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1

Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.  

PubMed

The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N

1992-11-01

2

Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation  

PubMed Central

The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2?mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09??m2 to 35.66 ± 0.10??m2 and 142.90 ± 0.59??m2 to 165.05 ± 0.58??m2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period. PMID:23766703

Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

2013-01-01

3

HETEROPHYLLY IN THE YELLOW WATERLILY, NUPHAR VARIEGATA (NYMPHAEACEAE): EFFECTS OF (CO2), NATURAL SEDIMENT TYPE, AND WATER DEPTH1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, (CO2)-, depth-, and temperature- controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free (CO 2), and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater (NH 4 1 ) favored floating leaf development. Low CO 2-grown plants

JOHN E. TITUS; P. G ARY SULLIVAN

4

The inherited enzymatic defect in porphyria variegata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity and ferrochelatase activity have been measured in blood lymphocytes from patients with porphyria variegata, and from some members of the family of one patient; the mean activity of protoporphyrinogen oxidase from patients was about 50% of that in lymphocytes from normal subjects; similar results were obtained from asymptomatic carriers in two generations of the patient's family. This

J. Ch. Deybach; H. Verneuil; Y. Nordmann

1981-01-01

5

Isolation and Structure Determination of a Benzofuran and a Bis-Nor-Isoprenoid from Aspergillus Niger Grown on the Water Soluble Fraction of Morinda Citrifolia Linn. Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new benzofuran and a bis-nor-isoprenoid, blumenol C, hitherto unreported from this source. The structures of these have been elucidated as 5-benzofuran carboxylic acid-6-formyl methyl ester (1) and 4-(3?(R)-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5, trimethyl-cyclohex-2-en-1-one (2) respectively through spectroscopic studies. The NMR data (including 1D, 2D techniques) and stereochemistry at C-3? of Compound 2 is also being reported

Bina S. Siddiqui; Fouzia A. Sattar Ismail; Tahsin Gulzar; Sabira Begum

2003-01-01

6

The re-stocking of captive-bred ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) into the Betampona Reserve, Madagascar: methodology and recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since November 1997 the Madagascar Fauna Group has released 13 captive-bred black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) into the Betampona Reserve in eastern Madagascar. The release programme has three major aims: (1) to assess the ability of captive-bred V. v. variegata to adapt to life in their natural habitat; (2) to investigate the contribution that such a release

Adam Britt; Charles Welch; Andrea Katz; Bernard Iambana; Ingrid Porton; Randall Junge; Graham Crawford; Cathy Williams; David Haring

2004-01-01

7

Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications  

SciTech Connect

Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Bah, Clara Shui Fern [Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago (New Zealand)] [Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago (New Zealand); Lin, Peng [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Tsao, Sai Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ng, Tzi Bun, E-mail: b021770@mailserv.cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)

2010-06-11

8

Molecular docking and analgesic studies of Erythrina variegata?s derived phytochemicals with COX enzymes  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites from plants are a good source for the NSAID drug development. We studied the analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Erythrina variegata L. (Fabaceae) followed by molecular docking analysis. The analgesic activity of Erythrina variegata L. is evaluated by various methods viz., acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate and tail immersion test. Subsequently, molecular docking analysis has been performed to identify compounds having activity against COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes by using GOLD docking fitness. The result of preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extract contains alkaloids and flavonoids. In analgesic activity tests, the extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) produced a increase in pain threshold in a dose dependent manner. In acetic acid induced writhing test, the inhibitory effect was similar to the reference drug diclofenac sodium. The extract showed 18.89% writhing inhibitory effect at the dose 200 mg/kg b.w., whereas diclofenac sodium showed 79.42% inhibition of writhing at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. The results of tail immersion and hot plate test also showed potential analgesic activity of the extract which is also comparable to the standard drug morphine (5 mg/kg b.w.). Docking studies shows that phaseollin of Erythrina variegata L. has the best fitness score against the COX-1 which is 56.64 and 59.63 for COX- 2 enzyme. Phaseollin of Erythrina variegata L. detected with significant fitness score and hydrogen bonding against COX-1 and COX-2 is reported for further validation. PMID:25489172

Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Emran, Talha Bin; Mahib, Muhammad Mamunur Rashid; Dash, Raju

2014-01-01

9

Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Found in South Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptea: Coccinellidae), a Palearctic lady beetles established in North America, is reported for the first time from the state of South Dakota, U.S.A. Implications for biological control and future research are discussed....

10

Parakeratosis variegata: A Possible Role of Environmental Hazards?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 2 cases of parakeratosis variegata (PV) evolving from lesions beginning with characteristics of ashy dermatosis. Both patients presented with a reticulated, poikilodermatous and hyperpigmented eruption with bizarre coalescent lichenoid papules. Histology showed lichenoid epidermotropic infiltrates, more pronounced in case No. 1, consistent with early malignancy. The course was chronic: after more than 10 years, systemic symptoms were not

C. Zekanowski; L. Kaldan; M. Blaszczyk; S. Majewski

2000-01-01

11

Heterophylly in the yellow waterlily, Nuphar variegata (Nymphaeaceae): effects of [CO2], natural sediment type, and water depth.  

PubMed

We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, [CO(2)]-, depth-, and temperature-controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free [CO(2)], and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater [NH(4)(+)] favored floating leaf development. Low CO(2)-grown plants initiated floating leaf development significantly earlier than high CO(2)-grown plants, which produced significantly more submersed leaves and fewer floating leaves. Mean floating leaf biomass was significantly greater than mean submersed leaf biomass but was not influenced by CO(2) enrichment, whereas mean submersed leaf biomass increased 88% at high [CO(2)]. At the shallower depth (35 cm), floating leaves required 50% less biomass investment per leaf than at 70 cm, and a significantly greater proportion of plants had floating leaves (70 vs. 23-43% at 35 vs. 70 cm, respectively) for the last three of the eight leaf censuses. Sediment type, water depth, and especially free [CO(2)] all can influence leaf morphogenesis in Nuphar variegata, and the development of more and larger submersed leaves with CO(2) enrichment favors the exploitation of high [CO(2)] when it is present in the water column. PMID:21669680

Titus, J E; Gary Sullivan, P

2001-08-01

12

Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Bishkhapra)  

PubMed Central

World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. is a herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal constituent of T. portulacastrum Linn. is ecdysterone and the other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2’-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. are traditionally used as analgesic, stomachic, laxative, treatment of blood disease, anemia, inflammation, and night blindness. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic. This article compiles all updated information related to T. portulacastrum Linn. Scientifically proved activities are co-related with traditional concepts. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. The novelty and applicability of T. portulacastrum are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concepts. PMID:23055639

Shivhare, Manoj K.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

2012-01-01

13

The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley: A Prospective Bioindicator for Ag Contamination in Tropical Coastal Waters  

E-print Network

The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley: A Prospective Bioindicator determined in the brown alga Lobophora variegata, using radiotracer techniques. Results indicate that this widely distributed alga could be a useful bioindicator species for surveying silver contamination

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

Linn Engineering Technology Scholarship Fund  

E-print Network

Linn Engineering Technology Scholarship Fund The purpose of this award is to provide scholarship in Electrical Engineering Technology or Industrial Management & Technology (Electronics area of study's university account. Eligibility: Candidates must be a declared major in Electrical Engineering Technology

Kostic, Milivoje M.

15

Antifeedants from Chinese medicinal herb, Erythrina variegata var. orientalis, against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.  

PubMed

The screening for insecticidal principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the stem bark of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis possessed significant feeding deterrence against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the stem bark extract of E. variegata var. orientalis resulted in the isolation of two alkaloids, identified as erysopine and erysovine from their spectroscopic data. Erysopine and erysovine possessed antifeedant activity against S. zeamais adults with EC50 values of 108.5 and 89.7 ppm, respectively. PMID:22474945

Liu, Zhi Long; Chu, Sha Sha; Jiang, Guo Hua; Liu, Shao Liang

2012-02-01

16

Depth-related variation in epiphytic communities growing on the brown alga Lobophora variegata in a Caribbean coral reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lobophora variegata is a dominant macroalga on coral reefs across the Caribbean. Over the last two decades, it has expanded its vertical distribution to both shallow and deep reefs along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, Southern Caribbean. However, the ecological implications of this expansion and the role of L. variegata as a living substratum are poorly known. This study compared epiphytic algal communities on L. variegata blades along two depth transects (6-40 m). The epiphytic community was diverse with a total of 70 species of which 49 were found directly attached to L. variegata. The epiphytic community varied significantly between blade surface, depth and site. The greatest number of genera per blade was found growing on the underside of the blades regardless of site and depth. Filamentous red algae (e.g. Neosiphonia howei) were commonly found on the upperside of the blades over the whole depth gradient, whereas the underside was mainly colonized by calcifying (e.g. Hydrolithon spp., Jania spp., Amphiroa fragillissima), fleshy red algae (e.g. Champia spp., Gelidiopsis spp., Hypnea spinella) and foliose brown alga (e.g. Dictyota spp.). Anotrichum tenue, a red alga capable of overgrowing corals, was a common epiphyte of both blade surfaces. L. variegata plays an important role as a newly available substratum. Thus, its spread may influence other algal species and studies of benthic macroalgae such as L. variegata should also take into consideration their associated epiphytic algal communities.

Fricke, A.; Titlyanova, T. V.; Nugues, M. M.; Bischof, K.

2011-12-01

17

140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to provide information about the Linn Cove viaduct. Looking south-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

18

Life table and predation capacity of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life history and predation rate of variegated lady beetle, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), fed on the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli, were studied under laboratory conditions. Developmental, survival, fecundity, and predation rate data were analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table and the traditional age-specific female life table. Means and standard errors of population growth parameters were calculated using

Roya Farhadi; Hossein Allahyari; Hsin Chi

2011-01-01

19

Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal with an intrinsically erratic food supply by virtue of its reproductive biology and social behavior.

Balko, E.A.; Underwood, H.B.

2005-01-01

20

[Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of different shading (light transmittance 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) on the photosynthesis characteristics of two ornamental foliage plants Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata. After shading for six weeks, the net photosynthesis rates of two plants measured ex situ under natural light enhanced, compared to those measured in situ, and, with the increase of shading degree, the net photosynthetic rates had an increasing trend, with the maximum being 9.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Photinia x frasery and 8.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Aucuba japonica var. variegata. In the meantime, the transpiration rates of the two plants increased significantly. Shading increased the chlorophyll a, b, and a+b contents and the chlorophyll/carotenoids ratio, decreased the chlorophyll a/b, but less affected the carotenoids content. The phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegate was 2.08 and 3.21, and 0.55 and 1.60, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of the two plants were relatively stable, indicating the minor influence of external environment factors on pigments. Aucuba japonica var. variegata had a higher shading tolerance than Photinia x frasery. PMID:22007450

Zhang, Cong-ying; Fang, Yan-ming; Ji, Hong-li; Ma, Cheng-tao

2011-07-01

21

Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11–222.67?mg?QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40?mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5?mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10–40??g/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90–99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts. PMID:24093108

Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K.; Pandey, Abhay K.

2013-01-01

22

Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal\\u000a activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Geetha Gopalakrishnan

2008-01-01

23

The tropical brown alga Lobophora variegata as a bioindicator of mining1 contamination in the New Caledonia lagoon: a field transplantation study2  

E-print Network

1 The tropical brown alga Lobophora variegata as a bioindicator of mining1 contamination in the New field and laboratory studies have identified the alga Lobophora variegata as a good21 candidate key contaminants, i.e. Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr,25 Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn. Algae from clean and contaminated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

STUDIES ON MELOTHRIA MADERASAPATANA (LINN). COGN  

PubMed Central

This communication is a report of some preliminary studies followed by chemical investigations done on the aerial parts of Melothria maderaspatana (Linn) Cogn., a plant drug used in traditional system of medicine in India against a variety of diseases. PMID:22556749

Sinha, B.N; Thanigavelan, J.; Basu, S.P; Sukumar, E.

1996-01-01

25

Variation in mycorrhizal performance in the epiphytic orchid Tolumnia variegata in vitro : the potential for natural selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotic seed germination is a critical stage in orchid life histories. Natural selection may act to favor plants that efficiently use mycorrhizal fungi. However, the necessary conditions for natural selection – variation, heritability, and differences in fitness – have not been demonstrated for either orchid or fungus. With the epiphytic orchid Tolumnia variegata as a model system, we ask the

J. Tupac Otero; Paul Bayman; James D. Ackerman

2005-01-01

26

Efficacy evaluation of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective was to study the effect of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat. Materials and Methods: Mastitis was induced by intracisternal inoculation of coagulase positive S. aureus (J638) at the concentration of 2000 colony forming units. Group I animals were treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone at 20 mg/kg intravenously, and Group II animals were treated with once daily oral administration of B. variegata L. stem bark powder at 6 g/kg for 7 days followed by maintenance dose at 3 g/kg for next 7 days along with repeated dose of the antibiotic at 20 mg/kg intravenously at 4 days interval. Results: No significant improvement in the clinical condition of the udder was noticed in the group treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone alone. However, in the group treated with B. variegata L. stem bark powder along with repeated dose of ceftriaxone, no S. aureus colony was seen at 96 h and onwards in milk samples with a marked decrease in somatic cell count and milk alkaline phosphatase activity and increased lactoperoxidase activity. Further, plasma and milk concentration of ceftriaxone/ceftizoxime was increased, which indicated antibacterial, bioenhancing and antiinflammatory properties of the bark powder. The Group II animals also exhibited marked reduction in polymorphonuclear cells and fibrous tissue indicating antifibrotic property of B. variegata L. Conclusion: B. variegata L. stem bark powder can be considered as an effective adjunct therapy to intravenous ceftriaxone in S. aureus chronic mastitis in goat. PMID:25298668

Dash, Jeevan Ranjan; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Samanta, Indranil; Pal, Subodh; Khan, Madhuchhanda; Patra, Nimai Charan; Sarkar, Uttam; Maji, Asit Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

2014-01-01

27

Recurrent calcium phosphate urolithiasis in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata).  

PubMed

An adult intact male black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) suffered recurrent bouts of urethral blockage over a 3-yr period caused by calcium phosphate (apatite form) uroliths. Surgical intervention was required in two of the three instances. Various attempts at medical management failed to control formation of the stones, and the underlying etiology remains unclear. In addition, there have been consistent, multiple, unchanging renal mineralizations over the course of the case. Medical management failed to significantly alter the urinary pH; although, to date, no further problems have been noted. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first known report of calcium phosphate stones in a prosimian species. PMID:24712174

Cushing, Andrew C; Kollias, George; Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Streeter, Renee; Ahou-Madi, Noha

2014-03-01

28

Long-term dynamics of the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata on deep reefs in Curaçao  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lobophora variegata occurs in the eulittoral zone and in deep water on coral reefs in Curaçao. An analysis of the long-term (1979-2006) changes in the vertical distribution of the macroalga in permanent quadrats indicated a significant increase in cover of the deepwater community. In 1998, Lobophora covered 1 and 5% of the quadrats at 20 and 30 m, respectively. By 2006, these values had risen to 25 and 18%, precipitating a shift in abundance of corals and macroalgae at both depths. This increase coincided with losses in coral cover, possibly linked to bleaching, disease and storm-related mortality in deep water plating Agaricia corals. In contrast, macroalgae remained relatively rare (<6% cover) on shallower (10 m) and deeper (40 m) reefs despite declines in coral cover also occurring at these depths, illustrating the depth-dependent dynamics of coral reefs. Several hypotheses are suggested to explain these changes.

Nugues, M. M.; Bak, R. P. M.

2008-06-01

29

The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley: A Prospective Bioindicator for Ag Contamination in Tropical Coastal Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved silver were determined in the brown alga Lobophora variegata, using radiotracer techniques. Results indicate that this widely distributed alga could be a useful bioindicator species\\u000a for surveying silver contamination in tropical environments. Indeed, results showed that the alga readily concentrates silver\\u000a (algal concentration of silver was 7,000 times higher than in water after a

Marc Metian; Michel Warnau

2008-01-01

30

Influence of five host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover on some population parameters of Hippodamia variegata (Goeze)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aphidophagous ladybird beetle, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), is an important predator in many agricultural ecosystems. However, information on the influence of the prey’s host\\u000a plant species on its life history characteristics is still absent in the literature. Therefore, five host plant species of\\u000a Aphis gossypii Glover, viz. Cucumis sativus L., Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa L., Cucurbita moschata var. melonaeformis Poiret,

Xiu-Hua Wu; Xiao-Rong Zhou; Bao-Ping Pang

2010-01-01

31

Chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal and free-radical scavenging activities of the leaves of Ficus radicans ‘Variegata’ (Moraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanol crude extract of the leaves of Ficus radicans Roxb. ‘Variegata’ (Moraceae) and the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous methanol fractions resulting from its fractionation were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal and free-radical scavenging activities. The crude extract and fractions exhibited significant inhibition of inflammation in both croton oil (CO)-induced ear oedema in mice (p?

Maria Augusta Naressi; Marcos Alessandro dos Santos Ribeiro; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado; Maria Lucilia M. Zamuner; Willian Ferreira da Costa; Clara M. Abe Tanaka; Maria Helena Sarragiotto

2011-01-01

32

Chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal and free-radical scavenging activities of the leaves of Ficus radicans ‘Variegata’ (Moraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanol crude extract of the leaves of Ficus radicans Roxb. ‘Variegata’ (Moraceae) and the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous methanol fractions resulting from its fractionation were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal and free-radical scavenging activities. The crude extract and fractions exhibited significant inhibition of inflammation in both croton oil (CO)-induced ear oedema in mice (p?

Maria Augusta Naressi; Marcos Alessandro dos Santos Ribeiro; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado; Maria Lucilia M. Zamuner; Willian Ferreira da Costa; Clara M. Abe Tanaka; Maria Helena Sarragiotto

2012-01-01

33

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review  

PubMed Central

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant. PMID:21455454

Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, B. G.; Rana, D. G.

2010-01-01

34

139. Linn Cove Viaduct. Underneath view of the viaduct showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

139. Linn Cove Viaduct. Underneath view of the viaduct showing placement of piers amongst Grandfather Mountain's boulders. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

35

CYCLEA PELTATA DIELS – A POSSIBLE SUBSTITUTE FOR CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA LINN  

PubMed Central

Chromatographic studies have been carried out on cyclea peltata Diels and Cissampelos pareira Linn. The results substantiate that cyclea peltata Diels can be substituted for cissampelos pareira in ayurvedic formulations PMID:22556735

Prasad, N.B.R.; Devi, R.S Girija; Hepsibah, P.T.A

1995-01-01

36

Can black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) solve object permanence tasks?  

PubMed

We examined object permanence in black-and-white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) at Zoo Atlanta. A series of visible and invisible displacement tasks with suitable controls were presented to five adult subjects. Subjects performed significantly above chance on all regular tasks, except for the double invisible displacements. Subjects failed visible and invisible controls. Failure on the control trials did not appear to be because subjects used the "last box touched" strategy (subjects did not choose the last box touched significantly more than expected by chance). However, a substantial percentage of choices was made to the last box touched by the experimenter. There was no significant difference between this percentage, and the percentage of choices made to the baited box (on both visible and invisible controls), which indicates that subjects were drawn to both boxes which the experimenter visited/touched, and thus failed the controls. Based on the results from the present study, we believe that there is no evidence that black-and-white ruffed lemurs understand visible and invisible tasks in the traditional object permanence battery. PMID:23300044

Mallavarapu, Suma; Perdue, Bonnie M; Stoinski, Tara S; Maple, Terry L

2013-04-01

37

Qualitative and quantitative prey requirements of two aphidophagous coccinellids, Adalia tetraspilota and Hippodamia variegata.  

PubMed

The suitability of two prey species, Aphis pomi De Geer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), for two generalist aphidophagous coccinellids, Adalia tetraspilota (Hope) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), at various abundance levels was investigated under laboratory conditions. While both A. pomi and B. brassicae were found to be suitable, the predators performed better when feeding upon B. brassicae. The prey densities affected the developmental parameters of the two predators appreciably. Optimal growth and development was noted in the prey density range of 40-80 aphids per day per predator. Both species and abundance levels of prey significantly affected the larval period of the two predators. Appreciable variation in survivorship of larvae, prepupal and pupal period, and adult weight was noted by varying the prey species and prey abundance. Longer reproductive period (oviposition period) and shorter non-reproductive periods (preoviposition and postoviposition periods) were noted for females that fed on B. brassicae as compared to those that fed on A. pomi. Reproductive output was appreciably higher for females that fed on B. brassicae, and the fecundity decreased drastically under food shortage. PMID:25373219

Shah, Mohd Abas; Khan, Akhtar Ali

2014-01-01

38

Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8) was determined. PMID:23662136

Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Chin Chin, Sieo; Hamid, Muhajir

2013-01-01

39

Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry  

PubMed Central

Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

2013-01-01

40

One-Step Separation of Antioxidant Compounds from Erythrina variegata by High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.  

PubMed

High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for separation and purification of antioxidant compounds from ethyl acetate fraction of the stem bark of Erythrina variegata. The optimal two-phase solvent system was composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:4:1:4, v/v/v/v). After one-step HSCCC separation, 75 mg of protocatechuic acid ( 1: ), 32 mg of chlorogenic acid ( 2: ) and 44 mg of caffeic acid ( 3: ) were purified from 420 mg of the ethyl acetate fraction. The purity of isolated compounds was determined up to 99.7% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chemical structures of the three compounds were confirmed by UV, HPLC-MS/MS and (1)H NMR. The IC50 values of scavenging DPPH free radical for the three compounds were 22.5, 41.9 and 20.9 ?g/mL, respectively. Protocatechuic acid and chlorogenic acid were obtained from the stem bark of E. variegata for the first time. PMID:25209680

Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Liao, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Peisen; Chen, Xiaoqing

2014-09-10

41

Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

2010-01-01

42

Neuropharmacological activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn.  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the recent years, plants containing flavonoids have gained much more interest in research area, as they are found to be specific ligands for benzodiazepine receptors. Material and Methods: In our investigation, we evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of petroleum, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Lippia nodiflora Linn. With experimental models using test such as potentiation of diazepam-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity, motor coordination, exploratory behavior pattern, elevated plus maze and maximal electroshock convulsions. Diazepam at doses of 5, 4, and 1 mg/kg served as standard. Results: Results showed that the ethanolic extract of L. nodifl ora at both doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) and its chloroform extract at a higher dose of 500 mg/kg produced central inhibitory (sedative) effects, anticonvulsant effect and anxiolytic effect in mice. Values were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) when compared to the control group. The petroleum ether extract of plant at both dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) did not produce any central effects. Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say that the ethanolic and chloroform extracts showed the central inhibitory activity due to the presence of fl avonoids and this fact was also supported by the finding that the petroleum ether extract did not show any central effect and flavonoids were not found in it. PMID:22022169

Thirupathy, Kumaresan P.; Tulshkar, Asish; Vijaya, C.

2011-01-01

43

Comparison of two Ferns (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris Linn. and Microsorium Punctatum (Linn.) Copel) For Their Cr Accumulation Potential and Antioxidant Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study was undertaken to compare Cr accumulation in two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) and the role of antioxidants were also investigated towards metal tolerance in order to assess the use of ferns in phytomediation\\/ phytostabilization. Different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 ?g g dw) of Cr were added to fern planted in pot containing 1

Geetgovind Sinam; Sandip Kr. Behera; Rohit Kr. Mishra; Sarita Sinha; Shekhar Mallick; P. B. Khare

2012-01-01

44

Comparison of two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) for their Cr accumulation potential and antioxidant responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study was undertaken to compare Cr accumulation in two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) and the role of antioxidants were also investigated towards metal tolerance in order to assess the use of ferns in phytomediation\\/ phytostabilization. Different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 ?g g dw) of Cr were added to fern planted in pot containing 1

Geetgovind Sinam; Sandip kr. Behera; Rohit Kr. Mishra; Sarita Sinha; Shekhar Mallick; P. B. Khare

2011-01-01

45

In vitro organogenesis from leaf explants of Annona squamosa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoot formation was induced from excised leaf explants of Annona squamosa Linn. (custard apple) seedlings on a Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing benzylaminopurine and kinetin. Various auxins in combination with the above medium produced callusing of the explants. In an investigation of environmental factors affecting shoot induction it was seen that the maximum number of shoots were obtained

S. Nair; P. K. Gupta; M. V. Shirgurkar; A. F. Mascarenhas

1985-01-01

46

Sample Limited Characterization of a Novel Disulfide-Rich Venom Peptide Toxin from Terebrid Marine Snail Terebra variegata  

PubMed Central

Disulfide-rich peptide toxins found in the secretions of venomous organisms such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, leeches, and marine snails are highly efficient and effective tools for novel therapeutic drug development. Venom peptide toxins have been used extensively to characterize ion channels in the nervous system and platelet aggregation in haemostatic systems. A significant hurdle in characterizing disulfide-rich peptide toxins from venomous animals is obtaining significant quantities needed for sequence and structural analyses. Presented here is a strategy for the structural characterization of venom peptide toxins from sample limited (4 ng) specimens via direct mass spectrometry sequencing, chemical synthesis and NMR structure elucidation. Using this integrated approach, venom peptide Tv1 from Terebra variegata was discovered. Tv1 displays a unique fold not witnessed in prior snail neuropeptides. The novel structural features found for Tv1 suggest that the terebrid pool of peptide toxins may target different neuronal agents with varying specificities compared to previously characterized snail neuropeptides. PMID:24713808

Anand, Prachi; Grigoryan, Alexandre; Bhuiyan, Mohammed H.; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Russell, Victoria; Quinoñez, Jose; Moy, Patrick; Chait, Brian T.; Poget, Sébastien F.; Holford, Mandë

2014-01-01

47

Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata).  

PubMed

Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow is maintained among remnant populations will help to diagnose and target conservation priorities. We sampled 209 individuals from 19 sites throughout the remaining V. variegata range. We used 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and ?550 bp of mtDNA sequence data to evaluate genetic structure and population dynamics, including dispersal patterns and recent population declines. Bayesian cluster analyses identified two distinct genetic clusters, which optimally partitioned data into populations occurring on either side of the Mangoro River. Localities north of the Mangoro were characterized by greater genetic diversity, greater gene flow (lower genetic differentiation) and higher mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity than those in the south. Despite this, genetic differentiation across all sites was high, as indicated by high average F ST (0.247) and ?ST (0.544), and followed a pattern of isolation-by-distance. We use these results to suggest future conservation strategies that include an effort to maintain genetic diversity in the north and restore connectivity in the south. We also note the discordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and current subspecies taxonomy, and encourage a re-evaluation of conservation management units moving forward. PMID:25077019

Baden, Andrea L; Holmes, Sheila M; Johnson, Steig E; Engberg, Shannon E; Louis, Edward E; Bradley, Brenda J

2014-07-01

48

UPPER PLEISTOCENE GULO GULO (LINNE , 1758) REMAINS FROM THE SRBSKO CHLUM-KOMIN HYENA  

E-print Network

UPPER PLEISTOCENE GULO GULO (LINNE´ , 1758) REMAINS FROM THE SRBSKO CHLUM-KOMIN HYENA DEN CAVE sites. The Gulo gulo Linne´ material was found in one of the largest Ice Age spotted-hyena dens by hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea Goldfuss. INTRODUCTION The vertical caves of the Chlum quarry near Srbsko

49

A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)  

EPA Science Inventory

We disagree with Mr. Linn?s interpretation of our paper, ?High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness?.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

50

Pharmacognostic studies on Dillenia indica Linn. I. Leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dillenia indica Linn, is widely used in the indigenous systems of medicine; the leaf and bark as an astringent, the bruised bark, externally\\u000a as a cataplasm in arthritis, and the fruit juice as a cough mixture, a cooling beverage as also for toning up the nervous\\u000a system. It is considered a ‘vat’ suppressant ‘pitta’ augmenting drug in Ayurveda. The paper

Usha Shome; R K Khanna; H P Sharma

1979-01-01

51

256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway construction within its length. With is super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time. Looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

52

BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn.  

PubMed

The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p<0.001) effect was observed. PMID:22557124

Sundari, S Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T; Jaswanth, A; Valarmathy, R

2004-01-01

53

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

54

BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn  

PubMed Central

The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p<0.001) effect was observed. PMID:22557124

Sundari, S. Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T.; Jaswanth, A.; Valarmathy, R

2004-01-01

55

Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (G. mangostana) (pericarp) in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Methods 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp) at the concentrations of 12µg/mL (IC50 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) and 30 µg/mL (IC90 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%) for 12 h. Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS. Results At the IC50 concentration, about 82% of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control (non-exposed), while at the IC90 concentration, only 15% matched proteins were found. The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12 µg/mL were identified as enzymes that play role in glycolysis pathway, i.e., phosphoglycerate mutase putative, L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglycerate kinase. The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30 µg/mL of the extract. Conclusions Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp). PMID:25183269

Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Thiengsusuk, Artitiya; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Ward, Stephen Andrew; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2014-01-01

56

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases. PMID:24811803

Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

2014-05-01

57

Evaluation of diuretic activity of different extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn.  

PubMed

In that study, Mimosa pudica linn was tested for diuretic activity using the lipschitz test. The ethanolic and aqoues extract of Mimosa pudica Linn. was studied at two dose level 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) b.wt. Furosemide (20 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) was used as standard drug in a 0.9% saline solution. Urine volumes were measured for all the groups up to 5 h. The ethanolic extract of Mimosa pudica linn was exhibited significant diuretic activity at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) b.wt. by increasing total urine volume and ion concentration of Na+ k+ and Cl-. PMID:24506029

Baghel, A; Rathore, D S; Gupta, V

2013-10-15

58

Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. PMID:22228958

Galani, V. J.; Patel, B. G.; Patel, N. B.

2010-01-01

59

Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids from Lantana camara LINN.  

PubMed

Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids, namely lantanoic acid (1) and camaranoic acid (2), and six known compounds such as lantic acid, camarinic acid, camangeloyl acid, camarinin, oleanonic acid, and ursonic acid were isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara LINN. Structures of the new constituents were elucidated by chemical transformation and spectral studies including 1D ((1)H- and (13)C-NMR) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), (1)H-(1)H total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), J-resolved, (1)H-detected heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC)) NMR spectroscopy. PMID:18758109

Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

2008-09-01

60

76 FR 30382 - Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Benton, Linn, Marion, and Polk Counties, OR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1265-0000-10137-S3] Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Benton, Linn...for the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex (refuge complex...and William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuges (refuges), located...

