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1

Identification, isolation and some properties of lectin from the seeds of Indian coral tree [Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill].  

PubMed

A D-galactose-binding lectin agglutinating human erythrocytes has been purified from the seeds of the Indian coral tree (Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill] by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose-6B gel. It has a higher reactivity for O-group erythrocytes. The lectin is a glycoprotein having a leucoagglutinating property. PMID:7325983

Datta, T K; Basu, P S

1981-09-01

2

Identification, isolation and some properties of lectin from the seeds of Indian coral tree [Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill  

PubMed Central

A D-galactose-binding lectin agglutinating human erythrocytes has been purified from the seeds of the Indian coral tree (Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill] by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose-6B gel. It has a higher reactivity for O-group erythrocytes. The lectin is a glycoprotein having a leucoagglutinating property. PMID:7325983

Datta, T K; Basu, P S

1981-01-01

3

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of a Novel Flavonol Glycoside from the Bauhinia Variegata Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bauhinia variegata Linn. (Leguminosae) is commonly known as 'Kachnar' in Hindi. It is distributed almost throught India. Its powdered bark is traditionally used for tonic, astrain, ulcers. It is also useful in skin diseases. The roots are used as antidote to snake poison. The present article deals with the isolation and structural elucidation of a novel flavonol glycoside 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-7- O

R. N. Yadava; V. Madhu Sudhan Reddy

2003-01-01

4

Erythrina variegata Linn: A review on morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects.  

PubMed

This review gives an account of the current knowledge on the morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of Erythrina variegata. E. variegata also called Erythrina indica is a thorny deciduous tree growing to 60 feet tall. A wide range of chemical compounds have been isolated, mainly alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and lectin. Different parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine as nervine sedative, collyrium in opthalmia, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antiseptic, and as an astringent. The alkaloids extracted from the leaves of E. variegata are reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Isoflavonoids isolated from E. variegata having antibacterial and anthelmintic activity. E. variegata shows several other characteristic pharmacological effects like neuromuscular blocking, smooth muscle relaxant, CNS depressant, and hydrocholeretic, which are consistent with the reported uses of the plant extracts in the indigenous system of medicine. Hence the present article includes the detailed exploration of morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of E. variegata in an attempt to provide a direction for further research. PMID:22228954

Kumar, A; Lingadurai, S; Jain, A; Barman, N R

2010-07-01

5

Erythrina variegata Linn: A review on morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects  

PubMed Central

This review gives an account of the current knowledge on the morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of Erythrina variegata. E. variegata also called Erythrina indica is a thorny deciduous tree growing to 60 feet tall. A wide range of chemical compounds have been isolated, mainly alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and lectin. Different parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine as nervine sedative, collyrium in opthalmia, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antiseptic, and as an astringent. The alkaloids extracted from the leaves of E. variegata are reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Isoflavonoids isolated from E. variegata having antibacterial and anthelmintic activity. E. variegata shows several other characteristic pharmacological effects like neuromuscular blocking, smooth muscle relaxant, CNS depressant, and hydrocholeretic, which are consistent with the reported uses of the plant extracts in the indigenous system of medicine. Hence the present article includes the detailed exploration of morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of E. variegata in an attempt to provide a direction for further research. PMID:22228954

Kumar, A.; Lingadurai, S.; Jain, A.; Barman, N. R.

2010-01-01

6

Amino acid sequence of chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI from the seeds of Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis.  

PubMed

The amino acids of the chymotrypsin inhibitor (ECI) from the Erythrina variegata seeds have been sequenced. The sequence was solved by analysis of peptides derived from the protein by enzymatic digestions with trypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, as well as by chemical cleavage with o-iodosobenzoic acid. The ECI consists of 179 amino acid residues with a pyroglutamic acid as the N-terminal residue and has a calculated molecular weight of 19,791. Comparison of this sequence with the sequences of the two trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, from the E. variegata seeds shows that about 60% of the residues of ECI are identical to those of ETIa and ETIb and that the reactive sites, Arg63, in ETIa and ETIb change to Leu64 in ECI. PMID:7763417

Kimura, M; Kouzuma, Y; Yamasaki, N

1993-01-01

7

Structural requirements for the binding of oligosaccharides to immobilized lectin of Erythrina variegata (Linn) var. orientalis.  

PubMed

The structural requirements for the interaction of asparagine-linked oligosaccharide moieties of glycoproteins with Erythrina variegata agglutinin (EVA) were investigated by means of affinity chromatography on an EVA-Sepharose column. Some of the branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides obtained from human erythrocyte band 3 glycoprotein were found to show high affinity to EVA-Sepharose, whereas complex-type oligosaccharides were shown to have low affinity. Hybrid type, oligomannose-type and unbranched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides bound very little or not at all to EVA-Sepharose. To further study the carbohydrate-binding specificity of this lectin, we investigated the interaction of immobilized EVA and oligosaccharide fragments obtained through partial hydrolysis from branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides. Branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides were subjected to limited hydrolysis with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid at 100 degrees C for 40 min and then separated on an amino-bonded silica column. One of pentasaccharides thus prepared strongly bound to the EVA-Sepharose column. Structural analysis of this pentasaccharide showed that the Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3(Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6)Gal sugar sequence, which is an I-antigen determinant, was essential for the high affinity binding of the oligosaccharides to the EVA-Sepharose column. PMID:2136348

Li, H; Yamamoto, K; Kawashima, H; Osawa, T

1990-01-01

8

Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.  

PubMed

The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N

1992-11-01

9

A New Flavone Glycoside, 5Hydroxy 7,3?,4?,5?-Tetra-Methoxyflavone 5-O-?-D-Xylopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-Rhamnopyranoside from Bauhinia Variegata Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flavone glycoside m.f. C30H36O15, m.p. 252253C, [M] 636 (EIMS) was isolated from the acetone soluble fraction of the concentrated 95% ethanolic extract of the seeds of Bauhinia variegata (Linn). It was identified as 5-hydroxy7,3?,4?,5?-tetra-methoxyflavone 5-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) by various colour reactions, chemical degradations and spectral techniques.

R. N. Yadava; V. M. S. Reddy

2001-01-01

10

[Porphyria variegata].  

PubMed

Report of two patients with porphyria variegata. Several members of the first patient's family had abnormalities of porphyrine metabolism without having manifestations of porphyria. A biochemical screening of family members of PV patients is important because of its prophylactic value. In the second patient's family at least three persons have porphyria-like signs, but not all of them could be seen by us. Diagnosis, pathogenesis and therapy of porphyria variegata are discussed. PMID:7451141

Meinhof, W; Kraus, F; Reiffers-Mettelock, J; Verspohl, F; Doss, M

1980-11-01

11

Isolation and characterization of isolectins from Erythrina variegata seeds.  

PubMed

Three isolectins were isolated from seeds of Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis by ion-exchange chromatography, followed by affinity chromatography on lactose-Sepharose 4B and acid-treated Sepharose 4B columns. The purified isolectins (EVLI, EVLII and EVLIII) are all specific for galactopyranosides and N-acetylgalactosamine, and their affinities for simple sugars are EVLIII greater than EVLII greater than EVLI. EVLI and EVLIII are homodimers made up of an A-subunit of molecular mass 36,000 and a B-subunit of molecular mass 33,000, whereas EVLII is a heterodimer composed of the A- and B-subunits. Upon treatment with trifluoromethansulphonic acid, the molecular masses of both subunits decreased to 31,000. Rechromatography of EVLII on the acid-treated Sepharose 4B column again produced the homodimeric lectins (EVLI and EVLIII). It is suggested that the constituent subunits of Erythrina variegata isolectins are eschangeable with each other in vitro. PMID:1517319

Yamasaki, N; Kimura, M; Yamaguchi, O; Araki, M

1992-04-24

12

[Hepatocellular carcinoma in a lemur (Varecia variegata rubra x variegata)--a case report].  

PubMed

This case report describes a spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma in a six years-old female lemur (Varecia variegata rubra x variegata) with widespread metastases. Potential causes of hepatic neoplasms are discussed. PMID:8964241

Wohlsein, P; Petzold, D R; Brandt, H P

1996-05-01

13

Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation  

PubMed Central

The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2?mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 0.09??m2 to 35.66 0.10??m2 and 142.90 0.59??m2 to 165.05 0.58??m2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period. PMID:23766703

Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

2013-01-01

14

Isolation and Structure Determination of a Benzofuran and a Bis-Nor-Isoprenoid from Aspergillus Niger Grown on the Water Soluble Fraction of Morinda Citrifolia Linn. Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new benzofuran and a bis-nor-isoprenoid, blumenol C, hitherto unreported from this source. The structures of these have been elucidated as 5-benzofuran carboxylic acid-6-formyl methyl ester (1) and 4-(3?(R)-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5, trimethyl-cyclohex-2-en-1-one (2) respectively through spectroscopic studies. The NMR data (including 1D, 2D techniques) and stereochemistry at C-3? of Compound 2 is also being reported

Bina S. Siddiqui; Fouzia A. Sattar Ismail; Tahsin Gulzar; Sabira Begum

2003-01-01

15

[Porphyria variegata. Apropos of a case].  

PubMed

A patient hospitalized because of somatic disturbances without any sign of detectable cerebral organicity and because of secondary anxiety disorder and major depression presents different clinical pictures with a neurological aspect. All this pictures, that evoke the diagnostic of hysteria conversion in particular, are complicated by a tetraplegia with emission of red urine that enable us to think of a diagnostic of hepatic-porphyria (variegata). Hereditary metabolic diseases, which categories of bioclinic symptoms (that enable us to evoke the diagnostic and to prevent the complications that are breeded by the prescription of forbidden drugs for ill subject) are reminded. PMID:8674472

Virgili, P; Gal, M C

1995-01-01

16

The re-stocking of captive-bred ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) into the Betampona Reserve, Madagascar: methodology and recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since November 1997 the Madagascar Fauna Group has released 13 captive-bred black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) into the Betampona Reserve in eastern Madagascar. The release programme has three major aims: (1) to assess the ability of captive-bred V. v. variegata to adapt to life in their natural habitat; (2) to investigate the contribution that such a release

Adam Britt; Charles Welch; Andrea Katz; Bernard Iambana; Ingrid Porton; Randall Junge; Graham Crawford; Cathy Williams; David Haring

2004-01-01

17

Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications  

SciTech Connect

Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Bah, Clara Shui Fern [Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago (New Zealand)] [Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago (New Zealand); Lin, Peng [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Tsao, Sai Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ng, Tzi Bun, E-mail: b021770@mailserv.cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)

2010-06-11

18

Reproductive activity of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) in a Madagascar rain forest.  

PubMed

Mating activity was observed during four breeding seasons in two groups of black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) living in lowland rain forest on Nosy Mangabe island, Madagascar. The onset of the May-July breeding season was signalled by behavioral changes in adult males. Males made forays outside their usual home ranges, were more aggressive to other males, and performed appetitive and other sex-specific behaviors more frequently. Females showed receptive and proceptive behaviors during a 1-2 day behavioral estrus. Ruffed lemurs mated monogamously, polyandrously, and polygynously. These observations do not support previous assertions that they live only in monogamous families. Limited evidence suggests females exercised mate choice and may have preferred familiar males. PMID:8512055

Morland, H S

1993-05-01

19

Molecular docking and analgesic studies of Erythrina variegata?s derived phytochemicals with COX enzymes  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites from plants are a good source for the NSAID drug development. We studied the analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Erythrina variegata L. (Fabaceae) followed by molecular docking analysis. The analgesic activity of Erythrina variegata L. is evaluated by various methods viz., acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate and tail immersion test. Subsequently, molecular docking analysis has been performed to identify compounds having activity against COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes by using GOLD docking fitness. The result of preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extract contains alkaloids and flavonoids. In analgesic activity tests, the extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) produced a increase in pain threshold in a dose dependent manner. In acetic acid induced writhing test, the inhibitory effect was similar to the reference drug diclofenac sodium. The extract showed 18.89% writhing inhibitory effect at the dose 200 mg/kg b.w., whereas diclofenac sodium showed 79.42% inhibition of writhing at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. The results of tail immersion and hot plate test also showed potential analgesic activity of the extract which is also comparable to the standard drug morphine (5 mg/kg b.w.). Docking studies shows that phaseollin of Erythrina variegata L. has the best fitness score against the COX-1 which is 56.64 and 59.63 for COX- 2 enzyme. Phaseollin of Erythrina variegata L. detected with significant fitness score and hydrogen bonding against COX-1 and COX-2 is reported for further validation. PMID:25489172

Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Emran, Talha Bin; Mahib, Muhammad Mamunur Rashid; Dash, Raju

2014-01-01

20

Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Found in South Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptea: Coccinellidae), a Palearctic lady beetles established in North America, is reported for the first time from the state of South Dakota, U.S.A. Implications for biological control and future research are discussed....

21

Porphyria variegata treated with cyproterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol.  

PubMed

The cyclical use of cyproterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol successfully prevented attacks of abdominal pain in a 30-year-old woman suffering from porphyria variegata. Blistering still appeared following light exposure, but possibly to a lesser degree. PMID:6873421

Zachariae, H; Cramers, M

1983-01-01

22

Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs.  

PubMed

General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO(2) levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO(2) and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1)) under two levels of CO(2) (360 and 860 ?L L(-1), respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO(2) than under ambient CO(2) for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1), the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO(2) was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient CO(2) with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO(2) significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in promoting utilization of CO(2) fertilization for improvement of phytoextraction of soils contaminated with radionuclides. PMID:22507353

Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

2012-10-01

23

The behavioral repertoire of the black-and-white ruffed lemur, Varecia variegata variegata (Primates: Lemuridae).  

PubMed

A stable social group of 7 semifree-ranging black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) was studied for 4 months to catalog the behavioral repertoire of this species. Observations focussed on particular aspects of behavior were conducted before and after this 4-month period to supplement information gathered. Behavior in 11 major categories is detailed: postures, terrestrial locomotion, arboreal locomotion, feeding behavior, vocalizations, scent-marking, affinitive social behavior, agonistic social behavior, play behavior, sexual behavior, and parental behavior. Ruffed lemurs frequently used body positions and locomotor patterns unusual among lemurids, including bipedal hanging and long-descent leaps. These behaviors reinforce dental evidence that Varecia are among the most frugivorous of the Malagasy lemurs. Low intragroup cohesion, infrequent social interaction, and antiphonal use of several long-distance vocalizations suggest that ruffed lemurs naturally exhibit fission-fusion sociality. Social structure based on interindividual familiarity probably extends across foraging parties for several of the diurnally active lemurs; however, thus far only Varecia seems likely to exhibit fission-fusion sociality analogous to that seen in spider monkeys and chimpanzees. PMID:3251818

Pereira, M E; Seeligson, M L; Macedonia, J M

1988-01-01

24

Gastric pneumatosis with associated eosinophilic gastritis in four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).  

PubMed

Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) with associated eosinophilic inflammation was documented in the gastric tissues of four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is an uncommon disease described in humans and characterized by multilocular gas-filled cystic spaces located within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. These cystic spaces can occur in any location along the gastrointestinal tract as well as within the associated connective and lymphatic tissues. The exact cause of this disease is unknown. The four black and white ruffed lemurs described in this case series were captive born and had been housed in zoological institutions at two separate locations. Three of the four cases were female lemurs, and two of the affected lemurs were directly related. The individual disease presentations spanned a 5-yr time period. Two lemurs presented dead with no premonitory signs, whereas the other two lemurs presented with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and nonspecific signs of weakness. Gastric pneumatosis, diagnosed either grossly or histopathologically in each of these four lemurs, is described as a subset of PCI in which cystic spaces are localized to the stomach wall. Significant eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate was identified on histopathology of gastric tissues and found to be associated with the cystic lesions in each lemur. No classic etiology, such as a fungal infection or a parasitic infection, was identified as the cause of the eosinophilic gastritis. This case series demonstrates that gastric pneumatosis with associated eosinophilic gastritis may be a significant gastrointestinal disease in black and white ruffed lemurs. PMID:23505706

Niederwerder, Megan C; Stalis, Ilse H; Campbell, Gregory A; Backues, Kay A

2013-03-01

25

Hematology and serum chemistry values of juvenile and adult ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).  

PubMed

Hematologic and serum chemistry values are presented for adult and juvenile red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra) and black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) maintained in a zoological collection. Hematologic and serum chemical values are compared between age groups and subspecies and with other primate species. Elevated hematocrit, total protein, and serum albumin values were noted. Significant differences in cholesterol, total protein, and serum albumin values between the two age groups are discussed. PMID:3981623

Karesh, W B; Olson, T P

1985-01-01

26

Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation genetics of black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata variegata.  

PubMed

A character-based phylogenetic species concept approach was used to examine conservation unit status for three wild populations of black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia vareigata variegata, from Betampona (N = 3), Manombo (N = 6), and Ranomafana (N = 14), Madagascar. Population aggregation analysis was performed on 548 bp from the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Twenty-one diagnostic sites were found to differentiate the Betampona (northern) population from the Manombo/Ranomafana (southern) populations. Additionally, individuals from the North American captive population (N = 11) and from Parc Ivoloina, Madagascar (N = 6) were examined for the same mtDNA fragment. The captive animals more closely resembled the southern populations and the Parc Ivoloina animals were more similar to the northern population. However, the inclusion of these ex situ animals reduced the number of diagnostic sites differentiating the northern and southern populations. Our genetic data were used to assess the ongoing management strategy for reintroducing individuals into the Betampona population and for introducing new founders into the ex situ population. This study demonstrates the utility of combining genetic information with a consideration of conservation priorities in evaluating the implementation of management strategies. PMID:10703554

Wyner, Y M; Amato, G; Desalle, R

1999-12-01

27

Dimeric Erythrina Alkaloids from the Flower of Erythrina variegata.  

PubMed

Unprecedented dimeric Erythrina alkaloids, spirocyclic (6/5/6/6) erythrivarine A (1) and spiro-fused (6/5/7/6) rings erythrivarine B (2), were isolated from the cultivated plant, E. variegata. The structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, FTIR, UV, and mass spectroscopic data and X-ray crystal diffraction. The biogenetic relationship of 1 and 2 is proposed. PMID:25470209

Zhang, Bing-Jie; Bao, Mei-Fen; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Zhong, Xiu-Hong; Ni, Ling; Zeng, Ying; Cai, Xiang-Hai

2014-12-19

28

Effect of Erythrina variegata seed extract on hyperlipidemia elicited by high-fat diet in wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the effect of the methanolic extract of Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var Orientalis (Fabaceae) seeds (MEEV) in reducing the cholesterol levels and as well as antioxidant in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract were evaluated for its effect on lipid profile, HMG-CoA reductase, and on antioxidant enzymes in high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia. Results and Conclusion: The elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein due to HFD was reduced by concurrent treatment with MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.001). A significant reduction (P<0.001) in high-density lipoprotein was noticed in HFD fed groups; however, a nonsignificant increment was produced by the administration of MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). The HMG-CoA reductase activity was increased in HFD fed animals significantly (P<0.001) and was reduced by MEEV 400 mg/kg significantly (P<0.001). There was a noticed increase in the body weight and mesenteric fat pad weight in HFD fed group (P<0.001), which was reduced by the administration of MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). The antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced significantly in the HFD fed group, whose levels were increased significantly (P<0.001) by the administration of MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). Lipid peroxidation was increased in HFD fed animals, which was reduced significantly (P<0.001) by the treatment with MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). PMID:21180471

Balamurugan, G.; Shantha, A.

2010-01-01

29

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate serum ferritin in black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).  

PubMed

Lemurs in captivity progressively accumulate iron deposits in a variety of organs (hemosiderosis) including duodenum, liver, and spleen throughout their lives. When excessive, the toxic effects of intracellular iron on parenchymal cells, particularly the liver, can result in clinical disease and death. The pathogenesis of excessive iron storage in these species has been attributed to dietary factors related to diets commonly fed in captivity. Tissue iron stores can be directly estimated by tissue biopsy and histologic examination, or quantitated by chemical analysis of biopsy tissue, However, expense and risk associated with anesthesia and surgery prevent routine use of tissue biopsy to assess iron status. A noninvasive means of assessing total body iron stores is needed to monitor iron stores in lemurs to determine whether dietary modification is preventing excessive iron deposition, and to monitor potential therapies such as phlebotomy or chelation. Serum ferritin concentration correlates with tissue iron stores in humans, horses, calves, dogs, cats, and pigs. Serum ferritin is considered the best serum analyte to predict total body iron stores in these species and is more reliable than serum iron or total iron binding capacity, both of which may be affected by disorders unrelated to iron adequacy or excess including hypoproteinemia, chronic infection, hemolytic anemia, hypothyroidism, renal disease, and drug administration. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum ferritin in lemurs. The assay uses polyclonal rabbit anti-human ferritin antibodies in a sandwich arrangement. Ferritin isolated from liver and spleen of a black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) was used as a standard. Ferritin standards were linear from 0 to 50 microg/L. Recovery of purified ferritin from lemur serum varied from 95% to 110%. The within-assay variability was 4.5%, and the assay-to-assay variability for three different samples ranged from 10% to 17%. The assay also measures serum ferritin in several other lemur species. PMID:17312722

Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia Sue; Crawford, Graham

2005-12-01

30

Diet and feeding behaviour of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) in the Betampona Reserve, eastern Madagascar.  

PubMed

The feeding behaviour and diet of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) was investigated in the Betampona Reserve, eastern Madagascar. The highly frugivorous diet of this subspecies was confirmed - feeding on fruits accounting for 92.0% of feeding records. Most feeding at Betampona was observed at 10-25 m above the forest floor amongst flexible, small (0.5-5.0 cm diameter) and oblique/horizontal (0-45 degrees ) supports. The Varecia spent on average 21.7% (+/- 1.5) of their daily activity budget feeding and employ a variety of postures that enable them to harvest fruits in the rain forest canopy. The suspensory postures were the most important in allowing Varecia to compete with other smaller-bodied frugivores. PMID:10828690

Britt, A

2000-01-01

31

Naturally occurring cerebral nematodiasis due to Baylisascaris larval migration in two black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) and suspected cases in three emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).  

PubMed

During September and October 1992, two black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) were housed in an outdoor wire enclosure at the Tulsa Zoological Park. The following February and April, both lemurs developed head tilt and ataxia, and they were euthanized. Necropsy revealed multifocal malacia of the white matter of the pons, cerebellum, internal capsule, and cerebral and cerebellar peduncles. Nematode larvae consistent with Baylisascaris spp. were observed in the brain of one lemur. A retrospective study revealed three cases of ataxia in emus (Dromaius novaeholloandiae) that were previously housed in the same enclosure. Archival paraffin-embedded tissue from one emu revealed tractlike foci of malacia within the white matter of the cerebellum. Circumstantial evidence, including the observation of numerous raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the vicinity, and the presence of numerous Baylisascaris. procyonis in the intestine of a single trapped raccoon implicate this roundworm as the pathologic agent in the lemurs. PMID:9279412

Campbell, G A; Hoover, J P; Russell, W C; Breazile, J E

1997-06-01

32

Growth and reproductive phenology of the kelp Lessonia variegata in central New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study of Lessonia variegata growing in depths of 810 m on the south coast of Wellington, New Zealand investigated morphometric and biomass indices measured on destructively harvested entire algae, rates of blade elongation measured in situ using a blade hole punch technique, and timing of fertility over a 2?year period. Blade fertility was estimated using a fertility score

Ian Hawes; Wendy Nelson; Neil Andrew

2006-01-01

33

Growth and cesium uptake responses of Phytolacca americana Linn. and Amaranthus cruentus L. grown on cesium contaminated soil to elevated CO2 or inoculation with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54, or in combination.  

PubMed

Growth and cesium uptake responses of plants to elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, can be explored for clean-up of contaminated soils, and this induced phytoextraction may be better than the natural process. The present study used open-top chambers to investigate combined effects of Burkholderia sp. D54 inoculation and elevated CO(2) (860 ?L L(-1)) on growth and Cs uptake by Phytolacca americana and Amaranthus cruentus grown on soil spiked with various levels of Cs (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). Elevated CO(2) and bacterial inoculation, alone or in combination, significantly increased biomass production with increased magnitude, ranging from 22% to 139% for P. americana, and 14% to 254% for A. cruentus. Total tissue Cs in both plants was significantly greater for bacterial inoculation treatment singly, and combined treatments of bacterial inoculation and elevated CO(2) than for the control treatment in most cases. Regardless of CO(2) concentrations and bacterial inoculation, A. cruentus had higher tissue Cs concentration, Cs transfer factors and concentration ratios than P. americana, but they had slightly different contents of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that combined effects of elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation with regard to plant ability to grow and remove radionuclides from soil can be explored for CO(2)- and microbe-assisted phytoextraction technology. PMID:22074893

Tang, Shirong; Liao, Shangqiang; Guo, Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Ruigang; Zhou, Xiaomin

2011-12-30

34

Depth-related variation in epiphytic communities growing on the brown alga Lobophora variegata in a Caribbean coral reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lobophora variegata is a dominant macroalga on coral reefs across the Caribbean. Over the last two decades, it has expanded its vertical distribution to both shallow and deep reefs along the leeward coast of the island of Curaao, Southern Caribbean. However, the ecological implications of this expansion and the role of L. variegata as a living substratum are poorly known. This study compared epiphytic algal communities on L. variegata blades along two depth transects (6-40 m). The epiphytic community was diverse with a total of 70 species of which 49 were found directly attached to L. variegata. The epiphytic community varied significantly between blade surface, depth and site. The greatest number of genera per blade was found growing on the underside of the blades regardless of site and depth. Filamentous red algae (e.g. Neosiphonia howei) were commonly found on the upperside of the blades over the whole depth gradient, whereas the underside was mainly colonized by calcifying (e.g. Hydrolithon spp., Jania spp., Amphiroa fragillissima), fleshy red algae (e.g. Champia spp., Gelidiopsis spp., Hypnea spinella) and foliose brown alga (e.g. Dictyota spp.). Anotrichum tenue, a red alga capable of overgrowing corals, was a common epiphyte of both blade surfaces. L. variegata plays an important role as a newly available substratum. Thus, its spread may influence other algal species and studies of benthic macroalgae such as L. variegata should also take into consideration their associated epiphytic algal communities.

Fricke, A.; Titlyanova, T. V.; Nugues, M. M.; Bischof, K.

2011-12-01

35

Semecarpus anacardium Linn.: A review  

PubMed Central

Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Family: Anacardiaceae), commonly known Ballataka or Bhilwa, has been used in various traditional system of medicines for various ailments since ancient times. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which show various medicinal properties. The fruit and nut extract shows various activities like antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-reproductive, CNS stimulant, hypoglycemic, anticarcinogenic and hair growth promoter. The article reviews the various activities of the plant. PMID:22228947

Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Badola, Ashutosh; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, M. S. M.

2010-01-01

36

140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to provide information about the Linn Cove viaduct. Looking south-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

37

Phytochemical investivations of indigofera tinctoria linn leaves.  

PubMed

Studies of Indigofera tinctoria Linn has shows that it possesses low toxicity. Phytochemical evaluation of leaf extract of Indigofera tinctoria Linn has been carried out to characterize some constituents present therein. Qualitative analysis of the extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids. Five compounds have been isolated from petroleum ether extract and methanolic extract and have been characterized by U.V.IR and H1 NMR data, petroleum ether extract were also characterized by HPTLC. PMID:22557060

Verma, S M; Suresh, K B

2002-04-01

38

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIVATIONS OF INDIGOFERA TINCTORIA LINN LEAVES  

PubMed Central

Studies of Indigofera tinctoria Linn has shows that it possesses low toxicity. Phytochemical evaluation of leaf extract of Indigofera tinctoria Linn has been carried out to characterize some constituents present therein. Qualitative analysis of the extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids. Five compounds have been isolated from petroleum ether extract and methanolic extract and have been characterized by U.V.IR and H1 NMR data, petroleum ether extract were also characterized by HPTLC. PMID:22557060

Verma, S.M.; Suresh, K.B.

2002-01-01

39

Long-term dynamics of the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata on deep reefs in Curaao  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobophora variegata occurs in the eulittoral zone and in deep water on coral reefs in Curaao. An analysis of the long-term (19792006) changes\\u000a in the vertical distribution of the macroalga in permanent quadrats indicated a significant increase in cover of the deepwater\\u000a community. In 1998, Lobophora covered 1 and 5% of the quadrats at 20 and 30m, respectively. By 2006,

M. M. Nugues; R. P. M. Bak

2008-01-01

40

Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11222.67?mg?QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40?mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5?mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (1040??g/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 9099% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts. PMID:24093108

Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K.; Pandey, Abhay K.

2013-01-01

41

Preparation and biological properties of a melibiose binding lectin from Bauhinia variegata seeds.  

PubMed

A dimeric 64-kDa melibiose-binding lectin was isolated from the seeds of Bauhinia variegata. The isolation procedure comprised affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Mono Q, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The lectin was adsorbed on the first two chromatographic media. Its hemagglutinating activity was stable after 30-min exposure to temperatures up to 70 degrees C. Since lectins may demonstrate biological activities such as antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, antifungal, antiviral, and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities, the isolated lectin was tested for these activities. It was found that the lectin inhibited proliferation in hepatoma HepG2 cells and breast cancer MCF7 cells with an IC(50) of 1.4 microM and 0.18 microM, respectively. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity was inhibited with an IC(50) of 1.02 microM. The lectin and concanavalin A (Con A) evoked maximal mitogenic response from mouse splenocytes at similar concentrations, but the maximal response to B. variegata lectin was only 1/5 of that induced by Con A in magnitude. B. variegata lectin was devoid of antifungal activity. PMID:18942841

Lin, Peng; Ng, Tzi Bun

2008-11-26

42

Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.  

PubMed

We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V. variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal with an intrinsically erratic food supply by virtue of its reproductive biology and social behavior. PMID:15898066

Balko, Elizabeth A; Underwood, H Brian

2005-05-01

43

Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal with an intrinsically erratic food supply by virtue of its reproductive biology and social behavior.

Balko, E.A.; Underwood, H.B.

