had been removed, the maximal current density was about 1 microamperemeter/cm2. This current decreased to nearly zero in response to progesterone and several other maturation-producing agents. In the case of progesterone, the decline began within a few minutes of the addition of the hormone and proceeded with a half-time of about 20 min. An analysis of the effects on the current of the removal or addition of various ions and drugs led to the inference that the major current-carrying ion was chloride and that the chloride permeability was controlled by calcium. PMID:284407

  4. Glycoalkaloids in potato tubers grown under controlled environments.

    PubMed

    Nitithamyong, A; Vonelbe, J H; Wheeler, R M; Tibbitts, T W

    1999-01-01

    Tuber content of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGA) was determined for the potato cultivars, Norland, Russet Burbank, and Denali grown under different environmental conditions in growth chambers. The lowest TGA concentrations (0.30 to 0.35 mg g-1 dry tissue) were found in the cv. Norland with 400 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), 12 h day length, 16 C temperature, and 350 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide. The ratio of alpha-chaconine to alpha-solanine was close to 60:40 under all growing conditions, except that it was 50:50 under the low temperature of 12 C. Cultivars responded similarly to environmental conditions although TGA was about 20% greater in cv. Russet Burbank and about 30% greater in Denali compared to Norland. The largest changes in TGA occurred with changes in temperature. In comparison to 16 C, TGA were 40% greater at 12 C, 80% greater at 20 C, and 125% greater at 24 C (0.70 mg g-1 dry weight). The TGA concentration increased from 10 to 25% with an increase in light from 400 to 800 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF for all three cultivars. TGA increased 20% with extension of the day length from 12 to 24 hr and also increased 20% when carbon dioxide was increased from 350 to 1000 micromoles mol-1. TGA concentrations were not influenced by changes in relative humidity from 50 to 80%. TGA concentrations decreased only slightly in harvests made from 9 to 21 weeks after planting. Variations in TGA among the different growing conditions and cultivars were below 20 mg/100 g fresh weight (approximately 1.0 mg g-1 dry weight) recognized as the upper concentration for food safety. However the results suggest that TGA should be considered when potatoes are grown at temperatures above 20 C. PMID:11543354

  5. Characterization of MPCVD diamond films grown on porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiderhoff, R.; Spitzl, R.; Maywald, M.; Raiko, V.; Balk, Ludwig J.; Engemann, J.

    1994-04-01

    Spectrally and temporally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL), micro-Raman spectroscopy and the investigation with a scanning force microscopy in a contact current mode (CCM-SFM) are used for characterizing the properties of diamond films. The diamond films and particles are grown by microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) on top of monocrystalline and porous silicon (PS) surfaces. The PS layers with different thicknesses and porosity are formed on (111) and (100) silicon by anodization in 12 percent HF solution (HF : H2O equals 1 : 3) at constant current density. A 15 keV electron-beam is used for CL excitation. The CL investigations are carried out at 77 K using an optical multichannel analysis system with simultaneous resolutions of (Delta) (lambda) equals0.2 nm and (Delta) tequals1 ns. Complementary Raman analysis has shown that the synthesized films exhibit diamond structure with good crystalline quality. Diamond films on monocrystalline silicon mostly yield a Raman peak shift of 3-5 cm-1 towards higher wave numbers compared to those of natural diamond due to the presence of compressive stress. The presence of PS allows to reduce stress in diamond films up to a peak shift of 1-2 cm-1 under the same deposition conditions. Intensity and FWHM of the cathodoluminescence as well as the FWHM of the Raman spectrum on PS decrease compared to those of silicon. This indicates that PS is superior to monocrystalline silicon concerning the crystalline quality of the diamond films. High- lateral-resolution analysis, in order to correlate the surface topography with the electrical properties of these diamond films, is carried out by a CCM-SFM. From these characterization methods crucial material system parameters are deduced revealing the influence of a thin PS layer on the crystalline and electrical properties of the diamond films grown on top.

  6. Magnetic and structural properties of MBE-grown oxidic multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemen, P.J.H.; Heijden, P.A.A. van der; Kohlhepp, J.T.; Jonge, W.J.M. de [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Physics; Wolf, R.M.; Stegge, J. aan de; Reinders, A.; Jungblut, R.M.; Zaag, P.J. van der [Philips Research Labs., Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    1996-11-01

    Multilayers composed of oxides including Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3{minus}x}O{sub 4}, CoO, NiO and MgO have been grown epitaxially by MBE on MgO(100) single crystal substrates. These structures can be grown with a high crystallinity in the form of flat layers having sharp interfaces. RHEED studies which commonly yielded sharp streaks accompanied by Kikuchi lines show that, for instance, growth of CoO on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} changes the RHEED pattern form from that consistent with a spinel structure to that of a rocksalt structure within about one and a half unit cell of CoO. STM studies on a 400 {angstrom} Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} layer displaying atomic resolution enabled us to identify the origin of the reconstruction that one commonly observes in the RHEED and LEED patterns for magnetite. Regarding important fundamental magnetic parameters, relevant thickness dependencies were mapped out using localized magneto-optical Kerr effect experiments performed on several samples that routinely included one or multiple wedge shaped layers. These studies revealed the existence of a region in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} layer near the interfaces which exhibits no net magnetic moment, strain driven perpendicular orientated magnetization for the CoO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(100) and CoO/Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3{minus}x}O{sub 4}(100) bilayer systems, and information on the thickness dependence of the magnetic interlayer coupling across an MgO spacer layer.

  7. Production and postharvest characteristics of Rosa hybrida L. Meijikatar'' grown in pots under carbon dioxide enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.G.; Kelly, J.W.; Rajapakse, N.C. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Horticulture)

    1993-09-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on growth, photosynthesis, and postharvest characteristics of Meijikatar'' potted roses were determined. Plants were grown in 350, 700, or 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter until they reached 50% flower bud coloration and then were placed into dark storage for 5 days at 4 or 16C. Plants grown in 700 or 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter reached the harvest stage earlier and were taller at harvest than plants produced in 350 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter, but there were no differences in the number of flowers and flower buds per plant among CO[sub 2] treatments. Plants grown in early spring were taller and had more flowers and flower buds than plants grown in late winter. shoot and root growth of plants grown in 700 or 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter were higher than in plants produced in 350 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter, with plants grown in early spring showing greater increases than plants grown in late winter. Immediately after storage, plants grown in 350 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter and stored at 4C had the fewest etiolated shoots, while plants grown in 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter and stored at 16C had the most. Five days after removal from storage, chlorophyll concentration of upper and lower leaves had been reduced by [approximately]50% from the day of harvest. Carbon dioxide enrichment had no effect on postharvest leaf chlorosis, but plants grown in early spring and stored at 16C had the most leaf chlorosis while plants grown in late winter and stored at 4C had the least leaf chlorosis.

  8. Effect of in-situ oxygen on the electronic properties of graphene grown by carbon molecular beam epitaxy grown

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeongho; Mitchel, W. C.; Back, Tyson C. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate (AFRL/RXPS), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States); Elhamri, Said [Department of Physics, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States)

    2012-03-26

    We report that graphene grown by molecular beam epitaxy from solid carbon (CMBE) on (0001) SiC in the presence of unintentional oxygen exhibits a small bandgap on the order of tens of meV. The presence of bandgaps is confirmed by temperature dependent Hall effect and resistivity measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements suggest that oxygen incorporates into the SiC substrate in the form of O-Si-C and not into the graphene as graphene oxide or some other species. The effect is independent of the carrier type of the graphene. Temperature dependent transport measurements show the presence of hopping conduction in the resistivity and a concurrent disappearance of the Hall voltage. Interactions between the graphene layers and the oxidized substrate are believed to be responsible for the bandgap.

  9. 76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...AMS-FV-10-0109; FV11-945-1] Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties...conducted among eligible producers of Irish potatoes in certain designated counties in Idaho...order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in the production area....

  10. Influence of bond coat thickness on the cyclic rumpling of thermally grown oxides

    E-print Network

    Hutchinson, John W.

    Influence of bond coat thickness on the cyclic rumpling of thermally grown oxides D.S. Balint a in the thermally grown oxide (TGO) formed on a bond coat subject to cyclic thermal histories depend on the bond; Simulation 1. Introduction Modern gas turbines use multilayer coatings for environ- mental and thermal

  11. EVOLUTION OF POROSITY AND TEXTURE IN THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS GROWN BY EB-PVD

    E-print Network

    Clarke, David R.

    EVOLUTION OF POROSITY AND TEXTURE IN THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS GROWN BY EB-PVD Scott G. Terry in determining the coating compliance, and consequently its resistance to spallation, as well as its thermal, and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) which forms between the TBC and the underlying "bond coat" (BC) [2]. From

  12. Nutritive value of fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in nutritive value of fall-grown cereal-grain forages can affect cattle performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of various fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time. One variety each of hard red (HR) and soft red (SR) winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), ...

  13. Nutritive Value of Fall-Grown Cereal-Grain Forages Over Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in nutritive value of fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time can affect cattle performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate nutritive values of various fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time. One variety each of hard red (HR) and soft red (SR) winter wheat (Triticum aesti...

  14. Modulus, Fracture Strength, and Brittle vs. Plastic Response of the Outer Shell of Arc-grown

    E-print Network

    Modulus, Fracture Strength, and Brittle vs. Plastic Response of the Outer Shell of Arc-grown Multi March 2006 /Accepted: 25 May 2006 / Published online: 1 August 2006 # Society for Experimental Mechanics material was acquired from MER Corporation, and was prepared by the arc-discharge method. Arc-grown MWCNTs

  15. Rhizoctonia web blight development on container-grown azalea in relation to time and environmental factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia spp., is an annual problem in the southern United States on container-grown azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) that receive daily irrigation. Disease progress was assessed weekly from mid-May to mid-September in blocks of nursery-grown plants at thre...

  16. Yield and Oil Composition of Thirty-Eight Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Accessions Grown in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) has been grown as an essential oil crop in many countries; however, the herbage yield, oil content, composition, and bioactivity of basil grown in Mississippi and other Southern U.S. states has not been explored. The hypothesis of this study was that certain basil ...