2011-05-25

61

Ficus rubiginosa ‘Variegata’, a Chlorophyll?deficient Chimera with Mosaic Patterns Created by Cell Divisions from the Outer Meristematic Layer  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Sections leaves of Ficus rubiginosa ‘Variegata’ show that it is a chimera with a chlorophyll deficiency in the second layer of the leaf meristem (GWG structure). Like other Ficus species, it has a multiseriate epidermis on the adaxial and abaxial sides of the leaf, formed by periclinal cell divisions as well as anticlinal divisions. The upper and lower laminae of the leaf often exhibit small dark and light green patches of tissue overlying internal leaf tissue. • Methods The distribution of chlorophyll in transverse sections of typical leaves was determined by fluorescence microscopy. • Key Results Patches of dark and light green tissue which arise in the otherwise colourless palisade and spongy mesophyll tissue in the entire leaf are due to further cell divisions arising from the bundle sheath which is associated with major vascular bundles or from the green multiseriate epidermis. Leaves produced in winter exhibit more patches of green tissue than leaves which expand in mid?summer. Many leaves produced in summer have no spotting and appear like a typical GWG chimera. There is a strong relationship between the number of patches on the adaxial side of leaves and the number on the abaxial side, showing that the cell division in upper and lower layers of leaves is strongly coordinated. In both winter and summer, there are fewer patches on the abaxial side of leaves compared with the adaxial side, indicating that periclinal and anticlinal cell divisions from the outer meristematic layer are less frequent in the lower layers of leaf tissue. Most of the patches are small (<1 mm in longest dimension) and thus the cell divisions which form them occur late in leaf development. Leaves which exhibit large patches generally have them on both sides of the leaves. • Conclusion In this cultivar, the outer meristematic layer appears to form vascular bundle sheaths and associated internal leaf tissue in the entire leaf lamina. PMID:15145795

BEARDSELL, DAVID; NORDEN, ULLA

2004-01-01

62

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MIRABILIS JALAPA LINN. LEAVES  

PubMed Central

Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. is a widely used traditional medicine in many parts of the world for the treatment of various diseases viz. virus inhibitory activity, anti tumour activity. It is claimed in traditional medicine that the leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, the total alcoholic extract and successive petroleum ether fractions of leaves of Mirabilis Jalapa Linn were screened for its anti-inflammatory activity using carageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma models. The total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg p.o and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema model (p<0.01). In cotton pellet granuloma model, the total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg inhibited granuloma formation significantly (p<0.05) indicating that both test samples inhibit the increase in number of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen and mucopolysaccharides during granuloma tissue formation during the chronic inflammation. These experimental results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folklore claim of the drug to be used as an anti inflammatory agent. PMID:24825972

Nath, Lekshmi. R.; Manjunath, K. P.; Savadi, R. V.; Akki, K. S.

2010-01-01

63

Composition chimique et activités biologiques de l'huile essentielle de Lantana camara Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from Lantana camara Linn. The hydrodistilled essential oils of fresh aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. have been analysed by GC and GC\\/MS. Forty-one compounds, representing 94.7% of Lantana camara oil's composition, were identified. The major constituents are: ?-caryophyllene 18.5%, sabinene 13.1%, ?-humulene 10.0%, 1,8-cineole 9.0%, ?-guaiene 5.0%. This oil exhibited significant

Guy Alitonou; Félicien Avlessi; Innocent Bokossa; Edwige Ahoussi; Justine Dangou; Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué

2004-01-01

64

Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0?mg/kg, 5?mg/kg, 10?mg/kg, and 20?mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. PMID:24920536

Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

2014-09-01

65

Antimutagenicity of some flowers grown in Thailand.  

PubMed

The mutagenicity of dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts of Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn., Curcuma sessilis Gage, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ixora coccinea Linn., Millingtonia hortensis Linn., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Plumeria obtusa Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Rhinacanthus nasutus ((Linn.) Kurz.) and Syzygium malaccense ((Linn.) Merr.& Perry) before and after nitrite treatment was firstly investigated in the Ames test. Their antimutagenicity against the product of the reaction mixture of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model in the absence of metabolic activation on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 was evaluated. The results showed that none of the samples was mutagenic. Most nitrite-treated samples but dichloromethane extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Plumeria obtusa, Syzygium malaccense, methanol extract of Syzygium malaccense and water extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were mutagenic. The nitrite treated methanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera exhibited the highest mutagenicity on both strains. All dichloromethane extracts of flowers decreased the mutagenicity induced by the product of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model on both tester strains. Methanol extract of Curcuma sessilis and Punica granatum (15 mg/plate) showed the highest antimutagenic activity in TA 98 and TA 100, respectively. The protective effects of these flower extracts might be due to the presence of antimutagenic components that were supposed to be flavonoids. PMID:20100534

Wongwattanasathien, O; Kangsadalampai, K; Tongyonk, L

2010-04-01

66

Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

2014-02-15

67

Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300?ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

2014-01-01

68

Anxiolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn in mice using experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn (Amaranthaceae). Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were used. Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera (MEAA) was administered in the doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. Hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration (LDE) tests were used for determination of anxiolytic activity. Results: The methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in HB test. The extract also significantly increased the time spent and the number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE test, the extract produced significant increase in time spent and number of crossings and decreased the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearing, assisted rearing and the squares crossed. Conclusion: In the present study, MEAA exhibited anxiolytic activity which might be attributed to its phyto-constituents viz. alkaloid, steroid and triterpenes. Since Achyranthes aspera is ubiquitous and abundantly grown, it could be a fairly economical therapeutic agent for management of anxiety disorders. PMID:22345872

Barua, Chandana C.; Talukdar, Archana; Begum, Shameem Ara; Borah, Prabodh; Lahkar, Mangala

2012-01-01

69

Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) ?g/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) ?g/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) ?g/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) ?g/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) ?g/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2014-10-01

70

Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:21731376

Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N. V.

2010-01-01

71

Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. PMID:25528746

Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

2014-01-01

72

Assessment of Antiobesity Potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Seed  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenols, total flavonoids, and total saponin content), and the antiobesity effect of ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. seed (EAA) by employing in vitro and in vivo models. In in vitro study, the inhibitory activity of EAA on pancreatic amylase and lipase was measured. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of EAA along with lipid emulsion to Swiss albino mice. The EAA inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevations of plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. Furthermore, the antiobesity effect of EAA (900?mg/kg) was assessed in mice fed a high-fat diet with or without EAA for 6 weeks. EAA significantly suppressed the increase in body, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights, and serum parameters, namely; total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol level. The anti obesity effects of EAA in high-fat-diet-treated mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. Histopathological effects of EAA on the liver of mice were also assessed. PMID:22919417

Rani, Neerja; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Vasudeva, Neeru

2012-01-01

73

Pedalium murex Linn.: an overview of its phytopharmacological aspects.  

PubMed

Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like, cough, cold and as an antiseptic. Interestingly, P. murex is reported traditionally to have an excellent cure in patients with reproductive disorders which are mainly impotency in men, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea as well as leucorrhoea in women. The plant has also benifited in complications like urinary track disorder as well as gastro intestinal tract disorders. Phytochemically the plant is popular for the presence of a considerable amount of diosgenin and vanillin which are regarded as an important source and useful starting materials for synthesizing steroidal contraceptive drugs and isatin alkaloids. Other phytochemicals reported in the plant includes quercetin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, amino acids (glycine, histidine, tyrosine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and various classes of fatty acids (triacontanoic acid, nonacosane, tritriacontane, tetratriacontanyl and heptatriacontan-4-one). Pharmacologically, the plant have been investigated for antiulcerogenic, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. From all these reports it can be concluded that the plant were found to have a better profile with potential natural source for the treatment of various range of either acute or chronic disease. The overall database of our review article was collected from the scientific sources in regards with all the information of the research article for P. murex published so far. PMID:21967701

Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Laloo, Damiki; Kumar, Rajesh; Hemalatha, Siva

2011-09-01

74

Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

2013-01-01

75

A review on therapeutic potential of Lygodium flexuosum Linn  

PubMed Central

From the centuries, herbal medicines are used to treat various diseases and now they had become an item of global importance, with both medicinal and economic implications. The demand of herbal medicine is being increasing day by day due to their safety and efficacy. Now herbals had taken over the allopathic system due to their less side effect and efficient working mechanism. Herbals are playing and pivotal role in increasing the economy of the country and had taken the nation on to the new path to achieve the goal of development. Lygodium flexuosum (Linn) Sw. is a fern found nearly throughout India up to an elevation of 1500 meter. It belongs to the family Lygodiaceae and widely used in treating various ailments like jaundice, dysmenorrhea, wound healing and eczema. It is the rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and cumarin. The main constitute of the plant is lygodinolide which is mainly used in wound healing. In the present review an attempt had been made to explore different aspects of L. flexuosum. PMID:23055636

Yadav, Esha; Mani, Munesh; Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, A. K.

2012-01-01

76

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN MARSILEA MINUTA LINN.  

E-print Network

The objective of the present study was to find out the presence of phytochemicals in the petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Marsilea minuta Linn (Marsileaceae), a common aquatic medicinal fern by both qualitative and quantitative screening methods. In qualitative analysis, the phytochemical compounds such as steroids, reducing sugars, triterpenoids, sugars, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthroquinones and amino acids were screened in five solvent extracts. The methanol extract of the fern showed positive results for 10 phytochemical tests. The benzene extract exhibited positive results for 9 tests. In chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of the plant showed positive results for 7 tests and in aqueous extract of the fern 5 phytochemical tests were positive. In quantitative analysis the important secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were tested in all the extracts of the fern. The methanol extract showed highest amount of phytochemicals when compared with other solvent extracts. KEY WARDS: Marsilea minuta, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins and tannins

A. John; De Britto; D. Herin Sheeba Gracelin; P. Benjamin; Jeya Rathna Kumar; A. John; De Britto

77

Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Ko??aikkarantai)  

PubMed Central

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

Ramachandran, Shakila

2013-01-01

78

In vitro propagation and rhizome formation in Curcuma longa Linn.  

PubMed

Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) which is cultivated by underground rhizomes is a slow propagating species. Multiplication and callus induction starting from the rhizome buds and shoot tips of C. longa in MS medium was carried out. A combination of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 1.0 mg/l) with kinetin (Kn; 1.0 mg/l) or NAA (1.0 mg/l) with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 2.0 mg/l) was optimum for rapid clonal propagation of turmeric. A concentration of 2.5-3.0 mg/l of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D) was found to be optimum for callus induction. Regeneration of plantlets from a callus was successfully conducted in MS medium supplemented with standard growth hormones for multiplication at 25 +/- 2 degrees C under a 16 h photoperiod. These plantlets were successfully transferred to the field. Plantlets (4-month-old) were incubated in a medium containing different concentrations of sucrose supplemented with NAA (0.1 mg/l) and Kn (1.0 mg/l) at 27 +/- 2 degrees C under an 8 h photoperiod for induction of rhizomes. In vitro rhizome formation was observed in media containing 6 and 8% sucrose. PMID:11393773

Sunitibala, H; Damayanti, M; Sharma, G J

2001-01-01

79

Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds. PMID:21966166

Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

2011-01-01

80

ORGANIC AND TRACE METAL LEVELS IN OCEAN QUAHOG, ARCTICA ISLANDICA LINNE,  

E-print Network

generally weight: Cu, Ni, and Pb generally weight with a few exceptions; and Zn ranged from 50 to 153 ,..g/g dry weight. The ocean quahog, A1'ctica islandica Linne, is a large, bivalve silty sand sedi- ments of the middle to outer continental shelf that are less influenced by waves

81

Linn Havelick From: White, Diane K [white.diane@cleanharbors.com  

E-print Network

1 Linn Havelick From: White, Diane K [white.diane@cleanharbors.com] Sent: Thursday, May 10, 2007 1 to discuss in full. Diane Diane White, Account Manager Clean Harbors Environmental Services Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona work/cell: 303-263-0663 white.diane@cleanharbors.com From: Maki Iatridis Sent: Friday

82

STUDI KEMAMPUAN NIOSOM YANG MENGGUNAKAN MALTODEKSTRIN PATI GARUT (Maranta arundinaceae Linn.) SEBAGAI PEMBAWA KLORFENIRAMIN MALEAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of the Capability of Niosomes that Used Maltodextrin from Garut Starch (Maranta arundinaceae Linn.) as a Chlorpheniramine Maleate Carrier. The aim of this research was to study the entrapment ability of ampiphylic drug, chlorpheniramine maleate (CTM), by niosome. Like liposomes, niosomes is an encapsulated drug carrier that has important role in a drug release system. Niosomes and liposomes are

Effionora Anwar; Departemen Farmasi

83

Skull Asymmetry, Ear Structure and Function, and Auditory Localization in Tengmalm's Owl, Aegolius funereus (Linne)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ear apertures in the skin of Tengmalm's owl, Aegolius funereus (Linne) (Strigiformes), are slit-like and ca. 24 mm long. This equals the height of the skull. The ear opening in the skin is bounded by a continuous fold of skin that is developed into a preaural and a postaural flap. The preaural flap carries the facial disk feathers that

R. A. Norberg

1978-01-01

84

Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. leaves and flowers extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of aqueous extract of C. ternatea leaves and flowers on serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, protein, urea, creatinine were examined in control and extract treated diabetic rats. Glycogen was examined both in the liver

P. Daisy; Kanakappan Santosh; M. Rajathi

85

Study on Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. Roots in Improving the Shear Characteristics of Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the author investigates root's soil mechanics' mechanism and influencing factors of a typical soil reinforcing plant- Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. in the area that has been destroyed by wind and water. This investigation has been done from two aspects: shear strength of root-soil composite and friction characteristic of root-soil interface. The results show that when the root diameter

Yong-liang Zhang; Jing Liu; Lin-he Wang; Xi-jun Yao; Xin Zhang; Li Yao

2010-01-01

86

Fructolysis effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) in seminal vesicles of rat.  

PubMed

50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) has been found to reduce the fructose synthesis in seminal vesicles; as a result of which the viability of spermatozoa seems to be altered. Fertility testing revealed sterile matings till 30 days of last treatment. PMID:1844325

Mathur, R

1991-01-01

87

Anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn in Nigerian dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was studied in 20 Nigerian dogs that were naturally infected with nematodes. They were randomly divided into 4 groups, A, B, C and D. Groups A and B each comprised 4 dogs while groups C and D comprised 6 dogs each. Group A animals were untreated, while those

Adeolu Alex Adedapo; Olufemi Olaitan Shabi; Oyeduntan Adeyoju

88

Bull. Soc. linn. Provence, t. 59, 2008 Lichens et champignons lichnicoles du  

E-print Network

Bull. Soc. linn. Provence, t. 59, 2008 Lichens et champignons lichénicoles du parc national des de 1091 taxons (dont 993 lichens, 88 champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés et 10 champi- gnons non parc national est estimé à 1200 dont 1050­1100 lichens. Tableau de 109 groupements lichéniques et de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

Activity of tabanids (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae) attacking the reptiles Caiman crocodilus (Linn.) (Alligatoridae) and Eunectes murinus (Linn.) (Boidae), in the central Amazon, Brazil.  

PubMed

Tabanid females are better known as hematophagous on man and other mammals, and linked to mechanical transmission of parasites. The association between tabanids and reptiles is poorly known, but has been gaining more corroboration through experiments and occasional observation in the tropics. The present study was conducted at a military base (CIGS/BI-2), situated 54 km from Manaus, Amazonas, in a small stream in a clearing (02 degrees 45'33"S; 59 degrees 51'03"W). Observations were made monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, during two consecutive days. At the same time, other vertebrate animals were offered, including humans. However in this paper only data obtained on a common caiman, Caiman crocodilus (Linn.), and an anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Linn.), in diurnal observations from 05:30 a.m. to 18:30 p.m., will be discussed. A total of 254 tabanid specimens were collected, 40 from the anaconda and 214 from the caiman. Four tabanid species were recorded on these two reptiles: Stenotabanus cretatus Fairchild, S. bequaerti Rafael et al., Phaeotabanus nigriflavus (Kröber) and Tabanus occidentalis Linn. Diurnal activities showed species-specific patterns. The first three species occurred only in the dry season. T. occidentalis occurred during the whole observation period, and with increased frequency at the end of the dry season. We observed preferences for body area and related behavior of the host. Observations on the attack of tabanids on one dead caiman are also presented. PMID:11992164

Ferreira, Ruth L M; Henriques, Augusto L; Rafael, José A

2002-01-01

90

Isolation and X-ray crystal structure of a securinega-type alkaloid from Phyllanthus niruri Linn.  

PubMed

A securinega-type alkaloid epibubbialine was isolated from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. Its structure was established by spectroscopic methods and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. Its crystal structure is reported herein for the first time. PMID:21878003

Zhou, Min; Zhu, Honglin; Wang, Kuiwu; Wei, Wanxing; Zhang, Yong

2012-01-01

91

Dynamic PathBased Software Watermarking # C. Collberg E. Carter S. Debray A. Huntwork J. Kececioglu C. Linn M. Stepp  

E-print Network

. Kececioglu C. Linn M. Stepp Department of Computer Science University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Carter, A. Huntwork, and M. Stepp was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant

Kececioglu, John

92

Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.  

PubMed

Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm(-1) (-OH), 1660?cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414?cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219?cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

2014-01-01

93

Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum  

PubMed Central

Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm?1 (–OH), 1660?cm?1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm?1 (–COO–), 1414?cm?1 (–COO–), and 1219?cm?1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

2014-01-01

94

Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+?-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results More than 80% shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30% whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. PMID:25182434

Sonibare, Mubo A.; Adeniran, Adedapo A.

2014-01-01

95

Evidence for asymmetrical divergence-gene flow of nuclear loci, but not mitochondrial loci, between seabird sister species: blue-footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies.  

PubMed

Understanding the process of speciation requires understanding how gene flow influences divergence. Recent analyses indicate that divergence can take place despite gene flow and that the sex chromosomes can exhibit different levels of gene flow than autosomes and mitochondrial DNA. Using an eight marker dataset including autosomal, z-linked, and mitochondrial loci we tested the hypothesis that blue-footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies diverged from their common ancestor with gene flow, paying specific attention to the differences in gene flow estimates from nuclear and mitochondrial markers. We found no gene flow at mitochondrial markers, but found evidence from the combined autosomal and z-linked dataset that blue-footed and Peruvian boobies experienced asymmetrical gene flow during or after their initial divergence, predominantly from Peruvian boobies into blue-footed boobies. This gene exchange may have occurred either sporadically between periods of allopatry, or regularly throughout the divergence process. Our results add to growing evidence that diverging species can remain distinct but exchange genes. PMID:23614045

Taylor, Scott A; Anderson, David J; Friesen, Vicki L

2013-01-01

96

Evidence for Asymmetrical Divergence-Gene Flow of Nuclear Loci, but Not Mitochondrial Loci, between Seabird Sister Species: Blue-Footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) Boobies  

PubMed Central

Understanding the process of speciation requires understanding how gene flow influences divergence. Recent analyses indicate that divergence can take place despite gene flow and that the sex chromosomes can exhibit different levels of gene flow than autosomes and mitochondrial DNA. Using an eight marker dataset including autosomal, z-linked, and mitochondrial loci we tested the hypothesis that blue-footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies diverged from their common ancestor with gene flow, paying specific attention to the differences in gene flow estimates from nuclear and mitochondrial markers. We found no gene flow at mitochondrial markers, but found evidence from the combined autosomal and z-linked dataset that blue-footed and Peruvian boobies experienced asymmetrical gene flow during or after their initial divergence, predominantly from Peruvian boobies into blue-footed boobies. This gene exchange may have occurred either sporadically between periods of allopatry, or regularly throughout the divergence process. Our results add to growing evidence that diverging species can remain distinct but exchange genes. PMID:23614045

Taylor, Scott A.; Anderson, David J.; Friesen, Vicki L.

2013-01-01

97

Pigment Extraction Techniques from the Leaves of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. and Baphicacanthus cusia Brem. and Chemical Structure Analysis of Their Major Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigofera tinctoria Linn. and Baphicacanthus cusia Brem. are the plants which have been used as natural source of indigo dye and are available in Northern part of Thailand. In this study we carried out methods to find the optimum condition for effective extraction of indigo from the leaves of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. and Baphicacanthus cusia Brem. and investigated chemical constituents

Nittaya Chanayath; Sorasak Lhieochaiphant; Suree Phutrakul

98

Beneficial effect of Ficus religiosa Linn. on high-fat-diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ficus religiosa Linn. (Moraceae) was evaluated as a hypolipidaemic and antioxidant agent. Ethanol and hexane leaves extracts were examined for inhibition of ?-hydroxy-?-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and DPPH free radical elevation. The ethanol extract was evaluated for its effect against hypercholesterolaemia in rats, compared with the standard hypolipidaemic lipanthyl. Cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG),

Manal A. Hamed

2011-01-01

99

Comparative pharmacogonostic studies of genuine and commercial samples of trianthema decandra linn.  

PubMed

Trianthema decandra Linn. (Fam ficoidaceae) Commonly known a "Vellai sharunai'on Tamil and Punaranavi in Sanskrit the roots are used in hepatitis, asthma and suppression of menses the genuine and tree commercial samples of the root of R. Decandra in have been compared pharmacognostically for the first time in the present investigation all the pharmacognostic findings reveal adulteration in the commercial samples. PMID:22556996

Gopalakrishnan, S; Venkataraman, R

2000-07-01

100

The classification of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. according to location by infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary work investigates whether Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), in combination with multivariate analysis can be used to distinguish Phyllanthus niruri Linn. samples from different locations. A FT-IR spectrometer used in this work is equipped with a transmittance accessory. All samples were scanned in the mid-infrared range of 400–4000cm?1 but only the region of 400–2000cm?1 that contained the most

Saravanan Dharmaraj; A. Suhaimi Jamaludin; H. Mohammad Razak; Raman Valliappan; Nor Atinah Ahmad; Gam Lay Harn; Zhari Ismail

2006-01-01

101

Isolation and structural elucidation of chemical constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruits ofMorinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new constituent, morinaphthalenone (1), and three known constituents, scopoletin (2), 1, 3-dimethoxy-anthraquinone (3) and 1, 2-dihydroxy-anthraquinone (4). The structures of these isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY-45,\\u000a HMQC, HMBC) techniques, as well as by comparison with published values.

Bina S. Siddiqui; Fouzia A. Sattar; Fayaz Ahmad; Sabira Begum

2007-01-01

102

Phenology, pollination and breeding system of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) correa (Rutaceae) from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on reproductive biology are difficult but useful in species like Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa which is of considerable socio-economic importance and possess morphogenetic variation and qualities of wider\\u000a adaptability to different soils. Cytology, phenology, pollination, breeding system and natural regeneration of wild and cultivated\\u000a trees from India revealed the existence of diploid (2n = 18) and tetraploid trees (2n = 36) in Pachmarhi

Vijay Kumar Singhal; Atula Salwan; Puneet Kumar; Jaspreet Kaur

2011-01-01

103

Phytoremediation of Triazophos by Canna Indica Linn. in a Hydroponic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytoremediation of triazophos (O, O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-base) sulfur phosphate, TAP) by Canna indica Linn. in a hydroponic system was studied. After 21 d of exposure, the removal kinetic constant (K) of TAP was 0.0229–0.0339 d and the removal percentage of TAP was 41–55% in the plant system and the K and removal percentage of TAP were about 0.002 d

Shuiping Cheng; Jin Xiao; Huiping Xiao; Liping Zhang; Zhenbin Wu

2007-01-01

104

Growth inhibition of Struvite crystals in the presence of juice of Citrus medica Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Struvite, one of the components of urinary stone grows rapidly forming “staghorn-calculi”, is a painful urological disorder.\\u000a It is necessary to study the growth-inhibition of Struvite crystals. This in vitro study has been carried out in the presence\\u000a of the juice of Citrus medica Linn. by using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate solution of specific gravity 1.05 and

C. K. Chauhan; M. J. Joshi

2008-01-01

105

Effect of dried fruits of Solanum nigrum LINN against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.  

PubMed

Ethanol extract of Solanum nigrum LINN was investigated for its hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanol extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity. The activity was evaluated using biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The histopathological changes of liver sample in treated animals were compared with respect to control. PMID:14600413

Raju, Kuppuswamy; Anbuganapathi, Govindaraju; Gokulakrishnan, Velusamy; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Jayakar, Balasundarm; Manian, Sellamuthu

2003-11-01

106

Anticancer effect of two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn1  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To study the inhibitory effect of two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn (Cunabic acid and ent-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid) on the proliferation of Human Liver Cancer (HLC) cell line SMMC-7721 and its mechanism. METHODS: Inhibition of cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. The morphological changes of SMMC-7721 cells were observed under inverted phase-contrast microscope, fluorescent microscope, transmission electron

Yong-hong ZHANG; Hai-yan PENG; Guo-hao XIA; Ming-yan WANG; Ying HAN

107

Haploid plants from in vitro anther culture of Annona squamosa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haploid plants were induced from anther callus of Annona squamosa Linn. (Custard apple) on a Nitsch basal medium supplemented with 6-benzyl-aminopurine and naphthalene acetic acid. When naphthalene acetic acid was replaced by indole-3-acetic acid only multiple shoots were obtained. Pretreatment (chilling, centrifugation, reduced atmospheric pressure etc.) of the flowers was not effective but dissection of the flowers in a suspension

S. Nair; P. K. Gupta; A. F. Mascarenhas

1983-01-01

108

Determination of marker constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. and their quantitation by HPTLC and HPLC.  

PubMed

Four marker constituents, namely, onocer-7-ene-3 alpha, 21 beta-diol, delta-amyrin, delta-amyrone and 3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl of an Ayurvedic crude drug Cissus quadrangularis Linn. are defined for standardisation purposes. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrahydroxybiphenyl has been isolated for the first time from this drug. The contents of the marker constituents were quantitatively determined by HPTLC and HPLC methods in samples collected from five different geographic zones of India. PMID:11705245

Mehta, M; Kaur, N; Bhutani, K K

2001-01-01

109

The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.  

PubMed

We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

2015-01-15

110

Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats  

PubMed Central

Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as ‘Radish’ is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine. PMID:23960756

Devaraj, V.C.; Gopala Krishna, B.; Viswanatha, G.L.; Satya Prasad, V.; Vinay Babu, S.N.

2011-01-01

111

Lepidium sativum Linn.: a current addition to the family of mucilage and its applications.  

PubMed

Mucilage from the last decades has been found to be very attractive, interesting and useful in development of desired pharmaceutical dosage forms. Various applications of plant based mucilage have a wide potentiality in drug formulations. Lepidium sativum Linn. (family: Brassicaceae) is one of the mucilage containing fast growing, edible annual herb. Its various parts (roots, leaves and seeds) have been used to treat various human ailments. It mainly contains alkaloids, saponins, anthracene glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavanoids, and sterols as chief phytochemical constituents. Its seed extracts have been screened for various biological activities like hypotensive, anti-microbial, bronchodilator, hypoglycemic and allelopathic, whereas its seed coat mucilage has been isolated using different methods to make it effective excipient of desired functionality as a part of pharmaceutical applications. Through keen references of reported work on Lepidium sativum Linn., in this review, we have focused on its seed coat mucilage isolation methods, chemical constituents, pharmacological profile and versatile application of Lepidium sativum Linn. PMID:24418343

Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Patil, Prasant D; Patel, Bhumit N

2014-04-01

112

Cross-reactions between serum proteins and water soluble liver tissue antigens of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus Linn.) and man.  

PubMed Central

Cross-reactions between serum proteins and water soluble liver antigens of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus Linn.) and man were studied by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). Armadillo serum tested with rabbit antiserum against human serum proteins gave twelve components in CIE. Nine of these cross-reacting proteins were identified and showed partial identity with the corresponding human proteins. The electrophoretic mobility of alpha 2-macroglobulin and Gc-globulin differed in the two species. An ultrasonicate of normal armadillo liver gave twenty-eight anodic and eight cathodic components in CIE. By absorption experiments with armadillo serum, twenty of the former and seven of the latter were shown to be liver tissue components. A combination of CIE and crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis (CLIE) revealed the presence of twelve anodic and six cathodic liver tissue components cross-reacting with man. A cathodic armadillo liver antigen called (CALA-17) showed partial identity with that of man both in tandem and fused rocket immunoelectrophoresis. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the use of armadillo-grown M. leprae for skin testing and other purposes in man. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:93527

Negassi, K; Closs, O; Harboe, M

1979-01-01

113

Graphic Grown Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

Kim, Ann

2009-01-01

114

????????????????????????? ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) ??????????? (Acorus calamus Linn.) ????????????????????? ????????????????? Inhibitory Effect of Extracts from Clove ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) and Sweet flag (Acorus calamus Linn. ) on Some Pathogenic Bacteria ??????? ?????????1*, ????? ????????1, ???? ?????????1 , ???? ?????1, ????????? ?????????2 ??? ????? ??????????1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts of Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison and Acorus calamus Linn. at concentrations of 3.3% and 33%. were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this study. Using paper disc diffusion method, Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison extract at 33% could inhibit all strains better than 3.3%. Inhibition of the extract on MRSA

Yingmanee Tragoolpua; Matcha Porn-in; Ranu Yucharoen; Narumol Thongwai

115

Lipid to carbohydrate ratio in donkey's ear abalone ( Haliotis asinina, Linne) diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five isonitrogenous diets were prepared to vary in the percentage inclusion of lipid\\/carbohydrate as follows: diet 1, 1.3:47.8%; diet 2, 5.8:43.4%; diet 3, 10.2:39.5%; diet 4, 14.8:36.1%; and diet 5, 19.0:31.4%. The calculated values of gross energy in diets 1 to 5 were 17.6, 18.8, 19.6, 20.6 and 21.6 MJ kg?1 feed, respectively. Abalones, Haliotis asinina, Linne, with a shell

S. Thongrod; M. Tamtin; C. Chairat; M. Boonyaratpalin

2003-01-01

116

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots  

PubMed Central

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400?mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

Vasudeva, Neeru

2008-01-01

117

A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions  

PubMed Central

Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds. PMID:22131723

Asha, K. V.; Rajashekhara, N.; Chauhan, M.G.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, P. P.