2005-01-01

44

Survey and clinical application of serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).  

PubMed

Serum samples from 63 clinically normal captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) were analyzed to survey serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin levels. Data analysis showed no differences in these analytes attributable to sex, but significantly higher levels of serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in older animals. The survey data were examined in light of two black and white ruffed lemurs that were treated for iron overload with serial phlebotomies. Prior to therapy, both phlebotomized lemurs had excess hepatic iron deposition, but had serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin below the upper limits observed in the survey animals, suggesting that some clinically normal animals included in the survey may have accumulated excess systemic iron. Serial phlebotomy therapy reduced serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in both animals. Three years after the conclusion of therapy in the one remaining case, serum iron and transferrin saturation have risen substantially, whereas serum ferritin has risen slightly. Serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin may be useful predictors of systemic iron stores in this species, though the correlation between these parameters and systemic iron stores needs to be determined. PMID:17312723

Crawford, Graham C; Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia S; Dunker, Freeland H; Garner, Michael M; Sargent, Eva L

2005-12-01

45

Characterization of the molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi plant extracts against the fasciola vector Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

The molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata leaf and Mimusops elengi bark was studied against vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. The toxicity of both plants was time and concentration-dependent. Among organic extracts, ethanol extracts of both plants were more toxic. Toxicity of B. variegata leaf ethanolic extract (96h LC50- 14.4 mg/L) was more pronounced than M. elengi bark ethanolic extract (96h LC50-15.0 mg/L). The 24h LC50 of column purified fraction of B. variegata and M. elengi bark were 20.3 mg/L and 18.3 mg/L, respectively. Saponin and quercetin were characterized and identified as active molluscicidal component. Co-migration of saponin (Rf 0.48) and quercetin (Rf 0.52) with column purified bark of M. elengi and leaf of B. variegata on thin layer chromatography demonstrate same Rf value i.e. 0.48 and 0.52, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the possibility of using M. elengi and/or B. variegata as potent molluscicide. PMID:22634884

Singh, Kanchan Lata; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

2012-01-01

46

(1S)-1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate: major sex pheromone component of Paulownia bagworm, Clania variegata.  

PubMed

The Paulownia bagworm, Clania variegata Snell. (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), is one of the most significant forest defoliators in China. In gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection analyses of pheromone gland extracts of female C. variegata on three GC columns (DB-5, DB-23, DB-210), two compounds (A and B) elicited strong responses from male antennae. The more abundant component B was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as 1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate by transesterification, GC-mass spectrometry (MS), and comparison of its spectral and GC retention characteristics with those of synthetic compounds. In field trapping experiments in China, racemic and (1S)-1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate [but not the (1R)-stereoisomer] attracted male C. variegata. The absolute configuration of B (a molecule with three chiral centers) and the structure of component A remain to be determined. PMID:16900424

Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Tan, Zhong-Xing; Zhao, Bo-Guang; Skip King, G G; Miroshnychenko, Aleksander; Lin, Guo-Qiang; Rhainds, Marc; Gries, Gerhard

2006-08-01

47

Laterality in semi-free-ranging black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata): head-tilt correlates with hand use during feeding.  

PubMed

Previous studies in human and chimpanzee infants have identified a predictive relationship between early rightward head orientation and later right hand use. Data from lemurs suggest a leftward bias in hand preference, but there are no data on head positioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between head and hand preferences in the black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata). Ruffed lemurs rotate the head vertically during chewing in a behavior called head-tilting. Frequency of head-tilting and bouts of unimanual hand use were measured during normal feeding in a semi-free-ranging population of lemurs. Subjects were provisioned at feeding platforms twice daily with fresh fruits, vegetables, and other food items. Sampling was spontaneous and all observations were videotaped. No group-level bias was found for head-tilting, but a left hand bias emerged for hand use. A positive relationship was found between direction of head-tilting preference and direction of hand use preference such that left head-tilts increased as left hand use increased. Furthermore, left head-tilts increased as the degree of hand preference lateralization increased. When the hand used to bring food to the mouth just before head-tilting was examined, there was a strong bias for the left hand to precede left head-tilts. For right head-tilts, however, lemurs were equally likely to use either hand before head-tilting. Overall a strong relationship was found between the left hand and left head-tilting in black and white ruffed lemurs, suggesting a common link between these behaviors. However, the direction of bias was different from that seen in human and chimpanzee studies. Additional studies on patterns of laterality would be informative for understanding how laterality has changed across the primate order and the adaptive significance of laterality in primates. PMID:19771585

Nelson, Eliza L; O'Karma, Jaime M; Ruperti, Felicia S; Novak, Melinda A

2009-12-01

48

Pharmacognosy of Cassia Alata Linn leaves  

PubMed Central

Cassia alata Linn, Commonly known as semaiagathi in Tamil is well known for its various medicinal properties in Indian systems of medicine. Various parts of this plant are used as vermicide, astringent, purgative, expectorant and to treat skin diseases. The present work deals with the anatomy, quantitative microscopy, physical constants and fluorescence analysis of the plant leaves. PMID:22557177

Mohideen, S.; Sasikala, E.; ARUHAJ, P.

2005-01-01

49

Feleucins: Novel Bombinin Precursor-Encoded Nonapeptide Amides from the Skin Secretion of Bombina variegata  

PubMed Central

The first amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide (AMP) to be identified was named bombinin, reflecting its origin from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata). Bombinins and their related peptides, the bombinin Hs, were subsequently reported from other bombinid toads. Molecular cloning of bombinin-encoding cDNAs from skin found that bombinins and bombinin Hs were coencoded on the same precursor proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning of two novel cDNAs from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library of B. variegata whose open-reading frames each encode a novel bombinin (GIGGALLNVGKVALKGLAKGLAEHFANamide) and a C-terminally located single copy of a novel nonapeptide (FLGLLGGLLamide or FLGLIGSLLamide). These novel nonapeptides were named feleucin-BV1 and feleucin-BV2, respectively. The novel bombinin exhibited 89% identity to homologues from the toads, B. microdeladigitora and B. maxima. The feleucins exhibited no identity with any amphibian AMP archived in databases. Synthetic feleucins exhibited a weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus (128256?mg/L) but feleucin-BV1 exhibited a synergistic action with the novel bombinin. The present report clearly demonstrates that the skin secretions of bombinid toads continue to represent a source of peptides of novel structure that could provide templates for the design of therapeutics. PMID:25003126

Bai, Bing; Hou, Xiaojuan; Duan, Jinao

2014-01-01

50

Environmental enrichment to address behavioral differences between wild and captive black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).  

PubMed

I compared the behaviors of wild Varecia variegata living in a Malagasy rain forest with those of caged groups living in zoos in the United Kingdom in order to design environmental enrichment to encourage more natural behaviors. Comparisons were made between wild and captive animals in terms of activity budgets (instantaneously sampled at 1-min intervals) and social and solitary behaviors, which were continuously recorded for focal individuals. I followed the same sampling protocol during behavioral enrichment experiments, with additional monitoring of the amount and type of food consumed, and with more detailed observations of feeding behavior. No significant differences were found in resting or moving between wild and captive V. variegata. However, captive V. variegata spent more time on self-grooming and social behaviors, and less time feeding than wild V. variegata. There was also a lack of manual manipulation of food items. Behavioral enrichment experiments were carried out in which whole rather than chopped fruit was provided and presented in a more naturalistic manner. With this method of dietary presentation, manual manipulation of dietary items increased. Time spent feeding also increased significantly. Captive conservation breeding programs should not be wholly concerned with maintaining a diverse gene pool-they should also be concerned with conserving species-typical behaviors, especially if they are to produce behaviorally intact captive animals that can be reintroduced to the wild with minimal training, financial resources, and loss of individuals. PMID:15898068

Kerridge, Frances J

2005-05-01

51

Functional response of larval and adult stages of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to different densities of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).  

PubMed

We compare the efficiencies of different stages of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) preying on Aphis fabae (Scolpoli) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) by estimating the functional responses of all stages. The experiments were carried out on leaf disks in petri dishes with 15-20 replicates. Our results revealed that all larval instars and adult males and females of H. variegata exhibited type II functional responses on different densities of prey. The rate of searching efficiency and handling time were estimated as 0.063 h(-1) and 6.933 h for first instar, 0.059 h(-1) and 3.343 h for second instar, 0.103 h(-1) and 1.909 h for third instar, 0.114 h(-1) and 0.455 h for fourth instar, 0.159 h(-1) and 1.194 h for male, 0.093 h(-1) and 0.409 h for female, respectively. Thus, handing time decreased from first instar to female. Handling times of males were significantly greater than those of females. The most effective stages of H. variegata were females, fourth instars, and males. The efficiency of females was nearly three times greater than that of males. The voracity of larval stages and male and female adults of H. variegata were estimated as 2.93, 5.85, 12.13, 45.13, 18.33, and 44.60 (aphids/d), respectively. PMID:22546456

Farhadi, Roya; Allahyari, Hossein; Juliano, Steven A

2010-10-01

52

Recurrent calcium phosphate urolithiasis in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata).  

PubMed

An adult intact male black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) suffered recurrent bouts of urethral blockage over a 3-yr period caused by calcium phosphate (apatite form) uroliths. Surgical intervention was required in two of the three instances. Various attempts at medical management failed to control formation of the stones, and the underlying etiology remains unclear. In addition, there have been consistent, multiple, unchanging renal mineralizations over the course of the case. Medical management failed to significantly alter the urinary pH; although, to date, no further problems have been noted. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first known report of calcium phosphate stones in a prosimian species. PMID:24712174

Cushing, Andrew C; Kollias, George; Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Streeter, Renee; Ahou-Madi, Noha

2014-03-01

53

Long-term dynamics of the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata on deep reefs in Curaao  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lobophora variegata occurs in the eulittoral zone and in deep water on coral reefs in Curaao. An analysis of the long-term (1979-2006) changes in the vertical distribution of the macroalga in permanent quadrats indicated a significant increase in cover of the deepwater community. In 1998, Lobophora covered 1 and 5% of the quadrats at 20 and 30 m, respectively. By 2006, these values had risen to 25 and 18%, precipitating a shift in abundance of corals and macroalgae at both depths. This increase coincided with losses in coral cover, possibly linked to bleaching, disease and storm-related mortality in deep water plating Agaricia corals. In contrast, macroalgae remained relatively rare (<6% cover) on shallower (10 m) and deeper (40 m) reefs despite declines in coral cover also occurring at these depths, illustrating the depth-dependent dynamics of coral reefs. Several hypotheses are suggested to explain these changes.

Nugues, M. M.; Bak, R. P. M.

2008-06-01

54

Morphometrics of wild black-and-white ruffed lemurs [Varecia variegata; Kerr, 1792].  

PubMed

This study presents the first detailed morphometric measurements of wild caught black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) from the eastern rainforests of Madagascar and aims to quantify the morphological variation present throughout their recognized range. One hundred and forty-four adult and juvenile individuals from 15 sites were sampled for 20 cranial, dental and postcranial morphometric and body mass measurements. Data were collected from an equal number of male and female individuals sampled across seasons over a 7-year period (1999-2002, 2004-2006). Results indicate that adult body mass and morphometric measurements varied between sexes across sites; however, the only significant intersexual difference found was that females possessed, on average, longer tails than males. Contrary to previous studies, significant seasonal variation could not be detected in either male or female body mass or testicular volume (i.e., breeding vs. nonbreeding, food-scarce vs. food-abundant seasons). Measurements did, however, vary significantly by site and subspecies, though clinal variation could not explain these differences. The introduced population from Nosy Mangabe exhibited significantly lower body mass and overall body length than all other populations; however, this distinction may not have been attributable to natural variation, and may have instead resulted from the ecologically restrictive habitat (e.g., unusually high lemur population densities, limited food resources, ecological isolation) of this introduced population. Finally, although fore-to-hindlimb, brachium-to-thigh and hindlimb indices were comparable to previous values, forelimb indices calculated here deviate significantly from previous reports, placing V. variegata within the upper range of lemurid taxa. It is currently unknown whether this is an artifact of sampling methods (i.e., live vs. skeletal specimens) or whether this is an avenue that warrants further investigation. PMID:18623117

Baden, Andrea L; Brenneman, Rick A; Louis, Edward E

2008-10-01

55

Inhibitory potency of Erythrina variegata proteinase inhibitors toward serine proteinases in the blood coagulation and fibrinolytic systems.  

PubMed

The Erythrina variegata Kunitz family trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and also the prothrombin time (PT) of human plasma, but the Kunitz family chymotrypsin inhibitor, ECI, and Bowman-Birk family inhibitor, EBI, from E. variegata hardly prolonged these times. Trypsin inhibitors ETIa and ETIb inhibited the amidolytic activity of factor Xa, and ETIb but not ETIA inhibited plasma kallikrein. Neither ETIa nor ETIb exhibited any inhibitory activity toward beta-factor XIIa and thrombin. Furthermore, trypsin inhibitors ETIa and ETIb inhibited plasmin, a serine proteinase in the fibrinolytic system, whereas ECI and EBI did not. These results indicate that Erythrina Kunitz proteinase inhibitors possess different potency toward serine proteinases in the blood coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, in spite of their high similarity in amino acid sequence. PMID:8987561

Nakagaki, T; Shibuya, Y; Kouzuma, Y; Yamasaki, N; Kimura, M

1996-08-01

56

Biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) onto brown seaweed, Lobophoravariegata (Lamouroux): kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the biosorption performance of raw and chemically modified biomass of the brown seaweed Lobophoravariegata for removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The biosorption capacity was significantly altered by pH of the solution\\u000a delineating that the higher the pH, the higher the Cd(II) and Pb(II) removal. Kinetic and isotherm experiments were carried\\u000a out at

Bhavanath Jha; Shaik Basha; Santlal Jaiswar; Biswajit Mishra; Mukund C. Thakur

2009-01-01

57

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review.  

PubMed

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant. PMID:21455454

Galani, Varsha J; Patel, B G; Rana, D G

2010-10-01

58

Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties  

PubMed Central

Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action. PMID:22096323

Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

2011-01-01

59

Can black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) solve object permanence tasks?  

PubMed

We examined object permanence in black-and-white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) at Zoo Atlanta. A series of visible and invisible displacement tasks with suitable controls were presented to five adult subjects. Subjects performed significantly above chance on all regular tasks, except for the double invisible displacements. Subjects failed visible and invisible controls. Failure on the control trials did not appear to be because subjects used the "last box touched" strategy (subjects did not choose the last box touched significantly more than expected by chance). However, a substantial percentage of choices was made to the last box touched by the experimenter. There was no significant difference between this percentage, and the percentage of choices made to the baited box (on both visible and invisible controls), which indicates that subjects were drawn to both boxes which the experimenter visited/touched, and thus failed the controls. Based on the results from the present study, we believe that there is no evidence that black-and-white ruffed lemurs understand visible and invisible tasks in the traditional object permanence battery. PMID:23300044

Mallavarapu, Suma; Perdue, Bonnie M; Stoinski, Tara S; Maple, Terry L

2013-04-01

60

Hindlimb suspension and hind foot reversal in Varecia variegata and other arboreal mammals.  

PubMed

The foot, perhaps more than any other region of the primate body reflects the interaction of positional behaviors with the geometric properties of available supports. The ability to reverse the hind foot during hindlimb suspension while hanging from a horizontal support or descending a large diameter vertical trunk has been noted in many arboreal mammals, including primates. Observations of Varecia variegata in the wild and under seminatural conditions document hindlimb suspension in this lemurid primate. The kinematics and skeletal correlates of this behavior are examined. Analogy is made with the form and function exhibited by nonprimate mammalian taxa employing this behavior. Examples of carnivores and rodents display very similar adaptations of the tarsals while other mammals, such as the xenarthrans, accomplish a similar end by means of different morphologies. However, a suite of features is identified that is shared by mammals capable of hind foot reversal. Hindlimb suspension effectively increases the potential feeding space available to a foraging mammal and represents a significant, and often unrecognized, alternative adaptive strategy to forelimb suspension and prehensile-tail suspension in primates. PMID:9185953

Meldrum, D J; Dagosto, M; White, J

1997-05-01

61

Preliminary biomedical evaluation of wild ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and V. rubra).  

PubMed

Complete medical examinations were performed on 11 wild ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and V. rubra) from three sites in Madagascar. Each animal received a complete physical examination, several physiological parameters were analyzed (complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, and fecal bacterial culture), and the animals were examined for endo-, ecto-, and hemoparasites. Additional tests were performed as samples were available, including fat-soluble vitamin analysis, trace mineral analysis, toxoplasmosis serology, and viral serology. We found that the ruffed lemurs were in good health, harbored a low endoparasite load, and frequently had external parasites (e.g., ticks (Haemophysalis lemuris)). Statistically significant differences between captive and wild lemurs were found for the following serum biochemical and blood count parameters: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein (TP), albumin, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol, glucose, amylase, band neutrophil count, and eosinophil count. Low blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum cholesterol values in wild lemurs (compared to those of North American captive zoo ruffed lemurs) may suggest differences between diets in the wild and captivity. PMID:15898067

Junge, Randall E; Louis, Edward E

2005-05-01

62

Qualitative and Quantitative Prey Requirements of two Aphidophagous Coccinellids, Adalia tetraspilota and Hippodamia variegata  

PubMed Central

The suitability of two prey species, Aphis pomi De Geer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), for two generalist aphidophagous coccinellids, Adalia tetraspilota (Hope) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), at various abundance levels was investigated under laboratory conditions. While both A. pomi and B. brassicae were found to be suitable, the predators performed better when feeding upon B. brassicae. The prey densities affected the developmental parameters of the two predators appreciably. Optimal growth and development was noted in the prey density range of 4080 aphids per day per predator. Both species and abundance levels of prey significantly affected the larval period of the two predators. Appreciable variation in survivorship of larvae, prepupal and pupal period, and adult weight was noted by varying the prey species and prey abundance. Longer reproductive period (oviposition period) and shorter non-reproductive periods (pre-oviposition and post-oviposition periods) were noted for females that fed on B. brassicae as compared to those that fed on A. pomi. Reproductive output was appreciably higher for females that fed on B. brassicae, and the fecundity decreased drastically under food shortage. PMID:25373219

Shah, Mohd Abas; Khan, Akhtar Ali

2014-01-01

63

Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials.  

PubMed

The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural products are cheap and claimed to be safe. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) is a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. It is used for flavouring food, a beverage drink, as well as in cosmetics; in folk.medicine it is used as an antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhoea, in relieving respiratory disorders and to stimulate growth of hair. Extract of rosemary relaxes smooth muscles of trachea and intestine, and has choleretic, hepatoprotective and antitumerogenic activity. The most important constituents of rosemary are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These compounds have antioxidant effect. The phenolic compound, rosmarinic acid, obtains one of its phenolic rings from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Relatively large-scale production of rosmarinic acid can be obtained from the cell culture of Coleus blumei Benth when supplied exogenously with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and from the skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and inhibits the complement system. It is concluded that rosemary and its constituents especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid have a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility. PMID:10641130

al-Sereiti, M R; Abu-Amer, K M; Sen, P

1999-02-01

64

Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4C, 25C, and 37C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8) was determined. PMID:23662136

Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Chin Chin, Sieo; Hamid, Muhajir

2013-01-01

65

Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry  

PubMed Central

Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

2013-01-01

66

Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: I. Interspecific patterns.  

PubMed

Niche separation was documented in a year-long study of Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. Feeding trees were measured, and diet, forest height, and forest site were recorded at 5-min time points on focal animals. For time point data, multivariate and bivariate analysis of frequencies was employed to examine how niche dimensions vary between species according to sex, season, and reproductive stage. V. v. rubra feeds in larger trees than E. f. albifrons. V. v. rubra has a diet consisting mainly of fruit, whereas E. f. lbifrons has a more varied diet. V. v. ubra ranges mainly above 15 m in tree crowns, whereas E. f. albifrons ranges mainly below 15 m in a wide array of forest sites. Both species are largely frugivorous, but they harvest fruit in different-sized trees, in different quantities, and in different forest strata. Niche partitioning varies in tandem with seasonal shifts in climate and food availability and with reproductive stages. Seasonal shifts in forest site and forest height use are largely attributed to species-specific tactics for behavioral thermoregulation and predator avoidance. The diet of E. f. albifrons is diverse whether examined by season or reproductive stage. However, females of both species diversify their diets with more low-fiber protein than males during gestation, lactation, and the hot seasons. This pattern is most pronounced for V. v. rubra females and may be directly attributed to high energetic investment in reproduction. These results suggest that niche partitioning may be driven more by the energetic requirements of reproductive females than males. PMID:10861356

Vasey, N

2000-07-01

67

Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

2010-01-01

68

Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: II. Intraspecific patterns.  

PubMed

Based on a year-long field study in northeastern Madagascar, I summarize annual patterns of niche use (food patch size, diet, forest height, and forest site) in two sympatric lemurs, Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons. Furthermore, I examine intraspecific patterns of niche use according to sex, season, and reproductive stage in these two lemurs that differ in terms of energetic investment in reproduction. Lemurs as a group provide a special opportunity to test hypotheses concerning sex differences in niche use. Due to their body size monomorphism and seasonal, synchronous pattern of breeding, it is possible to directly evaluate whether sex differences in diet reflect high energetic investment in reproduction by females. Results confirm the hypothesis that intraspecific variation in niche use (e.g., sex differences, seasonal differences) would be more pronounced in V. v. rubra than in E. f. albifrons, due in large measure to the former's relatively high energetic investment in reproduction: 1a) Dietary sex differences in V. v. rubra are most pronounced during costly reproductive stages and involve acquisition of low-fiber, high-protein plant foods. Females of both species consume more seasonally available low-fiber protein (young leaves, flowers) relative to conspecific males during the hot dry season, but only in V. v. rubra females is this pattern also evident during gestation and lactation. 1b) The diets of female V. v. rubra and female E. f. albifrons are more similar to each other than are the diets of conspecific males and females in the case of V. v. rubra. This is not uniformly the case for female E. f. albifrons. This finding confirms a hypothesis put forward in Vasey ([2000] Am J Phys Anthropol 112:411-431) that energetic requirements of reproductive females drive niche separation more than do the energetic requirements of males. 1c) Both species synchronize most or all of lactation with seasonal food abundance and diversity. E. f. albifrons shows a more protracted period of synchrony, and this may contribute to its wide biogeographic distribution in Madagascar. 2) Sex differences and seasonal differences in microhabitat use reflect intraspecific patterns of thermoregulation, predator avoidance, and in the case of V. v. rubra, reproduction. One important factor selecting for body size monomorphism in lemurs appears to be the tight synchrony between lactation and periods of food abundance afforded by annual, seasonal breeding. PMID:12012369

Vasey, Natalie

2002-06-01

69

Neuropharmacological activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn.  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the recent years, plants containing flavonoids have gained much more interest in research area, as they are found to be specific ligands for benzodiazepine receptors. Material and Methods: In our investigation, we evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of petroleum, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Lippia nodiflora Linn. With experimental models using test such as potentiation of diazepam-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity, motor coordination, exploratory behavior pattern, elevated plus maze and maximal electroshock convulsions. Diazepam at doses of 5, 4, and 1 mg/kg served as standard. Results: Results showed that the ethanolic extract of L. nodifl ora at both doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) and its chloroform extract at a higher dose of 500 mg/kg produced central inhibitory (sedative) effects, anticonvulsant effect and anxiolytic effect in mice. Values were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) when compared to the control group. The petroleum ether extract of plant at both dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) did not produce any central effects. Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say that the ethanolic and chloroform extracts showed the central inhibitory activity due to the presence of fl avonoids and this fact was also supported by the finding that the petroleum ether extract did not show any central effect and flavonoids were not found in it. PMID:22022169

Thirupathy, Kumaresan P.; Tulshkar, Asish; Vijaya, C.

2011-01-01

70

Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g\\/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the

Pranee Jaiarj; Paranee Khoohaswan; Yuwadee Wongkrajang; Penchom Peungvicha; Potjanee Suriyawong; M. L. Sumal Saraya; Orawan Ruangsomboon

1999-01-01

71

Use of desferoxamine and S-adenosylmethionine to treat hemochromatosis in a red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata ruber).  

PubMed

Hemochromatosis was diagnosed in a 14-year-old, male, red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata ruber) on the basis of abnormal results of serum biochemical analysis, including high serum ferritin and transferrin saturation values, and of liver biopsy. Therapy included chelation, using desferoxamine to remove excess iron and S-adenosylmethionine to improve liver function, and monthly peripheral blood removal by phlebotomy to reduce total body iron content. Response to treatment was assessed by changes in the lemur's attitude and appetite, as well as variations in serum biochemical and iron panel values. Initial improvement was associated with the onset of therapy. After 56 days of treatment, results of serum biochemical analysis indicated a decrease in iron panel values. Treatment was temporarily discontinued from days 56 to 65, and the lemur's condition worsened, so therapy was re-instituted. However, the lemur died of hepatocellular carcinoma on day 110 of treatment. PMID:15027625

Sanchez, Carlos R; Murray, Suzan; Montali, Richard J

2004-02-01

72

Sex ratio affects sex-specific innovation and learning in captive ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and Varecia rubra).  

PubMed

Recent years have witnessed extensive research into problem solving and innovation in primates, yet lemurs have not been subjected to the same level of attention as apes and monkeys, and the social context in which novel behavior appears has rarely been considered. We gave novel foraging puzzlebox devices to seven groups of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and Varecia rubra) to examine the factors affecting rates of innovation and social learning. We found, across a range of group sex ratios, that animals of the less-represented sex were more likely to contact and solve the puzzlebox sooner than those of the more-represented sex. We established that while some individuals were able to solve the puzzleboxes there was no evidence of social learning. Our findings are consistent with previously reported male deference as a sexual strategy, but we conclude that the need for male deference diminishes when, within a group, males are rare. PMID:21898514

Dean, Lewis G; Hoppitt, William; Laland, Kevin N; Kendal, Rachel L

2011-12-01

73

Nutrient composition of plants consumed by black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, in the Betampona Natural Reserve, Madagascar.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to quantify the concentrations of crude protein, fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, nonstructural carbohydrates, and gross energy in plant foods consumed by wild black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and selenium concentrations were also determined. A total of 122 samples from 33 plant families and more than 60 species were collected and analyzed for their nutritional content. The specific nutrient needs of black and white ruffed lemurs are unknown, but quantifying the nutritional composition of the foods they consume in the wild will help nutritionists and veterinarians formulate more appropriate diets for captive ruffed lemurs. This information will also supply information on how man-induced habitat changes affect the nutritional composition of foods consumed by free-ranging lemurs. PMID:19645044

Schmidt, Debra A; Iambana, R Bernard; Britt, Adam; Junge, Randall E; Welch, Charles R; Porton, Ingrid J; Kerley, Monty S

2010-01-01

74

Sample Limited Characterization of a Novel Disulfide-Rich Venom Peptide Toxin from Terebrid Marine Snail Terebra variegata  

PubMed Central

Disulfide-rich peptide toxins found in the secretions of venomous organisms such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, leeches, and marine snails are highly efficient and effective tools for novel therapeutic drug development. Venom peptide toxins have been used extensively to characterize ion channels in the nervous system and platelet aggregation in haemostatic systems. A significant hurdle in characterizing disulfide-rich peptide toxins from venomous animals is obtaining significant quantities needed for sequence and structural analyses. Presented here is a strategy for the structural characterization of venom peptide toxins from sample limited (4 ng) specimens via direct mass spectrometry sequencing, chemical synthesis and NMR structure elucidation. Using this integrated approach, venom peptide Tv1 from Terebra variegata was discovered. Tv1 displays a unique fold not witnessed in prior snail neuropeptides. The novel structural features found for Tv1 suggest that the terebrid pool of peptide toxins may target different neuronal agents with varying specificities compared to previously characterized snail neuropeptides. PMID:24713808

Anand, Prachi; Grigoryan, Alexandre; Bhuiyan, Mohammed H.; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Russell, Victoria; Quinoez, Jose; Moy, Patrick; Chait, Brian T.; Poget, Sbastien F.; Holford, Mand

2014-01-01

75

Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata)  

PubMed Central

Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow is maintained among remnant populations will help to diagnose and target conservation priorities. We sampled 209 individuals from 19 sites throughout the remaining V. variegata range. We used 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and ?550 bp of mtDNA sequence data to evaluate genetic structure and population dynamics, including dispersal patterns and recent population declines. Bayesian cluster analyses identified two distinct genetic clusters, which optimally partitioned data into populations occurring on either side of the Mangoro River. Localities north of the Mangoro were characterized by greater genetic diversity, greater gene flow (lower genetic differentiation) and higher mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity than those in the south. Despite this, genetic differentiation across all sites was high, as indicated by high average FST (0.247) and ?ST (0.544), and followed a pattern of isolation-by-distance. We use these results to suggest future conservation strategies that include an effort to maintain genetic diversity in the north and restore connectivity in the south. We also note the discordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and current subspecies taxonomy, and encourage a re-evaluation of conservation management units moving forward. PMID:25077019

Baden, Andrea L; Holmes, Sheila M; Johnson, Steig E; Engberg, Shannon E; Louis, Edward E; Bradley, Brenda J

2014-01-01

76

Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata).  