  17. Structural and electronic properties of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Chen

    2011-01-01

    Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has brought many exciting opportunities for both fundamental studies and practical applications. In this talk, I will present our studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene synthesized by ambient CVD based growth on polycrystalline Ni and Cu foils. Our earlier work on graphene layers and large scale graphitic thin films grown

  18. Strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields and charging effects on CVD-grown graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N.-C. Yeh; M.-L. Teague; S. Yeom; B. L. Standley; R. T.-P. Wu; D. A. Boyd; M. W. Bockrath

    2011-01-01

    Atomically resolved imaging and spectroscopic characteristics of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper are investigated by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM\\/STS). For CVD-grown graphene remaining on the copper substrate, the monolayer carbon structures exhibit ripples and appear strongly strained, with different regions exhibiting different lattice structures and electronic density of states (DOS). In particular,

  19. Strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields and charging effects on CVD-grown graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T.-P. Wu; M.-L. Teague; N.-C. Yeh; S. Yeom; B. L. Standley; D. A. Boyd; M. W. Bockrath

    2011-01-01

    Atomically resolved imaging and spectroscopic characteristics of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene on Cu are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. CVD-grown graphene remaining on Cu exhibits large ripples and appears strongly strained. Different regions show different lattice structures and electronic density of states (DOS). Ridges appear along the boundaries of different lattice structures, which reveal excess charging

  20. 76 FR 31295 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ...FV11-916/917-6] Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal...Federal marketing orders for nectarines and peaches grown in California (orders). Continuance...among growers of California nectarines and peaches in January and February 2011. Fewer...

  1. InGaAs/InP strained layer quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loualiche, S.; Le Corre, A.; Godefroy, A.; Clerot, F.; Lecrosnier, D.; Poudoulec, A.; Salaun, S.

    1993-02-01

    Different heterostructures containing InGaAs/InP quantum wells, separate confinement heterostructures and superlattices are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates. These layers are grown in tensile and compressive strain and their luminescence emission wavelength is kept around 1550 nm. The growth parameters (temperature, substrate quality) are found to be of prime importance to obtain high quality materials.

  2. Hybrid Devices from Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Epitaxially Grown into a

    E-print Network

    Nygård, Jesper

    carbon nanotubes encapsulated in epitaxially grown semiconductor heterostructures of GaAs/AlAs and (GaHybrid Devices from Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Epitaxially Grown into a Semiconductor Heterostructure Ane Jensen,*, Jonas Rahlf Hauptmann, Jesper Nygård, Janusz Sadowski, and Poul Erik Lindelof Nano

  3. Planting date effects on the nutritive value of fall-grown oat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) shows potential to fill an important niche as emergency fall forage throughout central Wisconsin. Our objectives were to assess the effects of planting date on the nutritive value of fall-grown oat from four cultivars exhibiting diverse maturation characteristics. Du...

  4. Superficial scald susceptibility and a-farnesene metabolism in ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in California and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in northern California (CA) consistently show development of the physiological storage disorder superficial scald, particularly after prolonged storage of 4–5 months in air. In contrast, fruit of this cultivar grown in central Washington (WA) are typically less susceptible to ...

  5. Risk of Rhizoctonia Web Blight Development on Container-Grown Azalea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia spp., is an annual problem in the southern United States on container-grown azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) that receive daily irrigation. Disease progress was assessed weekly from mid-May to early October in blocks of nursery-grown plants at four...

  6. Magnetic anisotropy and stacking faults in Co and Co84Pt16 epitaxially grown thin films

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    Magnetic anisotropy and stacking faults in Co and Co84Pt16 epitaxially grown thin films Vincent anisotropy and stacking faults in Co and Co84Pt16 epitaxially grown thin films Vincent Sokalski,1,a) David E and theoretical diffraction studies are performed to evaluate the possible impact of stacking faults on magnetic

  7. Few Graphene layer/Carbon-Nanotube composite Grown at CMOS-compatible Temperature

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Few Graphene layer/Carbon-Nanotube composite Grown at CMOS-compatible Temperature V. Jousseaume1-precursor couple. Furthermore, the composite can be grown using catalyst and temperatures compatible with CMOS electronics. The succes of such ap- proach could strongly depend on the ability to assem- ble them in working

  8. Oxidation and diffusion of Cu in SrS: Cu grown by MBE for blue phosphors

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Oxidation and diffusion of Cu in SrS: Cu grown by MBE for blue phosphors Y.B. Xina,b,*, W. Tonga, ON M9W 5AS, Canada Abstract Systematic studies of MBE grown SrS:Cu thin film blue phosphors Thin film SrS:Cu is a potential candidate for blue electro- luminescent (EL) phosphors. Although recent

  9. Magnesium outdiffusion through magnetite films grown on magnesium oxide (001) (abstract)

    E-print Network

    Diebold, Ulrike

    Magnesium outdiffusion through magnetite films grown on magnesium oxide (001) (abstract) K. A. Shaw the cubic constant of magnetite, Fe3O4, 8.396 Å , which is already strained in thin-film growth Scanning tunneling microscopy STM studies of 1 m thick films of single crystalline Fe3O4 grown on MgO 001

  10. 76 FR 65357 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ...AMS-FV-11-0047; FV11-930-1 FR] Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania...prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries (order). The order regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan,...

  11. 76 FR 42072 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...AMS-FV-11-0047; FV11-930-1 PR] Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania...prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries (order). The order regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan,...

  12. 76 FR 46651 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...AMS-FV-11-0059; FV11-923-1 CR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington...conducted among eligible Washington sweet cherry growers to determine whether they favor...order regulating the handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in...

  13. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. 30.44 Section 30.44 Agriculture...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. No group divisions are...

  14. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section 30.43 Agriculture...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions are...

  15. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section 30.43 Agriculture...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions are...

  16. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. 30.44 Section 30.44 Agriculture...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. No group divisions are...

  17. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. 30.44 Section 30.44 Agriculture...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. No group divisions are...

  18. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section 30.43 Agriculture...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions are...

  19. Anisotropy study of garnet films grown over substrates populated with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, G.; Bowen, D.; Hung, L.; Krafft, C.; Mayergoyz, I.

    2012-04-01

    Anisotropy of garnet films grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) over (100)-oriented garnet substrates populated with gold nanoparticles is studied. The results of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and optical hysteresis loop measurements as well as optical images of domain structures of LPE-grown garnet films are presented and discussed.

  20. 75 FR 72935 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Relaxation of the Minimum Grade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...AMS-FV-10-0062; FV06-922-2 C] Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington...and regulations contained in part 922, Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington...minimum grade requirements for Washington apricots for the 2006 season. The changes...

  1. Glycemic index of American-grown jasmine rice classified as high.

    PubMed

    Truong, Teresa H; Yuet, Wei Cheng; Hall, Micki D

    2014-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine the glycemic index (GI) of jasmine rice grown in the United States (US). Secondary objective was to compare the GI of US grown jasmine rice to those grown in Thailand. Twelve healthy subjects were served all four brands of jasmine rice and a reference food (glucose), each containing 50?g of available carbohydrate. Fingerstick blood glucose was measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120?min after consumption following a fasting state. The GI was calculated using the standard equation. The GI values for test foods ranged from 96 to 116 and were all classified as high GI foods. No difference in GI was found between American-grown and Thailand-grown jasmine rice. Although not statistically significant, observations show glycemic response among Asian American participants may be different. GI should be considered when planning meals with jasmine rice as the main source carbohydrate. PMID:24438213

  2. Fabrication of quantum wire circuits from MBE-grown InAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Carolyn; Xue, Chi; Eckstein, James

    2014-03-01

    If topological quantum computing using Majorana fermions evolves past tabletop experiments involving manipulation of a small number of qubits, scalability of quantum circuits will become an important consideration. At present, experiments have focused on vertically grown nanowires, which must be laid out on a substrate and electrically contacted ex situ. This severely limits the flexibility of the device geometry due to randomness in how the wires fall, and thus hinders the future scalability of the nanowire architecture. We are fabricating quantum wire circuits by lithographic methods out of thin films grown by MBE. We examine high quality MBE-grown InAs material grown GaAs and GaSb substrates, and consider its potential in building Majorana circuits. In particular, better epitaxy and transport is obtained in films grown on lattice matched GaSb, and substrate conductivity appears to freeze out at low temperatures.

  3. GaAs nanowires on Si substrates grown by a solid source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ihn, Soo-Ghang; Song, Jong-In; Kim, Young-Hun; Lee, Jeong Yong [Department of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-31

    High-quality Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires were grown on Si substrates by vapor-liquid-solid growth in a solid source molecular beam epitaxy system. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the GaAs nanowires were epitaxially grown on Si substrates with uniform diameters along the nanowires. While GaAs nanowires on Si(111) and (001) substrates were mainly grown along the <111> direction with zinc-blende and wurtzite structures, unusual GaAs nanowires grown along <001> with a pure zinc-blende structure were also observed. Strong photoluminescence was observed from GaAs nanowires grown on a Si(001) substrate at room temperature.

  4. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, D.E.

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V[sub Ga]. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1[mu]m. Gallium vacancies, V[sub Ga], was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10[sup 19] cm[sup [minus]3] Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As[sub Ga] in the layer. As As[sub Ga] increases, photoquenchable As[sub Ga] decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As[sub Ga] content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga[sub As], as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As[sub Ga]-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V[sub Ga] enhanced diffusion of As[sub Ga] to As precipitates. The supersaturated V[sub GA] and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As[sub Ga]-related defects gives 2.0 [plus minus] 0.3 eV and 1.5 [plus minus] 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As[sub Ga] and V[sub Ga]. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As[sub Ga]-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 [plus minus] 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As[sub Ga]-Be[sub Ga] pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  5. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, D.E.

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V{sub Ga}. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1{mu}m. Gallium vacancies, V{sub Ga}, was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3} Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As{sub Ga} in the layer. As As{sub Ga} increases, photoquenchable As{sub Ga} decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As{sub Ga} content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga{sub As}, as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As{sub Ga}-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V{sub Ga} enhanced diffusion of As{sub Ga} to As precipitates. The supersaturated V{sub GA} and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As{sub Ga}-related defects gives 2.0 {plus_minus} 0.3 eV and 1.5 {plus_minus} 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As{sub Ga} and V{sub Ga}. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As{sub Ga}-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 {plus_minus} 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As{sub Ga}-Be{sub Ga} pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  6. Arsenic uptake and speciation in vegetables grown under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Smith, E; Juhasz, A L; Weber, J

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation of arsenic (As) by vegetables is a potential human exposure pathway. The speciation of As in vegetables is an important consideration due to the varying toxicity of different As species. In this study, common Australian garden vegetables were hydroponically grown with As-contaminated irrigation water to determine the uptake and species of As present in vegetable tissue. The highest concentrations of total As were observed in the roots of all vegetables and declined in the aerial portions of the plants. Total As accumulation in the edible portions of the vegetables decreased in the order radish > mung bean > lettuce = chard. Arsenic was present in the roots of radish, chard, and lettuce as arsenate (As(V)) and comprised between 77 and 92% of the total As present, whereas in mung beans, arsenite (As(III)) comprised 90% of the total As present. In aerial portions of the vegetables, As was distributed equally between both As(V) and As(III) in radish and chard but was present mainly as As(V) in lettuce. The presence of elevated As in vegetable roots suggests that As species may be complexed by phytochelatins, which limits As translocation to aerial portions of the plant. PMID:19105031

  7. thin films grown with additional NaF layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gee Yeong; Kim, Juran; Jo, William; Son, Dae-Ho; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-10-01

    CZTS precursors [SLG/Mo (300 nm)/ZnS (460 nm)/SnS (480 nm)/Cu (240 nm)] were deposited by RF/DC sputtering, and then NaF layers (0, 15, and 30 nm) were grown by electron beam evaporation. The precursors were annealed in a furnace with Se metals at 590°C for 20 minutes. The final composition of the CZTSSe thin-films was of Cu/(Zn + Sn) ~ 0.88 and Zn/Sn ~ 1.05, with a metal S/Se ratio estimated at ~0.05. The CZTSSe thin-films have different NaF layer thicknesses in the range from 0 to 30 nm, achieving a ~3% conversion efficiency, and the CZTSSe thin-films contain ~3% of Na. Kelvin probe force microscopy was used to identify the local potential difference that varied according to the thickness of the NaF layer on the CZTSSe thin-films. The potential values at the grain boundaries were observed to increase as the NaF thickness increased. Moreover, the ratio of the positively charged GBs in the CZTSSe thin-films with an NaF layer was higher than that of pure CZTSSe thin-films. A positively charged potential was observed around the grain boundaries of the CZTSSe thin-films, which is a beneficial characteristic that can improve the performance of a device.

