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1

Influence of AM fungi on the growth and physiological status of Erythrina variegata Linn. grown under different water stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae on the growth and physiology state of Erythrina variegata Linn, grown in sandy loam soil with four water stress levels viz. ?0.06MPa (well watered\\/control), ?1.20MPa (mild), ?2.20MPa (moderate) and ?3.20MPa (severe) in a completely randomized design. Plants were harvested after 90 days (60 days after stress induction)

P. T. Manoharan; V. Shanmugaiah; N. Balasubramanian; S. Gomathinayagam; Mahaveer P. Sharma; K. Muthuchelian

2010-01-01

2

Structural requirements for the binding of oligosaccharides to immobilized lectin of Erythrina variegata (Linn) var. orientalis.  

PubMed

The structural requirements for the interaction of asparagine-linked oligosaccharide moieties of glycoproteins with Erythrina variegata agglutinin (EVA) were investigated by means of affinity chromatography on an EVA-Sepharose column. Some of the branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides obtained from human erythrocyte band 3 glycoprotein were found to show high affinity to EVA-Sepharose, whereas complex-type oligosaccharides were shown to have low affinity. Hybrid type, oligomannose-type and unbranched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides bound very little or not at all to EVA-Sepharose. To further study the carbohydrate-binding specificity of this lectin, we investigated the interaction of immobilized EVA and oligosaccharide fragments obtained through partial hydrolysis from branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides. Branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides were subjected to limited hydrolysis with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid at 100 degrees C for 40 min and then separated on an amino-bonded silica column. One of pentasaccharides thus prepared strongly bound to the EVA-Sepharose column. Structural analysis of this pentasaccharide showed that the Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3(Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6)Gal sugar sequence, which is an I-antigen determinant, was essential for the high affinity binding of the oligosaccharides to the EVA-Sepharose column. PMID:2136348

Li, H; Yamamoto, K; Kawashima, H; Osawa, T

1990-01-01

3

Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96) and significant (P ? 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ? 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ? 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity.

Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Arambewela, L. S. R.; Ratnasooriya, W. D.

2014-01-01

4

Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation  

PubMed Central

The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2?mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09??m2 to 35.66 ± 0.10??m2 and 142.90 ± 0.59??m2 to 165.05 ± 0.58??m2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period.

Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

2013-01-01

5

Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications  

SciTech Connect

Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Bah, Clara Shui Fern [Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago (New Zealand)] [Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago (New Zealand); Lin, Peng [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Tsao, Sai Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ng, Tzi Bun, E-mail: b021770@mailserv.cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)

2010-06-11

6

The zoophilic fruitfly Phortica variegata: morphology, ecology and biological niche.  

PubMed

Flies belonging to the subfamily Steganinae (Drosophilidae) display unusual zoophilic feeding habits at the adult and/or larval stage. Phortica variegata (Fallén) feeds on tears or eye liquid around the eyes of humans and carnivores. When feeding it is a potential vector of Thelazia callipaeda (Railliet and Henry) eyeworms. Adult and larval stages of this fly may be easily confused with other species belonging to the same genus, and little is known on the biology and ecology of P. variegata. In April-November 2005, a total of 969 P. variegata were collected in an area with a high prevalence of canine thelaziosis. The number of flies collected weekly was then related to climatic and environmental parameters (e.g. temperature, relative humidity and total rainfall) recorded daily at the collection site. The highest number of Phortica were collected during July-August. The sex ratio (number of males : females) rose from approximately 0.5 during May-July, to approximately 3.0 in August and 181 during September-October. Distributional data, representing 242 sites at which P. variegata has been collected in Europe, were analysed using a desktop implementation of the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) to model ecological requirements across Europe, as well as in Italy. P. variegata is shown to be mainly active at 20-25 degrees C and 50-75% RH. The ecological niche model suggests with a high degree of confidence that large areas of Europe are likely to represent suitable habitat for this species, mostly concentrated in central Europe. The results reported here contribute basic knowledge on the ecology and geographical distribution of P. variegata flies, which will be fundamental to gaining a better understanding of their role as vectors of human and animal pathogens. PMID:17199746

Otranto, D; Brianti, E; Cantacessi, C; Lia, R P; Máca, J

2006-12-01

7

Isolation and structure determination of a benzofuran and a bis-nor-isoprenoid from Aspergillus niger grown on the water soluble fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

The leaves of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new benzofuran and a bis-nor-isoprenoid, blumenol C, hitherto unreported from this source. The structures of these have been elucidated as 5-benzofuran carboxylic acid-6-formyl methyl ester (1) and 4-(3'(R)-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5, trimethyl-cyclohex-2-en-1-one (2) respectively through spectroscopic studies. The NMR data (including 1D, 2D techniques) and stereochemistry at C-3' of Compound 2 is also being reported for the first time. PMID:14526916

Siddiqui, Bina S; Ismail, Fouzia A Sattar; Gulzar, Tahsin; Begum, Sabira

2003-10-01

8

Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs.  

PubMed

General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO(2) levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO(2) and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1)) under two levels of CO(2) (360 and 860 ?L L(-1), respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO(2) than under ambient CO(2) for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1), the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO(2) was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient CO(2) with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO(2) significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in promoting utilization of CO(2) fertilization for improvement of phytoextraction of soils contaminated with radionuclides. PMID:22507353

Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

2012-10-01

9

Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.39±0.57g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.2±0.8g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively. Supersized LDs (5.95±1.02?m) accumulated maximum TAG in sonicated HSAE grown cells were visualized by fluorescent BODIPY (505/515nm) stain. GC-MS analysis revealed unique longer carbon chain FAME profile containing Arachidic acid (C20:0) 5%, Behenic acid (C22:0) 9.7%, Heptacosanoic acid (C27:0) 14.98%, for the first time in this yeast when grown on industrially competent sonicated HSAE, showing more similarity to algal oils. PMID:24746767

Patel, Alok; Pravez, Mohammad; Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Parul A

2014-08-01

10

Linn Cove Viaduct.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The film shows the construction of the Linn Cove Viaduct, part of the Blue Ridge Parkway. This bridge was built by an innovative construction method, which allowed it to be built from the top down without disturbing the landscape. It took four years to bu...

1994-01-01

11

Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Bishkhapra)  

PubMed Central

World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. is a herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal constituent of T. portulacastrum Linn. is ecdysterone and the other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2’-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. are traditionally used as analgesic, stomachic, laxative, treatment of blood disease, anemia, inflammation, and night blindness. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic. This article compiles all updated information related to T. portulacastrum Linn. Scientifically proved activities are co-related with traditional concepts. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. The novelty and applicability of T. portulacastrum are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concepts.

Shivhare, Manoj K.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

2012-01-01

12

Distribution and foraging behaviour of the Peruvian Booby ( Sula variegata ) off northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Peruvian Booby (Sula variegata) is one of the most numerous guano bird species in the Humboldt Current. We used a combination of data logger deployment,\\u000a at-sea observations and colony-based work to investigate the foraging and diving behaviour, as well as the at-sea distribution\\u000a and food choice of Peruvian Boobies breeding at Isla Pajaros, northern central Chile. Birds foraged in

Katrin Ludynia; Stefan Garthe; Guillermo Luna-Jorquera

2010-01-01

13

[Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of different shading (light transmittance 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) on the photosynthesis characteristics of two ornamental foliage plants Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata. After shading for six weeks, the net photosynthesis rates of two plants measured ex situ under natural light enhanced, compared to those measured in situ, and, with the increase of shading degree, the net photosynthetic rates had an increasing trend, with the maximum being 9.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Photinia x frasery and 8.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Aucuba japonica var. variegata. In the meantime, the transpiration rates of the two plants increased significantly. Shading increased the chlorophyll a, b, and a+b contents and the chlorophyll/carotenoids ratio, decreased the chlorophyll a/b, but less affected the carotenoids content. The phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegate was 2.08 and 3.21, and 0.55 and 1.60, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of the two plants were relatively stable, indicating the minor influence of external environment factors on pigments. Aucuba japonica var. variegata had a higher shading tolerance than Photinia x frasery. PMID:22007450

Zhang, Cong-ying; Fang, Yan-ming; Ji, Hong-li; Ma, Cheng-tao

2011-07-01

14

Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal with an intrinsically erratic food supply by virtue of its reproductive biology and social behavior.

Balko, E.A.; Underwood, H.B.

2005-01-01

15

(1S)-1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate: major sex pheromone component of Paulownia bagworm, Clania variegata.  

PubMed

The Paulownia bagworm, Clania variegata Snell. (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), is one of the most significant forest defoliators in China. In gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection analyses of pheromone gland extracts of female C. variegata on three GC columns (DB-5, DB-23, DB-210), two compounds (A and B) elicited strong responses from male antennae. The more abundant component B was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as 1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate by transesterification, GC-mass spectrometry (MS), and comparison of its spectral and GC retention characteristics with those of synthetic compounds. In field trapping experiments in China, racemic and (1S)-1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate [but not the (1R)-stereoisomer] attracted male C. variegata. The absolute configuration of B (a molecule with three chiral centers) and the structure of component A remain to be determined. PMID:16900424

Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Tan, Zhong-Xing; Zhao, Bo-Guang; Skip King, G G; Miroshnychenko, Aleksander; Lin, Guo-Qiang; Rhainds, Marc; Gries, Gerhard

2006-08-01

16

The estimation of selection coefficients in Afrikaners: Huntington disease, porphyria variegata, and lipoid proteinosis.  

PubMed Central

The effects of mutation, migration, random drift, and selection on the change in frequency of the alleles associated with Huntington disease, porphyria variegata, and lipoid proteinosis have been assessed in the Afrikaner population of South Africa. Although admixture cannot be completely discounted, it was possible to exclude migration and new mutation as major sources of changes in the frequency of these alleles by limiting analyses to pedigrees descendant from founding families. Calculations which overestimated the possible effect of random drift demonstrated that drift did not account for the observed changes in gene frequencies. Therefore these changes must have been caused by natural selection, and a coefficient of selection was estimated for each trait. For the rare, dominant, deleterious allele associated with Huntington disease, the coefficient of selection was estimated to be .34, indicating that this allele has a selective disadvantage, contrary to some recent studies. For the presumed dominant and probably deleterious allele associated with porphyria variegata, the coefficient of selection lies between .07 and .02. The coefficient of selection for the rare, clinically recessive allele associated with lipoid proteinosis was estimated to be .07. Calculations based on a model system indicate that the observed decrease in allele frequency cannot be explained solely on the basis of selection against the homozygote. Thus, this may be an example of a pleiotropic gene which has a dominant effect in terms of selection even though its known clinical effect is recessive.

Stine, O C; Smith, K D

1990-01-01

17

Feleucins: Novel Bombinin Precursor-Encoded Nonapeptide Amides from the Skin Secretion of Bombina variegata  

PubMed Central

The first amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide (AMP) to be identified was named bombinin, reflecting its origin from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata). Bombinins and their related peptides, the bombinin Hs, were subsequently reported from other bombinid toads. Molecular cloning of bombinin-encoding cDNAs from skin found that bombinins and bombinin Hs were coencoded on the same precursor proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning of two novel cDNAs from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library of B. variegata whose open-reading frames each encode a novel bombinin (GIGGALLNVGKVALKGLAKGLAEHFANamide) and a C-terminally located single copy of a novel nonapeptide (FLGLLGGLLamide or FLGLIGSLLamide). These novel nonapeptides were named feleucin-BV1 and feleucin-BV2, respectively. The novel bombinin exhibited 89% identity to homologues from the toads, B. microdeladigitora and B. maxima. The feleucins exhibited no identity with any amphibian AMP archived in databases. Synthetic feleucins exhibited a weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus (128–256?mg/L) but feleucin-BV1 exhibited a synergistic action with the novel bombinin. The present report clearly demonstrates that the skin secretions of bombinid toads continue to represent a source of peptides of novel structure that could provide templates for the design of therapeutics.

Bai, Bing; Hou, Xiaojuan; Duan, Jinao

2014-01-01

18

Antibacterial and haemolytic peptides containing D-alloisoleucine from the skin of Bombina variegata.  

PubMed Central

A family of bombinin-related peptides is present in the skin of Bombina variegata. These peptides contain 27 residues with Gly as N-terminus and display antimicrobial activity. From sequence analysis of the cDNAs encoding for the corresponding peptide precursors, the presence of a novel 20-residue peptide with Ile as N-terminus was predicted. We have now purified a family of hydrophobic peptides named H1-H5, whose sequences correspond to the predicted peptide with some variability in positions 1, 2 and 8. In particular, H3-H5 contain a D-alloisoleucine residue in the second position. All these peptides display antibacterial and haemolytic activity.

Mignogna, G; Simmaco, M; Kreil, G; Barra, D

1993-01-01

19

Semecarpus anacardium Linn.: A review  

PubMed Central

Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Family: Anacardiaceae), commonly known ‘Ballataka’ or ‘Bhilwa’, has been used in various traditional system of medicines for various ailments since ancient times. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which show various medicinal properties. The fruit and nut extract shows various activities like antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-reproductive, CNS stimulant, hypoglycemic, anticarcinogenic and hair growth promoter. The article reviews the various activities of the plant.

Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Badola, Ashutosh; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, M. S. M.

2010-01-01

20

Seasonal variations of bromophenols in brown algae (Padina arborescens, Sargassum siliquastrum, and Lobophora variegata) collected in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Distributions and seasonal variations of the key seafood flavor compounds including 2-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, 2,6-dibromophenol, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol in three species of brown algae (Padina arborescens, Sargassum siliquastrum, and Lobophora variegata) found in Hong Kong waters were investigated. Bromophenols were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On a dried weight basis, the total bromophenol content (TBC) determined varied widely with seasons (from 40.9 to 7030 ng/g). The TBCs detected were higher in winter and lower in summer. Except for 2-bromophenol, the rest of the bromophenols were detected in all of the algal samples. The TBC of L. variegata was generally the highest among all of the algae collected. Relatively high concentrations of bromophenols in algae supported the fact that marine algae were major producers of bromophenols in the marine environment. PMID:12696947

Chung, Hau Yin; Ma, Wing Chi Joyce; Ang, Put O; Kim, Joo-Shin; Chen, Feng

2003-04-23

21

Growth and cesium uptake responses of Phytolacca americana Linn. and Amaranthus cruentus L. grown on cesium contaminated soil to elevated CO2 or inoculation with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54, or in combination.  

PubMed

Growth and cesium uptake responses of plants to elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, can be explored for clean-up of contaminated soils, and this induced phytoextraction may be better than the natural process. The present study used open-top chambers to investigate combined effects of Burkholderia sp. D54 inoculation and elevated CO(2) (860 ?L L(-1)) on growth and Cs uptake by Phytolacca americana and Amaranthus cruentus grown on soil spiked with various levels of Cs (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). Elevated CO(2) and bacterial inoculation, alone or in combination, significantly increased biomass production with increased magnitude, ranging from 22% to 139% for P. americana, and 14% to 254% for A. cruentus. Total tissue Cs in both plants was significantly greater for bacterial inoculation treatment singly, and combined treatments of bacterial inoculation and elevated CO(2) than for the control treatment in most cases. Regardless of CO(2) concentrations and bacterial inoculation, A. cruentus had higher tissue Cs concentration, Cs transfer factors and concentration ratios than P. americana, but they had slightly different contents of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that combined effects of elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation with regard to plant ability to grow and remove radionuclides from soil can be explored for CO(2)- and microbe-assisted phytoextraction technology. PMID:22074893

Tang, Shirong; Liao, Shangqiang; Guo, Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Ruigang; Zhou, Xiaomin

2011-12-30

22

The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley: A Prospective Bioindicator for Ag Contamination in Tropical Coastal Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved silver were determined in the brown alga Lobophora variegata, using radiotracer techniques. Results indicate that this widely distributed alga could be a useful bioindicator species\\u000a for surveying silver contamination in tropical environments. Indeed, results showed that the alga readily concentrates silver\\u000a (algal concentration of silver was 7,000 times higher than in water after a

Marc Metian; Michel Warnau

2008-01-01

23

Identification of fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn.: A pharmacognostical approach.  

PubMed

Gokshura is a well-known Ayurvedic drug that is used in many preparations. Botonically it is identified as Tribulus terrestris Linn., especially the roots and fruits of the plant. But instead the fruits of another plant Pedalium murex Linn. are commonly used and the drug is frequently substituted. Pharmacognostical study has been carried out to identify the distinguishing features, both morphological and microscopic, of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn. This knowledge should help reduce the problem of substitution of the genuine drug. PMID:22661853

Kevalia, Jignesh; Patel, Bhupesh

2011-10-01

24

Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of hydro-ethanolic extracts from Bauhinia forficata subsp. pruinosa and B. variegata.  

PubMed

Bauhinia species are known to have hypoglycemiant and antioxidant activities. Here, hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts from Bauhinia forficata subsp. pruinosa and Bauhinia variegata, collected in a Pampa biome region of Brazil, were investigated to characterize their chromatographic profile, flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activity (TBARS and DPH assays). The extracts were obtained from dried and fresh leaves. The total flavonoid content was assessed by spectrophotometric determination, and the results ranged between 572.08 and 1,102.99 ?g mL-1. Moreover, flavonoids were more predominant in B. variegata than in B. forficata subsp. pruinosa. HPLC analysis detected a complex profile of phenolic compounds, being the flavonoid kaempferitrin founded B. forficata subsp. pruinosa; in addition, other kaempferol and quercetin derivatives were present. In vitro antioxidant assays demonstrated a different behavior depending on the species, leaf treatment and extract concentration. In general, B. variegata extracts obtained from fresh material presented higher antioxidant potential, which can be attributed to the predominance of flavonoids in their chemical composition. PMID:23567828

Sayago, Carla T M; Camargo, Vanessa B; Barbosa, F; Gularte, Cláudia; Pereira, Geovana; Miotto, Silvia; Cechinel Filho, V; Luiz Puntel, R; Folmer, V; Mendez, A

2013-03-01

25

Phortica variegata as an intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda under natural conditions: evidence for pathogen transmission by a male arthropod vector.  

PubMed

Knowledge about Phortica variegata (Drosophilidae, Steganinae), the intermediate host of the eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), is confined to experimental studies. To investigate the role P. variegata plays in the transmission of T. callipaeda under natural conditions, the population dynamics of these flies in the natural environment and their feeding preferences (on vegetables and/or animal lachrymal secretions) were examined. From April to November 2005, a total number of 969 (557 males and 412 females) P. variegata flies were collected weekly in a region of southern Italy with a history of canine thelaziosis. The flies were identified and dissected or subjected to a PCR assay specific for a region within the ribosomal ITS-1 DNA of T. callipaeda. The zoophilic preferences of P. variegata were assessed by collecting flies around the eyes of a person or around a fruit bait. Seven hundred and twenty flies (398 males and 322 females) were dissected under a stereomicroscope; 249 flies (158 males and 91 females) that died prior to the dissection were subjected to molecular investigation. Only P. variegata males were infected with larval T. callipaeda both at dissection (six, 0.83%) and with the specific PCR (seven, 2.81%), representing a total percentage of 1.34% flies infected. Interestingly, only males were collected around the eyes, compared with a male/female ratio of 1:4 around the fruit. This survey indicated that P. variegata males act as intermediate hosts of T. callipaeda under natural conditions in Europe. Both the zoophilic behaviour of P. variegata males on lachrymal secretions and their role as vector of T. callipaeda have been discussed as they represent a peculiarity in medical and veterinary entomology. The synchrony between the fly population dynamics and the biology of the nematode in the definitive host provides an interesting model for exploring the co-evolution of Thelazia spp. with their hosts. PMID:16842795

Otranto, D; Cantacessi, C; Testini, G; Lia, R P

2006-09-01

26

Semecarpus anacardium Linn.: A review.  

PubMed

Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Family: Anacardiaceae), commonly known 'Ballataka' or 'Bhilwa', has been used in various traditional system of medicines for various ailments since ancient times. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which show various medicinal properties. The fruit and nut extract shows various activities like antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-reproductive, CNS stimulant, hypoglycemic, anticarcinogenic and hair growth promoter. The article reviews the various activities of the plant. PMID:22228947

Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Badola, Ashutosh; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, M S M

2010-01-01

27

Paragyrodactylus variegatus n. sp. (Gyrodactylidae) from Homatula variegata (Dabry De Thiersant, 1874) (Nemacheilidae) in Central China.  

PubMed

Abstract :? Paragyrodactylus variegatus n. sp. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) is described from the fins and body surface of Homatula variegata (Dabry de Thiersant, 1874) living in cold-water streams in the Qinling Mountains of central China. It represents the third known species in the genus, with all species parasitizing Asian river loaches (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae). The new species resembles most closely Paragyrodactylus iliensis Gvosdev and Martechov, 1953 , but is diagnosed by its marginal hooks being longer than 19 ?m, a sickle longer than 4 ?m, a sickle aperture shorter than the sickle distal width, and absence of a ventromedial indentation in the haptoral accessory hard part. Scanning electron microscopy reveals a central foramen in the haptoral accessory hard part, and small knob-like protuberances on the heel and toe of the marginal hook sickle. A partial 18S (448 bp) and complete ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 (1,139 bp) rDNA sequences are provided. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 18S gene, which included all sequenced genera of the Gyrodactylidae, suggests P. variegatus n. sp. is basal within Gyrodactylus sensu lato. It is proposed that the genus is a relict freshwater lineage parasitizing river loaches in the mountain plateaus of central Asia. PMID:24383574

You, Ping; King, Stanley D; Ye, Fei; Cone, David K

2014-06-01

28

Polysaccharides extraction from Erythirna variegata, chemical characterization and its antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for extracting crude polysaccharides from the bark of Erythirna variegata (EVP) using response surface methodology (RSM). The quantitative effects of extraction time, temperature and the ratio of water to raw material on EVP yields were investigated using Box-Behnken experimental design. The monosaccharide composition was analyzed by 1-phenyl-3-methy-5-pyrazolone pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography, and the molecular weight was measured by high performance gel permeation chromatography. The antioxidant activities were also evaluated. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the data, the optimum conditions were obtained as follows: extracting time 1.52h, extraction temperature 91.40°C, and the ratio of water to raw material at 24.78. Under these conditions, the experiment yield was 2.064%, which well agreed with the predicted value. Chemical composition analysis indicated that EVP was mainly composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the mean molecular weight of the two major fractions was about 26.8kDa and 5.5kDa, respectively. EVP had strong scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, potential reducing power and total antioxidant activity. This study provides a scientific basis for the use of this herb in traditional medicine as an antioxidant. PMID:24832984

Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Yuanming; Sun, Zhenliang; Feng, Jing; Wang, Yingzi

2014-07-01

29

Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal\\u000a activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Geetha Gopalakrishnan

2008-01-01

30

Arsenic uptake by two vegetables grown in two soils amended with As-bearing animal manures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organoarsenicals are widely used as growth promoters in animal feed, resulting in unabsorbed arsenic (As) left in animal manures. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the growth and As uptake of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor Linn, a crop with an axial root system) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, a crop with a fibrous root system) grown in a paddy

Li-Xian Yao; Guo-Liang Li; Zhi Dang; Zhao-Huan He; Chang-Min Zhou; Bao-Mei Yang

2009-01-01

31

Sex ratio affects sex-specific innovation and learning in captive ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and Varecia rubra).  

PubMed

Recent years have witnessed extensive research into problem solving and innovation in primates, yet lemurs have not been subjected to the same level of attention as apes and monkeys, and the social context in which novel behavior appears has rarely been considered. We gave novel foraging puzzlebox devices to seven groups of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and Varecia rubra) to examine the factors affecting rates of innovation and social learning. We found, across a range of group sex ratios, that animals of the less-represented sex were more likely to contact and solve the puzzlebox sooner than those of the more-represented sex. We established that while some individuals were able to solve the puzzleboxes there was no evidence of social learning. Our findings are consistent with previously reported male deference as a sexual strategy, but we conclude that the need for male deference diminishes when, within a group, males are rare. PMID:21898514

Dean, Lewis G; Hoppitt, William; Laland, Kevin N; Kendal, Rachel L

2011-12-01

32

Sample Limited Characterization of a Novel Disulfide-Rich Venom Peptide Toxin from Terebrid Marine Snail Terebra variegata.  

PubMed

Disulfide-rich peptide toxins found in the secretions of venomous organisms such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, leeches, and marine snails are highly efficient and effective tools for novel therapeutic drug development. Venom peptide toxins have been used extensively to characterize ion channels in the nervous system and platelet aggregation in haemostatic systems. A significant hurdle in characterizing disulfide-rich peptide toxins from venomous animals is obtaining significant quantities needed for sequence and structural analyses. Presented here is a strategy for the structural characterization of venom peptide toxins from sample limited (4 ng) specimens via direct mass spectrometry sequencing, chemical synthesis and NMR structure elucidation. Using this integrated approach, venom peptide Tv1 from Terebra variegata was discovered. Tv1 displays a unique fold not witnessed in prior snail neuropeptides. The novel structural features found for Tv1 suggest that the terebrid pool of peptide toxins may target different neuronal agents with varying specificities compared to previously characterized snail neuropeptides. PMID:24713808

Anand, Prachi; Grigoryan, Alexandre; Bhuiyan, Mohammed H; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Russell, Victoria; Quinoñez, Jose; Moy, Patrick; Chait, Brian T; Poget, Sébastien F; Holford, Mandë

2014-01-01

33

Sample Limited Characterization of a Novel Disulfide-Rich Venom Peptide Toxin from Terebrid Marine Snail Terebra variegata  

PubMed Central

Disulfide-rich peptide toxins found in the secretions of venomous organisms such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, leeches, and marine snails are highly efficient and effective tools for novel therapeutic drug development. Venom peptide toxins have been used extensively to characterize ion channels in the nervous system and platelet aggregation in haemostatic systems. A significant hurdle in characterizing disulfide-rich peptide toxins from venomous animals is obtaining significant quantities needed for sequence and structural analyses. Presented here is a strategy for the structural characterization of venom peptide toxins from sample limited (4 ng) specimens via direct mass spectrometry sequencing, chemical synthesis and NMR structure elucidation. Using this integrated approach, venom peptide Tv1 from Terebra variegata was discovered. Tv1 displays a unique fold not witnessed in prior snail neuropeptides. The novel structural features found for Tv1 suggest that the terebrid pool of peptide toxins may target different neuronal agents with varying specificities compared to previously characterized snail neuropeptides.

Anand, Prachi; Grigoryan, Alexandre; Bhuiyan, Mohammed H.; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Russell, Victoria; Quinonez, Jose; Moy, Patrick; Chait, Brian T.; Poget, Sebastien F.; Holford, Mande

2014-01-01

34

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharides from Lobophora variegata on zymosan-induced arthritis in rats.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the action of sulfated polysaccharides, fucans, from algae Lobophora variegata on zymosan-induced arthritis in rats. Groups of fucans, obtained after acetone fractionation (0.3-2.0 volumes), were denominated F0.3, F0.5, F0.8, F1, F1.5, and F2. The results that F1 contained a high yield in relation to other fractionated fucans. Chemical and structure analysis of F1 was performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopies. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the fraction F1 were also observed. Thus, 2 mg/mL of F1 inhibited the phosphomolybdate in the total antioxidant activity assay. The EC(50) values were 0.3 mg/mL and 0.12 mg/mL for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Fucan F1 (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg by body weight), diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg), and L-NAME (25 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in rats, according to body weight of different groups of animals (n=6). After 6 h, analyses of cell influx and nitrite levels were conducted. Then after 96 h, analysis of edema and concentration of serum TNF-? was carried out along with histopathological analysis. F1 at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg i.p. by body weight reduced cell influx in 52.1-96.7% and nitric oxide level in 27.2-39% compared with the control group. The reduction of edema and serum TNF-? was observed at 50 mg/kg i.p. (p<0.001). These results suggest that this heterofucan from the brown algae L. variegata has potential anti-inflammatory activity in acute zymosan-induced arthritis in rats and that antioxidant activity promotes modulation in the cellular redox state. PMID:21504801

Paiva, Almino Afonso de O; Castro, Allisson J G; Nascimento, Marília S; Will, Luiza Sheyla E P; Santos, Nednaldo D; Araújo, Renata M; Xavier, Caroline A C; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Leite, Edda Lisboa

2011-09-01

35

Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata)  

PubMed Central

Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow is maintained among remnant populations will help to diagnose and target conservation priorities. We sampled 209 individuals from 19 sites throughout the remaining V. variegata range. We used 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and ?550 bp of mtDNA sequence data to evaluate genetic structure and population dynamics, including dispersal patterns and recent population declines. Bayesian cluster analyses identified two distinct genetic clusters, which optimally partitioned data into populations occurring on either side of the Mangoro River. Localities north of the Mangoro were characterized by greater genetic diversity, greater gene flow (lower genetic differentiation) and higher mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity than those in the south. Despite this, genetic differentiation across all sites was high, as indicated by high average FST (0.247) and ?ST (0.544), and followed a pattern of isolation-by-distance. We use these results to suggest future conservation strategies that include an effort to maintain genetic diversity in the north and restore connectivity in the south. We also note the discordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and current subspecies taxonomy, and encourage a re-evaluation of conservation management units moving forward.

Baden, Andrea L; Holmes, Sheila M; Johnson, Steig E; Engberg, Shannon E; Louis, Edward E; Bradley, Brenda J

2014-01-01

36

Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata).  

PubMed

Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow is maintained among remnant populations will help to diagnose and target conservation priorities. We sampled 209 individuals from 19 sites throughout the remaining V. variegata range. We used 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and ?550 bp of mtDNA sequence data to evaluate genetic structure and population dynamics, including dispersal patterns and recent population declines. Bayesian cluster analyses identified two distinct genetic clusters, which optimally partitioned data into populations occurring on either side of the Mangoro River. Localities north of the Mangoro were characterized by greater genetic diversity, greater gene flow (lower genetic differentiation) and higher mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity than those in the south. Despite this, genetic differentiation across all sites was high, as indicated by high average F ST (0.247) and ?ST (0.544), and followed a pattern of isolation-by-distance. We use these results to suggest future conservation strategies that include an effort to maintain genetic diversity in the north and restore connectivity in the south. We also note the discordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and current subspecies taxonomy, and encourage a re-evaluation of conservation management units moving forward. PMID:25077019

Baden, Andrea L; Holmes, Sheila M; Johnson, Steig E; Engberg, Shannon E; Louis, Edward E; Bradley, Brenda J

2014-07-01

37

Taxonomic revision of the Australian arid zone lizards Gehyra variegata and G. montium (Squamata, Gekkonidae) with description of three new species.  

PubMed

The taxonomy of central Australian populations of geckos of the genus Gehyra has been uncertain since chromosomal studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s revealed considerable heterogeneity and apparently independent patterns of morphological and karyotypic diversity. Following detailed molecular genetic studies, species boundaries in this complex have become clearer and we here re-set the boundaries of the three named species involved, G. variegata (Duméril & Bibron, 1836), G. montium Storr, 1982, and G. nana King, 1982, and describe three new species. Two of the new species, G. moritzi and G. pulingka, include populations formerly assigned to either G. montium or G. nana Storr, 1982, while the third, G. versicolor, includes all of the eastern Australian populations formerly assigned to G. variegata. PMID:24943424

Hutchinson, Mark N; Sistrom, Mark J; Donnellan, Stephen C; Hutchinson, Rhonda G

2014-01-01

38

Studies on the antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted lime-juice. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger singly did not inhibit any

2004-01-01

39

Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry  

PubMed Central

Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus.

Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

2013-01-01

40

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review  

PubMed Central

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant.

Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, B. G.; Rana, D. G.

2010-01-01

41

Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties  

PubMed Central

Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action.

Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

2011-01-01

42

Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties.  

PubMed

Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action. PMID:22096323

Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

2011-01-01

43

Design and Construction of the Linn Cove Viaduct.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A documentation of the design and construction of Linn Cove Viaduct. A discussion of the environmental aspects, design specifications, design procedures, and details are included. The environmental restrictions dictated a design and construction methodolo...

J. M. Barker K. Hall G. Klinedinst

1985-01-01

44

ON PHILIPPINE MOSQUITOES, XVIII. SPECIES FEEDING ON ' NECTARS OF MANGIFERA INDKA LINN. AND SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA (LINN.) PERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report on nectar feeding and possible chromatopism of some mos- quito species, viz., Culex bitaeniorhynchus Giles, Ck fiscanus Wiedemann, Cu. quinquefasciatus Say, Mansonia annulifera (Theobald), and M. uniformis (Theobald) feeding on mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) and \\

45

Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials.  

PubMed

The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural products are cheap and claimed to be safe. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) is a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. It is used for flavouring food, a beverage drink, as well as in cosmetics; in folk.medicine it is used as an antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhoea, in relieving respiratory disorders and to stimulate growth of hair. Extract of rosemary relaxes smooth muscles of trachea and intestine, and has choleretic, hepatoprotective and antitumerogenic activity. The most important constituents of rosemary are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These compounds have antioxidant effect. The phenolic compound, rosmarinic acid, obtains one of its phenolic rings from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Relatively large-scale production of rosmarinic acid can be obtained from the cell culture of Coleus blumei Benth when supplied exogenously with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and from the skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and inhibits the complement system. It is concluded that rosemary and its constituents especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid have a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility. PMID:10641130

al-Sereiti, M R; Abu-Amer, K M; Sen, P

1999-02-01

46

Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium.  

PubMed

Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8) was determined. PMID:23662136

Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Chin Chin, Sieo; Hamid, Muhajir

2013-01-01

47

Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8) was determined.

Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Chin Chin, Sieo; Hamid, Muhajir

2013-01-01

48

Diuretic activity of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn.  