2010-01-01

118

Urease inhibitory activity of ursane type sulfated saponins from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn.  

PubMed

Five ursane type sulfated saponins have been isolated from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. (locally called Chashum). The urease inhibitory effects of these compounds have been investigated for the first time as well as their molecular docking studies have also been carried out to check the structure-activity relationship. The IC50 values of these compounds could not be found due to paucity of the samples. The molecular docking studies were performed only for the most active compound mono sodium salt of 3?,23-di-O-sulfonyl-23-hydroxyurs-20(21)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (Zygofaboside A; 1). PMID:24182987

Khan, Saleha Suleman; Khan, Ajmal; Khan, Afsar; Wadood, Abdul; Farooq, Umar; Ahmed, Amir; Zahoor, Aqib; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Sener, Bilge; Erdemoglu, Nurgun

2014-02-15

119

Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle extracts on freshwater algae.  

PubMed

To pursue an effective way to control freshwater algae, four extracts from a submerged macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle were tested to study its inhibitory effects on Anabaena flos-aquae FACHB-245 and Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick FACHB-9. Extract with the highest inhibiting ability was further studied in order to reveal the inhibitory mechanism. The results demonstrated that H. verticillata extracts inhibited the growth of A. flos-aquae and C. pyrenoidosa, and methanol extract had the highest inhibiting ability. The mechanism underlying the algal growth inhibition involves the superoxide anion radical generation that induces the damage of cell wall and release of intracellular components. PMID:22210445

Zhang, T-T; He, M; Wu, A-P; Nie, L-W

2012-03-01

120

Ethanolic extract from Hemidesmus indicus (Linn) displays otoprotectant activities on organotypic cultures without interfering on gentamicin uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extract from Hemidesmus indicus (Linn) (Apocynaceae) (Hie) was studied for its otoprotective effects in ex vivo rat organotypic model of gentamicin (GM) toxicity. In organ of Corti organotypic cultures (OC), GM can induce a fast dose-dependent apoptosis of hair cells (HC), both external and internal. We found that, after coadministration of GM and Hie to organotypic cultures, the

Maurizio Previati; Elisa Corbacella; Laura Astolfi; Marco Catozzi; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Ilaria Lampronti; Roberto Gambari; Silvano Capitani; Alessandro Martini

2007-01-01

121

LCMS QUANTIFICATION OF ROSMARINIC ACID AND URSOLIC ACID IN THE OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN. LEAF EXTRACT (HOLY BASIL, TULSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive, and accurate liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) method for the determination of rosmarinic acid (RA) and ursolic acid (UA) in the leaves of ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum (EEOS) Linn. (Holy Basil, an Indian traditional herb) has been developed for the first time and validated. The LC separation was carried out

R. Shanmuga Sundaram; M. Ramanathan; R. Rajesh; B. Satheesh; D. Saravanan

2012-01-01

122

The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Ornamental Fish Toxicity of the Water Extract of Indian Almond Leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamental fish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried

Nantarika Chansue

123

Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g\\/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral

Ramesh L Londonkar; Pramod V Poddar

2009-01-01

124

FT-IR AND SEM-EDS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS, ECLIPTA ALBA HASSK AND ECLIPTA PROSTRATA LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared and energy dispersive X-ray spectra of plant parts (leaf, stem, and root) of the medicinal plants Eclipta alba Hassk and Eclipta prostrata Linn were recorded. The vibrational assignments, intensities and wave number (cm-1) of dominant peak were obtained from absorption spectra. Probable assignments of the bands were made with respect to the components present in the samples. The microphotograph

S. MURUGANANTHAM; G. ANBALAGAN; N. RAMAMURTHY

125

Phyllosphere of Organically Grown Strawberries  

E-print Network

, Alnarp Print: SLU Service/Repro, Alnarp 2013 #12;Phyllosphere of Organically Grown StrawberriesPhyllosphere of Organically Grown Strawberries Interactions between the Resident Microbiota (print version) 978-91-576-7908-6 ISBN (electronic version) 978-91-576-7909-3 © 2013 Justine Sylla

126

Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

2015-01-01

127

Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn.  

PubMed

In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 mug/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 mug/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 x, 1250-5 mug/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

Sousa, Erlânio O; Silva, Natálya F; Rodrigues, Fabiola F G; Campos, Adriana R; Lima, Sidney G; Costa, José Galberto M

2010-04-01

128

In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn  

PubMed Central

The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. PMID:24250133

Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Nariya, Pankaj B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

2013-01-01

129

Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant.  

PubMed

Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

Yvette Fofie, N'Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

2015-01-01

130

Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

2011-01-01

131

A new flavonol glycoside from the Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. belonging to the family Malvaceae is a kind of one year herbage plant, which is one of the most important vegetables widely grown in Nigeria for its tender fruits and young leaves. It's easy to be cultivated and grows well in both tropical and temperate zones, that is, it is widely planted from Africa to Asia, South European to America. A new flavonol glycoside characterized as 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-4??-O-methyl flavonol -3-O-?-D- glucopyranoside (1) has been isolated from the fruit of A. esculentus together with one known compound 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy flavonol -3-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including 2-D NMR and mass (MS) spectra. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The present work deals with the isolation, identification and antioxidant activity of the two compounds. Materials and Methods: The compounds were isolated by Diaion HP-20, Sephedex LH-20 column chromatography methods, their structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by two assays, e.g., DPPH and FRAP. Results: Two flavonol glycosides have been isolated from the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus L. for the first time, and the compound 1 was a new compound, the compound 2 was isolated from the plant for the first time. Conclusion: The results show that the two flavonol glycosides have strong ability for scavenging DPPH and FRAP free radical by the experiment of antioxidant activities, so A. esculentus may be a natural antioxidants resource. PMID:22438657

Liao, Haibing; Liu, Huixin; Yuan, Ke

2012-01-01

132

Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity  

PubMed Central

Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn. showed remarkable antihyperglycemic activity due to its possible systematic effect involving in the pancreatic and extra pancreatic mechanism. Forever, the antihyperlipidemic activity was exerted possible by lowering the higher level of lipid profile and decreasing the intercalated disc space in the heart. The antioxidant activity of extract was due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increasing the SOD, GPx and CAT. It was corroborate that the extract shown the Paederia foetida Linn leaves potential to be act as antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties. PMID:24564866

2014-01-01

133

Isolation and characterization of neutral lipids of desilked eri silkworm pupae grown on castor and tapioca leaves.  

PubMed

The neutral lipid of desilked eri silkworm pupae (Samia cynthia ricini) grown on two different host plants, castor (Ricinus communis Linn.) and tapioca (Manihot utilizsima Phol.) leaves, was extracted with hexane. The oil content in pupae was estimated to be in the range of 18-20% (dry basis). The pupal oil was found to be enriched with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) with palmitic acid as the second major fatty acid. The level of ALA in the oil of silkworm pupae was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.001) when grown on tapioca (58.3%) as compared to those grown on castor (42.9%). Other chemical parameters such as percent free fatty acid, peroxide value, phosphorus content, percent unsaponifiable matter, and composition of sterols were also determined in both of the oils and compared. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of triacylglycerol molecular species showed that the pupal oil is rich in molecular species with equivalent carbon numbers (ECN) C36, C40, C42, C44, and C48. There was a significantly higher level (P < 0.001) of trilinolenin (C36) in the oil of tapioca-based silkworm as compared to castor-based silkworm pupae. Regiospecific analysis of the oil showed a higher level of ALA at the sn-2 position of silkworm pupae grown on tapioca (60.2%) as compared to those grown on castor (47.3%) oil. Thus, the presence of a large amount of ALA and their predominance at the sn-2 position make the eri pupal oil highly nutritious, provided that the oxidative stability is ensured. PMID:16637689

Shanker, Kaki Shiva; Shireesha, Kudugunti; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Kumar, Sambharaju V L N; Srinivas, Chinta; Rao, Jammy V K; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

2006-05-01

134

Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.  

PubMed

Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-?-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98?±?7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

2014-02-01

135

Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).  

PubMed

Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

Rajashekhara, N; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, Parameshwar P

2013-10-01

136

Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review  

PubMed Central

Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

2014-01-01

137

Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review.  

PubMed

Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

2014-05-01

138

Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.)  

PubMed Central

In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

Doshi, Krunal A.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

2013-01-01

139

Anti-inflammatory effect of Chandrashura (Lepidium sativum Linn.) an experimental study.  

PubMed

Lepidium sativum Linn. (Chandrashura) of Family Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) is being used by the people of Gujarat for treating inflammatory condition like arthritis. To evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity, Charles Foster albino rats were selected and experiments were carried out in three groups, therapeutic dose group, twice of therapeutic dose group and control group. In Carrageenan-induced paw oedema, the test drug produced moderate anti-inflammatory activity; however, the effect did not show statistically significant activity due to variation in the data of the control group. In formaldehyde-induced paw oedema in rats, the test drug produced moderate to significant suppression. This indicates that Chandrashura has a strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of fibroblasts and also probably has connective tissue modulation effect. PMID:24501528

Raval, Nita D; Ravishankar, B; Ashok, B K

2013-07-01

140

Anthelmintic efficacy of extracts of Spigelia anthelmia Linn on experimental Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats.  

PubMed

Spigelia anthelmia Linn is used as a herb and is a common annual weed of cultivation in open re-growths, on unused land in towns as well as on road sides. The plant can grow to approximately 30 cm in height. The aim of this study was to screen extracts of Spigelia anthelmia for their anthelmintic activity against an experimental Nippostrongylus braziliensis infection in rats. Acute oral toxicity occurred at a dose of 1,140 mg/kg, while anthelmintic trials against Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats using the aqueous fraction showed a progressive decrease in worm count with increasing dose (10, 13, 16, 20 and 25 mg per kg body weight) (p < 0.05). At 25 mg per kg body weight, the worm count was significantly lower than that at 10 mg per kg body weight (p < 0.05). PMID:16871016

Jegede, Olorunfemi Cornelius; Ajanusi, Joseph Ologunja; Adaudi, Ambrose O; Agbede, Rowland I S

2006-09-01

141

Anthelmintic efficacy of extracts of Spigelia anthelmia Linn on experimental Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats  

PubMed Central

Spigelia anthelmia Linn is used as a herb and is a common annual weed of cultivation in open re-growths, on unused land in towns as well as on road sides. The plant can grow to approximately 30 cm in height. The aim of this study was to screen extracts of Spigelia anthelmia for their anthelmintic activity against an experimental Nippostrongylus braziliensis infection in rats. Acute oral toxicity occurred at a dose of 1,140mg/kg, while anthelmintic trials against Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats using the aqueous fraction showed a progressive decrease in worm count with increasing dose (10, 13, 16, 20 and 25 mg per kg body weight) (p < 0.05). At 25 mg per kg body weight, the worm count was significantly lower than that at 10mg per kg body weight (p < 0.05). PMID:16871016

Ajanusi, Joseph Ologunja; Adaudi, Ambrose. O.; Agbede, Rowland I. S.

2006-01-01

142

Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M M; Jain, S K; Tripathi, M

2010-05-01

143

Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M. M.; Jain, S. K.; Tripathi, M.

2010-01-01

144

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2012-01-01

145

Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)  

PubMed Central

Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

2013-01-01

146

Phytochemicals from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. and their pharmacological properties: a review.  

PubMed

This review discusses the medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), its wide variety of phytochemicals and their pharmacological properties. The active phytochemicals, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, lignans, polyphenols, tannins, coumarins and saponins, have been identified from various parts of P. niruri. Extracts of this herb have been proven to have therapeutic effects in many clinical studies. Some of the most intriguing therapeutic properties include anti-hepatotoxic, anti-lithic, anti-hypertensive, anti-HIV and anti-hepatitis B. Therefore, studies relating to chemical characteristics and structural properties of the bioactive phytochemicals found in P. niruri are very useful for further research on this plant as many of the phytochemicals have shown preclinical therapeutic efficacies for a wide range of human diseases, including HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B. PMID:17331318

Bagalkotkar, G; Sagineedu, S R; Saad, M S; Stanslas, J

2006-12-01

147

Hepatoprotective and antibacterial activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn. against lipopolysaccharides on HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Lippia nodiflora (LN) Linn is a small herb distributed throughout the world. The plant extracts of LN is used traditionally as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antitumor, antidiabetic, and possess hepatoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: To study the antibacterial and hepatoprotective effect of LN, we used methanolic extracts of leaves on HepG2 cells. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) is a well-characterized hepatotoxin, so toxicity was induced on liver cells using LPS. Up-regulation of inflammation genes were quantified. Results and Conclusions: In our present study, we have showed that LN reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production against LPS induced toxicity on HepG2 cells, and ther by decreased the apoptotic gene expression and protect the liver cells against toxicity. PMID:25709206

Arumanayagam, S.; Arunmani, M.

2015-01-01

148

CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae).  

PubMed

In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group. Doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight protected the mice against maximal electroshock seizure, and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid. Prominent analgesic activity was observed using the hot plate method. The paw licking time was delayed significantly. The extract also displayed prominent smooth muscle relaxant activity. The results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. quadrangularis roots possess anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties. PMID:22435569

Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Saraf, Shubhini A; Gupta, Rajiv

2010-03-01

149

A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae).  

PubMed

Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant. PMID:22279376

Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

2011-07-01

150

Antioxidative responses of Salvinia (Salvinia natans Linn.) to aluminium stress and it's modulation by polyamine.  

PubMed

Antioxidative stress response of free-floating aquatic fern (Salvinia natans Linn.) was studied under increasing toxic amount of aluminium (Al) and its modulation by exogenous application of polymaine. Increased levels of superoxide (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) species from affected tissues suggested that plants were undergoing oxidative stress and it was concominant with increased accumulation of Al in a dose dependent manner. Application of polyamine like putrescine (Put) led to a decrease in oxidative stress as revealed by reduced level of O2 (-) and H2O2. Al toxicity resulted into decreased biomass that was ameliorated by the application of Put. The changes observed in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and protein oxidation also indicated that plats are undergoing Al induced oxidative stress. In order to circumvent the oxidative stress resulting from Al toxicity, plants enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant pathways were active. The ratio of both oxidized and reduced cellular glutathione exhibited significant variation in response to Al stress and was improved upon Put treatment. Peroxidase and glutathione were upregulated whereas catalse was downregulated under varying doses of Al. Isozyme profile of above enzymes also showed a trend with increasing amount of Al. The nuclear disintegration study using comet assay was indicative of Al induced oxidative stress. In the present study, we have explored the antioxidative response of aquatic fern Salvinia natans Linn in response to Al toxicity. The application of polyamine Put improved the overall antioxidative response and thus would make it a better candidate to be used as hyper accumulator of Al and other toxic metals. PMID:24381441

Mandal, C; Ghosh, N; Maiti, Saborni; Das, K; Gupta, Sudha; Dey, N; Adak, M K

2013-01-01

151

Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.  

PubMed

Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

2012-07-01

152

Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.  

PubMed Central

Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

2012-01-01

153

Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh), belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC50values, all the extracts’ concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae) leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:21808558

Patel, Avani; Patel, Amit; Patel, Amit; Patel, N. M.

2010-01-01

154

Composition chimique de l'huile essentielle de Ocimum americanum Linn., syn. O. canum Sims du Burkina Faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum Linn., syn. Ocimum. canum Sims from Burkina Faso. The yields of the essential oils of the air-dried leaves of O. americanum from the different locations varied from 1 and 2% (v\\/w). The chemical composition of the essential oils of the three samples were analysed using GC and GC-MS. The three samples belonged

Alfa Keita Djibo; Abdoul Dorosso Samaté; Mouhoussine Nacro

2004-01-01

155

A preliminary study on the influence of gibberellic acid on Mentha arvensis Linn. var. piperascens holmes (Japanese mint)  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Gibberellic acid (GA3) solutions (10–200 p.p.m.) when sprayed onMentha arvensis Linn. var.piperascens at preflowering stage induces 30–50 per cent. increase in the yield of total herb. Apart from the elongation of internode,\\u000a the leaf area was also increased. The stage of development of the plant at the time of treatment, appeared to be a significant\\u000a factor in obtaining favourable Gibberellin

B. K. Kaul; L. D. Kapoor

1965-01-01

156

A Valued Medicinal Plant - Chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) : Successful Plant Regeneration Through Various Explants and Field Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocols for plant propagation through axillary bud proliferation and organo- genesis were established for Chitrak - Plumbago zeylanica Linn. (Plumbaginaceae). MS medium with 4.4 mg\\/l BA and 1.4 mg\\/l IAA elicited the maximum number of shoots (12 multiple shoots) from nodal explants. Leaf based callus differentiated into more than 30 shoots on MS with 160 mg\\/l adenine sulphate. The regenerated

Binita B. Chaplot; Ashok M. Dave; Yogesh T. Jasrai

2006-01-01

157

Studies on the active components and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn. from southern China  

PubMed Central

Background: The total flavonoid (TF) and total phenolic (TP) contents of the ethanol extracts of the whole plant, stem, leaf, and seed of Mimosa pudica Linn belonging to the genus Mimosa (Family: Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae), which originates from the subtropical regions of southern China, were determined in this experiment. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts and 5 flavonoid monomers of M. pudica Linn. were also evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, correlation analysis was also made in the present study. Results: The results showed that leaf extracts contained the highest amount of TF and TP, and the content was significantly higher than that found in other parts of the plant. Moreover, the sequence of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was as follows: leaf > the whole plant > seed > stem; the sequence of the 5 flavonoid monomers was as follows: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahydroxy-6-C-[?-D-apiose-(1?4)]-?-D-glycopyranosyl flavone (1) > isorientin (2) > orientin (3) > isovitexin (4) > vitexin (5), and the antioxidant activity of compound 1 is equivalent to the synthetic antioxidant trolox or a bit stronger than trolox, and significant correlations were found among the active ingredient contents and the results of antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The present study suggested that M. pudica Linn. could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. PMID:21472077

Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke; Zhou, Wen-long; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Ping

2011-01-01

158

Protein Crystals Grown in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collage of protein and virus crystals, many of which were grown on the U.S. Space Shuttle or Russian Space Station, Mir. The crystals include the proteins canavalin; mouse monoclonal antibody; a sweet protein, thaumatin; and a fungal protease. Viruses are represented here by crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus and satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The crystals are photographed under polarized light (thus causing the colors) and range in size from a few hundred microns in edge length up to more than a millimeter. All the crystals are grown from aqueous solutions and are useful for X-ray diffraction analysis. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

2000-01-01

159

Fast Plants Grown in Light and Dark  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photograph of two five-day-old Standard Fast Plants grown in Bottle Growing Systems--one grown with full light, one grown in the dark. This is a good example of a quick way to stimulate discussion about the matter and energy sources and needs that germinating seeds have in comparison to seedlings or plants.

Lauffer, Hedi Baxter

160

Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

2014-01-01

161

Chronic toxicity study of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze seeds in albino rats  

PubMed Central

In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the body weight, organ weight and bone marrow cytology to a significant extent. Among the 18 hematological parameters studied, significant changes were observed in three parameters, namely, significant decrease in hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and hematocrit. Of 16 biochemical parameters studied, significant changes were observed in 5 parameters, namely, decrease in total protein, albumin, bilirubin and significant increase in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride. The histopathology of 18 organs revealed changes such as fatty changes, glomerular congestion and tubular hemorrhage in the kidneys, decrease in the cellularity of the spleen, epithelial disruption in jejunum, decrease in spermatogenesis in the testis, epithelial proliferation in ventral prostate and decrease in epithelial proliferation in the uterus. Thus, toxicity profile obtained from the present study shows that B. monosperma seeds are likely to produce toxic effect when administered in a powder form. PMID:22131770

Donga, Shilpa; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Ashok, B. K.; Mishtry, I. U.

2011-01-01

162

Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

2014-01-01

163

Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

2013-01-01

164

Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

2013-01-01

165

Evaluation of Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: A Novel Phytofood from Ladakh  

PubMed Central

Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?70–90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2? scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

2013-01-01

166

Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms. PMID:24711746

Dada, E. O.; Ekundayo, F. O.; Makanjuola, O. O.

2014-01-01

167

Novel neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extracts from Verbena officinalis Linn.  

PubMed

Verbena officinialis Linn. (Verbenaceae) is a perennial plant which has been used as herbal medicine or health supplement in both Western and Eastern countries for centuries. It has been used to treat acute dysentery, enteritis, amenorrhea and depression. In view of its wide array of biological effects, we hypothesized that V. officinalis can exert cytoprotective effects on cells of the central nervous system. Pre-treatment of aqueous extracts of V. officinalis significantly attenuated the toxicity of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide and reducing agent dithiothreitol in primary cultures of cortical neurons. As extracellular accumulation of Abeta peptide is an important cytotoxic factor involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have further explored its neuroprotective effect against Abeta. Treatment of V. officinalis attenuated Abeta-triggered DEVD- and VDVAD-cleavage activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies elucidated that phosphorylation of both interferon-inducing protein kinase (PKR) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was attenuated in Abeta-treated neurons. Taken together, we have proved our hypothesis by showing the novel neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis. As V. officinalis has long been used for many years to be a folk medicine, our study may provide a lead for its potential to be a neuroprotective agent against neuronal loss in AD. PMID:16406021

Lai, Sau-Wan; Yu, Man-Shan; Yuen, Wai-Hung; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

2006-05-01

168

Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.  

PubMed

Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states. PMID:21548805

Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; da Conceicão Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

2011-10-01

169

Anti-proliferative and antioxidative activities of Thai noni/Yor (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) leaf extract.  

PubMed

In this study the leaves of the Thai noni/Yor, (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) were extracted by several methods and evaluated against human cancer cell lines: KB (human epidermoid carcinoma), HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma) and HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines as well as a Vero (African green monkey kidney) cell line, employing the MTT colorimetric method, comparing it to damnacanthal, rutin, and scopoletin. The dichloromethane extract of the fresh leaf showed a better inhibitory effect against KB and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 21.67 and 68.50 microg/ml, respectively. The dichloromethane extract of dried leaves revealed cytotoxicity against the KB cell line with an IC50 value of 39.00 microg/ml. Other extracts, as well as rutin and scopoletin, showed reduced anti-proliferative effects on all cancer cell lines (IC50 103 to over 600 microg/ml). Interestingly, the damnacanthal had potent cytotoxicity against all cancer cell lines and Vero cell lines. These results suggest Thai noni extracts may be safer than the pure compounds, due to their higher safety ratios, which is a good indicator for possible cancer treatment. Several non-aqueous extracts from the leaves showed antioxidant properties, giving IC50 values of 0.20-0.35 mg/ml. It can be concluded the leaves of M. citrifolia may have benefit as a food supplement for chemoprevention against epidermoid and cervical cancers. PMID:20578533

Thani, Wasina; Vallisuta, Omboon; Siripong, Pongpan; Ruangwises, Nongluck

2010-03-01

170

Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloidal Fraction of Cissampelos pareira Linn.  

PubMed Central

The alkaloidal fraction (AFCP) of roots of Cissampelos pareira Linn. was screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activity in mice. The HPTLC finger print profile was also established for the identification of AFCP which was found to contain 0.176 % of berberine. AFCP possess strong antioxidant activity which was revealed by its ability to scavenge the stable free radical DPPH, superoxide ion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate induced by iron/ADP/Ascorbate complex. AFCP was found to have significant immunosuppressive activity at lower doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) while no activity was observed at higher doses (75 and 100 mg/kg). Humoral antibody titre was significantly (p<0.01) lowered by AFCP at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. Delayed type hypersensitivity response was also significantly (p<0.01) suppressed by the AFCP at the dose of 75 mg/kg. Thus the present study revealed the immunosuppressive and antioxidant activities of the alkaloidal fraction of C. pareira roots. PMID:21179368

Bafna, Anand; Mishra, Shrihari

2010-01-01

171

Mn accumulation and tolerance in Celosia argentea Linn.: a new Mn-hyperaccumulating plant species.  

PubMed

Identifying a hyperaccumulator is an important groundwork for the phytoextraction of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Celosia argentea Linn., which grew on a Mn tailing wasteland, was found to hyperaccumulate Mn (14 362mgkg(-1) in leaf dry matter) in this study. To investigate Mn tolerance and accumulation in C. argentea, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Results showed that the biomass and the relative growth rate of C. argentea were insignificantly different (p>0.05) at the Mn supply level ranging from 2.5mgL(-1) (control) to 400mgL(-1). Manganese concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached maxima of 20228, 8872, and 2823mgkg(-1) at 600mgMnL(-1), respectively. The relative rate of Mn accumulation increased by 91.2% at 400mgMnL(-1). Over 95% of the total Mn taken up by C. argentea was translocated to shoots. Thus, C. argentea exhibits the basic characteristics of a Mn-hyperaccumulator. This species has great potential to remediate Mn-contaminated soil cheaply and can also aid the studies of Mn uptake, translocation, speciation, distribution and detoxification in plants. PMID:24444455

Liu, Jie; Shang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xuehong; Zhu, Yinian; Yu, Ke

2014-02-28

172

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

173

Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit  

PubMed Central

Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

2012-01-01

174

Antibacterial Activity of Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Brig Extracts from Cariri-Ceará, Brazil.  

PubMed

The use of medicinal plants with therapeutics properties represents a secular tradition in different cultures, mainly in underdeveloped countries. Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Briq (Verbenaceae) found in tropical and subtropical areas around the world are popularly known as "camará" or "chumbinho." In popular medicines, both plants are used as antipyretic and carminative and in the treatment of respiratory system infections. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of L. camara and L. montevidensis leaves and roots against gram-positive and gram-negative strains standard and multi-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical material are presented. In order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the microdilution method was used. The extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, but the L. montevidensis fresh leaves extract present the best result against P. aeruginosa (MIC 8 ?g/mL) and against multi-resistant E. coli (Ec 27) (MIC 16 ?g/mL). These results drive new researches with both species in order to isolate the constituents responsible for the activity. PMID:21331189

Barreto, Fs; Sousa, Eo; Campos, Ar; Costa, Jgm; Rodrigues, Ffg

2010-01-01

175

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents  

PubMed Central

Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Materials and Methods: Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Statistical Analysis: Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica. PMID:24501443

Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; Balakrishnan, B. R.

2013-01-01

176

Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit.  

PubMed

Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

Llanchezhian, R; Joseph C, Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

2012-04-01

177

Protic acid resin enhanced 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride pretreatment of Arundo donax Linn.  

PubMed

To improve the cellulose digestibility of energy crop Arudo donax Linn. with cost-efficient, a novel pretreatment of protic acid resin Amberlyst 35DRY catalyzed inexpensive ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) was developed in this work. The pretreatment was performed at 160°C with [C4mim]Cl for 1.5h, followed by Amberlyst 35DRY catalyzed at 90°C for 1h. The IL-Amberlyst pretreatment was demonstrated to be effective, evidenced by the reduction in cellulose crystallinity (31.4%) and increased porosity caused by extensive swelling the undissolved biomass and partial depolymerization of the longer cellulose chain of the dissolved biomass by Amberlyst. Consequently, a higher glucose yield (92.8%) was obtained than for the single [C4mim]Cl pretreatment (42.8%) at an enzyme loading of 20 FPU/g substrate. Overall, the enhanced pretreatment was competitive by using inexpensive and recyclable IL-Amberlyst 35DRY pretreated system with shorter processing time and reduced enzyme usage. PMID:25001325

You, Tingting; Zhang, Liming; Zhou, Sukun; Xu, Feng

2014-09-01

178

Antibacterial Activity of Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Brig Extracts from Cariri-Ceará, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The use of medicinal plants with therapeutics properties represents a secular tradition in different cultures, mainly in underdeveloped countries. Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Briq (Verbenaceae) found in tropical and subtropical areas around the world are popularly known as “camará” or “chumbinho.” In popular medicines, both plants are used as antipyretic and carminative and in the treatment of respiratory system infections. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of L. camara and L. montevidensis leaves and roots against gram-positive and gram-negative strains standard and multi-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical material are presented. In order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the microdilution method was used. The extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, but the L. montevidensis fresh leaves extract present the best result against P. aeruginosa (MIC 8 ?g/mL) and against multi-resistant E. coli (Ec 27) (MIC 16 ?g/mL). These results drive new researches with both species in order to isolate the constituents responsible for the activity. PMID:21331189

Barreto, FS; Sousa, EO; Campos, AR; Costa, JGM; Rodrigues, FFG

2010-01-01

179

Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background: In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Materials and Methods: Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Results: Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study. PMID:24501447

Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J.

2013-01-01

180

Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study  

PubMed Central

Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

2012-01-01

181

Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1?mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. PMID:25861372

Moniruzzaman, Md.; Atikur Rahman, Md.; Ferdous, Afia

2015-01-01

182

Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. Conclusions The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds. PMID:23569993

Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A.T.M.; Howlader, Md. Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

2012-01-01

183

Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116. PMID:25176251

Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

2014-09-01

184

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35–55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. Conclusions It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries. PMID:23569974

Ponarulselvam, S; Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; Thangamani, S

2012-01-01

185

Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well. PMID:23569896

Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

2012-01-01

186

Characterization, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides from Prunella vulgaris Linn.  