  8. APIVT-Grown Silicon Thin Layers and PV Devices: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T. H.; Ciszek, T. F.; Page, M. R.; Bauer, R. E.; Wang, Q.; Landry, M. D.

    2002-05-01

    Large-grained (5-20 ..mu..m) polycrystalline silicon layers have been grown at intermediate temperatures of 750-950C directly on foreign substrates without a seeding layer by iodine vapor transport at atmospheric pressure with rates as high as 3 mm/min. A model is constructed to explain the atypical temperature dependence of growth rate. We have also used this technique to grow high-quality epitaxial layers on heavily doped CZ-Si and on upgraded MG-Si substrates. Possible solar cell structures of thin-layer polycrystalline silicon on foreign substrates with light trapping have been examined, compared, and optimized by two-dimensional device simulations. The effects of grain boundary re-combination on device performance are presented for two grain sizes of 2 and 20 mm. We found that 104 cm/s recombination velocity is adequate for 20-m m grain-sized thin silicon, whereas a very low recombination velocity of 103 cm/s must be accomplished in order to achieve reasonable performance for a 2- mm grain-sized polycrystalline silicon device.

  9. Herbivore responses to plants grown in enriched carbon dioxide atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1990-05-01

    Our initial study of sagebrush and grasshopper responses to elevated and historical carbon dioxide atmospheres is complete and has been accepted for publication. The study on Biomass Allocation Patterns of Defoliated Sagebrush Grown Under Two Levels of Carbon Dioxide has completed and the manuscript has been submitted for publication. We have completed the study of plant growth under two nutrient and carbon dioxide regimes and grasshopper feeding responses. The study of a specialist feeding caterpillar, the cabbage butterfly, and a mustard hostplant has recently been completed. We were able to identify the principal allelochemicals of the mustard plants, butenyl and pentenyl isothiocyanates, by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Measurement of these chemicals has been a critical component of this study since these compounds contain nitrogen and sulphur and act as a feeding stimulant to the caterpillar. This insect responds to elevated carbon dioxide by consuming more leaves and we can now say that this is not due to a change in the feeding stimulants. Reduced leaf protein content is a critical factor for even specialist feeding insect herbivores under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. The study on Grasshopper Population Responses to Enriched Carbon Dioxide Concentration is currently in progress at the Duke University Phytotron. We have changed hostplant species in order to complement the investigations of carbon dioxide effects on tallgrass prairie. Specifically, we are using big bluestem, Andropogon geradii, as the host plant to feed to the grasshoppers. This experiment will be completed in July 1990.

  10. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hobeom; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create ‘GraHEL’, which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while Jsc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with CVD-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge.

  11. Enhanced root production in Haplopappus gracilis grown under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  12. Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Wallis, D. J.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    The use of III-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is now widespread in applications such as indicator lamps, display panels, backlighting for liquid-crystal display TVs and computer screens, traffic lights, etc. To meet the huge market demand and lower the manufacturing cost, the LED industry is moving fast from 2 inch to 4 inch and recently to 6 inch wafer sizes. Although Al2O3 (sapphire) and SiC remain the dominant substrate materials for the epitaxy of nitride LEDs, the use of large Si substrates attracts great interest because Si wafers are readily available in large diameters at low cost. In addition, such wafers are compatible with existing processing lines for 6 inch and larger wafers commonly used in the electronics industry. During the last decade, much exciting progress has been achieved in improving the performance of GaN-on-Si devices. In this contribution, the status and prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si substrates are reviewed. The issues involved in the growth of GaN-based LED structures on Si and possible solutions are outlined, together with a brief introduction to some novel in situ and ex situ monitoring/characterization tools, which are especially useful for the growth of GaN-on-Si structures.

  13. Properties of salt-grown uranium single crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, J. C. (Jason C.); Hanrahan, R. J. (Robert J.); Hults, W. L. (William L.); Lashley, J. C. (Jason C.); Manley, M. E. (Michael E.); Mielke, C. H. (Charles H.); Smith, J. L. (James L.); Thoma, D. J. (Dan J.); Clark, R. G. (Robert G.); Hamilton, A. R.; O'Brien, J. L. (Jeremy L.); Gay, E. C. (Eddie C.); Lumpkin, N. E.; McPheeters, C. C. (Charles C.); Willit, J.; Schmiedeshoff, G. M. (George M.); Touton, S. (Sharon); Woodfield, B. F. (Brian F.); Lang, B. E. (Brian E.); Boerio-Goates, Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Recently single crystals of {alpha}-uranium were grown from a liquid salt bath. The electrical, magnetic and thermal properties of these crystals have been surveyed. The ratio of the room temperature resistivity of these crystals to the saturation value at low temperature is three times larger than any previously reported demonstrating that the crystals are of higher purity and quality than those in past work. The resistive signatures of the CDW transitions at 43, 37 and 22 K are obvious to the naked eye. The transition at 22 K exhibits temperature hysteresis that increases with magnetic field. In addition the superconducting transition temperature from resistivity is 820 mK and the critical field is 80 mT. Contrary to earlier work where the Debye temperature ranged from 186 to 218 K, the Debye temperature extracted from the heat capacity is 254 K in good agreement with the predicted value of 250 K. Magnetoresistance, Hall effect and magnetic susceptibility measurements are underway. In time, measurements made on these crystals may help us to understand the origin of superconductivity and its relation to the CDW transitions in pure uranium.

  14. Metal accumulation in poplar plant grown with industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Giachetti, Giorgio; Sebastiani, Luca

    2006-06-01

    In this study the effects of different levels of industrial wastes on growth traits and metal accumulation in aerial portions were determined for Populusxeuramericana clone I-214. The experiment started in April 2003. Scions of Populusxeuramericana clone I-214, were grown outdoor near Pisa (Italy), in lisimeters filled with soil naturally present in the land around the experimental site, were daily drip irrigated, hand weeded, monthly fertilized, pruned for a unique shoot and cultivated with four increasing treatments: soil non-amended, soil amended with 4.8 kgm(-2), with 9.6 kgm(-2) and with 19.2 kgm(-2) of fresh tannery waste. The climatic parameters were daily recorded throughout the whole experiment. Growth relieves were performed during the growing season. After six months since the plantation of the scions, aerial portions of every plant were harvested for biomass and metal content analyses. Data demonstrated that the waste exerted beneficial effects on poplars mainly through a general increase of growth traits and that the nutrients relocation is the mechanisms involved in modulating growth rate. The concentration and the amount of the mineral elements analysed (N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr) changed determinately among treatments, organs and position. We concluded that phytoremediation strategies of tannery wastes might be possible and sustainable for polar plantations in soil amended with non-hazardous levels of industrial waste, which maintain total heavy metals concentration close to background values. PMID:16403550

  15. Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Wallis, D J; Humphreys, C J

    2013-10-01

    The use of III-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is now widespread in applications such as indicator lamps, display panels, backlighting for liquid-crystal display TVs and computer screens, traffic lights, etc. To meet the huge market demand and lower the manufacturing cost, the LED industry is moving fast from 2 inch to 4 inch and recently to 6 inch wafer sizes. Although Al2O3 (sapphire) and SiC remain the dominant substrate materials for the epitaxy of nitride LEDs, the use of large Si substrates attracts great interest because Si wafers are readily available in large diameters at low cost. In addition, such wafers are compatible with existing processing lines for 6 inch and larger wafers commonly used in the electronics industry. During the last decade, much exciting progress has been achieved in improving the performance of GaN-on-Si devices. In this contribution, the status and prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si substrates are reviewed. The issues involved in the growth of GaN-based LED structures on Si and possible solutions are outlined, together with a brief introduction to some novel in situ and ex situ monitoring/characterization tools, which are especially useful for the growth of GaN-on-Si structures. PMID:24088511

  16. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. PMID:23837648

  17. The hardness and wear of electrochemically grown tantalum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mulivor, A.W.; Mann, A.B.; Searson, P.C.; Weihs, T.P. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Dept.

    1998-12-31

    For several metallic systems, including tantalum, barrier (non-porous) oxide layers up to 200 nm thick can be grown quickly and efficiently using electrochemical techniques. The thickness of the oxide layer has been found to be linearly proportional to the voltage applied during the electrochemical growth process. These oxides can cause a substantial increase in both the hardness and wear-resistance of the surface. Ex-situ Micro and Nano indentation testing of the Ta/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} system has clearly shown that the indentation hardness increases with oxide thickness, even for indentation depths much greater than the oxide thickness. AFM imaging of indentations and analysis of nanoindentation curves suggests this increased hardness is due to the oxide impeding the pile-up of material at the edges of the indentation, which changes the geometry of the contact. Tribometer testing of various oxide thicknesses has shown that the oxide plays a similar role in preventing wear, specifically by preventing the transfer of material between the two contacting bodies and spreading the load over a greater area. Thus, the electrochemical growth of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} provides a convenient method for providing protective hard coatings.