PubMed

Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. is a well documented plant. The present study is done to establish the diuretic activity of the water-soluble portions of the ethanolic extracts of its flowers, barks, seeds and leaves. In toxicity study, the extracts were seen to be safe up to the dose of 2.0 gm/kg. For the estimation of diuretic activity, the parameters studied were total urine volume and urine concentration of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-). The ethanolic extracts of different plant parts of Nyctanthes arbortristis L. possess significant diuretic activity as reflected by rise in urine volume with cation excretion. The ethanolic extracts of the seeds and leaves at their higher doses exhibited higher electrolyte excretion. PMID:22557264

Sasmal, D; Das, Sanjita; Basu, S P

2007-10-01

49

Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant

Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

2010-01-01

50

Pharmacognostic evaluation of Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) leaf  

PubMed Central

Objective To present a detailed pharmacognostic study of the leaf of Cayratia trifolia (C. trifolia) Linn. (Vitaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods The macroscopy, microscopy, physiochemical analysis, preliminary testing, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other WHO recommended methods for standardization were investigated. Results Leaves are trifoliolated with petioles (2–3 cm) long. Leaflets are ovate to oblong-ovate, (2–8 cm) long, (1.5–5 cm) wide, pointed at the tip. The leaf surface shows the anisocytic type stomata covered with guard cells followed by epidermis layer. Leaf surface contents including veins, vein islet and vein termination were also determined. Transverse section of leaf shows the epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer and vascular bandles (xylem and phloem). The mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Abundant covering trichomes emerge from the upper epidermis. Trichomes are uniseriate and multicellular. Strips of collenchyma are present below and upper layer of epidermis. Conclusions It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of the C. trifolia is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.

Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Jyoti; Kumar, Sunil; Arya, Renu; Kumar, Tarun; Gupta, Ankit

2012-01-01

51

Peptide IC-20, encoded by skin kininogen-1 of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, antagonizes bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objectives were to determine if the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata), in common with other related species, contains a bradykinin inhibitor peptide and to isolate and structurally characterize this peptide. Materials and Methods: Lyophilized skin secretion obtained from this toad was subjected to reverse phase HPLC fractionation with subsequent bioassay of fractions for antagonism of the bradykinin activity using an isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle preparation. Subsequently, the primary structure of the peptide was established by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectroscopy, and molecular cloning, following which a synthetic replicate was chemically synthesised for bioassay. Results: A single peptide of molecular mass 2300.92 Da was resolved in HPLC fractions of skin secretion and its primary structure determined as IYNAIWP-KH-NK-KPGLL-. Database interrogation with this sequence indicated that this peptide was encoded by skin kininogen-1 previously cloned from B. variegata. The blank cycles were occupied by cysteinyl (C) residues and the peptide was located toward the C-terminus of the skin kininogen, and flanked N-terminally by a classical –KR- propeptide convertase processing site. The peptide was named IC-20 in accordance (I = N-terminal isoleucine, C = C-terminal cysteine, 20 = number of residues). Like the natural peptide, its synthetic replicate displayed an antagonism of bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation. Conclusion: IC-20 represents a novel bradykinin antagonizing peptide from amphibian skin secretions and is the third such peptide found to be co-encoded with bradykinins within skin kininogens.

Yang, Mu; Zhou, Mei; Bai, Bing; Ma, Chengbang; Wei, Le; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

2011-01-01

52

Strategic Planning for Linn-Benton Community College: President's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers explores various aspects of strategic planning at Linn-Benton Community College (LBCC). First, an overview is presented, clarifying what strategic planning is not and describing the strategic planning at LBCC and its objectives (i.e., to develop a plan utilizing community and internal assessments that can be developed…

Gonzales, Thomas; Keyser, John

53

Antifertility efficacy of the plant Aristolochia indica linn on mouse.  

PubMed

Two compounds isolated from the alcoholic extract of the roots of Aristolochia indica Linn were tested on day 6 pregnant mice. One of the compounds, p-coumaric acid showed 100% interceptive activity at the single oral dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight. The antifertility efficacy of these two compounds is discussed. PMID:477316

Pakrashi, A; Pakrasi, P

1979-07-01

54

Pedalium murex Linn.: An overview of its phytopharmacological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like, cough, cold and as an antiseptic. Interestingly, P. murex is reported traditionally to have an

Dinesh Kumar Patel; Damiki Laloo; Rajesh Kumar; Siva Hemalatha

2011-01-01

55

138. Linn Cove Viaduct. View of the Tanawha trail and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

138. Linn Cove Viaduct. View of the Tanawha trail and underneath of the viaduct. Shape of the piers was designed to provide aesthetic sense of light and shadow. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

56

Actividades citotóxicas y antibacterianas de las raíces de Capparis zeylanica Linn Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Capparis zeylanica Linn Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts and a fatty acid, octadec-7-en-5-ynoic acid (1), from the root bark of Capparis zeylanica Linn. (Fam. Capparidaceae) were screened for their antibacterial activities against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Among the crude extracts, chloroform extract showed good activity against all test organisms. The fatty acid (1) isola- ted from chloroform extract exhibited antibacterial activities against test organisms

HAQUE M; RAHMAN MM; KHONDKAR P

57

Efecto del extracto de metanol de Achyranthes aspera linn. sobre la hepatotoxicidad inducida por rifampicina en ratas Effect of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera linn. On rifampicin- induced hepatotoxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT Methanol extract of aerial parts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae) was tested for its effect on Methanol extract of aerial parts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae) was tested for its effect on Methanol extract of aerial parts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae) was tested for its effect on Methanol extract of aerial parts

BAFNA AR; MISHRA SH

58

Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn).  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated hyperglycemic group and group C was A. muricata-treated group. Hyperglycemia was induced in groups B and C by a single intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with equivalent volume of citrate buffer and all the animals were monitored for four weeks. Daily intra peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg A. muricata was administered to group C rats for two weeks and the animals were monitored for another two weeks. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed a mean body weight of 206 +/- 7.74 g, 173.29+/-5.13 g and 197 +/- 5.62 g respectively for the control, untreated diabetic and A. muricata-treated diabetic group, and a mean blood glucose concentration of 3.78 +/- 0.190 mmol/L, 21.64 +/- 2.229 mmol/L and 4.22 +/- 0.151 mmol/L for the control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic groups respectively. A significant difference exists between the blood glucose concentrations of treated and untreated hyperglycemic groups of rats. The result of this study demonstrated that A. muricata possesses anti-hyperglycemic activities. PMID:20162043

Adeyemi, David Olawale; Komolafe, Omobola Aderibigbe; Adewole, Olarinde Stephen; Obuotor, Efere Martins; Adenowo, Thomas Kehinde

2008-01-01

59

Effets hypotensifs de l'extrait au méthanol de Bidens pilosa Linn chez les rats hypertendus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bidens pilosa Linn is highly regarded in some parts of Cameroon in traditional folk medical pratices. The hypotensive effects of the leaf methanol extract from Bidens pilosa Linn (Asteraceae) were evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), salt-loading hypertensive rats (SLHR) and normotensive Wistar rats (NTR) using the indirect (tail-cuff) method. Acute changes in urine volume and urinary excretion of Na+

Théophile Dimo; Télesphore Benoît Nguelefack; Pierre Kamtchouing; Étienne Dongo; Alice Rakotonirina; Silvère V. Rakotonirina

1999-01-01

60

A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)  

EPA Science Inventory

We disagree with Mr. Linn?s interpretation of our paper, ?High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness?.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

61

Effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata, Gliricidia sepium or Leucaena leucocephala on feed intake and digestibility by goats.  

PubMed

Two 4 x 4 Latin square design experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, four mature Anglo-Nubian x Fiji local goats, pre-experimental body weight 25.0 +/- 0.6 kg, 22-24 months old, were used to study the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata (EV), Gliricidia sepium (GS) and Leucaena leucocephala (LL) on dry matter intake (DMI) and nutrient digestibility. Maize stover treated with urea was used as a control diet. E. variegata was higher in crude protein content than LL or GS. The DMI of the urea treated stover diet was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of the diets of untreated stover supplemented with forage legumes. The DMI was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the GS diet than in the EV or LL diets. Significant (p < 0.05) differences existed between the urea-treated stover and the diets of stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), organic matter (OM) and energy. In experiment 2, four mature goats, pre-experimental body weight 27.0 +/- 0.3 kg, 24-28 months old, were used to measure their response when the urea-treated maize stover and the maize stover and forage legume diets were sprayed with molasses. The intake of the urea-treated stover diet sprayed with molasses was significantly lower (p < 0.05) that that of the maize stover/forage legume diets sprayed with molasses. The DMI of the diets improved with the addition of molasses. The DMI among the goats offered the maize stover/forage legume diets + molasses did not differ significantly. (p > 0.05). Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were obtained in this second study between the urea-treated stover and the stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, OM and energy. The stover supplemented with forage legumes had a higher (p < 0.05) nutrient digestibility. The present studies demonstrated that the use of forage legumes as protein supplements improved the feed quality of maize stover in the diets of mature goats. It is suggested that molasses should be sprayed on fresh leaves of Gliricicia sepium and other forage legumes that are initially rejected, in order to improve acceptance and DMI when fed to ruminant animals in confinement or in a cut-and-carry system of production. PMID:14998316

Aregheore, E M; Perera, D

2004-02-01

62

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

63

256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway construction within its length. With is super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time. Looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

64

Safety evaluation of ambrette ( Abelmoschus moschatus linn) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of ambrette (Abelmoschus moschatus Linn), after selective extraction of fragrance from the seed coat, are flaked and extracted with hexane to obtain a fatty\\u000a oil. The FA composition and iodine value of the oil indicate it possesses saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated\\u000a FA in ratios close to the recommendations of the United Nations World Health Organization; these characteristics make

Y. R. Rao; K. S. Jena; D. Sahoo; P. K. Rout; Shakir Ali

2005-01-01

65

Chemical constituents and biological studies of Origanum vulgare Linn.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided isolation of methanolic extract of the leaves of Origanum vulgare Linn., yielded two protocatechuic acid ester derivatives, origanol A (1) and origanol B (2) along with ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), ?-sitosterol (5), and triacontanol (6). Structures of the compound were established based on physical and spectral data (UV, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass). Origanol A (1) showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity. PMID:21772760

Venkateswara Rao, Gottumukkala; Mukhopadhyay, T; Annamalai, T; Radhakrishnan, N; Sahoo, M R

2011-04-01

66

STUDIES OF PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILES OF DANSONIA DIGITATA linn.  

PubMed

The macroscopic characters of the whole plant, physical constant values, extractive values, preliminary phyto-chemical tests, fluorescence characters under ultra-violet light after treatment with different reagents of the powdered leaves form the tree of Adansonia digitata linn., [Bombacaceae] were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the methanolic extract of the plant was also performed. These studies will help in identification of this plant for further research. PMID:22557153

Vijayakirubha, T; Ramprasath, D; Karunambigai, K; Nagavalli, D; Hemalatha, S

2004-10-01

67

STUDIES OF PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILES OF DANSONIA DIGITATA linn.  

PubMed Central

The macroscopic characters of the whole plant, physical constant values, extractive values, preliminary phyto-chemical tests, fluorescence characters under ultra-violet light after treatment with different reagents of the powdered leaves form the tree of Adansonia digitata linn., [Bombacaceae] were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the methanolic extract of the plant was also performed. These studies will help in identification of this plant for further research.

Vijayakirubha, T; Ramprasath, D; Karunambigai, K; Nagavalli, D; Hemalatha, S

2004-01-01

68

Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (G. mangostana) (pericarp) in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Methods 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp) at the concentrations of 12µg/mL (IC50 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) and 30 µg/mL (IC90 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%) for 12 h. Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS. Results At the IC50 concentration, about 82% of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control (non-exposed), while at the IC90 concentration, only 15% matched proteins were found. The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12 µg/mL were identified as enzymes that play role in glycolysis pathway, i.e., phosphoglycerate mutase putative, L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglycerate kinase. The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30 µg/mL of the extract. Conclusions Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp).

Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Thiengsusuk, Artitiya; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Ward, Stephen Andrew; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2014-01-01

69

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases. PMID:24811803

Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

2014-05-01

70

Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae)  

PubMed Central

This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.

Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

2012-01-01

71

Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids from Lantana camara LINN.  

PubMed

Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids, namely lantanoic acid (1) and camaranoic acid (2), and six known compounds such as lantic acid, camarinic acid, camangeloyl acid, camarinin, oleanonic acid, and ursonic acid were isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara LINN. Structures of the new constituents were elucidated by chemical transformation and spectral studies including 1D ((1)H- and (13)C-NMR) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), (1)H-(1)H total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), J-resolved, (1)H-detected heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC)) NMR spectroscopy. PMID:18758109

Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

2008-09-01

72

Chemical composition of essential oil from Calligonum polygonoides Linn.  

PubMed

The essential oil from air dried buds and roots of Calligonum polygonoides Linn., has been extracted from dry steam distillation and analysed for chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 10 compounds were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, accounting for 68.42% and 82.12% total contents of the essential oils of buds and roots, respectively. It contains a complex mixture of terpenoids, hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, acid derivatives and ketones. The main component of essential oil was ethyl homovanillate (11.79%) in buds and drimenol (29.42%) in roots. PMID:22574752

Samejo, Muhammad Qasim; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

2013-04-01

73

Chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Lippia nodiflora Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Lippia nodiflora Linn. led to the isolation of a new triterpenoid lippiacin (1) and a benzofuranone rengyolone (halleridone, 2) through repeated silica gel column chromatography and semi preparative HPLC. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, as well as by comparison with published data. A complete assignment of the 1H- and 13C-NMR data of 2 is reported based on 2D NMR (COSY-45, HMQC and HMBC) spectroscopic methods. PMID:18254236

Siddiqui, Bina S; Ahmad, Fayaz; Sattar, Fouzia A; Begum, Sabira

2007-12-01

74

Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Leaves of Melastoma malabathricum Linn.  

PubMed Central

The antidiarrhoeal effect of the water extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (Melastomataceae) leaves were investigated by employing four experimental models of diarrhea in Swiss mice. Melastoma malabathricum water extract treated mice showed significant reduction in the fecal output and protected them from castor oil-induced diarrhoea. The extract also reduced the intestinal fluid secretion induced by magnesium sulphate and gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration in the mice. No mortality and visible signs of general weakness was observed in the mice following the test extract administration up to 2000 mg/kg dose.

Sunilson, J. A. J.; Anandarajagopal, K.; Kumari, A. V. A. G.; Mohan, S.

2009-01-01

75

Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Leaves of Melastoma malabathricum Linn.  

PubMed

The antidiarrhoeal effect of the water extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (Melastomataceae) leaves were investigated by employing four experimental models of diarrhea in Swiss mice. Melastoma malabathricum water extract treated mice showed significant reduction in the fecal output and protected them from castor oil-induced diarrhoea. The extract also reduced the intestinal fluid secretion induced by magnesium sulphate and gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration in the mice. No mortality and visible signs of general weakness was observed in the mice following the test extract administration up to 2000 mg/kg dose. PMID:20376227

Sunilson, J A J; Anandarajagopal, K; Kumari, A V A G; Mohan, S

2009-11-01

76

Variation of total hyoscine content of cultivated Datura metel Linn.  

PubMed

A titrimetric method is described for rapid assay of hyoscine content of organs of locally cultivated Datura metel Linn. Raw materials required (approximately 1.5 gm) are much less than those required for conventional percolation processes. Using the procedure, the flowers have been shown to be richest in hyoscine, only minimal levels of alkaloids being detected in the fruits. Furthermore, the total alkaloid content of D. metel has been shown to peak in the hot dry season, and at its lowest during the rainy season in Ibadan. PMID:7839880

Abo, K A; Salami, O O; Adelegan, I O

1993-03-01

77

Screening of anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Vitex leucoxylon Linn  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex leucoxylon Linn. in various animal experimental models. Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan, mediator-induced rat paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. The antipyretic activity was evaluated by yeast-induced pyrexia model. Results: Single administration of the ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition of rat paw edema. The ethyl acetate extract showed significant antipyretic activity in brewer yeast-induced pyrexia in rats throughout the observation period of 4 h. Conclusion: This study shows that ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. has significant anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.

Shukla, Padmini; Shukla, P.; Mishra, S.B.; Gopalakrishna, B.

2010-01-01

78

Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 microm nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. PMID:18060670

Dong, Yan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Smith, F Andrew; Wang, Youshan; Chen, Baodong

2008-09-01

79

Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia Linn. fruits.  

PubMed

Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po.) showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads. PMID:22247882

Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen; Upwar, Nitin; Waseem, Naheed; Talaviya, Hetal; Patel, Zalak

2010-10-01

80

Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia Linn. fruits  

PubMed Central

Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po.) showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen; Upwar, Nitin; Waseem, Naheed; Talaviya, Hetal; Patel, Zalak

2010-01-01

81

Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae).  

PubMed

This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species. PMID:23929991

Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

2012-07-01

82

[Choleretic effects of Cassia alata Linn in the rat].  

PubMed

Fifty rats weighing average 200 g were used to study choleretic activity of Cassia alata LINN extract. Bile was collected according to acute biliarly fistula technic on animals anesthetized with 1.5g/kg of ethyle carbamate (Urethane ND). After determination of the minimal active dose (15 mg/kg) and lethal dose (100mg/kg) of the extract, rats were allowed in 5 groups of 10 each one: one reference group, one group receiving 15 mg/kg of Hydroxycyclohexenyl-butyrate (Hebecol ND) a synthetic choleretic, and 3 groups receiving respectively 15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of Cassia alata extract. According to results obtained, choleretic activity of Cassia alata at 15 mg/kg is better than the Hebucol ND ones. But at elevated doses, the plant tend to inhibit bile secretion. PMID:7882854

Assane, M; Traore, M; Bassene, E; Sere, A

1993-01-01

83

Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

2014-02-15

84

Development and anti-microbial potential of topical formulations containing Cocos nucifera Linn.  

PubMed

In order to achieve better treatment for local wounds and bacterial infections, topical formulations containing Cocos nucifera Linn. were developed. These formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and antimicrobial efficacy against various strains of microorganisms. Semisolid formulations containing 5% w/w of Cocos nucifera Linn. were prepared by employing different dermatological bases and were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, rheological properties, FTIR-spectroscopic analysis, thermodynamic stability and stability studies. The antimicrobial activity of each prepared formulation was determined using disk-diffusion method against various strains of microorganisms. All the prepared formulations were found to be stable and exhibited suitable physicochemical characteristics including pH, viscosity and spreadability which are necessary for an ideal topical preparation, in addition to strong antimicrobial activity. Carbopol gel base was found to be the most suitable dermatological base for Cocos nucifera Linn. in comparsion to other bases. Cocos nucifera Linn. formulations showed great potential for wounds and local bacterial infections. Moreover, carbopol gel base with its aesthetic appeal was found to be a suitable dermatological base for Cocos nucifera Linn. semisolid formulation as it had demonstrated significant physicochemical properties and greater diffusion when assessed using disk- diffusion method. PMID:23746224

Sheshala, Ravi; Ying, Ling Teck; Hui, Ling Shiau; Barua, Ankur; Dua, Kamal

2013-07-10

85

Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300?ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P; Balakrishnan, N

2014-01-01

86

Evaluation of hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Our aim of the study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in guinea pigs. Adult guinea pigs of either sex were divided into seven groups: group 1 - normal diet; group 2 - high fat diet; group 3 and 4 - normal diet plus leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 mL/kg, respectively; group 5 and 6- high fat diet with leaf juice of Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 and 1 mL/kg, respectively; group 7 - high fat diet plus atorvastatin (3 mg/kg). Above diet treatment was given for six weeks and drug was given during last three weeks. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, VLDL-c, HDL-c) was performed in each group of animals before and at the end of six weeks. Histological study of aorta, liver and kidney was done in group 1, 2, 6 and 7 and blood cell count was done in animals that were treated juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. before and after juice administration. Simultaneous administration of leaf juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. in the dose of 0.5 mL/kg prevents the rise of serum lipid parameters and decreases the fatty changes in the tissue induced by high fat diet, whereas in the dose of 1 mL/kg not only counteracts the elevation, but also significantly (p < 0.05) reduces the serum level LDL-c and the ratio of total cholesterol and HDL-c. Leaf juice of C. roseus (Linn.) G. Donn. possesses significant lipid lowering and anti atherosclerotic activity. PMID:22125959

Patel, Yogesh; Vadgama, Vishalkumar; Baxi, Seema; Chandrabhanu; Tripathi, B

2011-01-01

87

In vitro H+ -K+ ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was undertaken to study in vitro H+ -K+ ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Materials and Mathods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents from extract was quantified and H+ -K+ ATPase inhibition assay was performed in presence of different concentrations of standard (omeprazole) and methanol extract. Results: Extract showed significant (*P < 0.05) proton pump inhibitory activity in the goat gastric mucosal homogenate which was comparable to standard. Conclusions: These findings showed that methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis Linn. is potent inhibitor of proton pump.

Yadav, Priyanka; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Rai, Gopal

2012-01-01

88

Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn.) improves learning after radiation stress.  

PubMed

Brain is highly susceptible to oxidative damage due to its high utilization of oxygen and rather poorly developed antioxidative defense mechanism. Free radicals formation is greatly augmented during ionizing radiation exposure, which causes damage in cerebellum responsible for locomotor activity. Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn.) having high content of beta-carotene (about 15 mg/100g), ascorbic acid, Vitamin C and folate, may prove efficient antioxidants. To evaluate its antioxidative efficacy, healthy Swiss albino mice from an inbred colony were selected and divided into three groups having equal number of male and female in each group. All of these animals were initially trained in Hebb William's Maze, model D(1). After initial training of 10 days, two groups were supplemented with methanolic extract of A. paniculatus (Linn.) at a dose of 600 and 800 mg/kg bw per day, respectively for 15 days. One group without any treatment served as normal. It has been observed that mice, supplemented with extract took lesser time to reach goal than normal (without any treatment). Furthermore after supplementation of Amaranthus, followed by exposure to 9 Gy of gamma radiation by 60Co beam therapy unit, the survived mice took lesser time to reach to their goals than those without plant extract. Control mice (not supplemented with AE extract) showed continuous decline in their learning performance. Mice of Control group died within 12 days after exposure. Irradiated males try to recover from 10th day onwards but they died up to day 12. But in Experimental mice (AE treated), after initial decline in learning ability after exposure, recovery was noticed and not only this 70% of them survived beyond the observation period. Besides male mice showed faster learning ability as compared to females in all groups. After irradiation too, males took lesser time to reach to goals. Learning in all the groups before exposure has been much faster in between 9 and 15 days. After radiation, however it was followed by a sudden spurt and delayed learning response up to 12 days. Recovery was greater in males than females in treated groups. Recovery was greater in males of 600 mg/kg bw per day than other groups. Learning has been almost at the same level from 14th day onward, which indicates that both the dose levels have been found equally effective. PMID:12576205

Bhatia, A L; Jain, Manish

2003-03-01

89

Pharmacological studies on seeds of Alangium salvifolium Linn.  

PubMed

The seeds of Alangium salvifolium Linn. have been traditionally reported to exhibit a variety of biological activities, including antidiabetic, anticancer, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, laxative, and antiepileptic activities. The objective of this study was to verify the traditional claims and to evaluate the seeds of Alangium salvifolium in various organic extracts to screen the antidiabetic, antiepileptic, analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The chloroform, ethanol, and water extracts of Alangium salvifolium seeds were obtained and subjected for phytochemical screening and evaluated for their pharmacological activities. From the acute toxicity study it was observed that chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of Alangium salvifolium seeds are non-toxic at a fixed dose of 2000 mg/kg. Among all three extracts ethanol extracts exhibited significant (p < 0.01) antidiabetic, antiepileptic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids and tannins. The results of present study verified the traditional claims made by ayurvedic practitioner. However, the chemical constituents responsible for the pharmacological activities remain to be investigated. PMID:22125955

Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Agarwal, Vipin; Kumar, Rajesh; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

2011-01-01

90

Antioxidative activity of glycoprotein isolated from Geranium sibiricum Linne.  

PubMed

Glycoprotein from Geranium sibiricum Linne (GSL) with 18 kDa was isolated and it consists of carbohydrate moiety (10.45%) and protein moiety (89.55%). The GSL glycoprotein was characterised by its radical scavenging activity under various experimental conditions. When GSL glycoprotein was treated with deactivation agents (pronase E or NaIO(4)), its scavenging activity decreased in both cases. It has optimal and maximal activity in acidic, neutral pH (up to pH 9), and up to 85 degrees C. Also, its activity reduced in the case of Ca(2+) and Mn(2+), with the exception of the Mg(2+) case. Its activity in the presence of Mn(2+) declined more than in the case of the Ca(2+). Also, GSL glycoprotein (500 microg mL(-1)) has antioxidative effects on hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals in cell-free systems, and GSL glycoprotein (200 microg mL(-1)) significantly protected from cytotoxicity in the GO (100 mU mL(-1))-treated Chang liver cells for 4 h. PMID:19296378

Shim, J U; Lim, K T

2009-01-01

91

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn)  

PubMed Central

The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 ?g/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value.

Mulla, W. A.; Salunkhe, V. R.; Kuchekar, S. B.; Qureshi, M. N.

2009-01-01

92

Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Ko??aikkarantai)  

PubMed Central

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail.

Ramachandran, Shakila

2013-01-01

93

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn  

PubMed Central

In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity.

Purnima, A.; Koti, B. C.; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Jaji, M. S.; Swamy, A. H. M. Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y. V.; Sadiq, A. Jaffar

2010-01-01

94

Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf.  

PubMed

Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 ?g/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:22171295

Panda, Sujogya K; Padhi, L P; Mohanty, G

2011-01-01

95

Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf  

PubMed Central

Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 ?g/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases.

Panda, Sujogya K.; Padhi, L. P.; Mohanty, G.

2011-01-01

96

A review on therapeutic potential of Lygodium flexuosum Linn  

PubMed Central

From the centuries, herbal medicines are used to treat various diseases and now they had become an item of global importance, with both medicinal and economic implications. The demand of herbal medicine is being increasing day by day due to their safety and efficacy. Now herbals had taken over the allopathic system due to their less side effect and efficient working mechanism. Herbals are playing and pivotal role in increasing the economy of the country and had taken the nation on to the new path to achieve the goal of development. Lygodium flexuosum (Linn) Sw. is a fern found nearly throughout India up to an elevation of 1500 meter. It belongs to the family Lygodiaceae and widely used in treating various ailments like jaundice, dysmenorrhea, wound healing and eczema. It is the rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and cumarin. The main constitute of the plant is lygodinolide which is mainly used in wound healing. In the present review an attempt had been made to explore different aspects of L. flexuosum.

Yadav, Esha; Mani, Munesh; Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, A. K.

2012-01-01

97

Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds.

Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

2013-01-01

98

Bioactivity studies on Cassia alata Linn. leaf extracts.  

PubMed

The hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Cussia alata Linn. were tested for their antimutagenic, antifungal, analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, the hexane extract was analgesic as it reduced the number of squirms induced by acetic acid by 59.5%. Both the hexane and EtOAc extracts exhibited antiinflammatory activity at a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse with a 65.5% and 68.2% decrease in carrageenan-induced inflammation, respectively. The chloroform extract was antimutagenic, at a dosage of 2 mg/20 g mouse, with a 65.8% inhibition in the mutagenicity of tetracycline. It was also the most active against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, at a concentration of 50 mg/mL but it had no activity against Candida albicans. The hexane and EtOAc extracts showed some activity against both organisms, with the EtOAc extract being more active against C. albicans. The EtOAc extract was hypoglycaemic. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, it decreased the blood sugar level of mice by 58.3%. Pharmacological studies showed that all extracts caused an immediate decrease in motor activity, enophthalmus, hyperemia, micturition and diarrhoea. At a dosage of 150 mg/20 g mouse, the EtOAc extract caused paralysis, screen grip loss and enophthalmus accompanied by drooping and closure of the eyelids. PMID:11933153

Villaseñor, Irene M; Canlas, Arlyn P; Pascua, Marcy Paul I; Sabando, May N; Soliven, Leen Aloha P

2002-03-01

99

Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea.

Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N. V.

2010-01-01

100

In vitro propagation and rhizome formation in Curcuma longa Linn.  

PubMed

Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) which is cultivated by underground rhizomes is a slow propagating species. Multiplication and callus induction starting from the rhizome buds and shoot tips of C. longa in MS medium was carried out. A combination of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 1.0 mg/l) with kinetin (Kn; 1.0 mg/l) or NAA (1.0 mg/l) with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 2.0 mg/l) was optimum for rapid clonal propagation of turmeric. A concentration of 2.5-3.0 mg/l of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D) was found to be optimum for callus induction. Regeneration of plantlets from a callus was successfully conducted in MS medium supplemented with standard growth hormones for multiplication at 25 +/- 2 degrees C under a 16 h photoperiod. These plantlets were successfully transferred to the field. Plantlets (4-month-old) were incubated in a medium containing different concentrations of sucrose supplemented with NAA (0.1 mg/l) and Kn (1.0 mg/l) at 27 +/- 2 degrees C under an 8 h photoperiod for induction of rhizomes. In vitro rhizome formation was observed in media containing 6 and 8% sucrose. PMID:11393773

Sunitibala, H; Damayanti, M; Sharma, G J

2001-01-01

101

Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem  

PubMed Central

Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B. J.; Harisha, C. R.; Shukla, V. J.

2012-01-01

102

Potential dermal wound healing agent in Blechnum orientale Linn  

PubMed Central

Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally to treat wounds, boils, blisters or abscesses and sores, stomach pain and urinary bladder complaints. The aim of the study was to validate the ethnotherapeutic claim and to evaluate the effects of B. orientale water extract on wound healing activity. Methods Water extract of B. orientale was used. Excision wound healing activity was examined on Sprague-Dawley rats, dressed with 1% and 2% of the water extract. Control groups were dressed with the base cream (vehicle group, negative control) and 10% povidone-iodine (positive control) respectively. Healing was assessed based on contraction of wound size, mean epithelisation time, hydroxyproline content and histopathological examinations. Statistical analyses were performed using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test. Results Wound healing study revealed significant reduction in wound size and mean epithelisation time, and higher collagen synthesis in the 2% extract-treated group compared to the vehicle group. These findings were supported by histolopathological examinations of healed wound sections which showed greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts and angiogenesis in the 2% extract-treated group. Conclusions The ethnotherapeutic use of this fern is validated. The water extract of B. orientale is a potential candidate for the treatment of dermal wounds. Synergistic effects of both strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the extract are deduced to have accelerated the wound repair at the proliferative phase of the healing process.

2011-01-01

103

Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract.  

PubMed

The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the extract, (P < 0.01). However, the anticough activity is less potent than that of 3 mg/kg dextromethorphan which decreased frequency of cough by 78% (P < 0.01). An experiment on isolated rat tracheal muscle showed that the extract directly stimulated muscle contraction and also synergized with the stimulatory effect of pilocarpine. This effect was antagonized by an atropine. Moreover, growth of Staphylococcus aureus and beta-streptococcus group A, as determined by the disc diffusion method, was inhibited by water, methanol and chloroform extract of dry guava leaves (P < 0.001). The LD50 of guava leaf extract was more than 5 g/kg, p.o. These results suggest that guava leaf extract is recommended as a cough remedy. PMID:10619385

Jaiarj, P; Khoohaswan, P; Wongkrajang, Y; Peungvicha, P; Suriyawong, P; Saraya, M L; Ruangsomboon, O

1999-11-01

104

Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds.

Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

2011-01-01

105

In Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Flower Extract of Saccharum Spontaneum Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research work was conducted to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of chloroform extract of flower Saccharum spontaneum Linn. (Family- Gramineae). Disc diffusion technique was used for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal screening. Zones of inhibition were observed in disc diffusion for antimicrobial investigation against 4 Gram-positive and 8 Gram negative pathogenic bacteria. The extract showed

Farhana Alam Ripa; Mahmuda Haque

106

Effect of a sesquiterpene from Aristolochia indica Linn. on fertility in female mice.  