PubMed

Water-soluble polysaccharides from Prunella vulgaris Linn (P. vulgaris) were fractionated using DEAE-Sepharose fast-flow column to obtain several eluents of water (PV-P1), 0.1M NaCl (PV-P2) and 0.2M NaCl (PV-P3). Structural analyses showed that PV-P1 had a higher molecular weight and degree of branching as compared to PV-P2 and PV-P3. Tertiary structure analyses indicated that PV-P1, PV-P2 and PV-P3 did not have triple-helical conformation. PV-P2 and PV-P3 showed stronger antioxidant activities than PV-P1, as measured radical scavenging capacities. PV-P1 showed stronger immunomodulatory activities than PV-P2 and PV-P3 in term of stimulation of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. PV-P1, PV-P2 and PV-P3 did not exhibit cytotoxicities against RAW 264.7 at the concentrations tested. These results suggest that P. vulgaris polysaccharides could be explored as potential antioxidant and immunomodulatory agents for the complementary medicine or functional foods. PMID:25596012

Li, Chao; Huang, Qiang; Fu, Xiong; Yue, Xiu-Jie; Liu, Rui Hai; You, Li-Jun

2015-04-01

187

Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of methanolic leaf and root extracts of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea) is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. This study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of C. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models. Materials and Methods: The different antinociception models such as hot plate, tail-flick and formalin tests were used along with naloxone (a non-selective opioid antagonist) to establish the antinociceptive activity of both leaf and root extracts. Results: Both C. ternatea leaf and root extracts markedly demonstrated antinociceptive action in experimental animals. Results of formalin test showed that the antinociceptive activity of the extracts may be mediated at both central and peripheral level. Moreover, the results of hot plate and tail-flick tests further implies that C. ternatea root extract mediates antinociceptive activity centrally at supraspinal and spinal levels whereas, the C. ternatea leaf extract's antinociceptive activity is mediated centrally at supraspinal level only. It is believed that the opioid receptors are probably involved in antinociceptive activity of both C. ternatea root extract. Conclusions: Our studies support the traditional use of C. ternatea leaf and root against pain. The extracts can also be utilised as a new source of central analgesics in treatment of pain. PMID:25298581

Kamilla, Linggam; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

2014-01-01

188

Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

2012-07-01

189

A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta  

PubMed Central

Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

Rajashekhara, N.; Sharma, P. P.

2010-01-01

190

A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.  

PubMed

Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

2010-10-01

191

Euphorbia helioscopia Linn as a green source for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their optical and catalytic properties.  

PubMed

During this study, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Euphorbia helioscopia Linn leaf extract for the synthesis of propargylamines. Also, the structural and optical properties are studied. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by TEM, XRD, FT-IR and UV-visible techniques. UV-visible studies show an absorption band at 440nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, the catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity, superior cycling stability and excellent substrate applicability. PMID:25854504

Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Mohammad Sajadi, S; Babaei, Ferydon; Maham, Mehdi

2015-07-15

192

Analysis of 7Li(n,n')7Li* reactions using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study 7Li(n,n')7Li* reactions by using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method with the complex Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. In this study, the 7Li nucleus is described by an ?+t cluster model. The calculated elastic cross sections for incident energies between 11.5 and 24.0 MeV show good agreements with experimental data. Furthermore, we calculate the neutron spectra of 7Li ground and excited breakup states measured at selected angular points for incident energies of 11.5 and 18.0 MeV. The results reproduce the observed data systematically.

Ichinkhorloo, D.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kat?, K.; Aikawa, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Chiba, S.

2012-12-01

193

Optimisation of phenolics recovery from Vitex agnus-castus Linn. leaves by high-pressure and temperature extraction.  

PubMed

To optimise recovery of phenolics from Vitex agnus-castus Linn., a non-conventional high-pressure (2-24 bar) and temperature (100-180°C) extraction method was used under nitrogen atmosphere with methanol as a solvent. Optimal temperature was between 100 and 140°C, and optimal extraction time was about one half that of conventional solid/liquid extraction at room temperature. Final yields of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, o-diphenols and anthocyanins extraction were 2.0, 3.0, 2.5 and 11-fold those obtained by conventional extraction. PMID:24404955

Lataoui, Mohammed; Seffen, Mongi; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Perego, Patrizia

2014-01-01

194

Far infrared-assisted extraction followed by capillary electrophoresis for the determination of bioactive constituents in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a method based on capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection and far infrared-assisted extraction has been developed for the determination of rutin, gentisic acid, and quercetin in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn. The effects of detection potential, irradiation time, and the voltage applied on the infrared generator were investigated to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The detection

Haotian Duan; Yi Chen; Gang Chen

2010-01-01

195

Microsatellite markers for the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica (Linn, 1758), a key species concerned by changing southern limit, in exploited littoral ecosystems  

E-print Network

1 Microsatellite markers for the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica (Linné, 1758), a key species limit of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica strongly shifted northward. To understand the consequences on the function and structure of coastal ecosystems remain mostly unknown (Walther et al. 2002). The Baltic clam

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

Bioassay-guided fractionation of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf solid phase extraction fraction and its anticoagulant activity.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to examine the bioactive component(s) responsible for the anticoagulant activity of M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract via bioassay-guided fractionation and to evaluate the effect of bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. The active anticoagulant fraction of F3 was subjected to a series of chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the effect of the bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway was studied through immediate and time incubation mixing studies. Through Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assay-guided fractionation, Subfraction B was considered the most potent anticoagulant fraction. Characterisation of Subfraction B indicated that anticoagulant activity could partly be due to the presence of cinnamic acid and a cinnamic acid derivative. APTT assays for both the immediate and time incubation mixing were corrected back into normal clotting time range (35.4-56.3 s). In conclusion, cinnamic acid and cinnamic acid derivative from Subfraction B were the first such compounds to be discovered from M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract that possess anticoagulant activity. This active anticoagulant Subfraction B prolonged blood clotting time by causing factor(s) deficiency in the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. PMID:25719740

Khoo, Li Teng; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Abas, Faridah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Hamid, Muhajir

2015-01-01

197

Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400?mg/kg and 900?mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6?weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900?mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26?mg/g, 1.4?mg/g and 1.19??g/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes. PMID:22943464

2012-01-01

198

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of flower extract of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Millingtonia hortensis Linn is an abundant resource of flavonoids, which might be beneficial in protecting liver tissue from injury. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of M. hortensis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanism involved therein were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents. 30 adult Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups. Control group received vehicle, group-2 received CCl4 alone (1 ml/kg body weight, intraperitonially), groups 3 - 5 received the ethanolic flower extract in 2 dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg) and Curcumin (100 mg/kg) as a standard for 8 days orally, followed by CCl4 as a single dose on the 8th day. 48 hours later, blood was withdrawn, serum was subjected to biochemical assessments, and liver homogenate was examined for lipid peroxides, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopatological studies. Results: CCl4 treatment produced a profound increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, hepatic marker enzymes and bilirubin content compared with the control (P < 0.05). Pre-treatment with the flower extract of M. hortensis significantly enhanced the levels of endogenous antioxidants and reduced the levels of hepatic marker enzymes in relation to the CCl4 treated group (P < 0.05). Balloning degeneration and fatty changes in hepatocytes was prevented by pre-treatment with the flower extract. Conclusion: The antioxidant nature of the flower extract of M. hortensis could be responsible for averting damage to the liver. PMID:23248564

Babitha, S.; Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J. F.

2012-01-01

199

Arsenic toxicity in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.): significance of potassium nutrition.  

PubMed

In a hydroponic culture, experiments were performed to study the influence of potassium (K) supplementation (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg L(-1)) on the arsenic (As; 0, 8, and 10 mg L(-1))-accrued changes in growth traits (plant biomass, root-shoot length) and the contents of lepidine, As and K, in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) at 10 days after treatment. The changes in these traits were correlated with shoot proline content, protein profile, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11). In general, As-alone treatments significantly decreased the growth traits but lead to significant enhancements in shoot proline and enzyme activities. K-supplementation to As-treated L. sativum seedlings decreased shoot-As content, reduced As-induced decreases in growth traits but enhanced the content of shoot proline, and the activities of the studied enzymes maximally with K100 + As8 and As10 mg L(-1). Both 8 and 10 mg L(-1) of As drastically downregulated the shoot proteins ranging from 43-65 kDa. With As10 mg L(-1), there was a total depletion of protein bands below 23 kDa; however, K80 mg L(-1) maximally recovered and upregulated the protein bands. Additionally, protein bands were downregulated (at par with As-alone treatment) above K80 mg L(-1) level. Interestingly, As-stress increased lepidine content in a dose-dependent manner which was further augmented with the K-supplementation. It is suggested that K protects L. sativum against As-toxicity by decreasing its accumulation and strengthening antioxidant defense system and protein stability. PMID:23529401

Umar, Shahid; Gauba, Nidhi; Anjum, Naser A; Siddiqi, Tariq O

2013-09-01

200

Chemopreventive properties and molecular mechanisms of the bioactive compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne is a traditional Chinese rose tea and has been effectively used in folk medicines for treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions. H. sabdariffa aqueous extracts (HSE) were prepared from the dried flowers of H. sabdariffa L., which are rich in phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In this review, we discuss the chemopreventive properties and possible mechanisms of various H. sabdariffa extracts. It has been demonstrated that HSE, H. sabdariffa polyphenol-rich extracts (HPE), H. sabdariffa anthocyanins (HAs), and H. sabdariffa protocatechuic acid (PCA) exert many biologic effects. PCA and HAs protected against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl droperoxide (t-BHP) in rat primary hepatocytes. In rabbits fed cholesterol and human experimental studies, these studies imply HSE could be pursued as atherosclerosis chemopreventive agents as they inhibit LDL oxidation, foam cell formation, as well as smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. The extracts also offer hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver marker enzymes in experimental hyperammonemia. PCA has also been shown to inhibit the carcinogenic action of various chemicals in different tissues of the rat. HAs and HPE were demonstrated to cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in leukemia and gastric cancer. More recent studies investigated the protective effect of HSE and HPE in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy. From all these studies, it is clear that various H. sabdariffa extracts exhibit activities against atherosclerosis, liver disease, cancer, diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. These results indicate that naturally occurring agents such as the bioactive compounds in H. sabdariffa could be developed as potent chemopreventive agents and natural healthy foods. PMID:21291361

Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong

2011-01-01

201

Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (?), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient. PMID:25426443

Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

2014-01-01

202

Screening of flavonoid “quercetin” from the rhizome of Smilax china Linn. for anti-psoriatic activity  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess anti-psoriatic activity of the methanol extract and the isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of Smilax china (S. china) Linn. Methods Mouse tail test was used for the evaluation of anti-psoriatic activity. Methanol extract (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg b.w.) were tested in Swiss albino mice. Parameters studied in the mouse tail test were changes in epidermal thickness and percentage orthokeratotic values. The anti-inflammatory role of the methanol extract and isolated flavonoid quercetin was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. In vitro antiproliferant assay on HaCaT cell lines was also carried out. Results The isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of S. china produced significant orthokeratosis (P<0.01) in the mouse tail test. In epidermal thickness, a significant reduction with respect to control was observed in groups treated with retinoic acid and isolated flavonoid quercetin. The methanol extract (200 mg/kg) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (50 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory effect in terms of significant inhibition (P<0.001) in leukocyte migration. Maximum antiproliferant activity was shown by isolated flavonoid quercetin (IC50, 62.42±10.20 µg/mL). Conclusions From the above data, the flavonoid quercetin shows significant orthokeratosis, anti-inflammatory and maximum antiproliferant activities. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-psoriatic effect of the flavonoid quercetin which is promising for further investigations to prove its anti-psoriatic activity. PMID:23569912

Vijayalakshmi, A; Ravichandiran, V; Malarkodi, Velraj; Nirmala, S; Jayakumari, S

2012-01-01

203

Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss.  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 ± 0.47, compared to 1.05 ± 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 ± 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 ± 0.06 as compared with 0.23 ± 0.03 and 1.12 ± 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

2014-01-01

204

Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days. PMID:24353141

Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

2013-12-18

205

Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn fruits against cadmium chloride toxicity in albino rats.  

PubMed

The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD50 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl2 toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl2-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl2 induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl2-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl2 ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl2 ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl2-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby. PMID:25022247

Abdel-Rahim, Emam A; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E; Ali, Rhaam F; Mahmoud, Hend A

2014-09-01

206

OA01.03. Antisecretory and antiulcer activities of eclipta alba Linn.in rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Eclipta alba Linn. (Asteraceae) is used traditionally in Indian system of medicine as anti inflammatory, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, immunomodulator, in wound healing, and as a potent hair growth promoter. The study was aimed to evaluate the antisecretory and gastroprotective effects of 50% ethanol extract of Eclipta alba. Method: Eclipta alba extract (EAE) at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered orally, twice daily for 5 days to prevent from, cold restraint stress (CRS), and pylorus ligation (PL) induced ulcers. Antioxidant studies were performed in CRS induced ulcer model. Gastric wall mucus and secretion parameters like volume of gastric juice, acid output and pH were estimated in PL induced ulcer model. Ranitidine (50mg/kg, p.o.) was used as positive control for comparison. Result: A dose dependent and significant (p < 0.05) reduction in lesion index was observed in ulcer-induced rats treated with EAE at various doses when compared with control group in both the models. Gastric wall mucus production was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in EAE treated rats. Significant attenuation in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity was observed, whereas, catalase enzyme levels were elevated in EAE treated groups. Antisecretory activity of EAE was evidenced by significant reduction in gastric volume, acid output and increase in gastric pH when compared to their control values. The findings were further supported by histopathological examination of stomach in both EAE treated and control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present investigation suggest that ethanol extract of Eclipta alba possesses potent antisecretory and gastroprotective activity. The exact mechanism to be evaluated further but in preliminary observation it was thought to be mediated through free radical scavenging activity.

Samaiya, Puneet Kumar; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Rao, Chandana. V; Vijaykumar, M.; Ojha, Sanjeev Kumar; Eswaran, Bavani M

2012-01-01

207

Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 ± 0.47, compared to 1.05 ± 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 ± 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 ± 0.06 as compared with 0.23 ± 0.03 and 1.12 ± 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

2014-01-01

208

Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.  

PubMed

The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction. PMID:23648758

Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

2013-07-01

209

Extraction, processing, and storage effects on curcuminoids and oleoresin yields from Curcuma longa L. grown in Jamaica.  

PubMed

Aromatic diarylheptanoid compounds from Curcuma longa Linn grown in Jamaica were quantified by UV-vis spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses. The oleoresin yields from ethanolic extracts were quantified and evaluated with regard to the effects of the type of postharvesting process and the type of extraction method conducted on the plant material. Fresh samples that were hot solvent extracted provided the highest oleoresin yields of 15.7% +/- 0.4 ( n = 3), and the lowest oleoresin yields of 7.8% +/- 0.2 ( n = 3) were from the dried milled samples that were cold solvent extracted. Data from the ASTA spectrophotometer assay confirmed that dried samples contained the highest curcuminoid content of 55.5% +/- 2.2 ( n = 6) at the fifth month of storage, and the fresh samples showed a curcuminoid content of 47.1% +/- 6.4 ( n = 6) at the third month of storage. A modified HPLC analysis was used to quantify curcumin content. Data from the HPLC analysis confirmed that the dried treated, hot extracted, room temperature stored samples had the highest curcumin content of 24.3%. A novel high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method provided a chemical fingerprint of the C. longa with the use of a commercial curcumin standard. PMID:18454547

Green, Cheryl E; Hibbert, Sheridan L; Bailey-Shaw, Yvonne A; Williams, Lawrence A D; Mitchell, Sylvia; Garraway, Eric

2008-05-28

210

Vitamin C content of organically grown produce  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organically grown produce is the fastest growing sector of fresh market sales in the U.S. While accounting for only 3% of total produce sales, it is growing by 20% per year. There has been much debate over the relative health merits of organically grown fruits and vegetables. Most consumers believ...

211

Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 ?M). When tested on K+ (80 mM)-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 ?M)-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 ?M), caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml) also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml). The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic component(s) was separated in the organic fraction, whereas the spasmogenic component was concentrated in the aqueous fraction. Conclusion These results indicate that A. spinosus possesses laxative activity partially mediated through cholinergic action. The spasmolytic effect was mediated through calcium channel blocking (CCB), while bronchodilator activity through a combination of ?-adrenergic and CCB pathways, which may explain the traditional uses of A. spinosus in gut and airways disorders. PMID:23025418

2012-01-01

212

Antioxidant and Antilipid Peroxidation Potential of Supercritical Fluid Extract and Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Vitex Negundo Linn.  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extract and ethanol extract of Vitex negundo Linn. were subjected to the chromatographic evaluation for identification of their constituents. Free radical scavenging activity of both extracts was studied by subjecting them to DPPH assay. IC50 values of ethanol and supercritical fluid extract of Vitex negundo indicate that ethanol extract has stronger reducing potential and ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to the supercritical fluid extract. The in vivo effect of extracts on lipid peroxidation was studied using ethanol induced oxidative stress model in rat. Ingestion of extracts for 14 days exhibited significant reduction in plasma MDA level of stressed animals. Ethanol extract exhibited higher in vivo antilipid peroxidation potential as compared to supercritical fluid extract which correlated well with radical scavenging potential of extract. PMID:22707827

Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

2011-01-01

213

Lantana camara Linn leaf extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile one-step green synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and the leaf extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae family) at room temperature. The leaf extract enriched in various types of plant secondary metabolites is highly efficient for the reduction of chloroaurate ions into metallic gold and stabilizes the synthesized AuNPs without any additional stabilizing or capping agents. Detailed characterizations of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The synthesized AuNPs have been utilized as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature under mild reaction condition. The kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Hota, Poulami

2014-05-01

214

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2. PMID:23983504

Habib, M. Rowshanul

2009-01-01

215

Bioassay-guided isolation of a sesquiterpene lactone of deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber Linn. active on Trypanosome brucei rhodesience.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of 70 Malaysia plants were screened for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity using Trypanosome brucei rhodesience, strain STIB 900 and mouse skeletal cell (L-6) in cytotoxicity activity assay. Results indicated that methanol extract from Elephantopus scaber Linn. (E. scaber) possessed the highest value of antitrypanosomal activity with good selectivity index (antitrypanosomal IC50 of 0.22±0.02 ?g/ml, SI value of 204.55). Based on these results, E. scaber was chosen for further study by applying bioassay guided fractionation to isolate its antiprotozoal principle. The antiprotozoal principle was isolated from the ethyl acetate partition through solvent fractionation and crystallization process. The isolated active compound 1 was identified as deoxyelephantopin on the basis of its spectral analysis (FTIR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). PMID:24269185

Zahari, Zuriati; Jani, Nor Akmalazura; Amanah, Azimah; Latif, Mohd Naffidi Abdul; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul; Adenan, Mohd Ilham

2014-02-15

216

Lantana camara Linn leaf extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile one-step green synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and the leaf extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae family) at room temperature. The leaf extract enriched in various types of plant secondary metabolites is highly efficient for the reduction of chloroaurate ions into metallic gold and stabilizes the synthesized AuNPs without any additional stabilizing or capping agents. Detailed characterizations of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The synthesized AuNPs have been utilized as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature under mild reaction condition. The kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Hota, Poulami

2015-03-01

217

Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

2014-11-01

218

Influence of the Leaf Extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (Mint) on the Survival of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of Gamma Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Mentha arvensis (mint) on the survival of mice exposed to various doses of whole-body gamma radiation. Material and Methods: The radioprotective effect of various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg\\/kg body weight) of chloroform extract of mint (Mentha arvensis Linn.) was studied

Ganesh Chandra Jagetia; Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

2002-01-01

219

Therapeutic effects of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on the changes associated with collagen and glycosaminoglycan metabolism in adjuvant arthritic Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) was studied to gain some insight into this intriguing disease with reference to collagen metabolism. Arthritis was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant containing 10mg of heat killed mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1ml paraffin oil (0.1ml) into the left hind paw of the rat intradermally. After

Vanu Ramkumar Ramprasath; Palanivelu Shanthi; Panchanatham Sachdanandam

2006-01-01

220

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

2012-01-01

221

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

2010-01-01

222

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

2011-01-01

223

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

2013-01-01

224

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

2014-01-01

225

Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity: antioxidant and histological study in mice.  

PubMed

The isolated and identified triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera Linn. was explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (L. aspera Linn.) extract significantly antagonized the spectacled cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. It was compared with commercial antiserum obtained from King Institute of Preventive Medicine (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India). N. naja naja venom induced a significant decrease in antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, catalase, reduced GSH and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increased lipid peroxidase (LPO) activity in different organs such as heart, liver, kidney and lungs. The histological changes following the antivenom treatment were also evaluated in all these organs. There were significant alterations in the histology. Triterpenoid from methanol extract of L. aspera Linn. at a dose level of 75 mg per mouse significantly attenuated (neutralized) the venom-induced antioxidant status and also the LPO activity in different organs. PMID:23857030

Venkatesan, C; Sarathi, M; Balasubramanian, G; Thomas, John; Balachander, V; Babu, V Sarath; Bilal, S Mohammed Yusuf; Majeed, S Abdul; Madan, N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Nambi, K S N; Hameed, A S Sahul

2014-04-01

226

Molecule diagram from space-grown crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers' at Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, in Buffalo, N.Y. have analyzed the molecular structures of insulin crystals grown during Space Shuttle experiments and are unlocking the mystery of how insulin works.

2004-01-01

227

Nutrition of container?grown freesias  

Microsoft Academic Search

As limited information is available on the nutrition of freesias an experiment was carried out to examine the influence of nutrients on foliage and corm growth, and flowering of container?grown plants. The experiment ran for 10 months using seedlings grown in a peat:sand (3:1,v:v) medium with combinations of varying levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and lime. Nitrogen

M. Thomas; S. Matheson; M. Spurway

1998-01-01

228

Graphene Films Grown on Insulating Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a method of direct CVD growth of carbon films on quartz substrates. The films are grown at temperatures from 650 to 1200 ^oC in a graphite container filled with methane. Films grown at 1200 ^oC reveal clear G and 2D Raman bands characteristic of graphene. A combination of Raman, absorption and electrical measurements allows us to conclude that carbon films grown by this method are polycrystalline graphene, large areas of which may be composed of single carbon layer. Sheet resistivity of these graphene films is low enough to make them interesting objects for electronic applications. Advantages of our synthetic approach include simplicity and the ability to deposit films on any insulating substrate, which can stand temperature of at least 650 ^oC. Thus far, no factors limiting the area of deposition and uniformity of the deposited graphene films have been identified.

Samsonau, Siarhei V.; Exarhos, Annemarie L.; Turk, Michael E.; Cai, Jing; Deshko, Yury; Gorokhovsky, Anshel A.; Kikkawa, Jay M.; Zaitsev, Alexander M.

2011-03-01

229

Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years, especially under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 micrometers, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5 mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 micrometers. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be discussed in detail.

Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Vujisic, L.; Szofran, F. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

230

Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years especially, under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 microns, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 microns. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be discussed in detail.

Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

231

Ion implanted epitaxially grown ZnSe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The epitaxial growth of ZnSe on (100) Ge using the close-spaced transport process is described. Substrate temperature of 575 C and source temperatures of 675 C yield 10 micron, single crystal layers in 10 hours. The Ge substrates provides a nonreplenishable chemical transport agent and the epitaxial layer thickness is limited to approximately 10 microns. Grown epitaxial layers show excellent photoluminescence structure at 77 K. Grown layers exhibit high resistivity, and annealing in Zn vapor at 575 C reduces the resistivity to 10-100 ohms-cm. Zinc vapor annealing quenches the visible photoluminescence.

1974-01-01

232

Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. PMID:23073108

Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

2012-12-01

233

Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, ?-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum. PMID:24266685

Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

2013-12-01

234

Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves.  

PubMed

To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16(th) days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

Biswas, D; Yoganandam, G P; Dey, A; Deb, L

2013-03-01

235

Hypolipidemic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet.  

PubMed

Lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root (HCS) were evaluated in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C), atherogenic indices and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, and CK-MB) were performed in each group at 0 days and at the end of 60 days. Histological study of liver and kidney was done in groups 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in HCS and its antioxidant activity were evaluated by the DPPH assay. Both doses of HCS decreased serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices (P < 0.05). HCS has lipid lowering, immunosuppressive and antioxidant properties, and mays have value in atherosclerosis prevention. The higher dose of HCS also reduced serum AST, ALP, and LDH levels and rosuvastatin increased AST and ALP levels (P < 0.05). Histology of the liver showed decreased lipid accumulation and improvement in hepatocytes in HCS-treated animals. The antioxidant activity of HCS may be responsible for its lipid lowering and cytoprotective action. HCS had significant lipid lowering and antioxidant activity, which; may be due to the phenolic compounds. HCS may be a safe and cost effective alternative to current statin therapy for patients with dyslipidaemia. PMID:25480512

Chawda, Hiren M; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Parmar, Pravin H; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R

2014-11-01

236

In vitro callus culture of Heliotropium indicum Linn. for assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

The total phenolic and flavonoid content and percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of callus and in vivo plant parts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. were estimated. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 2.0 mg/l with benzyladenine (BA) 0.5 mg/l showed the highest amount of callus biomass (1.87 g/tube). The morphology of callus was significantly different according to the plant growth regulators and their concentrations used in the medium. The highest amount of total phenolic (21.70 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GAE/g)) and flavonoid (4.90 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g)) content and the maximum percentage (77.78 %) of radical scavenging activity were estimated in the extract of inflorescence. The synergistic effect of NAA (2.0 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l) enhances the synthesis of total phenolic (9.20 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (1.25 mg QE/g) content in the callus tissue. The callus produced by the same concentration shows 45.24 % of free radical scavenging activity. While comparing the various concentrations of NAA with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for the production of callus biomass, total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity, all the concentrations of NAA were found to be superior than those of 2,4-D. PMID:25248992

Kumar, Muthusamy Senthil; Chaudhury, Shibani; Balachandran, Srinivasan

2014-12-01

237

Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats.  

PubMed

The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

238

Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

Ismail, Zakiah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

239

Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content.  

PubMed

Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardrakaswarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds. PMID:22529660

Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2011-07-01

240

Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.  

PubMed

Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs. PMID:23983327

Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-01-01

241

A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats  

PubMed Central

Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, BK; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

2011-01-01

242

Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content  

PubMed Central

Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardraka swarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds. PMID:22529660

Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V. J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2011-01-01

243

A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats.  

PubMed

Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, Bk; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

2011-10-01

244

Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

In this study, the optimum extraction conditions for maximum recovery of the content of total phenolics (TPC) and total antioxidant abilities were analyzed for Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology. The effects of ethanol percentage (X1 ,%), ultrasonic power (X2 , W) and extraction temperature (X3 , °C) on the total phenolic content (Y1 ) and antioxidant ability (Y2 ) were evaluated. A second-order polynomial model produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.9942, P < 0.0001) and antioxidant ability (R(2) = 0.9966, P < 0.0001). The optimized conditions were ethanol concentration of 61.0%, ultrasonic power of 308.6 W, extraction temperature of 51.1°C for TPC and 60.5%, 311.4 W, 51.6°C for antioxidant ability, the predicted values agreed well with the experimental values. Results implied that the major phenolic compounds in obtained extracts as chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-gal/glu, quercetin-3-xyl/ara, phloretin-2-xyloside, quercetin-3- rhamnoside, and phloridzin. PMID:23436450

Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Xiaoyu

2013-05-01

245

Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.*  

PubMed Central

Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

2014-01-01

246

Comparative study of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.).  

PubMed

The phytoconstituents of essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) were analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituents were aromatic-turmerone (24.4%), alpha-turmerone (20.5%) and beta-turmerone (11.1%) in fresh rhizome and aromatic-turmerone (21.4%), alpha-santalene (7.2%) and aromatic-curcumene (6.6%) in dry rhizome oil. Whereas, in oleoresins, the major components were alpha-turmerone (53.4%), beta-turmerone (18.1%) and aromatic-turmerone (6.2%) in fresh and aromatic-turmerone (9.6%), alpha-santalene (7.8%) and alpha-turmerone (6.5%) in dry rhizome. Results showed that alpha-turmerone, a major component in fresh rhizomes is only minor one in dry rhizomes. Also, the content of beta-turmerone in dry rhizomes is less than a half amount found in fresh rhizomes. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by various lipid peroxidation assays as well as DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating methods. The essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh rhizomes have higher antioxidant properties as compared dry ones. PMID:20096323

Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

2010-04-01

247

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

2014-01-01

248

Effect of Mimosa pudica (Linn.) extract on anxiety behaviour and GABAergic regulation of 5-HT neuronal activity in the mouse.  

PubMed

Mimosa pudica (Linn.) (M. pudica L.) is a plant used in some countries to treat anxiety and depression. In the present study we investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of M. pudica L. on mouse anxiety-like behaviour using the elevated T maze, and on regulation of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuronal activity using an in-vitro mouse brain slice preparation. Acute treatment with M. pudica L. extract had an anxiolytic effect on behaviour in the elevated T maze, specifically on inhibitory avoidance behaviour. Acute application of the extract alone had no effect on the activity of DRN 5-HT neurones. However, when co-applied with the GABA(A) receptor agonist THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol), the extract enhanced the inhibitory effect of the THIP on DRN 5-HT neurones. These observed effects of M. pudica L. on both behaviour and GABA modulation of 5-HT neuronal activity are similar to the effects of diazepam, the established anxiolytic and positive modulator of the GABA(A) receptor. This study suggests that the aqueous extract of M. pudica L. contains a positive modulator of GABA(A) receptor function and provides impetus for further investigation of the neuropharmacologically active constituents of the extract. PMID:21427203

Ayissi Mbomo, Rigobert; Gartside, Sasha; Ngo Bum, Elizabeth; Njikam, Njifutie; Okello, Ed; McQuade, Richard

2012-04-01

249

Molecule diagram from earth-grown crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Like many chemicals in the body, the three-dimensional structure of insulin is extremely complex. When grown on the ground, insulin crystals do not grow as large or as ordered as researchers desire--obscuring the blueprint of the insulin molecules.

2004-01-01

250

AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COMMERCIALLY GROWN TRANSGENIC  

E-print Network

108 AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COMMERCIALLY GROWN TRANSGENIC BT COTTONSEED P.J. Cotty and C. Bock cotton may have reduced susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination as a result of pink bollworm resistance) from one highly contaminated (>6,000 ppb aflatoxin B1) Bt seed lot indicated that most contamination

Cotty, Peter J.

251

Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

1992-01-01

252

Rice Plants Grown With and Without Endophytes  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These rice plants show the difference in growth of rice plants exposed to salt when grown with and without endophytes, which are mutually beneficial microscopic fungi that live in most plants. The plant on the left was colonized with a fungi that made it salt-tolerant, but it wasn't exposed to ...

253

Grown-ups Ought To Know Better.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the articles by Sam Brightman collected in this volume from the newsletter, "Adult & Continuing Education Today (ACET)" are the following: "Grown-Ups Ought to Know Better"; "Adult Education: The Only Sure Factor Is Growth"; "Adult Education Important in This Election Year"; "Will Nursery School External Degree Programs Come Next?";…

Brightman, Samuel C.