PubMed

Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow is maintained among remnant populations will help to diagnose and target conservation priorities. We sampled 209 individuals from 19 sites throughout the remaining V. variegata range. We used 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and ?550 bp of mtDNA sequence data to evaluate genetic structure and population dynamics, including dispersal patterns and recent population declines. Bayesian cluster analyses identified two distinct genetic clusters, which optimally partitioned data into populations occurring on either side of the Mangoro River. Localities north of the Mangoro were characterized by greater genetic diversity, greater gene flow (lower genetic differentiation) and higher mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity than those in the south. Despite this, genetic differentiation across all sites was high, as indicated by high average F ST (0.247) and ?ST (0.544), and followed a pattern of isolation-by-distance. We use these results to suggest future conservation strategies that include an effort to maintain genetic diversity in the north and restore connectivity in the south. We also note the discordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and current subspecies taxonomy, and encourage a re-evaluation of conservation management units moving forward. PMID:25077019

Baden, Andrea L; Holmes, Sheila M; Johnson, Steig E; Engberg, Shannon E; Louis, Edward E; Bradley, Brenda J

2014-07-01

77

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharides from Lobophora variegata on zymosan-induced arthritis in rats.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the action of sulfated polysaccharides, fucans, from algae Lobophora variegata on zymosan-induced arthritis in rats. Groups of fucans, obtained after acetone fractionation (0.3-2.0 volumes), were denominated F0.3, F0.5, F0.8, F1, F1.5, and F2. The results that F1 contained a high yield in relation to other fractionated fucans. Chemical and structure analysis of F1 was performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopies. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the fraction F1 were also observed. Thus, 2 mg/mL of F1 inhibited the phosphomolybdate in the total antioxidant activity assay. The EC(50) values were 0.3 mg/mL and 0.12 mg/mL for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Fucan F1 (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg by body weight), diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg), and L-NAME (25 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in rats, according to body weight of different groups of animals (n=6). After 6 h, analyses of cell influx and nitrite levels were conducted. Then after 96 h, analysis of edema and concentration of serum TNF-? was carried out along with histopathological analysis. F1 at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg i.p. by body weight reduced cell influx in 52.1-96.7% and nitric oxide level in 27.2-39% compared with the control group. The reduction of edema and serum TNF-? was observed at 50 mg/kg i.p. (p<0.001). These results suggest that this heterofucan from the brown algae L. variegata has potential anti-inflammatory activity in acute zymosan-induced arthritis in rats and that antioxidant activity promotes modulation in the cellular redox state. PMID:21504801

Paiva, Almino Afonso de O; Castro, Allisson J G; Nascimento, Marlia S; Will, Luiza Sheyla E P; Santos, Nednaldo D; Arajo, Renata M; Xavier, Caroline A C; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Leite, Edda Lisboa

2011-09-01

78

Description of the gastrointestinal tract of five lemur species: Propithecus tattersalli, Propithecus verreauxi coquereli, Varecia variegata, Hapalemur griseus, and Lemur catta.  

PubMed

The objective of this project was to better define the similarities and differences in gastrointestinal morphology present in lemur species. Measurements of the gastrointestinal tract of lemurs were obtained at necropsy from the captive population at Duke University Primate Center. Measurements of body length and weight, as well as gastrointestinal length, were recorded from five prosimian species: Propithecus tattersalli, Propithecus verreauxi, Varecia variegata, Hapalemur griseus, and Lemur catta. Photographs and measurements were used to obtain illustrations. Preliminary results suggest differences in gastrointestinal morphology among lemur species that coincide with differences in diet. Distinct sacculations in either the cecum or the colon were present for H. griseus, L. catta, P. verreauxi, and P. tattersalli, but not for V. variegata. The Propithecus specimens possessed a much greater ratio of gastrointestinal length to body length than the other three species. A short, blunt cecum and a shortened and sacculated colon were unique characteristics of the H. griseus specimens. These differences correlate well with a dietary shift from consumption of large amounts of structural plant cell wall (Propithecus sp.) to consumption of variable or moderate amounts (H. griseus, L. catta, and V. variegata). They also suggest that captive groups would benefit from further diet refinement in captivity. PMID:11078027

Campbell, J L; Eisemann, J H; Williams, C V; Glenn, K M

2000-11-01

79

A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)  

EPA Science Inventory

We disagree with Mr. Linn?s interpretation of our paper, ?High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness?.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

80

Wind Tunnels in Pheromone Research T. C ~ a k e r 'and C E. Linn. ~ r : ~  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Wind Tunnels in Pheromone Research T. C ~ a k e r 'and C E. Linn. ~ r : ~ I. Introduction Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York. #12;#12;T. C. Baker and C. E. Linn, Jr, Wind Tunnels in Pheromone Research 79 2.1. Moving the Air The two fundamental decisions to make regarding wind tunnels

81

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

82

PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON THE FRUITS OF JATROPHA CURCAS LINN  

PubMed Central

Present paper deals with the pharmacognostic studies of the fruits of J. curcas Linn. The 75-80 cells thick pericarp is differentiated into epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. Mesocarpic zone embeds non-articulated laticifers, tannin containing idioblasts and randomly distributed vascular bundles. Endocarp shows the occurrence of fibrous sclereids. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the drug powder shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides and tannins. Clinical evaluation of the fresh fruit juice has shown it s anti gingivitic property. PMID:22557042

Joseph, G.V.R.

2001-01-01

83

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOTS OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS, LINN.  

PubMed Central

The roots of Cocculus hirsutus (Linn) Diels was analyzed for preliminary phytochemical studies including physical constant (total ash, acid soluble and insoluble ash and moisture content), extractive values in different solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and water), and phytochemical tests. The plant is well reputed in traditional system of medicine, present studies will help in further validation and standardization of the plant. PMID:22557132

Jain, Sourabh; Lavhale, Manish; Nayak, S.

2004-01-01

84

STUDIES OF PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILES OF DANSONIA DIGITATA linn.  

PubMed

The macroscopic characters of the whole plant, physical constant values, extractive values, preliminary phyto-chemical tests, fluorescence characters under ultra-violet light after treatment with different reagents of the powdered leaves form the tree of Adansonia digitata linn., [Bombacaceae] were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the methanolic extract of the plant was also performed. These studies will help in identification of this plant for further research. PMID:22557153

Vijayakirubha, T; Ramprasath, D; Karunambigai, K; Nagavalli, D; Hemalatha, S

2004-10-01

85

Chemical composition of essential oil from Calligonum polygonoides Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from air dried buds and roots of Calligonum polygonoides Linn., has been extracted from dry steam distillation and analysed for chemical composition by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 10 compounds were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, accounting for 68.42% and 82.12% total contents of the essential oils of buds and roots, respectively. It contains a complex

Muhammad Qasim Samejo; Shahabuddin Memon; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger; Khalid Mohammed Khan

2012-01-01

86

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 3.67 and 18.36 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 3.23 and 59.31 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 1.93 and 32.251.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.464.67 and 64.98 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 3.22 and 61.6 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 1.17 to 16.75 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases. PMID:24811803

Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

2014-05-01

87

Comparative Screening of Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. and Ethanolic Extract of Cleome gynandra Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The assesement of immunomodulatory activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. (75, 150 and 300 mg\\/kg, p.o.) and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cleome gynandra Linn. (50, 100 and 200 mg\\/kg, p.o.) were done by carbon clearance method for non-specific immunity, haemagglutination antibody titre method for humoral immunity and footpad swelling method for

Kalpesh Gaur; M. L. Kori; R. K. Nema

88

Molecular diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia associated with Lablab purpureus (Linn.) grown in Southern China.  

PubMed

As an introduced plant, Lablab purpureus serves as a vegetable, herbal medicine, forage and green manure in China. In order to investigate the diversity of rhizobia associated with this plant, a total of 49 rhizobial strains isolated from ten provinces of Southern China were analyzed in the present study with restriction fragment length polymorphism and/or sequence analyses of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, IGS, atpD, glnII and recA) and symbiotic genes (nifH and nodC). The results defined the L. purpureus rhizobia as 24 IGS-types within 15 rrs-IGS clusters or genomic species belonging to Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Ensifer (synonym of Sinorhizobium) and Mesorhizobium. Bradyrhizobium spp. (81.6%) were the most abundant isolates, half of which were B. elkanii. Most of these rhizobia induced nodules on L. purpureus, but symbiotic genes were only amplified from the Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium leguminosarum strains. The nodC and nifH phylogenetic trees defined five lineages corresponding to B. yuanmingense, B. japonicum, B. elkanii, B. jicamae and R. leguminosarum. The coherence of housekeeping and symbiotic gene phylogenies demonstrated that the symbiotic genes of the Lablab rhizobia were maintained mainly through vertical transfer. However, a putative lateral transfer of symbiotic genes was found in the B. liaoningense strain. The results in the present study clearly revealed that L. purpureus was a promiscuous host that formed nodules with diverse rhizobia, mainly Bradyrhizobium species, harboring different symbiotic genes. PMID:21498018

Chang, Yue Li; Wang, En Tao; Sui, Xin Hua; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Chen, Wen Xin

2011-06-01

89

Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. PMID:22228958

Galani, V. J.; Patel, B. G.; Patel, N. B.

2010-01-01

90

Does female dominance facilitate feeding priority in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) in southeastern Madagascar?  

PubMed

Although many Malagasy lemurs are thought to be female dominant and to have female feeding priority, to date the relationship between these behaviors has been rigorously established only in Lemur catta, and other ways that females might achieve feeding priority have not been examined closely. Erhart and Overdorff [International Journal of Primatology 20:927-940, 1999] suggested that one way female primates achieve feeding priority is to initiate and lead groups to food, thereby gaining access to the food first and positively influencing their food intake compared to other group members. Here we describe female dominance patterns and potential measures of feeding priority in two groups of black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) that were observed over a 15-month period in southeastern Madagascar. We predicted that the females would 1) be consistently dominant to males, 2) lead groups to food sources more often than males, and 3) have higher feeding rates compared to males when they arrived at food sources first. The results were dissimilar between the study groups. During the study, the oldest adult female in group 1 died. There was no evidence for female dominance in this group, and the remaining (likely natal) female did not lead the group more often, nor did she have a higher food intake than males. Group 1 dispersed shortly after the time frame reported here. In contrast, the resident female in group 2 was dominant to group males (based on agonistic interactions), led the group to food sources more often, and experienced a higher food intake when she arrived first at a food source. How these patterns vary over time and are influenced by the number of females in groups, group stability, food quality, and reproductive condition will be examined in future analyses. PMID:15898069

Overdorff, Deborah J; Erhart, Elizabeth M; Mutschler, Thomas

2005-05-01

91

Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on liver injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. Wistar rats weighing 20010g were administered a single dose of DEN (200mg\\/kg b.w., i.p.) and left for 30 days. For hepatoprotective studies, ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of C. fistula Linn. (500mg\\/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered daily for 30 days. AST,

Kannampalli Pradeep; Chandrasekaran Victor Raj Mohan; Kuppannan Gobianand; Sivanesan Karthikeyan

2007-01-01

92

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MIRABILIS JALAPA LINN. LEAVES  

PubMed Central

Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. is a widely used traditional medicine in many parts of the world for the treatment of various diseases viz. virus inhibitory activity, anti tumour activity. It is claimed in traditional medicine that the leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, the total alcoholic extract and successive petroleum ether fractions of leaves of Mirabilis Jalapa Linn were screened for its anti-inflammatory activity using carageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma models. The total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg p.o and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema model (p<0.01). In cotton pellet granuloma model, the total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg inhibited granuloma formation significantly (p<0.05) indicating that both test samples inhibit the increase in number of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen and mucopolysaccharides during granuloma tissue formation during the chronic inflammation. These experimental results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folklore claim of the drug to be used as an anti inflammatory agent. PMID:24825972

Nath, Lekshmi. R.; Manjunath, K. P.; Savadi, R. V.; Akki, K. S.

2010-01-01

93

Antimutagenicity of some flowers grown in Thailand.  

PubMed

The mutagenicity of dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts of Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn., Curcuma sessilis Gage, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ixora coccinea Linn., Millingtonia hortensis Linn., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Plumeria obtusa Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Rhinacanthus nasutus ((Linn.) Kurz.) and Syzygium malaccense ((Linn.) Merr.& Perry) before and after nitrite treatment was firstly investigated in the Ames test. Their antimutagenicity against the product of the reaction mixture of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model in the absence of metabolic activation on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 was evaluated. The results showed that none of the samples was mutagenic. Most nitrite-treated samples but dichloromethane extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Plumeria obtusa, Syzygium malaccense, methanol extract of Syzygium malaccense and water extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were mutagenic. The nitrite treated methanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera exhibited the highest mutagenicity on both strains. All dichloromethane extracts of flowers decreased the mutagenicity induced by the product of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model on both tester strains. Methanol extract of Curcuma sessilis and Punica granatum (15 mg/plate) showed the highest antimutagenic activity in TA 98 and TA 100, respectively. The protective effects of these flower extracts might be due to the presence of antimutagenic components that were supposed to be flavonoids. PMID:20100534

Wongwattanasathien, O; Kangsadalampai, K; Tongyonk, L

2010-04-01

94

Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0?mg/kg, 5?mg/kg, 10?mg/kg, and 20?mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. PMID:24920536

Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

2014-09-01

95

Survey of minerals and fat-soluble vitamins in captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).  

PubMed

Serum and whole blood samples from 64 clinically normal captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), aged 6 mo to 32 yr, were analyzed to survey mineral and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations. All animals were fed a commercial primate food and a wide range of fruits and vegetables. Specific commercial diet information was available for 52 animals that were fed one of 10 different diets. Data analysis showed no differences in the analytes attributable to sex or access to natural ultraviolet light. Serum phosphorus (range: 1.4-3.1 mmol/L) was significantly higher and retinol (range: 0.38-1.23 micromol/L) was significantly lower in young animals (< or =4 yr). Iron (range: 17.2-77.0 micromol/L) and copper (range: 10.7-53.3 micromol/L) were much higher than concentrations reported in other free-ranging lemur species, and in some animals were at levels considered potentially toxic in domestic animals. Magnesium (range: 0.66-2.04 mmol/L), sodium (range: 111-201 mmol/L), and potassium (range: 2.0-6.8 mmol/L) ranged both lower and higher than concentrations considered adequate for a mammal, but were similar to concentrations reported in wild red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra), a closely related species. Selenium (range: 3.5-7.7 micromol/L) was within the range expected for a mammal, but higher than concentrations reported in wild V rubra. Zinc (range: 9.2-62.7 micromol/L) was similar to concentrations reported in V. rubra. Calcidiol (range: <12.5-144.8 nmol/L) and retinol (range: 0.38-2.95 micromol/L) were both lower and higher than concentrations reported in V. rubra. Lower serum calcidiol concentration correlated with lower commercial dietary vitamin D3. Alpha-tocopherol (range: 1.2-17.6 micromol/L) and y-tocopherol (range: 0.3-3.9 micromol/L) were within a range expected in a captive frugivorous primate but higher than concentrations found in wild V. rubra. PMID:20063808

Crawford, Graham C; Puschner, Birgit; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Dunker, Freeland

2009-12-01

96

Antispasmodic activity of the fruits of Helicteres isora Linn.  

PubMed

Fruits of Helicteres isora Linn., commonly called Murudsheng in India, are usually prescribed in the Indian traditional systems of medicine, especially in Ayurveda, for a variety of intestinal complaints. The antispasmodic activity was checked in vitro on guinea-pig ileum against three spasmogens, acetylcholine, histamine and barium chloride. The IC(50) for each was determined. The activity was compared with standard antispasmodic agents, atropine and diphenhydramine hydrochloride. The activity was also studied in vivo by observing the gastrointestinal motility in mice using the marker technique and the ED(50) was calculated. Acute toxicity studies were conducted on mice using the method of Weil and the LD(50) was determined. The results indicated that the fruits possess very good antispasmodic activity. PMID:11180523

Pohocha, N; Grampurohit, N D

2001-02-01

97

Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Cleome viscosa Linn. extract  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae) against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: Leaf powder of Cleome viscosa was extracted with ethanol. The hepatoprotective activity of the extract was assessed in CCI4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Various biochemical parameters were estimated and histopathological studies were also performed on rat liver. The hepatoprotective activity was also supported by determining a functional parameter, i.e. thiopental-induced sleep of mice poisoned with CCl4. Results: The test material was found effective as hepatoprotective, through in vivo and histopathological studies. The extract was found to be effective in shortening the thiopental induced sleep in mice poisoned with CCl4. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was comparable to that of silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective agent. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that ethanolic extract of Cleome viscosa has significant hepatoprotective activity. PMID:20177580

Gupta, Nishant Kumar; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

2009-01-01

98

Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

2014-02-15

99

Ixora coccinea Linn.: traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.  

PubMed

Ixora coccinea Linn., (Rubiaceae) commonly known as jungle of geranium and red ixora, is an evergreen shrub found throughout India. Depending on the medical condition, the flowers, leaves, roots, and the stem are used to treat various ailments in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda, and also in various folk medicines. The fruits, when fully ripe, are used as a dietary source. Phytochemical studies indicate that the plant contains important phytochemicals such as lupeol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, sitosterol, rutin, lecocyanadin, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin. Pharmacological studies suggest that the plant possesses antioxidative, antibacterial, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, antidiarrhoeal, antinociceptive, antimutagenic, antineoplastic and chemopreventive effects, thus lending scientific support to the plant's ethnomedicinal uses. In the present review, efforts are made in addressing its ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents, and validated pharmacological observations. PMID:22231708

Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Kurian, Poruthukaran John

2012-01-01

100

Identification of volatiles in leaves of Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' is an aromatic medicinal plant, its foliage producing an intense, unique fragrant odor. This study identified 46 volatile compounds in the leaf tissue of this plant using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The major compounds included 1, 8-cineole (43.5%), p-cymene (14.7%), humulene (5.5%), camphor (5.3%), linalool (4.7%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (3.8%), gamma-cadinene (3.3%), humulene oxide II (2.1%) and a-terpineol (1.5%). The majority of the volatiles were terpenoids of which oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant, accounting for 57.2% of the total volatiles. Alcohols made up the largest (52.8%) and aldehydes the smallest (0.2%) portions of the volatiles. Many bioactive compounds were present in the volatiles. PMID:25230513

Chen, Jian Yan; Ye, Zheng Mei; Huang, Tian Yi; Chen, Xiao Dan; Li, Yong Yu; Wu, Shao Hua

2014-07-01

101

Anxiolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn in mice using experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn (Amaranthaceae). Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were used. Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera (MEAA) was administered in the doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. Hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration (LDE) tests were used for determination of anxiolytic activity. Results: The methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in HB test. The extract also significantly increased the time spent and the number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE test, the extract produced significant increase in time spent and number of crossings and decreased the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearing, assisted rearing and the squares crossed. Conclusion: In the present study, MEAA exhibited anxiolytic activity which might be attributed to its phyto-constituents viz. alkaloid, steroid and triterpenes. Since Achyranthes aspera is ubiquitous and abundantly grown, it could be a fairly economical therapeutic agent for management of anxiety disorders. PMID:22345872

Barua, Chandana C.; Talukdar, Archana; Begum, Shameem Ara; Borah, Prabodh; Lahkar, Mangala

2012-01-01

102

Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300?ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

2014-01-01

103

Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) ?g/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) ?g/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) ?g/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) ?g/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) ?g/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2014-10-01

104

Fecal inoculum can be used to determine the rate and extent of in vitro fermentation of dietary fiber sources across three lemur species that differ in dietary profile: Varecia variegata, Eulemur fulvus and Hapalemur griseus.  

PubMed

To estimate fermentative capacity among lemur species, four fiber substrates were tested across three species, Eulemur fulvus, Hapalemur griseus and Varecia variegata. The substrates, cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp and citrus pectin, ranged in composition from completely insoluble fiber (IF) to completely soluble fiber (SF), respectively. The lemurs consumed a nutritionally complete biscuit formulated for primates [85 g/100 g diet dry matter (DM)] and locally available produce (15 g/100 g diet DM). Feces were then collected and used to inoculate fermentation tubes prefilled with fiber substrates and an anaerobic growth medium. Dry matter disappearance (DMD), and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were measured in tubes subjected to 6, 12, 24 or 48 h of fermentation. Results were fitted to a logistic growth model. The maximal production (MP) time at which production or disappearance is at one-half maximum (t(50)) and the fermentation rate at 3 h were calculated. The maximal disappearance of DM differed among substrates (citrus pectin > citrus pulp > beet pulp; P < 0.0001) and species (E. fulvus > H. griseus > V. variegata; P < 0.001). V. variegata reached t(50) for acetate and total SCFA production faster than H. griseus or E. fulvus (P < 0.02). Three-hour production rates of acetate and total SCFA were also greater for V. variegata for citrus pulp and citrus pectin (P < 0.01). Few species differences were observed for beet pulp. Results provide evidence for differences in fermentative capacity and suggest that fiber solubility and fermentability should be considered when assessing the nutritional management of lemurs. PMID:12368398

Campbell, J L; Williams, C V; Eisemann, J H

2002-10-01

105

Hepatoprotective activity of Cleome viscosa Linn. extract against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Cleome viscosa Linn. (Family Capparidaceae) is naturalised throughout the hot and moist parts of India. Fresh leaves of this plant are used very effectively for the treatment of jaundice in the folk medicines of the Bundelkhand region of India. The hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of leaves was investigated against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The test material was found to be effectively hepatoprotective, as evidenced by biochemical parameters and histopathological studies. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was comparable to that of silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective agent. The results of the present study support the traditional beliefs of the hepatoprotective effects of C. viscosa Linn. PMID:19735042

Gupta, Nishant Kumar; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

2009-01-01

106

Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:21731376

Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N. V.

2010-01-01

107

A review on therapeutic potential of Lygodium flexuosum Linn  

PubMed Central

From the centuries, herbal medicines are used to treat various diseases and now they had become an item of global importance, with both medicinal and economic implications. The demand of herbal medicine is being increasing day by day due to their safety and efficacy. Now herbals had taken over the allopathic system due to their less side effect and efficient working mechanism. Herbals are playing and pivotal role in increasing the economy of the country and had taken the nation on to the new path to achieve the goal of development. Lygodium flexuosum (Linn) Sw. is a fern found nearly throughout India up to an elevation of 1500 meter. It belongs to the family Lygodiaceae and widely used in treating various ailments like jaundice, dysmenorrhea, wound healing and eczema. It is the rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and cumarin. The main constitute of the plant is lygodinolide which is mainly used in wound healing. In the present review an attempt had been made to explore different aspects of L. flexuosum. PMID:23055636

Yadav, Esha; Mani, Munesh; Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, A. K.

2012-01-01

108

Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract.  

PubMed

The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the extract, (P < 0.01). However, the anticough activity is less potent than that of 3 mg/kg dextromethorphan which decreased frequency of cough by 78% (P < 0.01). An experiment on isolated rat tracheal muscle showed that the extract directly stimulated muscle contraction and also synergized with the stimulatory effect of pilocarpine. This effect was antagonized by an atropine. Moreover, growth of Staphylococcus aureus and beta-streptococcus group A, as determined by the disc diffusion method, was inhibited by water, methanol and chloroform extract of dry guava leaves (P < 0.001). The LD50 of guava leaf extract was more than 5 g/kg, p.o. These results suggest that guava leaf extract is recommended as a cough remedy. PMID:10619385

Jaiarj, P; Khoohaswan, P; Wongkrajang, Y; Peungvicha, P; Suriyawong, P; Saraya, M L; Ruangsomboon, O

1999-11-01

109

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn  

PubMed Central

In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddys hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewers yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewers yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:21218059

Purnima, A.; Koti, B. C.; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Jaji, M. S.; Swamy, A. H. M. Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y. V.; Sadiq, A. Jaffar

2010-01-01

110

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn.  

PubMed

In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy's hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:21218059

Purnima, A; Koti, B C; Thippeswamy, A H M; Jaji, M S; Swamy, A H M Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y V; Sadiq, A Jaffar

2010-07-01

111

Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem.  

PubMed

Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material. PMID:22529673

Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B J; Harisha, C R; Shukla, V J

2012-01-01

112

Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.  

PubMed

Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis. PMID:23661867

Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

2012-04-01

113

Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

2013-01-01

114

Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Ko??aikkarantai)  

PubMed Central

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

Ramachandran, Shakila

2013-01-01

115

Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds. PMID:21966166

Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

2011-01-01

116

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn)  

PubMed Central

The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 ?g/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value. PMID:20490298

Mulla, W. A.; Salunkhe, V. R.; Kuchekar, S. B.; Qureshi, M. N.

2009-01-01

117

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn).  

PubMed

The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 mug/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value. PMID:20490298

Mulla, W A; Salunkhe, V R; Kuchekar, S B; Qureshi, M N

2009-05-01

118

Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats.  

PubMed

Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:21731376

Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N V

2010-10-01

119

Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Ko??aikkarantai).  

PubMed

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

Ramachandran, Shakila

2013-07-01

120

Effect of a sesquiterpene from Aristolochia indica Linn. on fertility in female mice.  

PubMed

A sesquiterpene isolated from the roots of Aristolochia indica (Linn.) was found to exert 100% interceptive activity and 91.7% anti-implantation activity in mice at a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt. No toxic effect was found at the dose levels used. PMID:923725

Pakrashi, A; Shaha, C

1977-11-15

121

Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants. The oil and eugenol were diluted in Tween 20 (0.5%) at five different concentrations. In the egg hatch test, H. contortus eggs were obtained from feces of goats experimentally infected. At 0.50% concentration,

L. M Pessoa; S. M Morais; C. M. L Bevilaqua; J. H. S Luciano

2002-01-01

122

Anticlastogenic activity of flavonoid reach extract of Cassia auriculata Linn. on experimental animal  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine antimutagenic activity of Cassia auriculata Linn. on chromosomal damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). Material and Methods: In the present investigation, four groups of six Swiss albino mice in each group were used. Excepting for thefirst group all the remaining groups were treated with CP (50 mg/kg). Mice of third and fourth group were treated with ethyl acetate extract of C. auriculata Linn. at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg with CP. Metaphase of bone marrow cells of all animals were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative chromosomal aberrations. Break, fragment, deletion, Polyploidy, pulverized, ring and total aberration were observed. Results: Flavonoids rich extracts of root of C. auriculata Linn. provided significant protection (P < 0.05) against CP induced chromosomal aberration. Total chromosomal aberration was found to be 12.16 and 7.33% in 100 and 200 mg/kg of extract treated animals respectively. Conclusion: From the present study it can was observed that ethyl acetate extract of C. auriculata Linn possess significant anti-mutagenic potential against CP induced chromosomal aberration. PMID:23716897

Deshpande, Supriya S.; Kewatkar, Shailesh M.; Paithankar, Vivek V.

2013-01-01

123

Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. leaves and flowers extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of aqueous extract of C. ternatea leaves and flowers on serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, protein, urea, creatinine were examined in control and extract treated diabetic rats. Glycogen was examined both in the liver

P. Daisy; Kanakappan Santosh; M. Rajathi

124

Fructolysis effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) in seminal vesicles of rat.  

PubMed

50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) has been found to reduce the fructose synthesis in seminal vesicles; as a result of which the viability of spermatozoa seems to be altered. Fertility testing revealed sterile matings till 30 days of last treatment. PMID:1844325

Mathur, R

1991-01-01

125

Morfologia do fruto, semente e plntula do Moror (ou pata de vaca) - Bauhna forficata Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moror or cow paw (Bauhinia forficata Linn) presents great importance for the savanna paraibana, so much for the home-made medicine as for its economical value, in spite of it is threatened of extinction according to caririzeiros of the area. It was aimed at the morphologic knowledge of the fruit, seed and plantule of this species. The fruits were collected

Giselle Medeiros; Humberto Silva; Myrthis Virginia; Alves de Almeida; Mrio Luiz Farias; Patrcia de Lima Martins

126

Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.  

PubMed

This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21?mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19?mm at concentration of 500?g/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats. PMID:25224162

Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

2014-09-16

127

Effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata, Gliricidia sepium or Leucaena leucocephala on feed intake and digestibility by goats.  

PubMed

Two 4 x 4 Latin square design experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, four mature Anglo-Nubian x Fiji local goats, pre-experimental body weight 25.0 +/- 0.6 kg, 22-24 months old, were used to study the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata (EV), Gliricidia sepium (GS) and Leucaena leucocephala (LL) on dry matter intake (DMI) and nutrient digestibility. Maize stover treated with urea was used as a control diet. E. variegata was higher in crude protein content than LL or GS. The DMI of the urea treated stover diet was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of the diets of untreated stover supplemented with forage legumes. The DMI was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the GS diet than in the EV or LL diets. Significant (p < 0.05) differences existed between the urea-treated stover and the diets of stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), organic matter (OM) and energy. In experiment 2, four mature goats, pre-experimental body weight 27.0 +/- 0.3 kg, 24-28 months old, were used to measure their response when the urea-treated maize stover and the maize stover and forage legume diets were sprayed with molasses. The intake of the urea-treated stover diet sprayed with molasses was significantly lower (p < 0.05) that that of the maize stover/forage legume diets sprayed with molasses. The DMI of the diets improved with the addition of molasses. The DMI among the goats offered the maize stover/forage legume diets + molasses did not differ significantly. (p > 0.05). Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were obtained in this second study between the urea-treated stover and the stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, OM and energy. The stover supplemented with forage legumes had a higher (p < 0.05) nutrient digestibility. The present studies demonstrated that the use of forage legumes as protein supplements improved the feed quality of maize stover in the diets of mature goats. It is suggested that molasses should be sprayed on fresh leaves of Gliricicia sepium and other forage legumes that are initially rejected, in order to improve acceptance and DMI when fed to ruminant animals in confinement or in a cut-and-carry system of production. PMID:14998316

Aregheore, E M; Perera, D

2004-02-01

128

Double-blinded randomized controlled trial for immunomodulatory effects of Tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract on healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceTulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) is considered as a sacred herb and traditionally it is believed that consumption of Tulsi leaf on empty stomach increases immunity. Experimental studies have shown that alcoholic extract of Tulsi modulates immunity.

Shankar Mondal; Saurabh Varma; Vishwa Deepak Bamola; Satya Narayan Naik; Bijay Ranjan Mirdha; Madan Mohan Padhi; Nalin Mehta; Sushil Chandra Mahapatra

2011-01-01

129

Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.  

PubMed

In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis. PMID:18688644

Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha

2008-11-01

130

A study of cytogenetical relationships between Sorghum vulgare Pers., S. virgatum (HACK.) Stapf, and S. halepense (Linn.  

E-print Network

A STUPY OF CYTOGENETICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ~SO H VIP PERS, , S. VIRGATUM (HACK. ) STAPF, AND S. HALEPENSE (LINN. ) A Thesis By Samir P. Mouftah Submitted to the Graduate School of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major Subject: Genetics A STUDY OP CYTOGENETICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOBOHUM VULGARE PERS. , S. VIRGATUM (HACK. ) STAPF~ AND S. HALEPENSE (LINN. ) A Thesis By Samir P. Mouftah Approved...