PubMed

A sesquiterpene isolated from the roots of Aristolochia indica (Linn.) was found to exert 100% interceptive activity and 91.7% anti-implantation activity in mice at a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt. No toxic effect was found at the dose levels used. PMID:923725

Pakrashi, A; Shaha, C

1977-11-15

107

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS IN THE RABBIT ON THE ANTIOVULATORY ACTIVITY PRESENT IN TAXUS BACCATA LINN. LEAVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxus baccata Linn., a tree which grows abundantly in India, has been reported to possess an antifertility effect (Kirtikar & Basu, 1935; Chopra, Nayar & Chopra, 1956; Chopra, Chopra, Handa & Kapoor, 1958; Chaudhury, 1966). Khanna, Garg, Vohora, Walia & Chaudhury (1969) recently reported that anti-implantation activity is present in the leaves. Possible anti-ovulatory activity of different extracts of leaves

R. R. CHAUDHURY; S. K. SAKSENA; S. K. GARG

1970-01-01

108

Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

109

Evaluation of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic potential of Tridax procumbens (Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Family-Asteraceae; common name-Dhaman grass) is common herb found in India. Traditionally, the tribal inhabitants of Udaipur district in Rajasthan (India) uses the leaf powder (along with other herb) orally to treat diabetes. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to

Hemant Pareek; Sameer Sharma; Balvant S Khajja; Kusum Jain; GC Jain

2009-01-01

110

Morfologia do fruto, semente e plântula do Mororó (ou pata de vaca) - Bauhína forficata Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mororó or cow paw (Bauhinia forficata Linn) presents great importance for the savanna paraibana, so much for the home-made medicine as for its economical value, in spite of it is threatened of extinction according to caririzeiros of the area. It was aimed at the morphologic knowledge of the fruit, seed and plantule of this species. The fruits were collected

Giselle Medeiros; Humberto Silva; Myrthis Virginia; Alves de Almeida; Mário Luiz Farias; Patrícia de Lima Martins

111

Anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn in Nigerian dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was studied in 20 Nigerian dogs that were naturally infected with nematodes. They were randomly divided into 4 groups, A, B, C and D. Groups A and B each comprised 4 dogs while groups C and D comprised 6 dogs each. Group A animals were untreated, while those

Adeolu Alex Adedapo; Olufemi Olaitan Shabi; Oyeduntan Adeyoju

112

Anticlastogenic activity of flavonoid reach extract of Cassia auriculata Linn. on experimental animal  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine antimutagenic activity of Cassia auriculata Linn. on chromosomal damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). Material and Methods: In the present investigation, four groups of six Swiss albino mice in each group were used. Excepting for thefirst group all the remaining groups were treated with CP (50 mg/kg). Mice of third and fourth group were treated with ethyl acetate extract of C. auriculata Linn. at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg with CP. Metaphase of bone marrow cells of all animals were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative chromosomal aberrations. Break, fragment, deletion, Polyploidy, pulverized, ring and total aberration were observed. Results: Flavonoids rich extracts of root of C. auriculata Linn. provided significant protection (P < 0.05) against CP induced chromosomal aberration. Total chromosomal aberration was found to be 12.16 and 7.33% in 100 and 200 mg/kg of extract treated animals respectively. Conclusion: From the present study it can was observed that ethyl acetate extract of C. auriculata Linn possess significant anti-mutagenic potential against CP induced chromosomal aberration.

Deshpande, Supriya S.; Kewatkar, Shailesh M.; Paithankar, Vivek V.

2013-01-01

113

Two Aberrant Forms of the Moon Jellyfish, 'Aurelia aurita' (Linne), in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita (Linne), is common in the coastal waters of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from September through December, with infrequent occurrences in March and April. From April, 1971 to June, 1973 over 1500 normal specimens of Au...

K. A. McGraw

1974-01-01

114

Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. leaves and flowers extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of aqueous extract of C. ternatea leaves and flowers on serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, protein, urea, creatinine were examined in control and extract treated diabetic rats. Glycogen was examined both in the liver

P. Daisy; Kanakappan Santosh; M. Rajathi

115

Activity of tabanids (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae) attacking the reptiles Caiman crocodilus (Linn.) (Alligatoridae) and Eunectes murinus (Linn.) (Boidae), in the central Amazon, Brazil.  

PubMed

Tabanid females are better known as hematophagous on man and other mammals, and linked to mechanical transmission of parasites. The association between tabanids and reptiles is poorly known, but has been gaining more corroboration through experiments and occasional observation in the tropics. The present study was conducted at a military base (CIGS/BI-2), situated 54 km from Manaus, Amazonas, in a small stream in a clearing (02 degrees 45'33"S; 59 degrees 51'03"W). Observations were made monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, during two consecutive days. At the same time, other vertebrate animals were offered, including humans. However in this paper only data obtained on a common caiman, Caiman crocodilus (Linn.), and an anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Linn.), in diurnal observations from 05:30 a.m. to 18:30 p.m., will be discussed. A total of 254 tabanid specimens were collected, 40 from the anaconda and 214 from the caiman. Four tabanid species were recorded on these two reptiles: Stenotabanus cretatus Fairchild, S. bequaerti Rafael et al., Phaeotabanus nigriflavus (Kröber) and Tabanus occidentalis Linn. Diurnal activities showed species-specific patterns. The first three species occurred only in the dry season. T. occidentalis occurred during the whole observation period, and with increased frequency at the end of the dry season. We observed preferences for body area and related behavior of the host. Observations on the attack of tabanids on one dead caiman are also presented. PMID:11992164

Ferreira, Ruth L M; Henriques, Augusto L; Rafael, José A

2002-01-01

116

Archeological Investigations for the Proposed Linn Cove Septic Tank and Drain Field Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Archaeological investigations were conducted by Southeast Archaeological Center personnel September 21-24, 1987 in the area proposed for the installation of a septic tank and drain field for the Linn Cove Visitor Center. Surface reconnaissance, subsurface...

E. A. Horvath

1987-01-01

117

Isolation and X-ray crystal structure of a securinega-type alkaloid from Phyllanthus niruri Linn.  

PubMed

A securinega-type alkaloid epibubbialine was isolated from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. Its structure was established by spectroscopic methods and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. Its crystal structure is reported herein for the first time. PMID:21878003

Zhou, Min; Zhu, Honglin; Wang, Kuiwu; Wei, Wanxing; Zhang, Yong

2012-01-01

118

Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.  

PubMed

Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm(-1) (-OH), 1660?cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414?cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219?cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

2014-01-01

119

Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum  

PubMed Central

Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm?1 (–OH), 1660?cm?1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm?1 (–COO–), 1414?cm?1 (–COO–), and 1219?cm?1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose.

Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

2014-01-01

120

Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+?-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results More than 80% shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30% whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant.

Sonibare, Mubo A.; Adeniran, Adedapo A.

2014-01-01

121

Aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris Linn induces cell growth arrest and apoptosis by down-regulating NF-?B signaling in liver cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceA medicinal herb Tribulus terrestris Linn has been used to treat various diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma.The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) in liver cancer cells.

Hye Jin Kim; Jin Chul Kim; Jung Sun Min; Mi-jee Kim; Ji Ae Kim; Myung Ho Kor; Hwa Seung Yoo; Jeong Keun Ahn

2011-01-01

122

Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment.  

PubMed

Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant. PMID:24312848

Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru

2013-01-01

123

Simple HPLC Method for the Determination of Thymoquinone in Black Seed Oil (Nigella Sativa Linn)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and reliable isocratic normal phase HPLC method for the determination of thymoquinone in black seed oil (Nigella Sativa Linn, Ranculaceae) is described. After oil extraction with methanol, thymoquinone is analyzed using Econosphere CN column. The mobile phase consists of hexane:2 propanol (99:1 v\\/v), thymoquinone is monitored by UV detection at 295 nm. This method is quite specific and

Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein; Laila I. Abou-Basha

1995-01-01

124

Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job’s tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content\\u000a of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-?-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98?±?7.48% (g\\/100 g crude extract). The biological

Jiradej Manosroi; Narinthorn Khositsuntiwong; Aranya Manosroi

125

THE CLOTTING OF THE BLOOD OF AN AMPHIBIAN, BUFO MARINUS LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of the intrinsic thromboplastic activity of the blood of the toad Bufo marinus Linn. shows that this arises largely from the blood leucocytes. More prothrombin appears to be consumed in leucocyte-rich than in leucocyte-free mixtures. A spreading change which occurs in the toad thrombocyte (a spindle-shaped leucocyte) on contact with certain surfaces is morphologically analogous to the “viscous metamorphosis”

Earle Hackett; Rex LePage

1961-01-01

126

Growth inhibition of Struvite crystals in the presence of juice of Citrus medica Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Struvite, one of the components of urinary stone grows rapidly forming “staghorn-calculi”, is a painful urological disorder.\\u000a It is necessary to study the growth-inhibition of Struvite crystals. This in vitro study has been carried out in the presence\\u000a of the juice of Citrus medica Linn. by using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate solution of specific gravity 1.05 and

C. K. Chauhan; M. J. Joshi

2008-01-01

127

Effect of the extracts from Aristolochia indica Linn. on interception in female mice.  

PubMed

The crude petroleum ether, chloroform and alcoholic extracts from the roots of Aristolochia indica (Linn.) showed 100% interceptive activity in mature female mice at the single dose of 100 mg/kg body wt. The follow-up studies with the chloroform extract showed the most significant effect in the basic part and two acidic fractions at the single dose levels of 50 mg/kg body wt. No toxic effect was observed at the dose levels used. PMID:1253927

Pakrashi, A; Chakrabarty, B; Dasgupta, A

1976-03-15

128

Effect of methyl ester of aristolic acid from Aristolochia indica Linn. on fertility of female mice.  

PubMed

Methyl ester of aristolic acid, a pure compound isolated from the roots of Aristolochia indica (Linn.), was found to exert 100% abortifacient activity at a single oral dose of 60 mg/kg b. wt when administered on 6th or 7th day of pregnancy; 20 and 25% abortifacient effect were observed at the same dose on day 10 and 12, respectively. PMID:720520

Pakrashi, A; Shaha, C

1978-09-15

129

Partial purification of a hypoglycemic fraction from the unripe fruits of Momordica charantia Linn (bitter gourd)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method was developed to purify partially an orally active hypoglycemic fraction from the unripe fruits ofMomordica charantia Linn. The residue after centrifugation of the fruit juice was extracted with ethanol and the concentrated ethanolic extract\\u000a was further extracted with diethyl ether. In normal rabbits after oral administration, the ether extract at a dose of 0.75\\u000a g\\/kg body wt

Subbiah Pugazhenthi; P. Suryanarayana Murthy

1995-01-01

130

Determination of marker constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. and their quantitation by HPTLC and HPLC.  

PubMed

Four marker constituents, namely, onocer-7-ene-3 alpha, 21 beta-diol, delta-amyrin, delta-amyrone and 3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl of an Ayurvedic crude drug Cissus quadrangularis Linn. are defined for standardisation purposes. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrahydroxybiphenyl has been isolated for the first time from this drug. The contents of the marker constituents were quantitatively determined by HPTLC and HPLC methods in samples collected from five different geographic zones of India. PMID:11705245

Mehta, M; Kaur, N; Bhutani, K K

2001-01-01

131

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of leaves of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the study: Alstonia scholaris Linn. (R.Br.,) has been used in traditional and folklore medicine for the treatment of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. scholaris (known as EEAS) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Materials and methods: The streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were orally treated with vehicle (2%

Sinnathambi Arulmozhi; Papiya Mitra Mazumder; Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan; Prasad Thakurdesai

2010-01-01

132

Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts mitigate UVB-induced erythema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaves have been used in tropical folk medicine to treat topical inflammation and burns. A carbomer gel\\u000a base, containing the ethanol extract and juice pressed from the leaves, was evaluated for potential allergenic properties\\u000a in a repeat-insult patch test in 49 volunteers. To investigate the topical photo-protective properties, the combined ethanol\\u000a extract and leaf juice were

Brett J. West; Shixin Deng; Afa K. Palu; C. Jarakae Jensen

2009-01-01

133

In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Oil of Nigella Sativa Linn Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of the Volatile oils of Nigella Sativa Linn Seeds was tested against fifteen pathogenic microbial strains includung three gram-positive, eleven gram- negative and a yeast Candida albicans. The volatile oil showed strong sensitivity to all the organisms. The zone of inhibition was found 13-32mm at a dose of 600µg\\/disc. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the volatile

Nazma Ara; S A R Choudhury; Ruhul Amin

2005-01-01

134

Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats  

PubMed Central

Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as ‘Radish’ is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine.

Devaraj, V.C.; Gopala Krishna, B.; Viswanatha, G.L.; Satya Prasad, V.; Vinay Babu, S.N.

2011-01-01

135

Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.  

PubMed

Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-?B, TNF-? and transforming growth factor-?1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors. PMID:22289614

Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

2012-10-01

136

Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on liver injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. Wistar rats weighing 200+/-10g were administered a single dose of DEN (200mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and left for 30 days. For hepatoprotective studies, ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of C. fistula Linn. (500mg/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered daily for 30 days. AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, gamma-GT and bilirubin were estimated in serum and liver tissue. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), SOD and CAT were also estimated in liver tissue as markers of oxidative stress. DEN induced hepatotoxicity in all the treated animals were evident by elevated serum ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels and a simultaneous fall in their levels in the liver tissue after 30 days. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidenced by increased LPO and fall in the activities of SOD and CAT. ELE administration for 30 days prevented the DEN induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. In conclusion, it was observed that ELE of C. fistula Linn. protects the liver against DEN induced hepatic injury in rats. PMID:17289008

Pradeep, Kannampalli; Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor Raj; Gobianand, Kuppannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

2007-04-01

137

Lepidium sativum Linn.: a current addition to the family of mucilage and its applications.  

PubMed

Mucilage from the last decades has been found to be very attractive, interesting and useful in development of desired pharmaceutical dosage forms. Various applications of plant based mucilage have a wide potentiality in drug formulations. Lepidium sativum Linn. (family: Brassicaceae) is one of the mucilage containing fast growing, edible annual herb. Its various parts (roots, leaves and seeds) have been used to treat various human ailments. It mainly contains alkaloids, saponins, anthracene glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavanoids, and sterols as chief phytochemical constituents. Its seed extracts have been screened for various biological activities like hypotensive, anti-microbial, bronchodilator, hypoglycemic and allelopathic, whereas its seed coat mucilage has been isolated using different methods to make it effective excipient of desired functionality as a part of pharmaceutical applications. Through keen references of reported work on Lepidium sativum Linn., in this review, we have focused on its seed coat mucilage isolation methods, chemical constituents, pharmacological profile and versatile application of Lepidium sativum Linn. PMID:24418343

Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Patil, Prasant D; Patel, Bhumit N

2014-04-01

138

Responses of Portulaca oleracea Linn. to selenium exposure.  

PubMed

The present study was investigated to evaluate the uptake and accumulation of selenium (Se) by the stem cuttings of Portulaca oleracea L. grown in alfisol amended with various concentrations of Se. P. oleracea accumulated a maximum of 63.4 µg g(-1) dry weight in a short growth period of 42 days. The order of accumulation of Se among the plant parts was leaves (31.5 ?g g(-1)) > stems (16.4 ?g g(-1)) > roots (15.5 ?g g(-1)). The accumulation potential was fourfold higher than the plant available concentration of 15.2 ?g g(-1) of Se g(-1) of soil (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extracted). Although the plant was able to accumulate Se in their tissues, increase in Se concentrations in soil caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the growth rate of plants (regeneration of leaves, number of leaves, number of roots, root length, stem length and biomass). PMID:23363577

Prabha, D; Sivakumar, S; Subbhuraam, C V; Son, H K

2013-01-30

139

Antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed  

PubMed Central

Aim: The antianaphylactic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seed extract was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced anaphylaxis and mast cell stabilization was studied by using peritoneal mast cells of rats. The possible antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization mechanism was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced mast cell activation and level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells. Materials and Methods: Anaphylactic shock in mice was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of 8 mg/kg compound 48/80, prior to induction of anaphylaxis the animals were treated with S. potatorum Linn. seed extract administered orally 1 h before administration of compound 48/80, the rate mortality was observed in each group of animals. Mast cell stabilization was seen by preincubation of mast cells with the compound 48/80 and the extracts. Results: This study indicates that the chloroform, petroleum ether, and methanolic extracts were shown potent and has significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) inhibitory effects on compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction and mast cell activation. This compound also inhibited significantly compound 48/80 induced increased level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells. Conclusion: We conclude from this study that the different extracts of S. potatorum seed have potent antianaphylactic activity through mast cell stabilization and inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. The inhibitory effect of S. potatorum Linn. on release of histamine and nitric oxide protects from compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction may be through blocking vasodilatation, decrease vascular resistance, hypotension and tachycardia induced by immunogenic agent used in this study.

Patil, Umesh Jayantarao; Savali, Anil Sidram; Jirankali, Manjunath C.

2011-01-01

140

Anti-Arthritic Activity of Premna serratifolia Linn., Wood against Adjuvant Induced Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Adjuvant induced arthritis is a chronic crippling, skeleton-muscular disorder having nearest approximation to human rheumatoid arthritis for which there is currently no medicine available effecting a permanent cure. Even modern drugs used for the amelioration of the symptoms, offer only temporary relief and also produce severe side effects. In the indigenous system of medicine, wood of Premna serratifolia Linn., is reported to be useful in the treatment of arthritis. It is a large shrub, distributed throughout Asia, used against a wide variety of diseases. However, no systematic study has been reported regarding its anti-arthritic activity. This work was aimed at the scientific validation of the ethno-pharmacological claim about its anti-arthritic property. In the present study, anti-arthritic activity of ethanol extract of Premna serratifolia Linn., wood is done by Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis model. Loss in body weight during arthritis condition was corrected on treatment with ethanol extract and standard drug, indomethacin. Biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin content, total WBC, RBC, erythrocyte and sedimentation rate were also estimated. The ethanol extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg body weight inhibited the rat paw edema by 68.32% which is comparable with standard drug indomethacin 74.87% inhibition of rat paw edema after 21 days. The results of the current investigation concluded, ethanol extract of Premna serratifolia Linn., wood possess a significant anti-arthritic activity against adjuvant induced arthritis and justifying its therapeutic role in arthritic condition. The observed anti-arthritic activity may be due to the presence of phytoconstituents such as irridiod glycosides, alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids.

Rajendran, Rekha; Krishnakumar, Ekambaram

2010-01-01

141

Determination of Antioxidant Capacity, ?-Amylase and Lipase Inhibitory Activity of Crotalaria Juncea Linn In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Crotalaria Juncea Linn.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The present study involves the determination of antioxidant capacity and in vitro ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of the Crotalaria juncea Linn extract. The content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the extracts was estimated by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activity on goat liver lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid emulsion were determined and ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity was also evaluated. All the extracts had shown antioxidant property, ?-amylase, and lipase inhibitory properties. Aqueous extract was found to show maximum antioxidant activity on goat liver. Antilipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity were determined to be 66.94 ± 0.616 (p < .01) and 59.54 ± 0.2 (p < .01), respectively. Maximum ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities of 71.42 ± 1.37 (p < .01) and 57.14 ± 2.74% (p < .01), respectively, were exhibited by macerated methanol extract. The results had shown that all the extracts exhibited low inhibition and antioxidant activity as compared to standard. PMID:24670121

Dinakaran, Sathis Kumar; Banji, David; Avasarala, Harani; Banji, Otilia

2014-06-01

142

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL  

PubMed Central

The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by ?-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans

Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

2010-01-01

143

Urease inhibitory activity of ursane type sulfated saponins from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn.  

PubMed

Five ursane type sulfated saponins have been isolated from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. (locally called Chashum). The urease inhibitory effects of these compounds have been investigated for the first time as well as their molecular docking studies have also been carried out to check the structure-activity relationship. The IC50 values of these compounds could not be found due to paucity of the samples. The molecular docking studies were performed only for the most active compound mono sodium salt of 3?,23-di-O-sulfonyl-23-hydroxyurs-20(21)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (Zygofaboside A; 1). PMID:24182987

Khan, Saleha Suleman; Khan, Ajmal; Khan, Afsar; Wadood, Abdul; Farooq, Umar; Ahmed, Amir; Zahoor, Aqib; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Sener, Bilge; Erdemoglu, Nurgun

2014-02-15

144

Antimicrobial Potency of the Leaf - Stalk Extract of Curcuma longa (LINN).  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of the leaf-stalk of curcuma longa LINN, was tested for its minimum Inhibitor concentration (MIC) against Gram positive-staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, klebsiella pnemoniae, bacillus cereus, streptococcus pneumoniae, Lactobacillus arabinosus and gram negative E.coli, shigella dysenteriae, shigella sonnei, shigella boydii, salmonella typhimurium, proteus mirabilis, and Vibrio cholerae strains, further, the ones of inhibition produced by the crude extract against four selected bacterial strains were measured and compared with those produced by the standard antibiotic ciprofloxacin against the same bacterial strains. PMID:22557005

Mazumder, R; Mendiratta, T; Mondal, S C; Mazumder, A

2000-07-01

145

Antitubercular constituents from the hexane fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae).  

PubMed

A crude ethanol extract and hexane fraction from Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) show antitubercular activity. The major constituents of the hexane fraction are E-phytol, cycloartenol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, campesta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol and the ketosteroids stigmasta-4-en-3-one and stigmasta-4-22-dien-3-one. E-Phytol, a mixture of the two ketosteroids, and the epidioxysterol derived from campesta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol all show pronounced antitubercular activity. PMID:12410555

Saludes, Jonel P; Garson, Mary J; Franzblau, Scott G; Aguinaldo, Alicia M

2002-11-01

146

Antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Aqueous extract of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers (ACF) was screened for its antioxidant effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats. An appreciable decrease in peroxidation products viz thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides was observed in heart tissues of ACF treated diabetic rats. The decreased activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione in diabetic rats were brought back to near normal range upon ACF treatment. These results suggest that ACF has got promising antioxidative activity in alloxan diabetic rats. PMID:15652272

Manonmani, G; Bhavapriya, V; Kalpana, S; Govindasamy, S; Apparanantham, T

2005-02-10

147

A new biologically active flavone glycoside from the seeds of Cassia fistula (Linn.).  

PubMed

A new bioactive flavone glycoside 1 [mp 252-254 degrees C, C28H32O16, [M]+ 624 (EIMS)] was isolated from the acetone soluble fraction of the defatted seeds of Cassia fistula (Linn.). It was characterized as a new bioactive flavone glycoside 5,3',4'-tri-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside by several colour reactions, spectral analysis and chemical degradations. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity. PMID:12608640

Yadava, R N; Verma, Vikash

2003-03-01

148

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots  

PubMed Central

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400?mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect.

Vasudeva, Neeru

2008-01-01

149

Determination of Anthelmintic Activity of the Leaf and Bark Extract of Tamarindus Indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

Das, S. S.; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A. K.

2011-01-01

150

Development and application of RAPD-SCAR marker for identification of Phyllanthus emblica LINN.  

PubMed

Correct genotype identification of medicinal plant material remains important for botanical drug industry. Limitations of chemical and morphological approaches for authentication have generated need for newer methods in quality control of botanicals. The present study was carried out to develop DNA based marker for identification of Phyllanthus emblica LINN. A putative marker (1.1 kb) specific for P. emblica was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker was developed from the RAPD amplicon. The SCAR marker was found useful for identification of P. emblica in its commercial samples and Triphalachurna, a multi-component Ayurvedic formulation. PMID:17077537

Dnyaneshwar, Warude; Preeti, Chavan; Kalpana, Joshi; Bhushan, Patwardhan

2006-11-01

151

Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle extracts on freshwater algae.  

PubMed

To pursue an effective way to control freshwater algae, four extracts from a submerged macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle were tested to study its inhibitory effects on Anabaena flos-aquae FACHB-245 and Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick FACHB-9. Extract with the highest inhibiting ability was further studied in order to reveal the inhibitory mechanism. The results demonstrated that H. verticillata extracts inhibited the growth of A. flos-aquae and C. pyrenoidosa, and methanol extract had the highest inhibiting ability. The mechanism underlying the algal growth inhibition involves the superoxide anion radical generation that induces the damage of cell wall and release of intracellular components. PMID:22210445

Zhang, T-T; He, M; Wu, A-P; Nie, L-W

2012-03-01

152

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of wild bitter melon ( Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser. (Cucurbitaceae), also known as “Shan Ku Gua”, is a wild variety of bitter melon (BM) in Taiwan. The size of its fruits is only about one-fifth of the commonly seen BM. It is commonly consumed as vegetable and also used as a popular folk medicine. In this study, the antioxidant and free radical scavenging

Shu-Jing Wu; Lean-Teik Ng

2008-01-01

153

Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg\\/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly

C Vijaya; M Ramanathan; B Suresh

154

Hepatoprotective Effects of Arctium lappa Linne on Liver Injuries Induced by Chronic Ethanol Consumption and Potentiated by Carbon Tetrachloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol\\/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection

Song-Chow Lin; Chia-Hsien Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Yun-Ho Lin; Chin-Fa Chen; I-Cheng Chen; Li-Ya Wang

2002-01-01

155

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits.  

PubMed

This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan induced paw oedema in Wistar albino rats; analgesic activity with doses of 280 mg/kg and 560 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice; and antipyretic activity with doses of 110 mg/kg and 220 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated in New Zealand white rabbits by injecting gram -ve lipopolysaccharide obtained from E. coli. Results were analysed by one way ANOVA followed by Dunnet's multiple comparison test. Pedalium murex Linn. showed significant anti-inflammatory activity from 15 min to 180 min as compared to vehicle treated animals. It was comparable to diclofenac sodium at 180 min. The extract did not prolong the reaction time on hot plate method but significantly reduced the number of writhing after acetic acid administration. Also the extract did not show any antipyretic activity on lipopolysaccharide induced pyrexia. It is therefore concluded that the ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits has an anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic effects. PMID:24146508

Patel, Mahendra K; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Patel, Tejas K; Barvaliya, Manish J; Tripathi, C B

2013-01-01

156

COMPARISION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AERVA LANATA (Linn.) Juss. ex. Schult & AERVA TOMENTOSA Forsk. Family: AMARANTHACEAE.  

PubMed

The diuretic activity of concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata (Linn) & Aerva tomentosa Forsk on healthy albino rats were studied with frusemide as reference drug. The urine output increased with concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata only. In this case the level of electrolytes in urine also increased. But the diuretic activity was mild as compared to frusemide. PMID:22557194

Kumar, Deepak; Prasad, D N; Bhatnagar, S P

2005-10-01

157

COMPARISION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AERVA LANATA (Linn.) Juss. ex. Schult & AERVA TOMENTOSA Forsk. Family: AMARANTHACEAE  

PubMed Central

The diuretic activity of concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata (Linn) & Aerva tomentosa Forsk on healthy albino rats were studied with frusemide as reference drug. The urine output increased with concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata only. In this case the level of electrolytes in urine also increased. But the diuretic activity was mild as compared to frusemide.

Kumar, Deepak; Prasad, D.N.; Bhatnagar, S.P.

2005-01-01

158

The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Ornamental Fish Toxicity of the Water Extract of Indian Almond Leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamental fish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried

Nantarika Chansue

159

Clinical evaluation of Veerataru (Dichrostachys cinerea Linn.) in the management of Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria).  

PubMed

Veerataru is quoted to be effective in various conditions of Mootravaha Srotodushti such as Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria), Mootraghata (Anuria), Ashmari (Urinary calculi), Sharkara (Concretions) etc., by various Acharyas. Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria) is a disease of Basti (Bladder). It comes under Mootraapravruttijanyavyadhi, where Kruchchhrata (Shoola -Pain and Daha-Burning) during mootra pravrutti is the chief symptom. As per modern view, dysuria is a leading feature of lower or mid urinary tract infection. Antibiotics have their own limitations due to re-infections and recurrence even after long-term therapy, due to development of resistance of the microorganisms to the drugs. By considering all the above facts and to fulfill the lacuna about the absence of scientific data of Veerataru, the present research work had been taken up especially to evaluate its efficacy on Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria). Patients suffering from Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria) were selected and divided into two groups, i.e. Group A received Kwatha (decoction) of Veerataru-Dichrostachys cinerea Linn. (Trial drug) and Group B received Kwatha of Punarnava-Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Standard control) respectively. The effects of therapy were assessed by a specially prepared clinical research proforma. The result showed better symptomatic relief in Group A, i.e. trial drug as compared to Group B, i.e. standard control group. PMID:24501517

Patel, Bhupesh R; Sharma, P P

2013-07-01

160

In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn.  

PubMed

The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. PMID:24250133

Bhalodia, Nayan R; Nariya, Pankaj B; Acharya, R N; Shukla, V J

2013-04-01

161

In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn  

PubMed Central

The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Nariya, Pankaj B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

2013-01-01

162

Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn.  

PubMed

In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 mug/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 mug/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 x, 1250-5 mug/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

Sousa, Erlânio O; Silva, Natálya F; Rodrigues, Fabiola F G; Campos, Adriana R; Lima, Sidney G; Costa, José Galberto M

2010-04-01

163

Abortifacient properties of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds on female Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to investigate the abortifacient potential of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Oral doses of 100 and 800 mg/kg body weight were administered once a day on days 1-10 post-coitum. No significant differences in total body weight were found in foetuses exposed to these regimes. However, in the group treated with 100 mg/kg body weight, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the implantation sites and foetal weight was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared to the controls. No dead or malformed foetuses were found. However, in the group treated with 800 mg/kg body weight, there was obvious vaginal bleeding but no treatment related increase in implantation sites compared with control. There was however, complete resorption of about 30% of the foetuses. The surviving foetuses were stunted when compared with the control but were without any external malformations. The results of the present investigations lead to the clear conclusion that low dose aqueous crude extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds does not adversely affect prenatal development. The altered toxicological profile indicates that the abortifacient property is a high dose side effect. The results indicate that Carica papaya toxicity can adversely affect the foetus. PMID:12163882

Oderinde, O; Noronha, C; Oremosu, A; Kusemiju, T; Okanlawon, O A

2002-06-01

164

Investigation on antimicrobial activity of root extracts of Thespesia populnea Linn.  

PubMed

Many medicinal plants have been used for centuries in daily life to treat microbial diseases all over the world. In this study, the in vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol root extracts of Thespesia populnea Linn were investigated. Antimicrobial properties of T. populnea Linn was evaluated against five pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by broth serial dilution method. The ciprofloxacin (5 ?g/ml) and flucanozole (100 units/disc) were used as positive controls for bacteria and fungi respectively. Different concentrations (50, 100, 150 ?g/ml) of ethanolic and aqueous root extracts of T. populnea were checked for the dose dependent antibacterial activity. Thespesia populnea showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and maximum inhibition by ethanolic extract was observed at higher dose (250 ?g/ml) as 27±0.2mm. The MIC of the ethanol extract was 10 ?g/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and 750 ?g/ml for Candida albicans. The antifungal activity offered against S. aureus by the ethanolic extract is more than the aqueous extract. The results concluded that the anti-microbial activity of T. populnea was dose dependent. As the concentration increased the inhibition zone also increased. Flavonoids and tannins present in the extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:24522124

Senthil-Rajan, D; Rajkumar, M; Srinivasan, R; Kumarappan, C; Arunkumar, K; Senthilkumar, K L; Srikanth, M V

2013-12-01

165

In vitro and in vivo Antiinflammatory Activity of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn. Leaves.  

PubMed

Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic acid, sterols, and glycosides. This study was intended to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of various extracts of fresh leaves of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn experimentally by in vitro (human red blood cell membrane stabilization method) and in vivo methods (0.1 ml of 1% w/v carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model). Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alcohol, and aqueous extracts were screened for in vitro antiinflammatory activity. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts which showed, best in vitro antiinflammatory activity was screened for in vivo antiinflammatory activity at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Indomethacin at the dose level of 10 mg/kg was used as reference standard drug. Both the extracts showed a dose dependent significant (P<0.001) reduction in paw edema when compared to the control, at all the time intervals and comparable to indomethacin (reference standard) treated group. The results of the present study demonstrate that petroleum ether and chloroform extracts possess significant (P<0.001) antiinflammatory potential which provide scientific basis for the traditional claims of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn leaves as an antiinflammatory drug. PMID:24082358

Joseph, Jeenu; Bindhu, A R; Aleykutty, N A

2013-05-01

166

A new flavonol glycoside from the Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. belonging to the family Malvaceae is a kind of one year herbage plant, which is one of the most important vegetables widely grown in Nigeria for its tender fruits and young leaves. It's easy to be cultivated and grows well in both tropical and temperate zones, that is, it is widely planted from Africa to Asia, South European to America. A new flavonol glycoside characterized as 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-4??-O-methyl flavonol -3-O-?-D- glucopyranoside (1) has been isolated from the fruit of A. esculentus together with one known compound 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy flavonol -3-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including 2-D NMR and mass (MS) spectra. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The present work deals with the isolation, identification and antioxidant activity of the two compounds. Materials and Methods: The compounds were isolated by Diaion HP-20, Sephedex LH-20 column chromatography methods, their structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by two assays, e.g., DPPH and FRAP. Results: Two flavonol glycosides have been isolated from the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus L. for the first time, and the compound 1 was a new compound, the compound 2 was isolated from the plant for the first time. Conclusion: The results show that the two flavonol glycosides have strong ability for scavenging DPPH and FRAP free radical by the experiment of antioxidant activities, so A. esculentus may be a natural antioxidants resource.

Liao, Haibing; Liu, Huixin; Yuan, Ke

2012-01-01

167

Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity  

PubMed Central

Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn. showed remarkable antihyperglycemic activity due to its possible systematic effect involving in the pancreatic and extra pancreatic mechanism. Forever, the antihyperlipidemic activity was exerted possible by lowering the higher level of lipid profile and decreasing the intercalated disc space in the heart. The antioxidant activity of extract was due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increasing the SOD, GPx and CAT. It was corroborate that the extract shown the Paederia foetida Linn leaves potential to be act as antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties.

2014-01-01

168

Protein Crystals Grown in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collage of protein and virus crystals, many of which were grown on the U.S. Space Shuttle or Russian Space Station, Mir. The crystals include the proteins canavalin; mouse monoclonal antibody; a sweet protein, thaumatin; and a fungal protease. Viruses are represented here by crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus and satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The crystals are photographed under polarized light (thus causing the colors) and range in size from a few hundred microns in edge length up to more than a millimeter. All the crystals are grown from aqueous solutions and are useful for X-ray diffraction analysis. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

2000-01-01

169

CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae).  

PubMed

In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group. Doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight protected the mice against maximal electroshock seizure, and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid. Prominent analgesic activity was observed using the hot plate method. The paw licking time was delayed significantly. The extract also displayed prominent smooth muscle relaxant activity. The results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. quadrangularis roots possess anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties. PMID:22435569

Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Saraf, Shubhini A; Gupta, Rajiv

2010-03-01

170

Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice  

PubMed Central

The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil.

Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

2010-01-01

171

Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Linn.) leaf against paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats.  