254

Vapor-grown atomic filaments of graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field emission transmission electron microscopy has revealed the presence of atomic filaments extending from the open edge of a graphite cage formed in a glow-discharge plasma. The filaments are vapor grown, presenting complicated deformations such as curling, waving, and looping in the free space. The filaments correspond well to one carbon atom in diameter, strongly indicating that they are linear

F. Okuyama; T. Hayashi; M. Kawasaki; K. Ibe

2000-01-01

255

Transport studies on CVD-grown graphene  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we report transport studies performed on CVD-grown graphene. We perform resistivity and hall measurements on a large-area sample at 4' K. We measure the carrier mobility of the sample and find it to be on ...

Huntley, Miriam Hanna

2009-01-01

256

Anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Melastoma malabathricum (MM) Linn leaves traditionally use in the treatment of diabetic conditions. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract taken from Melastoma malabathricum Linn (Melastomaceae). Methods The methanolic leaves extract of MM Linn leaves used for the study. Chemical test of different extract, acute toxicity study and oral glucose test was performed. Diabetes was induced in rat by single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats were divided into following groups: Group I – normal control, Group II (Vehicle) – diabetic control, Group III (STZ-toxic) – MM I (100 mg/kg, p.o.), Group IV – MM II (250 mg/kg, p.o.), Group V – MM III (500 mg/kg, p.o.), Group VI – glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Bodyweight of each rat in the different groups was recorded daily. Biochemical and antioxidant enzyme parameters were determined on day 28. Histology of different organ (heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas) was performed after sacrificing the rats with euthanasia. Results The methanolic extract of MM did not show any acute toxicity up-to the dose of 2000 mg/kg and shown better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Orally treatment of different doses of MM leaves extract decreased the level of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of plasma insulin, hexokinase. MM treatment decreased liver malondialdehyde but increased the level of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. In oral glucose tolerance test observed increased utilization of glucose. Streptozotocin induced diabetes groups rat treated with different doses of MM leaves extract and glibenclamide significantly increased the body weight. Histopathology analysis on different organ of STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat show there regenerative effect on the liver, kidney, heart and pancreas. Conclusion The antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic effect of methanolic extract from Melastoma malabathricum Linn suggests a potential therapeutic treatment to antidiabetic conditions. PMID:24010894

2013-01-01

257

Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

2014-08-01

258

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

259

Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.  

PubMed

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

2012-01-01

260

76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0010; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance...conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they...order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington....

2011-03-23

261

Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers  

SciTech Connect

We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States) [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain)] [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2013-06-17

262

Nucleolus in clinostat-grown plants  

SciTech Connect

The clinostat is an apparatus that is used to mimic zero gravity in studies of plant growth in the absence of gravitropic response. Clinostat-grown tissue cultures of carrot exhibit significant increases both in the number of nuclei containing more than one nucleolus and in nucleolar volume. Oat seedlings germinated and grown on clinostats exhibit a decreased rate of shoot elongation, increased tissue sensitivity to applied auxin, and an increased response to gravitropic stimulation. Clinostat treatment clearly affects plant metabolism. The nucleolus is the region in the nucleus where ribosome synthesis and assembly take place. The 18S, 5.8S, and 25S ribosomal genes, in tandem units, are located in the nucleolus. Ribosomes orchestrate the production of all proteins that are necessary for the maintenance of cell growth, development, and survival. A full study of the effects of nullification of gravitropism, by clinostat rotation, on nucleolar development in barley has been initiated. The authors study developmental changes of nucleolar number and diameter in clinostat-grown root tissues. Preliminary results show that barley roots exhibit changes in nucleolar number and diameter. Growth rates of barley root and shoot also appear to be reduced, in measurements of both length and weight.

Shen-Miller, J.; Dannenhoffer, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Hinchman, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-05-01

263

Mineral composition of organically grown tomato  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

Ghambashidze, Giorgi

2014-05-01

264

Assessment of the cytotoxic and anti-viral potential of aqueous extracts from different parts of Acacia nilotica (Linn) Delile against Peste des petits ruminants virus.  

PubMed

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV); a negative sense single stranded RNA enveloped virus that causes Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is dramatically affecting the health status of ruminants all around the world resulting in extensive economical losses in livestock sector. Acacia nilotica (Linn) Delile; a tannin-rich medicinal plant distributed throughout subcontinent, is traditionally used as food for ruminants and possesses anti-viral potential against different RNA viruses. In the current study, aqueous extracts from the bark, leaves and pods of A. nilotica (Linn) Delile indica were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and anti-viral activities against PPRV by adopting MTT colorimetric assay and anti-viral assay using Vero cell line. Aqueous extract from the leaves presented significantly better (P<0.05) anti-PPRV activities in comparison to pods extract. On the contrary, bark extract did not show any anti-viral activity. The data presented in the study could pave a way toward the discovery of novel anti-viral chemicals in the plants against PPRV and other viral diseases. PMID:23262040

Raheel, Rizwana; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ejaz, Sohail; Javeed, Aqeel; Altaf, Imran

2013-01-01

265

Inhibition of melanogenesis versus antioxidant properties of essential oil extracted from leaves of Vitex negundo Linn and chemical composition analysis by GC-MS.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidative properties of the essential oil extracted from leaves of V. negundo Linn and the analysis of the chemical composition of this essential oil. The efficacy of the essential oil was evaluated spectrophotometrically, whereas the volatile chemical compounds in the essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that the essential oil effectively suppresses murine B16F10 tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and showed potent reducing power versus metal-ion chelating properties in a dose-dependent pattern. The chemical constituents in the essential oil are sesquiterpenes (44.41%), monoterpenes (19.25%), esters (14.77%), alcohols (8.53%), aromatic compound (5.90%), ketone (4.96%), ethers (0.4%) that together account for 98.22% of its chemical composition. It is predicted that the aromatic compound in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from V. negundo Linn leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells and showed potent antioxidant activities. The essential oil can thereby serve as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant. PMID:22466851

Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tzu-Yun; Chang, Long-Zen; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-01-01

266

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO films and their electrochromic characteristics  

E-print Network

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO 3 films and their electrochromic characteristics.1088/0022-3727/43/28/285501 Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO3 films and their electrochromic characteristics Zhihui Jiao1 , Xiao Wei and their electrochromic characteristics. Plate-like monoclinic WO3 nanostructures were grown directly on fluorine

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

267

Chemical composition of sewage-grown Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Spirulina platensis has been grown in an outdoor pilot production unit, with an exposed surface area of 450 m2, on a medium consisting of raw domestic sewage supplemented with sodium bicarbonate and nitrate or urea fertilizer. The chemical composition and yield of the biomass grown on sewage-nitrate was comparable to that grown on synthetic medium. The protein content was

P. N. Saxena; M. R. Ahmad; R. Shyam; P. S. Misra

1982-01-01

268

Proapoptotic and Antimetastatic Properties of Supercritical CO2 Extract of Nigella sativa Linn. Against Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nigella sativa, commonly referred as black cumin, is a popular spice that has been used since the ancient Egyptians. It has traditionally been used for treatment of various human ailments ranging from fever to intestinal disturbances to cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic, antimetastatic, and anticancer activities of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of the seeds of N. sativa Linn. against estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Twelve extracts were prepared from N. sativa seeds using the SC-CO2 extraction method by varying pressure and temperature. Extracts were analyzed using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on various human cancer and normal cell lines. Of the 12 extracts, 1 extract (A3) that was prepared at 60°C and 2500?psi (?17.24 MPa) showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 53.34±2.15??g/mL. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by evaluating caspases activities and observing the cells under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro antimetastatic properties of A3 were investigated by colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The elevated levels of caspases in A3 treated MCF-7 cells suggest that A3 is proapoptotic. Further nuclear condensation and fragmentation studies confirmed that A3 induces cytotoxicity through the apoptosis pathway. A3 also demonstrated remarkable inhibition in migration and invasion assays of MCF-7 cells at subcytotoxic concentrations. Thus, this study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of N. sativa in targeting breast cancer. PMID:24328702

Baharetha, Hussein M.; Nassar, Zeyad D.; Aisha, Abdalrahim F.; Ahamed, Mohamed B. Khadeer; Al-Suede, Foaud Saleih R.; Kadir, Mohd Omar Abd; Ismail, Zhari

2013-01-01

269

Proapoptotic and antimetastatic properties of supercritical CO2 extract of Nigella sativa Linn. against breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa, commonly referred as black cumin, is a popular spice that has been used since the ancient Egyptians. It has traditionally been used for treatment of various human ailments ranging from fever to intestinal disturbances to cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic, antimetastatic, and anticancer activities of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of the seeds of N. sativa Linn. against estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Twelve extracts were prepared from N. sativa seeds using the SC-CO2 extraction method by varying pressure and temperature. Extracts were analyzed using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on various human cancer and normal cell lines. Of the 12 extracts, 1 extract (A3) that was prepared at 60°C and 2500 psi (~17.24 MPa) showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 53.34±2.15 ?g/mL. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by evaluating caspases activities and observing the cells under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro antimetastatic properties of A3 were investigated by colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The elevated levels of caspases in A3 treated MCF-7 cells suggest that A3 is proapoptotic. Further nuclear condensation and fragmentation studies confirmed that A3 induces cytotoxicity through the apoptosis pathway. A3 also demonstrated remarkable inhibition in migration and invasion assays of MCF-7 cells at subcytotoxic concentrations. Thus, this study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of N. sativa in targeting breast cancer. PMID:24328702

Baharetha, Hussein M; Nassar, Zeyad D; Aisha, Abdalrahim F; Ahamed, Mohamed B Khadeer; Al-Suede, Foaud Saleih R; Abd Kadir, Mohd Omar; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

2013-12-01

270

The inophyllums, novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase isolated from the Malaysian tree, Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.  

PubMed

As part of a search for novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, the acetone extract of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, was shown to be active. Fractionation of the extract yielded inophyllums A, B, C, and E and calophyllolide (1a, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6), previously isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., a known source of nutrition for A. fulica. From a methanol/methylene chloride extract of C. inophyllum, the same natural products in considerably greater yield were isolated in addition to a novel enantiomer of soulattrolide (4), inophyllum P (2b), and two other novel compounds, inophyllums G-1 (7) and G-2 (8). The absolute stereochemistry of inophyllum A (1a) was determined to be 10(R), 11(S), 12(S) from a single-crystal X-ray analysis of its 4-bromobenzoate derivative, and the relative stereochemistries of the other inophyllums isolated from C. inophyllum were established by a comparison of their 1H NMR NOE values and coupling constants to those of inophyllum A (1a). Inophyllums B and P (2a and 2b) inhibited HIV reverse transcriptase with IC50 values of 38 and 130 nM, respectively, and both were active against HIV-1 in cell culture (IC50 of 1.4 and 1.6 microM). Closely related inophyllums A, C, D, and E, including calophyllic acids, were significantly less active or totally inactive, indicating certain structural requirements in the chromanol ring. Altogether, 11 compounds of the inophyllum class were isolated from C. inophyllum and are described together with the SAR of these novel anti-HIV compounds. PMID:7506311

Patil, A D; Freyer, A J; Eggleston, D S; Haltiwanger, R C; Bean, M F; Taylor, P B; Caranfa, M J; Breen, A L; Bartus, H R; Johnson, R K

1993-12-24

271

Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.  

PubMed

Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation. PMID:25374344

Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

2014-11-01

272

Histological studies of neuroprotective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. on neuronal loss induced by dexamethasone treatment in the rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

Long term exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) is associated with brain damage especially in the hippocampus via the oxidative stress pathway. Previously, an ethanolic extract from Curcuma longa Linn. (CL) containing the curcumin constituent has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. However, its neuroprotective property on brain histology has remained unexplored. This study has examined the effects of a CL extract on the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive (GFAP-ir) astrocytes in the hippocampus of Dx treated male rats. It showed that 21 days of Dx treatment (0.5mg/kg, i.p. once daily) significantly reduced the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus, but not in the CA2 area. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) was found to significantly restore neuronal densities in the CA1 and dentate gyrus. In addition, Dx treatment also significantly decreased the densities of the GFAP-ir astrocytes in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) failed to protect the loss of astrocytes in these sub-areas. These findings confirm the neuroprotective effects of the CL extract and indicate that the cause of astrocyte loss might be partially reduced by a non-oxidative mechanism. Moreover, the detection of neuronal and glial densities was suitable method to study brain damage and the effects of treatment. PMID:25440530

Issuriya, Acharaporn; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn

2014-10-01

273

Bactericidal Activity of Methanol Extracts of Crabapple Mangrove Tree (Sonneratia caseolaris Linn.) Against Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The crabapple mangrove tree, Sonneratia caseolaris Linn. (Family: Sonneratiaceae), is one of the foreshore plants found in estuarine and tidal creek areas and mangrove forests. Bark and fruit extracts from this plant have previously been shown to have an anti-oxidative or cytotoxic effect, whereas flower extracts of this plant exhibited an antimicrobial activity against some bacteria. According to the traditional folklore, it is medicinally used as an astringent and antiseptic. Hence, this investigation was carried out on the extract of the leaves, pneumatophore and different parts of the flower or fruit (stamen, calyx, meat of fruit, persistent calyx of fruit and seeds) for antibacterial activity using the broth microdilution method. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against five antibiotic-sensitive species (three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria) and six drug-resistant species (Gram-positive i.e. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Gram-negative i.e. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant–Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acenetobacter baumannii). The methanol extracts from all tested parts of the crabapple mangrove tree exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but was mainly a bactericidal against the Gram-negative bacteria, including the multidrug-resistant strains, when compared with only bacteriostatic on the Gram-positive bacteria. Using Soxhlet apparatus, the extracts obtained by sequential extraction with hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate revealed no discernable antibacterial activity and only slightly, if at all, reduced the antibacterial activity of the subsequently obtained methanol extract. Therefore, the active antibacterial compounds of the crabapple mangrove tree should have a rather polar structure. PMID:23441048

Yompakdee, C.; Thunyaharn, S.; Phaechamud, T.

2012-01-01

274

Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.  

PubMed

Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200?mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10?cm; P<.001, 200?mg/kg; 6?h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100?mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20?mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15?min before AM (200?mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 ?g/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

2014-12-01

275

Effects of allelochemical extracted from water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes Linn.) on the growth, microcystin production and release of Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

This study explored the optimisation of a method of extracting allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., identified the optimal dose range for the allelochemicals' anti-algal effect and investigated their impact on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as the production and release of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Based on measured changes in algal cell density and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content, the allelochemicals were confirmed to have the strongest anti-algal effect with the lowest half-effect concentration of 65 mg L(-1) when they were extracted using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent, 1:20 g mL(-1) as the extraction ratio and 1 h as the extraction time. The allelochemicals extracted from P. stratiotes using this optimal method exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of algae when used within a dose range of 60-100 mg L(-1); the relative inhibitory ratio reached 50-90%, and Chl-a content reduced 50-75% in algae cell cultures within 3-7 days. In addition, the extracted allelochemical compounds demonstrated no significant impact on the extracellular release of MC-LR during the culturing period. The amount of intracellular MC-LR per 10(6) algal cells increased depending on the increasing dose of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes after 7 days of culturing and maintained stability after 16 days. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium. Therefore, the application of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes to inhibit M. aeruginosa has a high degree of ecological safety and can be adopted in practical applications for treating water subjected to algae blooms because the treatment can effectively inhibit the proliferation of algal cells without increasing the release of cyanotoxin. PMID:23653319

Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Chen, Junren; Ye, Jinyun

2013-11-01

276

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

2001-01-01

277

Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

2001-01-01

278

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

1998-01-01

279

Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene  

SciTech Connect

Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidth—an often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1?nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

Berger, A. J.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Hammel, P. C., E-mail: hammel@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Amamou, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Kawakami, R. K. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2014-05-07

280

Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

2001-01-01

281

Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

2003-01-01

282

Perfect crystals grown from imperfect interfaces  

PubMed Central

The fabrication of advanced devices increasingly requires materials with different properties to be combined in the form of monolithic heterostructures. In practice this means growing epitaxial semiconductor layers on substrates often greatly differing in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. With increasing layer thickness the relaxation of misfit and thermal strains may cause dislocations, substrate bowing and even layer cracking. Minimizing these drawbacks is therefore essential for heterostructures based on thick layers to be of any use for device fabrication. Here we prove by scanning X-ray nanodiffraction that mismatched Ge crystals epitaxially grown on deeply patterned Si substrates evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface. We show that relaxing thermal and misfit strains result just in lattice bending and tiny crystal tilts. We may thus expect a new concept in which continuous layers are replaced by quasi-continuous crystal arrays to lead to dramatically improved physical properties. PMID:23880632

Falub, Claudiu V.; Medu?a, Mojmír; Chrastina, Daniel; Isa, Fabio; Marzegalli, Anna; Kreiliger, Thomas; Taboada, Alfonso G.; Isella, Giovanni; Miglio, Leo; Dommann, Alex; von Känel, Hans

2013-01-01

283

Compound semiconductor nanotube materials grown and fabricated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP compound semiconductor nanotube material structure was designed and fabricated in this work. A thin, InGaAs-strained material layer was designed in the nanotube structure, which can directionally roll up a strained heterostructure through a normal wet etching process. The compound semiconductor nanotube structure was grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. A good crystalline quality of InGaP, InGaAs, and GaAs materials was obtained through optimizing the growth condition. The fabricated GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP semiconductor nanotubes, with a diameter of 300 to 350 nm and a length of 1.8 to 2.0 ?m, were achieved through normal device fabrication.

Ai, Likun; Xu, Anhuai; Teng, Teng; Niu, Jiebin; Sun, Hao; Qi, Ming

2011-12-01

284

Nanoelectronic biosensors based on CVD grown graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors.Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM images of graphene film before and after functionalization, transfer curves of graphene after every step, SEM image of CNT-net, and detection results using CNT-net devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00142b

Huang, Yinxi; Dong, Xiaochen; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Chang Ming; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Peng

2010-08-01

285

Analysis of flavones in Rubus parvifolius Linn by high performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography combined with Fourier transform surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative analyses of total flavones in wild Rubus parvifolius Linn (RPL) were carried out using ultraviolet spectroscopy, and the isolation and structure determination of the main active ingredients were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with Electrospray ionization-mass Spectroscopy (ESI-MS), thin layer chromatography (TLC), and the Fourier transform surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (FT-SERS). Two flavones

Wang Yuan; He Jiuming; Chen Hui; Zhang Disheng; Cai Hua; Shao Huibo

2006-01-01

286

78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0037; FV13-955-2 CR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum...conducted among eligible producers of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia to determine whether...that regulates the handling of Vidalia onions produced in the production area....

2013-07-30

287

29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780...STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet...Section 13(b)(15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities...

2012-07-01

288

Vapor grown silicon dioxide improves transistor base-collector junctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor grown silicon dioxide layer protects base-collector junction in silicon planar transistors during the emitter diffusion process. This oxide fills in any imperfections that exist in the thermally grown oxide layer and is of greater thickness than that layer. This process is used to deposit protective silicon dioxide coatings on optical surfaces.

Carley, D. R.; Duclos, R. A.

1966-01-01

289

Thermoelectic properties of CVD grown large area graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is based on experimental work on thermoelectric properties of CVD grown large area graphene. The thermoelectric power (TEP) of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) grown large area graphene transferred onto a Si\\/SiO 2_substrate was measured by simply attaching two miniature thermocouples and a resistive heater. Availability of such large area graphene facilitates straight forward TEP measurement without the use

Andriy Sherehiy

2010-01-01

290

78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0082; FV14-981-1 CR] Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum...be conducted among eligible growers of almonds in California to determine whether they...marketing order that regulates the handling of almonds grown in California. DATES: The...

2013-12-23

291

MBE grown iron-based nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in magnetic nanostructures has increased rapidly because of their potential applications in a number of magnetic nanotechnologies such as high-density magnetic recording media, magnetic field sensors, magnetic nanoprobes for spin-polarized microscopy and cell manipulation in biomedical technology. Successful incorporation of ferromagnetic nanostructures in semiconductors may open a new area in spintronic applications. In this study, two kinds of Fe-based nanostructures were grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique, namely, Fe quantum dots (QDs) and Fe nanowires (NWs). For Fe QDs, a multilayer magnetic QD sample containing 5 layers of Fe QDs embedded in 6 layers of ZnS spacer was grown on a GaP(100) substrate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations reveal that the Fe QDs are single crystalline with spherical shape of diameters around 3 to 4 nm and area density of 1.5 x 1012 cm-2 . Its zero-field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) curves measured at low field (100 Oe) show the magnetic relaxation effect with a blocking temperature around 26 K. The hysteresis loop measured at 5 K shows a coercivity of 83 Oe, confirming the slow relaxation process and coercivity enhancement attributed to the nanoparticle nature of the sample. To study the transport property of Fe QDs, a Au/ZnS/Fe-QDs/ZnS/n+-GaAs Schottky-barrier structure containing 5 layers of Fe QDs was fabricated on a n+-GaAs(100) substrate. Its current-voltage (I-V) characteristics measured from 5 to 295 K display negative differential resistance (NDR) for temperature . 50 K, which is caused by the presence of Fe QDs. The highest peak-to-valley current ratio obtained at 5 K is as high as 15:1. Staircase-like I-V characteristic was also observed at low temperature in some devices fabricated from this structure. Possible mechanisms that can account for the observed unusual I-V characteristics in this structure were discussed. Two types of self-assembled Fe NWs were grown on ZnS/GaP(100) surface under high growth/annealing temperature. The Type-A Fe NWs orient along the ZnS[110] direction with irregular shape, while the type-B Fe NWs orient along either the ZnS[180] or [810] direction with seemingly straight shape. Detailed HRTEM and selected area diffraction (SAD) studies reveal that both types were single-crystalline with their elongated axis along the Fe<100> direction family possibly due to the fact that the easy axis of Fe is along this direction. We have proposed a mean-field model to explain the slight misalignment of the type-B Fe NWs. The I-V characteristic of a single type-B Fe NW measured at room temperature displays a straight line nature corresponding to a resistivity about 2.3 x 10-7Om.

Lok, Shu Kin

292

Theoretical and experimental study of the formation of grown-in and as-grown microdefects in dislocation-free silicon single crystals grown by the Czochralski method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex theoretical and experimental investigation is performed, including the following stages. (i) Simulation of the processes\\u000a of the recombination of intrinsic point defects and the formation of grown-in microdefects in dislocation-free Si single crystals\\u000a 200 mm in diameter grown in modern commercial heating units. The simulation takes into account the thermal history of the\\u000a defect growth. Modified designs of

N. A. Verezub; A. I. Prostomolotov; M. V. Mezhennyi; M. G. Mil’vidskii; V. Ya. Reznik

2005-01-01

293

Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.  

PubMed

Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract. PMID:23885412

Purivirojkul, Watchariya

2012-01-01

294

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

295

Irrigation frequency alters nutrient uptake in container-grown Rhododendron plants grown with different rates of nitrogen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of irrigation frequency (same amount of water per day given at different times) on nutrient uptake of container-grown evergreen Rhododendron ‘P.J.M. Compact’ (PJM) and ‘English Roseum’ (ER) and deciduous Rhododendron ‘Gibraltar’ (AZ) grown with different rates of nitrogen (N) fertilize...

296

Auxin Transport Is Required for Hypocotyl Elongation in Light-Grown but Not Dark-Grown Arabidopsis1  

E-print Network

Auxin Transport Is Required for Hypocotyl Elongation in Light-Grown but Not Dark-Grown Arabidopsis1, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 Many auxin responses are dependent on redistribution and/or polar transport of indoleacetic acid. Polar transport of auxin can be inhibited through the application of phytotropins such as 1

Estelle, Mark

297

Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is coated on U.S. currency. After deposition, the growth is carried out in a hot-filament chemical vapor deposition apparatus. A tungsten hot filament placed in the flow of H2 at a temperature greater than 1,600 C creates atomic hydrogen, which serves to reduce the Fe catalyst into a metallic state. The catalyst can now precipitate SWNTs in the presence of growth gases. The gases used for the experiments reported are C2H2, H2O, and H2, at rates of 2, 2, and 400 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm), respectively. In order to retain the flakes, a cage is constructed by spot welding stainless steel or copper mesh to form an enclosed area, in which the flakes are placed prior to growth. This allows growth gases and atomic hydrogen to reach the flakes, but does not allow the flakes, which rapidly nucleate SWNTs, to escape from the cage.

Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

2013-01-01

298

Diamond films grown from fullerene precursors  

SciTech Connect

Fullerene precursors have been shown to result in the growth of diamond films from argon microwave plasmas. In contradistinction to most diamond films grown using conventional methane-hydrogen mixtures, the fullerene-generated films are nanocrystalline and smooth on the nanometer scale. They have recently been shown to have friction coefficients approaching the values of natural diamond. It is clearly important to understand the development of surface morphology during film growth from fullerene precursors and to elucidate the factors leading to surface roughness when hydrogen is present in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) gas mixtures. To achieve these goals, we are measuring surface reflectivity of diamond films growing on silicon substrates over a wide range of plasma processing conditions. A model for the interpretation of the laser interferometric data has been developed, which allows one to determine film growth rate, rms surface roughness, and bulk losses due to scattering and absorption. The rms roughness values determined by reflectivity are in good agreement with atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. A number of techniques, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and near-edge x-ray absorption find structure (NEXAFS) measurements, have been used to characterize the films. A mechanism for diamond-film growth involving the C{sub 2} molecule as a growth species will be presented. The mechanism is based on (1) the observation that the optical emission spectra of the fullerene- containing plasmas are dominated by the Swan bands of C{sub 2} and (2) the ability of C{sub 2} to insert directly into C-H and C-C bonds with low activation barriers, as shown by recent theoretical calculations of reactions of C{sub 2} with carbon clusters.

Gruen, D.M.; Zuiker, C.D.; Krauss, A.R.

1995-07-01

299

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989...OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules... § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California....

2014-01-01

300

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989...OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules... § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California....

2010-01-01

301

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989...OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules... § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California....

2013-01-01

302

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989...OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules... § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California....

2011-01-01

303

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989...OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules... § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California....

2012-01-01

304

78 FR 24981 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0010; FV13-946-1 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased...which regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. Assessments...regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington,...

2013-04-29

305

78 FR 48285 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0010; FV13-946-1 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased...administers the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown in Washington. Decreasing...regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington,...

2013-08-08

306

76 FR 18001 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0012; FV11-946-2 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased...which regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. Assessments...regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington,...

2011-04-01

307

Nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates  

SciTech Connect

Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoreplicant structure coupled to a surface of the substrate.

Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN); Guillorn, Michael A. (Ithaca, NY); Ilic, Bojan (Ithaca, NY); Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Knoxville, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-08-23

308

GUIDELINES AND ACCEPTABLE POSTHARVEST PRACTICES FOR ORGANICALLY GROWN PRODUCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic foods are produced using agricultural practices that emphasize renewable resources and conservation of soil and water. Horticultural crops are grown and processed without synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, ingredients and processing aids. Crops or ingredients derived from genetic engineeri...

309

Large-scale defect accumulations in Czochralski-grown silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Czochralski-grown silicon crystals were studied by the techniques of the low-angle mid-IR-light scattering and electron-beam-induced current. The large-scale accumulations of electrically-active impurities detected in this material were found to be different in their nature and formation mechanisms from the well-known impurity clouds in a FZ-grown silicon. A classification of the large-scale impurity accumulations in CZ Si is made and point

V. P. Kalinushkin; A. N. Buzynin; V. A. Yuryev; O. V. Astafiev

2011-01-01

310

Photoemission electronic states of epitaxially grown magnetite films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valence band photoemission spectra of epitaxially grown 300? single crystalline magnetite films were measured by the angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS) at 300K. The samples were grown either on MgO(001) (B termination) or on (001) Fe (iron-rich A termination), thus intentionally presenting different surface stoichiometry, i.e. also different surface electronic states. Four main features of the electron photoemission at

R. Zalecki; A. Ko?odziejczyk; J. Korecki; N. Spiridis; M. Zaj?c; A. Koz?owski; Z. K?kol; D. Antolak

2007-01-01

311

Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate crystals grown with the aid of sodium metasilicate gel is investigated using thermogravimetry\\u000a (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Effect of magnetic field and dopant (Pb)2+ on the crystal stability is also studied using thermal analysis. This study reveals that water molecules are locked up in\\u000a the lattice with different strengths in the grown crystals.

M. H. Rahimkutty; K. Rajendra Babu; K. Sreedharan Pillai; M. R. Sudarsana Kumar; C. M. K. Nair

2001-01-01

312

Defect Density Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several (111)-oriented, Ga-doped germanium crystals were grown in pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) containers by the Bridgman and the detached Bridgman growth techniques. Growth experiments in closed-bottom pBN containers resulted in nearly completely detached-grown crystals, because the gas pressure below the melt can build up to a higher pressure than above the melt. With open-bottom tubes the gas pressure above and below the melt is balanced during the experiment, and thus no additional force supports the detachment. In this case the crystals grew attached to the wall. Etch pit density (EPD) measurements along the axial growth direction indicated a strong improvement of the crystal quality of the detached-grown samples compared to the attached samples. Starting in the seed with an EPD of 6-8 x 10(exp 3)/square cm it decreased in the detached-grown crystals continuously to about 200-500/square cm . No significant radial difference between the EPD on the edge and the middle of the crystal exists. In the attached grown samples the EPD increases up to a value of about 2-4 x 10(exp 4)/square cm (near the edge) and up to 1 x 10(exp 4)/square cm in the middle of the sample. Thus the difference between the detached- and the attached-grown crystals with respect to the EPD is approximately two orders of magnitude.

Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Szoke, J.; Szofran, F. R.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

313

Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)  

PubMed Central

P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250?mm?×?4.6?mm, 5??), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water?:?methanol?:?glacial acetic acid (65?:?34?:?1?v/v). The flow rate was 1.0?mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310?nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617?min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10??g/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

2015-01-01

314

Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.).  