Mouftah, Samir Pacha Mohamed Sabri

1966-01-01

131

Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum  

PubMed Central

Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138C and 136C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm?1 (OH), 1660?cm?1 (Alkenyl CH & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm?1 (COO), 1414?cm?1 (COO), and 1219?cm?1 (CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

2014-01-01

132

Evidence for Asymmetrical Divergence-Gene Flow of Nuclear Loci, but Not Mitochondrial Loci, between Seabird Sister Species: Blue-Footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) Boobies  

PubMed Central

Understanding the process of speciation requires understanding how gene flow influences divergence. Recent analyses indicate that divergence can take place despite gene flow and that the sex chromosomes can exhibit different levels of gene flow than autosomes and mitochondrial DNA. Using an eight marker dataset including autosomal, z-linked, and mitochondrial loci we tested the hypothesis that blue-footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies diverged from their common ancestor with gene flow, paying specific attention to the differences in gene flow estimates from nuclear and mitochondrial markers. We found no gene flow at mitochondrial markers, but found evidence from the combined autosomal and z-linked dataset that blue-footed and Peruvian boobies experienced asymmetrical gene flow during or after their initial divergence, predominantly from Peruvian boobies into blue-footed boobies. This gene exchange may have occurred either sporadically between periods of allopatry, or regularly throughout the divergence process. Our results add to growing evidence that diverging species can remain distinct but exchange genes. PMID:23614045

Taylor, Scott A.; Anderson, David J.; Friesen, Vicki L.

2013-01-01

133

Pigment Extraction Techniques from the Leaves of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. and Baphicacanthus cusia Brem. and Chemical Structure Analysis of Their Major Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigofera tinctoria Linn. and Baphicacanthus cusia Brem. are the plants which have been used as natural source of indigo dye and are available in Northern part of Thailand. In this study we carried out methods to find the optimum condition for effective extraction of indigo from the leaves of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. and Baphicacanthus cusia Brem. and investigated chemical constituents

Nittaya Chanayath; Sorasak Lhieochaiphant; Suree Phutrakul

134

Studies on psychopharmacological effects of Cleome viscosa Linn. extract in rats and mice.  

PubMed

Methanol extract of the entire plant Cleome viscosa Linn. (CVME) was evaluated for different psychopharmacological actions such as general behaviour, exploratory behaviour, muscle relaxant activity and phenobarbitone induced sleeping time and effects on normal body temperature in rats and mice. The extract was found to cause reduction in spontaneous activity, decrease in exploratory behavioural pattern by the head dip and Y-maze test, reduction in the muscle relaxant by rotarod, 30 degrees inclined screen and traction tests and caused significant lowering of body temperature. In addition, CVME significantly potentiated the phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time. Preliminary tests indicate that the methanol extract of Cleome viscosa Linn. in doses of 200-400 mg/kg has significant psychopharmacological activity. PMID:15022172

Parimala Devi, B; Boominathan, R; Mandal, Subhash C

2004-02-01

135

Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant. PMID:24312848

Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru

2013-01-01

136

The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.  

PubMed

We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 g/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 M. PMID:25636870

Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

2015-01-15

137

Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Jobs tears) by hot water extraction at 60C for 1h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content\\u000a of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-?-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98??7.48% (g\\/100g crude extract). The biological

Jiradej Manosroi; Narinthorn Khositsuntiwong; Aranya Manosroi

138

Repenins AD, four new antioxidative coumarinolignoids from Duranta repens Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemical investigations on the CHCl3-soluble fraction of the whole plant of Duranta repens Linn. led to the isolation of four new coumarinolignoids, Repenins AD (14), along with the known coumarinolignoids, cleomiscosin A (5) and durantin A (6). Their structures were determined by modern spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical studies. The compounds (16) showed potent antioxidative

Nisar Ahmad; Fozia Zeb; Ijaz Ahmad; Fanghai Wang

2009-01-01

139

Effects of Cadmium on Chlorophyll Content, Photochemical Efficiency, and Photosynthetic Intensity of Canna indica Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium (Cd) on growth status, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency, and photosynthetic intensity were studied on Canna indica Linn. Plant specimens that were produced from a constructed wetland and precultivated hydroponically in 20 L of 1\\/10 Hoagland solution under greenhouse conditions for 1 week were exposed to cadmium in concentrations of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2

Shuiping Cheng; Feng Ren; Wolfgang Grosse; Zhenbin Wu

2002-01-01

140

Phytoremediation of Triazophos by Canna Indica Linn. in a Hydroponic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytoremediation of triazophos (O, O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-base) sulfur phosphate, TAP) by Canna indica Linn. in a hydroponic system was studied. After 21 d of exposure, the removal kinetic constant (K) of TAP was 0.02290.0339 d and the removal percentage of TAP was 4155% in the plant system and the K and removal percentage of TAP were about 0.002 d

Shuiping Cheng; Jin Xiao; Huiping Xiao; Liping Zhang; Zhenbin Wu

2007-01-01

141

Isolation and structural elucidation of chemical constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruits ofMorinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new constituent, morinaphthalenone (1), and three known constituents, scopoletin (2), 1, 3-dimethoxy-anthraquinone (3) and 1, 2-dihydroxy-anthraquinone (4). The structures of these isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY-45,\\u000a HMQC, HMBC) techniques, as well as by comparison with published values.

Bina S. Siddiqui; Fouzia A. Sattar; Fayaz Ahmad; Sabira Begum

2007-01-01

142

Isolation and Antioxidant Activity of Acidic Polysaccharide with Water-Solubility from Prunella vulgaris Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new acidic polysaccharide with water-solubility from Prunella Vulgaris Linn was extracted by water, isolated and purified by sequential treatment such as alcohol precipitation, macropole adsorbent resins, and DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow anion-exchange column chromatography. The weight-average molecular weight of acidic polysaccharide was 57234 Da. The results of FTIR, UV spectra and elemental analysis of acidic polysaccharide found it contained uronic

Shuangli Xiong; Dabin Hou; Ni Huang

2010-01-01

143

A new biologically active flavonol glycoside from the seeds of Abrus precatorius Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flavonol glycoside m.f. C 29 H 34 O 16 , m.p. 260-262C, [M] + 638 (EIMS) was separated from the chloroform soluble fraction of the concentrated 80% methanolic extract of the seeds of Abrus precatorius (Linn). It was characterised as a new biologically active flavonol glycoside 7,3',5'-trimethoxy-4'-hydroxy flavone-3- O - g - d -galactosyl-(1 M 4)- f -

R. N. Yadava; V. Madhu Sudhan Reddy

2002-01-01

144

Use of total dietary fiber across four lemur species (Propithecus verreauxi coquereli, Hapalemur griseus griseus, Varecia variegata, and Eulemur fulvus): does fiber type affect digestive efficiency?  

PubMed

In vivo digestibility and transit of two experimental diets were compared across four lemur species for which gastrointestinal morphology and preliminary data on physiology differ:Varecia variegata (VV), Eulemur fulvus (EF), Propithecus verreauxi (PV), and Hapalemur griseus (HG). Since free-ranging groups consume varied amounts of slowly fermentable insoluble fiber (IF) and rapidly fermentable soluble fiber (SF), differences in digestibility may be related to variation in the fiber types consumed. To investigate this, two diets were designed to provide 28% of dry matter (DM) as total dietary fiber (TDF). The ratio of IF/SF (g/g) differed across the diets (12.15:1 for the IF diet, and 3.76:1 for the IF/SF diet). The DM digestibility (DMD) of both diets differed across species: DMD was lower for EF and VV (approximately 56-58%), and higher for PV (72%) and HG (76%). The fiber digestibility results were as follows: TDF digestibility was similar for VV and EF (23% and 28%), higher for PV (56%), and highest for HG (66%). IF digestibility was lower for VV and EF (20% and 28%), and higher for PV and HG (53% and 62%). The transit times (TTs) of the two markers Cr and Co were similar (approximately 3.5 hr for VV and EF, 25 hr for PV, and 30 hr for HG). The mean retention times (MRTs) showed the same trend. The results from these captive groups suggest there are large differences in digestive efficiency that are likely related to the varied fiber composition of the free-ranging diet, and the amount of time the digesta are retained in the gut. PMID:15538767

Campbell, J L; Williams, C V; Eisemann, J H

2004-11-01

145

Telemetered electromyography of peroneus longus in Varecia variegata and Eulemur rubriventer: implications for the functional significance of a large peroneal process.  

PubMed

A foot specialized for grasping small branches with a divergent opposable hallux (hallucal grasping) represents a key adaptive complex characterizing almost all arboreal non-human euprimates. Evolution of such grasping extremities probably allowed members of a lineage leading to the common ancestor of modern primates to access resources available in a small-branch niche, including angiosperm products and insects. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which euprimates use their feet to grasp will help clarify the functional significance of morphological differences between the euprimate grasp complex and features representing specialized grasping in other distantly related groups (e.g., marsupials and carnivorans) and in closely related fossil taxa (e.g., plesiadapiforms). In particular, among specialized graspers euprimates are uniquely characterized by a large peroneal process on the base of the first metatarsal, but the functional significance of this trait is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that the large size of the peroneal process corresponds to the pull of the attaching peroneus longus muscle recruited to adduct the hallux during grasping. Using telemetered electromyography on three individuals of Varecia variegata and two of Eulemur rubriventer, we found that peroneus longus does not generally exhibit activity consistent with an important function in hallucal grasping. Instead, extrinsic digital flexor muscles and, sometimes, the intrinsic adductor hallucis are active in ways that indicate a function in grasping with the hallux. Peroneus longus helps evert the foot and resists its inversion. We conclude that the large peroneal tuberosity that characterizes the hallucal metatarsal of prosimian euprimates does not correlate to "powerful" grasping with a divergent hallux in general, and cannot specifically be strongly linked to vertical clinging and climbing on small-diameter supports. Thus, the functional significance of this hallmark, euprimate feature remains to be determined. PMID:17349678

Boyer, Doug M; Patel, Biren A; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T

2007-08-01

146

Hypolipidemic and Renal Functionality Potentials of the Hexane Extract Fractions of Elephantopus Scaber Linn  

PubMed Central

Background: Abnormalities in lipid profile are one of the most common complications in diabetes mellitus. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, the rise in blood glucose is accompanied by a disturbance in lipid profile. Further still is the disturbance in the renal functions which includes abnormality in the serum urea,protein and creatinine levels The aim of the present study is to prove the hypolipidemic and the renal functionality effect of the root of Elephantopus scaber Linn. Procedure: Fractions obtained from crude extracts of hexane prepared from the root of Elephantopus scaber Linn. were administered to white albino rats at a dose of 0.15 g/Kg bwt for a period of 30 days to prove its hypolipidemic effect on a long term basis which is proved to be irreversible as the plant is reported to have regenerative property. Findings: The extract produced a significant (p<0.001) dose-dependent decrease in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL cholesterol), with a significant increase in the level High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) and reporting the restoration in renal functions back to near normal. Conclusion: The fractions of Elephantopus scaber Linn. hexane extract are confirmed to have a hypolipidemic potential and a re-establishment of renal functions. PMID:23675198

Daisy, P.; Edel Priya, Cecilia

2010-01-01

147

Comparison of two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) for their Cr accumulation potential and antioxidant responses.  

PubMed

Study was undertaken to compare Cr accumulation in two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) and the role of antioxidants were also investigated towards metal tolerance in order to assess the use of ferns in phytomediation/ phytostabilization. Different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 microg g(-1) dw) of Cr were added to fern planted in pot containing 1 kg soil. In both the ferns, Cr accumulation increased with increase in metal concentration and maximum accumulation of 800.5 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1457.4 microg g(-1) (roots) in M. punctatum and 660.8 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1259.6 microg g(-1) (roots) in A. capillus-veneris was recorded. The increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) in A. capillus-veneris was less pronounced than M. punctatum under Cr exposure as compared to their respective controls. In view of less decrease in chlorophyll content and antioxidants along with higher accumulation of Cr in the fronds M. punctatum, is indicative of its higher tolerance towards Cr. However, bioaccumulation factor (concentration of Cr in fronds/concentration of Cr in the soil) of both the ferns was recorded > 1 which qualifies the plants as potential Cr hyperaccumulator and suitable for phytoremediaton. PMID:22908632

Sinam, Geetgovind; Behera, Sandip K; Mishra, Rohit K; Sinha, Sarita; Mallick, Shekhar; Khare, P B

2012-08-01

148

Responses of Portulaca oleracea Linn. to selenium exposure.  

PubMed

The present study was investigated to evaluate the uptake and accumulation of selenium (Se) by the stem cuttings of Portulaca oleracea L. grown in alfisol amended with various concentrations of Se. P. oleracea accumulated a maximum of 63.4 g g(-1) dry weight in a short growth period of 42 days. The order of accumulation of Se among the plant parts was leaves (31.5 ?g g(-1)) > stems (16.4 ?g g(-1)) > roots (15.5 ?g g(-1)). The accumulation potential was fourfold higher than the plant available concentration of 15.2 ?g g(-1) of Se g(-1) of soil (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extracted). Although the plant was able to accumulate Se in their tissues, increase in Se concentrations in soil caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the growth rate of plants (regeneration of leaves, number of leaves, number of roots, root length, stem length and biomass). PMID:23363577

Prabha, D; Sivakumar, S; Subbhuraam, C V; Son, H K

2013-01-30

149

????????????????????????? ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) ??????????? (Acorus calamus Linn.) ????????????????????? ????????????????? Inhibitory Effect of Extracts from Clove ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) and Sweet flag (Acorus calamus Linn. ) on Some Pathogenic Bacteria ??????? ?????????1*, ????? ????????1, ???? ?????????1 , ???? ?????1, ????????? ?????????2 ??? ????? ??????????1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts of Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison and Acorus calamus Linn. at concentrations of 3.3% and 33%. were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this study. Using paper disc diffusion method, Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison extract at 33% could inhibit all strains better than 3.3%. Inhibition of the extract on MRSA

Yingmanee Tragoolpua; Matcha Porn-in; Ranu Yucharoen; Narumol Thongwai

150

Determination of antioxidant capacity, ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of Crotalaria juncea Linn in vitro inhibitory activity of Crotalaria Juncea Linn.  

PubMed

The present study involves the determination of antioxidant capacity and in vitro ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of the Crotalaria juncea Linn extract. The content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the extracts was estimated by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activity on goat liver lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid emulsion were determined and ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity was also evaluated. All the extracts had shown antioxidant property, ?-amylase, and lipase inhibitory properties. Aqueous extract was found to show maximum antioxidant activity on goat liver. Antilipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity were determined to be 66.94 0.616 (p < .01) and 59.54 0.2 (p < .01), respectively. Maximum ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities of 71.42 1.37 (p < .01) and 57.14 2.74% (p < .01), respectively, were exhibited by macerated methanol extract. The results had shown that all the extracts exhibited low inhibition and antioxidant activity as compared to standard. PMID:24670121

Dinakaran, Sathis Kumar; Banji, David; Avasarala, Harani; Banji, Otilia

2014-06-01

151

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Fractions of Cassia auriculata Linn. in Alloxan Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p<0.001) in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids. PMID:20046718

Surana, S. J.; Gokhale, S. B.; Jadhav, R. B.; Sawant, R. L.; Wadekar, Jyoti B.

2008-01-01

152

Evaluation of antipyretic potential of Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae) extract in rats.  

PubMed

The antipyretic activity of a methanol extract of Cleome viscosa Linn. (CVME) was investigated for its potential on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rats. The CVME, at doses of 200, 300, and 400mg/kg BW p.o., showed significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature in a dose-dependent manner. The effect also extended upto 5h after the drug administration. The anti-pyretic effect of CVME was comparable to that of paracetamol (150mg/kg p.o.), a standard anti-pyretic agent. PMID:12787948

Devi, B Parimala; Boominathan, R; Mandal, Subhash C

2003-07-01

153

Repenins A-D, four new antioxidative coumarinolignoids from Duranta repens Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations on the CHCl(3)-soluble fraction of the whole plant of Duranta repens Linn. led to the isolation of four new coumarinolignoids, Repenins A-D (1-4), along with the known coumarinolignoids, cleomiscosin A (5) and durantin A (6). Their structures were determined by modern spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical studies. The compounds (1-6) showed potent antioxidative scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, with IC(50) values in the range 0.420-0.625mM. Repenin B (2) displayed the strongest scavenging potential with IC(50) values of (0.420mM). PMID:19464173

Ahmad, Nisar; Zeb, Fozia; Ahmad, Ijaz; Wang, Fanghai

2009-07-01

154

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Fractions of Cassia auriculata Linn. in Alloxan Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p<0.001) in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids. PMID:20046718

Surana, S J; Gokhale, S B; Jadhav, R B; Sawant, R L; Wadekar, Jyoti B

2008-01-01

155

Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

2011-01-01

156

Determination of Anthelmintic Activity of the Leaf and Bark Extract of Tamarindus Indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

Das, S. S.; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A. K.

2011-01-01

157

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL  

PubMed Central

The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by ?-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans PMID:24825986

Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

2010-01-01

158

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots  

PubMed Central

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400?mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

Vasudeva, Neeru

2008-01-01

159

Immunomodulatory activity of petroleum ether extract of flower heads of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.  

PubMed

The petroleum ether extract from the flower heads of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. was found to be effective in increasing phagocytic activity, hemagglutination antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity when tested in mice. Activity of the petroleum extract was tested at five different dosing levels to establish a dose-response relationship. It was found that 200 mg/kg dose was the optimum dose, and at higher doses the activity was either reduced or showed no further increase. The present study, therefore, reveals that the drug shows good promise as an immunomodulatory agent, which acts by stimulating both humoral and cellular immunity as well as phagocytic function. PMID:17594985

Bafna, A R; Mishra, S H

2007-01-01

160

Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn.: An analysis by ABTS .+ decolorization assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free ra- dicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage. Mentha spicata Linn ., commonly called spearmint, belongs to the family lamiaceae. It was selected in the present study because Menth a extracts have antioxidant properties due to the presence of eugenol, caffeic acid,

Ponnan Arumugam; Perumal Ramamurthy; Sathiyavedu Thyagarajan Santhiya; Arabandi Ramesh

161

LCMS QUANTIFICATION OF ROSMARINIC ACID AND URSOLIC ACID IN THE OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN. LEAF EXTRACT (HOLY BASIL, TULSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive, and accurate liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) method for the determination of rosmarinic acid (RA) and ursolic acid (UA) in the leaves of ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum (EEOS) Linn. (Holy Basil, an Indian traditional herb) has been developed for the first time and validated. The LC separation was carried out

R. Shanmuga Sundaram; M. Ramanathan; R. Rajesh; B. Satheesh; D. Saravanan

2012-01-01

162

Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g\\/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral

Ramesh L Londonkar; Pramod V Poddar

2009-01-01

163

The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Ornamental Fish Toxicity of the Water Extract of Indian Almond Leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamental fish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried

Nantarika Chansue

164

Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves on doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. (MEIC) leaves against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino Wistar rats were pretreated with the methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) for 1 week followed with the simultaneous treatment with doxorubicin (cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg in six divided doses for 2 weeks) along with the extracts for the next 14 days. On the 22nd day hemodynamic parameters such as blood pressure and ECG were recorded. Biochemical study including biomarkers like creatine kinase MB (CK MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), SGOT and SGPT, tissue antioxidant markers viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and extent of lipid peroxidation viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated. Histopathology of heart was also done to assess the cardioprotective effect. Results: Pretreatment with MEIC significantly reduced (P<0.01) the ST segment elevation and also maintained the BP (P<0.01) close to normal. The MEIC significantly reduced the elevated level of biomarkers like CK - MB, LDH, SGOT, SGPT (P<0.01) near to normal, the MEIC also increased the tissue antioxidant markers viz. CAT, SOD and decreased the level of MDA (P<0.01) in cardiac tissue by dose-dependant manner. The histopathology of heart also further confirmed the cardioprotection provided by the methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves. Conclusion: The results suggest a cardioprotective effect of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves due to its antioxidant properties. PMID:22529471

Momin, Firoz N.; Kalai, Bharatesh R.; Shikalgar, Tabassum S.; Naikwade, Nilofar S.

2012-01-01

165

Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

2011-01-01

166

Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% 0.00%, total ash 7.48% 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

Yvette Fofie, NGuessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Dinba

2015-01-01

167

Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant.  

PubMed

Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% 0.00%, total ash 7.48% 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

Yvette Fofie, N'Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Dinba

2015-01-01

168

Ethanol extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn enhances sperm output in healthy Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), among other factors, have been implicated in the aetiology of male infertility. Thus, the roles of antioxidants at improving sperm production and quality are being investigated. The present study was designed to assess the effect of the ethanol extract of fresh leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on the sperm parameters of healthy male Wistar rats. A total of 18 rats, weighing between 108-124 g, were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were administered 250 mg/kg/d and 500 mg/kg/d of guava leaf extract (GLE) orally for 53 days respectively. Group 3 animals received normal saline. Sperm count increased from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 57.1+/-0.2 (x10(6)) in group 1 animals, and from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 72.3+/-0.4 (x10(6)) in group 2 animals. Similarly, dose-dependent increases in the percentages of motile spermatozoa were observed in GLE-treated animals compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. possess beneficial effects on sperm production and quality, and may thus improve the sperm parameters of infertile males with oligospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia. PMID:19205576

Akinola, O B; Oladosu, O S; Dosumu, O O

2007-06-01

169

In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn.  

PubMed

The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. PMID:24250133

Bhalodia, Nayan R; Nariya, Pankaj B; Acharya, R N; Shukla, V J

2013-04-01

170

Investigation on antimicrobial activity of root extracts of Thespesia populnea Linn.  

PubMed

Many medicinal plants have been used for centuries in daily life to treat microbial diseases all over the world. In this study, the in vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol root extracts of Thespesia populnea Linn were investigated. Antimicrobial properties of T. populnea Linn was evaluated against five pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by broth serial dilution method. The ciprofloxacin (5 ?g/ml) and flucanozole (100 units/disc) were used as positive controls for bacteria and fungi respectively. Different concentrations (50, 100, 150 ?g/ml) of ethanolic and aqueous root extracts of T. populnea were checked for the dose dependent antibacterial activity. Thespesia populnea showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and maximum inhibition by ethanolic extract was observed at higher dose (250 ?g/ml) as 270.2mm. The MIC of the ethanol extract was 10 ?g/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and 750 ?g/ml for Candida albicans. The antifungal activity offered against S. aureus by the ethanolic extract is more than the aqueous extract. The results concluded that the anti-microbial activity of T. populnea was dose dependent. As the concentration increased the inhibition zone also increased. Flavonoids and tannins present in the extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:24522124

Senthil-Rajan, D; Rajkumar, M; Srinivasan, R; Kumarappan, C; Arunkumar, K; Senthilkumar, K L; Srikanth, M V

2013-12-01

171

Anticancer activity of Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume against Dalton's lymphomae in mice model.  

PubMed

Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume herbs are commonly used for the treatment of in?ammatory and pain in Nigeria. The objective of the present study was to assess the antitumor and antioxidant activity of Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume in mice model. The treatment of Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells induced tumor by the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata was determined at concentration of 100 mg/ kg body weight given orally for 11 days, antitumor activity was assessed by monitoring the mean survival time, body weight, effect on hematological parameters, antioxidant enzyme levels and histopathological evidence. The results showed that the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata increased the survival period of animals, decreased the body weight and also altered many hematological markers and also restored the antioxidant enzymes when compared to the mice of the DLA control group. These findings indicate that the methanolic extract of C. prostrata has anti-tumor activity by preventing the lipid peroxidation and thereby promoting the antioxidant systems in Dalton's lymphoma ascites induced mice. So, these extract could be a natural anticancer agent for human health. PMID:25362615

Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar; Kannappan, Priya; Shanmugasundaram, Krishnakumari; Abdullah, Noorlidah

2014-11-01

172

Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots  

PubMed Central

Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective: The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM) overdose induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total Bilirubin (TB) was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner. PMID:24459387

Aneja, Simran; Vats, Manisha; Aggarwal, Sushma; Sardana, Satish

2013-01-01

173

Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity of Amaranthus hybridus Linn. root extracts.  

PubMed

The work evaluated the antinociceptive activity of Amaranthus hybridus Linn. root extracts using the central and peripheral antinociceptive experimental animal models. The oral administration of ethanol and aqueous root extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg) produced significant (p < 0.01) and dose dependent results compared to their respective controls. The aqueous extract (200 mg/kg) produced more inhibition of abdominal writhes in mice than the other test extracts. Both the test extracts significantly (p < 0.01) and dose dependently increased the hot plate pain threshold in mice but the aqueous extract (200 mg/kg) was exhibiting more increase in pain threshold than the other test doses of extracts. Dose dependent and significant (p < 0.01) reduction of painful sensation in mice tail immersion test due to oral administration of test doses was also observed. Oral acute toxicity study indicated the non toxic nature of root extracts. The present investigation revealed that ethanol and aqueous root extracts of A. hybridus Linn. possess significant and dose dependent central and peripheral antinociceptive activity justifying its traditional use in treating conditions associated with painful conditions. PMID:21485299

Singh, Sumitra; Sheoran, Sandeep Singh

2011-01-01

174

Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing. PMID:23569806

Santram, Lodhi; Singhai, AK

2011-01-01

175

Reproductive behavior in Varecia variegata.  

PubMed

Testicle size during the breeding season is related to age and previous social environment of the male. The size of testicles in adult males exceeds that of young males. Adult males' testicles are much larger than the testicles of young males; enlargement starts 2-3 months prior to the breeding season, peaking around copulation day. Subadult males (3-year-olds) are able to develop full-sized testicles and sire offspring, but did so only when housed with adult females and not with their family group. Although females may reach sexual maturity in their second breeding season after birth, they do not necessarily breed successfully. Vaginal estrus lasts considerably longer (2-3 days) than behavioral estrus (6-12 h). Different stages of vaginal estrus can visually be determined by the development of the vaginal region (swelling; appearance of pink point; long, pink slash; opening to round pink circle, and in the latter stage, by smears, confirming the different physiological stages, proestrus, estrus, metestrus). Behavioral estrus appears in the last hours of vaginal estrus. Captive adult females show increasingly hostile behavior to their maturing daughters. These have to be removed from the group when they are sexually mature. The same degree of hostility can be found between fathers and subadult sons during the breeding season. Dominant males show a typical 'guarding behavior' over the entire period of behavioral estrus of the female. They remain close to the female, vigorously preventing other males from approaching or mating with the female. At the beginning and the end of copulations, the female shows a sequence of aggressive behaviors towards the dominant male. Successful copulations can be determined by their duration (1-2 min), and a head-twisting movement of the male during ejaculation. Normally 16-25 copulations occur on copulation day, usually all with the same partners. The average gestation length is 102.5 days. Adult females normally give multiple births, whereas primiparous females tend to have single infants. PMID:7201444

Foerg, R

1982-01-01

176

Protein Crystals Grown in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collage of protein and virus crystals, many of which were grown on the U.S. Space Shuttle or Russian Space Station, Mir. The crystals include the proteins canavalin; mouse monoclonal antibody; a sweet protein, thaumatin; and a fungal protease. Viruses are represented here by crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus and satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The crystals are photographed under polarized light (thus causing the colors) and range in size from a few hundred microns in edge length up to more than a millimeter. All the crystals are grown from aqueous solutions and are useful for X-ray diffraction analysis. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

2000-01-01

177

Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity  

PubMed Central

Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100mg/kg, 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn. showed remarkable antihyperglycemic activity due to its possible systematic effect involving in the pancreatic and extra pancreatic mechanism. Forever, the antihyperlipidemic activity was exerted possible by lowering the higher level of lipid profile and decreasing the intercalated disc space in the heart. The antioxidant activity of extract was due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increasing the SOD, GPx and CAT. It was corroborate that the extract shown the Paederia foetida Linn leaves potential to be act as antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties. PMID:24564866

2014-01-01

178

Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)  

PubMed Central

Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

2013-01-01

179

Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea  

PubMed Central

To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen. PMID:21713044

Daswani, Poonam G.; Brijesh, S.; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz J.

2011-01-01

180

Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.)  

PubMed Central

In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

Doshi, Krunal A.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

2013-01-01

181

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2012-01-01

182

Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M. M.; Jain, S. K.; Tripathi, M.

2010-01-01

183

Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review.  

PubMed

Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

2014-05-01

184

CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae).  

PubMed

In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group. Doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight protected the mice against maximal electroshock seizure, and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid. Prominent analgesic activity was observed using the hot plate method. The paw licking time was delayed significantly. The extract also displayed prominent smooth muscle relaxant activity. The results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. quadrangularis roots possess anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties. PMID:22435569

Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Saraf, Shubhini A; Gupta, Rajiv

2010-03-01

185

Evaluation of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. for anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Linn.) Sw. for anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory action of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. pulcherrima (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) (CPE and CPA) were evaluated by cotton pellet granuloma models. Pylorus ligation and aspirin induced ulcer models were employed for evaluating antiulcer activity for both the extracts. Ulcerogenic potential of CP was also evaluated. Result: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. pulcherrima significantly decreased (P<0.01) the granuloma tissue development. CPE and CPA at both the doses exhibited significant (P<0.01) antiulcer activity by decreasing the ulcer score in both the ulcer models and it was not ulcerogenic. Conclusion: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of C. pulcherrima (CPE and CPA) possess significant anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities. PMID:21572651

Sharma, Vivek; Rajani, G.P.

2011-01-01

186

Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.  