PubMed

Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Alston) (Linn.) leaves against Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was observed at two different doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The healthy control, disease control, and standard drug Silymarin-treated groups were also maintained for the comparison. The liver marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, Serum Bilirubin and other metabolic parameters like total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol were evaluated in all the experimental groups. The changes in liver function parameters were significant in comparison to disease control group and the observed efficacy was comparable to standard drug. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose dependent. The histopathology study of liver also supports the presence of hepatoprotective activity in S. jambos by showing improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated groups. The results obtained in this study indicate necessity for further research on isolation and characterization of functional molecules from the extract. PMID:24501529

Selvam, N Thamizh; Venkatakrishnan, V; Dhamodharan, R; Murugesan, S; Kumar, S Damodar

2013-07-01

172

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2012-01-01

173

Relationship between Antioxidant Properties and Chemical Composition of Abutilon Indicum Linn  

PubMed Central

Aim of this paper is to find out the relationship between antioxidant activity of Abutilon indicum Linn and their phytochemical composition especially phenols and flavonols. Successive extractions were carried out for the Abutilon indicum plant with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ethanol and water. All these extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities. Their antioxidant activities were correlated with their total phenol and flavonol content present in the plant. Ethyl acetate showed maximum free radical scavenging activity. IC50 value for various antioxidant methods for all extract showed no significance with total antioxidant capacity except IC50 value of LPO (r2 = 0.7273). Correlation between total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content was not significant with r2 = 0.2554, P<0.3065. Total antioxidant capacity and total flavonol content showed similar correlation with r2 = 0.2554, P<0.0962.

Srividya, A. R.; Dhanabal, S. P.; Jeevitha, S.; Varthan, V. J. Vishnu; Kumar, R. Rajesh

2012-01-01

174

Phytochemicals from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. and their pharmacological properties: a review.  

PubMed

This review discusses the medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), its wide variety of phytochemicals and their pharmacological properties. The active phytochemicals, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, lignans, polyphenols, tannins, coumarins and saponins, have been identified from various parts of P. niruri. Extracts of this herb have been proven to have therapeutic effects in many clinical studies. Some of the most intriguing therapeutic properties include anti-hepatotoxic, anti-lithic, anti-hypertensive, anti-HIV and anti-hepatitis B. Therefore, studies relating to chemical characteristics and structural properties of the bioactive phytochemicals found in P. niruri are very useful for further research on this plant as many of the phytochemicals have shown preclinical therapeutic efficacies for a wide range of human diseases, including HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B. PMID:17331318

Bagalkotkar, G; Sagineedu, S R; Saad, M S; Stanslas, J

2006-12-01

175

Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M M; Jain, S K; Tripathi, M

2010-05-01

176

Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil.

Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M. M.; Jain, S. K.; Tripathi, M.

2010-01-01

177

Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review  

PubMed Central

Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed.

Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

2014-01-01

178

Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.).  

PubMed

In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

Doshi, Krunal A; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

2013-04-01

179

A Study of hepatoprotective activity of Hedyotis corymbosa. Linn, in albino rats  

PubMed Central

Hedyotis corymbosa Linn is spreading, suffruticose annual, belongs to family Rubiaceae frequently met with in field through out India, usually during rainy season. This plant is used for their medicinal properties as a folk medicine to treat jaundice, mouth wash in toothache. Hence the present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Hedyotis corymbosa which was separated in to different fractions against carbon tetrachloride intoxification. The results indicate that, Intoxification with CCl4 increase the levels of SGOT and SGPT. The elevated levels of SGOT and SGPTwere significantly decreased by ether and butanol fractions at P<0.001 and butanone and ethanol at p<0.05, where as petroleum ether and ethyl acetate did not shown any significant reduction in the level of SGOT and SGPT.

Chimkode, Rajshekar; Patil, M.B; Jalalpure, Sunil; Pasha, T.Y.; sarkar, Sibaji

2009-01-01

180

A Study of hepatoprotective activity of Hedyotis corymbosa. Linn, in albino rats.  

PubMed

Hedyotis corymbosa Linn is spreading, suffruticose annual, belongs to family Rubiaceae frequently met with in field through out India, usually during rainy season. This plant is used for their medicinal properties as a folk medicine to treat jaundice, mouth wash in toothache. Hence the present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Hedyotis corymbosa which was separated in to different fractions against carbon tetrachloride intoxification. The results indicate that, Intoxification with CCl(4) increase the levels of SGOT and SGPT. The elevated levels of SGOT and SGPTwere significantly decreased by ether and butanol fractions at P<0.001 and butanone and ethanol at p<0.05, where as petroleum ether and ethyl acetate did not shown any significant reduction in the level of SGOT and SGPT. PMID:22557330

Chimkode, Rajshekar; Patil, M B; Jalalpure, Sunil; Pasha, T Y; Sarkar, Sibaji

2009-04-01

181

Anti-inflammatory effect of Chandrashura (Lepidium sativum Linn.) an experimental study.  

PubMed

Lepidium sativum Linn. (Chandrashura) of Family Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) is being used by the people of Gujarat for treating inflammatory condition like arthritis. To evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity, Charles Foster albino rats were selected and experiments were carried out in three groups, therapeutic dose group, twice of therapeutic dose group and control group. In Carrageenan-induced paw oedema, the test drug produced moderate anti-inflammatory activity; however, the effect did not show statistically significant activity due to variation in the data of the control group. In formaldehyde-induced paw oedema in rats, the test drug produced moderate to significant suppression. This indicates that Chandrashura has a strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of fibroblasts and also probably has connective tissue modulation effect. PMID:24501528

Raval, Nita D; Ravishankar, B; Ashok, B K

2013-07-01

182

Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.  

PubMed

Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

2012-07-01

183

Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.  

PubMed Central

Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM.

Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

2012-01-01

184

Elemental analysis of Anethum gravedlens, Sismbrium Irio Linn and Veronia Anthelmintica seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to characterize As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn, and Sc in seeds of Anethum graveolens (Dill), Sisymbrium irio Linn. (Wild Mustard) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Iron Weed). Dill seed was found to contain high K while Wild Mustard has high Fe, Mn and Na levels. Iron Weed has highest Cl, Co, Cr and Zn content with least concentration of Fe. PMID:23103327

Fatima, I; Waheed, S; Zaidi, J H

2013-01-01

185

Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n=10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol\\/80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n=10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml\\/kg carbon tetrachloride

Song-Chow Lin; Chia-Hsien Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Yun-Ho Lin; Chin-Fa Chen; I-Cheng Chen; Li-Ya Wang

2002-01-01

186

IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF FRACTIONS FROM Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work is carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of fractions from ethanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris Linn. (Apocynaceae) using various in vitro tests including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH . ) free radical scavenging, metal ion chelating, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, and ferric thiocyanate reducing ability. Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were found to have significant (p<0.01)

Papiya Mitra Mazumder; L. Sathiya Narayanan; Prasad A. Thakurdesai

187

Cell suspension culture and plant regeneration in the latex-producing plant, Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) R. Br  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is outlined for the establishment of a proliferating cell suspension culture and subsequent plant regeneration\\u000a of the latex-producing plant,Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) R. Br. Friable calluses were obtained by culturing hypocotyl explants on modified Murashige and Skoog medium with\\u000a 2.69 ?M ?-naphthaleneacetic acid and 4.44 ?M 6-benzyl-aminopurine. Friable calluses were transferred to modified Murashige\\u000a and Skoog liquid medium containing

Ashis T. Roy; Anthony Koutoulis; Deepesh N. De

2000-01-01

188

Kraft Pulping of Coppice Grown Eucalypts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pulping and bleaching investigations were carried out on coppice grown Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus grandis. It was observed that bleachable grade pulps could be obtained from coppice grown eucalypts. These pulps could be bleached to 76-78% ISO ...

R. Pant A. K. Rai R. M. Mathur Y. V. Sood

1980-01-01

189

Aeromonas salmonicida grown in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The virulent fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida was rapidly killed in vivo when restricted inside a diffusion chamber implanted intraperitoneally in rainbow trout. After a period of regrowth, the survivors had acquired resistance to host-mediated bacteriolysis, phagocytosis, and oxidative killing, properties which were subsequently lost by growth in vitro. Resistance to bacteriolysis and phagocytosis was associated with a newly acquired capsular layer revealed by acidic polysaccharide staining and electron microscopy. This capsular layer shielded the underlying, regular surface array (S-layer) from immunogold labeling with a primary antibody to the S-layer protein. Resistance to oxidative killing was mediated by a mechanism not associated with the presence of the capsular layer. An attenuated vaccine strain of A. salmonicida grown in vivo failed to express the capsular layer. Consequently, the in vivo-grown cells of this attenuated strain remained as sensitive to bacteriolysis, and as avidly adherent to macrophages, as the in vitro-grown cells. The importance of these new virulence determinants and their relation to the known virulence factors of A. salmonicida are discussed. Images

Garduno, R A; Thornton, J C; Kay, W W

1993-01-01

190

Dielectric properties of rapidly grown KDP crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric properties of rapidly grown potassium dihydrogen phosphate KH2PO4 (KDP) crystals have been studied over a wide temperature range and compared with the properties of traditionally grown KDP\\u000a crystals. It was found that the contribution of domains to permittivity in rapidly grown crystals is considerably less than\\u000a in conventionally grown ones. The dielectric properties in various growth sectors of

S. V. Grabovskii; I. V. Shnaidshtein; B. A. Strukov

2003-01-01

191

Fast Plants Grown in Light and Dark  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photograph of two five-day-old Standard Fast Plants grown in Bottle Growing Systems--one grown with full light, one grown in the dark. This is a good example of a quick way to stimulate discussion about the matter and energy sources and needs that germinating seeds have in comparison to seedlings or plants.

Lauffer, Hedi B.

192

Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms.

Dada, E. O.; Ekundayo, F. O.; Makanjuola, O. O.

2014-01-01

193

Study on Phytochemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Different Parts of Alstonia scholaris Linn.  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of different parts viz., leaves, follicles and latex of Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris Linn.) R. Br. Methods: Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts against Gram +ve (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were determined by well diffusion techniques. Aantioxidant profiles of methanol extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radial scavenging and ferric thiocyanate reducing assays. Results: Phytochemical composition revealed abundance of flavonoids (97.3 mg QE/g DW), proanthocynidins (99.3 mg CE/g DW) and phenolics (49.7 mgGAE/g DW) in the leaf extract. Extracts of follicles and latex had comparatively very content of phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. However, in follicle extract level of proanthocyanidins was significantly higher (46.8 mg CE/gDW). Latex extract among others exhibited most potent antibacterial activity. All the extracts displayed strong DPPH free radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities, only leaf extract displayed powerful reducing and ferrous ion chelating activities. Conclusion: Study revealed significant antioxidant activities of A. scholaris leaf, follicles and latex extracts and potential antibacterial activity of latex extract.

Ganjewala, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

2013-01-01

194

Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloidal Fraction of Cissampelos pareira Linn.  

PubMed Central

The alkaloidal fraction (AFCP) of roots of Cissampelos pareira Linn. was screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activity in mice. The HPTLC finger print profile was also established for the identification of AFCP which was found to contain 0.176 % of berberine. AFCP possess strong antioxidant activity which was revealed by its ability to scavenge the stable free radical DPPH, superoxide ion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate induced by iron/ADP/Ascorbate complex. AFCP was found to have significant immunosuppressive activity at lower doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) while no activity was observed at higher doses (75 and 100 mg/kg). Humoral antibody titre was significantly (p<0.01) lowered by AFCP at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. Delayed type hypersensitivity response was also significantly (p<0.01) suppressed by the AFCP at the dose of 75 mg/kg. Thus the present study revealed the immunosuppressive and antioxidant activities of the alkaloidal fraction of C. pareira roots.

Bafna, Anand; Mishra, Shrihari

2010-01-01

195

Wound healing activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn with supportive role of antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to evaluate the wound healing and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (O. sanctum) in rats. Albino rats of either sex were divided into 2 groups. Group I: Wounded control rats; Group II: Wounded rats administered O. sanctum aqueous extract. Wound breaking strength in incision wound model, epithelization period and percent wound contraction in excision wound model were studied. Using dead space wound model, granulation tissue breaking strength, granulation tissue dry weight, hydoxyproline level in dry granulation tissue, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels in wet granulation tissue were estimated in both the groups. Increased wound breaking strength, decreased epithelization period, increased percent wound contraction, increased granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline concentrations were observed. The increased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, catalase level in extract treated group compared to controls. Granulation tissue was subjected to histopathological examination to determine the pattern of lay-down for collagen using Haematoxylin and Eosin stains which confirm the results. Owing to wound healing and antioxidant activities, O. sanctum may be useful in the management of abnormal healing such as keloids and hypertrophic scars. PMID:17051736

Shetty, Somashekar; Udupa, Saraswati; Udupa, Laxminarayana; Somayaji, Nagabhushana

2006-01-01

196

Cadmium accumulation characteristics of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don.  

PubMed

In a preliminary study, we found that the cadmium (Cd) concentrations in shoots of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)), indicating that these two farmland weeds might be Cd-hyperaccumulators. In this study, we grew these species in soil containing various concentrations of Cd to further evaluate their Cd accumulation characteristics. The biomasses of C. hirsuta and G. affine decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in the soil, while the root/shoot ratio and the Cd concentrations in shoot tissues increased. The Cd concentrations in shoots of C. hirsuta and G. affine reached 121.96 and 143.91 mg kg(-1), respectively, at the soil Cd concentration of 50 mg kg(-1). Both of these concentrations exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)). The shoot bioconcentration factors of C. hirsuta and G. affine were greater than 1. The translocation factor of C. hirsuta was less than 1 and that of G. affine was greater than 1. These findings indicated that C. hirsuta is a Cd-accumulator and G. affine is Cd-hyperaccumulator. Both plants are distributed widely in the field, and they could be used to remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil in winter. PMID:24519638

Lin, Lijin; Shi, Jun; Liu, Qihua; Liao, Ming'an; Mei, Luoyin

2014-07-01

197

Antioxidative polyphenols from Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitizing on Hevea brasiliensis.  

PubMed

Two new phenolic glycosides, linamarin gallate (1) and walsuraside B (2), together with nine known compounds, catechin (3), epicatechin (4), epicatechin 3-O-gallate (5), epicatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate (6), epicatechin 3-O-(3,5-O-dimethyl)gallate (7), epicatechin 3-O-(3,4,5-O-trimethyl)gallate (8), quercetin 3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (9), rutin (10), and peltatoside (11), were isolated from the leafy twigs of Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. Compound 1 was characterized as an unusual cyanogenic glycoside, while compound 8 was isolated for the first time from a natural source. This is the first report of a cyanogenic glycoside from mistletoes. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by 1D ((1)H, (13)C), 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and by mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds (1-11) were evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. PMID:23422225

Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Lai, Daowan; Okoye, Festus B C; Osadebe, Patience O; Proksch, Peter

2013-04-01

198

Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves  

PubMed Central

Background: Theobjective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL)(Nyctaginaceae) leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin. Methods: Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory potential.

Singh, Manjit; Kumar, Vijender; Singh, Ishpinder; Gauttam, Vinod; Kalia, Ajudhia Nath

2010-01-01

199

Technical note phytoremediation of triazophos by Canna indica Linn. in a hydroponic system.  

PubMed

The phytoremediation of triazophos (O, O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-base) sulfur phosphate, TAP) by Canna indica Linn. in a hydroponic system was studied. After 21 d of exposure, the removal kinetic constant (K) of TAP was 0.0229-0.0339 d(-1) and the removal percentage of TAP was 41-55% in the plant system and the K and removal percentage of TAP were about 0.002 d(-1) and 1%, respectively, in darkness and disinfected control. However, the K and removal percentage of TAP were 0.006 d(-1) and approximately 11%, respectively, in the treatment with eluate from the media of constructed wetland. The contribution of plant to the remediation of TAP was 74% and C. indica played the most important role in the hydroponic system. Under the stress of TAP and without inorganic phosphorus nutrient, the activity of phosphatase in the plant system increased and phytodegradation was observed. The production and release of phosphatase is seen as the key mechanism for C. indica to degrade TAP. C. indica, which showed the potential of phytoremediation of TAP, and is commonly used in constructed wetland, so the technique of phytoremediation of TAP from contaminated water can be developed with the combination of constructed wetland. PMID:18246772

Cheng, Shuiping; Xiao, Jin; Xiao, Huiping; Zhang, Liping; Wu, Zhenbin

2007-01-01

200

Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

Gautam, M K; Goel, R K

2014-01-01

201

Flood of June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin, Linn County, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred on June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin in Linn County, Iowa, following thunderstorm activity over east-central Iowa. The rain gage at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, recorded a 24-hour rainfall of 4.76 inches at 6:00 p.m. on June 4th. Radar indications estimated as much as 6 inches of rain fell in the headwaters of the Indian Creek Basin. Peak discharges on Indian Creek of 12,500 cubic feet per second at County Home Road north of Marion, Iowa, and 24,300 cubic feet per second at East Post Road in southeast Cedar Rapids, were determined for the flood. The recurrence interval for these peak discharges both exceed the theoretical 500-year flood as computed using flood-estimation equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Information about the basin and flood history, the 2002 thunderstorms and associated flooding, and a profile of high-water marks are presented for selected reaches along Indian and Dry Creeks.

Eash, David A.

2004-01-01

202

Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats  

PubMed Central

The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2%?w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use.

Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.

2011-01-01

203

Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Plumeria alba Linn. (Apocynaceae) Hydroalcoholic Extract in Rat  

PubMed Central

Plumeria alba Linn (Apocynaceae) is used in Togolese traditional medicine to treat diabetes mellitus and wounds. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract of Plumeria alba roots in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity test was conducted by administering orally dose of 5 g/Kg. General behavior and mortality were examined for up to 14 days. The sub-acute toxicity test was performed by daily gavage at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/Kg for 28 days. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weight were determined at the end of the 28 days administration. In acute study, no adverse effect of the extract was observed at 5.0 g/Kg. Sub-acute oral administration of the extract at the dose up to 1000 mg/Kg did not induce death or significant changes in body weight, relative weight of vital organs, hematological parameters and was not associated with liver and kidney toxicity.

Tessou, K. Z.; Lawson-Evi, P.; Metowogo, K.; Diallo, A.; Eklu-Gadegkeku, K.; Aklikokou, K.; Gbeassor, M.

2013-01-01

204

Antibacterial Activity of Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Brig Extracts from Cariri-Cear?, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The use of medicinal plants with therapeutics properties represents a secular tradition in different cultures, mainly in underdeveloped countries. Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Briq (Verbenaceae) found in tropical and subtropical areas around the world are popularly known as “camará” or “chumbinho.” In popular medicines, both plants are used as antipyretic and carminative and in the treatment of respiratory system infections. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of L. camara and L. montevidensis leaves and roots against gram-positive and gram-negative strains standard and multi-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical material are presented. In order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the microdilution method was used. The extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, but the L. montevidensis fresh leaves extract present the best result against P. aeruginosa (MIC 8 ?g/mL) and against multi-resistant E. coli (Ec 27) (MIC 16 ?g/mL). These results drive new researches with both species in order to isolate the constituents responsible for the activity.

Barreto, FS; Sousa, EO; Campos, AR; Costa, JGM; Rodrigues, FFG

2010-01-01

205

Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Plumeria alba Linn. (Apocynaceae) Hydroalcoholic Extract in Rat.  

PubMed

Plumeria alba Linn (Apocynaceae) is used in Togolese traditional medicine to treat diabetes mellitus and wounds. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract of Plumeria alba roots in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity test was conducted by administering orally dose of 5 g/Kg. General behavior and mortality were examined for up to 14 days. The sub-acute toxicity test was performed by daily gavage at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/Kg for 28 days. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weight were determined at the end of the 28 days administration. In acute study, no adverse effect of the extract was observed at 5.0 g/Kg. Sub-acute oral administration of the extract at the dose up to 1000 mg/Kg did not induce death or significant changes in body weight, relative weight of vital organs, hematological parameters and was not associated with liver and kidney toxicity. PMID:24711763

Tessou, K Z; Lawson-Evi, P; Metowogo, K; Diallo, A; Eklu-Gadegkeku, K; Aklikokou, K; Gbeassor, M

2013-12-01

206

Microscopic evaluation and seasonal variations of anthraquinone glycosides of cultivated Cassia fistula Linn.  

PubMed

In this report, we present the results of the microscopy, seasonal variations and spectrophotometric estimation of hydroxy-anthraquinone glycosides of culitivated Cassia fistula Linn. The total glycoside contents ofthe morphological parts of this species at different stages of growth are also presented. The study shows that anthraquinone glycosides are concentrated in the leaves (1.75%) and flowers (1.58%) at peak flowering. Notable seasonal variations were observed in the cultivated species. Hydroxyanthraquinones reached peak levels druing the months of September (1.08%) and October (2.20%). There was a significant drop (P < 0.05) in glycoside content during most part of the rainy season. It has been established that anthraquinone glycosides, rather than the aglycones, are the active forms and hence an estimation of the total glycoside content of a sample is a reliable indication of biological activity. The advantages of using the natural anthraquinone laxative when the glycoside content is highest are discussed. The study has provided useful information on the best period for harvesting the morphological parts of C. fistula for drug development. PMID:14510141

Abo, K A; Adeyemi, A A; Sobowale, A O

2001-01-01

207

In Vitro ?-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Extract of Amaranthus Caudatus Linn  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study was aimed to investigate the ?-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus Linn (MeAc). Methods Methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus was screened for ?-amylase inhibition activity by CNPG3 method (2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltotrioside) and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging, and 2.2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. MeAc was also screened for non enzymatic hemoglycosylation. Results The methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus showed potent ?-amylase inhibition activity (IC50 19.233 µg/ml). MeAc showed significant antioxidant activity in all the in vitro antioxidant models. Furthermore, the MeAc was found to be extremely effective in scavenging ABTS radical activity (IC50 48.75±1.1 µg/ml) when compared to DPPH (IC50 77.5±0.4 µg/ml), SOD (IC50 62.5±2.1 µg/ml), hydroxyl (IC50 88.50±1.8 µg/ml) and NO (IC50 67.5±2.2 µg/ml) scavenging activity. Conclusions The methanolic extract of A. caudatus showed potent ?-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities.

Kumar, Ashok; Khan, Saleemulla

2011-01-01

208

Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well.

Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

2012-01-01

209

Antibacterial Activity of Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Brig Extracts from Cariri-Ceará, Brazil.  

PubMed

The use of medicinal plants with therapeutics properties represents a secular tradition in different cultures, mainly in underdeveloped countries. Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Briq (Verbenaceae) found in tropical and subtropical areas around the world are popularly known as "camará" or "chumbinho." In popular medicines, both plants are used as antipyretic and carminative and in the treatment of respiratory system infections. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of L. camara and L. montevidensis leaves and roots against gram-positive and gram-negative strains standard and multi-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical material are presented. In order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the microdilution method was used. The extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, but the L. montevidensis fresh leaves extract present the best result against P. aeruginosa (MIC 8 ?g/mL) and against multi-resistant E. coli (Ec 27) (MIC 16 ?g/mL). These results drive new researches with both species in order to isolate the constituents responsible for the activity. PMID:21331189

Barreto, Fs; Sousa, Eo; Campos, Ar; Costa, Jgm; Rodrigues, Ffg

2010-01-01

210

Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit.  

PubMed

Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

Llanchezhian, R; Joseph C, Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

2012-04-01

211

Cholinesterase inhibition activity of Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. an edible leafy vegetable from West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Maesilea quadrifolia Linn. (Marsileaceae) is a leafy vegetable well known in India. The current study aims to explore the phytochemical profile of M. quadrifolia and investigate its anti-cholinesterase potential. The methanol extract of the plant was subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening (total alkaloidal content, saponin content and phenol content) and its anti-cholinesterase potential was tested by TLC bioautography and other screening methods using acytylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The study revealed that the extract contains various classes of phytoconstituents including steroids, saponins, alkaloids and other polyphenols. Total alkaloid, phenolic and saponin contents were found to be 19.3?mg?g?¹ and 158.5?±?1.02?mg?g?¹ as gallic acid equivalents and 2.63?mg?g?¹ of the extract, respectively. The TLC bioautography method exhibited the inhibition of both enzymes. In a microtiter plate assay, the IC?? values of the extract for AChE and BChE were found to be 51.89?±?0.24?µg?mL?¹ and 109.43?±?2.82?µg?mL?¹, respectively. These findings suggest that M. quadrifolia is a potential lead as an AChE and BChE inhibitor, which may be useful in the management of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21978132

Bhadra, Santanu; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Bandyopadhyay, A

2012-01-01

212

Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Karanjin in Pongamia pinnata linn. Leaves  

PubMed Central

A rapid, simple and specific reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed for analysis of karanjin in Pongamia pinnata Linn. leaves. HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column using an 85:13.5:1.5 (v/v) mixtures of methanol, water and acetic acid as isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. UV detection was at 300 nm. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity. Validation revealed the method is specific, accurate, precise, reliable and reproducible. Good linear correlation coefficients (r2>0.997) were obtained for calibration plots in the ranges tested. Limit of detection was 4.35 ?g and limit of quantification was 16.56 ?g. Intra and inter-day RSD of retention times and peak areas was less than 1.24% and recovery was between 95.05 and 101.05%. The established HPLC method is appropriate enabling efficient quantitative analysis of karanjin in Pongamia pinnata leaves.

Katekhaye, S; Kale, M. S.; Laddha, K. S.

2012-01-01

213

Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Karanjin in Pongamia pinnata linn. Leaves.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple and specific reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed for analysis of karanjin in Pongamia pinnata Linn. leaves. HPLC analysis was performed on a C(18) column using an 85:13.5:1.5 (v/v) mixtures of methanol, water and acetic acid as isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. UV detection was at 300 nm. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity. Validation revealed the method is specific, accurate, precise, reliable and reproducible. Good linear correlation coefficients (r(2)>0.997) were obtained for calibration plots in the ranges tested. Limit of detection was 4.35 ?g and limit of quantification was 16.56 ?g. Intra and inter-day RSD of retention times and peak areas was less than 1.24% and recovery was between 95.05 and 101.05%. The established HPLC method is appropriate enabling efficient quantitative analysis of karanjin in Pongamia pinnata leaves. PMID:23204626

Katekhaye, S; Kale, M S; Laddha, K S

2012-01-01

214

Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antilipid peroxidative effect of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre (Leguminosae) flowers (PpEt) in normal rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia, elevated lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)] and disturbed nonenzymatic [Vitamin E, Vitamin C and glutathione] and enzymatic antioxidants status were noticed in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata flowers (300 mg/kg bw) showed significant antihyperglycemic, and antilipidperoxidative effects and enhancement in antioxidants defense system in alloxan induced diabetic rats. However, no significant characteristic changes were noticed in blood glucose level as well as in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in normal rats treated with "PpEt" alone. We have also observed that the "PpEt" considerably reduced the blood glucose concentration in a similar extent to that of the reference drug glibenclamide (600 microg/kg bw) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Our results thus suggested that the "PpEt" could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients. PMID:16271443

Punitha, R; Manoharan, S

2006-04-21

215

Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.  

PubMed

The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity. PMID:20067869

Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

2010-01-01

216

Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extracts inhibit acetylcholinesterase and improve cognition in rats with experimentally induced dementia.  

PubMed

Cognitive disorders such as dementia, attention deficits, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been well investigated. However, effective interventions for the promotion and progression of AD are unavailable to date. The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous (300 and 500 mg/kg) and alcoholic (300 and 500 mg/kg) extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves as an antidementic and anticholinesterase agent and also as an immunostimulant in rats. Maximal electroshock, atropine, and cyclosporine were used to induce dementia. The passive avoidance task was used for assessing memory. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was estimated in different parts of the brain, and immune status was studied using dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) skin sensitivity tests. In all the three models both aqueous and alcoholic O. sanctum extracts decreased the time taken to reach the shock-free zone and the number of mistakes and significantly decreased the AChE activity in rats. O. sanctum treatment significantly increased the induration in the DNCB skin test. Therefore, O. sanctum was shown to be useful for the management of experimentally induced cognitive dysfunctions in rats. PMID:21812651

Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Mani, Vasudevan; Ashok Dundapa, Taranalli; Watanabe, Kenichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

2011-09-01

217

Study on Phytochemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Different Parts of Alstonia scholaris Linn.  

PubMed

Purpose: To evaluate phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of different parts viz., leaves, follicles and latex of Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris Linn.) R. Br. Methods: Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts against Gram +ve (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were determined by well diffusion techniques. Aantioxidant profiles of methanol extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radial scavenging and ferric thiocyanate reducing assays. Results: Phytochemical composition revealed abundance of flavonoids (97.3 mg QE/g DW), proanthocynidins (99.3 mg CE/g DW) and phenolics (49.7 mgGAE/g DW) in the leaf extract. Extracts of follicles and latex had comparatively very content of phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. However, in follicle extract level of proanthocyanidins was significantly higher (46.8 mg CE/gDW). Latex extract among others exhibited most potent antibacterial activity. All the extracts displayed strong DPPH free radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities, only leaf extract displayed powerful reducing and ferrous ion chelating activities. Conclusion: Study revealed significant antioxidant activities of A. scholaris leaf, follicles and latex extracts and potential antibacterial activity of latex extract. PMID:24312864

Ganjewala, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

2013-01-01

218

Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk.  

PubMed

Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B; Rawat, A K S

2013-01-01

219

Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms. PMID:24711746

Dada, E O; Ekundayo, F O; Makanjuola, O O

2014-03-01

220

Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.  

PubMed

Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

2012-01-01

221

Anti-metastatic potential of Punarnavine, an alkaloid from Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.  

PubMed

The alkaloid Punarnavine isolated from the plant Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. was studied for its anti-metastatic activity using B16F-10 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice. Administration of Punarnavine (40mg/kg body weight) prophylactically (95.25%), simultaneously (93.9%) and 10 days after tumor inoculation (80.1%) could inhibit the metastatic colony formation of melanoma in lungs. Survival rate of the metastatic tumor-bearing animals were increased significantly by the administration of Punarnavine in all the modalities compared to the metastasis bearing untreated control. These results correlated with the biochemical parameters such as lung collagen hydroxyl proline, uronic acid, hexosamine, serum sialic acid, serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels and histopathological studies. Punarnavine administration could suppress or down regulate the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 (MMP--matrix metalloproteinase), ERK-1, ERK-2 (ERK--extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) and VEGF in the lung tissue of metastasis-induced animals. Punarnavine could inhibit MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression in gelatin zymographic analysis of B16F-10 cells. These results indicate Punarnavine could inhibit the metastatic progression of B16F-10 melanoma cells in mice. PMID:19171408

Manu, K A; Kuttan, Girija

2009-01-01

222

Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. Conclusions The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds.

Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A.T.M.; Howlader, Md. Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

2012-01-01

223

Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim.

Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

2014-01-01

224

Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

2013-01-01

225

Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study.  

PubMed

Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M; Thakar, Anup B; Baghel, Madhav Singh

2012-07-01

226

Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study  

PubMed Central

Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules.

Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

2012-01-01

227

Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.  

PubMed

Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?70-90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(-) scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

Kaur, Tarandeep; Hussain, Khadim; Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

2013-01-01

228

Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts mitigate UVB-induced erythema.  

PubMed

Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaves have been used in tropical folk medicine to treat topical inflammation and burns. A carbomer gel base, containing the ethanol extract and juice pressed from the leaves, was evaluated for potential allergenic properties in a repeat-insult patch test in 49 volunteers. To investigate the topical photo-protective properties, the combined ethanol extract and leaf juice were evaluated in a UVB-induced erythema model in 25 volunteers. The crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves was also evaluated in vitro for potential anti-inflammatory activity in a histamine H-1 receptor antagonism assay. There was no evidence of allergenic potential in the repeat-insult patch test. When the combination of ethanol extract and leaf juice was applied, the UVB dose required to induce erythema was almost 3.5 times greater than with untreated skin (P < 0.001). In the histamine H-1 receptor-binding assay, the crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves inhibited receptor binding by 57%. These results suggest that M. citrifolia leaves are safe for topical use and may be useful in mitigating UVB-induced injury to the skin. PMID:19283442

West, Brett J; Deng, Shixin; Palu, Afa K; Jensen, C Jarakae

2009-07-01

229

Diurnal fluctuations in oxygen release from roots of Acorus calamus Linn in a modeled constructed wetland.  

PubMed

Oxygen is known to be released from plant roots, but has seldom been quantified for wetland plants. Our study aims to quantify oxygen release from the roots of one wetland species in China, and use this knowledge as a basis for future modeling. We measured diurnal fluctuations in oxygen release from the roots of Acorus calamus Linn in a modeled constructed wetland (CW) using a titanium ([image omitted]) citrate buffer. Oxygen release was monitored every two hours. Maximum oxygen release was recorded in the range of 215.2-750.8 ?molg(-1)h(-1) and occurred around 15:00. The maximum value of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was in the range of 1281.8-1712.0 mmolm(-2)s(-1) and occurred around 13:00. Both the oxygen release rate and PAR were found to approach zero at night. Our results indicate that oxygen release depends largely on light intensity and exhibits a diurnal periodicity with release occurring only during daytime. Rate of root oxygen release varied during the daytime and this temporal variation was well described by the Gaussian function. While further validation is needed, we suggest that the Gaussian function may be used as the basis for modeling root oxygen release in natural and constructed wetlands. PMID:21279892

Dong, C; Zhu, W; Gao, M; Zhao, L F; Huang, J Y; Zhao, Y Q

2011-01-01

230

Protic acid resin enhanced 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride pretreatment of Arundo donax Linn.  