  18. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hobeom; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2014-01-10

    We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create 'GraHEL', which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while Jsc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with CVD-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge. PMID:24334624

  19. Origin of anomalous piezoresistive effects in VLS grown Si nanowires.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Karl; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2015-03-11

    Although the various effects of strain on silicon are subject of intensive research since the 1950s the physical background of anomalous piezoresistive effects in Si nanowires (NWs) is still under debate. Recent investigations concur in that due to the high surface-to-volume ratio extrinsic surface related effects superimpose the intrinsic piezoresistive properties of nanostructures. To clarify this interplay of piezoresistive effects and stress related surface potential modifications, we explored a particular tensile straining device (TSD) with a monolithic embedded vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown Si NW. Integrating the suspended NW in a gate all around (GAA) field effect transistor (FET) configuration with a transparent gate stack enables optical and field modulated electrical characterization under high uniaxial tensile strain applied along the ?111? Si NW growth direction. A model based on stress-induced carrier mobility change and surface charge modulation is proposed to interpret the actual piezoresistive behavior of Si NWs. By controlling the nature and density of surface states via passivation the "true" piezoresistance of the NWs is found to be comparable with that of bulk Si. This demonstrates the indispensability of application-specific NW surface conditioning and the modulation capability of Si NWs properties for sensor applications. PMID:25651106

  20. Stoichiometric magnetite grown by infrared nanosecond pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Mikel; Oujja, Mohamed; Rebollar, Esther; Marco, José F.; de la Figuera, Juan; Monti, Matteo; Bollero, Alberto; Camarero, Julio; Pedrosa, Francisco J.; García-Hernández, Mar; Castillejo, Marta

    2013-10-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a versatile technique for the fabrication of nanostructures due to the possibilities it offers to control size and shape of nanostructured deposits by varying the laser parameters. Magnetite nanostructures are currently promising materials to be used in computing, electronic devices and spintronic applications. For all these uses the fabrication of uniform nanostructured pure magnetite thin films is highly advantageous. In PLD of magnetite, the laser irradiation wavelength and substrate temperature crucially affect the composition, crystallinity, surface structure and the magnetic properties of the grown samples. This work shows that the use of nanosecond IR laser at 1064 nm enhances the quality of the resulting magnetite thin films, compared to the extensively used UV wavelengths. Deposition at 1064 nm, upon heating the substrate at 750 K, produces thin films constituted by stoichiometric magnetite nanoparticles with sharp edges and sizes ranging from 80 to 150 nm, with a Verwey transition at 119 K and a coercivity of 232 Oe at room temperature, close to those of pure bulk magnetite. Thus, IR-PLD of self-prepared hematite sintered targets constitutes a low-cost procedure of fabrication of pure magnetite nanostructured thin films.

  1. Secretomic survey of Trichoderma harzianum grown on plant biomass substrates.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Mendoza, Diana Paola; Junqueira, Magno; do Vale, Luis Henrique Ferreira; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa; Ferreira Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes; Sousa, Marcelo Valle de; Ricart, Carlos André Ornelas

    2014-04-01

    The present work aims at characterizing T. harzianum secretome when the fungus is grown in synthetic medium supplemented with one of the four substrates: glucose, cellulose, xylan, and sugarcane bagasse (SB). The characterization was done by enzymatic assays and proteomic analysis using 2-DE/MALDI-TOF and gel-free shotgun LC-MS/MS. The results showed that SB induced the highest cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities when compared with the other substrates, while remarkable differences in terms of number and distribution of protein spots in 2-DE gels were also observed among the samples. Additionally, treatment of the secretomes with PNGase F revealed that most spot trails in 2-DE gels corresponded to N-glycosylated proteoforms. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the samples identified 626 different protein groups, including carbohydrate-active enzymes and accessory, noncatalytic, and cell-wall-associated proteins. Although the SB-induced secretome displayed the highest cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities, it did not correspond to a higher proteome complexity because CM-cellulose-induced secretome was significantly more diverse. Among the identified proteins, 73% were exclusive to one condition, while only 5% were present in all samples. Therefore, this study disclosed the variation of T. harzianum secretome in response to different substrates and revealed the diversity of the fungus enzymatic toolbox. PMID:24593137

  2. ?SR studies of superconductivity in eutectically grown mixed ruthenates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiroka, T.; Fittipaldi, R.; Cuoco, M.; De Renzi, R.; Maeno, Y.; Lycett, R. J.; Ramos, S.; Forgan, E. M.; Baines, C.; Rost, A.; Granata, V.; Vecchione, A.

    2012-04-01

    The low-temperature magnetic behavior of the double-layered ruthenate Sr3Ru2O7, as grown from a eutectic Sr2RuO4-Sr3Ru2O7 system, was investigated via zero- and transverse-field muon-spin rotation. The gradual increase of the muon relaxation rate observed below 2.5 K, even in the absence of applied magnetic fields, indicates the occurrence of a spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry. The onset of the latter at a temperature above 1.5 K, the Tc of the single phase Sr2RuO4, provides evidence about an unconventional superconducting state in the eutectic phase, which most likely takes place at the interface between the Sr2RuO4 and Sr3Ru2O7 domains, or even inside the Sr3Ru2O7 phase. We show that the superconducting state manifests a two-component behavior in the transverse-field response with change-over at about T=2.5 K and T=1.5 K. The comparison with zero-field ?SR data in the Ru-Sr2RuO4 eutectic system rules out the possibility of spurious effects due to embedded Ru islands.

  3. Carbon Nanotubes Grown By CVD in Various Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, S.; Su, C.; Cochrane, J. C.; Lehoczky. S. L.; Muntele, I.; Ila, D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the superior properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) could be used in numerous devices such as electronics and sensors, many efforts have been engaged in synthesizing particular structural or dimensional MWCNT. This presentation will illustrate MWCNT synthesized on silicon substrates by thermal CVD. On the substrate, an array of catalysts is coated using sputtering deposition. A thin Ti buffer layer is also coated on some Si substrates prior to depositing catalyst particles. Nickel, cobalt or iron transition metals are used as catalysts for the MWCNT growth. Since the diameter of MWCNT depends on the size of catalyst particles, the catalyst particle size is investigated after annealed at various temperatures. MWCNT are grown on the substrate in the temperature range of 700 to 1000 C and the pressure range of 100 torr to one atmosphere. Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 10% to 100% are used for the MWCNT synthesis. Morphology, length and diameter of these MWCNT are determined by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The detailed results of syntheses and characterizations will be discussed in the presentation.

  4. Extended defects in as-grown CdZnTe

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K-H.; Gul, R.; Yang, G.; Camarda, G.S.; Marchini, L.; Cui, Y.; James, R.B.; Xu, Y.; Wang, T.; Jie, W.

    2010-08-01

    We characterized samples cut from different locations in as-grown CdZnTe (CZT) ingots, using Automated Infrared (IR) Transmission Microscopy and White Beam X-ray Diffraction Topography (WBXDT), to locate and identify the extended defects in them. Our goal was to define the distribution of these defects throughout the entire ingot and their effects on detectors’ performance as revealed by the pulse-height spectrum. We found the highest- and the lowest- concentration of Te inclusions, respectively, in the head and middle part of the ingot, which could serve as guidance in selecting samples. Crystals with high concentration of Te inclusions showed high leakage current and poor performance, because the accumulated charge loss around trapping centers associated with Te inclusions distorts the internal electric field, affects the carrier transport properties inside the crystal, and finally degrades the detector’s performance. In addition, other extended defects revealed by the WBXDT measurements severely reduced the detector’s performance, since they trap large numbers of electrons, leading to a low signal for the pulse-height spectrum, or none whatsoever. Finally, we fully correlated the detector’s performance with our information on the extended defects gained from both the IR- and the WBXDT-measurements.

  5. Titanium-Catalyzed Silicon Nanostructures Grown by APCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Mohammad A. U.; Smith, Brady J.; Jackson, Justin B.; De Long, Matthew C.; Miller, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on growth of Ti-catalyzed silicon nanostructures (SNCs) through atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition. An extensive growth study relating the growth condition parameters, including the partial pressure of SiCl4 gas, reaction temperature, and reaction time, was carried out to obtain insight into the growth regimes for the observed SNCs. Based on phase diagram analysis of Ti-Si alloy and growth rate analysis of the silicon nanowires (SNWs) and silicon nanoplatelets, we believe the growth mechanism to be strongly dependent on the thermodynamics of the system, exhibiting a delicate balance that can easily tip between the growth and etching regimes of the system. Three types of SNCs were observed frequently throughout the study: nanowires, nanoplatelets, and balls. Regimes for highly etched growth were also noted through growth conditions plots. Ti-catalyzed SNWs grown using SiCl4 gas strongly suggest growth occurring through a type of vapor-solid-solid (VSS) mechanism that is limited by diffusion through the solid-catalyst interface. On the other hand, the two-dimensional SNP morphologies suggest growth occurring through the twin-plane mechanism at the edges, at 10 nm to 100 nm scales, also through a similar, VSS mechanism.

  6. Superior properties of plasma-assisted room-temperature-grown graphene from STM studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, M. L.; Lin, W.-H.; Boyd, D. A.; Yeh, N.-C.; Lo, Y.-Y.; Wu, C.-I.; Chan, W.-Y.; Su, W.-B.; Chang, C.-S.

    2013-03-01

    We report scanning tunneling microscopic and spectroscopic (STM/STS) studies of large-area monolayer graphene grown at room temperature (RT) on Cu foils, Cu (100) and Cu (111) single crystals, and compare the properties of these samples with high-temperature (1000 °C) CVD-grown graphene. All RT-grown graphene exhibit highly ordered honeycomb structures over ~ 1 cm2 areas, smooth surface morphology, much reduced strain (< 0.1%) and additional Moire patterns for samples grown on single crystals. The structural quality and reduced strain obtained from STM studies are consistent with finds from Raman spectra. In contrast, high-temperature CVD-grown graphene revealed strongly distorted atomic structures and large strain, giving rise to giant pseudo-magnetic fields and charging effects as manifested by the conductance peaks at quantized energies and the strongly enhanced local conductance in highly strained regions. These strain-induced effects are believed to be responsible for the reduced electrical mobility in typical CVD-grown graphene. The superior structural and electronic properties demonstrated by our RT-grown graphene are promising for a wide range of applications. This work was supported by NSF through IQIM at Caltech.

  7. Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

  8. What Will I Like Best When I'm All Grown Up? Preschoolers' Understanding of Future Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bélanger, Michèle J.; Atance, Cristina M.; Varghese, Anisha L.; Nguyen, Victoria; Vendetti, Corrie

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments investigated 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds' (N = 240) understanding that their future or "grown-up" preferences may differ from their current ones (self-future condition). This understanding was compared to children's understanding of the preferences of a grown-up (adult-now condition) or the grown-up preferences of…

  9. PERFORMANCE OF TWO SWEET CORN CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER CONSERVATION TILLAGE AND WITH-IN-ROW WEED PRESSURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spring 1998, furrow-irrigated sweet corn cultivars, 'Sensor' and 'G-90' (Zea mays var. rugosa), were grown under two conservation tillage (CNT) systems in the presence or absence of weeds, and compared to conventionally-grown sweet corn, grown in the presence or absence of weeds. Tillage systems...