PubMed

Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60C for 1h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-?-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98??7.48% (g/100g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

2014-02-01

187

Blechnum Orientale Linn - a fern with potential as antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial agent  

PubMed Central

Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints and sterilization of women. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activity of five solvent fractions obtained from the methanol extract of the leaves of Blechnum orientale Linn. Methods Five solvent fractions were obtained from the methanol extract of B. orientale through successive partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Total phenolic content was assessed using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals. Cytotoxic activity was tested against four cancer cell lines and a non-malignant cell using MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was assessed using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Standard phytochemical screening tests for saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids were also conducted. Results The ethyl acetate, butanol and water fractions possessed strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 8.6-13.0 ?g/ml) and cytotoxic activity towards human colon cancer cell HT-29 (IC50 27.5-42.8 ?g/ml). The three extracts were also effective against all Gram-positive bacteria tested: Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Stapylococcus epidermidis(minimum inhibitory concentration MIC 15.6-250 ?g/ml; minimum bactericidal concentration MBC 15.6-250 ?g/ml). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed highest total phenolic content (675-804 mg gallic acid equivalent/g). Conclusions The results indicate that this fern is a potential candidate to be used as an antioxidant agent, for colon cancer therapy and for treatment of MRSA infections and other MSSA/Gram-positive bacterial infectious diseases. PMID:20429956

2010-01-01

188

Elemental analysis of Anethum gravedlens, Sismbrium Irio Linn and Veronia Anthelmintica seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to characterize As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn, and Sc in seeds of Anethum graveolens (Dill), Sisymbrium irio Linn. (Wild Mustard) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Iron Weed). Dill seed was found to contain high K while Wild Mustard has high Fe, Mn and Na levels. Iron Weed has highest Cl, Co, Cr and Zn content with least concentration of Fe. PMID:23103327

Fatima, I; Waheed, S; Zaidi, J H

2013-01-01

189

A preliminary study on the influence of gibberellic acid on Mentha arvensis Linn. var. piperascens holmes (Japanese mint)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellic acid (GA3) solutions (10200 p.p.m.) when sprayed onMentha arvensis Linn. var.piperascens at preflowering stage induces 3050 per cent. increase in the yield of total herb. Apart from the elongation of internode,\\u000a the leaf area was also increased. The stage of development of the plant at the time of treatment, appeared to be a significant\\u000a factor in obtaining favourable Gibberellin

B. K. Kaul; L. D. Kapoor

1965-01-01

190

Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn on the changes in central cholinergic system induced by acute noise stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extract from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum Linn was screened for its effects on the noise induced changes in the central cholinergic system of albino rats by investigating the acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete areas of brain. Exposure to noise (10kHz:100dB) stress for 30min caused a significant reduction in total acetylcholine content and increase in the

K. Sembulingam; Prema Sembulingam; A. Namasivayam

2005-01-01

191

Amino acid sequences and disulfide bridges of serine proteinase inhibitors from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) seeds.  

PubMed

Three serine proteinase inhibitors, MCTI-I, MCTI-II, and MCEI-I, were isolated from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) seeds. MCTI-I and MCTI-II were inhibitors for trypsin and MCEI-I was an elastase inhibitor. Their amino acid sequences and the positions of disulfide bridges of MCTI-II were determined to be as follows. (sequence; see text) PMID:2738047

Hara, S; Makino, J; Ikenaka, T

1989-01-01

192

Hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract.  

PubMed

The leaf of Psidium guajava Linn. (family, Myrtaceae) is used traditionally in African folk medicine to manage, control, and/or treat a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In order to scientifically appraise some of the anecdotal, folkloric, ethnomedical uses of P. guajava Linn., the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of P. guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg) in rat experimental paradigms. The hypoglycemic effect of the plant's extract was examined in normal and diabetic rats, using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus model. Hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats were used to investigate the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant's extract. Chlorpropamide (CPP; 250 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the reference hypoglycemic agent for comparison. Acute oral administrations of the plant's extract (PGE; 50-800 mg/kg, p.o.) caused dose-related, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) hypoglycemia in normal (normoglycemic) and STZ-treated, diabetic rats. Moreover, acute intravenous administrations of the plant's extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg i.v.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in systemic arterial blood pressures and heart rates of hypertensive, Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Although the exact mechanisms of action of the plant's extract still remain speculative at present, it is unlikely that the extract causes hypotension in the mammalian experimental animal model used via cholinergic mechanisms, since its cardiodepressant effects are resistant to atropine pretreatment. The numerous tannins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, pentacyclic triterpenoids, guiajaverin, quercetin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant are speculated to account for the observed hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of the plant's leaf extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the leaf aqueous extract of P. guajava possesses hypoglycemic and hypotensive properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management or control of adult-onset, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension in some rural African communities. PMID:16395418

Ojewole, J A O

2005-12-01

193

Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: An overview.  

PubMed

The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medicinal practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional system of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn. have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin disease, arthritis, eye diseases, insect bites and so on. The O. sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess anti-fertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, analgesic, antispasmodic and adaptogenic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituents present in O. sanctum L. have been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials. The pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of O. sanctum L. The results of the above studies support the use of this plant for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethno-botanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances. PMID:22228948

Pattanayak, Priyabrata; Behera, Pritishova; Das, Debajyoti; Panda, Sangram K

2010-01-01

194

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents  

PubMed Central

Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Materials and Methods: Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Statistical Analysis: Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica. PMID:24501443

Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; Balakrishnan, B. R.

2013-01-01

195

Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extracts inhibit acetylcholinesterase and improve cognition in rats with experimentally induced dementia.  

PubMed

Cognitive disorders such as dementia, attention deficits, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been well investigated. However, effective interventions for the promotion and progression of AD are unavailable to date. The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous (300 and 500 mg/kg) and alcoholic (300 and 500 mg/kg) extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves as an antidementic and anticholinesterase agent and also as an immunostimulant in rats. Maximal electroshock, atropine, and cyclosporine were used to induce dementia. The passive avoidance task was used for assessing memory. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was estimated in different parts of the brain, and immune status was studied using dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) skin sensitivity tests. In all the three models both aqueous and alcoholic O. sanctum extracts decreased the time taken to reach the shock-free zone and the number of mistakes and significantly decreased the AChE activity in rats. O. sanctum treatment significantly increased the induration in the DNCB skin test. Therefore, O. sanctum was shown to be useful for the management of experimentally induced cognitive dysfunctions in rats. PMID:21812651

Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Mani, Vasudevan; Ashok Dundapa, Taranalli; Watanabe, Kenichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

2011-09-01

196

Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms  

PubMed Central

Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

2012-01-01

197

Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.  

PubMed

Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

2012-01-01

198

Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

2014-01-01

199

Hexavalent chromium and its effect on health: possible protective role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn).  

PubMed

Hexavalent chromium or chromium (VI) is a powerful epithelial irritant and a confirmed human carcinogen. This heavy metal is toxic to many plants, aquatic animals, and bacteria. Chromium (VI) which consists of 10%-15% total chromium usage, is principally used for metal plating (H2Cr2O7), as dyes, paint pigments, and leather tanning, etc. Industrial production of chromium (II) and (III) compounds are also available but in small amounts as compared to chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) can act as an oxidant directly on the skin surface or it can be absorbed through the skin, especially if the skin surface is damaged. The prooxidative effects of chromium (VI) inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione in living systems and act as hematotoxic, immunotoxic, hepatotoxic, pulmonary toxic, and nephrotoxic agents. In this review, we particularly address the hexavalent chromium-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation in humans and animals, and the possible role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) as a protective antioxidant. PMID:22865357

Das, Kusal K; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Swastika N

2011-01-01

200

Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.  

PubMed

Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

2012-12-01

201

Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms. PMID:24711746

Dada, E O; Ekundayo, F O; Makanjuola, O O

2014-03-01

202

Protective Effect of Thunbergia laurifolia (Linn.) on Lead Induced Acetylcholinesterase Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairment in Mice  

PubMed Central

Thunbergia laurifolia (linn., TL), a natural phenolic compound, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The current study ascertains the total phenolic content present in TL aqueous leaf extract and also examines the antioxidant ability of the extract in preserving acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of mice exposed to lead in vivo and in vitro model. Mice were given lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1?g/L) together with TL 100 and 200?mg/kg/day. The result showed that Pb induced AChE dysfunction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. TL significantly prevented Pb induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner which was indicated by comparatively better performance of TL treated mice in Morris Water Maze Swimming Test and increased AChE activity in the tissue sample collected from the brains of these mice. TL also exhibited the greatest amount of phenolic content, which has a significant positive correlation with its antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggested that the total phenolic compounds in TL could exhibit antioxidant and in part neuroprotective properties. It may play a potential treatment strategy for Pb contamination. PMID:24455676

Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

2013-01-01

203

Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

2012-07-01

204

Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

2014-01-01

205

Antioxidative polyphenols from Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitizing on Hevea brasiliensis.  

PubMed

Two new phenolic glycosides, linamarin gallate (1) and walsuraside B (2), together with nine known compounds, catechin (3), epicatechin (4), epicatechin 3-O-gallate (5), epicatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate (6), epicatechin 3-O-(3,5-O-dimethyl)gallate (7), epicatechin 3-O-(3,4,5-O-trimethyl)gallate (8), quercetin 3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (9), rutin (10), and peltatoside (11), were isolated from the leafy twigs of Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. Compound 1 was characterized as an unusual cyanogenic glycoside, while compound 8 was isolated for the first time from a natural source. This is the first report of a cyanogenic glycoside from mistletoes. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by 1D ((1)H, (13)C), 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and by mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds (1-11) were evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. PMID:23422225

Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Lai, Daowan; Okoye, Festus B C; Osadebe, Patience O; Proksch, Peter

2013-04-01

206

Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Karanjin in Pongamia pinnata linn. Leaves.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple and specific reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed for analysis of karanjin in Pongamia pinnata Linn. leaves. HPLC analysis was performed on a C(18) column using an 85:13.5:1.5 (v/v) mixtures of methanol, water and acetic acid as isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. UV detection was at 300 nm. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity. Validation revealed the method is specific, accurate, precise, reliable and reproducible. Good linear correlation coefficients (r(2)>0.997) were obtained for calibration plots in the ranges tested. Limit of detection was 4.35 ?g and limit of quantification was 16.56 ?g. Intra and inter-day RSD of retention times and peak areas was less than 1.24% and recovery was between 95.05 and 101.05%. The established HPLC method is appropriate enabling efficient quantitative analysis of karanjin in Pongamia pinnata leaves. PMID:23204626

Katekhaye, S; Kale, M S; Laddha, K S

2012-01-01

207

Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Karanjin in Pongamia pinnata linn. Leaves  

PubMed Central

A rapid, simple and specific reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed for analysis of karanjin in Pongamia pinnata Linn. leaves. HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column using an 85:13.5:1.5 (v/v) mixtures of methanol, water and acetic acid as isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. UV detection was at 300 nm. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity. Validation revealed the method is specific, accurate, precise, reliable and reproducible. Good linear correlation coefficients (r2>0.997) were obtained for calibration plots in the ranges tested. Limit of detection was 4.35 ?g and limit of quantification was 16.56 ?g. Intra and inter-day RSD of retention times and peak areas was less than 1.24% and recovery was between 95.05 and 101.05%. The established HPLC method is appropriate enabling efficient quantitative analysis of karanjin in Pongamia pinnata leaves. PMID:23204626

Katekhaye, S; Kale, M. S.; Laddha, K. S.

2012-01-01

208

Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antilipid peroxidative effect of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre (Leguminosae) flowers (PpEt) in normal rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia, elevated lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)] and disturbed nonenzymatic [Vitamin E, Vitamin C and glutathione] and enzymatic antioxidants status were noticed in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata flowers (300 mg/kg bw) showed significant antihyperglycemic, and antilipidperoxidative effects and enhancement in antioxidants defense system in alloxan induced diabetic rats. However, no significant characteristic changes were noticed in blood glucose level as well as in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in normal rats treated with "PpEt" alone. We have also observed that the "PpEt" considerably reduced the blood glucose concentration in a similar extent to that of the reference drug glibenclamide (600 microg/kg bw) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Our results thus suggested that the "PpEt" could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients. PMID:16271443

Punitha, R; Manoharan, S

2006-04-21

209

Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116. PMID:25176251

Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

2014-09-01

210

Study on Phytochemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Different Parts of Alstonia scholaris Linn.  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of different parts viz., leaves, follicles and latex of Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris Linn.) R. Br. Methods: Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts against Gram +ve (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were determined by well diffusion techniques. Aantioxidant profiles of methanol extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radial scavenging and ferric thiocyanate reducing assays. Results: Phytochemical composition revealed abundance of flavonoids (97.3 mg QE/g DW), proanthocynidins (99.3 mg CE/g DW) and phenolics (49.7 mgGAE/g DW) in the leaf extract. Extracts of follicles and latex had comparatively very content of phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. However, in follicle extract level of proanthocyanidins was significantly higher (46.8 mg CE/gDW). Latex extract among others exhibited most potent antibacterial activity. All the extracts displayed strong DPPH free radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities, only leaf extract displayed powerful reducing and ferrous ion chelating activities. Conclusion: Study revealed significant antioxidant activities of A. scholaris leaf, follicles and latex extracts and potential antibacterial activity of latex extract. PMID:24312864

Ganjewala, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

2013-01-01

211

Mint oil (Mentha spicata Linn.) offers behavioral radioprotection: a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion study.  

PubMed

Mentha spicata Linn. (mint), a herb well known for its gastroprotective properties in the traditional system of medicine has been shown to protect against radiation-induced lethality, and recently its constituents have been found to possess calcium channel antagonizing properties. The present study examined the behavioral radioprotective efficacy of mint oil (obtained from Mentha spicata), particularly in mitigating radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which has been proposed as a behavioral endpoint that is mediated by the toxic effects of gamma radiation on peripheral systems, primarily the gastrointestinal system in the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Intraperitoneal administration of Mentha spicata oil 10% (v/v), 1 h before 2 Gy gamma radiation, was found to render significant radioprotection against CTA (p < 0.05), by blocking the saccharin avoidance response within 5 post-treatment observational days, with the highest saccharin intake being observed on day 5. This finding clearly demonstrates that gastroprotective and calcium channel antagonizing properties of Mentha spicata can be effectively utilized in preventing radiation-induced behavioral changes. PMID:18853399

Haksar, A; Sharma, A; Chawla, R; Kumar, Raj; Lahiri, S S; Islam, F; Arora, M P; Sharma, R K; Tripathi, R P; Arora, Rajesh

2009-02-01

212

Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study  

PubMed Central

Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

2012-01-01

213

Spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.  

PubMed

Globally, primary dysmenorrhoea is one of the most frequent gynaecological disorders in young women. It is associated with increased uterine tone, and exaggerated contractility of uterine smooth muscles. In many rural African communities, a number of medicinal plants, including Psidium guajava Linn. (family: Myrtaceae), are used traditionally for the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on isolated, spontaneously-contracting and oestrogen-dominated, quiescent uterine horns of healthy, young adult, female Wistar rats. Graded, escalated concentrations of PGE (0.5-4.0 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent and significant inhibitions of the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions of the isolated rat uterine horn preparations. In a concentration-related manner, PGE also significantly inhibited or abolished contractions produced by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml), oxytocin (0.5-4.0 microU), bradykinin (2.5-10 ng/ml), carbachol (CCh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml) or potassium chloride (K+, 10-80 mM) in quiescent uterine horn preparations isolated from the oestrogen-dominated rats. The spasmolytic effect of PGE observed in the present study lends pharmacological support to the traditional use of ;guava' leaves in the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in some rural African communities. PMID:19377271

Chiwororo, Witness D H; Ojewole, John A O

2009-02-01

214

A comparative antibacterial evaluation of raw and processed Guj? (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds  

PubMed Central

Background: Seed of Guj? (Abrus precatorius Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Guj? in diseases like Indralupta (alopecia), ?otha (edema), K?mi (helminthes), Ku??ha (skin diseases), Ka??u (itching), Prameha (urinary disorders) etc., after being treated with specific ?odhana (purification) procedures. Objective: To assess the antimicrobial action of of raw and ?hodhita (Processed) Guj? seeds Methods: Guj? seeds after being processed with Godugdha (cow's milk), Nimbu swarasa (Lemon juice), K?j? (Sour gruel) and water, as the media, were evaluated for its antibacterial effect against clinically important bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method. Results: Aqueous extracts of raw seeds of Guj? exert its antibacterial effect on both Gram positive, as well as Gram negative bacteria but none of the ?odhita Guj? seeds showed any bactericidal effect on any bacterial strains. Chloroform extracts of all the ?odhita Guj? seed extracts could inhibit bacterial growth but with variations Conclusion: The study displayed that chloroform extracts of raw and ?odhita samples for bacterial study were much sensitive than the aqueous extracts. PMID:23929989

Roy, Sudipta; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Mandal, Narayan C.; Barman, Soma; Ghosh, Ranjan; Roy, Rajiv

2012-01-01

215

Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.  

PubMed

Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states. PMID:21548805

Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimares, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, Joo Paulo Almeida; da Conceico Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Jnior, Lucindo Jos; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Arajo, Adriano Antunes

2011-10-01

216

Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms. PMID:24711746

Dada, E. O.; Ekundayo, F. O.; Makanjuola, O. O.

2014-01-01

217

Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 g/disc. Conclusions The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds. PMID:23569993

Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A.T.M.; Howlader, Md. Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

2012-01-01

218

Evaluation of CNS Depressant Activity of Different Plant parts of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn.  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out with the water-soluble portion of the ethanol extracts of flowers, barks, seeds and leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. to confirm their CNS depressant activity. The ethanol extracts of the plant parts were obtained by soxhlet extraction. After performing the gross behavioral study, the CNS depressant activity was evaluated by observing the prolongation of sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium in mice. Attempts have been made to explore the possible mechanism behind this activity by determining their effect on brain monoamine neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. The gross behavioral study showed that ethanol extracts of the leaves, flowers and seeds possess significant CNS depressant activity. The leaves, flowers, seeds and barks (600 mg/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of sleep and so found to cause decrease dopamine and increase serotonin level. From which it can be concluded that the CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extracts of seeds, leaves and flowers may be due to the decrease in dopamine and increase in serotonin level. PMID:21369448

Das, Sanjita; Sasmal, D.; Basu, S. P.

2008-01-01

219

In Vitro ?-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Extract of Amaranthus Caudatus Linn  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study was aimed to investigate the ?-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus Linn (MeAc). Methods Methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus was screened for ?-amylase inhibition activity by CNPG3 method (2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltotrioside) and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging, and 2.2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. MeAc was also screened for non enzymatic hemoglycosylation. Results The methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus showed potent ?-amylase inhibition activity (IC50 19.233 g/ml). MeAc showed significant antioxidant activity in all the in vitro antioxidant models. Furthermore, the MeAc was found to be extremely effective in scavenging ABTS radical activity (IC50 48.751.1 g/ml) when compared to DPPH (IC50 77.50.4 g/ml), SOD (IC50 62.52.1 g/ml), hydroxyl (IC50 88.501.8 g/ml) and NO (IC50 67.52.2 g/ml) scavenging activity. Conclusions The methanolic extract of A. caudatus showed potent ?-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities. PMID:22043408

Kumar, Ashok; Khan, Saleemulla

2011-01-01

220

Effect of Momordica charantia Linn. pomous aqueous extract on cataractogenesis in murrin alloxan diabetics.  

PubMed

The fruit extract of Momordica charantia Linn. was studied in Charles Foster rats of both sexes in respect of its dose-response hypoglycemia and at maximal effective dose, its influence on the development of diabetic cataract. Alloxan (120 mg/kg s.c./rat, single dose) diabetic rats with greater than 150 mg% of blood sugar were classified into four groups (n = 10) wherein two were control and the rest were test groups). In the test group, the oral dose response hypoglycemic herbal effect was found to be maximum at 4 g/kg/Day/rat when administered for 20 days. This dose was continued in the 2nd test group for a period of 2 months. Blood sugar in all the rats was estimated by microdetermination method using a dextrometer before and after therapy. The control group of rats received 2 ml of 0.9% NaCl and they developed cataract in 90 to 100 days. The herbal treated diabetics showed cataract in 140 to 180 days. Cataract formation was found to be dependant on blood sugar levels since the control group with blood sugar 307 +/- 81 (mg%) was blind 2 months earlier than herbal treated group which showed blood sugar 149 +/- 66.37 (mg%). PMID:3387455

Srivastava, Y; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H; Verma, Y

1988-03-01

221

Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.  

PubMed

Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?70-90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 g per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(-) scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

Kaur, Tarandeep; Hussain, Khadim; Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

2013-01-01

222

Evaluation of Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: A Novel Phytofood from Ladakh  

PubMed Central

Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?7090%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 g per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2? scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

2013-01-01

223

Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk  

PubMed Central

Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M.; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R. R. B.; Rawat, A. K. S.

2013-01-01

224

Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats  

PubMed Central

The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2%?w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use. PMID:22084720

Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.

2011-01-01

225

Flood of June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin, Linn County, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred on June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin in Linn County, Iowa, following thunderstorm activity over east-central Iowa. The rain gage at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, recorded a 24-hour rainfall of 4.76 inches at 6:00 p.m. on June 4th. Radar indications estimated as much as 6 inches of rain fell in the headwaters of the Indian Creek Basin. Peak discharges on Indian Creek of 12,500 cubic feet per second at County Home Road north of Marion, Iowa, and 24,300 cubic feet per second at East Post Road in southeast Cedar Rapids, were determined for the flood. The recurrence interval for these peak discharges both exceed the theoretical 500-year flood as computed using flood-estimation equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Information about the basin and flood history, the 2002 thunderstorms and associated flooding, and a profile of high-water marks are presented for selected reaches along Indian and Dry Creeks.

Eash, David A.

2004-01-01

226

Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

Gautam, M K; Goel, R K

2014-01-01

227

Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: An overview  

PubMed Central

The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medicinal practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional system of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn. have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin disease, arthritis, eye diseases, insect bites and so on. The O. sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess anti-fertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, analgesic, antispasmodic and adaptogenic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituents present in O. sanctum L. have been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials. The pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of O. sanctum L. The results of the above studies support the use of this plant for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethno-botanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances. PMID:22228948

Pattanayak, Priyabrata; Behera, Pritishova; Das, Debajyoti; Panda, Sangram K.

2010-01-01

228

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 3555 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. Conclusions It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries. PMID:23569974

Ponarulselvam, S; Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; Thangamani, S

2012-01-01

229

Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (?G(o)). The values of K(ao) and ?G(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction. PMID:22713934

Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

2012-07-01

230

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) extract and their antimicrobial, antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

The present work focuses the use of the aqueous extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. (Amaranthaceae) in producing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate aqueous. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannins, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates and proteins and they serve as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were also tested for proteins and ascorbic acid. Its pH was also determined (5.63). The AgNPs obtained was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, Zeta sizer and TG-DSC. SEM images which revealed the presence of various shapes and sizes. FT-IR spectrum showed the AgNPs having a coating of proteins indicating a dual role of bio-molecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. Presence of impurities and melting point profile were screened by TG-DSC analyzer. AgNPs were synthesized from the silver nitrate through the reducing power of ascorbic acid present in A. sessilis leaves. In this study, we also investigated antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of green synthesized AgNPs. The antimicrobial activity is investigated by Bauer et al.'s method. Antioxidant activity was done by DPPH method. PMID:23006568

Niraimathi, K L; Sudha, V; Lavanya, R; Brindha, P

2013-02-01

231

Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit  

PubMed Central

Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

2012-01-01

232

Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 0.49 vs 12.0 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 0.87 vs 12.0 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion and gastric ulcers in ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl induced and 90% ethanol-induced ulcer models. PMID:21160779

Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

2009-01-01

233

Microsatellite markers for the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica (Linn, 1758), a key species concerned by changing southern limit, in exploited littoral ecosystems  

E-print Network

1 Microsatellite markers for the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica (Linné, 1758), a key species limit of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica strongly shifted northward. To understand the consequences on the function and structure of coastal ecosystems remain mostly unknown (Walther et al. 2002). The Baltic clam

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

No effect of acute, single dose oral administration of Momordica charantia Linn., on glycemia, energy expenditure and appetite: A pilot study in non-diabetic overweight men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyMomordica charantia Linn. Cucurbitaceae (MC), has been used to treat glycemic impairment in humans for centuries. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of MC on postprandial glucose levels, energy expenditure\\/fuel mixture and appetite in overweight men.

Gursevak S. Kasbia; Jon Thor Arnason; Pascal Imbeault

2009-01-01

235

Observations on the role of the honey bee and bumble bee as pollinators of white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) in the Timaru district and Mackenzie country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations on the role of the honey bee and the bumble bee in the pollination of white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) were made in the Timaru District and Mackenzie Country of New Zealand over 2 seasons.Bumble bees were of no importance in the Timaru area, although they played an important part in the Mackenzie Country, where honey bee densities were

T. Palmer-Jones; I. W. Forster; G. L. Jeffery

1962-01-01

236

Extraction, processing, and storage effects on curcuminoids and oleoresin yields from Curcuma longa L. grown in Jamaica.  

PubMed

Aromatic diarylheptanoid compounds from Curcuma longa Linn grown in Jamaica were quantified by UV-vis spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses. The oleoresin yields from ethanolic extracts were quantified and evaluated with regard to the effects of the type of postharvesting process and the type of extraction method conducted on the plant material. Fresh samples that were hot solvent extracted provided the highest oleoresin yields of 15.7% +/- 0.4 ( n = 3), and the lowest oleoresin yields of 7.8% +/- 0.2 ( n = 3) were from the dried milled samples that were cold solvent extracted. Data from the ASTA spectrophotometer assay confirmed that dried samples contained the highest curcuminoid content of 55.5% +/- 2.2 ( n = 6) at the fifth month of storage, and the fresh samples showed a curcuminoid content of 47.1% +/- 6.4 ( n = 6) at the third month of storage. A modified HPLC analysis was used to quantify curcumin content. Data from the HPLC analysis confirmed that the dried treated, hot extracted, room temperature stored samples had the highest curcumin content of 24.3%. A novel high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method provided a chemical fingerprint of the C. longa with the use of a commercial curcumin standard. PMID:18454547

Green, Cheryl E; Hibbert, Sheridan L; Bailey-Shaw, Yvonne A; Williams, Lawrence A D; Mitchell, Sylvia; Garraway, Eric

2008-05-28

237

Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Stem bark of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. was extracted in methanol to evaluate their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic activity was determined on Wistar albino rats by hot plate method, tail flick assay, and tail immersion method using Morphine sulphate as standard drug at a dose of 5?mg/kg of body weight and the results were expressed as mean increase in latency after drug administration??SEM. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by Carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema using diclofenac sodium as standard drug at a dose of 100?mg/kg of body weight and expressed in terms of mean increase in paw volume??SEM. Stem bark extract was given at a dose of 250?mg/kg and 500?mg/kg of body weight. Both standard drugs and extract were administered orally to the animals. Control received distilled water orally. Results showed that Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. had potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23984409

Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Pradhan, Paresh; Borah, Sudarshana; Mahato, Kabita; Kumar, Mritunjay

2013-01-01

238

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of flower extract of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Millingtonia hortensis Linn is an abundant resource of flavonoids, which might be beneficial in protecting liver tissue from injury. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of M. hortensis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanism involved therein were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents. 30 adult Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups. Control group received vehicle, group-2 received CCl4 alone (1 ml/kg body weight, intraperitonially), groups 3 - 5 received the ethanolic flower extract in 2 dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg) and Curcumin (100 mg/kg) as a standard for 8 days orally, followed by CCl4 as a single dose on the 8th day. 48 hours later, blood was withdrawn, serum was subjected to biochemical assessments, and liver homogenate was examined for lipid peroxides, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopatological studies. Results: CCl4 treatment produced a profound increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, hepatic marker enzymes and bilirubin content compared with the control (P < 0.05). Pre-treatment with the flower extract of M. hortensis significantly enhanced the levels of endogenous antioxidants and reduced the levels of hepatic marker enzymes in relation to the CCl4 treated group (P < 0.05). Balloning degeneration and fatty changes in hepatocytes was prevented by pre-treatment with the flower extract. Conclusion: The antioxidant nature of the flower extract of M. hortensis could be responsible for averting damage to the liver. PMID:23248564

Babitha, S.; Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J. F.

2012-01-01

239

Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 0.47, compared to 1.05 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 0.06 as compared with 0.23 0.03 and 1.12 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

2014-01-01

240

Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)  

SciTech Connect

The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 1519 ?m. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

2014-02-24

241

Arsenic toxicity in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.): significance of potassium nutrition.  

PubMed

In a hydroponic culture, experiments were performed to study the influence of potassium (K) supplementation (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100mgL(-1)) on the arsenic (As; 0, 8, and 10mgL(-1))-accrued changes in growth traits (plant biomass, root-shoot length) and the contents of lepidine, As and K, in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) at 10days after treatment. The changes in these traits were correlated with shoot proline content, protein profile, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11). In general, As-alone treatments significantly decreased the growth traits but lead to significant enhancements in shoot proline and enzyme activities. K-supplementation to As-treated L. sativum seedlings decreased shoot-As content, reduced As-induced decreases in growth traits but enhanced the content of shoot proline, and the activities of the studied enzymes maximally with K100 + As8 and As10mgL(-1). Both 8 and 10mgL(-1) of As drastically downregulated the shoot proteins ranging from 43-65kDa. With As10mgL(-1), there was a total depletion of protein bands below 23kDa; however, K80mgL(-1) maximally recovered and upregulated the protein bands. Additionally, protein bands were downregulated (at par with As-alone treatment) above K80mgL(-1) level. Interestingly, As-stress increased lepidine content in a dose-dependent manner which was further augmented with the K-supplementation. It is suggested that K protects L. sativum against As-toxicity by decreasing its accumulation and strengthening antioxidant defense system and protein stability. PMID:23529401

Umar, Shahid; Gauba, Nidhi; Anjum, Naser A; Siddiqi, Tariq O

2013-09-01

242

Antidiarrhoeal activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rodents.  