PubMed

To improve the cellulose digestibility of energy crop Arudo donax Linn. with cost-efficient, a novel pretreatment of protic acid resin Amberlyst 35DRY catalyzed inexpensive ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) was developed in this work. The pretreatment was performed at 160°C with [C4mim]Cl for 1.5h, followed by Amberlyst 35DRY catalyzed at 90°C for 1h. The IL-Amberlyst pretreatment was demonstrated to be effective, evidenced by the reduction in cellulose crystallinity (31.4%) and increased porosity caused by extensive swelling the undissolved biomass and partial depolymerization of the longer cellulose chain of the dissolved biomass by Amberlyst. Consequently, a higher glucose yield (92.8%) was obtained than for the single [C4mim]Cl pretreatment (42.8%) at an enzyme loading of 20FPU/g substrate. Overall, the enhanced pretreatment was competitive by using inexpensive and recyclable IL-Amberlyst 35DRY pretreated system with shorter processing time and reduced enzyme usage. PMID:25001325

You, Tingting; Zhang, Liming; Zhou, Sukun; Xu, Feng

2014-09-01

231

Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipidperoxidant effects of Cassia occidentalis Linn.  

PubMed

Cassia occidentalis Linn. mast cell degranulation at a dose of 250 mg/kg, showed dose dependent stabilizing activity towards human RBC, with is widely used in traditional medicine of India to treat a number of clinical conditions including allergy and inflammatory manifestations. In the present study anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of C. occidentalis whole plant ethanolic extract (CO) was investigated. Effects of CO on rat mast cell degranulation inhibition and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization were studied in vitro following standard methods. The anti lipidperoxidant effects of CO were also studied in vitro. Effect of CO on carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema inhibition was also assessed. CO significantly decreased maximum protection of 80.8% at 15 microg/ml. The extract also caused significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of murine hepatic microsomes at 100 microg/ml (56%) and significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in mice at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Results of the present study indicated that CO inhibited mast cell degranulation, stabilized HRBC membrane thereby alleviating immediate hypersensitivity besides showing anti oxidant activity. PMID:20795367

Sreejith, G; Latha, P G; Shine, V J; Anuja, G I; Suja, S R; Sini, S; Shyama, S; Pradeep, S; Shikha, P; Rajasekharan, S

2010-05-01

232

A comparative antibacterial evaluation of raw and processed Guñj? (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds  

PubMed Central

Background: Seed of Guñj? (Abrus precatorius Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Guñj? in diseases like Indralupta (alopecia), ?otha (edema), K?mi (helminthes), Ku??ha (skin diseases), Ka??u (itching), Prameha (urinary disorders) etc., after being treated with specific ?odhana (purification) procedures. Objective: To assess the antimicrobial action of of raw and ?hodhita (Processed) Guñj? seeds Methods: Guñj? seeds after being processed with Godugdha (cow's milk), Nimbu swarasa (Lemon juice), K?ñj? (Sour gruel) and water, as the media, were evaluated for its antibacterial effect against clinically important bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method. Results: Aqueous extracts of raw seeds of Guñj? exert its antibacterial effect on both Gram positive, as well as Gram negative bacteria but none of the ?odhita Guñj? seeds showed any bactericidal effect on any bacterial strains. Chloroform extracts of all the ?odhita Guñj? seed extracts could inhibit bacterial growth but with variations Conclusion: The study displayed that chloroform extracts of raw and ?odhita samples for bacterial study were much sensitive than the aqueous extracts.

Roy, Sudipta; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Mandal, Narayan C.; Barman, Soma; Ghosh, Ranjan; Roy, Rajiv

2012-01-01

233

Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit  

PubMed Central

Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application.

llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

2012-01-01

234

Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

2012-07-01

235

Study of the synergistic anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and Cassia fistula Linn  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Nonsteroidal and steroidal drugs are generally used as a part of drug therapy in inflammation. However, these drugs have severe side-effects like nausea and vomiting. Therefore, there is a need to identify anti-inflammatory compounds that will be effective with a better safety profile. Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and Cassia fistula Linn has many therapeutic uses mentioned in Ayurveda and therefore we aimed to study its anti-inflammatory activity both alone and in combination. Materials and Methods: The water extract of dried fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and dried pulp of Cassia fistula Linn was prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts was investigated using the carragenan-induced paw edema model in rats individually and in two different combinations. ED50 of both the extracts singly and in combination were calculated by dose-response curves, and this information was then plotted on the isobologram. The interaction index of the extracts was also investigated to determine whether both the extracts in combination show synergistic or antagonistic or additive effects. Results: It was observed that extracts of dried fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum showed more anti-inflammatory activity than dried fruits of Cassia fistula Linn. Both the extracts showed maximum anti-inflammatory activity at 500 mg/kg dose. Among the different dose combinations of both the extracts, the 1:1 combination at the 500 mg/kg dose showed maximum percentage inhibition of 75%, which was comparable with the positive control, diclofenac sodium, which showed 81% inhibition. Conclusion: As revealed by the isobolograms, both the combinations fell below the additivity line, which indicates synergistic interactions between Solanum xanthocarpum and Cassia fistula extracts. Interaction indices of both combinations were observed to be <1, which re-demonstrated the synergistic effects of the combination.

Anwikar, Shraddha; Bhitre, Milind

2010-01-01

236

Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 ± 0.49 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 ± 0.87 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion and gastric ulcers in ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl induced and 90% ethanol-induced ulcer models.

Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

2009-01-01

237

Analysis of 7Li(n,n')7Li* reactions using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study 7Li(n,n')7Li* reactions by using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method with the complex Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. In this study, the 7Li nucleus is described by an ?+t cluster model. The calculated elastic cross sections for incident energies between 11.5 and 24.0 MeV show good agreements with experimental data. Furthermore, we calculate the neutron spectra of 7Li ground and excited breakup states measured at selected angular points for incident energies of 11.5 and 18.0 MeV. The results reproduce the observed data systematically.

Ichinkhorloo, D.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kat?, K.; Aikawa, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Chiba, S.

2012-12-01

238

Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.  

PubMed

The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction. PMID:23648758

Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

2013-07-01

239

Role of Aloe barbadensis Linn in the Removal of Toxic Heavy Metal of Kukkutandatwak (Shell of Hen's Egg): A Drug Used in Indian System of Medicine (Ayurveda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Kukkutandatwak (Shell of hen's egg) is being used as calcium supplement in Ayurveda (Indian system of medicine).The present study is intended to standardisation of Kukkutandatwak (shell of hen's egg) and Aloe barbadensis Linn. The standardisation were carried out as per Pharmacopoeial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations and WHO guidelines of quality control for medicinal plants. The potential of heavy

Alok Sharma; V. Rao; R. K. Tiwari; Lalit Kumar Tyagi; M. L. Kori; Virendra Singh; Kalpesh Gaur; Kruna Shankar

240

No effect of acute, single dose oral administration of Momordica charantia Linn., on glycemia, energy expenditure and appetite: A pilot study in non-diabetic overweight men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyMomordica charantia Linn. Cucurbitaceae (MC), has been used to treat glycemic impairment in humans for centuries. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of MC on postprandial glucose levels, energy expenditure\\/fuel mixture and appetite in overweight men.

Gursevak S. Kasbia; Jon Thor Arnason; Pascal Imbeault

2009-01-01

241

Extraction, processing, and storage effects on curcuminoids and oleoresin yields from Curcuma longa L. grown in Jamaica.  

PubMed

Aromatic diarylheptanoid compounds from Curcuma longa Linn grown in Jamaica were quantified by UV-vis spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses. The oleoresin yields from ethanolic extracts were quantified and evaluated with regard to the effects of the type of postharvesting process and the type of extraction method conducted on the plant material. Fresh samples that were hot solvent extracted provided the highest oleoresin yields of 15.7% +/- 0.4 ( n = 3), and the lowest oleoresin yields of 7.8% +/- 0.2 ( n = 3) were from the dried milled samples that were cold solvent extracted. Data from the ASTA spectrophotometer assay confirmed that dried samples contained the highest curcuminoid content of 55.5% +/- 2.2 ( n = 6) at the fifth month of storage, and the fresh samples showed a curcuminoid content of 47.1% +/- 6.4 ( n = 6) at the third month of storage. A modified HPLC analysis was used to quantify curcumin content. Data from the HPLC analysis confirmed that the dried treated, hot extracted, room temperature stored samples had the highest curcumin content of 24.3%. A novel high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method provided a chemical fingerprint of the C. longa with the use of a commercial curcumin standard. PMID:18454547

Green, Cheryl E; Hibbert, Sheridan L; Bailey-Shaw, Yvonne A; Williams, Lawrence A D; Mitchell, Sylvia; Garraway, Eric

2008-05-28

242

Study of wound healing activity of Tectona grandis Linn. leaf extract on rats  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim of the study is to determine the wound healing activity of Tectona grandis (TG) Linn. leaf extract on rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy albino rats (150-200 g) of either sex were taken for excision and incision wound model. Animals were divided into four groups of six animals in each group. For Group simple ointment served as control. The Groups 2 and 3 had 5 and 10% ointment of TG leaf extract and Group 4 soframycin ointment served as standard. In excision wound percentage of wound contraction was assessed, whereas in incision wound tensile strength was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by t-test. Results: In excision wound model, 5% ointment of TG leaf extract showed a reduction in wound area 8th day onwards. Reduction in wound area was very significant (P < 0.01) as compared to control. Whereas 10% ointment of TG leaf extract and standard showed a reduction in wound area fourth day onwards, which was highly significant (P < 0.001) as compared to control. In incision wound model, animals treated with 5% ointment of TG leaf extract showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in tensile strength as compare to control. However, animals treated with 10% ointment of TG leaf extract showed very significant (P < 0.001) increase in tensile strength as compare with control. However, animals treated with soframycin showed highly significant (P < 0.001) increase in tensile strength as compare with control. Conclusions: TG leaf extract showed significant wound healing activity.

Varma, Sushilkumar B.; Giri, Sapna P.

2013-01-01

243

Arsenic toxicity in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.): significance of potassium nutrition.  

PubMed

In a hydroponic culture, experiments were performed to study the influence of potassium (K) supplementation (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg L(-1)) on the arsenic (As; 0, 8, and 10 mg L(-1))-accrued changes in growth traits (plant biomass, root-shoot length) and the contents of lepidine, As and K, in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) at 10 days after treatment. The changes in these traits were correlated with shoot proline content, protein profile, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11). In general, As-alone treatments significantly decreased the growth traits but lead to significant enhancements in shoot proline and enzyme activities. K-supplementation to As-treated L. sativum seedlings decreased shoot-As content, reduced As-induced decreases in growth traits but enhanced the content of shoot proline, and the activities of the studied enzymes maximally with K100 + As8 and As10 mg L(-1). Both 8 and 10 mg L(-1) of As drastically downregulated the shoot proteins ranging from 43-65 kDa. With As10 mg L(-1), there was a total depletion of protein bands below 23 kDa; however, K80 mg L(-1) maximally recovered and upregulated the protein bands. Additionally, protein bands were downregulated (at par with As-alone treatment) above K80 mg L(-1) level. Interestingly, As-stress increased lepidine content in a dose-dependent manner which was further augmented with the K-supplementation. It is suggested that K protects L. sativum against As-toxicity by decreasing its accumulation and strengthening antioxidant defense system and protein stability. PMID:23529401

Umar, Shahid; Gauba, Nidhi; Anjum, Naser A; Siddiqi, Tariq O

2013-09-01

244

Evaluation of Tribulus terrestris Linn (Zygophyllaceae) acetone extract for larvicidal and repellence activity against mosquito vectors.  

PubMed

Acetone extracts of leaves and seeds from the Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) were tested against mature and immature different mosquito vectors under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, properties 100 per cent mortality in the 3rd-instar larvae was observed in the bioassays with An. culicifacies Giles species A, An. stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn, against 200 ppm of the leaf acetone extract and 100 ppm seed acetone extract. The LC50 values of leaf acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 117, 124, 168 and 185 ppm respectively. The LC50 values of seed acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 100, 72, 91 and 91 ppm respectively. It is confirmed from the LC50 values that the seed acetone extract of T. terrestris is more effective compared to leaf extracts. A significant (P<0.004) higher concentration of acetone extract leaf was required to kill equal number of larvae i.e. against acetone extract of seed. The seed acetone extract showed strong repellent activity against adults mosquitoes. Per cent protection obtained against Anopheles culicifacies species A 100% repellency in 1 h, 6 h; Anopheles stephensi 100% repellency in 0 h, 4 h, 6 h; and Culex quinquefasciatus 100% repellency in 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, at 10% concentration respectively. Against Deet- 2.5% An. culicifacies Giles species A has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, An. stephensi Liston 99% repellency in 4 h, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h. PMID:19579717

Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Singh, R K; Mohanty, S S; Dash, A P

2008-12-01

245

Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss.  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 ± 0.47, compared to 1.05 ± 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 ± 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 ± 0.06 as compared with 0.23 ± 0.03 and 1.12 ± 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

2014-01-01

246

Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 ± 0.47, compared to 1.05 ± 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 ± 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 ± 0.06 as compared with 0.23 ± 0.03 and 1.12 ± 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia.

Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

2014-01-01

247

Pharmacognostic standardization, physico- and phytochemical evaluation of amaranthus spinosus linn. Root.  

PubMed

Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Amaranthaceae) is found throughout India. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because it is a medicinal plant employed in the Indian traditional system of medicine. Pharmacognostic standardization; physico-and phytochemical evaluation of the roots of Amaranthus spinosus was carried out, to determine its macro-and microscopical characters, and also some of its quantitative standards. Microscopical studies were done by using the trinocular microscope. Total ash, water-soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, sulfated ash values, and alcohol-and water-soluble extractive values were determined for physico-chemical evaluations. A preliminary phytochemical screening was also done to detect different phytoconstituents. Microscopically, the root showed cork, cortex, stellar region, and calcium oxalate crystals. Powder microscopy showed anamalous secondary growth in between the xylem vessels and Calcium Oxalate crystals in the cortex region. Total ash was approximately three times more than acid insoluble and water soluble ash. The ethanol soluble extractive was approximately the same as the water soluble extractive. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the Petroleum-ether extract using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (6 : 1), showed six spots. In the chloroform extract, using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (4 : 1) nine spots were seen, and in the ethanol extract, using Chloroform: Methanol (93 : 7), only four spots were observed, using Iodine vapor as a viewing medium. Phytochemically, the root exhibited terpenes, alkaloids, glycosides, and sugars. These findings might be useful to supplement information with regard to its identification parameters, which are assumed significant in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs, in the present scenario, which lacks regulatory laws to control the quality of herbal drugs. PMID:21897662

Jhade, D; Ahirwar, D; Jain, R; Sharma, Nk; Gupta, S

2011-07-01

248

Molecule diagram from space-grown crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers' at Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, in Buffalo, N.Y. have analyzed the molecular structures of insulin crystals grown during Space Shuttle experiments and are unlocking the mystery of how insulin works.

2004-01-01

249

Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 ?M). When tested on K+ (80 mM)-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 ?M)-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 ?M), caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml) also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml). The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic component(s) was separated in the organic fraction, whereas the spasmogenic component was concentrated in the aqueous fraction. Conclusion These results indicate that A. spinosus possesses laxative activity partially mediated through cholinergic action. The spasmolytic effect was mediated through calcium channel blocking (CCB), while bronchodilator activity through a combination of ?-adrenergic and CCB pathways, which may explain the traditional uses of A. spinosus in gut and airways disorders.

2012-01-01

250

Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week). In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage) and ?-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage), respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results: In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 ?g/ml of eTT and ?-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 ?g of ?-tocopherol/?g of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd levels in testicular tissue. Co-treatment with eTT and ?-tocopherol significantly reduced the Cd burden in the testes along with reversal of the Cd-induced changes. Conclusions: eTT exhibited protective effect against Cd-induced testicular damage. The protective effect appears to be mediated through inhibition of testicular tissue peroxidation by antioxidant and metal chelator activity and also, may be indirectly by stimulating the testosterone production from Leydig cells.

Rajendar, B.; Bharavi, K.; Rao, G. S.; Kishore, P.V.S; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, C.S.V Satish; Patel, T. Pankaj

2011-01-01

251

Antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract.  

PubMed

Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that some members of Anacardiaceae family possess antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects in man and mammalian experimental animals. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory, analgesic and antidiabetic properties of the stem-bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica Linn., M. indica a member of the Anacardiaceae family, in rats and mice. The stem-bark powder of M. indica was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The analgesic effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the hot-plate and acetic acid test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the stem-bark extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. M. indica stem-bark aqueous extract (MIE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (p<0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and caused significant (p<0.05-0.001) hypoglycemic effects in rats. It is suggested that the analgesic effects of MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) may be peripherally and centrally mediated. The different chemical constituents of the plant, especially the polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, mangiferin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant may be involved in the observed antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects of the plant's extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant in the management and control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management of adult-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus in some rural African communities. PMID:16273134

Ojewole, J A O

2005-10-01

252

Comparison Of LEC-Grown And VGF-Grown GaSb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaSb 2'' diameter ingots doped with Tellurium have been grown by Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) on a (1 0 0) orientation. The ingots were grown in quartz crucibles with the use of an encapsulant and both 6 mm diameter and 50 mm diameter seeds. Twinning in the seed or in the cone of the crucible occurred in almost all cases when a 6 mm diameter seed was used, while using full-diameter (50 mm ID) seeds with a carefully controlled diameter resulted in single-crystal growth. The quality of the VGF-grown GaSb:Te from both 6 mm and full-diameter seeds has been compared to our commercially produced Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) grown GaSb. The donor density and raman spectra of the VGF-grown GaSb are comparable to the electronic properties of LEC-grown GaSb, but slightly lower mobilities for the VGF-material are observed. The etch pit density (EPD) in VGF-grown GaSb from 6 mm diameter seeds is extremely low, around 5 per cm2. As expected the EPD of LEC-grown GaSb is significantly higher, due to the higher stress induced in the material during growth. Interestingly, the EPD for GaSb grown by VGF from full diameter seeds is comparable to the EPD from LEC-grown material. It is believed that seeding in VGF-growth induces stress and, therefore, a higher EPD. The use of small seeds ensures that dislocations can grow out. The crystal quality of the three materials is compared by comparing the X-ray rocking curves. LEC-grown GaSb and VGF-grown GaSb from full-diameter and 6 mm diameter seeds show a FWHM of 14.6, 15.1, and 20.7 arcsec, respectively.

Reijnen, L.; Brunton, R.; Grant, I. R.

2004-11-01

253

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2.

Habib, M. Rowshanul

2009-01-01

254

Bioassay-guided isolation of a sesquiterpene lactone of deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber Linn. active on Trypanosome brucei rhodesience.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of 70 Malaysia plants were screened for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity using Trypanosome brucei rhodesience, strain STIB 900 and mouse skeletal cell (L-6) in cytotoxicity activity assay. Results indicated that methanol extract from Elephantopus scaber Linn. (E. scaber) possessed the highest value of antitrypanosomal activity with good selectivity index (antitrypanosomal IC50 of 0.22±0.02 ?g/ml, SI value of 204.55). Based on these results, E. scaber was chosen for further study by applying bioassay guided fractionation to isolate its antiprotozoal principle. The antiprotozoal principle was isolated from the ethyl acetate partition through solvent fractionation and crystallization process. The isolated active compound 1 was identified as deoxyelephantopin on the basis of its spectral analysis (FTIR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). PMID:24269185

Zahari, Zuriati; Jani, Nor Akmalazura; Amanah, Azimah; Latif, Mohd Naffidi Abdul; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul; Adenan, Mohd Ilham

2014-02-15

255

Lantana camara Linn leaf extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile one-step green synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and the leaf extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae family) at room temperature. The leaf extract enriched in various types of plant secondary metabolites is highly efficient for the reduction of chloroaurate ions into metallic gold and stabilizes the synthesized AuNPs without any additional stabilizing or capping agents. Detailed characterizations of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The synthesized AuNPs have been utilized as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature under mild reaction condition. The kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Hota, Poulami

2014-05-01

256

Effect of new rotenoid glycoside from the fruits of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE on the growth of human immune cells.  

PubMed

A new compound, rotenoid isoflavone glycoside named, 6'-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosyl-12a-hydroxydalpanol was isolated from the methanolic (MeOH) fruit extract of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE by means of multi-stage column chromatography. Immuno-modulatory activities of this new glycoside were compared with the partitioned fractions of Amorpha fruticosa LINNE. Both of the fractions and purified single compound showed a 19% relatively low cytotoxicity at a maximum concentration of 1.0 g/L in a cultivated normal human lung cell line (HEL299). The purified single compound showed less cytotoxicity than the crude extracts, possibly because residual toxicants were eliminated during purification processes. Cell growth of human T cells was increased by about 15% by adding 0.5 g/L of the fractions compared to the control. Specific production rates of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) from T cell were higher as 1.16 x 10(-4) and 1.86 x 10(-4 )pg/cell, respectively, in the purified compound, compared to 1.38 x 10(-4) and 2.22 x 10(-4 )pg/cell, respectively, by adding 0.5 g/L of the dichloromethane fraction. Natural killer cell-92MI (NK-92MI) growth supplemented with the supernatant of human T cell was up to 19% higher with the dichloromethane fraction compared with a new single compound at a concentration of 0.5 g/L. Overall, the dichloromethane fraction showed relatively higher immuno-modulatory activities compared with a new single compound, probably due to the synergic effect given by other substances existing in the fractions. PMID:19002880

Lee, Hak Ju; Kang, Ha Young; Kim, Cheol Hee; Kim, Hyo Sung; Kwon, Min Chul; Kim, Sang Moo; Shin, Il Shik; Lee, Hyeon Yong

2006-11-01

257

Relationship between browning and related enzymes (PAL, PPO and POD) in rambutan fruit ( Nephelium lappaceum Linn.) cvs. Rongrien and See-Chompoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Linn.) fruit cvs. Rongrien and See-Chompoo were stored in low (60–70%) and high (85–95%) relative humidity (RH) environments at 25°C for 6 d. Changes in weight loss, browning index, phenols content and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were measured. By d 6 of storage, browning was severe in the spinterns but

P. Yingsanga; V. Srilaong; S. Kanlayanarat; S. Noichinda; W. B. McGlasson

2008-01-01

258

Purification of three orally active hypoglycemic compounds Kakara Ib, IIIa 1 and IIIb 1 from the unripe fruits of Momordica charantia Linn (Bitter gourd)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three orally active hypoglycemic compounds Kakara Ib, IIIa1 and IIIb1 were purified from the unripe fruits ofMomordica charantia Linn (bitter gourd). Powder of the dried fruits was extracted with benzene and the extract was purified further by sillicic\\u000a acid column chromatography. They were homogeneous by HPLC. Kakara Ib (400 mg\\/kg), IIIa1 (100 mg\\/kg) and IIIb1 (300 mg\\/kg) improved glucose tolerance

S. Pugazhenthi; P. S. Murthy

1996-01-01

259

Effect of urea molasses mineral granules (UMMG) on rumen fermentation pattern and blood biochemical constituents in goat kids fed sola (Aeschonomene indica Linn) grass-based diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on twenty graded jamunapari goat kids fed on four different groups. Group I was fed solely on roughage, i.e. sola (Aeschonomene indica Linn) grass hay and rice straw (70:30). Groups II, III and IV were fed on de-oiled rice bran (100 g\\/d), urea molasses mineral granules (50 g\\/d) and urea molasses mineral granules (50 g\\/d) plus

Nisha Jain; Sita Prasad Tiwari; Pushpraj Singh

260

Protective effects of burdock ( Arctium lappa Linne) on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effects of burdock (Arctium lappa Linne) on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and nitric oxide production were investigated. The results showed that methanolic extracts of burdock (MEB) and their major components, chlorogenic acid (CHA) and caffeic acid (CA), showed marked antioxidant activity against oxidative damage of liposome (p<0.05), deoxyribose (p<0.05) and protein (p<0.05). In addition, at a concentration

Bor-Sen Wang; Gow-Chin Yen; Lee-Wen Chang; Wen-Jye Yen; Pin-Der Duh

2007-01-01

261

Antidiabetic effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract in a high fat diet STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rat model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-diabetic effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract (SA) was studied in male Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were divided into seven groups of six animals\\u000a each. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by feeding them with a high fat diet for 2 weeks followed by intraperitoneal\\u000a injection of 35 mg\\/kg\\/body weight (b. wt.) of streptozotocin.

Haseena Banu Hedayathullah Khan; Kaladevi Siddhi Vinayagam; Shanthi Palanivelu; Sachdanandam Panchanatham

262

Comparison Of LEC-Grown And VGF-Grown GaSb  

Microsoft Academic Search

GaSb 2'' diameter ingots doped with Tellurium have been grown by Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) on a (1 0 0) orientation. The ingots were grown in quartz crucibles with the use of an encapsulant and both 6 mm diameter and 50 mm diameter seeds. Twinning in the seed or in the cone of the crucible occurred in almost all cases

L. Reijnen; R. Brunton; I. R. Grant

2004-01-01

263

Wood quality from fast-grown plantations  

SciTech Connect

As forestry becomes more intensive and as forestry operations move toward the tropical areas, an increasing proportion of the wood available to the industry will come from young, fast-grown plantations. The wood of such trees, especially from the conifers, is so different that it will have a major effect on utilization and product standards. Acceptability of wood from fast-grown plantations will change as solid wood and paper quality standards change. Some of the primary effects on wood and products from fast-grown plantations are discussed in this paper. The wood is very suitable for some products and poor for others. The paper reports on conifers and hardwoods separately, with a large section on Eucalyptus.

Zobel, B.

1981-01-01

264

Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years especially, under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 microns, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 microns. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be discussed in detail.

Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

265

Ion implanted epitaxially grown ZnSe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The epitaxial growth of ZnSe on (100) Ge using the close-spaced transport process is described. Substrate temperature of 575 C and source temperatures of 675 C yield 10 micron, single crystal layers in 10 hours. The Ge substrates provides a nonreplenishable chemical transport agent and the epitaxial layer thickness is limited to approximately 10 microns. Grown epitaxial layers show excellent photoluminescence structure at 77 K. Grown layers exhibit high resistivity, and annealing in Zn vapor at 575 C reduces the resistivity to 10-100 ohms-cm. Zinc vapor annealing quenches the visible photoluminescence.

1974-01-01

266

Molecule diagram from earth-grown crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Like many chemicals in the body, the three-dimensional structure of insulin is extremely complex. When grown on the ground, insulin crystals do not grow as large or as ordered as researchers desire--obscuring the blueprint of the insulin molecules.

2004-01-01

267

Grown-ups Ought To Know Better.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the articles by Sam Brightman collected in this volume from the newsletter, "Adult & Continuing Education Today (ACET)" are the following: "Grown-Ups Ought to Know Better"; "Adult Education: The Only Sure Factor Is Growth"; "Adult Education Important in This Election Year"; "Will Nursery School External Degree Programs Come Next?";…

Brightman, Samuel C.

268

Cannabis plants illicitly grown in Jutland (Denmark).  

PubMed

Four hundred forty-nine fresh cannabis plants and 26 fruiting tops harvested in Jutland (Denmark) from July to September 1988 were characterized according to weight, height, marihuana yield, and cannabinoid content. The median weights were 308 g and 584 g for plants grown outdoors (n = 418) and in greenhouses (n = 31), respectively. The average marihuana yield was 8.7% for the plants grown outdoors and slightly lower for the greenhouse plants. Great variations, however, were seen both between and within the individual harvests. The mean concentration of total THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) was 0.87% for the plants grown outdoors. An increase according to the month of harvest was observed. For plants grown in greenhouses the mean value of total THC was 1.35%, while the mean concentration of fruiting tops was 2.13%. All plants contained cannabidiol (CBD), but only negligible concentrations of other cannabinoids. In approximately 80% of the plants the THC content was higher than the CBD content (drug type), while the rest either contained equal concentrations (intermediate type) or most CBD (fiber type). PMID:2544068

Kaa, E

1989-01-01

269

Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers  

SciTech Connect

We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States) [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain)] [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2013-06-17

270

Epitaxial lead titanate grown by MBE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epitaxial PbTiO 3 films have been grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on (100) LaAlO 3 substrates. Lead is supplied from a conventional effusion cell. Titanium is sublimated from a Ti-Ball™, and oxygen is supplied in the form of purified ozone. Atomic layer-by-layer composition control is obtained using real-time atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) feedback. The titanium flux is controlled with a shutter directly coupled to the titanium AA feedback to deliver a burst corresponding to one monolayer of titania. Similarly, lead is monitored in situ using an atomic absorption signal. An adsorption-controlled growth mechanism leads to the use of a lead overpressure to insure films with proper stoichiometries. Film structure is studied during growth using in situ RHEED. 4-circle X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that films grown on LaAlO 3 are epitaxial and are mixed a- and c-axis oriented.

Theis, C. D.; Schlom, D. G.

1997-04-01

271

Gate oxynitride grown in nitric oxide (NO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gate oxynitride was grown in NO for the first time. This approach can provide a tight N accumulation near the Si\\/SiO2 interface. Much lower thermal budget is required for an NO process than an N2O process to produce an oxynitride with useful properties. Submicron MOSFET's with NO oxynitride showed superior current drive characteristics and comparable hot carrier immunity to those

Y. Okada; P. J. Tobin; K. G. Reid; R. I. Hegde; B. Maiti; S. A. Ajuria

1994-01-01

272

Mineral composition of organically grown tomato  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

Ghambashidze, Giorgi

2014-05-01

273

Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves  

PubMed Central

To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16th days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future.

Biswas, D.; Yoganandam, G. P.; Dey, A.; Deb, L.

2013-01-01

274

Anti-aggressive activity of a standardized extract of Marsilea minuta Linn. in rodent models of aggression.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate in vivo anti-aggressive potential of a standardized extract of Marsilea minuta Linn. (Marsileaceae). The standardized extract of Marsilea minuta was evaluated for its potential effects against defensive and offensive aggressive behavior models of rodents. Marsilea minuta extract was orally administered at three dose levels (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW) once daily for 14 consecutive days as a suspension in polyethylene glycol (PEG), diazepam (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a standard anti-aggressive agent. Control group animals were given an equal volume of vehicle (10%, v/v, PEG suspension). Anti-aggressive activity was evaluated using the following validated models of aggression, viz.: foot shock-induced aggression, isolation-induced aggression and resident-intruder aggression, in rodents. As a result, Marsilea minuta extract showed dose dependant anti-aggressive activity in the aforementioned, validated models of aggression. This suggests that the extract from Marsilea minuta has a promising anti-aggressive activity qualitatively comparable to that of diazepam. PMID:20811139

Tiwari, Om P; Bhattamisra, Subhrata K; Tripathi, Pushpendra K; Singh, Paras N

2010-08-01

275

Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, ?-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum. PMID:24266685

Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

2013-12-01

276

Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background: India is considered as the diabetic capital of the world. The study of plants having antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities may give a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Objective: The study was intended to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Carica papaya Linn. (AECPL) in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. First group served as non-diabetic control, second group as diabetic control, third group as standard and was treated with 0.1 mg/kg/day of glibenclamide. Group 4, 5, and 6 received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of AECPL. Blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose on day 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and lipid profile on day 21. Results: The AECPL showed significant reduction (P<0.01) in blood glucose level and serum lipid profile levels with 400 mg/kg body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats as compared with the control. Conclusion: It is concluded that AECPL is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and in improving lipid profile in diabetic rats.

Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu

2012-01-01

277

Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi.  

PubMed

Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Thymol was 1.6-fold more toxic than the oil toward fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi with LD(50) values of 48.88 and 80.77 microg/ml, respectively. Egg laying by female adults of A. stephensi was much significantly reduced when exposed to vapors of thymol compared to the oil of T. ammi seeds, and similar effects were recorded for subsequent egg hatching and larval survival. Vapor toxicity assay showed LC(50) value of 79.5 mg/mat for thymol against adults of A. stephensi, whereas the crude oil exhibited the LC(50) value of 185.4 mg/mat. Thymol provided complete repellency toward A. stephensi adults at the dose of 25.0 mg/mat after 1 h duration, whereas same degree of repellency was obtained by the oil at the dose of 55.0 mg/mat, indicating its double-fold activity than the oil. PMID:19343365

Pandey, S K; Upadhyay, Shikha; Tripathi, A K

2009-08-01

278

Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract induces hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in experimental animal models.  

PubMed

Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models. PMID:22654226

Tchikaya, Francis Olivier; Bantsielé, Guy Bernard; Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Datté, Jacques Yao; Yapo, Paul Angoue; Zirihi, Noel Guedé; Offoumou, Michel Atté

2011-01-01

279

Protective effect of Cassia fistula Linn. on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular damage and oxidative stress in ethanol pretreated rats.  

PubMed

Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), found in many commonly consumed foods, is widely reported to induce cancer in animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the leaf extract of the medicinal plant Cassia fistula Linn. against diethylnitrosamine induced liver injury in ethanol pretreated rats. Albino Wistar rats, pretreated with ethanol for 15 days, were administered a single dose of DEN. Thirty days after DEN administration, hepatotocellular damage was observed histologically, along with elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, ?-GT and bilirubin and a simultaneous fall in the levels of the marker enzymes in the liver tissue. Liver oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a decrease in enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants activities. Oral administration of the ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula for 30 days to ethanol + DEN treated rats significantly improved the above alterations in the markers of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress, resulting in the reversal of most of the parameters studied and were comparable to the standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin. PMID:21157638

Pradeep, Kannampalli; Raj Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor; Gobianand, Kupannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

2010-01-01

280

Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content.  

PubMed

Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardrakaswarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds. PMID:22529660

Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2011-07-01

281

Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content  

PubMed Central

Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardraka swarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds.

Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V. J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2011-01-01

282

A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats  

PubMed Central

Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema.

Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, BK; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

2011-01-01

283

Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.  

PubMed

Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs. PMID:23983327

Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-01-01

284

Evaluation of the effect of Ferula asafoetida Linn. gum extract on learning and memory in Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: Memory loss is universal and is the first symptom to manifest in majority of the patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. This study is designed to investigate the effect of Ferula asafoetida linn. (F. foetida) extract on learning and memory in rats. Materials and Methods: Learning and memory were evaluated using elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm after the oral administration of two doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of F. foetida aqueous extract with rivastigmine as positive control. Brain cholinesterase activity, serum thiols and cholesterol were also estimated. Results: Extract produced significant improvement in memory score i.e. step through latency at 400 mg/kg dose in passive avoidance model (P< 0.05) and dose-dependent improvement of transfer latency in elevated plus maze model (P< 0.001). Dose-dependent inhibition of brain cholinesterase (P< 0.001) and significant improvement in antioxidant levels (P< 0.05) were also noted. Conclusions: Memory enhancing potential of F. foetida can be attributed to acetylcholinesterase inhibiting and antioxidant properties. Hence, dietary usage of F. foetida is beneficial and can also be employed as an adjuvant to existing anti-dementia therapies.

Vijayalakshmi; Adiga, Shalini; Bhat, Priyanka; Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Bairy, K. L.; Kamath, Shobha

2012-01-01

285

Antioxidant activity and protective effect of Turnera ulmifolia Linn. var. elegans against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine whether the leaves of Turnera ulmifolia Linn. var. elegans extract exert significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of its hydroethanolic extract (HEETU) was evaluated by assessing (a) its radical scavenging ability in vitro, and (b) its in vivo effect on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The in vitro antioxidant assay (DPPH) clearly supported HEETU free radical scavenging potential. Moreover, glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) were significantly enhanced in CCl(4)-treated rats due to oral HEETU-treatment (500 mg/kgb.w.) over 7 and 21 days. In addition, an improvement was observed in lipid peroxidation and serum biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), indicating a protective effect against CCl(4)-induced liver injuries, confirmed by histopathological studies. The HEETU effect was comparable to the standard drug Legalon® (50 mg/kgb.w.) under the same experimental condition. Quantitative analysis of the HPLC extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, wich mediate the effects of antioxidant and oxidative stress. In conclusion, extract components exhibit antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22940430

Brito, Naira J N; López, Jorge A; do Nascimento, Maria Aparecida; Macêdo, José B M; Silva, Gabriel Araujo; Oliveira, Cláudia N; de Rezende, Adriana Augusto; Brandão-Neto, José; Schwarz, Aline; Almeida, Maria das Graças

2012-12-01

286

Ontogenesis of the collapsed layer during haustorium development in the root hemi-parasite Santalum album Linn.  

PubMed

The structure and development of collapsed layers of the haustorium were studied in Santalum album Linn. Through light and transmission electron microscopy, it was shown that the collapsed layers originated from starch-containing cells when the haustorium developed an internal gland, thickened gradually and ultimately developed into the mantle, which, combined with the sucker, buckled the host root. We report on the presence of inter-collapsed layers for the first time. These layers develop after penetration into the host and are located between the intrusive tissues and the vascular meristematic region, gradually linking the collapsed layers and remains around the sucker. The proliferation of cells in the meristematic region and the 'host tropism' of cortical layers contribute to pressure within the haustorium and result in development of the collapsed layers. Besides, starch-containing cells that turn into collapsed layers are vulnerable to pressure as they lack a large vacuole, have uneven cell wall thickness and a loose cell arrangement. We proposed that the functions of collapsed layers are to efficiently assure that cell inclusion and energy concentrate at the inner meristematic region and are recycled to affect penetration, reinforce the physical connection between the sandalwood haustorium and host root, and supply space for haustorial development. PMID:23590414

Yang, X; Zhang, X; Teixeira da Silva, J A; Liang, K; Deng, R; Ma, G

2013-04-17

287

Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.  

PubMed

Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

2014-02-01

288

Wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) extract and its bioactive components suppress Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of wild bitter melons (WBM; Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) on Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation and to identify the bioactive components. Our results showed that ethyl acetate (EA) extract of WBM fruit in vitro potently suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels in P. acnes-stimulated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, concomitant intradermal injection of WBM EA extract in mice effectively attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. To further investigate the bioactive components, we found that both saponifiable (S) and nonsaponifiable (NS) fractions of WBM EA extract significantly suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine and MMP-9 levels. Phytol and lutein, identified in the NS fraction, also inhibited cytokine production. Moreover, S and NS fractions of EA extract, phytol and lutein, activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and ? in the transactivation assay. Our results suggested that PPAR? or PPAR? signalling may contribute, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory activity of WBM. PMID:22953813

Hsu, Chin; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Li, You-Yi; Wu, Wen-Huey; Huang, Ching-Jang; Tsai, Po-Jung

2012-12-01

289

Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves.  

PubMed

To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16(th) days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

Biswas, D; Yoganandam, G P; Dey, A; Deb, L

2013-03-01

290

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats.

Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

2014-01-01

291

A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats.  

PubMed

Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, Bk; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

2011-10-01

292

Chemical composition of sewage-grown Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Spirulina platensis has been grown in an outdoor pilot production unit, with an exposed surface area of 450 m2, on a medium consisting of raw domestic sewage supplemented with sodium bicarbonate and nitrate or urea fertilizer. The chemical composition and yield of the biomass grown on sewage-nitrate was comparable to that grown on synthetic medium. The protein content was

P. N. Saxena; M. R. Ahmad; R. Shyam; P. S. Misra

1982-01-01

293

Inhibitory effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. on bacterial mutagenesis and aberrant crypt focus forma? tion in the rat colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimutagenicity and chemopreventive activity of an 80%-ethanol extract of bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn.) against the formation of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was investigated. The bitter melon extract was nonmutagenic and inhibited the mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine, and aflatoxin B1 in the Salmonella mutation assay. To examine the inhibitory effect of bitter melon on AOM-induced

Sawitree Chiampanichayakul; Keiko Kataoka; Hideki Arimochi; Tomomi Kuwahara; Haruyuki Nakayama; Usanee Vinitketkumnuen; Yoshinari Ohnishi

2001-01-01

294

Green coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shell extract of green coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

2013-08-01

295

Anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Melastoma malabathricum (MM) Linn leaves traditionally use in the treatment of diabetic conditions. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract taken from Melastoma malabathricum Linn (Melastomaceae). Methods The methanolic leaves extract of MM Linn leaves used for the study. Chemical test of different extract, acute toxicity study and oral glucose test was performed. Diabetes was induced in rat by single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats were divided into following groups: Group I – normal control, Group II (Vehicle) – diabetic control, Group III (STZ-toxic) – MM I (100 mg/kg, p.o.), Group IV – MM II (250 mg/kg, p.o.), Group V – MM III (500 mg/kg, p.o.), Group VI – glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Bodyweight of each rat in the different groups was recorded daily. Biochemical and antioxidant enzyme parameters were determined on day 28. Histology of different organ (heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas) was performed after sacrificing the rats with euthanasia. Results The methanolic extract of MM did not show any acute toxicity up-to the dose of 2000 mg/kg and shown better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Orally treatment of different doses of MM leaves extract decreased the level of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of plasma insulin, hexokinase. MM treatment decreased liver malondialdehyde but increased the level of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. In oral glucose tolerance test observed increased utilization of glucose. Streptozotocin induced diabetes groups rat treated with different doses of MM leaves extract and glibenclamide significantly increased the body weight. Histopathology analysis on different organ of STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat show there regenerative effect on the liver, kidney, heart and pancreas. Conclusion The antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic effect of methanolic extract from Melastoma malabathricum Linn suggests a potential therapeutic treatment to antidiabetic conditions.

2013-01-01

296

An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naïve to treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) have been perceived by the public as a strong aphrodisiac herbal product. However, studies addressing the potential beneficial effects of saffron on erectile function (EF) in men with ED are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron administration on EF in men with ED. After a 4-week baseline assessment, 346 men

M R Safarinejad; N Shafiei; S Safarinejad; Safarinejad

2010-01-01

297

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

2001-01-01

298

Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

2001-01-01

299

Spin injection via (110)-grown semiconductor barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the tunneling of conduction electrons through a (110)-oriented single-barrier heterostructure grown from III-V semiconductor compounds. It is shown that, due to low spatial symmetry of such a barrier, the tunneling current through the barrier leads to an electron spin polarization. The inverse effect, generation of a direct tunneling current by spin polarized electrons, is also predicted. We develop the microscopic theory of the effects and show that the spin polarization emerges due to the combined action of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling within the barrier and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling at the barrier interfaces.

Alekseev, P. S.; Glazov, M. M.; Tarasenko, S. A.

2014-04-01

300

Structure of Silicene Grown on Ag(111)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of silicene, the two-dimensional honeycomb sheet of Si, grown on Ag(111) was investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Two atomic arrangements of honeycomb configuration were found by STM, which are confirmed by LEED and DFT calculations; one is 4×4 and the other is \\sqrt{13}×\\sqrt{13} R13.9°. In the 4×4 structure, the honeycomb lattice remains with six atoms displaced vertically, whereas the \\sqrt{13}×\\sqrt{13} R13.9° takes the regularly buckled honeycomb geometry.

Lin, Chun-Liang; Arafune, Ryuichi; Kawahara, Kazuaki; Tsukahara, Noriyuki; Minamitani, Emi; Kim, Yousoo; Takagi, Noriaki; Kawai, Maki

2012-04-01

301

Brazilein, a compound isolated from Caesalpinia sappan Linn., induced growth inhibition in breast cancer cells via involvement of GSK-3?/?-Catenin/cyclin D1 pathway.  

PubMed

Caesalpinia sappan Linn. has long been used in traditional medicine in China. Here, the anticancer activity of brazilein, a compound isolated from C. sappan Linn. was investigated. MTT assay showed that the IC50 value of brazilein against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells was 7.23 ± 0.24 ?mol/L. PI staining and flow cytometry analysis indicated that brazilein caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Western blot and RT-PCR assay demonstrated that cyclin D1, a key factor of the G1 to S phase progression, was downregulated in a concentration-dependent manner by brazilein treatment. Further Western blot and RNA interference assay showed that brazilein treatment activated GSK-3? and following reduced ?-Catenin protein, which accounted for the downregulation of cyclin D1 and blockage of cell cycle at G1 phase. Together, all these results illustrated that brazilein induced growth inhibition of breast cancer cells and downregulation of GSK-3?/?-Catenin pathway was involved in its action mechanism. PMID:23948132

Tao, Li-yang; Li, Jian-ying; Zhang, Jian-ye

2013-10-25

302

Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidth—an often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1 nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

Berger, A. J.; Amamou, W.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Kawakami, R. K.; Hammel, P. C.

2014-05-01

303

Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

2001-01-01

304

Novel antigens expressed by Aeromonas salmonicida grown in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Virulent and avirulent Aeromonas salmonicida strains grown inside intraperitoneal implants in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined for unique antigen expression. Western blots (immunoblots), performed with immune rabbit serum raised against in vivo-grown cells, revealed several unique antigens. With the exception of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), these novel antigens were destroyed after proteinase K treatment. The majority of these antigens were not induced in vitro in response to either iron limitation or anaerobiosis. In addition, electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of a putative capsule on in vivo-grown cells. Purification and fractionation of this carbohydrate material from cells grown in carbon-rich synthetic media resulted in the isolation and separation of an antigenically distinct LPS not seen with cells grown in standard media. Antiserum raised against in vivo-grown cells recognized both this LPS and the typical LPS of A. salmonicida apparent in in vitro-grown cells. Antiserum raised against in vitro-grown cells recognized only the LPS expressed in vitro. Antiserum directed against in vivo-grown cells was approximately 10 times more sensitive than serum directed against in vitro-grown cells in detecting A. salmonicida in infected fish kidney tissue. Images

Thornton, J C; Garduno, R A; Carlos, S J; Kay, W W

1993-01-01

305

Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated. Results: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of ?-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes.

Verma, Laxmi; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Rajak, H.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.

2010-01-01

306

Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Properties of the Methanolic Extract of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) and its Mechanism of Action.  

PubMed

The whole plant of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the management of depressive illness. Momordica charantia (MC) (50-400?mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1?h before behavioural studies using the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) to investigate antidepressant-like effect while the anxiolytic-like effect was evaluated with elevated plus maze test (EPM), hole-board test (HBT), and light-dark test (LDT).Acute treatment with MC (50-400mg/kg) significantly increased swimming time (86.51%) and reduced the duration of immobility (52.35%) in FST and TST with peak effects observed at 200?mg/kg, respectively, in comparison to control. The pretreatment of mice with either sulpiride (dopamine D2 receptor antagonist), or metergoline (5-HT2 receptor antagonist), or cyproheptadine (5-HT2 receptor antagonist), or prazosin (?1-adrenoceptor antagonist), or yohimbine (?2-adrenoceptor antagonist), and atropine (muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist) 15?min before oral administration of MC (200?mg/kg) significantly blocked its anti-immobility effect. Similarly, MC (200?mg/kg) significantly reduced anxiety by increasing the open arm exploration (64.27%) in EPM, number of head-dips in HBT (34.38%), and time spent in light compartment (29.38%) in the LDT. However, pretreatment with flumazenil (GABAA receptor antagonist) 15?min before MC (200?mg/kg) significantly blocked (54.76%) its anxiolytic effect.The findings in this study showed that MC possesses antidepressant-like effect that is dependent on the serotonergic (5-HT2 receptor), noradrenergic (?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors), dopaminergic (D2 receptor), and muscarinic cholinergic systems and an anxiolytic-like effect that might involve an action on benzodiazepine-type receptor. PMID:24227474

Ishola, I O; Akinyede, A A; Sholarin, A M

2014-07-01

307

Biochemical Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Extract and Fraction of Cassia fistula Linn. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae) such as petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg).

Jarald, E. E.; Joshi, S. B.; Jain, D. C.; Edwin, S.

2013-01-01

308

Biochemical Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Extract and Fraction of Cassia fistula Linn. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae) such as petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). PMID:24302797

Jarald, E E; Joshi, S B; Jain, D C; Edwin, S

2013-07-01

309

Bactericidal Activity of Methanol Extracts of Crabapple Mangrove Tree (Sonneratia caseolaris Linn.) Against Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The crabapple mangrove tree, Sonneratia caseolaris Linn. (Family: Sonneratiaceae), is one of the foreshore plants found in estuarine and tidal creek areas and mangrove forests. Bark and fruit extracts from this plant have previously been shown to have an anti-oxidative or cytotoxic effect, whereas flower extracts of this plant exhibited an antimicrobial activity against some bacteria. According to the traditional folklore, it is medicinally used as an astringent and antiseptic. Hence, this investigation was carried out on the extract of the leaves, pneumatophore and different parts of the flower or fruit (stamen, calyx, meat of fruit, persistent calyx of fruit and seeds) for antibacterial activity using the broth microdilution method. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against five antibiotic-sensitive species (three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria) and six drug-resistant species (Gram-positive i.e. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Gram-negative i.e. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant–Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acenetobacter baumannii). The methanol extracts from all tested parts of the crabapple mangrove tree exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but was mainly a bactericidal against the Gram-negative bacteria, including the multidrug-resistant strains, when compared with only bacteriostatic on the Gram-positive bacteria. Using Soxhlet apparatus, the extracts obtained by sequential extraction with hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate revealed no discernable antibacterial activity and only slightly, if at all, reduced the antibacterial activity of the subsequently obtained methanol extract. Therefore, the active antibacterial compounds of the crabapple mangrove tree should have a rather polar structure.

Yompakdee, C.; Thunyaharn, S.; Phaechamud, T.

2012-01-01

310

Proapoptotic and antimetastatic properties of supercritical CO2 extract of Nigella sativa Linn. against breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa, commonly referred as black cumin, is a popular spice that has been used since the ancient Egyptians. It has traditionally been used for treatment of various human ailments ranging from fever to intestinal disturbances to cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic, antimetastatic, and anticancer activities of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of the seeds of N. sativa Linn. against estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Twelve extracts were prepared from N. sativa seeds using the SC-CO2 extraction method by varying pressure and temperature. Extracts were analyzed using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on various human cancer and normal cell lines. Of the 12 extracts, 1 extract (A3) that was prepared at 60°C and 2500 psi (~17.24 MPa) showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 53.34±2.15 ?g/mL. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by evaluating caspases activities and observing the cells under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro antimetastatic properties of A3 were investigated by colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The elevated levels of caspases in A3 treated MCF-7 cells suggest that A3 is proapoptotic. Further nuclear condensation and fragmentation studies confirmed that A3 induces cytotoxicity through the apoptosis pathway. A3 also demonstrated remarkable inhibition in migration and invasion assays of MCF-7 cells at subcytotoxic concentrations. Thus, this study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of N. sativa in targeting breast cancer. PMID:24328702

Baharetha, Hussein M; Nassar, Zeyad D; Aisha, Abdalrahim F; Ahamed, Mohamed B Khadeer; Al-Suede, Foaud Saleih R; Abd Kadir, Mohd Omar; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

2013-12-01

311

Effects of allelochemical extracted from water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes Linn.) on the growth, microcystin production and release of Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

This study explored the optimisation of a method of extracting allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., identified the optimal dose range for the allelochemicals' anti-algal effect and investigated their impact on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as the production and release of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Based on measured changes in algal cell density and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content, the allelochemicals were confirmed to have the strongest anti-algal effect with the lowest half-effect concentration of 65 mg L(-1) when they were extracted using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent, 1:20 g mL(-1) as the extraction ratio and 1 h as the extraction time. The allelochemicals extracted from P. stratiotes using this optimal method exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of algae when used within a dose range of 60-100 mg L(-1); the relative inhibitory ratio reached 50-90%, and Chl-a content reduced 50-75% in algae cell cultures within 3-7 days. In addition, the extracted allelochemical compounds demonstrated no significant impact on the extracellular release of MC-LR during the culturing period. The amount of intracellular MC-LR per 10(6) algal cells increased depending on the increasing dose of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes after 7 days of culturing and maintained stability after 16 days. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium. Therefore, the application of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes to inhibit M. aeruginosa has a high degree of ecological safety and can be adopted in practical applications for treating water subjected to algae blooms because the treatment can effectively inhibit the proliferation of algal cells without increasing the release of cyanotoxin. PMID:23653319

Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Chen, Junren; Ye, Jinyun

2013-11-01

312

Microstructures of semiconducting silicide layers grown by novel growth techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconducting silicides, such as Mg2Si, ?-FeSi2, Ca2Si, MnSi1.7 and Mn(Fe)Si1.7, were grown and their structural and morphological properties have been characterized. The layers were grown by interdiffusion process between deposited atoms and substrates. When the appropriate substrates and deposition species are used, the silicides can be easily grown using the interdiffusion process. The layers consist of smaller domains for all

H. Tatsuoka; N Takagi; S Okaya; Y Sato; T Inaba; T Ohishi; A Yamamoto; T Matsuyama; H Kuwabara

2004-01-01

313

Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

2003-01-01

314

Perfect crystals grown from imperfect interfaces.  

PubMed

The fabrication of advanced devices increasingly requires materials with different properties to be combined in the form of monolithic heterostructures. In practice this means growing epitaxial semiconductor layers on substrates often greatly differing in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. With increasing layer thickness the relaxation of misfit and thermal strains may cause dislocations, substrate bowing and even layer cracking. Minimizing these drawbacks is therefore essential for heterostructures based on thick layers to be of any use for device fabrication. Here we prove by scanning X-ray nanodiffraction that mismatched Ge crystals epitaxially grown on deeply patterned Si substrates evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface. We show that relaxing thermal and misfit strains result just in lattice bending and tiny crystal tilts. We may thus expect a new concept in which continuous layers are replaced by quasi-continuous crystal arrays to lead to dramatically improved physical properties. PMID:23880632

Falub, Claudiu V; Medu?a, Mojmír; Chrastina, Daniel; Isa, Fabio; Marzegalli, Anna; Kreiliger, Thomas; Taboada, Alfonso G; Isella, Giovanni; Miglio, Leo; Dommann, Alex; von Känel, Hans

2013-01-01

315

Induced superconductivity in graphene grown on rhenium.  

PubMed

We report a new way to strongly couple graphene to a superconductor. The graphene monolayer has been grown directly on top of a superconducting Re(0001) thin film and characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We observed a moiré pattern due to the mismatch between Re and graphene lattice parameters that we have simulated with ab initio calculations. The density of states around the Fermi energy appears to be position dependent on this moiré pattern. Tunneling spectroscopy performed at 50 mK shows that the superconducting behavior of graphene on Re is well described by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory and stands for a very good interface between the graphene and its metallic substrate. PMID:24483689

Tonnoir, C; Kimouche, A; Coraux, J; Magaud, L; Delsol, B; Gilles, B; Chapelier, C

2013-12-13

316

Perfect crystals grown from imperfect interfaces  

PubMed Central

The fabrication of advanced devices increasingly requires materials with different properties to be combined in the form of monolithic heterostructures. In practice this means growing epitaxial semiconductor layers on substrates often greatly differing in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. With increasing layer thickness the relaxation of misfit and thermal strains may cause dislocations, substrate bowing and even layer cracking. Minimizing these drawbacks is therefore essential for heterostructures based on thick layers to be of any use for device fabrication. Here we prove by scanning X-ray nanodiffraction that mismatched Ge crystals epitaxially grown on deeply patterned Si substrates evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface. We show that relaxing thermal and misfit strains result just in lattice bending and tiny crystal tilts. We may thus expect a new concept in which continuous layers are replaced by quasi-continuous crystal arrays to lead to dramatically improved physical properties.

Falub, Claudiu V.; Meduna, Mojmir; Chrastina, Daniel; Isa, Fabio; Marzegalli, Anna; Kreiliger, Thomas; Taboada, Alfonso G.; Isella, Giovanni; Miglio, Leo; Dommann, Alex; von Kanel, Hans

2013-01-01

317

Compound semiconductor nanotube materials grown and fabricated  

PubMed Central

A new GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP compound semiconductor nanotube material structure was designed and fabricated in this work. A thin, InGaAs-strained material layer was designed in the nanotube structure, which can directionally roll up a strained heterostructure through a normal wet etching process. The compound semiconductor nanotube structure was grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. A good crystalline quality of InGaP, InGaAs, and GaAs materials was obtained through optimizing the growth condition. The fabricated GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP semiconductor nanotubes, with a diameter of 300 to 350 nm and a length of 1.8 to 2.0 ?m, were achieved through normal device fabrication.

2011-01-01

318

Humidity sensing by fractally grown nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractal structure of ?-iron was grown within gel-derived silica films. These were subjected to oxidation treatments at a temperature of 400 K for durations varying from 1 to 4 h. Nanoshells of Fe3O4 up to a thickness of 2 nm were formed in the process. The electrical resistivity of these nanocomposites was shown to arise due to a small polaron hopping mechanism between Fe2+ and Fe3+ sites. The nanocomposite films exhibited about three to four orders-of-magnitude resistivity change for an increase of relative humidity from 35% to 95%. The decrease was found to be exponential in nature and is believed to arise due to the injection of electrons to the oxide nanoshell.

Pal, B. N.; Basu, S.; Chakravorty, D.

2005-02-01

319

Induced Superconductivity in Graphene Grown on Rhenium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new way to strongly couple graphene to a superconductor. The graphene monolayer has been grown directly on top of a superconducting Re(0001) thin film and characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We observed a moiré pattern due to the mismatch between Re and graphene lattice parameters that we have simulated with ab initio calculations. The density of states around the Fermi energy appears to be position dependent on this moiré pattern. Tunneling spectroscopy performed at 50 mK shows that the superconducting behavior of graphene on Re is well described by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory and stands for a very good interface between the graphene and its metallic substrate.

Tonnoir, C.; Kimouche, A.; Coraux, J.; Magaud, L.; Delsol, B.; Gilles, B.; Chapelier, C.

2013-12-01

320

Nanoelectronic biosensors based on CVD grown graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors.Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM images of graphene film before and after functionalization, transfer curves of graphene after every step, SEM image of CNT-net, and detection results using CNT-net devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00142b

Huang, Yinxi; Dong, Xiaochen; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Chang Ming; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Peng

2010-08-01

321

Radical scavenging and radiomodulatory effects of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. substantiated by in vitro assays and EPR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The present study is the first report of the radiomodulatory effects of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. The extract (IBG-RA-26) prepared from P. corylifolia was chemically analysed by HPLC, LC-MS/MS and NMR. The total polyphenolic content of IBG-RA-26 was 0.287 mg/ml of quercetin equivalents. IBG-RA-26 exhibited a dose-dependent increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. It exhibited comparable (> 50%) site-specific and non-site-specific hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in higher concentration ranges (500-1000 microg/ml), while at lower concentrations (5-50 microg/ml) it exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher non-site-specific scavenging ability compared to site-specific activity. Nitric oxide scavenging activity of IBG-RA-26 (5-1000 microg/ml) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, while maximum superoxide ion scavenging ability (79%) was observed at 50 microg/ml. The electron donation potential of IBG-RA-26 was found to be higher than that of ascorbic acid at lower concentrations (up to 5 microg/ml). Analysis of the ability of IBG-RA-26 to protect membranes against gamma-radiation, utilizing an artificial membrane system (liposome), revealed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a function of the concentration of IBG-RA-26. Radiation-induced lysis of human erythrocytes was monitored and efficacy of IBG-RA-26 was tested in the concentration range 25-1000 microg/ml, with significant protective efficacy observed in the range 25-50 microg/ml. IBG-RA-26 rendered significant (p < 0.05) protection against radiation (0.25 kGy)-induced DNA damage. EPR spectroscopy was used to investigate the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of IBG-RA-26. IBG-RA-26 exhibited a good DPPH radical scavenging capacity in a concentration-dependent manner. By direct EPR spectroscopy we have also demonstrated the possible formation of free radical species in a solution of IBG-RA-26. The wide spectrum of radioprotective and antioxidant properties exhibited by IBG-RA-26 indicate that P. corylifolia has potential as a radiomodulatory agent. PMID:21476435

Arora, Rajesh; Dhaker, Atlar Singh; Adhikari, Manish; Sharma, Jyoti; Chawla, Raman; Gupta, Damodar; Zheleva, Antoaneta; Karamalakova, Yanka; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Raj K; Sharma, Ashok; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Rajendra P; Gadjeva, Veselina

2011-01-01

322

The grown-up congenital cardiac patient.  

PubMed

Long-term survival of patients with congenital heart disease has dramatically improved during the last 50 years and the number of adults with congenital heart disease is therefore increasing in all developed countries. Grown-up patients with congenital heart disease (GUCH) often present difficult and challenging problems. Patients with both native unoperated and operated malformations contribute to the GUCH population. Survivors without surgical treatment mainly have simple malformations; but a few have complex diseases, and some have survived with secondary pulmonary hypertension. Among operated malformations there are patients with a 'complete' repair (anatomical and physiological), others with a definitive palliation (physiological repair) and some with a simple palliation. The clinical spectrum is obviously diversified, depending on the underlying anomaly, surgical outcome, presence of residua, sequelae and/or complications, length of follow-up, comorbidities. Arrhythmias, bacterial endocarditis, cyanosis, polycythemia, heart failure, anomalies of pulmonary circulation, deterioration or malfunction of devices, need of cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, intercurrent non-cardiac diseases, and a need for cardiac and non-cardiac diagnostic procedures are common problems of adults with congenital heart disease. Physiological events such as pregnancy and childbearing deserve a careful multidisciplinary approach. While most simple native and well corrected GUCH do not require very specialized treatments throughout their life, the abnormalities and complexities of postoperative anatomy are often beyond the expertise of the adult cardiologist, requiring multidisciplinary competence in specialized tertiary centers. The problem is still unresolved and involves cultural, medical, technological and economically relevant issues. PMID:17255822

Borghi, Adele; Ciuffreda, Matteo; Quattrociocchi, Maria; Preda, Laura

2007-01-01

323

Grown-in defects in silicon crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the formation behavior of grown-in defects in silicon crystals. The void defects are formed by the aggregation of the super-saturated vacancies during the growth process and the V/ G parameter ( V, growth rate; G, axial temperature gradient at the crystal-melt interface) controls the vacancy concentration. We investigated how the void defects were influenced by V/ G and the cooling rate. The density of void defects ( Nv) is proportional to the cooling rate ( Cr) to the power of 1.5; that is, N v=? C r1.5. This relation holds up to a cooling rate of 40 K/min. On the other hand, the coefficient ? increases with a decrease in V/ G. The relation of N v=? C r1.5 does not hold for cooling rates >40 K/min, and oxygen precipitation increases instead of void formation. This behavior supports the void formation model of Voronkov. We also discuss this phenomenon in this paper.

Nakamura, K.; Saishoji, T.; Tomioka, J.

2002-04-01

324

Pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes grown on crabmeat.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes as influenced by growth on crabmeat at 5 and 10 degrees C was studied. Crabmeat was inoculated with L. monocytogenes V7 (ca. 10(4) CFU/g) and incubated for up to 14 days at 5 and 10 degrees C. At selected incubation times, L. monocytogenes was removed from crabmeat by washing with 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), and populations were determined by surface plating on LiCl-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar. Buffered suspensions were then centrifuged, and the resulting pellets were suspended in phosphate buffer containing 10% glycerol and stored at -18 degrees C. Thawed, diluted suspensions of cells were tested for pathogenicity by intraperitoneal injection into immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised mice. L. monocytogenes cells recovered from crabmeat and then recultured in tryptose phosphate broth (TPB), as well as cells which had not been passed through crabmeat but had been cultured in TPB, were likewise harvested, suspended in buffered 10% glycerol, frozen, thawed, diluted, and tested for pathogenicity by intraperitoneal injection. Growth on crabmeat at 5 and 10 degrees C did not have a significant effect on pathogenicity. The population of L. monocytogenes necessary to kill about 50% of the immunocompromised mice in each test set within 7 days was about 10(4) CFU, and this result was not significantly affected by storage temperature of the crabmeat or type of substrate, i.e., crabmeat or TPB, on which it had grown.

Brackett, R E; Beuchat, L R

1990-01-01

325

Radiative efficiency of MOCVD grown QD lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical spectral gain characteristics and overall radiative efficiency of MOCVD grown InGaAs quantum dot lasers have been evaluated. Single-pass, multi-segmented amplified spontaneous emission measurements are used to obtain the gain, absorption, and spontaneous emission spectra in real units. Integration of the calibrated spontaneous emission spectra then allows for determining the overall radiative efficiency, which gives important insights into the role which nonradiative recombination plays in the active region under study. We use single pass, multi-segmented edge-emitting in which electrically isolated segments allow to vary the length of a pumped region. In this study we used 8 section devices (the size of a segment is 50x300 ?m) with only the first 5 segments used for varying the pump length. The remaining unpumped segments and scribed back facet minimize round trip feedback. Measured gain spectra for different pump currents allow for extraction of the peak gain vs. current density, which is fitted to a logarithmic dependence and directly compared to conventional cavity length analysis, (CLA). The extracted spontaneous emission spectrum is calibrated and integrated over all frequencies and modes to obtain total spontaneous radiation current density and radiative efficiency, ?r. We find ?r values of approximately 17% at RT for 5 stack QD active regions. By contrast, high performance InGaAs QW lasers exhibit ?r ~50% at RT.

Mawst, Luke; Tsvid, Gene; Dudley, Peter; Kirch, Jeremy; Park, J. H.; Kim, N.

2010-02-01

326

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

327

Antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL).  

PubMed

The present study quantitatively investigated the antioxidant effects of the aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa LINN. (roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Formations of the conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were monitored as markers of the early and later stages of the oxidation of LDL, respectively. Thus, we demonstrated that the dried calyx extracts of roselle exhibits strong antioxidant activity in Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation of LDL (p<0.05) in vitro. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on LDL oxidation was dose-dependent at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5 mg/ml. Moreover, 5 mg/ml of roselle inhibited TBARs-formation with greater potency than 100 microM of vitamin E. In conclusion, this study provides a quantitative insight into the potent antioxidant effect of roselle in vitro. PMID:15744073

Hirunpanich, Vilasinee; Utaipat, Anocha; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Sato, Hitoshi; Herunsalee, Angkana; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee

2005-03-01

328

Effects of the fruit essential oil of Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae) on pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptiform activity in F1 neurones of Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

The effect of the fruit essential oil of Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae) (syn. Cuminum odorum Salisb) on the epileptiform activity induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was evaluated, using intracellular technique. The results demonstrated that extracellular application of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum (1% and 3%) dramatically decreased the frequency of spontaneous activity induced by PTZ in a time and concentration dependent manner. In addition it showed protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptic activity by increasing the duration, decreasing the amplitude of after hyperpolarization potential (AHP) following the action potential, the peak of action potential, and inhibition of the firing rate. These membrane effects suggest cellular mechanisms by which the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum can inhibit the PTZ-induced epileptic activity. PMID:16226415

Janahmadi, Mahyar; Niazi, Farshad; Danyali, Samira; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

2006-03-01

329

Physical nature of grown-in microdefects in Czochralski-grown silicon and their transformation during various technological effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Czochralski-grown dislocation-free silicon crystals of 50 and 80 mm in diameter have been extensively studied by techniques of transmission electron microscopy and preferential etching. Crystals were grown at various growth rates, followed by subsequent processing (thermal treatment, ion implantation). The physical nature (positive/negative sign of silicon lattice imperfection) of grown-in microdefects inside and within the OSF ring was determined. It was found that background oxygen and carbon impurities mostly affect the formation mechanism of grown-in microdefects. It was shown that crystals might grow in interstitial and interstitial-vacancy regimes. The transformation scheme of the grown-in microdefects in the course of subsequent processing is clarified. (

Talanin, V. I.; Talanin, I. E.