  10. Ga-doped ZnO single-crystal nanotips grown on fused silica by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Ga-doped ZnO single-crystal nanotips grown on fused silica by metalorganic chemical vapor 08854-8087 Received 8 April 2003; accepted 29 August 2003 In situ Ga-doped ZnO nanotips were grown, and electrical properties of as-grown ZnO nanotips are investigated. Despite the amorphous nature of fused silica

  11. Te INCLUSIONS IN CdTe GROWN FROM A SLOWLY COOLED Te SOLUTION AND BY THE TRAVELLING SOLVENT METHOD

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    135 Te INCLUSIONS IN CdTe GROWN FROM A SLOWLY COOLED Te SOLUTION AND BY THE TRAVELLING SOLVENT. Abstract. 2014 CdTe crystals have been grown from a slowly cooled Te solution and with the travelling. Introduction. - CdTe crystals for nuclear radia- tion detectors are usually grown from a slowly cooled solution

  12. 75 FR 33736 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...AMS-FV-06-0213; FV07-930-2 W] Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New...which regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania...order) regulating the handling of tart cherries grown in the states of Michigan,...

  13. 78 FR 28182 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Et al.; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...AMS-FV-13-0012; FV 13-930-1] Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Et al...approved information collection for Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York,...

  14. Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN

    E-print Network

    Nabben, Reinhard

    of -Ga2O3 epilayer grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011119 (2013 vapor deposition grown GaN Ronny Kirste, Ramón Collazo, Gordon Callsen, Markus R. Wagner, Thomas Kure et vapor deposition grown GaN Ronny Kirste,1,a) Ramo´n Collazo,2 Gordon Callsen,1 Markus R. Wagner,1 Thomas

  15. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals by plants grown under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Herklotz, Patrick A; Gurung, Prakash; Vanden Heuvel, Brian; Kinney, Chad A

    2010-03-01

    Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) and Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa) were chosen for a proof of concept study to determine the potential uptake and accumulation of human pharmaceuticals by plants. These plants were grown hydroponically under high-pressure sodium lamps in one of two groups including a control and test group exposed to pharmaceuticals. The control plants were irrigated with a recirculating Hoagland's nutrient solution while the test plants were irrigated with a Hoagland's nutrient solution fortified with the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, salbutamol, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim at 232.5 microg L(-1). When plants reached maturity, nine entire plants of each species were separated into components such as roots, leaves, stems, and seedpods where applicable. An analytical method for quantifying pharmaceuticals and personal care products was developed using pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) in positive and negative ion modes using single ion monitoring. The method detection limits ranged from 3.13 ng g(-1) to 29.78 ng g(-1) with recoveries ranging from 66.83% to 113.62% from plant matrices. All four of the pharmaceuticals were detected in the roots and leaves of the cabbage. The maximum wet weight concentrations of the pharmaceuticals were detected in the root structure of the cabbage plants at 98.87 ng g(-1) carbamazepine, 114.72 ng g(-1) salbutamol, 138.26 ng g(-1) sulfamethoxazole, and 91.33 ng g(-1) trimethoprim. Carbamazepine and salbutamol were detected in the seedpods of the Wisconsin Fast Plants while all four of the pharmaceuticals were detected in the leaf/stem/root of the Wisconsin Fast Plants. Phloroglucinol staining of root cross-sections was used to verify the existence of an intact endodermis, suggesting that pharmaceuticals found in the leaf and seedpods of the plants were transported symplastically. PMID:20096438

  16. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Photoautotrophically Grown Tobacco Callus Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Berlyn, Mary B.; Zelitch, Israel; Beaudette, Pamela D.

    1978-01-01

    Haploid callus cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were grown photoautotrophically on a solid agar medium in the absence of sucrose in Petri plates in an atmosphere of 1% or 3% CO2 in air. The averages of dry weight increases for four to five consecutive passages were 2.3- to 3.6-fold per 3-week passage for different subclones. Photosynthetic 14CO2 assimilation was maximum at about 1% CO2 with half-maximal rates obtained at 0.2% CO2. At saturating CO2 concentration the average rate of CO2 fixation was about 5 ?mole per gram fresh weight per hour or about 125 ?mole per mg of chlorophyll per hour. The existence of an active photorespiratory system in these tissues was established in a number of independent ways. The photosynthetic rate in 0.18% CO2 was inhibited 38 to 50% in 100% O2 compared with 21% O2. Glycolate accumulated at a constant rate in the presence of 5 mm ?-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonic acid for 20 minutes in light. This rate was rapid relative to the photosynthetic rate. Glycolate synthesis was three times faster in autotrophic than in heterotrophic cells. [1-14C]Glycolate was rapidly metabolized and the products included 14CO2, [14C]glycine, and [14C]serine, thus demonstrating an active glycolate pathway. Photorespiration was demonstrated directly by measurement of an O2-dependent release of 14CO2 in the light from callus that fixed 14CO2 for about 22 hours. Autotrophic growth in 60% O2 and 0.03% CO2 was slowed and ceased entirely after two or three passages, while heterotrophic growth was unaffected by 60% O2 in the atmosphere. The method of growing autotrophic callus which has an active photorespiratory system should facilitate the selection and analysis of photosynthetic mutants in which photorespiration is regulated. PMID:16660346

  17. On the nature of large-scale defect accumulations in Czochralski-grown silicon

    E-print Network

    Kalinushkin, V P; Yuryev, V A; Astafiev, O V; Murin, D I

    2011-01-01

    Czochralski-grown boron-doped silicon crystals were studied by the techniques of the low-angle mid-IR-light scattering and electron-beam-induced current. The large-scale accumulations of electrically-active impurities detected in this material were found to be different in their nature and formation mechanisms from the well-known impurity clouds in a float zone-grown silicon. A classifcation of the large-scale impurity accumulations in CZ Si:B is made and point centers constituting them are analyzed in this paper. A model of the large-scale impurity accumulations in CZ-grown Si:B is also proposed.

  18. Characterization of Semi-Insulating CdTe Crystals Grown by Horizontal Seeded Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, K.; Feth, S.; Chen, H.; Burger, A.; Su, Ching-Hua

    1998-01-01

    CdTe crystals were grown by horizontal seeded physical vapor transport technique in uncoated and boron nitride coated fused silica ampoules with the source materials near the congruent sublimation condition. The grown crystals were characterized by current-voltage measurements, low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy, near IR transmission optical microscopy, spark source mass spectroscopy and chemical etching. The measured resistivities of the crystals were in the high-10(exp 8) ohm-cm range. Although the crystal grown in the boron nitride coating was contaminated with boron from the photoluminescence measurements, the coating yielded a single crystal with no inclusions or precipitates.

  19. I(t), I(V) and surface effect studies of vapor grown and solution grown HgI2 detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellet, Jean; Friant, A.

    1989-11-01

    The experiments we have carried out during the last years show that solution grown HgI2 crystals exhibit a lower ?? product than vapor grown crystal, despite a crystalline perfection and a purity at least as high, or even higher. They also show different surface properties. From the current response I(t) following a voltage step, and from the I(V) characteristic analysis, we determine the trapping levels Et present in the sample and show the influence of the contact deposition technique and surface treatments on the electrical field gradient nearby the electrode. A nitric acid treatment increases the blocking effect of the cathode contact on solution grown crystal, and therefore improves their detection performance for low energy X-rays and gamma rays.

  20. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No...reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area...

  1. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No...reestablishing the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area...

  2. Growing Container-Grown Greenhouse Vegetables Litchfield County Extension Center, 843 University Drive, Torrington, CT

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Growing Container-Grown Greenhouse Vegetables Litchfield County Extension:00-9:30 Registration, Coffee Available 9:30 - 10:30 Growing Greenhouse Tomatoes Salad Greens Brian Krug, Extension Specialist, Greenhouse & Floriculture

  3. Grouping of Streptococcus mitis strains grown on different growth media by FT-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Mei, H. C.; Naumann, D.; Busscher, H. J.

    1996-06-01

    Grouping of nine Streptococcus mitis strains grown on two different growth media was made by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The IR spectra of the S. mitis strains grown on blood agar plates were broadly similar with amide I and amide II absorption bands at 1653 and 1541 cm -1 respectively, phosphate bands at 1237 cm -1 and sugar bands at 1070 cm -1 next to hydrocarbon absorption bands in the wavelength region between 3000-2800 cm -1. Seven out of nine tested S. mitis strains grown on TY agar showed an additional absorption band in the 3000-2800 cm -1 wavelength region indicative for the presence of an amphiphilic molecule and absent when the organisms were grown on blood agar.

  4. The growth and crystallography of bismuth tri-iodide crystals grown by vapor transport

    SciTech Connect

    Nason, D. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations; Keller, L. [CAMET Research, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A single crystal of bismuth tri-iodide (BiI{sub 3}) of dimensions 1.2 {times} 1.2 {times} 0.4 cm{sup 3} has been grown by physical vapor transport. The lattice parameters of the hexagonal crystal and its polycrystaleme powder precursor were measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and were in agreement, indicating that the vapor phase growth and sublimation purification processing at temperatures below 330{degree}C did not significantly affect the stoichiometry. X-ray rocking measurements of the single crystal showed low angle boundaries of the order of 0.05{degree}. In tests as gamma radiation detectors, neither melt grown nor vapor grown crystals were satisfactory, but the vapor grown crystals were promising. Several observations suggest that better performance may be achievable with purer bismuth tri-iodide.

  5. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF FIELD-GROWN CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acidic rainfall on yields of radish (Raphanus sativa), garden beet (Beta vulgaris), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under standard agronomic practices. The experimental design a...

  6. Contribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Glomus Intraradices) Fungus with Tomato Plants grown under Copper Toxicity

    E-print Network

    Malekzadeh, Parviz; Khara, Jalil; Farshian, Shadi

    2009-01-01

    disturbed soils. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have beenArbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the uptake of uranium by subterranean clover grown at high levels of uranium in soil.soils (Leyval et al. 1997). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (

  7. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of unidirectionally grown L-Threonine acetate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabagaran, G.; Madhavan, J.

    2015-02-01

    Unidirectional <1 1 0> L-Threonine acetate (LTA) single crystal was grown and reported. The grown crystal was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies to confirm the crystal structure. The optical band gap (Eg) value of the grown crystal is obtained from the tauc's plot of (?hv)2 vs hv which was determined by extrapolating the linear region of the curve to the hv axis where (?hv)2 = 0. Other linear optical parameters such as Extinction coefficient, Reflectance, Refractive index, Complex dielectric constant, and Optical conductivity are calculated for the grown crystal and its variation with incident photon energy is analysed. Second Harmonic Generating (SHG) efficiency of the candidate material was determined by Nd:YAG Q-switched laser Kurtz powder technique.