PubMed

The leaf of Psidium guajava Linn. (family: Myrtaceae) is used traditionally in African folk medicine to manage, control and/or treat a plethora of human ailments, including diarrhoea. In this study, we examined the antidiarrhoeal activity of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on experimentally-induced diarrhoea in rodents. PGE (50-400 mg/kg p.o.) produced dose-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.01) protection of rats and mice against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, inhibited intestinal transit, and delayed gastric emptying. Like atropine (1 mg/kg, p.o.), PGE produced dose-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.01) antimotility effect, and caused dose-related inhibition of castor oil-induced enteropooling in the animals. Like loperamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.), PGE dose-dependently and significantly (P<0.05-0.01) delayed the onset of castor oil-induced diarrhoea, decreased the frequency of defaecation, and reduced the severity of diarrhoea in the rodents. Compared with control animals, PGE dose-dependently and significantly (P<0.05-0.01) decreased the volume of castor oil-induced intestinal fluid secretion, and reduced the number, weight and wetness of faecal droppings. PGE also produced concentration-related and significant (P<0.05-0.01) inhibitions of the spontaneous, rhythmic, pendular contractions of the rabbit isolated duodenum. The findings of this study indicate that PGE possesses antidiarrhoeal activity, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric use of the plant as a natural remedy for the treatment, management and/or control of diarrhoea in some rural communities of southern Africa. PMID:19234374

Ojewole, John A O; Awe, Emmanuel O; Chiwororo, Witness D H

2008-12-01

243

Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats and mice.  

PubMed

In many parts of Africa, the leaf, stem-bark, and roots of Psidium guajava Linn. (Family: Myrtaceae) are used traditionally for the management, control, and/or treatment of an array of human disorders. In an effort to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical properties of P. guajava leaf, and probe its efficacy and safety, the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory and analgesic properties of the plant's leaf aqueous extract in some experimental animal paradigms. The antiinflammatory property of the aqueous leaf extract was investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal (paw) edema, while the analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated by the "hot-plate" and "acetic acid" test models of pain in mice. Diclofenac (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were used respectively as standard, reference antiinflammatory and analgesic agents for comparison. P. guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) inhibition of fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation (edema) in rats. The plant extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. The numerous tannins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, ellagic acid, triterpenoids, guiajaverin, quercetin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant are speculated to account for the observed antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of the plant's leaf extract. In summary, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that the leaf aqueous extract of P. guajava possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical, folkloric uses of the plant in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions in some rural communities of Africa. PMID:17003849

Ojewole, J A O

2006-09-01

244

Biphasic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated vascular smooth muscles.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the effects of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on isolated, spontaneously-contracting portal veins, as well as on endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded descending thoracic aortic ring preparations of healthy, normotensive rats. Graded concentrations of PGE (0.25-4.0 mg/ml) caused concentration-dependent, initial brief but significant (P<0.05) rises of the basal tones and amplitudes of pendular, rhythmic contractions, followed by secondary pronounced, longer-lasting and significant (P<0.05-0.001) inhibitions of contractile amplitudes of the isolated portal veins. Relatively low concentrations of PGE (<1.0 mg/ml) always contracted freshly-mounted, nave, endothelium-intact aortic ring preparations. However, relatively high concentrations of PGE (1.0-4.0 mg/ml) always produced initial brief contractions/augmentations of noradrenaline (NA, 10(-7)M)-induced contractions of endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic ring preparations, followed by secondary, pronounced relaxations of the aortic ring muscles. Moreover, relatively high concentrations of PGE (1.0-4.0 mg/kg) always relaxed NA-induced contractions of the aortic ring preparations in a concentration-related manner. The arterial-relaxing effects of PGE were more pronounced in endothelium-intact aortic rings than in endothelium-denuded aortic ring preparations. The relaxant effects of PGE on endothelium-intact aortic rings were only partially inhibited by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect of PGE on aortic rings is probably mediated via both endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)-dependent and EDRF-independent mechanisms. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that PGE possesses a biphasic effect on rat isolated vascular smooth muscles. PMID:19234376

Chiwororo, Witness D H; Ojewole, John A O

2008-12-01

245

Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) whole-plant aqueous extract in rats.  

PubMed

Various morphological parts (roots, stems, leaves and fruits) of Momordica charantia Linn (family: Cucurbitaceae) are used traditionally in African folk medicine to manage, control and/or treat a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In order to scientifically appraise some of the folkloric, anecdotal and ethnomedical uses of M charantia, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of M charantia whole-plant aqueous extract (MCE) in rat experimental paradigms. The hypoglycaemic effect of the plant extract was examined in normal and diabetic rats, using streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetes mellitus models. Normotensive (normal), and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats were used to probe the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract. Chlorpropamide was used as reference hypoglycaemic agent for comparison. Acute oral administrations of the plant extract caused dose-related, significant hypoglycaemia in normal (normoglycaemic) and STZ-treated, diabetic rats. Furthermore, acute intravenous administrations of MCE produced dose-dependent, significant reductions in systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rates of normal, and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Although the exact hypoglycaemic and hypotensive mechanisms of action of the plant extract remain speculative at the moment, it is unlikely that the herb causes hypotension in the mammalian experimental animal model used via cholinergic mechanisms, since its cardiovascular effects are resistant to atropine pretreatment. However, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses hypoglycaemic and hypotensive properties, and therefore, lend pharmacological credence to folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management and/or control of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in some rural African communities. PMID:17117226

Ojewole, John A O; Adewole, Stephen O; Olayiwola, Gbola

2006-01-01

246

Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss.  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 0.47, compared to 1.05 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 0.06 as compared with 0.23 0.03 and 1.12 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

2014-01-01

247

Chemopreventive properties and molecular mechanisms of the bioactive compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne is a traditional Chinese rose tea and has been effectively used in folk medicines for treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions. H. sabdariffa aqueous extracts (HSE) were prepared from the dried flowers of H. sabdariffa L., which are rich in phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In this review, we discuss the chemopreventive properties and possible mechanisms of various H. sabdariffa extracts. It has been demonstrated that HSE, H. sabdariffa polyphenol-rich extracts (HPE), H. sabdariffa anthocyanins (HAs), and H. sabdariffa protocatechuic acid (PCA) exert many biologic effects. PCA and HAs protected against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl droperoxide (t-BHP) in rat primary hepatocytes. In rabbits fed cholesterol and human experimental studies, these studies imply HSE could be pursued as atherosclerosis chemopreventive agents as they inhibit LDL oxidation, foam cell formation, as well as smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. The extracts also offer hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver marker enzymes in experimental hyperammonemia. PCA has also been shown to inhibit the carcinogenic action of various chemicals in different tissues of the rat. HAs and HPE were demonstrated to cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in leukemia and gastric cancer. More recent studies investigated the protective effect of HSE and HPE in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy. From all these studies, it is clear that various H. sabdariffa extracts exhibit activities against atherosclerosis, liver disease, cancer, diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. These results indicate that naturally occurring agents such as the bioactive compounds in H. sabdariffa could be developed as potent chemopreventive agents and natural healthy foods. PMID:21291361

Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong

2011-01-01

248

Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400?mg/kg and 900?mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6?weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900?mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26?mg/g, 1.4?mg/g and 1.19??g/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes. PMID:22943464

2012-01-01

249

Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 ?M). When tested on K+ (80 mM)-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 ?M)-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 ?M), caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml) also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml). The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic component(s) was separated in the organic fraction, whereas the spasmogenic component was concentrated in the aqueous fraction. Conclusion These results indicate that A. spinosus possesses laxative activity partially mediated through cholinergic action. The spasmolytic effect was mediated through calcium channel blocking (CCB), while bronchodilator activity through a combination of ?-adrenergic and CCB pathways, which may explain the traditional uses of A. spinosus in gut and airways disorders. PMID:23025418

2012-01-01

250

Antioxidant and Antilipid Peroxidation Potential of Supercritical Fluid Extract and Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Vitex Negundo Linn.  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extract and ethanol extract of Vitex negundo Linn. were subjected to the chromatographic evaluation for identification of their constituents. Free radical scavenging activity of both extracts was studied by subjecting them to DPPH assay. IC50 values of ethanol and supercritical fluid extract of Vitex negundo indicate that ethanol extract has stronger reducing potential and ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to the supercritical fluid extract. The in vivo effect of extracts on lipid peroxidation was studied using ethanol induced oxidative stress model in rat. Ingestion of extracts for 14 days exhibited significant reduction in plasma MDA level of stressed animals. Ethanol extract exhibited higher in vivo antilipid peroxidation potential as compared to supercritical fluid extract which correlated well with radical scavenging potential of extract. PMID:22707827

Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

2011-01-01

251

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 g/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 g/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 g/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 g/ml for compound 2. PMID:23983504

Habib, M. Rowshanul

2009-01-01

252

Bioassay-guided isolation of a sesquiterpene lactone of deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber Linn. active on Trypanosome brucei rhodesience.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of 70 Malaysia plants were screened for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity using Trypanosome brucei rhodesience, strain STIB 900 and mouse skeletal cell (L-6) in cytotoxicity activity assay. Results indicated that methanol extract from Elephantopus scaber Linn. (E. scaber) possessed the highest value of antitrypanosomal activity with good selectivity index (antitrypanosomal IC50 of 0.220.02 ?g/ml, SI value of 204.55). Based on these results, E. scaber was chosen for further study by applying bioassay guided fractionation to isolate its antiprotozoal principle. The antiprotozoal principle was isolated from the ethyl acetate partition through solvent fractionation and crystallization process. The isolated active compound 1 was identified as deoxyelephantopin on the basis of its spectral analysis (FTIR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). PMID:24269185

Zahari, Zuriati; Jani, Nor Akmalazura; Amanah, Azimah; Latif, Mohd Naffidi Abdul; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul; Adenan, Mohd Ilham

2014-02-15

253

Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of two new triterpenoids from Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn.  

PubMed

Two new triterpenoids characterised as 30-normethyl fernen-22-one (capillirone, 1) and hopan-3?-ol (capillirol B, 2), along with two known triterpenoids, 4-?-hydroxyfilican-3-one and 3-?,4-?-dihydroxyfilicane, have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the fronds of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (Adiantaceae). Compounds 1 and 3 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with 33.07% (p < 0.01) and 42.30% (p < 0.001) inhibition as compared to indomethacin that exhibited 60.00% (p < 0.001) inhibition after 3 h in the carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema method. Compound 3 showed potent anti-nociceptive activity with 42.37% inhibition as compared to indomethacin that showed 45.34% inhibition in the writhing test. PMID:23972143

Haider, Saqlain; Kharbanda, Chetna; Alam, Mohammad Sarwar; Hamid, Hinna; Ali, Mohammad; Alam, Mahboob; Nazreen, Syed; Ali, Yakub

2013-01-01

254

Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method. PMID:22900261

Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

2012-10-01

255

Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

2014-11-01

256

Induction of apoptosis in human leukaemic cell lines K562, HL60 and U937 by diethylhexylphthalate isolated from Aloe vera Linne.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) from Aloe vera Linne on the apoptosis of human leukaemic cell lines K562, HL60 and U937 to examine its pharmacological activity. At a level of 10 microg mL(-1) DEHP a significant anti-leukaemic effect was observed for all three cell lines, as measured by clonogenic assay. After treatment with 10 microg mL(-1) DEHP for 4 h, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometric analysis confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis. These results indicate that DEHP isolated from Aloe vera Linne has a potent antileukaemic effect, and thus represents a new type of pharmacological activity with respect to human leukaemic cells. PMID:11007077

Lee, K H; Hong, H S; Lee, C H; Kim, C H

2000-08-01

257

Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and\\u000a National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria\\u000a (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency

Anshu S. Chatli; Viraj Beri; B. S. Sidhu

2008-01-01

258

Influence of the Leaf Extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (Mint) on the Survival of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of Gamma Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Mentha arvensis (mint) on the survival of mice exposed to various doses of whole-body gamma radiation. Material and Methods: The radioprotective effect of various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg\\/kg body weight) of chloroform extract of mint (Mentha arvensis Linn.) was studied

Ganesh Chandra Jagetia; Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

2002-01-01

259

Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity: antioxidant and histological study in mice.  

PubMed

The isolated and identified triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera Linn. was explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (L. aspera Linn.) extract significantly antagonized the spectacled cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. It was compared with commercial antiserum obtained from King Institute of Preventive Medicine (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India). N. naja naja venom induced a significant decrease in antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, catalase, reduced GSH and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increased lipid peroxidase (LPO) activity in different organs such as heart, liver, kidney and lungs. The histological changes following the antivenom treatment were also evaluated in all these organs. There were significant alterations in the histology. Triterpenoid from methanol extract of L. aspera Linn. at a dose level of 75 mg per mouse significantly attenuated (neutralized) the venom-induced antioxidant status and also the LPO activity in different organs. PMID:23857030

Venkatesan, C; Sarathi, M; Balasubramanian, G; Thomas, John; Balachander, V; Babu, V Sarath; Bilal, S Mohammed Yusuf; Majeed, S Abdul; Madan, N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Nambi, K S N; Hameed, A S Sahul

2014-04-01

260

Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years, especially under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 micrometers, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5 mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 micrometers. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be discussed in detail.

Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Vujisic, L.; Szofran, F. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

261

Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years especially, under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 microns, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 microns. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be discussed in detail.

Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

262

Ion implanted epitaxially grown ZnSe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The epitaxial growth of ZnSe on (100) Ge using the close-spaced transport process is described. Substrate temperature of 575 C and source temperatures of 675 C yield 10 micron, single crystal layers in 10 hours. The Ge substrates provides a nonreplenishable chemical transport agent and the epitaxial layer thickness is limited to approximately 10 microns. Grown epitaxial layers show excellent photoluminescence structure at 77 K. Grown layers exhibit high resistivity, and annealing in Zn vapor at 575 C reduces the resistivity to 10-100 ohms-cm. Zinc vapor annealing quenches the visible photoluminescence.

1974-01-01

263

AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COMMERCIALLY GROWN TRANSGENIC  

E-print Network

108 AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COMMERCIALLY GROWN TRANSGENIC BT COTTONSEED P.J. Cotty and C. Bock cotton may have reduced susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination as a result of pink bollworm resistance. During 1995 and 1996, Bt cottonseed from several commercial fields in Arizona contained aflatoxin levels

Cotty, Peter J.

264

Grown-ups Ought To Know Better.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the articles by Sam Brightman collected in this volume from the newsletter, "Adult & Continuing Education Today (ACET)" are the following: "Grown-Ups Ought to Know Better"; "Adult Education: The Only Sure Factor Is Growth"; "Adult Education Important in This Election Year"; "Will Nursery School External Degree Programs Come Next?";

Brightman, Samuel C.

265

Transport studies on CVD-grown graphene  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we report transport studies performed on CVD-grown graphene. We perform resistivity and hall measurements on a large-area sample at 4' K. We measure the carrier mobility of the sample and find it to be on ...

Huntley, Miriam Hanna

2009-01-01

266

Rice Plants Grown With and Without Endophytes  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These rice plants show the difference in growth of rice plants exposed to salt when grown with and without endophytes, which are mutually beneficialmicroscopic fungi that live in most plants. The plant on the left was colonized with a fungi that made it salt-tolerant, but it wasn't exposed to ...

267

Vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCFs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submicron vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCFs) obtained by a floating growth method were evaluated in terms of their microstructural development with heat treatment temperature (HTT), physical properties of a single fiber and of the bulk state, and additional effects, such as the filler in the electrode of a leadacid battery and a Li-ion battery system. Its desirable properties, such as

M Endo; Y. A Kim; T Hayashi; K Nishimura; T Matusita; K Miyashita; M. S Dresselhaus

2001-01-01

268

Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers  

SciTech Connect

We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States) [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain)] [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2013-06-17

269

Nanoelectronic biosensors based on CVD grown graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by

Yinxi Huang; Xiaochen Dong; Yumeng Shi; Chang Ming Li; Lain-Jong Li; Peng Chen

2010-01-01

270

Mineral composition of organically grown tomato  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

Ghambashidze, Giorgi

2014-05-01

271

Nucleolus in clinostat-grown plants  

SciTech Connect

The clinostat is an apparatus that is used to mimic zero gravity in studies of plant growth in the absence of gravitropic response. Clinostat-grown tissue cultures of carrot exhibit significant increases both in the number of nuclei containing more than one nucleolus and in nucleolar volume. Oat seedlings germinated and grown on clinostats exhibit a decreased rate of shoot elongation, increased tissue sensitivity to applied auxin, and an increased response to gravitropic stimulation. Clinostat treatment clearly affects plant metabolism. The nucleolus is the region in the nucleus where ribosome synthesis and assembly take place. The 18S, 5.8S, and 25S ribosomal genes, in tandem units, are located in the nucleolus. Ribosomes orchestrate the production of all proteins that are necessary for the maintenance of cell growth, development, and survival. A full study of the effects of nullification of gravitropism, by clinostat rotation, on nucleolar development in barley has been initiated. The authors study developmental changes of nucleolar number and diameter in clinostat-grown root tissues. Preliminary results show that barley roots exhibit changes in nucleolar number and diameter. Growth rates of barley root and shoot also appear to be reduced, in measurements of both length and weight.

Shen-Miller, J.; Dannenhoffer, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Hinchman, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-05-01

272

Interactions Between American Pondweed and Monoecious Hydrilla Grown in Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the potential for monoecious hydrilla ( Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) to invade existing aquatic plant com- munities, monoecious hydrilla was grown in mixtures with American pondweed ( Potamogeton nodosus Poiret). When grown with hydrilla from axillary turions, American pond- weed was a stronger competitor. When grown with hydrilla from tubers, American pondweed was equally as strong a competitor

DAVID F. SPENCER; GREGORY G. KSANDER

273

Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content  

PubMed Central

Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardraka swarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds. PMID:22529660

Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V. J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2011-01-01

274

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

2014-01-01

275

Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, ?-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum. PMID:24266685

Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

2013-12-01

276

Characterization and storage stability of the extract of Thai mango (Mangifera indica Linn. Cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernels.  

PubMed

Qualitative analysis of hydrolysable extract from mango (Mangifera indica Linn. cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernel was performed by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RPHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). The main phenolic compound was identified as methyl gallate by comparing their retention time, UV-vis absorption spectra and mass spectra with a reference standard. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by HPLC-DAD, which revealed that the extract contained total phenolics at a concentration of 194.1mg GAE/g dry weight of mango seed kernel (MSK), of which 85.7% was identified as methyl gallate. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the extract and the main compound were assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays, by the ferric thiocyanate method and by an assay of metal chelating activity. Tyrosinase inhibition was also investigated. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content of MSK extract stored in a plastic (polyethylene) PE bag decreased during storage at freezing (-20C), refrigerated (7C) and room (28-32C) temperature for 182days. The loss of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content increased at higher storage temperatures for more than 182days. PMID:25114335

Maisuthisakul, Pitchaon; Gordon, Michael H

2014-08-01

277

Efficacy of vermicompost as fish pond manure--effect on water quality and growth of Cyprinus carpio (Linn.).  

PubMed

Experiment was conducted in (0.002 ha) cemented tanks for 120 days to assess the efficacy of vermicompost as fish pond manure at a dose of 10,000 kg/ha/year (VC(10)), 15,000 kg/ha/year (VC(15)) and 20,000 (VC(20)) kg/ha/year) in comparison to semi-digested cow dung (8-10 days old), which was utilized at a dose of 20,000 kg/ha/year (CD(20)). One fourth of the doze was applied 15 days prior to fish stocking and rest in equal weekly installments. Twenty fingerlings of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linn.) were stocked (10,000/ha) and fed with supplementary diet @ 2% of their body weight daily. Water quality parameters were found to be within the optimum limits for carp culture in all the treatments. Zooplankton production in all the treatments did not differ significantly. Fish growth in terms of weight gain, percent weight gain, specific growth rate and yield was maximum in VC(15) followed by VC(20), VC(10) and CD(20). PMID:20338752

Kaur, Vaneet Inder; Ansal, Meera D

2010-08-01

278

Effect of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaf soluble solids on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of aqueous and ethanol soluble solid extracts of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaves on hypoglycemia and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide were injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type 2 diabetes. Acute and long-term feeding tests were carried out, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to follow the changes in plasma glucose and insulin levels was performed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extracts in diabetic rats.The results of acute and long-term feeding tests showed a significant reduction in the blood sugar level in diabetic rats fed with either the aqueous or ethanol extract of guava leaves (p < 0.05). Long-term administration of guava leaf extracts increased the plasma insulin level and glucose utilization in diabetic rats. The results also indicated that the activities of hepatic hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in diabetic rats fed with aqueous extracts were higher than in the normal diabetic group (p < 0.05). On the other hand, diabetic rats treated with the ethanol extract raised the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (p < 0.05) only. The experiments provided evidence to support the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extract and the health function of guava leaves against type 2 diabetes. PMID:18819164

Shen, Szu-Chuan; Cheng, Fang-Chi; Wu, Ning-Jung

2008-11-01

279

Isolation of a haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) from the Indian venomous butterfish (Scatophagus argus, Linn) sting extract.  

PubMed

A haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) was isolated and purified from the spine extract of the Indian venomous butterfish, S. argus Linn, by two step ion exchange chromatography. The toxin was homogeneous in native and SDS-PAGE gel. SDS-molecular weight of the toxin was found to be 18.1 +/- 0.09 kDa. SA-HT produced severe haemorrhage on stomach wall but devoid of cutaneous haemorrhage. UV, EDTA, trypsin, protease, cyproheptadine, indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid and BW755C treatment significantly antagonized the haemorrhagic activity of SA-HT. The toxin produced dose and time dependent oedema on mice hind paw, which was significantly encountered by cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW755C. SA-HT increased capillary permeability on guinea pig dorsal flank. On isolated guineapig ileum, rat fundus and uterus, SA-HT produced slow contraction which was completely antagonised by prostaglandin blocker SC19220. On isolated rat duodenum, SA-HT produced slow relaxation. SA-HT significantly increased plasma plasmin, serum MDA level and decreased serum SOD level indicating the possible involvement of cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. PMID:15233468

Karmakar, S; Muhuri, D C; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

2004-05-01

280

Study of anti-inflammatory activity in the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn.--an Indian medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn. (Harsingar) is widely used as a decoction in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for treatment of sciatica and arthritis, but it has not yet been screened scientifically. In the present study, the water soluble portion of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor tristis (NAT) was screened for the presence of anti-inflammatory activity. NAT inhibited the acute inflammatory oedema produced by different phlogistic agents, viz. carrageenin, formalin, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and hyaluronidase in the hindpaw of rats. The acute inflammatory swelling in the knee joint of rats induced by turpentine oil was also significantly reduced. In subacute models, NAT was found to check granulation tissue formation significantly in the granuloma pouch and cotton pellet test. Acute and chronic phases of formaldehyde induced arthritis were significantly inhibited. NAT was also found to inhibit the inflammation produced by immunological methods, viz. Freund's adjuvant arthritis and PPD induced tuberculin reaction. Thus anti-inflammatory activity in leaves of Harsingar supports its use in various inflammatory conditions by the followers of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. PMID:6482481

Saxena, R S; Gupta, B; Saxena, K K; Singh, R C; Prasad, D N

1984-08-01

281

Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves.  

PubMed

To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16(th) days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

Biswas, D; Yoganandam, G P; Dey, A; Deb, L

2013-03-01

282

Analysis of the responses of rainbow lizard (Agama agama Linn.). Isolated portal vein to electrical stimulation and to drugs.  

PubMed

The responses of the rainbow lizard (Agama agama Linn.) isolated portal vein to transmural electrical stimulation and to drugs have been examined. The isolated venous muscle preparation strongly contracted in response to exogenously administered adrenaline and noradrenaline (10(-8)-2.5 x 10(-6) M) and also weakly contracted to acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (10(-7) - 10(-5) M). The vein relaxed in response to exogenous administrations of isoprenaline (10(-8) - 2.5 x 10(-6) M) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP, 10(-7) - 10(-5) M). Transmural electrical stimulation of the isolated vein at 1-40 Hz induced frequency-dependent contractions of the venous smooth muscle which were inhibited or abolished by tetrodotoxin, alpha-adrenoceptor blockers, adrenergic neurone blocking agents, local anaesthetics, and by pretreatment of rainbow lizards with reserpine. Analysis of these findings shows that the electrical stimulation-evoked contractions of the venous blood vessel resulted from the excitation of post-ganglionic sympathetic neurones. A comparison of the relative potentiation of the venous preparation contractions induced by electrical stimulation, adrenaline and noradrenaline suggested that noradrenaline is the sympathetic transmitter mediating the contractile effects due to electrical excitation. The advantages of this preparation for studying sympathetic nerve-smooth muscle mechanisms and as a pharmacological model for investigating venous blood vessel activity are discussed. PMID:6142991

Ojewole, J A

1983-12-01

283

Isolation, structure elucidation and in vivo hepatoprotective potential of trans-tetracos-15-enoic acid from Indigofera tinctoria Linn.  

PubMed

The bioassay guided fractionation of the dried aerial part of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. led to the identification of an active fraction labelled as indigotin. On further chemical analysis, a compound isolated from indigotin was identified and characterized as trans-tetracos-15-enoic acid (TCA). The chemical structure of this compound was established on the basis of physical properties and spectral data, including NMR. It afforded significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models. Silymarin, a well known plant based hepatoprotective agent, and N-acetylcysteine, which has proven efficacy as a replenisher of sulfhydryls, were used for relative efficacy. TCA was found to reverse the altered hepatic parameters in experimental liver damage. In the safety evaluation study the oral LD50 was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg, with no signs of abnormalities or any mortality for the 15 day period of observation after administration of a single dose of drug in mice. The studies revealed significant and concentration dependent hepatoprotective potential of TCA as it reversed the majority of the altered hepatic parameters in experimental liver damage in rats and mice and may be useful in the management of liver disorders. PMID:16841368

Singh, B; Chandan, B K; Sharma, N; Bhardwaj, V; Satti, N K; Gupta, V N; Gupta, B D; Suri, K A; Suri, O P

2006-10-01

284

Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

Ismail, Zakiah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

285

Genotoxic assessment of calcium hypochlorite and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds-two commonly used water purifying agents.  

PubMed

Abstract The role of water in our daily lives cannot be highlighted enough, and ensuring the availability of pure water is an urgent need. Bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds are commonly used in water purification as a disinfectant and anticoagulant, respectively, yet their safety levels have not been analyzed so far. Hence, a genotoxic assessment was conducted using Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay. Reduction in mitotic index and increase in abnormality percentage was observed for both, but this effect was dose dependent. All values were statistically significant at p<0.05%. Bleaching powder was found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic compared with the control. Abnormality percentage was found to be significantly high when compared with the positive control. Chromosome aberrations like binucleate condition, micronuclei formation, stickiness, and lesions could only be observed in root meristems treated with positive control and bleaching powder. The seeds of S. potatorum expressed mild cytotoxicity, but the genotoxic effect was found to be negligible when compared with positive control. Other chromosome aberrations observed included chromosome bridges, c-metaphases, chromosome laggards, shift in microtubule organizing centre, polyploidy, early movement of chromosomes, vagrant chromosomes, as well as diagonal, disturbed, and scattered arrangement of chromosomes. Thus, the genotoxic effect of bleaching powder warns people to use a safer choice of S. potatorum in water purification, whenever possible, as in the condition of muddy, coagulated water. PMID:25411981

Neelamkavil, Sandhya Vincent; Thoppil, John E

2014-11-20

286

Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.*  

PubMed Central

Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

2014-01-01

287

Anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Melastoma malabathricum (MM) Linn leaves traditionally use in the treatment of diabetic conditions. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract taken from Melastoma malabathricum Linn (Melastomaceae). Methods The methanolic leaves extract of MM Linn leaves used for the study. Chemical test of different extract, acute toxicity study and oral glucose test was performed. Diabetes was induced in rat by single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (55mg/kg). The rats were divided into following groups: Group I normal control, Group II (Vehicle) diabetic control, Group III (STZ-toxic) MM I (100mg/kg, p.o.), Group IV MM II (250mg/kg, p.o.), Group V MM III (500mg/kg, p.o.), Group VI glibenclamide (10mg/kg, p.o.). Bodyweight of each rat in the different groups was recorded daily. Biochemical and antioxidant enzyme parameters were determined on day 28. Histology of different organ (heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas) was performed after sacrificing the rats with euthanasia. Results The methanolic extract of MM did not show any acute toxicity up-to the dose of 2000 mg/kg and shown better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Orally treatment of different doses of MM leaves extract decreased the level of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of plasma insulin, hexokinase. MM treatment decreased liver malondialdehyde but increased the level of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. In oral glucose tolerance test observed increased utilization of glucose. Streptozotocin induced diabetes groups rat treated with different doses of MM leaves extract and glibenclamide significantly increased the body weight. Histopathology analysis on different organ of STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat show there regenerative effect on the liver, kidney, heart and pancreas. Conclusion The antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic effect of methanolic extract from Melastoma malabathricum Linn suggests a potential therapeutic treatment to antidiabetic conditions. PMID:24010894

2013-01-01

288

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

2001-01-01

289

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

1998-01-01

290

Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

2001-01-01

291

Nanolasers grown on silicon-based MOSFETs.  