2003-12-01

330

Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is coated on U.S. currency. After deposition, the growth is carried out in a hot-filament chemical vapor deposition apparatus. A tungsten hot filament placed in the flow of H2 at a temperature greater than 1,600 C creates atomic hydrogen, which serves to reduce the Fe catalyst into a metallic state. The catalyst can now precipitate SWNTs in the presence of growth gases. The gases used for the experiments reported are C2H2, H2O, and H2, at rates of 2, 2, and 400 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm), respectively. In order to retain the flakes, a cage is constructed by spot welding stainless steel or copper mesh to form an enclosed area, in which the flakes are placed prior to growth. This allows growth gases and atomic hydrogen to reach the flakes, but does not allow the flakes, which rapidly nucleate SWNTs, to escape from the cage.

Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

2013-01-01

331

The cyclic distortion of thermally grown oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) serve to protect critical gas turbine engine components by sustaining large thermal gradients. The coatings are required to maintain their integrity under harsh thermal cycling conditions. Experiments on coatings comprised of a Pt(Ni)-Al diffusion bond coat have revealed a failure mechanism characterized by a continual growth of morphological instabilities of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) that forms at the bond coat-top coat interface, termed rumpling. The goal of this thesis is to elucidate the underlying mechanisms governing the rumpling of Pt(Ni)-Al bond coats and other alloys and to develop experimental protocols designed to validate the predictions of models. First, the fundamental mechanisms of the cyclic distortion of surface imperfections on the surface of a FeCrAlY alloy are explored. For this case, all of the constituent properties of the alloy and the TGO are known from independent measurements, enabling an explicit comparison between the experiments and simulations. The results reveal a peak rumpling-rate, occurring at characteristic imperfection amplitude of order 1 mum. For smaller imperfections, the growth-rates become immeasurably low, explaining the absence of rumpling observed on specimens with initially-polished surfaces. The extension of the model to Pt(Ni)-Al bond coats requires the incorporation of additional phenomena, including bond coat-substrate thermal strain misfit, bond coat martensite phase transformation, and bond coat swelling. As a result, many input parameters are required: complicating validation. A suitable protocol was devised and demonstrated in this study. It involves the measurement of imperfection shape changes as well as independent measurements and calibrations of the transformation temperatures and strains. The model successfully predicts the shape changes of three categories of well-defined initial imperfections: artificial grooves, grain boundary grooves, and intra-grain undulations. For exact correspondence between measurements and simulations, the following three phenomena are all required: a martensite transformation at ˜700 °C, an oxide lateral growth strain (0.002 ? Deltaepsilong ? 0.008), and a compressive growth stress in the TGO (300MPa ? stgoY ? 200Mpa). The model was then utilized to identify potential system modifications that might suppress rumpling. Effective strategies include decreasing the martensite transformation temperature, bond coat-substrate strain misfits, or the oxide creep strength, or increasing bond coat strength.

Davis, Andrew W.

332

Response of Chemostat Grown Enteric Bacteria to Chlorine Dioxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of antecedent growth conditions on the sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated. The two organisms were grown in a defined medium supplemented with glucose either in the chemostat or in batch culture, an...

M. S. Harakeh J. C. Hoff A. Matin

1985-01-01

333

Comparative lipid composition of heterotrophically and autotrophically grown Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.  

PubMed Central

Complex lipids from the thermoacidophilic facultative autotroph Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, as well as a strictly autotrophic isolate, were compared between cells grown on yeast extract and elemental sulfur. Lipids from both organisms grown autotrophically were nearly identical. Each contained about 15% neutral lipids, 35% glycolipids, and 50% acidic lipids. Glycolipids and acidic lipids contained C40H82-76-derived glycerol ether residues. Major glycolipids included the glycerol ether analogues of glucosyl galactosyl diglyceride (5%) and glucosyl polyol diglyceride (75%). Acidic lipids were comprised mainly of the glycerol ether analogues of phosphatidyl inositol (7%), inositolphosphoryl glucosyl polyol diglyceride (72%), and a partially characterized sulfate- and phosphate-containing derivative of glucosyl polyol diglyceride (13%). The lipids from cells grown heterotrophically were similar to those from autotrophically grown cells, except that the partially characterized acidic lipid was absent. In addition, the two glycolipids as well as the respective inositolphosphoryl derivatives were each present in nearly equal proportions. Images

Langworthy, T A

1977-01-01

334

Lab-Grown Vaginas, Noses Herald New Options for Patients  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Lab-Grown Vaginas, Noses Herald New Options for Patients Regenerative surgery takes a leap ... girls suffering from a rare birth defect, creating new organs with feel and function comparable to that ...

335

Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.  

PubMed

Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract. PMID:23885412

Purivirojkul, Watchariya

2012-01-01

336

Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate crystals grown with the aid of sodium metasilicate gel is investigated using thermogravimetry\\u000a (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Effect of magnetic field and dopant (Pb)2+ on the crystal stability is also studied using thermal analysis. This study reveals that water molecules are locked up in\\u000a the lattice with different strengths in the grown crystals.

M. H. Rahimkutty; K. Rajendra Babu; K. Sreedharan Pillai; M. R. Sudarsana Kumar; C. M. K. Nair

2001-01-01

337

Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12kPa,

Lanfang H. Levine; Patricia A. Bisbee; Jeffrey T. Richards; Michele N. Birmele; Ronald L. Prior; Michele Perchonok; Mike Dixon; Neil C. Yorio; Gary W. Stutte; Raymond M. Wheeler

2008-01-01

338

Structural transformation of vapor grown carbon nanofibers studied by HRTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor grown carbon nanofibers have been extensively manufactured and investigated in recent years. In this study commercially\\u000a available vapor grown carbon nanofibers subjected to different processing and post processing conditions were studied employing\\u000a high resolution TEM images. The analysis showed that the fibers consist primarily of conical nanofibers, but can contain a\\u000a significant amount of bamboo nanofibers. Most conical nanofibers

Joseph G. Lawrence; Lesley M. Berhan; Arunan Nadarajah

2008-01-01

339

Characterization of CZT detectors grown from horizontal and vertical Bridgman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of Cd1-xZnxTe (0.04 < X < 0.24) detector crystals grown by vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB), low pressure Bridgman (LPB) i.e. vertical ambient pressure Bridgman (VB), horizontal ambient pressure Bridgman (HB) and vapor grown crystals have been evaluated and compared. We have used the following methods in order to evaluate the CZT: (1) Triaxial crystal x-ray diffraction (TAD)

Haim Hermon; Michael M. Schieber; Mark S. Goorsky; Terence T. Lam; Evgenie Meerson; H. Walter Yao; Jay C. Erickson; Ralph B. James

2000-01-01

340

Quantification of confocal images of biofilms grown on irregular surfaces.  

PubMed

Bacterial biofilms grow on many types of surfaces, including flat surfaces such as glass and metal and irregular surfaces such as rocks, biological tissues and polymers. While laser scanning confocal microscopy can provide high-resolution images of biofilms grown on any surface, quantification of biofilm-associated bacteria is currently limited to bacteria grown on flat surfaces. This can limit researchers studying irregular surfaces to qualitative analysis or quantification of only the total bacteria in an image. In this work, we introduce a new algorithm called modified connected volume filtration (MCVF) to quantify bacteria grown on top of an irregular surface that is fluorescently labeled or reflective. Using the MCVF algorithm, two new quantification parameters are introduced. The modified substratum coverage parameter enables quantification of the connected-biofilm bacteria on top of the surface and on the imaging substratum. The utility of MCVF and the modified substratum coverage parameter were shown with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms grown on human airway epithelial cells. A second parameter, the percent association, provides quantified data on the colocalization of the bacteria with a labeled component, including bacteria within a labeled tissue. The utility of quantifying the bacteria associated with the cell cytoplasm was demonstrated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae biofilms grown on cervical epithelial cells. This algorithm provides more flexibility and quantitative ability to researchers studying biofilms grown on a variety of irregular substrata. PMID:24632515

Sommerfeld Ross, Stacy; Tu, Mai Han; Falsetta, Megan L; Ketterer, Margaret R; Kiedrowski, Megan R; Horswill, Alexander R; Apicella, Michael A; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Fiegel, Jennifer

2014-05-01

341

Antifungal activity of Curcuma longa grown in Thailand.  

PubMed

Curcuma longa Linn. or turmeric (Zingiberaceae) is a medicinal plant widely used and cultivated in tropical regions. According to Thai traditional texts, fresh and dried rhizomes are used as peptic ulcer treatment, carminatives, wound treatment and anti-inflammatory agent. Using hydro distillation, 1.88% and 7.02% (v/w) volatile oils were extracted from fresh and dried rhizomes, respectively, and 6.95% (w/w)crude curcuminoids were extracted from dried rhizomes. Dried powder was extracted with 95% ethanol and yielded 29.52% (w/w) crude ethanol extract composed of curcumin (11.6%), demethoxycurcumin (10.32%) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (10.77%). These extracts were tested for antifungal activity by agar disc diffusion method against 29 clinical strains of dermatophytes. It was found that crude ethanol extract exhibited an inhibition zone range of 6.1 to 26.0 mm. There was no inhibition activity from crude curcuminoids while curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycutcumin gave different inhibition zone diameters ranging from 6.1 to 16.0 mm. Although antifungal activity of undiluted freshly distilled oil and 18-month-old oil revealed some differences, the inhibition zone diameters for both extracts varied within 26.1 to 46.0 mm. With 200 mg/ml ketoconazole, the activities of the standard agent were similar to the oil, both freshly distilled and 18-month-old, but were significantly different from those of curcuminoid compounds and crude ethanol extracts (p < 0.01). Turmeric oil was also tested for its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by broth dilution method. The MICs of freshly distilled and 18-month-old oils were 7.8 and 7.2 mg/ml respectively. PMID:11414453

Wuthi-udomlert, M; Grisanapan, W; Luanratana, O; Caichompoo, W

2000-01-01

342

Nitrogen isotope composition of organically and conventionally grown crops.  

PubMed

Authentic samples of commercially produced organic and conventionally grown tomatoes, lettuces, and carrots were collected and analyzed for their delta15N composition in order to assemble datasets to establish if there are any systematic differences in nitrogen isotope composition due to the method of production. The tomato and lettuce datasets suggest that the different types of fertilizer commonly used in organic and conventional systems result in differences in the nitrogen isotope composition of these crops. A mean delta15N value of 8.1 per thousand was found for the organically grown tomatoes compared with a mean value of -0.1 per thousand for those grown conventionally. The organically grown lettuces had a mean value of 7.6 per thousand compared with a mean value of 2.9 per thousand for the conventionally grown lettuces. The mean value for organic carrots was not significantly different from the mean value for those grown conventionally. Overlap between the delta15N values of the organic and conventional datasets (for both tomatoes and lettuces) means that it is necessary to employ a statistical methodology to try and classify a randomly analyzed "off the shelf" sample as organic/conventional, and such an approach is demonstrated. Overall, the study suggests that nitrogen isotope analysis could be used to provide useful "intelligence" to help detect the substitution of certain organic crop types with their conventional counterparts. However, delta15N analysis of a "test sample" will not provide unequivocal evidence as to whether synthetic fertilizers have been used on the crop but could, for example, in a situation when there is suspicion that mislabeling of conventionally grown crops as "organic" is occurring, be used to provide supporting evidence. PMID:17341092

Bateman, Alison S; Kelly, Simon D; Woolfe, Mark

2007-04-01

343

Defect studies in 4H- Silicon Carbide PVT grown bulk crystals, CVD grown epilayers and devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon Carbide [SiC] which exists as more than 200 different polytypes is known for superior high temperature and high power applications in comparison to conventional semiconductor materials like Silicon and Germanium. The material finds plethora of applications in a diverse fields due to its unique properties like large energy bandgap, high thermal conductivity and high electric breakdown field. Though inundated with superior properties the potential of this material has not been utilized fully due to impeding factors such as defects especially the crystalline ones which limit their performance greatly. Lots of research has been going on for decades to reduce these defects and there has been subsequent improvement in the quality as the diameter of SiC commercial wafers has reached 150mm from 25mm since its inception. The main focus of this thesis has been to study yield limiting defect structures in conjunction with several leading companies and national labs using advanced characterization tools especially the Synchrotron source. The in depth analysis of SiC has led to development of strategies to reduce or eliminate the density of defects by studying how the defects nucleate, replicate and interact in the material. The strategies discussed to reduce defects were proposed after careful deliberation and analysis of PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers. Following are some of the results of the study: [1] Macrostep overgrowth mechanism in SiC was used to study the deflection of threading defects onto the basal plane resulting in stacking faults. Four types of stacking faults associated with deflection of c/c+a threading defects have been observed to be present in 76mm, 100mm and 150mm diameter wafers. The PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers in study were subjected to contrast studies using synchrotron white beam X-ray topography [SWBXT]. The SWBXT image contrast studies of these stacking faults with comparison of calculated phase shifts for postulated fault vectors by macrostep overgrowth of surface outcrops, has revealed faults to be of four types of which one of the following are discussed in detail which is the Shockley faults. The fault vector were determined by taking into account the contrast from stacking faults in SWBXT undergoing phase shift as the X-ray wave fields cross the fault plane. The deflected dislocations onto the basal plane were responsible for the stacking faults and were observed to be detrimental to the devices grown on them as they replicate to the epilayer. In the wafers studied at different stages of the SiC crystal boule resulted in reduction of threading defects as they at certain stage get deflected out of the crystal causing drop of defects density. [2] A novel technique known as the Ray Tracing Simulation was used to determine the sense of c/c+a dislocations obtained via Grazing-Incidence X-ray Topography. Determination of the complete sense and burgers vector of these dislocations was very important to augment our proposed models on stacking faults associated with these defects. Orientation contrast mechanism in X- ray diffraction topography was previously determined to be the dominant factor in SiC by our group and the same principles were used for the simulation. The results were surmised after extensive comparison between experimental and simulation images for the c+2a defects. [3] With the BPD density down to a record level of few hundred per square centimeter in several wafers in multiple regions made it possible to observe the conversion of sessile Threading Edge Dislocations [TED] to glissile BPDs with this repeating multiple times. Previously the high density of Basal Plane Dislocations [BPD] prevented from discerning the details accurately in the SiC images taken by SWBXT. The contribution of SWBXT in accurately categorizing the nature of dislocations in SiC has enabled the crystal growth community to incorporate strategies to mitigate their influence. One of them has been recognizing BPDs as deformation induced defects which have led to the development of

Byrappa, Shayan M.

344

Diversity in Butane Monooxygenases among Butane-Grown Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Butane monooxygenases of butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora, Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, and an environmental isolate, CF8, were compared at the physiological level. The presence of butane monooxygenases in these bacteria was indicated by the following results. (i) O2 was required for butane degradation. (ii) 1-Butanol was produced during butane degradation. (iii) Acetylene inhibited both butane oxidation and 1-butanol production. The responses to the known monooxygenase inactivator, ethylene, and inhibitor, allyl thiourea (ATU), discriminated butane degradation among the three bacteria. Ethylene irreversibly inactivated butane oxidation by P. butanovora but not by M. vaccae or CF8. In contrast, butane oxidation by only CF8 was strongly inhibited by ATU. In all three strains of butane-grown bacteria, specific polypeptides were labeled in the presence of [14C]acetylene. The [14C]acetylene labeling patterns were different among the three bacteria. Exposure of lactate-grown CF8 and P. butanovora and glucose-grown M. vaccae to butane induced butane oxidation activity as well as the specific acetylene-binding polypeptides. Ammonia was oxidized by all three bacteria. P. butanovora oxidized ammonia to hydroxylamine, while CF8 and M. vaccae produced nitrite. All three bacteria oxidized ethylene to ethylene oxide. Methane oxidation was not detected by any of the bacteria. The results indicate the presence of three distinct butane monooxygenases in butane-grown P. butanovora, M. vaccae, and CF8.

Hamamura, Natsuko; Storfa, Ryan T.; Semprini, Lewis; Arp, Daniel J.

1999-01-01

345

Gallium Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Silicon Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-emitting diodes (LED) of InGaN-GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW) are grown on Si(111) substrates. The lattice mismatch between GaN and Si is accommodated by a buffer layer of ZrB2(0001) while the thermal expansion mismatch is alleviated by a transition layer consisting of AlN, AlGaN, and GaN. The ZrB2 buffer layer is grown at Arizona State University (ASU) and the transition layer grown at Nitronex Corporation. The MQW-LED is grown on the resulting composite substrate. The fabrication and the testing of the MQW-LED are conducted at Sandia National Laboratories. The results are compared with an identical InGaN-GaN MQW-LED grown on a conventional sapphire substrate. The three-way collaboration among ASU, Nitronex and Sandia is a project of the National Science Foundation Partnership For Innovation (NSF-PFI) program.

Parra, Eduardo; Gilgen, Joseph; Blake, Adam; Caselli, Derek; Durot, Chris; Mueller, Jason; Tsong, Ignatius; Roberts, John; Piner, Edwin; Linthicum, Kevin; Cook, James, Jr.; Koleske, Daniel; Crawford, Mary

2008-10-01

346

Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

347

Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space.  

PubMed Central

Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

Tripathy, B C; Brown, C S; Levine, H G; Krikorian, A D

1996-01-01

348

Electrochromic nanostructures grown on a silicon nanowire template.  

PubMed

Vertically grown Si nanowires were prepared as a nanotemplate for conducting polymers. Electrochromic (EC) PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) layer was successfully grown on Si nanowires by electrochemical polymerization method to form PEDOT nanowires having average wall thickness of approximately 60 nm. As-prepared conductive nanowire electrode was applied to a low voltage working EC device by fabricating an all solid state EC device. The EC properties of the device were enhanced in the nanowire structure, showing reversible fast optical transition by applying +/-2 V. The response time (t(R)) of the EC device from the PEDOT grown on Si nanowires was approximately 0.7 s, which was much faster than that from PEDOT film coated on ITO glass electrochemically (t(R)=1.9 s). PMID:18579309

Kim, Yuna; Baek, Jehoon; Kim, Myoung-Ha; Choi, Heon-Jin; Kim, Eunkyoung

2008-09-01

349

Precipitation and redistribution of oxygen in Czochralski-grown silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermally induced oxygen precipitation and redistribution phenomena in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals are investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and differential-infrared absorption (DIR). In order to investigate the role of thermal history and the oxygen supersaturated condition for oxygen precipitation, a two-step annealing process is adopted. Evident existence of SiO2 (crystobalite) is observed in as-grown crystals by DIR at 1225 cm-1. As a result, it is ascertained that oxygen precipitation does not occur by homogeneous nucleation depending on the ratio of supersaturated oxygen but occurs by heterogeneous nucleation. A model of a grown-in nucleus for oxygen precipitation by heat treatment is also proposed.

Shimura, Fumio; Tsuya, Hideki; Kawamura, Tsutomu

1980-09-01

350

Apoptosis in wheat seedlings grown under normal daylight.  

PubMed

Apoptosis was observed in the coleoptile and initial leaf in 5-8-day-old wheat seedlings grown under normal daylight. Apoptosis is an obligatory event in early wheat plant ontogenesis, and it is characterized by cytoplasmic structural reorganization and fragmentation, in particular, with the appearance in vacuoles of specific vesicles containing intact organelles, chromatin condensation and margination in the nucleus, and internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA. The earliest signs of programmed cell death (PCD) were observed in the cytoplasm, but the elements of apoptotic degradation in the nucleus appeared later. Nuclear DNA fragmentation was detected after chromatin condensation and the appearance in vacuoles of specific vesicles containing mitochondria. Two PCD varieties were observed in the initial leaf of 5-day-old seedlings grown under normal daylight: a proper apoptosis and vacuolar collapse. On the contrary, PCD in coleoptiles under various growing (light) conditions and in the initial leaf of etiolated seedlings is only a classical plant apoptosis. Therefore, various tissue-specific and light-dependent PCD forms do exist in plants. Amounts of O2*- and H2O2 evolved by seedlings grown under normal daylight are less than that evolved by etiolated seedlings. The amount of H2O2 formed in the presence of sodium salicylate or azide by seedlings grown under normal daylight was increased. Contrary to etiolated seedlings, the antioxidant BHT (ionol) did not inhibit O2*- formation and apoptosis and it had no influence on ontogenesis in the seedlings grown under normal daylight. Thus, in plants grown under the normal light regime the powerful system controlling the balance between formation and inactivation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) does exist and it effectively functions. This system is responsible for maintenance of cell homeostasis, and it regulates the crucial ROS level controlling plant growth and development. In etiolated plants, this system seems to be absent, or it is much less effective. PMID:15061695

Aleksandrushkina, N I; Zamyatnina, V A; Bakeeva, L E; Seredina, A V; Smirnova, E G; Yaguzhinsky, L S; Vanyushin, B F

2004-03-01

351

Initial oxidation of MBE-grown Si( 100) surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the initial oxidation of MBE-grown Si(100) surfaces with atomic flatness using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). It was found that the MBE-grown surfaces are inert and hardly oxidized even after exposure to molecular oxygen up to 1500 L at room temperature and that the oxygen coverage is saturated at 0.4 ML. At elevated temperatures, however, the surface oxidation was substantially promoted on the atomically flat surface. On the other hand, the oxidation was found to proceed on a deliberately corrugated Si surface prepared by a low temperature MBE growth, even at room temperature.

Hiroyuki, Yaguchi; Ken, Fujita; Susumu, Fukatsu; Yasuhiro, Shiraki; Ryoichi, Ito; Takayuki, Igarashi; Takeo, Hattori

1992-09-01

352

Characterization of silicon crystals grown by the heat exchanger method  

SciTech Connect

Silicon ingots grown by the Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) as large as 45 kg in mass (34 cm x 34 cm x 17 cm) are characterized electrically and structurally. The defect state in the crystal is related to the solar cell efficiency. Such characterization indicates that the solar cell efficiency of HEM crystals is limited by the crystal perfection, but that HEM silicon has the potential to yield silicon with quality comparable to Cz grown silicon. A new approach to grow HEM material of better quality is discussed.

Hyland, S.; Dumas, K.A.; Engelbrecht, J.A.A.; Leung, D.; Schwuttke, G.M.

1983-05-01

353

Gallium Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Silicon Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light-emitting diodes (LED) of InGaN-GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW) are grown on Si(111) substrates. The lattice mismatch between GaN and Si is accommodated by a buffer layer of ZrB2(0001) while the thermal expansion mismatch is alleviated by a transition layer consisting of AlN, AlGaN, and GaN. The ZrB2 buffer layer is grown at Arizona State University (ASU) and the transition

Eduardo Parra; Joseph Gilgen; Adam Blake; Derek Caselli; Chris Durot; Jason Mueller; Ignatius Tsong; John Roberts; Edwin Piner; Kevin Linthicum; James Cook Jr.; Daniel Koleske; Mary Crawford

2008-01-01

354

Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40?mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200??g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6??g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ?1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100?mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40?mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60?mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5?mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5?mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC.

Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

2014-01-01

355

Red clover Trifolium pratense (Linn.) isoflavones extract on the pain threshold of normal and ovariectomized rats--a long-term study.  

PubMed

Depletion of estrogens occurs in women during menopause, while in experimental animals, oophorectomy is a common method to deplete the animals of their gonadal hormones. Recently, phytoestrogens derived from plants have been tried as estrogen substitutes during menopause. In the present study an isoflavones methanol extract from red clover Trifolium pratense (Linn.) was administered orally (500?mg/kg of body weight) to ovariectomized (OVX) and normal (controls) rats for 90 and 180 days. Their pain threshold was monitored using tail flicking and formalin test methods. Observations showed that the OVX rat pain threshold was reduced due to estrogen deprivation, whereas the pain threshold levels in OVX rats treated with isoflavones extract was similar to the control animals. The present study demonstrated the influence of phytoestrogen on long-term OVX rats in pain perception in the absence of ovarian estrogen and without toxic side effects. However, the actions of gonadal hormones on nociceptive axis are myriad and complex, so further studies on the exact physiological mechanism of the phytoestrogen action on nociceptive axis is warranted. PMID:20623592

Vishali, Nagarajan; Kamakshi, Krishnaswamy; Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

2011-01-01

356

Investigation of Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in Type 1 Diabetic Rats: An Identification of Possible Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant properties of the root of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus root (EESIR) 100 and 200?mg/kg to the STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) reduction in blood glucose and increase in body weight compared to diabetic control rats. Both the doses of EESIR-treated diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) alteration in elevated lipid profile levels than diabetic control rats. The EESIR treatment in diabetic rats produced significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels than diabetic control rats. Administration of EESIR 200?mg/kg produced significant (P < .01) higher antioxidant activity than EESIR 100?mg/kg. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EESIR revealed the presence of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin. In conclusion, EESIR possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect will help to prevent diabetic complications, and these actions are possibly due to presence of above biomarkers.

Ramachandran, S.; Asokkumar, K.; Uma Maheswari, M.; Ravi, T. K.; Sivashanmugam, A. T.; Saravanan, S.; Rajasekaran, A.; Dharman, J.

2011-01-01

357

A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats  

PubMed Central

Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test drugs were administered orally in the dose of 9ml/kg. Group I received vehicle (distilled water), Group II received leaf decoction of Premna obtusifolia Linn, Group III received leaf decoction of Premna latifolia Roxb and Group IV received indomethacin as standard anti-inflammatory drug. Test drugs and indomethacinwere administered one hour prior to the injection of 0.05 ml of 1% suspension of carrageenan into the sub plantar region of the left hind paw of rats. Study findings indicate that leaves of both the species of Premna have anti-inflammatory potential, P. latifoliabeing superior to P. obtusifolia.

Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

2011-01-01

358

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

359

Ancient maize from Chacoan great houses: Where was it grown?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we compare chemical (87Sr\\/86Sr and elemental) analyses of archaeological maize from dated contexts within Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to potential agricultural sites on the periphery of the San Juan Basin. The oldest maize analyzed from Pueblo Bonito probably was grown in an area located 80 km to the west at the base of the Chuska

Larry Benson; Linda Cordell; Kirk Vincent; Howard Taylor; John Stein; G. Lang Farmer; Kiyoto Futa

2003-01-01

360

Gene expression in Fusarium graminearum grown on plant cell wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic filamentous fungus attacking a wide range of plants including Humulus lupulus (hop). Transcriptional analysis of F. graminearum grown on minimal media containing hop cell wall or glucose as the sole carbon source was performed by applying a highly stringent method combining microarrays and a subtracted cDNA library. In addition to genes coding for various cell

Raphaël Carapito; Didier Hatsch; Sonja Vorwerk; Elizabet Petkovski; Jean-Marc Jeltsch; Vincent Phalip

2008-01-01

361

Investigating and Supplying Halid Flux-Grown KTP Crystals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The original purpose of this contract was to supply KTiOPO(4) (KTP) crystals grown by Cristal Laser S.A. by flux of alkali metal halide. Therefore, the experiments were performed on crystals from Cristal Laser S.A. The main tests provided for in the contr...

D. Lupinski

1995-01-01

362

RESPONSE OF CHEMOSTAT GROWN ENTERIC BACTERIA TO CHLORINE DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of antecedent growth conditions on the sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated. The two organisms were grown in a defined medium supplemented with glucose either in the chemostat or in batch culture, and the influence of growth...

363

X-ray Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Germanium (111)-oriented crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, in both detached and attached configurations. Microstructural characterization of these crystals has been performed using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and double axis x-ray diffraction. Dislocation densities were measured from x-ray topographs obtained using the reflection geometry. For detached-grown crystals, the dislocation density is 4-6 x 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the seed region, and decreases in the direction of growth to less than 10(exp 3) per square centimeter, and in some crystals reaches less than 10(exp 2) per square centimeter. For crystals grown in the attached configuration, dislocation densities were on the order of 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the middle of the crystals, increasing to greater than 10(exp 5) per square centimeter near the edge. The measured dislocation densities are in excellent agreement with etch pit density results. The rocking curve linewidths were relatively insensitive to the dislocation densities. However, broadening and splitting of the rocking curves were observed in the vicinity of subgrain boundaries identified by x-ray topography in some of the attached-grown crystals.

Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

2005-01-01

364

Waste Grown Rhodovulum sulfidophilum biomass for Aquaculture Feed Supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the benefit of using waste grown phototrophic bacterium strain, Rhodovulum sulfidophilum biomass as aquaculture feed for brine shrimp. Feeding trials was conducted on Artemia nauplii. In the first trial, Artemia nauplii were fed with four formulated diets prepared at 50% protein level. No significant differences (p>0.01) in survival and growth were found with diets formulated with

S. A. Azad; K. B. Ramachandran; V. C. Chong; S. Vikineswary

365

PLUTONIUM UPTAKE BY PLANTS GROWN IN SOLUTION CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Plants grown in aquatic systems were shown to rapidly accumulate large amounts of plutonium, about 40% of which was removed by washing. Detergent removed debris, most of which consisted of particles larger than 0.8 micrometers. After removing a portion of the bound Pu by rinsing ...

366

Dielectric relaxation in thermally grown SiO2films  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive investigation of the dielectric properties of thermally grown silicon dioxide films was performed in the temperature range from 400°C to 525°C. Principally, the variation of dissipation factor with frequency was observed at various applied peak fields and oxide thicknesses. In the temperature and frequency domain investigated, a large peak in the dissipation factor occurred. This peak corresponded to

P. J. Burkhardt

1966-01-01

367

Stem Cells Yield Lab-Grown Skin, Researchers Say  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stem Cells Yield Lab-Grown Skin, Researchers Say Finding might ... April 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Skin Conditions Stem Cells FRIDAY, April 25, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Skin that ...

368

Uptake of human pharmaceuticals by plants grown under hydroponic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) and Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa) were chosen for a proof of concept study to determine the potential uptake and accumulation of human pharmaceuticals by plants. These plants were grown hydroponically under high-pressure sodium lamps in one of two groups including a control and test group exposed to pharmaceuticals. The control plants were irrigated with

Patrick A. Herklotz; Prakash Gurung; Brian Vanden Heuvel; Chad A. Kinney

2010-01-01

369

Volatile compounds produced by fungi grown in strawberry jam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi are most important micro-organisms spoiling jams and other fruit preserves. The volatile compounds produced by fungi can be used to detect fungal growth in food. The aim of this study was to identify volatile organic compounds indicating fungal growth in strawberry jam. Ten fungal strains isolated from jam, yogurt or indoor air were grown in strawberry jam and strawberry

T. Nieminen; P. Neubauer; S. Sivelä; S. Vatamo; P. Silfverberg; M. Salkinoja-Salonen

2008-01-01

370

Response of young hydroponically grown tomato plants to phenolic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic acids—excreted both as root exudates and by microorganisms—are of interest in cultivation systems of different horticultural crops since they have been claimed to accumulate in closed hydroponic growing systems. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the phytotoxic effects when hydroponically grown tomato plants are exposed to phenolic acids in the root environment. The tomato plants were

V Jung; E Olsson; S Caspersen; H Asp; P Jensén; B. W Alsanius

2004-01-01

371

Hyperspectral imaging for detecting pathogens grown on agar plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth pattern, color, etc.) of colonies grown on agar plates has been widely used to tentatively differentiate organisms.

Seung Chul Yoon; Kurt C. Lawrence; Gregory R. Siragusa; John E. Line; William R. Windham

2007-01-01

372

Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Grown in Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-Distilled volatiles of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) grown in Cuba were analyzed by GC\\/MS. Among the 25 compounds identified, thymol (34.60%), ?-terpinene (17.61%) and p-cymene (17.65%) were the mjaor constituents.

Jorge A. Pino; Mirna Estarrón; Victor Fuentes

1997-01-01

373

The Nesting Syndrome: Grown Children Living at Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents across the nation are experiencing the phenomenon of adult children returning home to live with their parents after brief or extended excursions into independent living, or of adult children reluctant to move out until their financial or lifestyle expectations are guaranteed. Referring to these grown children as "nesters," this book…

Wiener, Valerie

374

Herbivore responses to plants grown in enriched carbon dioxide atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our initial study of sagebrush and grasshopper responses to elevated and historical carbon dioxide atmospheres is complete and has been accepted for publication. The study on Biomass Allocation Patterns of Defoliated Sagebrush Grown Under Two Levels of Carbon Dioxide has completed and the manuscript has been submitted for publication. We have completed the study of plant growth under two nutrient

Lincoln

1990-01-01

375

Epitaxially-grown GaN junction field effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Junction field effect transistors (JFETs) are fabricated on a GaN epitaxial structure grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The dc and microwave characteristics of the device are presented. A junction breakdown voltage of 56 V is obtained corresponding to the theoretical limit of the breakdown field in GaN for the doping levels used. A maximum extrinsic transconductance (gm

L. Zhang; L. F. Lester; A. G. Baca; R. J. Shul; P. C. Chang; C. G. Willison; U. K. Mishra; S. P. Denbaars; J. C. Zolper

2000-01-01

376

Ontogenetic changes in foliar features and psoralen content of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. exposed to SO2 stress.  