  8. Crystal growth and characterization of ?-glycine grown from potassium fluoride for photonic applications.

    PubMed

    Dillip, G R; Raghavaiah, P; Mallikarjuna, K; Reddy, C Madhukar; Bhagavannarayana, G; Kumar, V Ramesh; Raju, B Deva Prasad

    2011-09-01

    Single crystals of ?-glycine, an organic nonlinear optical material have been synthesized in the presence of potassium fluoride (KF) by slow evaporation technique at ambient temperature. The size of the grown crystal is up to the dimension of 12 mm×10 mm×8 mm. The ?-phase was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD and the FTIR analysis. Optical absorption spectrum reveals that the grown crystal has good optical transparency in the entire visible region with an energy band gap of 5.09 eV, which is an essential requirement for a nonlinear optical crystal. Thermal stability of the grown ?-glycine crystal was determined using the thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The NLO activity of ?-glycine was confirmed by the Kurtz powder technique using Nd:YAG laser and the grown crystal exhibits high relative conversion efficiency when compared to potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). PMID:21636316

  9. Direct Physical Exfoliation of Few-Layer Graphene from Graphite Grown on a Nickel Foil Using

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with Tunable Elasticity and Adhesion Kwanghyun Yoo1 , Yusuke Takei1 , Sungjin Kim2 , Shohei enlargeable graphite grown on a Ni foil using an optimized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. By decreasing

  10. Preferential orientation of NV defects in CVD diamond films grown on (113)-oriented substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesik, M.; Plays, T.; Tallaire, A.; Achard, J.; Brinza, O.; William, L.; Chipaux, M.; Toraille, L.; Debuisschert, T.; Gicquel, A.; Roch, J. F.; Jacques, V.

    2015-06-01

    Thick CVD diamond layers were successfully grown on (113)-oriented substrates. They exhibited smooth surface morphologies and a crystalline quality comparable to (100) electronic grade material, and much better than (111)-grown layers. High growth rates (15-50 {\\mu}m/h) were obtained while nitrogen doping could be achieved in a fairly wide range without seriously imparting crystalline quality. Electron spin resonance measurements were carried out to determine NV centers orientation and concluded that one specific orientation has an occurrence probability of 73 % when (100)-grown layers show an equal distribution in the 4 possible directions. A spin coherence time of around 270 {\\mu}s was measured which is equivalent to that reported for material with similar isotopic purity. Although a higher degree of preferential orientation was achieved with (111)-grown layers (almost 100 %), the ease of growth and post-processing of the (113) orientation make it a potentially useful material for magnetometry or other quantum mechanical applications.

  11. Reduced virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in the presence of benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Adair, F W; Liauw, H L; Geftic, S G; Gelzer, J

    1975-01-01

    Resistant cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 which were grown in the presence of 1 mg of benzalkonium chloride (BC) per ml caused only a mild conjunctivitis when they were dropped onto the scratched corneas of rabbits. In contrast, cells of the BC-sensitive parent strain induced a severe keratoconjunctivitis. In addition, the BC-grown cells also had a reduced capacity to produce kidney infections in mice as compared to the parent strain. BC-grown cells acted as weak complex antigens which conferred slight protection against lethal doses of BC-grown cells. No cross-protection to cells of the parent strain occurred. The data indicate that growth in the presence of BC results in cells with reduced virulence. Images PMID:809470

  12. 76 FR 33967 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 953 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0027...Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule...

  13. 76 FR 65360 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 953 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0027...Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final...

  14. 78 FR 9331 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0008...Grown in California; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed...

  15. 76 FR 4201 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 [Doc. No. AO-FV-08-0174...Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920; Correction AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  16. 75 FR 37288 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 [Doc. No. AO-FV-08-0174...Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920 AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final...

  17. 75 FR 10442 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...AMS-FV-09-0033; FV09-923-1 PR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change...the handling regulation currently prescribed for cherries under the Washington cherry marketing order. The marketing order...

  18. 75 FR 31663 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...AMS-FV-09-0033; FV09-923-1 FR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change...This rule revises the handling regulation for cherries under the Washington cherry marketing order. The marketing order...

  19. Control of average spacing of OMCVD grown gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, Asad

    Metallic nanostructures and their applications is a rapidly expanding field. Nobel metals such as silver and gold have historically been used to demonstrate plasmon effects due to their strong resonances, which occur in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) produces an enhanced electromagnetic field at the interface between a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) and the surrounding dielectric. This enhanced field can be used for metal-dielectric interfacesensitive optical interactions that form a powerful basis for optical sensing. In addition to the surrounding material, the LSPR spectral position and width depend on the size, shape, and average spacing between these particles. Au NP LSPR based sensors depict their highest sensitivity with optimized parameters and usually operate by investigating absorption peak: shifts. The absorption peak: of randomly deposited Au NPs on surfaces is mostly broad. As a result, the absorption peak: shifts, upon binding of a material onto Au NPs might not be very clear for further analysis. Therefore, novel methods based on three well-known techniques, self-assembly, ion irradiation, and organo-meta1lic chemical vapour deposition (OMCVD) are introduced to control the average-spacing between Au NPs. In addition to covalently binding and other advantages of OMCVD grown Au NPs, interesting optical features due to their non-spherical shapes are presented. The first step towards the average-spacing control is to uniformly form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) as resists for OMCVD Au NPs. The formation and optimization of the OTS SAMs are extensively studied. The optimized resist SAMs are ion-irradiated by a focused ion beam (Fill) and ions generated by a Tandem accelerator. The irradiated areas are refilled with 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) to provide nucleation sites for the OMCVD Au NP growth. Each step during sample preparation is monitored by using surface characterization methods such as contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). Keywords: Absorption, Array, Average Spacing, Binary Mixture, Density, Deposition, Dose, Fm, Gold Nanoparticle, Growth, Ion Irradiation, LSPR, Nanolithography, Nearest Neighbour Distance, OMCVD, Optical Response, OTS, Polarization, Refilling, Resist, SAM, Self-assembly, SEM Image Analysis, Sensing, Surface, Thin Film, Transparent Substrate.

  20. Properties of polycrystalline GaAs films grown on CMG coverglass for space solar cell application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Ogayu; Mitsuru Imaizumi; Tetsuo Soga; Takashi Jimbo; Masayoshi Umeno

    2002-01-01

    Polycrystalline GaAs films have been grown on Pilkington CMG cover-glass as a substrate at relatively low temperature by MOCVD. The substrate temperature (Ts) was varied from 450°C to 550°C, while other conditions were kept constant. Preferential orientation and grain size of the films grown at ?500°C are proved to be [111] and 0.5-1.0?m by XRD and AFM, respectively. Both of

  1. Production and postharvest characteristics of Rosa hybrida L. Meijikatar'' grown in pots under carbon dioxide enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Clark; J. W. Kelly; N. C. Rajapakse

    1993-01-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on growth, photosynthesis, and postharvest characteristics of Meijikatar'' potted roses were determined. Plants were grown in 350, 700, or 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]\\/liter until they reached 50% flower bud coloration and then were placed into dark storage for 5 days at 4 or 16C. Plants grown in 700 or 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]\\/liter reached

  2. Raman study of turbostratic graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition on metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Lenski; Michael S. Fuhrer

    2010-01-01

    We have grown graphene of varying thickness on metal foils (copper and nickel) and thin films (nickel) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We use micro-Raman spectroscopy to characterize these graphene films, both as-grown on metal and transferred to oxide substrates. Raman spectra on multi-layer CVD graphene films show the characteristic single Lorentzian 2D peak of monolayer graphene, providing strong evidence

  3. Electron emission observations from as-grown and vacuum-coated chemical vapor deposited diamond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lamouri; Yaxin Wang; G. T. Mearini; I. L. Krainsky; W. Mueller

    1995-01-01

    Field emission has been observed from Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond grown on Mo and Si substrates. Emission was observed at fields as low as 20 kV\\/cm. The samples were tested in the as-grown form, and after coating with thin films of Au, CsI and Ni. The emission current was typically maximum at the onset of the applied field, but

  4. Seasonal variation of root distribution of irrigated, field-grown Russet Burbank potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Lesczynski; C. B. Tanner

    1976-01-01

    Root density of irrigated, field-grown Russet Burbank potatoes grown on Plainfield loamy sand was determined periodically\\u000a from soil core samples during the 1973 growing season. Total root length and weight also were measured.\\u000a \\u000a Under these growing conditions, the roots essentially were restricted to the plow layer in this soil, decreasing rapidly below\\u000a this depth. The root density in the plow

  5. Protein expression by Listeria monocytogenes grown on a RTE-meat matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sana Mujahid; Tibor Pechan; Chinling Wang

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about whether the growth of L. monocytogenes on a ready-to-eat (RTE) meat matrix has an impact on the bacterium's pathogenic capabilities. In this report, we examined protein expression by L. monocytogenes grown on RTE sliced turkey meat, using L. monocytogenes grown on brain-heart-infusion agar as a control. Total protein fractions of L. monocytogenes from both growth conditions

  6. Investigation of GaN layer grown on different low misoriented sapphire by MOCVD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanhui Xing; Jun Han; Jun Deng; Jianjun Li; Chen Xu; Guangdi Shen

    2009-01-01

    GaN layer on c-plane misoriented sapphire, grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, has been studied. It was observed that the random and non-uniform distribution of the step was caused by the step reconstruction for GaN grown on 0° sapphire by atomic force microscopy. The image quality parameter analysis of electron back-scatter diffraction indicated that the strains were reduced for

  7. Formation of boron carbonitride nanotubes from in situ grown carbon nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Piazza; J. E. Nocua; A. Hidalgo; J. De Jesús; R. Velázquez; B. L. Weiss; G. Morell

    2005-01-01

    Boron carbonitride nanotubes (BCNNTs) were grown with high yield by DC arc discharge without catalyst particles or pre-grown template nanostructures. Two types of nanotubes (NTs) were formed: thin NTs with diameters of 10–15 nm and thick NTs with diameters of 25–50 nm. Transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy analyses indicate that the thin NTs are carbon

  8. STRUCTURAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ZnO THIN FILMS GROWN ON FLEXIBLE POLYIMIDE SUBSTRATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONG ICK SON; JUNG WOOK LEE; DEA UK LEE; TAE WHAN KIM; WON KOOK CHOI

    2007-01-01

    Nominally undoped ZnO thin films were grown on polyimide (PI) substrates at various temperatures by using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Atomic force microscopy images showed that the root mean squares of the average surface roughnesses for the ZnO thin films grown on the PI substrates at 27°C, 100°C, 200°C, and 300°C were 4.08, 4.50, 4.18, and 3.89 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction

  9. Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Grown on Flexible Polyimide Substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Ick Son; Jung Wook Lee; Dea Uk Lee; Tae Whan Kim; Won Kook Choi

    2007-01-01

    Nominally undoped ZnO thin films were grown on polyimide (PI) substrates at various temperatures by using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Atomic force microscopy images showed that the root mean squares of the average surface roughnesses for the ZnO thin films grown on the PI substrates at 27°C, 100°C, 200°C, and 300°C were 4.08, 4.50, 4.18, and 3.89 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction

  10. Characterizations of ZnTe bulks grown by temperature gradient solution growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Yih Uen; Shiun-Yi Chou; Hwa-Yuh Shin; Sen-Mao Liao; Shan-Ming Lan

    2004-01-01

    In this work, zinc telluride (ZnTe) bulk crystals have been grown for the first time by the temperature gradient solution growth (TGSG) technique. Hall effect and capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements were used to determine the room temperature electrical properties, and low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements were used to analyze the optical properties. As grown undoped ZnTe shows p-type conductivity with the

  11. Electrical properties and deep levels in bulk solution grown GaAs crystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V Markov; A. Y Polyakov; N. B Smirnov; A. V Govorkov; V. I Biberin; N. S Korovin; V. N Gavrin; G. D Efimov; A. V Kalikhov; Y. P Kozlova; E. P Veretenkin; V. K Eremin; E. M Verbitskaya; T. J Bowles

    2002-01-01

    Electrical and photoelectrical properties, deep levels spectra and microcathodoluminescence spectra were measured for bulk high-resistivity GaAs samples grown from Ga-rich solution by a synthesis solute diffusion technique. It is shown that the main portion of the grown crystal is high-resistivity p-type with electrical properties determined by deep hole traps with the level near 0.43 eV from the valence band edge.