PubMed

P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H(1) NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250?mm?×?4.6?mm, 5??), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water?:?methanol?:?glacial acetic acid (65?:?34?:?1?v/v). The flow rate was 1.0?mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310?nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617?min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2-10??g/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

2015-01-01

315

Chemopreventive efficacy and anti-lipid peroxidative potential of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive efficacy and anti-lipid peroxidative potential of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Mammary tumors were developed by a single subcutaneous injection of 25 mg DMBA in 1 mL emulsion of sunflower oil and physiological saline. The tumor incidence and tumor volume that formed in the breast were determined. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of J. grandiflorum flowers (JgEt) at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight for 14 weeks to DMBA-injected animals completely prevented the formation of tumors in the pre-initiation period. JgEt also exerted significant anti-lipid peroxidative effect and improved the antioxidant defense system in DMBA-treated rats. The results of this study clearly indicate that JgEt has potent chemopreventive efficacy in experimental mammary carcinogenesis and further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive principle from JgEt. PMID:16313281

Kolanjiappan, K; Manoharan, S

2005-12-01

316

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

317

Red clover Trifolium pratense (Linn.) isoflavones extract on the pain threshold of normal and ovariectomized rats--a long-term study.  

PubMed

Depletion of estrogens occurs in women during menopause, while in experimental animals, oophorectomy is a common method to deplete the animals of their gonadal hormones. Recently, phytoestrogens derived from plants have been tried as estrogen substitutes during menopause. In the present study an isoflavones methanol extract from red clover Trifolium pratense (Linn.) was administered orally (500?mg/kg of body weight) to ovariectomized (OVX) and normal (controls) rats for 90 and 180 days. Their pain threshold was monitored using tail flicking and formalin test methods. Observations showed that the OVX rat pain threshold was reduced due to estrogen deprivation, whereas the pain threshold levels in OVX rats treated with isoflavones extract was similar to the control animals. The present study demonstrated the influence of phytoestrogen on long-term OVX rats in pain perception in the absence of ovarian estrogen and without toxic side effects. However, the actions of gonadal hormones on nociceptive axis are myriad and complex, so further studies on the exact physiological mechanism of the phytoestrogen action on nociceptive axis is warranted. PMID:20623592

Vishali, Nagarajan; Kamakshi, Krishnaswamy; Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

2011-01-01

318

Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 ?g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 ?g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ? 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

2014-01-01

319

A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats  

PubMed Central

Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test drugs were administered orally in the dose of 9ml/kg. Group I received vehicle (distilled water), Group II received leaf decoction of Premna obtusifolia Linn, Group III received leaf decoction of Premna latifolia Roxb and Group IV received indomethacin as standard anti-inflammatory drug. Test drugs and indomethacinwere administered one hour prior to the injection of 0.05 ml of 1% suspension of carrageenan into the sub plantar region of the left hind paw of rats. Study findings indicate that leaves of both the species of Premna have anti-inflammatory potential, P. latifoliabeing superior to P. obtusifolia. PMID:23284207

Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

2011-01-01

320

Antidepressant effect and categorization of inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase type A and B of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.  

PubMed

Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn (Fabaceae) is an annual aromatic herb and no wit is cultivated globally like in Pakistan, Egypt, India, Middle East etc. Traditionally it was used in anorexia, as febrifuge, to soothe gastritis and gastric ulcers, as a galactagogue and as condiment, hypoglycemic agent and employed in various as nervous disorders. The study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum and underlying mechanism of action. For assessment of antidepressant activity Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), Monoamine (MAO) Assay and Locomotor Activity Test were studied. Acute toxicity, Rota Rod and Grip Strength Tests were also performed. The significant declining in immobility time as compared to control was shown in Forced swimming test as compared to tail suspension test. Considerable change was not found in open field test (OFT). EtOH extract of seeds of fenugreek represent maximum significant reduction which was 30 and 24.65% in MAO- A and B activity respectively in the rat's whole brain as compared to control animals in Monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay. All tested doses were found ineffective in impairment of muscle coordination in Rota rod and in grip strength related to muscle relaxant property. According to experimental findings it is revealed that ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum showed antidepressant effect by inhibiting the activity of MAO-A and B. PMID:25176235

Khursheed, Raheela; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Ahmed, Maryam; Kamil, Arfa

2014-09-01

321

Therapeutic effects of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on the changes associated with collagen and glycosaminoglycan metabolism in adjuvant arthritic Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The effect of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) was studied to gain some insight into this intriguing disease with reference to collagen metabolism. Arthritis was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant containing 10mg of heat killed mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1 ml paraffin oil (0.1 ml) into the left hind paw of the rat intradermally. After 14 days of induction, SA (150 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally by gastric intubations for 14 days. Decreased levels of collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGS) components (chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate, hyaluronic acid) and increase in the levels of connective tissue degrading lysosomal glycohydrolases such as acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase and cathepsin-D observed in arthritic animals were reverted back to near normal levels upon treatment with SA. The drug effectively regulated the uriniray markers of collagen metabolism namely hexosamine, hexuronic acid, hydroxyproline and total GAGS. Electron microscopic studies also revealed the protective effect of SA. Hence, it can be suggested that SA very effectively regulate the collagen metabolism that derange during arthritic condition. PMID:16797506

Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

2006-07-25

322

Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40?mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200??g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6??g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ?1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100?mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40?mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60?mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5?mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5?mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

2014-01-01

323

Spatial localisation of curcumin and rapid screening of the chemical compositions of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.) using Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS).  

PubMed

Curcumin is a potent antioxidant agent having versatile biological activities is present in turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.). Powder of turmeric rhizomes is consumes as curry spicy worldwide, especially in Asia. In this study, we demonstrate that, bioactive curcumin and its analog demethoxycurcumin are chiefly concentrated in the pith rather than the other parts of the turmeric rhizomes and it was discovered using modern atmospheric ionisation source 'Direct Analysis in Real Time' (DART) connected with an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. In addition, all the major components present in turmeric rhizomes were detected in positive and/or in negative ion mode using DART. PMID:25466050

Rahman, A F M Motiur; Angawi, Rihab F; Kadi, Adnan A

2015-04-15

324

Defect studies in 4H- Silicon Carbide PVT grown bulk crystals, CVD grown epilayers and devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon Carbide [SiC] which exists as more than 200 different polytypes is known for superior high temperature and high power applications in comparison to conventional semiconductor materials like Silicon and Germanium. The material finds plethora of applications in a diverse fields due to its unique properties like large energy bandgap, high thermal conductivity and high electric breakdown field. Though inundated with superior properties the potential of this material has not been utilized fully due to impeding factors such as defects especially the crystalline ones which limit their performance greatly. Lots of research has been going on for decades to reduce these defects and there has been subsequent improvement in the quality as the diameter of SiC commercial wafers has reached 150mm from 25mm since its inception. The main focus of this thesis has been to study yield limiting defect structures in conjunction with several leading companies and national labs using advanced characterization tools especially the Synchrotron source. The in depth analysis of SiC has led to development of strategies to reduce or eliminate the density of defects by studying how the defects nucleate, replicate and interact in the material. The strategies discussed to reduce defects were proposed after careful deliberation and analysis of PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers. Following are some of the results of the study: [1] Macrostep overgrowth mechanism in SiC was used to study the deflection of threading defects onto the basal plane resulting in stacking faults. Four types of stacking faults associated with deflection of c/c+a threading defects have been observed to be present in 76mm, 100mm and 150mm diameter wafers. The PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers in study were subjected to contrast studies using synchrotron white beam X-ray topography [SWBXT]. The SWBXT image contrast studies of these stacking faults with comparison of calculated phase shifts for postulated fault vectors by macrostep overgrowth of surface outcrops, has revealed faults to be of four types of which one of the following are discussed in detail which is the Shockley faults. The fault vector were determined by taking into account the contrast from stacking faults in SWBXT undergoing phase shift as the X-ray wave fields cross the fault plane. The deflected dislocations onto the basal plane were responsible for the stacking faults and were observed to be detrimental to the devices grown on them as they replicate to the epilayer. In the wafers studied at different stages of the SiC crystal boule resulted in reduction of threading defects as they at certain stage get deflected out of the crystal causing drop of defects density. [2] A novel technique known as the Ray Tracing Simulation was used to determine the sense of c/c+a dislocations obtained via Grazing-Incidence X-ray Topography. Determination of the complete sense and burgers vector of these dislocations was very important to augment our proposed models on stacking faults associated with these defects. Orientation contrast mechanism in X- ray diffraction topography was previously determined to be the dominant factor in SiC by our group and the same principles were used for the simulation. The results were surmised after extensive comparison between experimental and simulation images for the c+2a defects. [3] With the BPD density down to a record level of few hundred per square centimeter in several wafers in multiple regions made it possible to observe the conversion of sessile Threading Edge Dislocations [TED] to glissile BPDs with this repeating multiple times. Previously the high density of Basal Plane Dislocations [BPD] prevented from discerning the details accurately in the SiC images taken by SWBXT. The contribution of SWBXT in accurately categorizing the nature of dislocations in SiC has enabled the crystal growth community to incorporate strategies to mitigate their influence. One of them has been recognizing BPDs as deformation induced defects which have led to the development of

Byrappa, Shayan M.

325

YIELD COMPARISON OF INDICA AND US CULTIVARS GROWN IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES AND BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two subspecies of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) are indica, grown in tropical areas like southern China, and japonica, grown in temperate areas. Tropical japonicas are the japonica subgroup grown in the southern US. When indica rices are grown in the southern US and compared to tropical japoni...

326

Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

1996-01-01

327

Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

328

SERS-applicable silver nanoisland film grown under protective coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used recently developed out-diffusion technique of growing silver nanoisland films on glass surface to grow silver nanoislands under TiO2 layer deposited on the glass. After covering the surface of silver ion-exchanged glasses with TiO2 film using atomic layer deposition technique and subsequent thermal processing of the samples in hydrogen their optical absorption spectra demonstrate the absorption peak corresponding to surface plasmon resonance in grown silver nanoislands. The spectral position of the peak is shifted relatively to the peak observed in the spectra of the nanoisland film grown on the surface of ion exchanged and annealed glass samples without dielectric cover. The applicability of the silver nanoislands grown under several nm thick protective TiO2 coating in surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy is demonstrated.

Reduto, I.; Chervinskii, S.; Matikainen, A.; Baklanov, A.; Kamenskii, A.; Lipovskii, A.

2014-10-01

329

Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (Linn.) Enhances Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Facilitates Osteoblastogenesis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation rate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (osteoblastogenesis) and extracellular matrix calcification. This study also aimed to determine the additive effect of osteogenic media and Cissus quadrangularis on proliferation, differentiation and calcification. METHODS MSCs were cultured in media with or without Cissus quadrangularis for 4 weeks and were then stained for alkaline phosphatase. Extracellular matrix calcification was confirmed by Von Kossa staining. marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultures in control media and osteogenic media supplemented with Cissus quadrangularis extract (100, 200, 300 ?g/mL) were also subjected to a cell proliferation assay (MTT). RESULTS Treatment with 100, 200 or 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhanced the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into ALP-positive osteoblasts and increased extracellular matrix calcification. Treatment with 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis also enhanced the proliferation rate of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cells grown in osteogenic media containing Cissus quadrangularis exhibited higher proliferation, differentiation and calcification rates than did control cells. CONCLUSION The results suggest that Cissus quadrangularis stimulates osteoblastogenesis and can be used as preventive/ alternative natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:19841707

Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR; Rao, Muddanna S; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan; Muttigi, Manjunatha S

2009-01-01

330

Shock initiation experiments on ratchet grown PBX 9502  

SciTech Connect

This study compares the shock initiation behavior of PBX 9502 pressed to less than nominal density (nominal density is 1.890 {+-} 0.005 g/cm{sup 3}) with PBX 9502 pressed to nominal density and then ''ratchet grown'' to low density. PBX 9502 is an insensitive plastic bonded explosive consisting of 95 weight % dry-aminated tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) and 5 weight % Kel-F 800 plastic binder. ''Ratchet growth'' - an irreversible increase in specific volume - occurs when an explosive based on TATB is temperature cycled. The design of our study is as follows: PBX 9502, all from the same lot, received the following four treatments. Samples in the first group were pressed to less than nominal density. These were not ratchet grown and used as a baseline. Samples in the second group were pressed to nominal density and then ratchet grown by temperature cycling 30 times between -54 C and +80 C. Samples in the final group were pressed to nominal density and cut into 100 mm by 25.4 mm diameter cylinders. During thermal cycling the cylinders were axially constrained by a 100 psi load. Samples for shock initiation experiments were cut perpendicular (disks) and parallel (slabs) to the axial load. The four sample groups can be summarized with the terms pressed low, ratchet grown/no load, axial load/disks, and axial load/slabs. All samples were shock initiated with nearly identical inputs in plate impact experiments carried out on a gas gun. Wave profiles were measured after propagation through 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm of explosive. Side by side comparison of wave profiles from different samples is used as a measure of relative sensitivity. All reduced density samples were more shock sensitive than nominal density PBX 9502. Differences in shock sensitivity between ratchet grown and pressed to low density PBX 9502 were small, but the low density pressings are slightly more sensitive than the ratchet grown samples.

Gustavsen, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Darla G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olinger, Barton W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deluca, Racci [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pierce, Timothy H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Nathaniel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

331

Thermal Stability of Corrugated Epitaxial Graphene Grown on Re(0001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel approach to determine the relationship between the corrugation and the thermal stability of epitaxial graphene grown on a strongly interacting substrate. According to our density functional theory calculations, the C single layer grown on Re(0001) is strongly corrugated, with a buckling of 1.6 Å, yielding a simulated C 1s core level spectrum which is in excellent agreement with the experimental one. We found that corrugation is closely knit with the thermal stability of the C network: C-C bond breaking is favored in the strongly buckled regions of the moiré cell, though it requires the presence of diffusing graphene layer vacancies.

Miniussi, E.; Pozzo, M.; Baraldi, A.; Vesselli, E.; Zhan, R. R.; Comelli, G.; Mente?, T. O.; Niño, M. A.; Locatelli, A.; Lizzit, S.; Alfè, D.

2011-05-01

332

Characterization of silicon crystals grown by the heat exchanger method  

SciTech Connect

Silicon ingots grown by the Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) as large as 45 kg in mass (34 cm x 34 cm x 17 cm) are characterized electrically and structurally. The defect state in the crystal is related to the solar cell efficiency. Such characterization indicates that the solar cell efficiency of HEM crystals is limited by the crystal perfection, but that HEM silicon has the potential to yield silicon with quality comparable to Cz grown silicon. A new approach to grow HEM material of better quality is discussed.

Hyland, S.; Dumas, K.A.; Engelbrecht, J.A.A.; Leung, D.; Schwuttke, G.M.

1983-05-01

333

The protective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats via upregulation of Nrf2.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the potentially protective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. extract (CLE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 50 or 100mg/kg of CLE or 100mg/kg of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) for 14 days before CCl4 administration. In addition, the CLE control group was pretreated with 100mg/kg CLE for only 14 days. Three hours after the final treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (20mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally to each group. After the completion of this phase of the experiment, food and water were removed 12 h prior to the next step. The rats were then anesthetized by urethane and their blood and liver were collected. It was observed that the aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities of the serum, and the hepatic malondialdehyde levels had significantly decreased in the CLE group when compared with the CCl4-treated group. The antioxidant activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities, in addition to glutathione content, had increased considerably in the CLE group compared with the CCl4-treated group. Phase II detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, were found to have significantly increased in the CLE group as opposed to the CCl4-treated group. The content of Nrf2 was determined by Western blot analysis. Pretreated CLE increased the level of nuclear translocated Nrf2, and the Nrf2 then increased the activity of the antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. These results indicate that CLE has protective effects against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, via activities of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes, and through the activation of nuclear translocated Nrf2. PMID:20890099

Lee, Hyeong-Seon; Li, Li; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Bilehal, Dinesh; Li, Wei; Lee, Dong-Seok; Kim, Yong-Ho

2010-09-01

334

The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats  

PubMed Central

Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective. PMID:25558167

Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

2014-01-01

335

Clinical study on the effect of decoction of Pavetta indica Linn. in treatment of Purishaja Krimi with special reference to Enterobius vermicularis infestation.  

PubMed

Pavetta indica Linn. (Family: Rubiaceae; Sanskrit name: Papata) is 2-5 m tall, shrub or small tree with opposite branches and grows in the Asia - Pacific region including Sri Lanka. Purishaja Krimi is one of the worm infestations described in Ayurveda. Enterobius vermicularis is among the most common of worms affecting children and adults. E. vermicularis is considered as one type of Purishaja Krimi. Sri Lankan traditional and ayurvedic physicians use P. indica to treat different ailments including Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis) infestations successfully. Since no scientific studies have been undertaken to study these effects so far, the present clinical study was carried out to evaluate the effect of P. indica in treatment of E. vermicularis infestation. Fifty patients between age of 5 and 12 years (Group A and B) and 50 patients between 13 and 65 years (Group C and D) with symptoms of E. vermicularis infestations such as itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea or constipation and presence of ova in stools were selected. Two decoction of the trail drug with different concentration was prepared. Group A and Group B were treated with 60 ml of decoction 1 and 60 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Group C and Group D were treated with 120 ml of decoction 2 and 120 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Groups A and C showed complete or partial reduction of symptoms, that is; itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea and also ova of E. vermicularis were absent in stools after treatment with P. indica. Decoction of P. indica can be recommended as an effective treatment for Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis infestation). PMID:24501518

Ediriweera, E R H S S; Rajapaksha, R P V J; Rathnayaka, R L Y U; Premakeerthi, W M S A; Premathilaka, S

2013-07-01

336

Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.  

PubMed

It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

2015-01-01

337

Flower Bud Transcriptome Analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and Primary Investigation of Drought Induced Flowering: Pathway Construction and G-Quadruplex Prediction Based on Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRX?39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants. PMID:25738565

Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

2015-01-01

338

The mitigating effect of calcification-dependent of utilization of inorganic carbon of Chara vulgaris Linn on NH4-N toxicity.  

PubMed

Increased ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations in water bodies have been reported to adversely affect the dominant species of submersed vegetation in meso-eutrophic waters worldwide. However calcareous plants were lowly sensitive to NH4-N toxicity. In order to make clear the function of calcification in the tolerance of calcareous plants to NH4-N stress, we studied the effects of increased HCO3(-) and additional NH4-N on calcification and utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in Chara vulgaris Linn in a 7-d sub-acute experiment (light:dark 12:12h) carried out in an open experimental system in lab. Results revealed that calcification was dependent of utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon. Additional HCO3(-) significantly decreased the increase of pH while additional NH4-N did not. And additional HCO3(-) significantly improved calcification while NH4-N did in versus in relation to the variation of DIC concentration. However, addition of both HCO3(-) and NH4-N increased utilization of DIC. This resulted in calcification to utilization of DIC ratio decreased under additional NH4-N condition while increased under additional HCO3(-) conditions in response to the variation of solution pH. In the present study, external HCO3(-) decreased the increase of solution pH by increasing calcification, which correspondingly mitigated the toxic effect of high NH4-N. And we argue that the mitigating effect of increased HCO3(-) on NH4-N toxicity is dependent of plant calcification, and it is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to the dominance of calcareous plants in meso-eutrophic water bodies. PMID:23755986

Wang, Heyun; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

2013-09-01

339

Ancient maize from Chacoan great houses: Where was it grown?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we compare chemical (87Sr\\/86Sr and elemental) analyses of archaeological maize from dated contexts within Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to potential agricultural sites on the periphery of the San Juan Basin. The oldest maize analyzed from Pueblo Bonito probably was grown in an area located 80 km to the west at the base of the Chuska

Larry Benson; Linda Cordell; Kirk Vincent; Howard Taylor; John Stein; G. Lang Farmer; Kiyoto Futa

2003-01-01

340

SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE OF ALFALFA GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT WATER TABLE DEPTHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to determine the growth response and water use effeciency of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown in the field under four water table levels and two rates of water supply under the climatic condition of Al-Hassa oasis in Saudi Ara- bia. The potential use and management of water table depth, to function as sub-irrigation

Y. Y. Aldakheel; A. H. Assaedi; M. A. Al-Abdussalam

341

PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT REMOVAL BY PERIPHYTON GROWN IN DAIRY MANURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growing algae to scrub nutrients from manure presents an alternative to the current practice of land application and provides utilizable algal biomass as an end product. Previous studies in our laboratory on manure from two different dairy farms showed that removal by periphyton grown on ATS (algal...

342

Bioengineered Dental Tissues Grown in the Rat Jaw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our long-term objective is to develop methods to form, in the jaw, bioengineered replacement teeth that exhibit physical properties and functions similar to those of natural teeth. Our results show that cultured rat tooth bud cells, seeded onto biodegradable scaffolds, implanted into the jaws of adult rat hosts and grown for 12 weeks, formed small, organized, bioengineered tooth crowns, containing

S. E. Duailibi; M. T. Duailibi; W. Zhang; R. Asrican; J. P. Vacanti; P. C. Yelick

2008-01-01

343

Original article Foliar senescence in maize plants grown  

E-print Network

Original article Foliar senescence in maize plants grown under different water regimes Arturo) Abstract - The leaf ontogeny of potted maize plants subjected to severe water stress was carried out and water-stressed plants received 100 and 50 % of the water evapotranspired, respectively. After 30 days

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

344

Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

345

Melon types and cultivars grown with organic and synthetic fertilizers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For three years, twelve melon cultivars were grown with either synthetic or organic (poultry litter) fertilizer. Both fertilizers were applied at 100 lbs N, 100 lbs P2O5, and 100 lbs K2O per acre. In order to satisfy the requirements of the USDA National Organic Program, all fertilizer was applied...

346

Atrial flutter in grown-up congenital heart (GUCH) patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To define occurrence, lesions and clinical characteristics of grown-up congenital heart (GUCH) patients who develop atrial flutter (AFL). Design: All GUCH patients who presented as inpatients or outpatients with documented sustained AFL between 1996 and 1998 were studied prospectively. Retrospective review of case notes for basic data relating to underlying anomaly, prior surgery and age at onset of AFL,

Wei Li; Jane Somerville

2000-01-01

347

Photosynthetic response of field-grown maize to fertilizer N  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While N supply has a large effect on growth and productivity of field-grown maize, its impact on leaf and canopy photosynthesis is less clear. Our objective was to characterize how N supply, and use of N by the maize plant impacts photosynthesis under field conditions. The N supply/N use was altered...

348

X-ray Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Germanium (111)-oriented crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, in both detached and attached configurations. Microstructural characterization of these crystals has been performed using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and double axis x-ray diffraction. Dislocation densities were measured from x-ray topographs obtained using the reflection geometry. For detached-grown crystals, the dislocation density is 4-6 x 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the seed region, and decreases in the direction of growth to less than 10(exp 3) per square centimeter, and in some crystals reaches less than 10(exp 2) per square centimeter. For crystals grown in the attached configuration, dislocation densities were on the order of 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the middle of the crystals, increasing to greater than 10(exp 5) per square centimeter near the edge. The measured dislocation densities are in excellent agreement with etch pit density results. The rocking curve linewidths were relatively insensitive to the dislocation densities. However, broadening and splitting of the rocking curves were observed in the vicinity of subgrain boundaries identified by x-ray topography in some of the attached-grown crystals.

Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

2005-01-01

349

Spectrophotometric phytochrome measurements in light-grown Avena sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochrome was studied spectrophotometrically in Avena sativa L. seedlings that had been grown for 6 d in continous white fluorescent light from lamps. Greening was prevented through the use of the herbicide San 9789. When placed in the light, phytochrome (Ptot) decreased with first order kinetics (t1\\/2 ˜ 2 h) but reached a stable low level (˜2.5% of the dark

Merten Jabben I; Gerald F. Deitzer

1978-01-01

350

AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR TRANSFERRING GRAPHENE GROWN BY CHEMICAL VAPOR  

E-print Network

conductivity,6�8 low resistivity,9 large speci¯c surface area and high mechanical strength10,11 makeAN IMPROVED METHOD FOR TRANSFERRING GRAPHENE GROWN BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION YUJIE REN In this paper, we report an improved transfer of graphene by directly picking up the graphene with target

351

Thermal Transport in Suspended and Supported Monolayer Graphene Grown by  

E-print Network

,7-9 On the other hand, the thermal conductivity remains unknown for these large-area CVD graphene, which can devices, there have been intense efforts to develop methods for synthesis of large-area, highThermal Transport in Suspended and Supported Monolayer Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition

352

PLUTONIUM UPTAKE BY PLANTS GROWN IN SOLUTION CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Plants grown in aquatic systems were shown to rapidly accumulate large amounts of plutonium, about 40% of which was removed by washing. Detergent removed debris, most of which consisted of particles larger than 0.8 micrometers. After removing a portion of the bound Pu by rinsing ...

353

Morphology and modulus of vapor grown carbon nano fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of morphologies have been observed in vapor grown carbon nano fibers (CNFs) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In one case, a truncated cone microstructure was observed, with outer and inner diameters of 60 and 25 nm, respectively. In this type of CNF, graphite sheets were oriented at about 15 to the fiber axis. The second type of fiber was

Tetsuya Uchida; David P. Anderson; Marilyn L. Minus; Satish Kumar

2006-01-01

354

Boron Nitride Nanotube Films Grown From Boron Ink Painting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of nanotube films on various substrates and surfaces is vital for applications in nanoscale functional devices. We report a simple and versatile boron (B) ink painting method that enables high-density boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) films with any desired pattern to be grown on, and firmly attached to, different surfaces. In the method, special B ink is first painted,

Lu Hua Li; Ying Chen; Alexey M. Glushenkov

2010-01-01

355

Regulation of tyrosinase in human melanocytes grown in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tyrosinase, the enzyme that controls the synthesis of melanin, is a unique product of melanocytes. Normal and malignant human melanocytes grown in culture were used to study the factors that regulate the expression of tyrosinase. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that newly synthesized tyrosinase appeared as a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was processed to a protein with

R. Halaban; S. H. POMERANTZ; S. MARSHALL; D. T. LAMBERT; A. B. LERNER

1983-01-01

356

Diameter and Chirality Distribution of SWNTs Grown from Zeolite Surfaces  

E-print Network

Diameter and Chirality Distribution of SWNTs Grown from Zeolite Surfaces Yoichi Murakami1-8656 Zeolites are microporous, crystalline aluminosilicates constructed from tetrahedral base units. We have been using the b-surfaces of silicalite-1 zeolite (framework: MFI) as catalyst support for catalytic

Maruyama, Shigeo

357

Changes in litter quality with CO{sub 2} enrichment: Pot-grown vs. field-grown plants  

SciTech Connect

There is wide-spread concern that decomposition rates will be reduced in an enriched-CO{sub 2} world, leading to changes in nutrient cycling dynamics. Observations of changes in litter quality - i.e., reduced N concentrations and increased lignin:N or C:N ratios - underlie this concern. Much of the published data results from studies on plants grown in pots. In studies utilizing pot-grown plants, litter C:N ratios averaged 46% higher at elevated CO{sub 2} and lignin:N was 52% higher. In contrast, no differences in litter quality due to CO{sub 2} enrichment were seen in any studies in which plants were grown in the ground. We grew sugar maple (Acer saccharum L.) in open-top chambers, either in the ground or in buried pots containing soil from the chamber. Seedlings were exposed to factorial combinations of CO{sub 2} (ambient or ambient + 30 Pa CO{sub 2}) and temperature (ambient or ambient + 4{degrees}C). First year foliar litter was collected as it abscised and analyzed for N and lignin using near-infrared spectroscopy. Comparison of litter produced at elevated CO{sub 2} by the field-grown seedlings to that of the potted seedlings may lend insight into the limitations of extrapolating from potted plants to natural ecosystems.

O`Neill, E.G.; Norby, R.J.; Irwin, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-06-01

358

78 FR 28149 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...PR] Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...the handling of cranberries grown in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...handling of cranberries produced in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut,...

2013-05-14

359

77 FR 52595 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...IR] Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...cranberries grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...of cranberries produced in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut,...

2012-08-30

360

75 FR 20514 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...cranberries grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...of cranberries produced in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut,...

2010-04-20

361

78 FR 24333 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FIR] Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...cranberries grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...cranberries produced in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut,...

2013-04-25

362

75 FR 77563 - Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FV10-916/917-3 CR] Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance...conducted among eligible California nectarine, pear, and peach growers to determine whether...regulating the handling of nectarines, pears, and peaches grown in California....

2010-12-13

363

OM-VPE grown materials for high efficiency solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Organometallic sources are available for all the III-V elements and a variety of dopants; thus it is possible to use the technique to grow a wide variety of semiconductor compounds. AlGaAsSb and AlGaInAs alloys for multijunction monolithic solar cells were grown by OM-VPE. While the effort concentrated on terrestrial applications, the success of OM-VPE grown GaAs/AlGaAs concentrator solar cells (23% at 400 suns) demonstrates that OM-VPE is suitable for growing high efficiency solar cells in large quantities for space applications. In addition, OM-VPE offers the potential for substantial cost reduction of photovoltaic devices with scale up and automation and due to high process yield from reproducible, uniform epitaxial growths with excellent surface morphology.

Saxena, R.; Cooper, B., III; Ludowise, M.; Borden, P.; Gregory, P.

1980-01-01

364

Laser alexandrite crystals grown by horizontal oriented crystallization technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies were performed for alexandrite crystals, Al 2BeO 4:Cr 3+, employed in solid state lasers and grown by the horizontal oriented crystallization (HOC) technique and alexandrite crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. It was shown that the structural quality and possibilities of generation of stimulated emission HOC-crystals are similar to Cz-crystals, whereas their damage threshold is about three times higher. The obtained results and considerably lower cost price of HOC-alexandrite crystals prove their advantageous application in powerful laser systems, which require large laser rods with a higher resistance to laser beam. It is emphasized that application of HOC technique is promising for growth of laser crystals of other high-temperature oxide compounds.

Gurov, V. V.; Tsvetkov, E. G.; Yurkin, A. M.

2008-05-01

365

Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moore’s law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits.

Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D.; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

2014-07-01

366

Reproductive Ontogeny of Wheat Grown on the MIR Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reproductive ontogeny of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat grown on the space station Mir is chronicled from the vegetative phase through flower development. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition From the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Filament elongation, which characteristically occurs just prior to anthesis and moves the anthers through the stigmatic branches thus facilitating pollination, did no1 xcur in the flowers of spikes grown on Mir. While development of spikes on tillers typically occurs later :han that of spikes on the main stem, all flowers appear to be arrested at the same developmental point.