PubMed

We report novel indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) nanopillar lasers that are monolithically grown on (100)-silicon-based functional metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) at low temperature (410 C). The MOSFETs maintain their performance after the nanopillar growth, providing a direct demonstration of complementary metal-oxide-semiconudctor (CMOS) compatibility. Room-temperature operation of optically pumped lasers is also achieved. To our knowledge, this is the first time that monolithically integrated lasers and transistors have been shown to work on the same silicon chip, serving as a proof-of-concept that such integration can be extended to more complicated CMOS integrated circuits. PMID:22714204

Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Ko, Wai Son; Ng, Kar Wei; Chen, Roger; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

2012-05-21

292

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

293

Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

2001-01-01

294

Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene  

SciTech Connect

Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidthan often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1?nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

Berger, A. J.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Hammel, P. C., E-mail: hammel@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Amamou, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Kawakami, R. K. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2014-05-07

295

EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII SPRENG. AND MORUS ALBA LINN. ON THE AGE OF ATTAINMENT OF PUBERTY AND OVARIAN FOLLICULOGENESIS IN RATS  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. (Curry leaf) and Morus alba Linn. (Mulberry leaf) on the age of attainment of puberty, relative ovary and uterus weight and the number of ovarian surface follicles in female Wistar albino rats. The rats were reared from 20 to 70 days of age in six groups consisting of eight rats in each group. Group I and II were orally administered with 0.5 ml distilled water and 0.5 ml 10% DMSO, respectively. Group III, IV, V and VI were orally administered with methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii at 500 mg/kg b.w. and 1000 mg/kg b.w. and methanolic extracts of Morus alba at 250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The significant advancement in the mean age of attainment of puberty was observed along with increase in number of surface follicles on both the ovaries in Group III, IV and VI. Whereas, the relative ovary weight was non significant (P>0.05) in all the treated groups, the relative uterus weight was significant (P<0.05) in Group IV and Group VI. These observations were attributed to the effects of phytoestrogens present in the methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. and Morus alba Linn PMID:24825989

Nandini, M. S.; Veena, T.; Swamy, M. Narayana

2010-01-01

296

Development of HPLC method by UV-VIS detection for the quantification of phenolic acids in different Ocimum sanctum Linn. extracts.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of five phenolic acids including Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid, Syringic acid, Benzoic acid and Vanillic acid by HPLC with UV-VIS detector. These Phenolic acids were separated by analytical column Intersil ODS-3 C18, a gradient elution system of ACN and acidified water solution with 1ml/min flow rate and quantified in a total run of 30 minutes at 210nm wavelength. In the quantitative analysis of these compounds showed good regression (0.995-0.999). The limit of detection [LOD] and limit of quantification [LOQ] of these compounds were in the range of 0.15-0.46 and 0.42-2.47 ?g/mL. The average recoveries were between 95.8-103.1% and their RSD values were less than 3.34%. By the proposed method Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid and Syringic acid were found and quantified in Methanolic, Ethanolic and Acetonic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. While the two other phenolic acids benzoic acid and vanillic acid was not found in the extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. PMID:25176382

Shafqatullah; Khan, Rasool; Hassan, Waseem; Hussain, Arshad; Asadullah; Rehman, Khaliqur; Ali, Javid

2014-09-01

297

Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review.  

PubMed

The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn (known as Tulsi in Hindi), a small herb seen throughout India, have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, painful eye diseases, chronic fever, insect bite etc. The Ocimum sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic, adaptogenic and diaphoretic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituent present in Ocimum sanctum L., has been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials of Tulsi. Although because of its great therapeutic potentials and wide occurrence in India the practitioners of traditional systems of medicine have been using Ocimum sanctum L. for curing various ailments, a rational approach to this traditional medical practice with modern system of medicine is, however, not much available. In order to establish the therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum L. in modern medicine, in last few decades several Indian scientists and researchers have studied the pharmacological effects of steam distilled, petroleum ether and benzene extracts of various parts of Tulsi plant and eugenol on immune system, reproductive system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastric system, urinary system and blood biochemistry and have described the therapeutic significance of Tulsi in management of various ailments. These pharmacological studies have established a scientific basis for therapeutic uses of this plant. PMID:16170979

Prakash, P; Gupta, Neelu

2005-04-01

298

Biochemical Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Extract and Fraction of Cassia fistula Linn. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae) such as petroleum ether (60-80), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). PMID:24302797

Jarald, E. E.; Joshi, S. B.; Jain, D. C.; Edwin, S.

2013-01-01

299

Proapoptotic and antimetastatic properties of supercritical CO2 extract of Nigella sativa Linn. against breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa, commonly referred as black cumin, is a popular spice that has been used since the ancient Egyptians. It has traditionally been used for treatment of various human ailments ranging from fever to intestinal disturbances to cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic, antimetastatic, and anticancer activities of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of the seeds of N. sativa Linn. against estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Twelve extracts were prepared from N. sativa seeds using the SC-CO2 extraction method by varying pressure and temperature. Extracts were analyzed using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on various human cancer and normal cell lines. Of the 12 extracts, 1 extract (A3) that was prepared at 60C and 2500 psi (~17.24 MPa) showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 53.342.15 ?g/mL. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by evaluating caspases activities and observing the cells under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro antimetastatic properties of A3 were investigated by colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The elevated levels of caspases in A3 treated MCF-7 cells suggest that A3 is proapoptotic. Further nuclear condensation and fragmentation studies confirmed that A3 induces cytotoxicity through the apoptosis pathway. A3 also demonstrated remarkable inhibition in migration and invasion assays of MCF-7 cells at subcytotoxic concentrations. Thus, this study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of N. sativa in targeting breast cancer. PMID:24328702

Baharetha, Hussein M; Nassar, Zeyad D; Aisha, Abdalrahim F; Ahamed, Mohamed B Khadeer; Al-Suede, Foaud Saleih R; Abd Kadir, Mohd Omar; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

2013-12-01

300

Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated. Results: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of ?-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:21808555

Verma, Laxmi; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Rajak, H.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.

2010-01-01

301

Proapoptotic and Antimetastatic Properties of Supercritical CO2 Extract of Nigella sativa Linn. Against Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nigella sativa, commonly referred as black cumin, is a popular spice that has been used since the ancient Egyptians. It has traditionally been used for treatment of various human ailments ranging from fever to intestinal disturbances to cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic, antimetastatic, and anticancer activities of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of the seeds of N. sativa Linn. against estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Twelve extracts were prepared from N. sativa seeds using the SC-CO2 extraction method by varying pressure and temperature. Extracts were analyzed using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on various human cancer and normal cell lines. Of the 12 extracts, 1 extract (A3) that was prepared at 60C and 2500?psi (?17.24 MPa) showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 53.342.15??g/mL. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by evaluating caspases activities and observing the cells under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro antimetastatic properties of A3 were investigated by colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The elevated levels of caspases in A3 treated MCF-7 cells suggest that A3 is proapoptotic. Further nuclear condensation and fragmentation studies confirmed that A3 induces cytotoxicity through the apoptosis pathway. A3 also demonstrated remarkable inhibition in migration and invasion assays of MCF-7 cells at subcytotoxic concentrations. Thus, this study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of N. sativa in targeting breast cancer. PMID:24328702

Baharetha, Hussein M.; Nassar, Zeyad D.; Aisha, Abdalrahim F.; Ahamed, Mohamed B. Khadeer; Al-Suede, Foaud Saleih R.; Kadir, Mohd Omar Abd; Ismail, Zhari

2013-01-01

302

In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of Sida rhombifolia Linn (Malvaceae) against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhoea. Acute toxicity of the most active extract was determined and major bioactive components were screened. Methods The agar disc diffusion and the agar dilution method were used for the determination of inhibition diameters and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) respectively. The acute toxicity study was performed according WHO protocol. Results The aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) was the most active with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 - 23.6 mm, however at 200 ?g/dic this activity was relatively weak compared to gentamycin. The MICs of the aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) varied from 49.40 to 78.30 ?g/ml. Salmonella dysenteriae was the most sensitive (49.40 ?g/ml). For the acute toxicity study, no deaths of rats were recorded. However, significant increase of some biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine (CRT) were found. The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins Conclusion The results showed that the aqueous-methanol extract of S. rhombifolia exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Some toxic effects were found when rats received more than 8 g/kg bw of extract. Antibacterial; Enterobacteria; Acute toxicity; Phytochemical analysis PMID:20663208

2010-01-01

303

Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.  

PubMed

Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation. PMID:25374344

Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

2014-11-01

304

Perfect crystals grown from imperfect interfaces  

PubMed Central

The fabrication of advanced devices increasingly requires materials with different properties to be combined in the form of monolithic heterostructures. In practice this means growing epitaxial semiconductor layers on substrates often greatly differing in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. With increasing layer thickness the relaxation of misfit and thermal strains may cause dislocations, substrate bowing and even layer cracking. Minimizing these drawbacks is therefore essential for heterostructures based on thick layers to be of any use for device fabrication. Here we prove by scanning X-ray nanodiffraction that mismatched Ge crystals epitaxially grown on deeply patterned Si substrates evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface. We show that relaxing thermal and misfit strains result just in lattice bending and tiny crystal tilts. We may thus expect a new concept in which continuous layers are replaced by quasi-continuous crystal arrays to lead to dramatically improved physical properties. PMID:23880632

Falub, Claudiu V.; Medu?a, Mojmr; Chrastina, Daniel; Isa, Fabio; Marzegalli, Anna; Kreiliger, Thomas; Taboada, Alfonso G.; Isella, Giovanni; Miglio, Leo; Dommann, Alex; von Knel, Hans

2013-01-01

305

Hexagonal boron nitride grown by MOVPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has a potential for optical device applications in the deep ultraviolet spectral region. For several decades, only amorphous and turbostratic boron nitride (BN) films had been grown by chemical vapor deposition and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. By introducing flow-rate modulation epitaxy (FME), which enables us to reduce parasitic reactions and lower the optimal growth temperature, we have succeeded in growing single-phase h-BN epitaxial films on nearly lattice-matched (1 1 1) Ni substrates. The h-BN epitaxial films exhibit near-band-gap ultraviolet luminescence at a wavelength of 227 nm in cathodoluminescence at room temperature. The combination of FME and the lattice-matched substrate paves the way for the epitaxial growth of high-quality h-BN.

Kobayashi, Y.; Akasaka, T.; Makimoto, T.

2008-11-01

306

Humidity sensing by fractally grown nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractal structure of ?-iron was grown within gel-derived silica films. These were subjected to oxidation treatments at a temperature of 400K for durations varying from 1to4h. Nanoshells of Fe3O4 up to a thickness of 2nm were formed in the process. The electrical resistivity of these nanocomposites was shown to arise due to a small polaron hopping mechanism between Fe2+ and Fe3+ sites. The nanocomposite films exhibited about three to four orders-of-magnitude resistivity change for an increase of relative humidity from 35% to 95%. The decrease was found to be exponential in nature and is believed to arise due to the injection of electrons to the oxide nanoshell.

Pal, B. N.; Basu, S.; Chakravorty, D.

2005-02-01

307

Functional analysis of aggression in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata).  

PubMed

A functional analysis was conducted to assess the antecedent and reinforcing conditions underlying aggressive behavior in a female lemur in captivity. Results showed that her aggression was primarily the result of human attention. A replacement behavior-training program was introduced, and the lemur's aggression was successfully eliminated. These results demonstrate the utility of using functional assessment and analyses in zoos with captive wild nonhuman animals. PMID:24911429

Farmer-Dougan, Valeri

2014-01-01

308

Posturally related variations in the hand preferences of the ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata).  

PubMed

The hand preferences of 5 semi-free-ranging black-and-white ruffed lemurs were assessed by using three distinct testing procedures. Testing conditions varied in the extent to which they required animals to make a whole body postural adjustment prior to making a reach. Minimal bodily adjustment was necessary for free foraging, whereas discrete food presentations on land (DFP-land) and in a moat (DFP-moat) promoted a gross reorientation of the animal's entire body. In the DFP-moat condition 4 animals exhibited exclusive use of the left hand, and only 1 of 515 reaches was made with the right hand. Similarly, all 5 animals showed a pronounced left hand preference in the DFP-land condition. The free-foraging condition revealed a hand preference for only 1 of the 5 subjects, and that preference was weak in comparison with those measured in the other two test conditions. These findings indicate that whole body postural adjustments critically influenced the expression of hand preference and should be taken into consideration in future studies of primate hand preferences. PMID:3180732

Forsythe, C; Milliken, G W; Stafford, D K; Ward, J P

1988-09-01

309

Interactive effects of selenium and mercury on the restoration potential of leaves of the medicinal plant, Portulaca oleracea Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Portulaca oleracea have the potential of regeneration, when grown in a distilled water medium. The two heavy metals, Se and Hg individually and in combination affected both shoot and root development. They completely arrested shoot development at all concentrations. However, they produced concentration-dependent changes in the development of roots, which ranged from their complete inhibition to variation in

P Thangavel; A Shahira Sulthana; V Subburam

1999-01-01

310

MBE grown iron-based nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in magnetic nanostructures has increased rapidly because of their potential applications in a number of magnetic nanotechnologies such as high-density magnetic recording media, magnetic field sensors, magnetic nanoprobes for spin-polarized microscopy and cell manipulation in biomedical technology. Successful incorporation of ferromagnetic nanostructures in semiconductors may open a new area in spintronic applications. In this study, two kinds of Fe-based nanostructures were grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique, namely, Fe quantum dots (QDs) and Fe nanowires (NWs). For Fe QDs, a multilayer magnetic QD sample containing 5 layers of Fe QDs embedded in 6 layers of ZnS spacer was grown on a GaP(100) substrate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations reveal that the Fe QDs are single crystalline with spherical shape of diameters around 3 to 4 nm and area density of 1.5 x 1012 cm-2 . Its zero-field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) curves measured at low field (100 Oe) show the magnetic relaxation effect with a blocking temperature around 26 K. The hysteresis loop measured at 5 K shows a coercivity of 83 Oe, confirming the slow relaxation process and coercivity enhancement attributed to the nanoparticle nature of the sample. To study the transport property of Fe QDs, a Au/ZnS/Fe-QDs/ZnS/n+-GaAs Schottky-barrier structure containing 5 layers of Fe QDs was fabricated on a n+-GaAs(100) substrate. Its current-voltage (I-V) characteristics measured from 5 to 295 K display negative differential resistance (NDR) for temperature . 50 K, which is caused by the presence of Fe QDs. The highest peak-to-valley current ratio obtained at 5 K is as high as 15:1. Staircase-like I-V characteristic was also observed at low temperature in some devices fabricated from this structure. Possible mechanisms that can account for the observed unusual I-V characteristics in this structure were discussed. Two types of self-assembled Fe NWs were grown on ZnS/GaP(100) surface under high growth/annealing temperature. The Type-A Fe NWs orient along the ZnS[110] direction with irregular shape, while the type-B Fe NWs orient along either the ZnS[180] or [810] direction with seemingly straight shape. Detailed HRTEM and selected area diffraction (SAD) studies reveal that both types were single-crystalline with their elongated axis along the Fe<100> direction family possibly due to the fact that the easy axis of Fe is along this direction. We have proposed a mean-field model to explain the slight misalignment of the type-B Fe NWs. The I-V characteristic of a single type-B Fe NW measured at room temperature displays a straight line nature corresponding to a resistivity about 2.3 x 10-7Om.

Lok, Shu Kin

311

78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-13-0037; FV13-955-2 CR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum...conducted among eligible producers of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia to determine whether...that regulates the handling of Vidalia onions produced in the production area....

2013-07-30

312

78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-13-0082; FV14-981-1 CR] Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum...be conducted among eligible growers of almonds in California to determine whether they...marketing order that regulates the handling of almonds grown in California. DATES: The...

2013-12-23

313

76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0010; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum...be conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor...order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The...

2011-03-23

314

Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and

Lanfang H. Levine; Patricia A. Bisbee; Jeffrey T. Richards; Michele N. Birmele; Ronald L. Prior; Michele Perchonok; Mike Dixon; Neil C. Yorio; Gary W. Stutte; Raymond M. Wheeler

2008-01-01

315

Bacteriological quality of organically grown leaf lettuce in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. LONCAREVIC, G.S. JOHANNESSEN AND L.M. RRVIK. 2005. Aim: To investigate bacteriological quality in organically grown leaf lettuce, including the presence of selected pathogenic bacteria, and to obtain information about organic lettuce production, including fertilizing regimes. Methods and Results: Altogether 179 samples of Norwegian organically grown lettuce were collected from 12 producers. Escherichia coli was isolated from 16 of the

S. Loncarevic; G. S. Johannessen; L. M. Rorvik

2005-01-01

316

Effects of drugs and electrical stimulation on rainbow lizard (Agama agama Linn.) isolated gastrointestinal tract smooth muscles.  

PubMed

The effects of some autonomic drugs and transmural electrical stimulation have been investigated on different isolated regions (oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum, colon, and rectum) of the rainbow lizard (Agama agama Linn.) alimentary canal. Acetylcholine and its natural or synthetic analogues (5 X 10(-10)-10(-6)M) contracted the rainbow lizard isolated oesophagus, duodenum, ileum, colon, and rectum (but not the stomach) in a concentration-dependent manner. Acetylcholine cholinoceptors on the lizard gut were classified as "muscarinic" since acetylcholine-induced contractions of the muscle preparations were inhibited or abolished by relatively low concentrations of atropine (10(-9)-10(-6)M), but not by d-tubocurarine or hexamethonium (at the same concentration levels. Atropine exhibited characteristics of competitive antagonism and gave a high mean pA2 value (9.40 +/- 0.25) against acetylcholine on lizard isolated rectum. Physostigmine (eserine, 10(-8)-10(-4)M) did not contract any isolated region of the lizard gut. However, low to medium concentrations of eserine (10(-8)-10(-6)M) potentiated acetylcholine-but not carbachol-induced contractions of the isolated smooth muscle segments taken from different regions of the rainbow lizard alimentary canal. The selective potentiation of ACh-elicited contractions of the muscle preparations by eserine is therefore thought to suggest the presence of acetylcholinesterases in the tissues, and their inhibition by physostigmine. Dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) or nicotine (10(-8)-10(-5)M) did not contract any of the isolated segments from the different regions of the rainbow lizard alimentary canal. Adrenaline and all its analogues examined (10(-8)-10(-5)M) dose-dependently relaxed isolated segments from different regions (except the stomach) of the rainbow lizard gastrointestinal tract. The catecholamine-induced relaxations of the lizard gut smooth muscles were inhibited or abolished by low concentrations of phentolamine (10(-7)-2.5 X 10(-6)M). This observation probably suggests the presence of "alpha" adrenoceptors on rainbow lizard gastrointestinal tract. Repetitive transmural electrical excitation induced tetrodotoxin- (and atropine-) resistant, frequency-dependent contractions of all isolated segments taken from different regions (except the stomach) of the lizard alimentary canal. The findings that medium to high concentrations of physostigmine (10(-6)-10(-4)M), DMPP and nicotine (10(-6)-10(-5)M) failed to elicit intrinsic nerve-mediated contractions, coupled with the fact that tetanic transmural electrical stimulation caused tetrodotoxin-resistant contractions of the rainbow lizard isolated gut muscles, strongly suggest that the autonomic innervation of this reptilian alimentary canal differs from that of a conventional mammalian (e.g. guinea-pig) gastrointestinal tract... PMID:6604856

Ojewole, J A

1983-06-01

317

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

318

Rapid and efficient purification of chrysophanol in Rheum Palmatum LINN by supercritical fluid extraction coupled with preparative liquid chromatography in tandem.  

PubMed

Chrysophanol has high pharmaceutical values. However, it was difficult to use the traditional extraction method to extract high-concentration chrysophanol. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to purify and separate chrysophanol in traditional herb, Rheum Palmatum LINN, by using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (P-HPLC) for rapid and large-scale isolation. The method is efficient for selective extraction of chrysophanol from the herbs, which have complex compositions. The extraction efficiency of chrysophanol with SFE is 25 higher than that of boiled water extraction under the same extraction time. The optimal conditions for SFE were 210 atm and 85 C for 30 min; for P-HPLC, a C18 column was used with a gradient elution of methanol and 1% acetic acid at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. According to (1)H NMR and LC-MS analyses, the purity of the isolated chrysophanol was as high as 99%. The recovery for chrysophanol in Rheum after SPE/PHPLC processing was in the range of 88-91.5%. Compared with other extraction and purification methods, the sequential system (SFE/P-HPLC) achieved the highest amount of extracted chrysophanol from Rheum Palmatum LINN (0.38 mg/g) and the shortest run time (3h). Hence, this rapid and environmentally friendly method can separate compounds based on polarity with high efficiencies and, coupled with P-HPLC, it may be applicable in the large-scale production of foods and medicines in the future. PMID:22436825

Lo, Tiffany Chien-Ting; Nian, Hung-Chi; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Wang, Ai-Yih; Wu, Ben-Zen

2012-04-15

319

Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its invitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the chemical composition and invitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GCMS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The

Poonkodi Kathirvel; Subban Ravi

2012-01-01

320

Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its invitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the chemical composition and invitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GCMS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The

Poonkodi Kathirvel; Subban Ravi

2011-01-01

321

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

2014-01-01

322

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

2012-01-01

323

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

2010-01-01

324

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

2013-01-01

325

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

2011-01-01

326

Auxin Transport Is Required for Hypocotyl Elongation in Light-Grown but Not Dark-Grown Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

Many auxin responses are dependent on redistribution and/or polar transport of indoleacetic acid. Polar transport of auxin can be inhibited through the application of phytotropins such as 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). When Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown in the light on medium containing 1.0 ?m NPA, hypocotyl and root elongation and gravitropism were strongly inhibited. When grown in darkness, however, NPA disrupted the gravity response but did not affect elongation. The extent of inhibition of hypocotyl elongation by NPA increased in a fluence-rate-dependent manner to a maximum of about 75% inhibition at 50 ?mol m?2 s?1 of white light. Plants grown under continuous blue or far-red light showed NPA-induced hypocotyl inhibition similar to that of white-light-grown plants. Plants grown under continuous red light showed less NPA-induced inhibition. Analysis of photoreceptor mutants indicates the involvement of phytochrome and cryptochrome in mediating this NPA response. Hypocotyls of some auxin-resistant mutants had decreased sensitivity to NPA in the light, but etiolated seedlings of these mutants were similar in length to the wild type. These results indicate that light has a significant effect on NPA-induced inhibition in Arabidopsis, and suggest that auxin has a more important role in elongation responses in light-grown than in dark-grown seedlings. PMID:9489005

Jensen, Philip J.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Estelle, Mark

1998-01-01

327

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

... Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed rat tails), or may be misshapen or slightly rough. Such pears do not ripen properly for ordinary canning...

2014-01-01

328

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed rat tails), or may be misshapen or slightly rough. Such pears do not ripen properly for ordinary canning...

2012-01-01

329

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed rat tails), or may be misshapen or slightly rough. Such pears do not ripen properly for ordinary canning...

2011-01-01

330

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed rat tails), or may be misshapen or slightly rough. Such pears do not ripen properly for ordinary canning...

2013-01-01

331

Comparative lipid composition of heterotrophically and autotrophically grown Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.  

PubMed Central

Complex lipids from the thermoacidophilic facultative autotroph Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, as well as a strictly autotrophic isolate, were compared between cells grown on yeast extract and elemental sulfur. Lipids from both organisms grown autotrophically were nearly identical. Each contained about 15% neutral lipids, 35% glycolipids, and 50% acidic lipids. Glycolipids and acidic lipids contained C40H82-76-derived glycerol ether residues. Major glycolipids included the glycerol ether analogues of glucosyl galactosyl diglyceride (5%) and glucosyl polyol diglyceride (75%). Acidic lipids were comprised mainly of the glycerol ether analogues of phosphatidyl inositol (7%), inositolphosphoryl glucosyl polyol diglyceride (72%), and a partially characterized sulfate- and phosphate-containing derivative of glucosyl polyol diglyceride (13%). The lipids from cells grown heterotrophically were similar to those from autotrophically grown cells, except that the partially characterized acidic lipid was absent. In addition, the two glycolipids as well as the respective inositolphosphoryl derivatives were each present in nearly equal proportions. Images PMID:863856

Langworthy, T A

1977-01-01

332

GUIDELINES AND ACCEPTABLE POSTHARVEST PRACTICES FOR ORGANICALLY GROWN PRODUCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic foods are produced using agricultural practices that emphasize renewable resources and conservation of soil and water. Horticultural crops are grown and processed without synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, ingredients and processing aids. Crops or ingredients derived from genetic engineeri...

333

Nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates  

DOEpatents

Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoreplicant structure coupled to a surface of the substrate.

Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN); Guillorn, Michael A. (Ithaca, NY); Ilic, Bojan (Ithaca, NY); Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Knoxville, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-08-23

334

Growth and cesium uptake responses of Phytolacca americana Linn. and Amaranthus cruentus L. grown on cesium contaminated soil to elevated CO 2 or inoculation with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54, or in combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and cesium uptake responses of plants to elevated CO2 and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, can be explored for clean-up of contaminated soils, and this induced phytoextraction may be better than the natural process. The present study used open-top chambers to investigate combined effects of Burkholderia sp. D54 inoculation and elevated CO2 (860?LL?1) on growth and Cs uptake

Shirong Tang; Shangqiang Liao; Junkang Guo; Zhengguo Song; Ruigang Wang; Xiaomin Zhou

335

Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.  

PubMed

Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract. PMID:23885412

Purivirojkul, Watchariya

2012-01-01

336

Photoemission electronic states of epitaxially grown magnetite films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valence band photoemission spectra of epitaxially grown 300? single crystalline magnetite films were measured by the angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS) at 300K. The samples were grown either on MgO(001) (B termination) or on (001) Fe (iron-rich A termination), thus intentionally presenting different surface stoichiometry, i.e. also different surface electronic states. Four main features of the electron photoemission at

R. Zalecki; A. Ko?odziejczyk; J. Korecki; N. Spiridis; M. Zaj?c; A. Koz?owski; Z. K?kol; D. Antolak

2007-01-01

337

Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12kPa,

Lanfang H. Levine; Patricia A. Bisbee; Jeffrey T. Richards; Michele N. Birmele; Ronald L. Prior; Michele Perchonok; Mike Dixon; Neil C. Yorio; Gary W. Stutte; Raymond M. Wheeler

2008-01-01

338

Quantification of confocal images of biofilms grown on irregular surfaces.  

PubMed

Bacterial biofilms grow on many types of surfaces, including flat surfaces such as glass and metal and irregular surfaces such as rocks, biological tissues and polymers. While laser scanning confocal microscopy can provide high-resolution images of biofilms grown on any surface, quantification of biofilm-associated bacteria is currently limited to bacteria grown on flat surfaces. This can limit researchers studying irregular surfaces to qualitative analysis or quantification of only the total bacteria in an image. In this work, we introduce a new algorithm called modified connected volume filtration (MCVF) to quantify bacteria grown on top of an irregular surface that is fluorescently labeled or reflective. Using the MCVF algorithm, two new quantification parameters are introduced. The modified substratum coverage parameter enables quantification of the connected-biofilm bacteria on top of the surface and on the imaging substratum. The utility of MCVF and the modified substratum coverage parameter were shown with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms grown on human airway epithelial cells. A second parameter, the percent association, provides quantified data on the colocalization of the bacteria with a labeled component, including bacteria within a labeled tissue. The utility of quantifying the bacteria associated with the cell cytoplasm was demonstrated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae biofilms grown on cervical epithelial cells. This algorithm provides more flexibility and quantitative ability to researchers studying biofilms grown on a variety of irregular substrata. PMID:24632515

Sommerfeld Ross, Stacy; Tu, Mai Han; Falsetta, Megan L; Ketterer, Margaret R; Kiedrowski, Megan R; Horswill, Alexander R; Apicella, Michael A; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Fiegel, Jennifer

2014-05-01

339

Defect Density Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several (111)-oriented, Ga-doped germanium crystals were grown in pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) containers by the Bridgman and the detached Bridgman growth techniques. Growth experiments in closed-bottom pBN containers resulted in nearly completely detached-grown crystals, because the gas pressure below the melt can build up to a higher pressure than above the melt. With open-bottom tubes the gas pressure above and below the melt is balanced during the experiment, and thus no additional force supports the detachment. In this case the crystals grew attached to the wall. Etch pit density (EPD) measurements along the axial growth direction indicated a strong improvement of the crystal quality of the detached-grown samples compared to the attached samples. Starting in the seed with an EPD of 6-8 x 10(exp 3)/square cm it decreased in the detached-grown crystals continuously to about 200-500/square cm . No significant radial difference between the EPD on the edge and the middle of the crystal exists. In the attached grown samples the EPD increases up to a value of about 2-4 x 10(exp 4)/square cm (near the edge) and up to 1 x 10(exp 4)/square cm in the middle of the sample. Thus the difference between the detached- and the attached-grown crystals with respect to the EPD is approximately two orders of magnitude.

Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Szoke, J.; Szofran, F. R.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

340

Nitrogen isotope composition of organically and conventionally grown crops.  

PubMed

Authentic samples of commercially produced organic and conventionally grown tomatoes, lettuces, and carrots were collected and analyzed for their delta15N composition in order to assemble datasets to establish if there are any systematic differences in nitrogen isotope composition due to the method of production. The tomato and lettuce datasets suggest that the different types of fertilizer commonly used in organic and conventional systems result in differences in the nitrogen isotope composition of these crops. A mean delta15N value of 8.1 per thousand was found for the organically grown tomatoes compared with a mean value of -0.1 per thousand for those grown conventionally. The organically grown lettuces had a mean value of 7.6 per thousand compared with a mean value of 2.9 per thousand for the conventionally grown lettuces. The mean value for organic carrots was not significantly different from the mean value for those grown conventionally. Overlap between the delta15N values of the organic and conventional datasets (for both tomatoes and lettuces) means that it is necessary to employ a statistical methodology to try and classify a randomly analyzed "off the shelf" sample as organic/conventional, and such an approach is demonstrated. Overall, the study suggests that nitrogen isotope analysis could be used to provide useful "intelligence" to help detect the substitution of certain organic crop types with their conventional counterparts. However, delta15N analysis of a "test sample" will not provide unequivocal evidence as to whether synthetic fertilizers have been used on the crop but could, for example, in a situation when there is suspicion that mislabeling of conventionally grown crops as "organic" is occurring, be used to provide supporting evidence. PMID:17341092

Bateman, Alison S; Kelly, Simon D; Woolfe, Mark

2007-04-01

341

Defect studies in 4H- Silicon Carbide PVT grown bulk crystals, CVD grown epilayers and devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon Carbide [SiC] which exists as more than 200 different polytypes is known for superior high temperature and high power applications in comparison to conventional semiconductor materials like Silicon and Germanium. The material finds plethora of applications in a diverse fields due to its unique properties like large energy bandgap, high thermal conductivity and high electric breakdown field. Though inundated with superior properties the potential of this material has not been utilized fully due to impeding factors such as defects especially the crystalline ones which limit their performance greatly. Lots of research has been going on for decades to reduce these defects and there has been subsequent improvement in the quality as the diameter of SiC commercial wafers has reached 150mm from 25mm since its inception. The main focus of this thesis has been to study yield limiting defect structures in conjunction with several leading companies and national labs using advanced characterization tools especially the Synchrotron source. The in depth analysis of SiC has led to development of strategies to reduce or eliminate the density of defects by studying how the defects nucleate, replicate and interact in the material. The strategies discussed to reduce defects were proposed after careful deliberation and analysis of PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers. Following are some of the results of the study: [1] Macrostep overgrowth mechanism in SiC was used to study the deflection of threading defects onto the basal plane resulting in stacking faults. Four types of stacking faults associated with deflection of c/c+a threading defects have been observed to be present in 76mm, 100mm and 150mm diameter wafers. The PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers in study were subjected to contrast studies using synchrotron white beam X-ray topography [SWBXT]. The SWBXT image contrast studies of these stacking faults with comparison of calculated phase shifts for postulated fault vectors by macrostep overgrowth of surface outcrops, has revealed faults to be of four types of which one of the following are discussed in detail which is the Shockley faults. The fault vector were determined by taking into account the contrast from stacking faults in SWBXT undergoing phase shift as the X-ray wave fields cross the fault plane. The deflected dislocations onto the basal plane were responsible for the stacking faults and were observed to be detrimental to the devices grown on them as they replicate to the epilayer. In the wafers studied at different stages of the SiC crystal boule resulted in reduction of threading defects as they at certain stage get deflected out of the crystal causing drop of defects density. [2] A novel technique known as the Ray Tracing Simulation was used to determine the sense of c/c+a dislocations obtained via Grazing-Incidence X-ray Topography. Determination of the complete sense and burgers vector of these dislocations was very important to augment our proposed models on stacking faults associated with these defects. Orientation contrast mechanism in X- ray diffraction topography was previously determined to be the dominant factor in SiC by our group and the same principles were used for the simulation. The results were surmised after extensive comparison between experimental and simulation images for the c+2a defects. [3] With the BPD density down to a record level of few hundred per square centimeter in several wafers in multiple regions made it possible to observe the conversion of sessile Threading Edge Dislocations [TED] to glissile BPDs with this repeating multiple times. Previously the high density of Basal Plane Dislocations [BPD] prevented from discerning the details accurately in the SiC images taken by SWBXT. The contribution of SWBXT in accurately categorizing the nature of dislocations in SiC has enabled the crystal growth community to incorporate strategies to mitigate their influence. One of them has been recognizing BPDs as deformation induced defects which have led to the development of

Byrappa, Shayan M.