  12. Characterization of pure and urea-doped ?-glycine single crystals grown by solution method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Selvarajan; J. Glorium Arul Raj; S. Perumal

    2009-01-01

    Pure and urea-doped gamma-glycine (?-glycine) single crystals were grown by solution method with slow evaporation technique. When urea was added as dopant, morphological alterations were noticed in ?-glycine crystals. Structural characterization of the grown crystals was carried out by single and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods and it is observed that the samples crystallize in non-centrosymmetric space groups. UV–visible transmittance

  13. Visible-blind GaN Schottky barrier detectors grown on Si(111)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Osinsky; S. Gangopadhyay; J. W. Yang; R. Gaska; D. Kuksenkov; H. Temkin; I. K. Shmagin; Y. C. Chang; J. F. Muth; R. M. Kolbas

    1998-01-01

    We report novel GaN detectors grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. Wurtzite structure epitaxial GaN exhibits room-temperature photoluminescence with a band-edge-related emission width as narrow as 7 nm and intensities comparable to high quality layers grown on sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Spectral response of lateral geometry Schottky detectors shows a sharp cutoff at 365 nm with

  14. Selenium concentrations of common weeds and agricultural crops grown in the seleniferous soils of northwestern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karaj S. Dhillon; Surjit K. Dhillon

    2009-01-01

    The plants grown in seleniferous soils constitute a major source of toxic selenium levels in the food chain of animals and human beings. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to study selenium concentrations of weeds, forages and cereals grown on seleniferous soils located between 31.0417° to 31.2175° N and 76.1363° to 76.4147° E in northwestern India. Eleven winter season (November–April)

  15. Full-grown oocytes from Xenopus laevis resume growth when placed in culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Wallace; Z. Misulovin; L. D. Etkin

    1981-01-01

    When most full-grown, follicle cell-invested oocytes from Xenopus laevis are placed in an appropriate culture medium, they resume growth and remain physiologically healthy for at least 2 to 3 weeks. Rates of growth by full-grown oocytes in vitro generally approximate and can even exceed the most rapid growth rate achieved by vitellogenic oocytes in vivo. Resumption of oocyte growth can

  16. Mutagenic potential of plants grown on a soil amended with mutagenic municipal sewage sludge 

    E-print Network

    Fiedler, Daniel Alain

    1988-01-01

    MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF PLANTS GROWN ON A SOIL AMENDED WITH MUTAGENIC MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE A Thesis by DANIEL ALAIN FIEDLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Agronomy MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF PLANTS GROWN ON A SOIL AMENDED WITH MUTAGENIC MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE A Thesis by DANIEL ALAIN FIEDLER Approved as to sty1e and content by; Kirk W. Brown (Chairman...

  17. Evaluation of thin oxides grown by the atomic oxygen afterglow method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ruzyllo; A. Hoff; G. Ruggles

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic electrical properties of thin, less than 200 , films of silicon dioxide grown on silicon by\\u000a a microwave plasma atomic oxygen afterglow method. This method of remote plasma oxidation of silicon allows gate oxides to\\u000a be grown at temperatures as low as 400 C, and hence, is possibly attractive in VLSI\\/ULSI applications. Electrical properties\\u000a of

  18. Surface recombination in ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. X. Zhao; L. L. Yang; M. Willander; B. E. Sernelius; P. O. Holtz

    2008-01-01

    Vertically well-aligned ZnO nanorods on Si substrates were prepared by a two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The optical properties of the grown ZnO nanorods were investigated by time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that the effective decay time of the near bandgap recombination in the CBD grown ZnO nanorods strongly depends on the diameter of the ZnO nanorods.

  19. Acetaldehyde stimulates ethanol-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae , grown on various carbon sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hucker; F. Vriesekoop

    2008-01-01

    The ability of added acetaldehyde to stimulate growth in ethanol-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae while grown on non-fermentable substrates (ethanol, glycerol) is reported. The addition of acetaldehyde to ethanol-stressed\\u000a yeast grown on either ethanol or glycerol led to a significant decrease in lag time of 67 and 45 %, respectively (p = 0.000) and an increase in the specific growth rate (0.008–0.038\\/h

  20. Breakdown characteristics of RTO 10 nm SiO2 films grown at different temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Fonseca; F. Campabadal

    1994-01-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with 10 nm gate oxides grown by rapid thermal oxidation at temperatures of 1000, 1100 and 1150°C have been electrically characterized by means of C-V techniques, time-zero and time-dependent breakdown experiments. The oxides grown at higher temperatures show superior interfacial and oxide integrity characteristics, which is consistent with a lower level of intrinsic stress in such layers. The

  1. Growth and fruiting responses of diverse genotypes of American Upland cotton grown in different environments

    E-print Network

    Gannaway, J. R

    1971-01-01

    selected to represent a range in deter- minancy of fruiting habit and they were grown in two environments established from two dates of planting. Responses of the genotypes to different environments were evaluated with five growth rate vari- shies, four... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Plant Breeding GROWTH AND FRUITING RESPONSES OF DIVERSE GENOTYPES OF AMERICAN UPLAND COTTON GROWN IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS A Thesis by JOHN ROBERT GANNAWAY Approved as to style and content by...

  2. Dopant Segregation in Earth- and Space-Grown InP Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilewsky, Andreas Nikolaus; Okamoto, Yusuke; Benz, Klaus Werner; Nishinaga, Tatau

    1992-07-01

    Macro- and microsegregation of sulphur in InP crystals grown from In solution by the travelling heater method under microgravity and normal gravity are analyzed using spatially resolved photoluminescence. Whereas the macrosegregation in earth- as well as space-grown crystals is explained by conventional steady-state models based on the theory of Burton, Prim and Slichter (BPS), the microsegregation can only be understood in terms of the non-steady-state step exchange model.

  3. Study on the diffusion mechanism of graphene grown on copper pockets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhijuan; Shan, Zhifa; Zhang, Cankun; Li, Qiongyu; Tian, Bo; Huang, Zhiyi; Lin, Weiyi; Chen, Xiangping; Ji, Hengxing; Zhang, Weifeng; Cai, Weiwei

    2015-03-25

    A correlation between graphene domains grown on the outer and the inner surfaces of Cu pockets is found, which discloses a new graphene growth mechanism based on the fast diffusion of carbon atoms through the 25 micro-meter-thick Cu foil, confirmed by isotopic labeling. Subsequently, on the outer surface of the Cu pocket, bilayer graphene with a coverage of about 78% is grown. PMID:25469458

  4. Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 thin-film solar cells grown with cracked selenium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Kawamura; Toshiyuki Fujita; Akira Yamada; Makoto Konagai

    2009-01-01

    Cu(In1?xGax)Se2 (CIGS) films have been grown by using cracked selenium. In conventional evaporation system, the Se atoms were supplied as large clusters (Sex, x>5). However, the size of clusters can be reduced by the thermal cracking. The film qualities grown with small clusters (Sex, x<4) would be improved, since the smaller size molecules easily react with elemental metals, resulting in

  5. Characterization of CIGS thin films and solar cells grown with a plasma-cracked Se source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shogo Ishizuka; Akimasa Yamada; Paul Fons; Shigeru Niki

    2011-01-01

    The variation observed in rf-plasma cracked radical Se (R-Se) source grown Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) film properties and conventional evaporative Se (E-Se) source grown CIGS film properties was studied for the development of industrial production techniques of evaporated CIGS films and CIGS texture control techniques, which are important for the optimization of the CIGS\\/buffer layer interface to yield high cell and

  6. Photoemission properties and surface structures of homoepitaxially grown CVD diamond(1 0 0) surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Murakami; M Yokoyama; S. M Lee; T Ito

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the surface properties of homoepitaxially grown chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have been investigated using total photoyield measurements, scanning tunneling microscope (STM) observations and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The STM results show that as-grown CVD diamond(100) surfaces are characterized mainly by two types of regions with 2×1\\/1×2 structures and much less structures. These well-ordered surface structures

  7. Radiation detector made of a diamond single crystal grown by a chemical vapor deposition method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Kaneko; T. Tanaka; T. Imai; Y. Tanimura; M. Katagiri; T. Nishitani; H. Takeuchi; T. Sawamura; T. Iida

    2003-01-01

    The first investigation of a radiation detector made of a diamond single crystal grown by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was successfully carried out. The diamond single crystal, having a size of 2.0×2.0×0.7mm3, was grown by the CVD method and then applied to the detector. The CVD method was able to reduce nitrogen and boron impurities in diamond crystals

  8. Mechanism of lateral ordering of InP dots grown on InGaP layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. R. Bortoleto; H. R. Gutie´rrez; M. A. Cotta; J. Bettini

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to the spontaneous formation of a two-dimensional array of InP?InGaP dots grown by chemical-beam epitaxy are discussed. Samples where the InGaP buffer layer was grown at different conditions were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Our results indicate that a periodic strain field related to lateral two-dimensional compositional modulation in the InGaP buffer layer determines the dot nucleation

  9. Mechanism of lateral ordering of InP dots grown on InGaP layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. R. Bortoleto; H. R. Gutiérrez; M. A. Cotta; J. Bettini

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to the spontaneous formation of a two-dimensional array of InP\\/InGaP dots grown by chemical-beam epitaxy are discussed. Samples where the InGaP buffer layer was grown at different conditions were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Our results indicate that a periodic strain field related to lateral two-dimensional compositional modulation in the InGaP buffer layer determines the dot nucleation

  10. N-H related defects in GaAsN grown through chemical beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshita, Yoshio; Ikeda, Kazuma; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Machida, Hideaki; Sudoh, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Honda, Takahiko; Inagaki, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2014-03-01

    The local vibration modes of N-H related defects in GaAsN are studied using isotopes. When GaAsN is grown through chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) using triethylgallium/tris(dimethylamino)arsenic/monomethylhydrazine gas, there are several local vibration modes (LVMs) in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Signals with stretching mode peaks at 2952, 3098, and 3125 cm-1 are reported, along with new wagging and stretching mode peaks at 960 and 3011 cm-1, which exist only in crystals grown through CBE. When the film is grown using deuterated MMHy as a nitrogen source, new peaks at 2206, 2302, 2318, 2245, and 714 cm-1 appear. This suggests that D related defects are created because of the deuterated MMHy. The ratios of frequencies of these new peaks to those obtained from crystals grown using MMHy are nearly 1.34. This suggests that all defects in GaAsN grown through CBE, which appear as LVMs, are N-H related defects. Especially, those with LVMs at 960 and 3011 cm-1 are new N-H defects only found in GaAsN grown through CBE.