Bubenheim, David L.; Stieber, Joseph

1997-01-01

367

Electrical and mechanical properties of vapour grown gallium monotelluride crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical vapour deposition (PVD) of gallium monotelluride (GaTe) in different crystalline habits was established in the growth ampoule, strongly depending on the temperature gradient. Proper control on the temperatures of source and growth zones in an indigenously fabricated dual zone furnace could yield the crystals in the form of whiskers and spherulites. Optical and electron microscopic images were examined to predict the growth mechanism of morphologies. The structural parameters of the grown spherulites were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The stoichiometric composition of these crystals was confirmed using energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX). The type and nature of electrical conductivity were identified by the conventional hot probe and two probe methods, respectively. The mechanical parameters, such as Vickers microhardness, work hardening index, and yield strength, were deduced from microindentation measurements. The results show that the vapour grown p-GaTe crystals exhibit novel physical properties, which make them suitable for device applications.

Reshmi, P. M.; Kunjomana, A. G.; Chandrasekharan, K. A.

2013-10-01

368

Present and future applications of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, magnetic nanostructures are routinely grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). In the present article, we review the milestones produced in the topic in the past as well as the future applications of this technology. Regarding past milestones, we highlight the achievement of high-purity cobalt and iron deposits, the high lateral resolution obtained, the growth of 3D magnetic deposits, the exploration of magnetic alloys and the application of magnetic deposits for Hall sensing and in domain-wall conduit and magnetologic devices. With respect to future perspectives of the topic, we emphasize the potential role of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID for applications related to highly integrated 2D arrays, 3D nanowires devices, fabrication of advanced scanning-probe systems, basic studies of magnetic structures and their dynamics, small sensors (including biosensors) and new applications brought by magnetic alloys and even exchange biased systems.

De Teresa, J. M.; Fernández-Pacheco, A.

2014-12-01

369

MOCVD-Grown Dilute Nitride Type II Quantum Wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute nitride Ga(In)NAs\\/GaAsSb ldquoWrdquo type II quantum wells on GaAs substrates have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Design studies underscore the importance of nitrogen incorporation to extend the emission wavelength into the 1.5 mum region as well as increase the electron confinement, given the material strain relaxation limitations. These studies also indicate that the Sb content of

L. J. Mawst; Juno Yu-Ting Huang; D. P. Xu; Jeng-Ya Yeh; Gene Tsvid; Thomas F. Kuech; Nelson Tansu

2008-01-01

370

AGROBACTERIUM -MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF INDICA RICE CULTIVARS GROWN IN VIETNAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been performed on 5 indica cultivars grown in Vietnam. Embryogenic calli derived from mature seeds were inoculated with A. tumefaciens LBA4044 in which the T-DNA contained plasmid pSBbarB-UbiCre or plasmid pSB35L-Hyg-L-Gus. Transformation efficiency recorded as the number of independent transgenic plants showing Southern blot + per the number

TRAN THI; CUC HOA; AMIRHUSIN BAHAGIAWATI; THOMAS K. HODGES

371

Carbonic anhydrase activity in acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell extracts (27000xg supernatant) of acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri were found to have carbonic anhydrase activity (0.41 U\\/mg protein), which was lost upon heating or incubation with proteinase K. The activity was inhibited by Diamox (apparent Ki=0.5 mM), by azide (apparent Ki=1 mM), and by cyanide (apparent Ki=0.02 mM). These and other properties indicate that the archaebacterium contains the enzyme

Marion Karrasch; Michael Bott; Rudolf K. Thauer

1989-01-01

372

Magnetite films grown directly on organic semiconductor layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetite (Fe3O4) films were grown directly on thin layers of two organic semiconductors (p-conjugated oligomers), 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3) and sexitiophene (T6) by pulsed electron beam deposition, also called channel spark ablation (CSA), for which spin injection effects have been demonstrated at low and room temperatures. The room temperature ferromagnetism for both kind of films found by magneto-optical Kerr rotation (MOKE)

V. Dediu; E. Arisi; I. Bergenti; A. Riminucci; M. Murgia; G. Ruani

2006-01-01

373

Preparation of vapor-grown carbon fibers from deoiled asphalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCFs) with high-purity have been successfully prepared from the thermal cracking of deoiled asphalt (DOA) with ferrocene as catalyst by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in argon atmosphere and characterized systematically by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Results showed that VGCFs with a diameter of 150–200nm and

Yongzhen Yang; Xuguang Liu; Bingshe Xu; Tianbao Li

2006-01-01

374

Pyrolytic carbon nanotubes from vapor-grown carbon fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of as-grown and heat-treated pyrolytic carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) produced by hydrocarbon pyrolysis are discussed on the basis of a possible growth process. The structures are compared with those of nanotubes obtained by the arc method (ACNT; arc-formed carbon nanotubes). PCNTs, with and without secondary pyrolytic deposition (which results in diameter increase) are found to form during pyrolysis of

Morinobu Endo; Kenji Takeuchi; Kiyoharu Kobori; Katsushi Takahashi; Harold W. Kroto; A. Sarkar

1995-01-01

375

Glucosinolates in collard greens grown under three soil management practices.  

PubMed

Glucosinolates (GSLs, ?-D-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates) are polar compounds present in varying amounts in members of the Brassicaceae family. They suppress soil-borne pests due to the biofumigant properties of the highly toxic isothiocyanates present in Brassica vegetables. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) assess variation in GSLs concentrations among collard plants grown under three soil management practices: sewage sludge (SS) mixed with native soil, chicken manure (CM) mixed with native soil, and no-mulch (NM) native soil, (2) quantify GSLs concentrations in collard roots, leaves, and stems at harvest for potential use of their crude extracts in plant protection, and (3) assess myrosinase activity in soil amended with CM and SS mixed with native soil. Separation of GSLs was accomplished by adsorption on a DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange resin using disposable pipette tips filled with DEAE, a weak base, with a net positive charge when ionized and exchange anions such as GSLs (hydrophilic plant secondary metabolites). Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of collard endogenous myrosinase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSLs molecule by addition of standardized myrosinase and colorimetric determination of the liberated glucose moiety. Across all treatments, SS and CM increased soil organic matter content from 2.2% in native soil to 4.2 and 6.5%, respectively. GSLs concentrations were significantly greater in collard leaves (30.9 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight) compared to roots and stems (7.8 and 1.2 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight), respectively. Leaves of collard grown in soil amended with SS contained the greatest concentrations of GSLs compared to leaves of plants grown in CM and NM treatments. Accordingly, leaves of collard plants grown in soil amended with SS could play a significant role in sustainable agriculture as alternative tools for soil-borne disease management in conventional and organic agriculture. PMID:25826105

Antonious, George F

2015-05-01

376

pH sensor properties of electrochemically grown iridium oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open-circuit potential of an electrochemically grown iridium oxide film is measured and shows a pH sensitivity between ?60 and ?80 mV\\/pH. This sensitivity is found to depend on the state of oxidation of the iridium oxide film; for a higher state of oxidation (or more of the oxide in the high valence state), the sensitivity is also higher. This

W. Olthuis; M. A. M. Robben; P. Bergveld; M. Bos; Linden van der W. E

1990-01-01

377

Laser Induced Phonons (LIPs) in MBE grown ZnSe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin film ZnSe, grown by the MBE method, has been examined using the technique of degenerate four wave mixing, DFWM, using laser illumination at 532 nm. Laser induced phonons are observed in this thin film material but are not seen in a sample of bulk polycrystalline ZnSe. This observation of laser induced phonons is the first reported in ZnSe.

K. Welford

1991-01-01

378

Thermoelectric properties of CVD grown large area graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermoelectric power (TEP) of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) grown large area graphene transferred onto a Si\\/SiO2 substrate was measured by simply attaching two miniature thermocouples and a resistive heater. Availability of such large area graphene facilitates straight forward TEP measurement without the use of any microfabrication processes. All investigated graphene samples showed a positive TEP ˜ + 30 muV\\/K

Andriy Sherehiy; Ruwantha Jayasinghe; Robert Stallard; Gamini Sumanasekera; Anton Sidorov; Daniel Benjamin; Zhigang Jiang; Qingkai Yu; Wei Wu; Jiming Bao; Zhihong Liu; Steven Pei; Yong Chen

2010-01-01

379

MBE-Grown II-VI and Related Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructures of II-VI semiconductor materials could potentially offer novel and superior physical (in particular, optoelectronic) properties with respect to their bulk counterparts. Herein, we present our most recent research on several II-VI and related nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique. These include a ZnSe nanograting. This nanograting structure was realized at the surface of Fe/ZnSe bilayers grown on GaAs(001) substrates by thermal annealing. A model based on an Ewald construction is presented to explain its unusual reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns. The formation mechanism of this one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure is possibly related to surface energy minimization, together with an Fe-Se exchange interaction and Fe-induced decomposition of several top ZnSe atomic layers during thermal annealing. Another nanostructure investigated was the ZnS Schottky barrier embedded with Fe quantum dots (QDs). Here, a Au/ZnS/Fe-QDs/ZnS/ n +-GaAs(100) Schottky barrier structure containing five layers of spherical Fe quantum dots with a diameter of ~3 nm was fabricated. Its I- V characteristic measured from 5 K to 295 K displays negative differential resistance (NDR) for temperature ?50 K. Staircase-like I- V characteristics were also observed at low temperature in some devices fabricated from this structure. Possible mechanisms that can account for the observed unusual I- V characteristic in this structure are presented. Finally, laterally grown Fe nanowires (NWs) on a ZnS surface were prepared. Under high growth/annealing temperature, two types of Fe NWs with specific orientations can be grown on the ZnS(100) surface. We propose a mean-field model that the torque exerted by type A Fe NWs could effectively turn the two components of type B Fe NWs slightly toward the ZnS [110] direction, leading to the observed misalignment of type B Fe NWs.

Sou, I. K.; Lok, S. K.; Wang, G.; Wang, N.; Wong, G. K. L.

2010-07-01

380

Multilayer composites from vapor-grown carbon nano-fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layer-by-layer assembled (LBL) materials from single-wall carbon nanotubes and multiwall carbon nanotubes revealed promising mechanical properties attributed to the uniform distribution of inorganic filler in the organic polyelectrolyte matrix. In this paper, we extend the family of LBL layered nanocomposites to include another important building block i.e. vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCFs). Besides the advantages of low cost, mass production, and

Bong Sup Shim; John Starkovich; Nicholas Kotov

2006-01-01

381

Nano transfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates  

DOEpatents

Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoconduit material coupled to a surface of the substrate. The substrate defines an aperture and the nanoconduit material defines a nanoconduit that is i) contiguous with the aperture and ii) aligned substantially non-parallel to a plane defined by the surface of the substrate.

Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN); Guillorn, Michael A. (Ithaca, NY); Ilic, Bojan (Ithaca, NY); Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Knoxville, TX); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-03-27

382

Boron Nitride Nanotube Films Grown From Boron Ink Painting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of nanotube films on various substrates and surfaces is vital for\\u000aapplications in nanoscale functional devices. We report a simple and versatile\\u000aboron (B) ink painting method that enables high-density boron nitride nanotube\\u000a(BNNT) films with any desired pattern to be grown on, and firmly attached to,\\u000adifferent surfaces. In the method, special B ink is first painted,

Lu Hua Li; Ying Chen; Alexey M. Glushenkov

2010-01-01

383

Chlorinated Solvent Cometabolism by Butane-Grown Mixed Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by a butane-grown mixed culture was performed. The transformation of 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (c- DCE) required O2 and was inhibited by butane and inactivated by acetylene, indicating that a monooxygenase enzyme was likely involved in the transformations. The initial transformation rates and the quantities of chlo- rinated aliphatic hydrocarbons transformed

Young Kim; Daniel J. Arp; Lewis Semprini

2000-01-01

384

Floc Formation by Azospirillum lipoferum Grown on Poly-?-Hydroxybutyrate †  

PubMed Central

Azospirillum lipoferum RG6xx was grown under conditions similar to those resulting in encystment of Azotobacter spp. A. lipoferum produced cells of uniform shape when grown on nitrogen-free ?-hydroxybutyrate agar. Cells accumulated poly-?-hydroxybutyrate and often grew as chains or filaments that eventually lost motility and formed capsules. Within 1 week, vegetative A. lipoferum inocula were converted into microflocs arising from filaments or chains. Cells within microflocs were pleomorphic, contained much poly-?-hydroxybutyrate, and were encapsulated. Some cells had a cystlike morphology. Up to 57% of the dry weight of encapsulated flocs was poly-?-hydroxybutyrate, whereas vegetative cells grown in broth with combined nitrogen had only 3% of their dry weight as poly-?-hydroxybutyrate. Neither encapsulated cells in flocs nor nonencapsulated vegetative cells were significantly desiccation resistant. Under starvation conditions (9 days) only 25% of encapsulated cells remained viable, whereas vegetative cells multiplied severalfold. In short-term germination experiments with encapsulated flocs, nitrate, ammonium, and soil extract promoted formation of motile vegetative cells. Most cells in treatments lacking combined nitrogen eventually depleted their visible poly-?-hydroxybutyrate reserves without germinating. The remaining cells retained the reserve polymer and underwent size reduction. Images PMID:16347792

Bleakley, Bruce H.; Gaskins, Murray H.; Hubbell, David H.; Zam, Stephan G.

1988-01-01

385

Induced abnormality in Mir- and Earth grown Super Dwarf wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing 'Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Chernova, L.; Pdolsky, I.

2003-01-01

386

76 FR 37617 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California; Section 610 Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-06-0185; FV06-925-610 Review] Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern...Order No. 925 regulating the handling of grapes grown in a designated area of southeastern...part 925), regulates the handling of grapes grown in a designated area of...

2011-06-28

387

78 FR 28118 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-12-0071; FV13-955-1 IR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting...under the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is...

2013-05-14

388

76 FR 41589 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0012; FV11-946-2 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased...administers the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown in Washington. The interim...regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington,...

2011-07-15

389

29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780.505 ...Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime...Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

2010-07-01

390

Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its related fractures have become global health issues in the recent days. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease; it is characterized by a rapid loss of mineralized bone tissue. Hormone replacement therapy has proven efficacious in preventing bone loss but not desirable to many women due to its side-effects. Therefore we are in need to search the natural compounds for a treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in women with no toxic effects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ), a plant used in folk medicine, on an osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. In this experiment, healthy female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control (OVX). Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) and petroleum-ether extract of CQ (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 months. The findings were assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (an osteoblastic marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (an osteoclastic marker) in upper end of femur. The study revealed for the first time that the petroleum-ether extract of CQ reduced bone loss, as evidenced by the weight gain in femur, and also reduced the osteoclastic activity there by facilitating bone formation when compared to the OVX group. The osteoclastic activity was confirmed by TRAP staining, and the bone formation was assessed by ALP staining in the femur sections. The color intensity of TRAP and ALP enzymes from the images were evaluated by image analysis software developed locally. The effect of CQ was found to be effective on both enzymes, and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The biological activity of CQ on bone may be attributed to the phytogenic steroids present in it. PMID:19736603

Potu, Bhagath K; Nampurath, Gopalan K; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna R; Prasad, Keerthana; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Dharmavarapu, Praveen K; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, Kumar MR

2009-01-01

391

Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis.  

PubMed

The increasing incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its related fractures have become global health issues in the recent days. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease; it is characterized by a rapid loss of mineralized bone tissue. Hormone replacement therapy has proven efficacious in preventing bone loss but not desirable to many women due to its side-effects. Therefore we are in need to search the natural compounds for a treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in women with no toxic effects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ), a plant used in folk medicine, on an osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. In this experiment, healthy female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control (OVX). Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) and petroleum-ether extract of CQ (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 months. The findings were assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (an osteoblastic marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (an osteoclastic marker) in upper end of femur. The study revealed for the first time that the petroleum-ether extract of CQ reduced bone loss, as evidenced by the weight gain in femur, and also reduced the osteoclastic activity there by facilitating bone formation when compared to the OVX group. The osteoclastic activity was confirmed by TRAP staining, and the bone formation was assessed by ALP staining in the femur sections. The color intensity of TRAP and ALP enzymes from the images were evaluated by image analysis software developed locally. The effect of CQ was found to be effective on both enzymes, and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The biological activity of CQ on bone may be attributed to the phytogenic steroids present in it. PMID:19736603

Potu, Bhagath K; Rao, Muddanna S; Nampurath, Gopalan K; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna R; Prasad, Keerthana; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Dharmavarapu, Praveen K; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, Kumar M R

2009-01-01

392

Comparative Floral Development of Mir-Grown and Ethylene-Treated, Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To study plant growth in microgravity, we grew Super Dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Svet growth chamber onboard the orbiting Russian space station, Mir, and in identical ground control units at the Institute of BioMedical Problems in Moscow, Russia. Seedling emergence was 56% and 73% in the two root-module compartments on Mir and 75% and 90% on Earth. Growth was vigorous (produced ca. 1 kg dry mass), and individual plants produced 5 to 8 tillers on Mir compared with 3 to 5 on Earth-grown controls. Upon harvest in space and return to Earth, however, all inflorescences of the flight-grown plants were sterile. To ascertain if Super Dwarf wheat responded to the 1.1 to 1.7 micromol/mol atmospheric levels of ethylene measured on the Mir prior to and during flowering, plants on earth were exposed to 0, 1, 3, 10, and 20 micromol/mol of ethylene gas and 1200 micromol/mol CO2 from 7d after emergence to maturity. As in our Mir wheat, plant height, awn length, and the flag leaf were significantly shorter in the ethylene-exposed plants than in controls; inflorescences also exhibited 100% sterility. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of florets from Mir-grown and ethylene-treated, earth-grown plants showed that development ceased prior to anthesis, and the anthers did not dehisce. Laser scanning confocal microscopic (LSCM) examination of pollen grains from Mir and ethylene-treated plants on earth exhibited zero, one, and occasionally two, but rarely three nuclei; pollen produced in the absence of ethylene was always trinucleate, the normal condition. The scarcity of trinucleate pollen, abrupt cessation of floret development prior to anthesis, and excess tillering in wheat plants on Mir and in ethylene-containing atmospheres on earth build a strong case for the ethylene on Mir as the agent for the induced male sterility and other symptoms, rather than microgravity.

Campbell, William F.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Klassen, Steven; Naegle, Erin; Strickland, Darren T.; Bingham, Gail E.; Levinskikh, Margarita; Iljina, Galena M.; Veselova, Tatjana D.

2001-01-01

393

Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.  

PubMed

This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3?µg?mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity. PMID:21939371

Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

2012-01-01

394

Photosynthetic ability in dark-grown Reboulia hemisphaerica and Barbula unguiculata cells in suspension culture.  

PubMed

Suspension cultured cells of the liverwort, Reboulia hemisphaerica and of the moss, Barbula unguiculata were independently subcultured in the medium containing 2% glucose in the dark or in the light for more than one year, and the photosynthetic activities of the final cultures were determined. Throughout the culture period light-grown cells of both species contained high amount of chlorophyll (4 to 34 ?g mg(-1) dry weight) and showed a high photosynthetic activity (10 to 84 ?mol O2 mg(-1) chlorophyll h(-1)). Dark-grown cells of R. hemisphaerica showed the same level of chlorophyll content and photosynthetic O2 evolving activity as light-grown cells. Although chlorophyll content in dark-grown B. unguiculata cells was ten-fold lower than that in light-grown cells, the photosynthetic activity of these dark-grown cells was higher than that of light-grown cells based on chlorophyll content. PMID:24232674

Takio, S; Akita, C; Ngumi, V W; Takami, S

1990-03-01

395

Insecticide residues in head lettuce, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, and broccoli grown in fields.  

PubMed

The residues of four insecticides belonging to different families were studied on head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linn. var. capitata DC.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Skeels), and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) after pesticide application. To reduce application variability, a tank mix of acetamiprid 20% SP, chlorpyrifos 22.5% EC, deltamethrin 2.4% SC, and methomyl 40% SP was applied at recommended and double doses. Initial deposits of all pesticides on head lettuce were higher than those of the other three crops. The residues of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) at recommended preharvest intervals (PHIs) on head lettuce and Chinese broccoli treated with higher doses. The residues of methomyl on head lettuce also showed the same phenomenon. PMID:24684565

Chen, Miao-Fan; Chen, Jung-Fang; Syu, Jing-Jing; Pei, Chi; Chien, Hsiu-Pao

2014-04-23

396

Chlorophyll Synthesis in Dark-Grown Pine Primary Needles1  

PubMed Central

The pigment content of dark-grown primary needles of Pinus jeffreyi L. and Pinus sylvestris L. was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The state of protochlorophyllide a and of chlorophylls during dark growth were analyzed by in situ 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy. Both measurements unambiguously demonstrated that pine primary needles are able to synthesize chlorophyll in the dark. Norflurazon strongly inhibited both carotenoid and chlorophyll synthesis. Needles of plants treated with this inhibitor had low chlorophyll content, contained only traces of xanthophylls, and accumulated carotenoid precursors. The first form of chlorophyll detected in young pine needles grown in darkness had an emission maximum at 678 nm. Chlorophyll-protein complexes with in situ spectroscopic properties similar to those of fully green needles (685, 695, and 735 nm) later accumulated in untreated plants, whereas in norflurazon-treated plants the photosystem I emission at 735 nm was completely lacking. To better characterize the light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway in pine needles, the 77 K fluorescence properties of in situ protochlorophyllide a spectral forms were studied. Photoactive and nonphotoactive protochlorophyllide a forms with emission properties similar to those reported for dark-grown angiosperms were found, but excitation spectra were substantially red shifted. Because of their lower chlorophyll content, norflurazon-treated plants were used to study the protochlorophyllide a photoreduction process triggered by one light flash. The first stable chlorophyllide photoproduct was a chlorophyllide a form emitting at 688 nm as in angiosperms. Further chlorophyllide a shifts usually observed in angiosperms were not detected. The rapid regeneration of photoactive protochlorophyllide a from nonphotoactive protochlorophyllide after one flash was demonstrated. PMID:9847090

Schoefs, Benoît; Franck, Fabrice

1998-01-01

397

Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-13

398

Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through irnovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystal growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a desease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Dr. Marianna Long, associate director of the Center of Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, is a co-investigator on the research. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

1998-01-01

399

Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through innovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystals growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a disease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Champion Deivanaygam, a researcher at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, assists in this work. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

1998-01-01

400

Scientists Inspect Plant Grown onboard the ISS in 2002  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Astroculture (tm) unit is growing plants on its second flight on the International Space Station. Dr. Weijia Zhou (left), director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects soybeans grown in the plant growth unit aboard ISS in 2002. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Partnership Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

2003-01-01

401

Photoconductive organic crystals grown on planar substrates with electrode effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic polycrystalline fibers were grown onto planar substrates from solution of N,N-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4,9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide) (EPPTC) in chloroform through ?-stacking. Devices with excellent photoconductivity have been achieved by depositing aluminum electrodes on the top surface of the crystal fibers with a gap width as large as 180 ?m. This implies excellent ?-stacking of EPPTC molecules in a long range through crystallization. Strong excitation-wavelength dependence was observed for the photoconductive performance of these crystal fibers. Dispersion in the transmission spectrum of the aluminum electrodes is taken as the mechanisms to address the wavelength-dependent photoconductivity of EPPTC polycrystalline fibers.

Li, Hongwei; Zhang, Xinping; Zu, Wenbo

2014-02-01

402

Progress in MBE grown type-II superlattice photodiodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the status of GaSb/InAs type-II superlattice diodes grown and fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed for infrared absorption in the 8-12(mu)m range. Recent devices have produced detectivities as high as 8x10 to the tenth power Jones with a differential resistance-area product greater than 6 Ohmcm(sup 2) at 80K with a long wavelength cutoff of approximately 12(mu)m. The measured quantum efficiency of these front-side illuminated devices is close to 30% in the 10-11(mu)m range without antireflection coatings.

Hill, Cory J.; Li, Jian V.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

2006-01-01

403

Dislocations in as-grown CVD {alpha}-silicon nitride  

SciTech Connect

CVD {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} has been studied by transmission electron microscopy, and dislocations are found to occur in as-grown material. Two-beam contrast analysis has been used to determine that these dislocations have Burgers vectors of <0001>, 1/3<2{bar 1}{bar 1}0>, and 1/3<2{bar 1}{bar 1}3>. Because of their smaller Burgers vector, <0001> dislocations are dominant. Their dissociation into half partials has been observed.

Zhou, D.S.; Mitchell, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for Materials Science

1995-11-01

404

Nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates  

DOEpatents

Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. A method includes depositing a catalyst particle on a surface of a substrate to define a deterministically located position; growing an aligned elongated nanostructure on the substrate, an end of the aligned elongated nanostructure coupled to the substrate at the deterministically located position; coating the aligned elongated nanostructure with a conduit material; removing a portion of the conduit material to expose the catalyst particle; removing the catalyst particle; and removing the elongated nanostructure to define a nanoconduit.

Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN), Guillorn, Michael A. (Ithaca, NY); Ilic, Bojan (Ithaca, NY); Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Knoxville, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-05-17

405

Stresses in thermally grown alumina scales near edges and corners.  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the residual stress near edges and corners of thermally grown alumina scales. Micro-fluorescence measurements, performed on alloys with composition Fe-5Cr-28Al (at.%, bal. Fe) oxidized at 900 C, showed a large (>50%) reduction in hydrostatic stress in the vicinity of edges and corners. Surprisingly, stress relaxation persists out to distances ten times the scale thickness from the edge. Finite element analysis calculations confirm the experimental results and provide a considerably more detailed picture of the stress distribution and its components.

Grimsditch, M.

1998-06-03

406

Self-doping effects in epitaxially grown graphene  

SciTech Connect

Self-doping in graphene has been studied by examining single-layer epitaxially grown graphene samples with differing characteristic lateral terrace widths. Low energy electron microscopy was used to gain real-space information about the graphene surface morphology, which was compared with data obtained by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the effect of the monolayer graphene terrace width on the low energy dispersions. By altering the graphene terrace width, we report significant changes in the electronic structure and quasiparticle relaxation time of the material, in addition to a terrace width-dependent doping effect.

Siegel, David A.; Zhou, Shuyun Y.; El Gabaly, Farid; Fedorov, Alexei V.; Schmid, Andreas K.; Lanzara, Alessandra

2008-09-19

407

How good can CVD-grown monolayer graphene be?  

PubMed

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is considered the most promising method for pushing graphene into commercial products. However, CVD grown graphene is usually of low quality. In this work we explore how good can CVD-derived monolayer graphene be. Through the combinational optimization of the main processes of growth, transfer, device fabrication and measurements, we show that the optimized CVD graphene can present performance comparable to mechanical exfoliated ones: in particular, high carrier mobility at room temperature on the Si/SiO2 substrate, perfect electron-hole symmetry and excellent uniformity (the mobility ranged from 5000 to 12,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with an average mobility of ? 8800 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 50% were higher than 10,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). In addition we found that the adsorbed oxygen and water molecules on graphene lead to p-type doping in graphene, and transferred charges bring charged impurity scattering to the transporting carriers in the graphene channel. It is therefore necessary to carry out electrical measurements under vacuum to obtain high intrinsic carrier mobility CVD grown graphene. PMID:25381813

Chen, Bingyan; Huang, Huixin; Ma, Xiaomeng; Huang, Le; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

2014-12-21

408

Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat  

PubMed Central

For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21–47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. PMID:24890330

Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

2014-01-01

409

Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.

Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

410

Characterization of cellulolytic bacterial cultures grown in different substrates.  

PubMed

Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200?rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1?:?0.2, 1?:?0.3, 1?:?0.4, and 1?:?0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067?DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885?ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248?DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842?ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC. PMID:24319380

Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

2013-01-01

411

Automorphogenesis and gravitropism of plant seedlings grown under microgravity conditions.  

PubMed

Plant seedlings exhibit automorphogenesis on clinostats. The occurrence of automorphogenesis was confirmed under microgravity in Space Shuttle STS-95 flight. Rice coleoptiles showed an inclination toward the caryopsis in the basal region and a spontaneous curvature in the same adaxial direction in the elongating region both on a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat and in space. Both rice roots and Arabidopsis hypocotyls also showed a similar morphology in space and on the 3-D clinostat. In rice coleoptiles, the mechanisms inducing such an automorphic curvature were studied. The faster-expanding convex side of rice coleoptiles showed a higher extensibility of the cell wall than the opposite side. Also, in the convex side, the cell wall thickness was smaller, the turnover of the matrix polysaccharides was more active, and the microtubules oriented more transversely than the concave side, and these differences appear to be causes of the curvature. When rice coleoptiles grown on the 3-D clinostat were placed horizontally, the gravitropic curvature was delayed as compared with control coleoptiles. In clinostatted coleoptiles, the corresponding suppression of the amyloplast development was also observed. Similar results were obtained in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Thus, the induction of automorphogenesis and a concomitant decrease in graviresponsiveness occurred in plant shoots grown under microgravity conditions. PMID:11596636

Hoson, T; Saiki, M; Kamisaka, S; Yamashita, M

2001-01-01

412

Orthodox etching of HVPE-grown GaN  

SciTech Connect

Orthodox etching of HVPE-grown GaN in molten eutectic of KOH + NaOH (E etch) and in hot sulfuric and phosphoric acids (HH etch) is discussed in detail. Three size grades of pits are formed by the preferential E etching at the outcrops of threading dislocations on the Ga-polar surface of GaN. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as the calibration tool it is shown that the largest pits are formed on screw, intermediate on mixed and the smallest on edge dislocations. This sequence of size does not follow the sequence of the Burgers values (and thus the magnitude of the elastic energy) of corresponding dislocations. This discrepancy is explained taking into account the effect of decoration of dislocations, the degree of which is expected to be different depending on the lattice deformation around the dislocations, i.e. on the edge component of the Burgers vector. It is argued that the large scatter of optimal etching temperatures required for revealing all three types of dislocations in HVPE-grown samples from different sources also depends upon the energetic status of dislocations. The role of kinetics for reliability of etching in both etches is discussed and the way of optimization of the etching parameters is shown.

Weyher, J.L.; Lazar, S.; Macht, L.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Molnar,R.J.; Muller, S.; Nowak, G.; Grzegory, I.