PubMed

Field-grown Psoralea corylifolia plants were exposed to 0.5 ppm and 1.0 ppm concentrations of sulphur dioxide gas and sampled for observation at the pre-flowering, flowering and post-flowering stages of plant ontogeny. One ppm SO2 concentration caused a significant decline in leaf number and leaf area per plant, total leaf dry weight, and the size and amount of midrib vasculature. The density and size of stomata decreased and many stomata were damaged. Interestingly new epidermis developed oversome of the damaged leaf stomata, thus showing a unique defence strategy against SO2 stress through dedifferentiation of the epidermal cells. Decline in the concentrations of leafchlorophylls and carotenoids in treated plants were up to 20% and 29% respectively. Stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 content and net photosynthetic rate lowered byover 52%, 20% and 35%, respectively under the SO2 stress. Concentration of psoralen, a basic linear furanocoumarin known for its use in the treatment of dermal diseases, was highest (5.32%) in seeds and lowest (0.28%) in roots. It was heavily reduced in SO2 treated plants, the maximum decline occurring in seeds (86.70%) and leaves (56.27%). In the roots and shoots of the treated plants, it was low in pre-flowering stage, compared with the control, but showed a recovery during the post-flowering phase of plant growth. PMID:19295061

Ali, S Tanvir; Mahmooduzzafar; Abdin, M Z; Iqbal, Muhammad

2008-09-01

377

Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (Linn.) Enhances Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Facilitates Osteoblastogenesis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation rate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (osteoblastogenesis) and extracellular matrix calcification. This study also aimed to determine the additive effect of osteogenic media and Cissus quadrangularis on proliferation, differentiation and calcification. METHODS MSCs were cultured in media with or without Cissus quadrangularis for 4 weeks and were then stained for alkaline phosphatase. Extracellular matrix calcification was confirmed by Von Kossa staining. marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultures in control media and osteogenic media supplemented with Cissus quadrangularis extract (100, 200, 300 ?g/mL) were also subjected to a cell proliferation assay (MTT). RESULTS Treatment with 100, 200 or 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhanced the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into ALP-positive osteoblasts and increased extracellular matrix calcification. Treatment with 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis also enhanced the proliferation rate of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cells grown in osteogenic media containing Cissus quadrangularis exhibited higher proliferation, differentiation and calcification rates than did control cells. CONCLUSION The results suggest that Cissus quadrangularis stimulates osteoblastogenesis and can be used as preventive/ alternative natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis.

Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR; Rao, Muddanna S; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan; Muttigi, Manjunatha S

2009-01-01

378

Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Background: The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka. Objective: The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6th hour postchallenge. Chronic inflammation was developed by using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Paw volume, ankle joint circumference, and body weight were assessed on 1st, 4th, 8th, 14th, 17th, and 21st day. Paste was applied once every day to the inflamed area of the paw of respective groups of animals, continuously for 14 days. Statistics: The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. P ? 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulations did not show any dermal toxicity and found to be safe. Both the pastes significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed, carrageenan-induced paw edema at 6th hour and Holoptelea integrifolia appears to be more effective than Plumbago zeylanica. Significant reduction was observed in paw volume, ankle joint circumference and animal body weight gained. Conclusions: The tested formulations (P. zeylanica root and H. integrifolia bark pastes) showed significant antiinflammatory activity. The present findings therefore support its utility in arthritic pain, inflammation and the claim of traditional practitioners.

Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Roy, Subarna; Kholkute, S. D.

2014-01-01

379

Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.  

PubMed

It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

Gümral, Nurhan; Doguc Kumbul, Duygu; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

2013-01-01

380

Investigation of the extracts from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. radiata Sch. Bip. for antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity against human tumor cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines of extracts from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. radiata Sch. Bip. (BP). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Furthermore, the antioxidant properties of different polarity fractions extracted from BP were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging test and FRAP assay. The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-BP) showed the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions. In addition, the anti-proliferative activities of the extracts on four human tumor cells, namely MCF-7, HepG2, MGC 803 and RKO, were investigated by MTT method. The EE-BP displayed the most remarkable anti-proliferative effect against the tumor cells, particularly RKO cell in dose- and time-dependent manner. The antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity correlated highly with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Furthermore, The active ingredient BP-6, namely 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,3'-dimethyl-flavonol, was isolated and purified with the purity above 99.00% and content of 0.15% in EE-BP detected by HPLC, which could significantly inhibit the proliferation of RKO cells with the IC(50) value of 6.66 ?mol/l. In order to characterize the apoptotic RKO cells, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assay were performed. Apoptotic cell numbers increased in a dose-dependent manner after the treatment with different concentrations of EE-BP and BP-6 for 12 and 6 h, respectively. DNA ladders in apoptotic RKO cells could be easily visualized when exposed to 200 ?g/ml of the EE-BP for 36 h. Taken together, our work indicated that BP had potentially therapeutic value against colorectal cancer. PMID:22382861

Wu, Jianguo; Wan, Zhongxian; Yi, Jun; Wu, Yanbin; Peng, Wei; Wu, Jinzhong

2013-01-01

381

Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.  

PubMed

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 ?g ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 ?g ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth. PMID:23100719

Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

2008-06-01

382

THz probe studies of MBE grown epitaxial GaAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built a THz time-domain spectrometer driven by a sub-15fs pulse duration mode-locked Ti:Al203 laser. Using THz time-domain spectroscopy with photoconductive antenna for THz generation and electro-optic sampling for detection as well as photoexcited THz spectroscopy, we measured the carrier concentrations and mobilities of epitaxially grown undoped GaAs samples to be used in photoconductive antenna production. The samples were grown at 600 °C to 1 ?m effective layer thickness on top of a 650 ?m SI-GaAs wafer. The resistivities, mobilities and the carrier concentrations were measured and calculated by the van der Pauw method under the magnetic field. These Hall effect measurements and the THz probe studies were compared with each other. The measurements and calculations obtained electronically are compared optically using the Drude Model for the conductivity and mobility.

Köseo?lu, D.; Güllü, H. H.; Altan, H.

2009-11-01

383

Asymmetric distributions of grown-in microdefects in Czochralski silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axial temperature gradient in the CZ-Si melt near the crystal-melt interface was increased by controlling the crucible and crystal rotation rate. For the crystal grown under the increased temperature gradient in the melt with a very low crucible rotation rate, asymmetric distributions of grown-in microdefects were formed. This result has never been reported, and cannot be explained simply by any theory such as Voronkov's theory. In addition, it is shown that the shape of the crystal-melt interface is not the parameter determining the dominant type of point defects. Therefore, a new aspect of the formation behavior of point defects is discussed in terms of asymmetry of the melt temperature distributions.

Cho, Hyon-Jong; Sim, Bok-cheol; Yong Lee, Jeong

2006-04-01

384

Diffraction study of protein crystals grown in cryoloops and micromounts  

PubMed Central

Protein crystals are usually grown in hanging or sitting drops and generally get transferred to a loop or micromount for cryocooling and data collection. This paper describes a method for growing crystals on cryoloops for easier manipulation of the crystals for data collection. This study also investigates the steps for the automation of this process and describes the design of a new tray for the method. The diffraction patterns and the structures of three proteins grown by both the new method and the conventional hanging-drop method are compared. The new setup is optimized for the automation of the crystal mounting process. Researchers could prepare nanolitre drops under ordinary laboratory conditions by growing the crystals directly in loops or micromounts. As has been pointed out before, higher levels of supersaturation can be obtained in very small volumes, and the new method may help in the exploration of additional crystallization conditions.

Berger, Michael A.; Decker, Johannes H.; Mathews, Irimpan I.

2010-01-01

385

Bioengineered Dental Tissues Grown in the Rat Jaw  

PubMed Central

Our long-term objective is to develop methods to form, in the jaw, bioengineered replacement teeth that exhibit physical properties and functions similar to those of natural teeth. Our results show that cultured rat tooth bud cells, seeded onto biodegradable scaffolds, implanted into the jaws of adult rat hosts and grown for 12 weeks, formed small, organized, bioengineered tooth crowns, containing dentin, enamel, pulp, and periodontal ligament tissues, similar to identical cell-seeded scaffolds implanted and grown in the omentum. Radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that bioengineered teeth consisted of organized dentin, enamel, and pulp tissues. This study advances practical applications for dental tissue engineering by demonstrating that bioengineered tooth tissues can be regenerated at the site of previously lost teeth, and supports the use of tissue engineering strategies in humans, to regenerate previously lost and/or missing teeth. The results presented in this report support the feasibility of bioengineered replacement tooth formation in the jaw.

Duailibi, S.E.; Duailibi, M.T.; Zhang, W.; Asrican, R.; Vacanti, J.P.; Yelick, P.C.

2009-01-01

386

Growth and characterization of hexamethylenetetramine crystals grown from solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic nonlinear optical single crystals of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT; 10 × 10 × 5 mm3) were prepared by crystallization from methanol solution. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization techniques such as single crystal XRD, powder XRD, UV-Vis and electrical studies. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed the crystalline structure of the grown crystals. Their crystalline nature was also confirmed by powder XRD technique. The optical transmittance property was identified from UV-Vis spectrum. Dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency at different temperatures. DC conductivity and photoconductivity studies were also carried out for the crystal. The powder second harmonic generation efficiency (SHG) of the crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser and the efficiency was found to be two times greater than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

Babu, B.; Chandrasekaran, J.; Balaprabhakaran, S.

2014-04-01

387

Electrical and mechanical properties of vapour grown gallium monotelluride crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical vapour deposition (PVD) of gallium monotelluride (GaTe) in different crystalline habits was established in the growth ampoule, strongly depending on the temperature gradient. Proper control on the temperatures of source and growth zones in an indigenously fabricated dual zone furnace could yield the crystals in the form of whiskers and spherulites. Optical and electron microscopic images were examined to predict the growth mechanism of morphologies. The structural parameters of the grown spherulites were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The stoichiometric composition of these crystals was confirmed using energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX). The type and nature of electrical conductivity were identified by the conventional hot probe and two probe methods, respectively. The mechanical parameters, such as Vickers microhardness, work hardening index, and yield strength, were deduced from microindentation measurements. The results show that the vapour grown p-GaTe crystals exhibit novel physical properties, which make them suitable for device applications.

Reshmi, P. M.; Kunjomana, A. G.; Chandrasekharan, K. A.

2013-10-01

388

Diffusion-limited aggregates grown on nonuniform substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, patterns of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) grown on nonuniform substrates are investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We consider a nonuniform substrate as the largest percolation cluster of dropped particles with different structures and forms that occupy more than a single site on the lattice. The aggregates are grown on such clusters, in the range the concentration, p, from the percolation threshold, pc up to the jamming coverage, pj. At the percolation threshold, the aggregates are asymmetrical and the branches are relatively few. However, for larger values of p, the patterns change gradually to a pure DLA. Tiny qualitative differences in this behavior are observed for different k sizes. Correspondingly, the fractal dimension of the aggregates increases as p raises in the same range pc?p?pj. This behavior is analyzed and discussed in the framework of the existing theoretical approaches.

Cornette, V.; Centres, P. M.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.; Nieto, F.

2013-12-01

389

OM-VPE grown materials for high efficiency solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Organometallic sources are available for all the III-V elements and a variety of dopants; thus it is possible to use the technique to grow a wide variety of semiconductor compounds. AlGaAsSb and AlGaInAs alloys for multijunction monolithic solar cells were grown by OM-VPE. While the effort concentrated on terrestrial applications, the success of OM-VPE grown GaAs/AlGaAs concentrator solar cells (23% at 400 suns) demonstrates that OM-VPE is suitable for growing high efficiency solar cells in large quantities for space applications. In addition, OM-VPE offers the potential for substantial cost reduction of photovoltaic devices with scale up and automation and due to high process yield from reproducible, uniform epitaxial growths with excellent surface morphology.

Saxena, R.; Cooper, B., III; Ludowise, M.; Borden, P.; Gregory, P.

1980-01-01

390

Characterization of CZT detectors grown from horizontal and vertical Bridgman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various types of Cd1-xZnxTe (0.04 < X < 0.24) detector crystals grown by vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB), low pressure Bridgman (LPB) i.e. vertical ambient pressure Bridgman (VB), horizontal ambient pressure Bridgman (HB) and vapor grown crystals have been evaluated and compared. We have used the following methods in order to evaluate the CZT: (1) Triaxial crystal x-ray diffraction (TAD) for determination of the surface crystalline homogeneity, (2) Nuclear spectroscopic response of detectors and (3) Sensitivity to radiation from high flux x-rays for investigations of the suitability for x-ray digital imaging. Finally a comparison between the various methods of CZT crystal growth will be given.

Hermon, Haim; Schieber, Michael M.; Goorsky, Mark S.; Lam, Terence T.; Meerson, Evgenie; Yao, H. Walter; Erickson, Jay C.; James, Ralph B.

2000-11-01

391

Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon.  

PubMed

Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moore's law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits. PMID:24999601

Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

2014-01-01

392

Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

2007-07-01

393

75 FR 77563 - Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...917-3 CR] Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda...eligible California nectarine, pear, and peach growers to determine whether they favor...the handling of nectarines, pears, and peaches grown in California. DATES: The...

2010-12-13

394

Fractal Structures of Zinc Metal Leaves Grown by Electrodeposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc metal leaves are grown two-dimensionally by electrodeposition. The structures clearly remind us of the random patterns simulated by computer according to the Witten-Sander diffusion-limited-aggregation model. The scale invariance is tested by computing the density-density correlation function for the digitized patterns of the photographs. The Hausdorff dimension averaged over many examples is D=1.66+\\/-0.03, which is in excellent agreement with that

M. Matsushita; M. Sano; Y. Hayakawa; H. Honjo; Y. Sawada

1984-01-01

395

Nutritional composition of water hyacinths grown on domestic sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrient analysis of water hyacinths grown in sewage wastewaters was conducted. Crude protein averaged 32.9% dry weight\\u000a in the leaves, where it was most concentrated. The amino acid content of water hyacinth leaves was found to compare favorably\\u000a with that of soybean and cottonseed meal. The vitamin and mineral content of dried water hyacinths met or exceeded the FAO

B. C. Wolverton; Rebecca C. Mcdonald

1978-01-01

396

Furnace grown gate oxynitride using nitric oxide (NO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gate oxynitride was grown in NO for the first time. This approach can provide a tight N accumulation near the Si\\/SiO2 interface. Much lower thermal budget is required for an NO process than for an N2O process to produce an oxynitride with useful properties. Submicron MOSFET's with NO oxynitride showed superior current drive characteristics and comparable hot carrier immunity to

Yoshio Okada; Philip J. Tobin; Kimberly G. Reid; Rama I. Hegde; Bikas Maiti; Sergio A. Ajuria

1994-01-01

397

Nano transfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates  

DOEpatents

Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoconduit material coupled to a surface of the substrate. The substrate defines an aperture and the nanoconduit material defines a nanoconduit that is i) contiguous with the aperture and ii) aligned substantially non-parallel to a plane defined by the surface of the substrate.

Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN); Guillorn, Michael A. (Ithaca, NY); Ilic, Bojan (Ithaca, NY); Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Knoxville, TX); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-03-27

398

Strain dependence of piezoelectric coefficients for pseudomorphically grown semiconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the issue of strain dependence of piezoelectric effect in semiconductor materials, which is manifested by the appearance of an electric field in response to crystal deformation. For III–V materials such as GaAs and InAs we find that strain considerably modifies the value of the piezoelectric coefficients. For the case of InAs pseudomorphically grown on GaAs substrate, our model

R. Garg; V. Haxha; M. A. Migliorato; A. Hue; G. P. Srivastava; T. Hammerschmidt

2009-01-01

399

Vapor-grown carbon-fiber reinforced carbon composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor-grown carbon-fiber (VGCF) reinforced carbon (VGCF-C) composites were studied for thermal and physical properties. Effect of fiber volume fraction and final density of composite on thermal conductivity was investigated. The fiber volume fractions range from 25 v\\/o to 36% and the final densities range from 1.15 g\\/cc to 1.59 g\\/cc. A composite with a fiber volume fraction of 36% and

Jyh-Ming Ting; Max L. Lake

1995-01-01

400

From Vapor-Grown Carbon Fibers (Vgcfs) To Carbon Nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Careful growth control during chemical vapor deposition makes it possible to obtain various morphologies of carbon fibers:\\u000a from normal vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCFs) through submicron VGCFs to nanofibers or carbon nanotubes. The combined effects\\u000a of excellent physical properties and low production costs have spurred applications research for these fibers in various fields.

M. Endo; Y. A. Kim; T. Matusita; T. Hayashi

401

Resistance Switching Behavior in Epitaxially Grown NiO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproducible resistance switching behavior has been found in NiO films prepared by a pulsed laser deposition system. The I-V measurements of epitaixally grown NiO on SrRuO3 electrode show a bipolar resistive memory switching behavior, in contrast with a unipolar switching behavior of polycrystalline NiO on Pt electrode. In order to understand the resistive memory switching mechanism in NiO, the I-V

S. R. Lee; J. H. Bak; Y. D. Park; K. Char; D. C. Kim; R. Jung; S. Seo; X. S. Li; G.-S. Park; I. K. Yoo

2008-01-01

402

Photovoltaic properties of CdTe layers grown by OMVPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photovoltaic characteristics of single-crystal cadmium telluride epitaxial layers grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) on InSb substrates are reported. Electrical characterization of Schottky solar cells fabricated by depositing thin transparent gold shows that a hole diffusion length of 2 microns can be obtained in n-CdTe. The current flow in the p-n junction in the forward bias is determined by

H. G. Bhimnathwala; N. R. Taskar; W. I. Lee; I. Bhat; S. K. Ghandhi

1987-01-01

403

Gasification and Surface Modification of Vapor-Grown Carbon Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCF) were produced from a methane-hydrogen mixture on a reconstituted graphite support using the\\u000a [Fe3(CO)12] complex as catalyst precursor. The fibers thus produced were submitted to different oxidative treatments: nitric acid, oxygen\\u000a plasma and partial gasification with air or carbon dioxide. The original and the oxidised fibers were characterised by X-ray\\u000a diffraction, SEM, AFM, nitrogen adsorption, XPS

J. L. Figueiredo; P H. Serp

404

AlGaN ultraviolet photoconductors grown on sapphire  

Microsoft Academic Search

AlxGa1?xN (0?x?0.50) ultraviolet photoconductors with a minimum cutoff wavelength shorter than 260 nm have been fabricated and characterized. The AlGaN active layers were grown on (00?1) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The spectral responsivity of the GaN detector at 360 nm is about 1 A\\/W biased at 8 V at room temperature. The carrier lifetime derived from

D. Walker; X. Zhang; P. Kung; A. Saxler; S. Javadpour; J. Xu; M. Razeghi

1996-01-01

405

Thermally induced strain in MBE grown GaN layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of thermally induced strain in GaN layers grown on c-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy is presented. For this, high-resolution X-ray diffraction at variable temperature (10–630K) has been used, which is the most direct method to investigate this strain. A linear change of the lattice constant was observed for a 3?m thick GaN layer for temperatures above 300K

H. Heinke; V Kirchner; S Einfeldt; U Birkle; D Hommel

1998-01-01

406

Preparation of vapor-grown carbon fibers from deoiled asphalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCFs) with high-purity have been successfully prepared from the thermal cracking of deoiled asphalt (DOA) with ferrocene as catalyst by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in argon atmosphere and characterized systematically by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Results showed that VGCFs with a diameter of 150–200nm and

Yongzhen Yang; Xuguang Liu; Bingshe Xu; Tianbao Li

2006-01-01

407

Infrared photodiodes formed in mercury cadmium telluride grown by MOCVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodiodes have been formed by ion implantation into epitaxial mercury cadmium telluride grown by MOCVD on 2 degrees (100) CdTe substrates. The diodes exhibit R0A products up to 7*104 Omega cm2 with 5.3 mu m cut-off at 77 K, and quantum efficiencies of 88% when anti-reflection coated. This is believed to be the first report of photovoltaic device performance in

C. F. Byrne; P. Knowles

1988-01-01

408

Phosphorus nutrition and water deficits in field-grown soybeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus and water deficits are important limiting factors in agricultural production. A field experiment was carried out\\u000a with soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) to determine whether the effect of water stress on field-grown soybean changes with soil P availability, and\\u000a whether soil water content affects plant P nutrition. The soil was a Sadler series (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Glossic Fragiudalf)\\u000a located

Flavio H. Gutiérrez-boem; Grant W. Thomas

1999-01-01

409

Transport properties of MBE grown cuprate spin ladders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films belonging to the family of Spin Ladders (Sr,Ca)h?1Cuh+1O2h are grown by MBE. The deposition is performed under atomic oxygen using real time control by the RHEED intensity. The structural parameters measured by four-circle X-ray diffraction agree with the values observed for cuprate Spin Ladders in bulk compounds from various laboratories. HRTEM images shows the double Cu rows within

M. Laguës; J. Y. Laval; C. F. Beuran; C. Deville Cavellin; B. Eustache; J. B. Moussy; C. Partiot; X. Z. Xu

1997-01-01

410

Transport properties of doped cuprate ladder compounds grown by MBE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charge transfer was measured by X-ray absorption at the copper L3 edge in thin films of cuprate ladder compounds (Sr,Ca)Cu2O3+? grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Depending on the oxidation process, the charge transfer of the films varies in the range 0.07 to 0.26. Transport properties of the SrCu2O3 compounds show localization in agreement with variable range hopping, while some CaCu2O3

C. Partiot; M. Dorget; C. Deville Cavellin; F. Studer; X. Z. Xu; F. Beuran; M. Laguës

2000-01-01

411

Dislocation etching of flux grown strontium hexaferrite single crystals (abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexagonal hard ferrites like SrFe12O19 are technically interesting materials not only because they are the traditional permanent magnets but also as emerging magnetic recording media and as potential magneto-optic devices. For these reasons the study of dislocations in these samples is quite significant. Flux grown single crystals of SrFe12O19 are etched in 37% HNO3 at 100 °C and 85% H3P4

Urvashi Raina; Sushma Bhat; P. N. Kotru; F. Licci

1994-01-01

412

Crystal Growth and Characterization of CdTe Grown  

SciTech Connect

In this study, crystals of CdTe were grown from melts by the unseeded vertical gradient freeze method. The thermal history of the melt and the thermal gradient at the growth interface were adjusted to optimize the crystalline quality of the grown crystals. The grown crystals were studied by various characterization techniques, including synchrotron white beam X-ray topography (SWBXT), chemical analysis by glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS), low temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Hall measurements. The SWBXT images taken from various angles show grains with inhomogeneous strains, nearly strain-free grains, as well as twinning nucleated in the shoulder region of the boule. The GDMS chemical analysis shows the contamination of Ga at a level of 3900 ppb, atomic. The low temperature PL measurement exhibits the characteristic emissions of a Ga-doped sample. The Hall measurements show a resistivity of 1 x 107 O cm at room temperature and 3 x 109 O cm at 78 K with the respective hole and electron concentration of 1.7 x 109 and 3.9 x 107 cm-3 at room temperature.

Su,C.; Lehoczky, S.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.

2008-01-01

413

Hyperspectral imaging for detecting pathogens grown on agar plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth pattern, color, etc.) of colonies grown on agar plates has been widely used to tentatively differentiate organisms. However, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate target organisms like Campylobacters from other contaminants grown together on the same agar plates. A hyperspectral imaging system operating at the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral region from 400 nm to 900 nm was set up to measure spectral signatures of 17 different Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter subspecies. Protocols for culturing, imaging samples and for calibrating measured data were developed. The VNIR spectral library of all 17 organisms commonly encountered in poultry was established from calibrated hyperspectral images. A classification algorithm was developed to locate and identify Campylobacters, non-Campylobacter contaminants, and background agars with 99.29% accuracy. This research has a potential to be expanded to detect other pathogens grown on agar media.

Yoon, Seung Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Line, John E.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

2007-09-01

414

Femtosecond laser processing of protein crystals grown in agarose gel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manual manipulation of protein crystals is often required in order to obtain X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, but the success of the manual operation depends on the experience and fortuity of the operators. Here, we demonstrated the processing of protein crystals grown in semi-solid agarose gel using a femtosecond laser. This high-precision, reproducible processing could be achieved without unsealing the crystallization trays by using a focused femtosecond laser. We confirmed that the gel-immobilized crystals of hen egg white lysozyme, glucose isomerase and thaumatin could be processed by this technique. In contrast, the processing of protein crystals grown in non-gelled solution triggered polycrystallization or was unsuccessful. The processed gel-grown lysozyme crystal was subsequently captured by a nylon loop without difficulty and mounted onto the goniometer head of the XRD equipment for XRD data collection. The statistics of the obtained XRD data indicated that laser irradiation has little influence on crystallinity, suggesting that the processed protein crystals are virtually suitable for X-ray analysis. This approach provides a reliable method of processing protein crystals and may lead to an automated system for protein crystal processing.

Hasenaka, Hitoshi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Hirose, Mika; Shimizu, Noriko; Kitatani, Tomoya; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi

2009-12-01

415

29 CFR 780.813 - âCounty where cotton is grown  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section...Under Section 13(b)(15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 âCounty where cotton is grown.â For the...

2010-07-01

416

29 CFR 780.813 - âCounty where cotton is grown  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section...Under Section 13(b)(15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 âCounty where cotton is grown.â For the...

2009-07-01

417

Determination of Vitamin C, ?-carotene and Riboflavin Contents in Five Green Vegetables Organically and Conventionally Grown  

Microsoft Academic Search

As consumer interest in organically grown vegetables is increasing in Malaysia, there is a need to answer whether the vegetables are more nutritious than those conventionally grown. This study investigates commercially available vegetables grown organically and conventionally, purchased from retailers to analyse ?-carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents. Five types of green vegetables were selected, namely Chinese mustard (sawi) (Brassica

Amin Ismail; Cheah Sook Fun

418

Longevity and Fecundity of Japanese Beetle ( Popillia japonica ) on Foliage Grown Under Elevated Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 experience physiological changes that inßuence their suitability as food. Previous studies have found increased insect herbivory on plants grown under elevated CO2. To determine effects of consuming foliage of soybean (Glycine max) grown under elevated CO2 on adult survivorship and fecundity,

Bridget F. O’Neill; Arthur R. Zangerl; Evan H. DeLucia; May R. Berenbaum

2008-01-01

419

Chloroform Cometabolism by Butane-Grown CF8 Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and Methane Grown Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroform (CF) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and to that by a known CF degrader, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. All three butane-grown bacteria were able to degrade CF at rates comparable to that of M. trichosporium. CF degradation by all four bacteria required O2. Butane inhibited CF

Natsuko Hamamura; Cynthia Page; Tulley Long; Lewis Semprini; Daniel J. Arp

1997-01-01

420

Comparative Floral Development of Mir-Grown and Ethylene-Treated, Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To study plant growth in microgravity, we grew Super Dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Svet growth chamber onboard the orbiting Russian space station, Mir, and in identical ground control units at the Institute of BioMedical Problems in Moscow, Russia. Seedling emergence was 56% and 73% in the two root-module compartments on Mir and 75% and 90% on Earth. Growth was vigorous (produced ca. 1 kg dry mass), and individual plants produced 5 to 8 tillers on Mir compared with 3 to 5 on Earth-grown controls. Upon harvest in space and return to Earth, however, all inflorescences of the flight-grown plants were sterile. To ascertain if Super Dwarf wheat responded to the 1.1 to 1.7 micromol/mol atmospheric levels of ethylene measured on the Mir prior to and during flowering, plants on earth were exposed to 0, 1, 3, 10, and 20 micromol/mol of ethylene gas and 1200 micromol/mol CO2 from 7d after emergence to maturity. As in our Mir wheat, plant height, awn length, and the flag leaf were significantly shorter in the ethylene-exposed plants than in controls; inflorescences also exhibited 100% sterility. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of florets from Mir-grown and ethylene-treated, earth-grown plants showed that development ceased prior to anthesis, and the anthers did not dehisce. Laser scanning confocal microscopic (LSCM) examination of pollen grains from Mir and ethylene-treated plants on earth exhibited zero, one, and occasionally two, but rarely three nuclei; pollen produced in the absence of ethylene was always trinucleate, the normal condition. The scarcity of trinucleate pollen, abrupt cessation of floret development prior to anthesis, and excess tillering in wheat plants on Mir and in ethylene-containing atmospheres on earth build a strong case for the ethylene on Mir as the agent for the induced male sterility and other symptoms, rather than microgravity.

Campbell, William F.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Klassen, Steven; Naegle, Erin; Strickland, Darren T.; Bingham, Gail E.; Levinskikh, Margarita; Iljina, Galena M.; Veselova, Tatjana D.

2001-01-01

421

Insecticide residues in head lettuce, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, and broccoli grown in fields.  

PubMed

The residues of four insecticides belonging to different families were studied on head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linn. var. capitata DC.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Skeels), and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) after pesticide application. To reduce application variability, a tank mix of acetamiprid 20% SP, chlorpyrifos 22.5% EC, deltamethrin 2.4% SC, and methomyl 40% SP was applied at recommended and double doses. Initial deposits of all pesticides on head lettuce were higher than those of the other three crops. The residues of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) at recommended preharvest intervals (PHIs) on head lettuce and Chinese broccoli treated with higher doses. The residues of methomyl on head lettuce also showed the same phenomenon. PMID:24684565

Chen, Miao-Fan; Chen, Jung-Fang; Syu, Jing-Jing; Pei, Chi; Chien, Hsiu-Pao

2014-04-23

422

Characterization of <0 1 0> directed KAP single crystals grown by Sankaranarayanan Ramasamy (SR) method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of potassium acid phthalate (KAP), a semi-organic compound, have been grown at an average growth rate of 4 mm/day from aqueous solution by using the uniaxial crystal growth method of Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR). Transparent, cylindrical KAP crystal of size 70 mm length and 15 mm diameter was grown. The grown crystals were characterized by etching and UV-vis NIR analysis. HRXRD analysis indicates that the crystalline perfection of SR method-grown KAP is good. The KAP crystals grown by SR method have 9% higher transmittance than conventional method-grown crystal. The microhardness test was carried out on the (0 1 0) face and a load-dependent hardness was observed. TG-DTA evaluated the thermal properties of the grown crystal. KAP was found to be thermally stable up to 290 °C. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the crystal were studied as function of frequency and temperature.

Senthil Pandian, M.; Balamurugan, N.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ramasamy, P.

2008-08-01

423

Characterization of ZnSe Single Crystals Grown by Physical Vapor Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ZnSe bulk crystals were grown by self-seeded physical vapor transport technique in horizontal and vertical configurations. The impurities and defects in the grown crystals were studied by glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS) and low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The PL results on the starting material and the grown crystals are consistent with the low impurity levels measured by GDMS. The crystalline quality of the grown crystals were examined by synchrotron white beam X-ray topography (SWBXT) and high resolution triple X-ray diffraction (HRTXD). The SWBXT shows that, aside from twins, the overall crystalline quality of the vapor grown ZnSe crystals, especially in the contactless grown region, was quite high. The HRTXD results are in line with the SWBXT findings. The comparison between the HRTXD on a chemical-mechanically polished and a cleaved surface seems to indicate that polishing damage can obscure the true microstructure in the as-grown ZnSe crystals.

Su, Ching-Hua; Dudley, M.; Matyi, R.; Feth, S.; Lehoczky, S. L.

1999-01-01

424

Energy Supply for Active Transport in Anaerobically Grown Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli K-12, grown under anaerobic conditions with glucose as the sole source of carbon and energy without any terminal electron acceptor added, contains a fumarate reductase system in which electrons are transferred from formate or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide via menaquinone and cytochromes to fumarate reductase. This fumarate reductase system plays an important role in the metabolic energy supply of E. coli, grown under so-called “glycolytic conditions,” as is indicated by the growth yields and maximal growth rates of mutants impaired in electron transfer or adenosine triphosphatase (uncB). In mutants deficient in menaquinone, cytochromes, or fumarate reductase, these values are considerably lower than in mutants deficient in ubiquinone or a functional adenosine triphosphatase. Electron transfer in this fumarate reductase system leads to the generation of a membrane potential, as is indicated by the uptake of the lipophilic cation triphenylmethylphosphonium by membrane vesicles prepared from cytochrome-sufficient and uncB cells. The generation of a proton-motive force by the fumarate reductase system was also demonstrated by the uptake of amino acids under anaerobic conditions in membrane vesicles of cytochrome containing and uncB cells grown under glycolytic conditions. Membrane vesicles of cytochrome-deficient cells failed to accumulate triphenyl-methylphosphonium and amino acids under these conditions, indicating that cytochromes are essential for the generation of a proton-motive force. Using glutamine uptake as an indication of the generation of ATP and proline uptake as an indication of the generation of a proton-motive force, it was demonstrated in whole cells that the proton-motive force is formed by ATP hydrolysis in cytochrome-deficient cells and by electron transfer in the uncB cells. In cytochrome-containing cells it was not possible to distinguish between these two possibilities, but the growth parameters suggest that, under glycolytic conditions, the proton-motive force is generated via electron transfer in the fumarate reductase system rather than via ATP hydrolysis.

Boonstra, Johannes; Downie, J. Allan; Konings, Wil N.

1978-01-01

425

Stresses in thermally grown alumina scales near edges and corners.  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the residual stress near edges and corners of thermally grown alumina scales. Micro-fluorescence measurements, performed on alloys with composition Fe-5Cr-28Al (at.%, bal. Fe) oxidized at 900 C, showed a large (>50%) reduction in hydrostatic stress in the vicinity of edges and corners. Surprisingly, stress relaxation persists out to distances ten times the scale thickness from the edge. Finite element analysis calculations confirm the experimental results and provide a considerably more detailed picture of the stress distribution and its components.

Grimsditch, M.

1998-06-03

426

Cathodic arc grown niobium films for RF superconducting cavity applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results on the characterization of the linear and non-linear microwave properties of niobium film produced by UHV cathodic arc deposition are presented. Surface impedance Zs as a function of RF field and intermodulation distortion (IMD) measurement have been carried out by using a dielectrically loaded resonant cavity operating at 7 GHz. The experimental data show that these samples have a lower level of intrinsic non-lineariti