  11. Violaxanthin is an abscisic acid precursor in water-stressed dark-grown bean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yi; Walton, D.C. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The leaves a dark-grown bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings accumulate considerably lower quantities of xanthophylls and carotenes than do leaves of light-grown seedlings, but they synthesize at least comparable amounts of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites when water stressed. We observed a 1:1 relationship on a molar basis between the reduction in levels of ciolaxanthin, 9{prime}-cis-neoxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin and the accumulation of ABA, phaseic acid, and dihydrophaseic acid, when leaves from dark-grown plants were stressed for 7 hours. Early in the stress period, reductions in xanthophylls were greater than the accumulation of ABA and its metabolites, suggesting the accumulation of an intermediate which was subsequently converted to ABA. Leaves which were detached, but no stressed, did not accumulate ABA nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced. Leaves from plants that had been sprayed with cycloheximido did not accumulate ABA when stressed, nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced significantly. Incubation of dark-grown stressed leaves in an {sup 18}O{sub 2}-containing atmosphere resulted in the synthesis of ABA with levels of {sup 18}O in the carboxyl group that were virtually identical to those observed in light-grown leaves. The results of these experiments indicate that violaxanthin is an ABA precursor in stressed dark-grown leaves, and they are used to suggest several possible pathways from violaxanthin to ABA.

  12. Stomatal conductance of lettuce grown under or exposed to different light qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyeon-Hye; Goins, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The objective of this research was to examine the effects of differences in light spectrum on the stomatal conductance (Gs) and dry matter production of lettuce plants grown under a day/night cycle with different spectra, and also the effects on Gs of short-term exposure to different spectra. METHODS: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants were grown with 6 h dark and 18 h light under four different spectra, red-blue (RB), red-blue-green (RBG), green (GF) and white (CWF), and Gs and plant growth were measured. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Conductance of plants grown for 23 d under CWF rose rapidly on illumination to a maximum in the middle of the light period, then decreased again before the dark period when it was minimal. However, the maximum was smaller in plants grown under RB, RGB and GF. This demonstrates that spectral quality during growth affects the diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance. Although Gs was smaller in plants grown under RGB than CWF, dry mass accumulation was greater, suggesting that Gs did not limit carbon assimilation under these spectral conditions. Temporarily changing the spectral quality of the plants grown for 23 d under CWF, affected stomatal responses reversibly, confirming studies on epidermal strips. This study provides new information showing that Gs is responsive to spectral quality during growth and, in the short-term, is not directly coupled to dry matter accumulation.

  13. Comparison of isothiocyanate yield from wasabi rhizome tissues grown in soil or water.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Tamanna; Porter, N G; Savage, G P; McNeil, D L

    2003-06-01

    The isothiocyanate (ITC) yield of wasabi, the Japanese horseradish (Wasabi japonica), was measured on its release from glucosinolates in the rhizomes of plants grown in two traditional ways. Mature plants of 18 months old were harvested from two different commercial farms located in the South Island of New Zealand. At one farm, the plants were grown in raised soil beds, while the plants at the other farm were grown in gravel irrigated by river water. Following harvest, the rhizomes from each growth medium were divided into five size groups based on the weight and length of the rhizomes. The different sized rhizomes were also subdivided into proximal, medial, and distal portions of the rhizomes and each portion was further subdivided into epidermis plus cortex, and vascular plus pith. The individual and total ITC contents of each portion (proximal, medial, and distal) of the rhizomes were measured using dichloromethane extraction followed by the GC-FPD. The total ITC content of the rhizomes grown in soil increased (13 times) linearly from 6 to 114 g of rhizome weight, while the mean ITC content of the water-grown wasabi increased (10 times) nonlinearly for similar sized rhizomes. Water-grown rhizomes in the weight range from 18 to 45 g gave significantly (P = 0.030) higher total ITC (1-2 times) than similarly sized soil-grown rhizomes. Analysis of the tissues showed that the total and the individual ITCs were found in significantly higher levels (73 and 64%, respectively) in the skin and cortex tissue compared to the vascular and pith tissues. Analysis of the ITC content of the different locations of the wasabi rhizome showed that the distal portion of the rhizome contained significantly higher levels of both total and individual ITCs compared to the medial and proximal portions of the rhizome. PMID:12769529

  14. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the effects of spectral quality on disease development when other wavelengths were included in the light source (MH-, 660/BF-, and 660/735-grown plants) were equivocal. These results demonstrate that spectral quality may be useful as a component of an integrated pest management program for future space-based controlled ecological life support systems.

  15. Characteristics of zinc sulphide nanostructures grown onsilica modified-polyaniline with polymerization time-dependent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potestas, M.; Alguno, A.; Vequizo, R.; Sambo, B. R.; Odarve, M. K.

    2015-06-01

    Growth of zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanostructures on silica modified-polyaniline (SM- PAni) with polymerization time-dependent was prepared using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The grown samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM images revealed that polyaniline rod-like nanostructures and ZnS nanospheres were successfully grown. The average diameter of the grown ZnS nanospheres did not significantly change by changing the growth time of the polyaniline. However, ZnS nanospheres grown with longer polymerization time of PAni is less dense and loosely bound as compared to shorter polymerization time of PAni. The less density of ZnS nanostructures with longer polymerization time of PAni may be due to the presence of PAni agglomerates that hinders the growth of ZnS nanospheres. Furthermore, FTIR spectra confirmed that the grown polyaniline is of emeraldine salt oxidation state which is the most conductive state of PAni.

  16. Photoluminescence-dark-spot-free AlGaAs grown on Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Naoki; Iwabu, Koichi; Sakai, Shiro; Fukui, Masuo

    1992-03-01

    GaAs and AlGaAs are grown on an UCGAS (undercut GaAs on Si) in which a part of the GaAs layer grown on Si substrate is separated from the substrate by the post-growth processing. The grown layers are characterized by the high-magnification (×1600) photoluminescence image which is capable of visualizing the very small (less than 1 ?m) dark spots in the AlGaAs layer. No dark spot is found in the layer grown on the UCGAS. A planar AlGaAs on Si, on the other hand, has the dark-spot density (DSD) of more than 108 cm-2. The DSDs of the layers grown on planar GaAs on Si and on the mesa are more than 108 cm-2 and in the order of 107 cm-2, respectively. The dark-spot-free region exactly corresponds to the UCGAS part, showing that the UCGAS is quite effective to eliminate the defects in AlGaAs on Si. The two factors, the reduced stress and the absence of the GaAs/Si interface in the UCGAS, are thought to be responsible for this improvement.

  17. 256x256 HgCdTe MWIR array grown on GE substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanatta, Jean P.; Luchier, N.; Audebert, Patrick; Demars, P.; Chamonal, Jean Paul; Ravetto, Michel; Wolny, Michel

    1998-07-01

    A 256 X 256 IRCMOS array with a 35 micron pitch operating at 77 K in the MWIR range, has been developed using HgCdTe and CdTe layers grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on a germanium (Ge) heterosubstrate. The CdTe(211)B layer is first grown on a 2 inch diameter (211) oriented Ge wafer with a smooth surface morphology and good crystalline quality. The HgCdTe(211)B layer is also grown by M.B.E. on this CdTe/Ge heterosubstrate with the same quality. The material characteristics are detailed. The 256 X 256 photodiode array is made using the standard LETI/LIR planar n-on-p ion implanted technology. At 80 K, photodiodes exhibited an RoA figure of merit higher than 10(superscript 6) (Omega) cm(superscript 2) for a cut- off wavelength of 4.8 micrometer. An NEDT of 6 mK at 80 K was also obtained on the IRCMOS. The electro-optical characteristics of the component are presented and we show that the 256 X 256 component performances using HgCdTe grown on Ge heterosubstrate are comparable for MWIR applications to those obtained on 256 X 256 component using HgCdTe grown on CdZnTe homosubstrate.

  18. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Taweesak, Viyachai; Lee Abdullah, Thohirah; Hassan, Siti Aishah; Kamarulzaman, Nitty Hirawaty; Wan Yusoff, Wan Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White”) were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140?cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266?mL), 6 (400?mL), and 8 (533?mL) times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140?cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25?cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140?cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73?cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes. PMID:25478586

  19. Growth and flowering responses of cut chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume to irrigation frequency.

    PubMed

    Taweesak, Viyachai; Lee Abdullah, Thohirah; Hassan, Siti Aishah; Kamarulzaman, Nitty Hirawaty; Wan Yusoff, Wan Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium "Reagan White") were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm(3). Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL), 6 (400 mL), and 8 (533 mL) times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm(3) substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm(3) substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm(3) substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes. PMID:25478586

  20. Invulnerability of grown Peer-to-Peer networks under progressive targeted attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hao; Zhao, Dandan; Han, Jianmin; Lu, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    Security issues of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks have attracted more and more research in recent years. In this paper, using complex features of P2P networks, we shift the focus to the study of invulnerability of grown P2P networks under progressive targeted attacks. Based on dynamic process and reverse percolation theory, we present several mechanisms that attacked P2P networks can adopt to minimize the disasters aftermath progressive targeted attacks. In this process, we proposed: (i) the dynamics of grown P2P networks under targeted attacks can make sure an attacked P2P network restore a power-law (PL) characteristic to a normal level; (ii) a global degree restoring process from the aftermath of progressive targeted attacks can restore the status of set of high degree peers to normal; (iii) a reverse percolation process glues the fragmented small connected component of a destroyed grown P2P network into a giant connected component (GCC). Experimental results show that an attacked grown P2P network can restore the key characteristics, such as power-law characteristic of original P2P network, the set of high degree peers and the giant connected component, to a regular status. In this way, we can illustrate the invulnerability of progressive targeted attacks on grown P2P networks which is particularly useful in designing complex P2P networks.