2006-08-10

413

InSb thin films grown by electrodeposition  

SciTech Connect

We have grown InSb thin films on Cu substrates using the electrodeposition technique. The electrochemical bath from which the InSb thin films were grown was made up of a mixture of aqueous solutions of 0.05 M InCl{sub 3} and 0.03M SbCl{sub 3}, 0 .20M citric acid and 0.30M sodium citrate. Citric acid and sodium citrate were used as complexing agents to bring the reduction potential of In and Sb closer to maintain binary growth. The electrodeposited films were characterized by structural, morphological and optical studies. X-ray diffraction studies show that the films are polycrystalline InSb having the zinc blende structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. FTIR spectra of InSb thin films show a sharp absorption peak at wave number 1022 cm{sup ?1} corresponding to the band gap. Hot probe analysis shows that the InSb thin films have p type conductivity.

Singh, Joginder, E-mail: joginderchauhan82@gmail.com; Rajaram, P., E-mail: joginderchauhan82@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior-474011 (India)

2014-04-24

414

Gene expression from plants grown on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three experiments were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006 as part of the TROPI experiments. These experiments were performed to study graviTROPIsm and photoTROPIsm responses of Arabidopsis in microgravity (µg). Seedlings were grown with a variety of light and gravitational treatments for approximately five days. The frozen samples were returned to Earth during three space shuttle missions in 2007 and stored at -80° C. Due to the limited amount of plant biomass returned, new protocols were developed to minimize the amount of material needed for RNA extraction as a preparation for microarray analysis. Using these new protocols, RNA was extracted from several sets of seedlings grown in red light followed by blue light with one sample from 1.0g treatment and the other at µg. Using a 2-fold change criterion, microarray (Affymetrix, GeneChip) results showed that 613 genes were upregulated in the µg sample while 757 genes were downregulated. Upregulated genes in response to µg included transcription factors from the WRKY (15 genes), MYB (3) and ZF (8) families as well as those that are involved in auxin responses (10). Downregulated genes also included transcription factors such as MYB (5) and Zinc finger (10) but interestingly only two WRKY family genes were down-regulated during the µg treatment. Studies are underway to compare these results with other samples to identify the genes involved in the gravity and light signal transduction pathways (this project is Supported By: NASA NCC2-1200).

Stimpson, Alexander; Pereira, Rhea; Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie

415

Characterization of Cellulolytic Bacterial Cultures Grown in Different Substrates  

PubMed Central

Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200?rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1?:?0.2, 1?:?0.3, 1?:?0.4, and 1?:?0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067?DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885?ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248?DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842?ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC. PMID:24319380

Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Sazili, Awis Qurni

2013-01-01

416

Physical properties of vapour grown indium monotelluride platelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indium monotelluride (InTe) crystals were grown from vapour phase under different temperature gradients by employing physical vapour deposition (PVD) method. The morphology of these crystals such as whiskers, needles, platelets etc., strongly depends on the temperature distribution in the horizontal dual zone furnace. InTe platelets were deposited by setting the temperature of the charge (TC) and growth (TS) zones at 1073 K and 773 K (?T=300 K), respectively, for different growth periods (24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). The surface growth features have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopes, which indicate layer growth mechanism for all the crystals. Various crystals grown under ?T=200 K and 300 K (retaining TS invariant) were examined by X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. InTe samples exhibited consistent lattice parameters, density and atomic percentage, establishing stoichiometry and chemical homogeneity. The results obtained for Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, power factor, dislocation density and microhardness are found to be reproducible as well. The vapour deposited InTe platelets are mechanically stable and possess high value of TEP, which ensure their practical application in thermoelectric power generation.

Kunjomana, A. G.; Chandrasekharan, K. A.; Teena, M.

2015-02-01

417

Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health. PMID:23326371

Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

2013-01-01

418

Preferential orientation of Te precipitates in melt-grown CZT  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium zinc telluride (Cd1-xZnxTe or CZT) has proved to be a useful material for semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometers and other electro-optic devices. It is often grown Te-rich to optimize its electrical characteristics, but this off-stoichiometric growth leads to the formation of semimetallic Te precipitates in the semiconducting host crystal. These precipitates can impair device performance and their formation needs to be inhibited, if possible, during growth. Characterization of melt-grown CZT has shown that Te precipitates are often faceted. In this study, characterization of several particles of different shapes revealed that most of the Te precipitates were preferentially oriented with the {101}CZT||{-12-10}Te . A secondary orientation relationship was also observed as {11-1}CZT||{01-11}Te for one of the {111}CZT family of planes. One of the particles exhibited {110}CZT||{01-10}Te and {001}CZT||{0001}Te . Precipitates were often found on {111}CZT twin boundaries and, in these cases, it was possible to assign specific orientations with respect to the twin plane. The expected orientation of the {0001}-plane of Te aligned with the {111}-plane of CZT was not observed even though a good lattice match is predicted in ab initio models. Observations of strained and polycrystalline Te precipitates are also discussed with relevance to the ab initio model and to impacts on electronic properties.

Henager, Charles H.; Edwards, Danny J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Bliss, Mary; Jaffe, John E.

2009-05-18

419

Analysis of Phase Separation in Czochralski Grown Single Crystal Ilmenite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ilmenite (FeTiOs) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with an energy gap of 2.58 eV. Ilmenite has properties suited for radiation tolerant applications, as well as a variety of other electronic applications. Single crystal ilmenite has been grown from the melt using the Czochralski method. Growth conditions have a profound effect on the microstructure of the samples. Here we present data from a variety of analytical techniques which indicate that some grown crystals exhibit distinct phase separation during growth. This phase separation is apparent for both post-growth annealed and unannealed samples. Under optical microscopy, there appear two distinct areas forming a matrix with an array of dots on order of 5 pm diameter. While appearing bright in the optical micrograph, atomic force microscope (AFM) shows the dots to be shallow pits on the surface. Magnetic force microscope (MFM) shows the dots to be magnetic. Phase identification via electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) indicates two major phases in the unannealed samples and four in the annealed samples, where the dots appear to be almost pure iron. This is consistent with micrographs taken with a scanning probe microscope used in the magnetic force mode. Samples that do not exhibit the phase separation have little or no discernible magnetic structure detectable by the MFM.

Wilkins, R.; Powell, Kirk St. A.; Loregnard, Kieron R.; Lin, Sy-Chyi; Muthusami, Jayakumar; Zhou, Feng; Pandey, R. K.; Brown, Geoff; Hawley, M. E.

1998-01-01

420

InSb thin films grown by electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have grown InSb thin films on Cu substrates using the electrodeposition technique. The electrochemical bath from which the InSb thin films were grown was made up of a mixture of aqueous solutions of 0.05 M InCl3 and 0.03M SbCl3, 0 .20M citric acid and 0.30M sodium citrate. Citric acid and sodium citrate were used as complexing agents to bring the reduction potential of In and Sb closer to maintain binary growth. The electrodeposited films were characterized by structural, morphological and optical studies. X-ray diffraction studies show that the films are polycrystalline InSb having the zinc blende structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. FTIR spectra of InSb thin films show a sharp absorption peak at wave number 1022 cm-1 corresponding to the band gap. Hot probe analysis shows that the InSb thin films have p type conductivity.

Singh, Joginder; Rajaram, P.

2014-04-01

421

Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat.  

PubMed

For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21-47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. PMID:24890330

Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

2014-09-01

422

Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part II. Sludge-grown algae as feeds for aquatic organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms.

Wong, M. H.; Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.

1996-05-01

423

Morphology of MBE grown InAs films studied by atomic force microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of MBE grown InAs films on GaSb buffered GaAs(0 0 1) substrates with miscuts ranging between 0.2° and 4° has been studied by atomic force microscope (AFM). Step flow growth mode on nominal singular (1 0 0) substrates has been observed for samples grown at substrate temperatures higher than 500°C and for samples on miscut substrates grown at

Y. Wang; Y. N. Sheng; Weikun Ge; Jiannong Wang; L. L. Chang; Jie Xie; Jianxing Ma; Jianbin Xu

1997-01-01

424

High resolution diffraction imaging of crystals grown in microgravity and closely related terrestrial crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Irregularities found in three crystals grown in space, in four crystals grown entirely on the ground were examined and compared. Irregularities were observed in mercuric iodide, lead tin telluride, triglycine sulfate, and gallium arsenide by high resolution synchrotron x radiation diffraction imaging. Radiation detectors made from mercuric iodide crystals grown in microgravity were reported to perform far better than conventional detectors grown from the same material under full gravity. Effort is now underway to reproduce these 'space' crystals, optimize their properties, and extend comparable superiority to other types of materials.

Steiner, B.; Dobbyn, R.; Black, D.; Burdette, H.; Kuriyama, M.; Spal, R.; Vandenberg, L.; Fripp, A.; Simchick, R.; Lal, R.

1991-01-01

425

Characterization of oxygen deficient gallium oxide films grown by PLD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy have been used to investigate the nature and characteristics of oxygen deficient gallium oxide films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The presence of the Ga3+ and Ga+ oxidation states, together with metallic Ga0 was observed by XPS in Ga2O2.3 sub-oxide films. TEM images reveal the presence in a Ga2O3 matrix of gallium oblong particles whose structure studied at nitrogen temperature was found to correspond to the ? monoclinic phase of metallic gallium. These results characterize the formation of nanocomposite films with Ga metallic clusters embedded in a stoichiometric Ga2O3 matrix. The nanocomposite film formation is due to a phase separation in the metastable sub-stoichiometric Ga2O2.3 film.

Petitmangin, A.; Gallas, B.; Hebert, C.; Perrière, J.; Binet, L.; Barboux, P.; Portier, X.

2013-08-01

426

Ancient maize from Chacoan great houses: where was it grown?  

PubMed

In this article, we compare chemical (87Sr/86Sr and elemental) analyses of archaeological maize from dated contexts within Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to potential agricultural sites on the periphery of the San Juan Basin. The oldest maize analyzed from Pueblo Bonito probably was grown in an area located 80 km to the west at the base of the Chuska Mountains. The youngest maize came from the San Juan or Animas river floodplains 90 km to the north. This article demonstrates that maize, a dietary staple of southwestern Native Americans, was transported over considerable distances in pre-Columbian times, a finding fundamental to understanding the organization of pre-Columbian southwestern societies. In addition, this article provides support for the hypothesis that major construction events in Chaco Canyon were made possible because maize was brought in to support extra-local labor forces. PMID:14563925

Benson, Larry; Cordell, Linda; Vincent, Kirk; Taylor, Howard; Stein, John; Farmer, G Lang; Futa, Kiyoto

2003-10-28

427

Para-Sexiphenyl Layers Grown On Light Sensitive Polymer Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution the deposition of Para-sexiphenyl (PSP) layers on poly (diphenyl bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylate) (PPNB) by Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE) is reported. It is demonstrated that pre-treating the substrate by UV-illumination induces a clear change in the morphology of the grown PSP films due to the polarity modification of the substrate surface. PPNB surface polarity increases when illuminated by UV via photo-Fries rearrangement. By detailed atomic force microscopy analysis the influence on the growth kinetics by the substrate temperature, deposition time and particularly by the UVtreatment of the substrate was investigated. A high crystalline order of the films is underlined by the observation of growth spirals and terraced islands, providing mono-layer step heights of standing PSP-molecules.

Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Simbrunner, C.; Höfler, T.; Moser, A.; Werzer, O.; Kunert, B.; Trimmel, G.; Kern, W.; Resel, R.; Sitter, H.

428

Indium Nitride and Indium Gallium Nitride layers grown on nanorods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular beam epitaxy has been used to grow InN layers on both Si and SiC substrates and In0.5Ga0.5N layers on Si substrates using a nanorod precursor array. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that nanorods grown first under N-rich conditions, and then under more metal-rich conditions to promote lateral growth are free of dislocations until coalescence occurs. At coalescence, dislocations are introduced at grain boundaries. These are predominantly twist boundaries, with better epitaxial alignment seen on SiC substrates. The lateral growth of In0.5Ga0.5N is shown to be cubic, tentatively ascribed to the growth of basal plane stacking faults at the start of the lateral growth and the low growth temperatures used.

Webster, R. F.; Cherns, D.; Goff, L. E.; Novikov, S. V.; Foxon, C. T.; Fischer, A. M.; Ponce, F. A.

2013-11-01

429

Some karyological observations on plants grown in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to assess whether cell division in a plant root would be affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Root materials from sunflower, oat, and mung bean plants grown on STS-2 and STS-3 were utilized for the experiments. It is found that all oat, sunflower, and mung seedlings showed a reduced number of cells in division as they went through their first cell division cycle on earth when compared to their ground controls. A significant number of oat, mung, and sunflower plantlets exhibited random root orientation and the lack of strictly orthotropic growth of their shoot systems in the flight samples. In addition, it is found that the mung roots were apparently least affected in terms of their cytology despite the fact that their roots were often randomly oriented.

Krikorian, A. D.; Oconnor, S. A.

1982-01-01

430

Native defects in MBE-grown CdTe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-level traps in both n- and p-type CdTe layers, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates, have been investigated by means of deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Four of the traps revealed in the DLTS spectra, which displayed exponential kinetics for capture of charge carriers into the trap states, have been assigned to native point defects: Cd interstitial, Cd vacancy, Te antisite defect and a complex formed of the Te antisite and Cd vacancy. Three further traps, displaying logarithmic capture kinetics, have been ascribed to electron states of treading dislocations generated at the mismatched interface with the substrate and propagated through the CdTe layer.

Olender, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Makosa, Andrzej; Tkaczyk, Zbigniew; Kolkovsky, Valery; Karczewski, Grzegorz

2013-12-01

431

Structural insights into magnetic clusters grown inside virus capsids.  

PubMed

Magnetic nanoparticles have multiple applications in materials science. In particular, virus capsids have been suggested as promising templates for building up nanometric-sized magnetic clusters by taking advantage of their inner cavity as a nanoreactor. In this study we investigate the magnetization of individual cobalt-filled cowpea mosaic virus empty virus-like particles using atomic force microscopy. We also combine the analysis of the effects of dehydration on the structure of virus particles with a comparison of their magnetic signal to that provided by commercially available magnetic nanoparticles of similar size. These two approaches allow the evaluation of the structure of the metallic cluster grown inside the virus capsid. We conclude that, rather than forming solid clusters, cobalt inside viruses forms a discontinuous structure that does not completely fill the virus cavity and reaches about 10% of its volume. PMID:25405995

Jaafar, M; Aljabali, A A A; Berlanga, I; Mas-Ballesté, R; Saxena, P; Warren, S; Lomonossoff, G P; Evans, D J; de Pablo, P J

2014-12-10

432

Silver content of wild-grown mushrooms from northern Poland.  

PubMed

Wild-grown and mostly edible species of higher mushrooms collected in 1989-1992 from the districts of Gda?sk, Elblag and Pi?a (northern part of Poland) have been investigated with regard to their silver content. In total, 527 samples including 25 mushroom species of six families (Agaricaceae, Boletaceae, Cantharellaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Coprinaceae and Russulaceae) were examined. Among the fungi examined only Agaricus campestris and A. augustus were heavy bioaccumulating species and showed the highest concentrations of 35 mg Ag/kg dry weight (1.1-150) and 2.0-6.9 mg/kg, respectively. Silver concentrations exceeding 1.0 mg/kg dry weight were noted in Boletus aestivalis, Lepista nuda, L. personata, and in some specimens of B. edulis, Leccinum scrabum, L. vulpinum, Cantharellus cibarius and Coprinus comatus. PMID:7975911

Falandysz, J; Bona, H; Danisiewicz, D

1994-09-01

433

Large-scale oxide nanostructures grown by thermal oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale oxide nanostructures of CuO, Fe2O3, Co3O4, ZnO, etc. were prepared by catalyst-free thermal oxidation process in atmosphere using pure metal as the starting material. Various single crystalline nanostructure arrays, including nanowires, nanobelts, nononeedles, nanoflakes, and nanowalls were obtained. These nanostructures can be grown from bulk materials, like foils or sheet, or from the microsized metal powders and the pre-deposited metal film. The growth time, temperature and substrate have important effects on the morphology, size and distribution of the nanostructures. Different from V-S or V-L-S mechanisms, the growth of nanostructure is found to be based on the metal ion diffusion process. The gradual oxidation process of the metals was clearly demonstrated. The properties of these nanostructures including gas sensing, magnetism, photoluminescence, and field emission were extensively investigated.

Liu, Z. W.; Zhong, M. L.; Tang, C. M.

2014-06-01

434

Ancient maize from Chacoan great houses: Where was it grown?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this article, we compare chemical (87Sr/86Sr and elemental) analyses of archaeological maize from dated contexts within Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to potential agricultural sites on the periphery of the San Juan Basin. The oldest maize analyzed from Pueblo Bonito probably was grown in an area located 80 km to the west at the base of the Chuska Mountains. The youngest maize came from the San Juan or Animas river flood-plains 90 km to the north. This article demonstrates that maize, a dietary staple of southwestern Native Americans, was transported over considerable distances in pre-Columbian times, a finding fundamental to understanding the organization of pre-Columbian southwestern societies. In addition, this article provides support for the hypothesis that major construction events in Chaco Canyon were made possible because maize was brought in to support extra-local labor forces.

Benson, L.; Cordell, L.; Vincent, K.; Taylor, H.; Stein, J.; Farmer, G.L.; Futa, K.

2003-01-01

435

Carbon films grown from plasma on III-V semiconductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dielectric carbon films were grown on n- and p-type GaAs and InP substrates using plasmas generated at 30 KHz from gaseous hydrocarbons. The effect of gas source, flow rate, and power on film growth were investigated. Methane and n-butane gases were utilized. The flow rate and power ranged from 30 to 50 sccm and 25 to 300 W, respectively. AES measurements show only carbon to be present in the films. The relative Ar ion sputtering rate (3 KeV) of carbon depends on the ratio power/pressure. In addition, the degree of asymmetry associated with the carbon-semiconductor interface is approximately power-independent. SIMS spectra indicate different H-C bonding configurations to be present in the films. Band gaps as high as 3.05 eV are obtained from optical absorption studies.

Pouch, J. J.; Warner, J. D.; Liu, D. C.

1985-01-01

436

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195

Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

2013-03-01

437

Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-11-08

438

Polyphenol and glycoalkaloid contents in potato cultivars grown in Luxembourg.  

PubMed

The polyphenol (phenolic acids, flavanols and flavonols) and glycoalkaloid (?-chaconine and ?-solanine) contents of potato tubers grown in Luxembourg were analyzed by UPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS separately in peel (approx. 2mm), outer (approx. 1cm) and inner flesh. Polyphenol contents decreased from the peel via the outer to the inner flesh and differed among the cultivars. The cultivars Vitelotte and Luminella had the highest polyphenol contents (5202 and 572 ?g/g dry weight (DW) in the outer flesh), whereas Charlotte and Bintje had the lowest contents (19.5 and 48.0 ?g/g DW). Chlorogenic acid and its isomers (neo- and cryptochlorogenic acid) were the major polyphenols. Glycoalkaloid contents were highest in the peel and lowest in the inner flesh, values in the flesh were below guideline limits in all cultivars. In conclusion, potatoes contribute to the daily intake of polyphenols and their consumption, thereby, may have positive effects on health. PMID:22980877

Deusser, Hannah; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Evers, Danièle

2012-12-15

439

Electrical currents through full-grown and maturing Xenopus oocytes.  

PubMed Central

An extracellular vibrating electrode was used to map the current pattern around Xenopus laevis oocytes. Current was found to enter the animal hemisphere and leave the vegetal hemisphere; in fully grown oocytes from which the follicle cells had been removed, the maximal current density was about 1 microamperemeter/cm2. This current decreased to nearly zero in response to progesterone and several other maturation-producing agents. In the case of progesterone, the decline began within a few minutes of the addition of the hormone and proceeded with a half-time of about 20 min. An analysis of the effects on the current of the removal or addition of various ions and drugs led to the inference that the major current-carrying ion was chloride and that the chloride permeability was controlled by calcium. PMID:284407

Robinson, K R

1979-01-01

440

Sustainability and economic evaluation of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater.  

PubMed

This article evaluates the sustainability and economic potential of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater for biodiesel and biomass production. Three sustainability and two economic indicators were considered in the evaluation within a life cycle perspective. For the production system the most efficient process units were selected. Results show that harvesting and oil separation are the main process bottlenecks. Microalgae with higher lipid content and productivity are desirable for biodiesel production, although comparable to other biofuel's feedstock concerning sustainability. However, improvements are still needed to reach the performance level of fossil diesel. Profitability reaches a limit for larger cultivation areas, being higher when extracted biomass is sold together with microalgae oil, in which case the influence of lipid content and areal productivity is smaller. The values of oil and/or biomass prices calculated to ensure that the process is economically sound are still very high compared with other fuel options, especially biodiesel. PMID:24830377

Mata, Teresa M; Mendes, Adélio M; Caetano, Nídia S; Martins, António A

2014-09-01

441

Grown organic matter as a fuel raw material resource  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive search was made on biomass production from the standpoint of climatic zones, water, nutrients, costs and energy requirements for many species. No exotic species were uncovered that gave hope for a bonanza of biomass production under culture, location, and management markedly different from those of existing agricultural concepts. A simulation analysis of biomass production was carried out for six species using conventional production methods, including their production costs and energy requirements. These estimates were compared with data on food, fiber, and feed production. The alternative possibility of using residues from food, feed, or lumber was evaluated. It was concluded that great doubt must be cast on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. The feasibility of collecting residues may be nearer, but the competition for the residues for return to the soil or cellulosic production is formidable.

Roller, W. L.; Keener, H. M.; Kline, R. D.; Mederski, H. J.; Curry, R. B.

1975-01-01

442

Ancient maize from Chacoan great houses: Where was it grown?  

PubMed Central

In this article, we compare chemical (87Sr/86Sr and elemental) analyses of archaeological maize from dated contexts within Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to potential agricultural sites on the periphery of the San Juan Basin. The oldest maize analyzed from Pueblo Bonito probably was grown in an area located 80 km to the west at the base of the Chuska Mountains. The youngest maize came from the San Juan or Animas river floodplains 90 km to the north. This article demonstrates that maize, a dietary staple of southwestern Native Americans, was transported over considerable distances in pre-Columbian times, a finding fundamental to understanding the organization of pre-Columbian southwestern societies. In addition, this article provides support for the hypothesis that major construction events in Chaco Canyon were made possible because maize was brought in to support extra-local labor forces. PMID:14563925

Benson, Larry; Cordell, Linda; Vincent, Kirk; Taylor, Howard; Stein, John; Farmer, G. Lang; Futa, Kiyoto

2003-01-01

443

III-V nanowires grown in a simple, homebuilt system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor nanowires are promising experimental platforms for studying quantum transport due to their built-in one-dimensional confinement of charge carriers. To enable the study of III-V semiconducting nanowires, we built a simple tube furnace based MOCVD reactor. Growth of InP and InAs nanowires using trimethylindium, di-tert-butylphosphine and triethylarsenic has been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, precursor concentration and growth substrate. At optimal growth conditions, wires of 20-100 nm in diameter and up to 10 ?m in length are achievable on InAs substrates. Characterization was performed using SEM, EDS and TEM; both wurtzite and zincblende structures have been observed. We will also present transport measurements of nanowires grown using this system. 8pt

Schroer, M. D.; Petta, J. R.

2009-03-01

444

Ion implantation doping of OMCVD grown GaN  

SciTech Connect

Doping by ion implantation using Si, O, Mg, and Ca has been studied in single crystal semi-insulation and n-type GaN grown on {alpha}-sapphire substrates. The n- and p-type dopants used in this study are Si and O; Mg and Ca, respectively. Room temperature activation of Si and O donors has been achieved after 1150{degree}C annealing for 120 s. The activation of Mg and Ca acceptors is too low to measure at both room temperature and 300{degree}C. Using higher doses to achieve a measurable p-type conduction increases the amount of damage created by the implantation. Rutherford back scattering measurements on this material indicate that the damage is still present even after the maximum possible heat treatment. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements have indicated a redistribution in the measured profiles of Mg due to annealing. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Edwards, A.; Rao, M.V. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Molnar, B.; Wickenden, A.E. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Holland, O.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chi, P.H. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1997-03-01

445

Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

Photocurrent spectroscopy was used to measure the infrared absorption of germanium-tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy. To study dependence on Sn composition, the photocurrent was measured at 100 K on alloys of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} with atomic percentages of Sn up to 9.8%. The optical absorption coefficient was calculated from the photocurrent, and it was found that the absorption edge and extracted bandgap energy decreased with increasing Sn content. For all Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} samples, a fundamental bandgap below that of bulk Ge was observed, and a bandgap energy as low as 0.624 eV was found for a Sn percentage of 9.8% at 100 K.

Coppinger, Matthew; Hart, John; Bhargava, Nupur; Kim, Sangcheol; Kolodzey, James [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2013-04-08

446

Lipid accumulation by Rhodococcus rhodochrous grown on glucose.  

PubMed

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from costly vegetable oil feedstocks. Some microorganisms can accumulate lipids when nutrients are limited and carbon is in excess. Rhodococcus rhodochrous is a gram-positive bacterium most often used in bioremediation or acrylamide production. The purpose of this study was to investigate and characterize the lipid accumulation capabilities of R. rhodochrous. Shake flasks and a large-scale fermentation were used to cultivate R. rhodochrous in varying concentrations of glucose. R. rhodochrous achieved almost 50 % of dry cell mass as lipid when grown in 20 g/L of glucose. Wax esters and triglycerides were identified in R. rhodochrous lipid extract. The transesterified extractables of R. rhodochrous consisted of mostly palmitic (35 %) and oleic (42 %) acid methyl esters. This study shows R. rhodochrous to be an oleaginous bacterium with potential for application in alternative fuels. PMID:25656153

Shields-Menard, Sara A; Amirsadeghi, Marta; Sukhbaatar, Badamkhand; Revellame, Emmanuel; Hernandez, Rafael; Donaldson, Janet R; French, W Todd

2015-05-01

447

Ordered structures and metastable alloys grown by OMVPE  

SciTech Connect

Our understanding of the thermodynamics of mixing in semiconductor solids has evolved from the purely empirical regular solution model to models based on the electron energy states in the solid, including the delta-lattice parameter (DLP) model and, more recently, first principles calculations. These models are in agreement that the enthalpy of mixing is invariably /ge/0 for III/V and II/VI alloys, and increases with increasing difference in lattice constant for the constituent binary compounds. In terms of the simple thermochemical mixing models, this suggests the occurrence of miscibility gaps. Solid phase immiscibility has indeed been observed in a number of systems. Nevertheless, such alloys can be grown by OMVPE, including the highly metastable alloys GaPSb and InPSb. Ordered structures have now been observed in several III/V alloy systems including the ternary systems GaAsSb, GaInP, AlInAs, AlGaAs, and GaInAs, and the quaternaries GaInAsP, GaInAsSb, and AlGaInP. In this paper, ordering in other alloy systems such as GaPSb, InPSb, InAsSb, and GaAsP will be described. An unexpected observation is that the preferred ordered structure for the ternaries GaInP, GaPSb, InAsSb, and GaAsP involves ordering along the /l angle/111/r angle/ directions, forming the Cu--Pt(L1/sub 1/) structure. This is also true of GaAsSb grown by MBE. Both the first principles calculations and simple strain energy calculations indicate that such ordered structures are more stable than the disordered solid solution, but less stable than other ordered structures. 56 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Stringfellow, G.B.

1989-01-01

448

Magnetic and structural properties of MBE-grown oxidic multilayers  

SciTech Connect

Multilayers composed of oxides including Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3{minus}x}O{sub 4}, CoO, NiO and MgO have been grown epitaxially by MBE on MgO(100) single crystal substrates. These structures can be grown with a high crystallinity in the form of flat layers having sharp interfaces. RHEED studies which commonly yielded sharp streaks accompanied by Kikuchi lines show that, for instance, growth of CoO on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} changes the RHEED pattern form from that consistent with a spinel structure to that of a rocksalt structure within about one and a half unit cell of CoO. STM studies on a 400 {angstrom} Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} layer displaying atomic resolution enabled us to identify the origin of the reconstruction that one commonly observes in the RHEED and LEED patterns for magnetite. Regarding important fundamental magnetic parameters, relevant thickness dependencies were mapped out using localized magneto-optical Kerr effect experiments performed on several samples that routinely included one or multiple wedge shaped layers. These studies revealed the existence of a region in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} layer near the interfaces which exhibits no net magnetic moment, strain driven perpendicular orientated magnetization for the CoO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(100) and CoO/Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3{minus}x}O{sub 4}(100) bilayer systems, and information on the thickness dependence of the magnetic interlayer coupling across an MgO spacer layer.

Bloemen, P.J.H.; Heijden, P.A.A. van der; Kohlhepp, J.T.; Jonge, W.J.M. de [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Physics; Wolf, R.M.; Stegge, J. aan de; Reinders, A.; Jungblut, R.M.; Zaag, P.J. van der [Philips Research Labs., Eindhoven (Netherlands)

1996-11-01

449

Effect of in-situ oxygen on the electronic properties of graphene grown by carbon molecular beam epitaxy grown  

SciTech Connect

We report that graphene grown by molecular beam epitaxy from solid carbon (CMBE) on (0001) SiC in the presence of unintentional oxygen exhibits a small bandgap on the order of tens of meV. The presence of bandgaps is confirmed by temperature dependent Hall effect and resistivity measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements suggest that oxygen incorporates into the SiC substrate in the form of O-Si-C and not into the graphene as graphene oxide or some other species. The effect is independent of the carrier type of the graphene. Temperature dependent transport measurements show the presence of hopping conduction in the resistivity and a concurrent disappearance of the Hall voltage. Interactions between the graphene layers and the oxidized substrate are believed to be responsible for the bandgap.

Park, Jeongho; Mitchel, W. C.; Back, Tyson C. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate (AFRL/RXPS), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States); Elhamri, Said [Department of Physics, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States)

2012-03-26

450

Evidence that an internal carbonic anhydrase is present in 5% CO/sub 2/-grown and air-grown Chlamydomonas. [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO/sub 2/. Both air-grown cells, that have a CO/sub 2/ concentrating system, and 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells also accumulated some C/sub i/, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO/sub 2/ fixation by high CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase.

Moroney, J.V.; Togasaki, R.K.; Husic, H.D.; Tolbert, N.E.

1987-07-01

451

Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.  

PubMed

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

Akram, Muhammad

2013-09-01