342

Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

1996-01-01

343

Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space.  

PubMed Central

Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment. PMID:8819868

Tripathy, B C; Brown, C S; Levine, H G; Krikorian, A D

1996-01-01

344

Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD), a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. Objectives: The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek) raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb)-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Results: Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs) were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs) and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, nitro blue tetrazolium reducing and glucose-induced Hb-glycation inhibitory activity did not differ from non-sprouted raw grains. Increase in rat intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was observed in BGs and KCs. BGs significantly mitigated 1st 30 min starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursions and reduced 2 h postprandial glycemic load. Conclusion: Sprouting leads dynamic changes in free radicals scavenging potentials and antioxidant activities in grains. Consumption of seeds as well as BGs before the starch-rich meal can significantly mitigate 1st 30 min postprandial glycemic excursion and reduce 2 h postprandial glycemic burden. PMID:24302835

Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Sahana, Chinthapatla; Zehra, Amtul; Madhusudana, Kuncha; Kumar, Domati Anand; Agawane, Sachin Bharat

2013-01-01

345

SERS-applicable silver nanoisland film grown under protective coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used recently developed out-diffusion technique of growing silver nanoisland films on glass surface to grow silver nanoislands under TiO2 layer deposited on the glass. After covering the surface of silver ion-exchanged glasses with TiO2 film using atomic layer deposition technique and subsequent thermal processing of the samples in hydrogen their optical absorption spectra demonstrate the absorption peak corresponding to surface plasmon resonance in grown silver nanoislands. The spectral position of the peak is shifted relatively to the peak observed in the spectra of the nanoisland film grown on the surface of ion exchanged and annealed glass samples without dielectric cover. The applicability of the silver nanoislands grown under several nm thick protective TiO2 coating in surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy is demonstrated.

Reduto, I.; Chervinskii, S.; Matikainen, A.; Baklanov, A.; Kamenskii, A.; Lipovskii, A.

2014-10-01

346

Increased occurrence of pesticide residues on crops grown in protected environments compared to crops grown in open field conditions.  

PubMed

Crops grown under plastic-clad structures or in greenhouses may be prone to an increased frequency of pesticide residue detections and higher concentrations of pesticides relative to equivalent crops grown in the open field. To test this we examined pesticide data for crops selected from the quarterly reports (2004-2009) of the UK's Pesticide Residue Committee. Five comparison crop pairs were identified whereby one crop of each pair was assumed to have been grown primarily under some form of physical protection ('protected') and the other grown primarily in open field conditions ('open'). For each pair, the number of detectable pesticide residues and the proportion of crop samples containing pesticides were statistically compared (n=100s samples for each crop). The mean concentrations of selected photolabile pesticides were also compared. For the crop pairings of cabbage ('open') vs. lettuce ('protected') and 'berries' ('open') vs. strawberries ('protected') there was a significantly higher number of pesticides and proportion of samples with multiple residues for the protected crops. Statistically higher concentrations of pesticides, including cypermethrin, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, boscalid and iprodione were also found in the protected crops compared to the open crops. The evidence here demonstrates that, in general, the protected crops possess a higher number of detectable pesticides compared to analogous crops grown in the open. This may be due to different pesticide-use regimes, but also due to slower rates of pesticide removal in protected systems. The findings of this study raise implications for pesticide management in protected-crop systems. PMID:25465948

Allen, Gina; Halsall, Crispin J; Ukpebor, Justina; Paul, Nigel D; Ridall, Gareth; Wargent, Jason J

2015-01-01

347

Thermal Stability of Corrugated Epitaxial Graphene Grown on Re(0001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel approach to determine the relationship between the corrugation and the thermal stability of epitaxial graphene grown on a strongly interacting substrate. According to our density functional theory calculations, the C single layer grown on Re(0001) is strongly corrugated, with a buckling of 1.6 , yielding a simulated C 1s core level spectrum which is in excellent agreement with the experimental one. We found that corrugation is closely knit with the thermal stability of the C network: C-C bond breaking is favored in the strongly buckled regions of the moir cell, though it requires the presence of diffusing graphene layer vacancies.

Miniussi, E.; Pozzo, M.; Baraldi, A.; Vesselli, E.; Zhan, R. R.; Comelli, G.; Mente?, T. O.; Nio, M. A.; Locatelli, A.; Lizzit, S.; Alf, D.

2011-05-01

348

Brucine, an alkaloid from seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn., represses hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and metastasis: the role of hypoxia inducible factor 1 pathway.  

PubMed

Brucine is an alkaloid derived from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. which have long been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China. HCC prognosis can be greatly influenced by metastasis. There has thus far been little research into brucine as a source of anti-metastasis activity against HCC. In this study, we revealed that brucine dramatically repressed HepG2 and SMMC-7721 HCC cell migration with few cytotoxic effects. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor mediating cell migration and invasion. Brucine suppressed HIF-1-dependent luciferase activity in HepG2 cells. The transcriptions of four known HIF-1 target genes involved in HCC metastasis, i.e., fibronectin, matrix metallopeptidase 2, lysyl oxidase, and cathepsin D, were also attenuated after brucine treatment. Experiments in vivo showed that an intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 15 mg/kg of brucine resulted in dose-dependent decreases in the lung metastasis of H22 ascitic hepatoma cells. Moreover, a dosage of brucine at 15 mg/kg exhibited very low toxic effects to tumor-bearing mice. Consistently, brucine downregulated expression levels of HIF-1 responsive genes in vivo. Our current study demonstrated the capacity of brucine in suppressing HCC cell migration in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. The inhibition of the HIF-1 pathway is implicated in the anti-metastasis activity of brucine. PMID:23933019

Shu, Guangwen; Mi, Xue; Cai, Jian; Zhang, Xinlin; Yin, Wu; Yang, Xinzhou; Li, You; Chen, Lvyi; Deng, Xukun

2013-10-24

349

Antidepressant effect and categorization of inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase type A and B of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.  

PubMed

Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn (Fabaceae) is an annual aromatic herb and no wit is cultivated globally like in Pakistan, Egypt, India, Middle East etc. Traditionally it was used in anorexia, as febrifuge, to soothe gastritis and gastric ulcers, as a galactagogue and as condiment, hypoglycemic agent and employed in various as nervous disorders. The study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum and underlying mechanism of action. For assessment of antidepressant activity Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), Monoamine (MAO) Assay and Locomotor Activity Test were studied. Acute toxicity, Rota Rod and Grip Strength Tests were also performed. The significant declining in immobility time as compared to control was shown in Forced swimming test as compared to tail suspension test. Considerable change was not found in open field test (OFT). EtOH extract of seeds of fenugreek represent maximum significant reduction which was 30 and 24.65% in MAO- A and B activity respectively in the rat's whole brain as compared to control animals in Monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay. All tested doses were found ineffective in impairment of muscle coordination in Rota rod and in grip strength related to muscle relaxant property. According to experimental findings it is revealed that ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum showed antidepressant effect by inhibiting the activity of MAO-A and B. PMID:25176235

Khursheed, Raheela; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Ahmed, Maryam; Kamil, Arfa

2014-09-01

350

Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 ?g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 ?g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ? 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

2014-01-01

351

Induction of apoptosis by methanolic extract of Rubia cordifolia Linn in HEp-2 cell line is mediated by reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Rubia cordifolia Linn, which belongs to the Rubiaceae family, is a well-known herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. In the present study, we investigated the influence of a methanolic extract (RC) on the induction of apoptosis in HEp-2 (human laryngeal carcinoma) cell line, as evidenced by cytotoxicity, morphological changes and modification in the levels of pro-oxidants. Inhibition of cell proliferation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release increased in a time and dose-dependent manner. Further, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione transferase (GST) and protein levels decreased and lipid peroxidation increased significantly on RC treatment in a dose dependent manner when compared to controls. Based on the results we determined the optimal dose as 30 mg/ ml and the apoptotic effect of RC extract (30 mg/ml) on HEp-2 cells was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based on morphological and ultrastructural changes. RC extract suppressed the proliferation of HEp-2 oral cancer cells inducing apoptotic cell death in vitro. These results point to potential of RC extract as an agent for the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22938454

Shilpa, P N; Sivaramakrishnan, V; Niranjali Devaraj, S

2012-01-01

352

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (281C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

353

Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (140?mg/mL), scopoletin (1200??g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6312.6??g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ?1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60100?mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40?mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60?mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.55?mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.55?mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

2014-01-01

354

Therapy with methanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb and Ocimum sanctum Linn reverses dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in alloxan induced type I diabetic rat model.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb (P. marsupium) and Ocimum sanctum Linn (O. sanctum) were prepared separately and then administered to both non-diabetic and alloxan induced diabetic adult female Wistar rats as a mixture of both at a dosage of 500mg/kg body weight, and its effect was checked on serum and tissue lipids together with corticosterone, estrogen and progesterone profile. Further, tissue load of metabolites (cholesterol), enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status together with lipid peroxidation levels and serum markers of hepatic and renal damage were also assessed. Results of the present study strongly support the possibility of this herbal combination in humans to meet the objective of achieving a holistic amelioration and cure of diabetes as, the herbal extract mixture of P. marsupium and O. sanctum has succeeded in not only rectifying dyslipidemia but also in restoring the endogenous antioxidant levels to the pre diabetic status. Herbal preparations are ideal candidates of choice and in this context, the present combination of P. marsupium and O. sanctum provides compelling evidence for a holistic efficacy in amelioration of associated diabetic manifestations/dysregulations. PMID:21106356

Singh, Prem Kumar; Baxi, Darshee; Banerjee, Sudip; Ramachandran, A V

2012-07-01

355

Investigation of Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in Type 1 Diabetic Rats: An Identification of Possible Biomarkers.  

PubMed

The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant properties of the root of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus root (EESIR) 100 and 200?mg/kg to the STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) reduction in blood glucose and increase in body weight compared to diabetic control rats. Both the doses of EESIR-treated diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) alteration in elevated lipid profile levels than diabetic control rats. The EESIR treatment in diabetic rats produced significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels than diabetic control rats. Administration of EESIR 200?mg/kg produced significant (P < .01) higher antioxidant activity than EESIR 100?mg/kg. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EESIR revealed the presence of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin. In conclusion, EESIR possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect will help to prevent diabetic complications, and these actions are possibly due to presence of above biomarkers. PMID:20953435

Ramachandran, S; Asokkumar, K; Uma Maheswari, M; Ravi, T K; Sivashanmugam, A T; Saravanan, S; Rajasekaran, A; Dharman, J

2011-01-01

356

Investigation of Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in Type 1 Diabetic Rats: An Identification of Possible Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant properties of the root of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus root (EESIR) 100 and 200?mg/kg to the STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) reduction in blood glucose and increase in body weight compared to diabetic control rats. Both the doses of EESIR-treated diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) alteration in elevated lipid profile levels than diabetic control rats. The EESIR treatment in diabetic rats produced significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels than diabetic control rats. Administration of EESIR 200?mg/kg produced significant (P < .01) higher antioxidant activity than EESIR 100?mg/kg. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EESIR revealed the presence of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin. In conclusion, EESIR possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect will help to prevent diabetic complications, and these actions are possibly due to presence of above biomarkers. PMID:20953435

Ramachandran, S.; Asokkumar, K.; Uma Maheswari, M.; Ravi, T. K.; Sivashanmugam, A. T.; Saravanan, S.; Rajasekaran, A.; Dharman, J.

2011-01-01

357

Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

358

Succinic Acid Synthesis by Ethanol-Grown Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The synthesis of succinic acid in ethanol-containing media has been tested in 32 yeasts of different genera (Debaryomyces, Candida, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Torulopsis). The capability of succinic acid synthesis was revealed in 29 strains, from which two most effective produ- cers were selected. When grown in a fermentor under high aeration in mineral medium with pulsed addition of ethanol, the

Svetlana V. Kamzolova; Alsu I. Yusupova; Emiliya G. Dedyukhina; Tatiana I. Chistyakova; Tatiana M. Kozyreva; Igor G. Morgunov

2009-01-01

359

Reconstitution of iron oxidase from sulfur-grown Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.  

PubMed

The iron oxidation system from sulfur-grown Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 cells was reconstituted in vitro. Purified rusticyanin, cytochrome c, and aa(3)-type cytochrome oxidase were essential for reconstitution. The iron-oxidizing activity of the reconstituted system was 3.3-fold higher than that of the cell extract from which these components were purified. PMID:18791023

Taha, Taher M; Kanao, Tadayoshi; Takeuchi, Fumiaki; Sugio, Tsuyoshi

2008-11-01

360

Spectrophotometric phytochrome measurements in light-grown Avena sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochrome was studied spectrophotometrically in Avena sativa L. seedlings that had been grown for 6 d in continous white fluorescent light from lamps. Greening was prevented through the use of the herbicide San 9789. When placed in the light, phytochrome (Ptot) decreased with first order kinetics (t1\\/2 2 h) but reached a stable low level (2.5% of the dark

Merten Jabben I; Gerald F. Deitzer

1978-01-01

361

Nitrogen use in switchgrass grown for bioenergy across the USA  

E-print Network

Nitrogen use in switchgrass grown for bioenergy across the USA V.N. Owens a , D.R. Viands b , H Available online 17 August 2013 Keywords: Nitrogen removal Switchgrass Bioenergy Nitrogen use efficiency as a forage, conservation, and bioenergy crop [1e5]. It offers a number of distinct benefits including broad

Pawlowski, Wojtek

362

X-ray Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Germanium (111)-oriented crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, in both detached and attached configurations. Microstructural characterization of these crystals has been performed using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and double axis x-ray diffraction. Dislocation densities were measured from x-ray topographs obtained using the reflection geometry. For detached-grown crystals, the dislocation density is 4-6 x 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the seed region, and decreases in the direction of growth to less than 10(exp 3) per square centimeter, and in some crystals reaches less than 10(exp 2) per square centimeter. For crystals grown in the attached configuration, dislocation densities were on the order of 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the middle of the crystals, increasing to greater than 10(exp 5) per square centimeter near the edge. The measured dislocation densities are in excellent agreement with etch pit density results. The rocking curve linewidths were relatively insensitive to the dislocation densities. However, broadening and splitting of the rocking curves were observed in the vicinity of subgrain boundaries identified by x-ray topography in some of the attached-grown crystals.

Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

2005-01-01

363

Uptake of human pharmaceuticals by plants grown under hydroponic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) and Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa) were chosen for a proof of concept study to determine the potential uptake and accumulation of human pharmaceuticals by plants. These plants were grown hydroponically under high-pressure sodium lamps in one of two groups including a control and test group exposed to pharmaceuticals. The control plants were irrigated with

Patrick A. Herklotz; Prakash Gurung; Brian Vanden Heuvel; Chad A. Kinney

2010-01-01

364

Pyrimidine metabolism of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus grown intraperiplasmically and axenically.  

PubMed Central

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus grown axenically or intraperiplasmically on Escherichia coli has pathways for the interconversion of pyrimidines and the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleoside 5'-triphosphates similar to those found in the enteric bacteria. Minimal differences in enzyme activities were observed for axenically and intraperiplasmically grown cells. As might be expected for an organism which takes up deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphates per se, high levels of enzymes which catalyze the generation of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates from monophosphates were found. In addition, all enzymes of the thymine salvage pathway, except for thymidine kinase, were directly demonstrated in wild-type strains. It was possible to demonstrate this activity only indirectly owing to an inhibitor in wild-type extracts. Investigations with inhibitors of pyrimidine interconversion reactions showed that essentially all B. bacteriovorus deoxyribonucleic acid not synthesized from units derived from E. coli deoxyribonucleic acid is made from components of the substrate organism's ribonucleic acid. Evidence for de novo pyrimidine synthesis from the amino acid level was not found for B. bacteriovorus grown on E. coli that had a high protein/deoxyribonucleic acid ratio or on normal E. coli. The potential for de novo pyrimidine synthesis by intraperiplasmically grown B. bacteriovorus, however, cannot be totally ruled out on the basis of these investigations. PMID:6260736

Rosson, R A; Rittenberg, S C

1981-01-01

365

Modeling Macronutrient Absorption of Hydroponically-Grown Cut Flower Roses  

E-print Network

129 Modeling Macronutrient Absorption of Hydroponically-Grown Cut Flower Roses Neil S. Mattson Keywords: hydroponics, nitrogen, calcium, potassium, magnesium, Rosa ? hybrida Abstract Regulations of the nutrient supply necessary for crop production. Cut flower rose production typically uses hydroponics where

Lieth, J. Heinrich

366

Original article Foliar senescence in maize plants grown  

E-print Network

Original article Foliar senescence in maize plants grown under different water regimes Arturo) Abstract - The leaf ontogeny of potted maize plants subjected to severe water stress was carried out and water-stressed plants received 100 and 50 % of the water evapotranspired, respectively. After 30 days

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

PLUTONIUM UPTAKE BY PLANTS GROWN IN SOLUTION CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Plants grown in aquatic systems were shown to rapidly accumulate large amounts of plutonium, about 40% of which was removed by washing. Detergent removed debris, most of which consisted of particles larger than 0.8 micrometers. After removing a portion of the bound Pu by rinsing ...

368

Scheduling Drip Irrigation for Bell Pepper Grown with Plasticulture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producing economical yields of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) while conserving water and nutrients requires an integrated approach to fertilization and irrigation. Detailed fertilization recommendations exist for bell peppers grown in Florida, but current irrigation recommendations are based on historical weather data and year-to-year adjustments. The objective of this study was to develop and test a crop factor (CF) for

Eric H. Simonne; Michael D. Dukes; Robert C. Hochmuth; David W. Studstill; Galien Avezou; Diane Jarry

2006-01-01

369

Dielectric relaxation in thermally grown SiO2films  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive investigation of the dielectric properties of thermally grown silicon dioxide films was performed in the temperature range from 400C to 525C. Principally, the variation of dissipation factor with frequency was observed at various applied peak fields and oxide thicknesses. In the temperature and frequency domain investigated, a large peak in the dissipation factor occurred. This peak corresponded to

P. J. Burkhardt

1966-01-01

370

Morphology and modulus of vapor grown carbon nano fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of morphologies have been observed in vapor grown carbon nano fibers (CNFs) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In one case, a truncated cone microstructure was observed, with outer and inner diameters of 60 and 25nm, respectively. In this type of CNF, graphite sheets were oriented at about 15 to the fiber axis. The second type of fiber was

Tetsuya Uchida; David P. Anderson; Marilyn L. Minus; Satish Kumar

2006-01-01

371

Properties of Triglycine Sulfate Crystals Grown from Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dielectric study of triglycine sulfate crystals was carried out and the phase transition temperatures were determined for samples grown at temperatures below 0C. The influence exerted by a single-crystal silicon substrate treated by various methods on the shape of triglycine sulfate crystals was examined.

Zh. D. Stekhanova; O. B. Yatsenko; S. D. Milovidova; A. S. Sidorkin; O. V. Rogazinskaya

2005-01-01

372

Bioclimatology Source-sink relationships in maize grown  

E-print Network

Bioclimatology Source-sink relationships in maize grown in a cool-temperate area SA Uhart, FH maize yield in Balcarce (Argentina 37°45'LS; 58°18'LO) is limited by the source of assimilates. Nevertheless, a tendency toward a source limitation was evident in the long season hybrid. Zea mays = maize

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

RESPONSE OF CHEMOSTAT GROWN ENTERIC BACTERIA TO CHLORINE DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of antecedent growth conditions on the sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated. The two organisms were grown in a defined medium supplemented with glucose either in the chemostat or in batch culture, and the influence of growth...

374

Tolerance of Two Hydroponically Grown Salix Genotypes to Excess Zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woody cuttings from two Salix genotypes (genotype Iclone LUC-31, Salix alba and genotype II- clone STOTT, Salix viminalis) were grown hydroponically for 14 days at increasing concentrations of Zn: control, 50, 100 or 150 ? M Zn. Genotype tolerance to excess zinc (Zn) was evaluated using a root elongation test. The changes in growth, Zn, iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and

Andon Vassilev; Araceli Perez-Sanz; Ann Cuypers; Jaco Vangronsveld

2007-01-01

375

76 FR 35957 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-10-0115; FV11-932-1 FIR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent...from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

2011-06-21

376

76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-10-0115; FV11-932-1 IR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent...from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

2011-03-04

377

77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 PR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2012 and...61 to $31.32 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

2012-06-05

378

77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2012 and subsequent...61 to $31.32 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

2012-08-27

379

78 FR 45841 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-12-0076; FV13-932-1 FIR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2013 and...32 to $21.16 per ton of assessable olives handled. The Committee locally...

2013-07-30

380

Properties of salt-grown uranium single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently single crystals of -uranium were grown from a liquid salt bath. The electrical, magnetic and thermal properties of these crystals have been surveyed. The ratio of the room temperature resistivity of these crystals to the saturation value at low temperature is three times larger than any previously reported demonstrating that the crystals are of higher purity and quality than

J. C. Cooley; R. J. Hanrahan; W. L. Hults; J. C. Lashley; M. E. Manley; C. H. Mielke; J. L. Smith; D. J. Thoma; R. G. Clark; A. R. Hamilton; J. L. OBrien; E. C. Gay; N. E. Lumpkin; C. C. McPheeters; J. Willit; G. M. Schmiedeshoff; S. Touton; B. F. Woodfield; B. E. Lang; Juliana Boerio-Goates

2001-01-01

381

Diameter and Chirality Distribution of SWNTs Grown from Zeolite Surfaces  

E-print Network

Diameter and Chirality Distribution of SWNTs Grown from Zeolite Surfaces Yoichi Murakami1-8656 Zeolites are microporous, crystalline aluminosilicates constructed from tetrahedral base units. We have been using the b-surfaces of silicalite-1 zeolite (framework: MFI) as catalyst support for catalytic

Maruyama, Shigeo

382

AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR TRANSFERRING GRAPHENE GROWN BY CHEMICAL VAPOR  

E-print Network

-grown graphene were evaluated by Micro- Raman spectroscopy (WITec Alpha300, excitation wavelength 532 nm).14 by the commonly used \\PMMA-based transfer" method. Raman spectroscopy studies show that this \\direct transfer,22 Figure 3 shows the typical Raman spectra of monolayer graphene with sharp Fig. 1. Schematic illustrates

383

78 FR 28120 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-12-0051; FV12-966-1 FIR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13...to $0.024 per 25- pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2013-05-14

384

78 FR 9307 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-12-0051; FV12-966-1 IR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13...to $0.024 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2013-02-08

385

75 FR 10409 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-09-0063; FV09-966-2 FIR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee), for the 2009-10...to $0.0275 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2010-03-08

386

78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-13-0076; FV13-966-1 PR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2013...to $0.0375 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2013-12-24

387

77 FR 43709 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0080; FV11-966-1 FR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-12...to $0.037 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2012-07-26

388

77 FR 21492 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0080; FV11-966-1 PR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-12...to $0.037 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2012-04-10

389

Bioengineered Dental Tissues Grown in the Rat Jaw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our long-term objective is to develop methods to form, in the jaw, bioengineered replacement teeth that exhibit physical properties and functions similar to those of natural teeth. Our results show that cultured rat tooth bud cells, seeded onto biodegradable scaffolds, implanted into the jaws of adult rat hosts and grown for 12 weeks, formed small, organized, bioengineered tooth crowns, containing

S. E. Duailibi; M. T. Duailibi; W. Zhang; R. Asrican; J. P. Vacanti; P. C. Yelick

2008-01-01

390

76 FR 8871 - Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-10-0060; FV10-984-1 FIR] Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2010- 11 and...0174 per kernelweight pound of assessable walnuts. The Board locally administers the...

2011-02-16

391

76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0062; FV11-984-1 PR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2011-12 and...0175 per kernelweight pound of assessable walnuts. The Board locally administers the...

2011-08-16

392

76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0062; FV11-984-1 FR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2011-12 and...0175 per kernelweight pound of assessable walnuts. The Board locally administers the...

2011-11-01

393

75 FR 55944 - Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-10-0060; FV10-984-1 IR] Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2010-11 and...0174 per kernelweight pound of assessable walnuts. The Board locally administers the...

2010-09-15

394

78 FR 57101 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-13-0056; FV13-984-1 PR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2013-14 and...per kernelweight pound of merchantable walnuts. The Board locally administers the...

2013-09-17

395

Spatial localisation of curcumin and rapid screening of the chemical compositions of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.) using Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS).  

PubMed

Curcumin is a potent antioxidant agent having versatile biological activities is present in turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.). Powder of turmeric rhizomes is consumes as curry spicy worldwide, especially in Asia. In this study, we demonstrate that, bioactive curcumin and its analog demethoxycurcumin are chiefly concentrated in the pith rather than the other parts of the turmeric rhizomes and it was discovered using modern atmospheric ionisation source 'Direct Analysis in Real Time' (DART) connected with an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. In addition, all the major components present in turmeric rhizomes were detected in positive and/or in negative ion mode using DART. PMID:25466050

Rahman, A F M Motiur; Angawi, Rihab F; Kadi, Adnan A

2015-04-15

396

Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (Linn.) Enhances Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Facilitates Osteoblastogenesis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation rate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (osteoblastogenesis) and extracellular matrix calcification. This study also aimed to determine the additive effect of osteogenic media and Cissus quadrangularis on proliferation, differentiation and calcification. METHODS MSCs were cultured in media with or without Cissus quadrangularis for 4 weeks and were then stained for alkaline phosphatase. Extracellular matrix calcification was confirmed by Von Kossa staining. marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultures in control media and osteogenic media supplemented with Cissus quadrangularis extract (100, 200, 300 ?g/mL) were also subjected to a cell proliferation assay (MTT). RESULTS Treatment with 100, 200 or 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhanced the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into ALP-positive osteoblasts and increased extracellular matrix calcification. Treatment with 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis also enhanced the proliferation rate of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cells grown in osteogenic media containing Cissus quadrangularis exhibited higher proliferation, differentiation and calcification rates than did control cells. CONCLUSION The results suggest that Cissus quadrangularis stimulates osteoblastogenesis and can be used as preventive/ alternative natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:19841707

Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR; Rao, Muddanna S; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan; Muttigi, Manjunatha S

2009-01-01

397

76 FR 34181 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-10-0099; FV11-983-1 PR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and...983, which regulates the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and...by the Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee), which is...

2011-06-13

398

75 FR 77563 - Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FV10-916/917-3 CR] Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance...conducted among eligible California nectarine, pear, and peach growers to determine whether...regulating the handling of nectarines, pears, and peaches grown in California....

2010-12-13

399

Growth and characteristics of tgs crystals grown aboard first international microgravity laboratory (IML1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and detector characteristics of TGS crystals grown in a low gravity environment of space are presented. High resolution monochromatic synchrotron X-ray diffraction imaging of the space grown crystal indicates an extraordinary crystal quality.

R. B. Lal; A. K. Batra; J. D. Trolinger; W. R. Wilcox; B. Steiner

1994-01-01

400

7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar... Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades 30.44 Class 9; foreign-grown types other than...

2014-01-01

401

7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar... Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades 30.44 Class 9; foreign-grown types other than...

2013-01-01

402

7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar... Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades 30.44 Class 9; foreign-grown types other than...

2011-01-01

403

7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar... Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades 30.44 Class 9; foreign-grown types other than...

2012-01-01

404

Laser alexandrite crystals grown by horizontal oriented crystallization technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies were performed for alexandrite crystals, Al 2BeO 4:Cr 3+, employed in solid state lasers and grown by the horizontal oriented crystallization (HOC) technique and alexandrite crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. It was shown that the structural quality and possibilities of generation of stimulated emission HOC-crystals are similar to Cz-crystals, whereas their damage threshold is about three times higher. The obtained results and considerably lower cost price of HOC-alexandrite crystals prove their advantageous application in powerful laser systems, which require large laser rods with a higher resistance to laser beam. It is emphasized that application of HOC technique is promising for growth of laser crystals of other high-temperature oxide compounds.

Gurov, V. V.; Tsvetkov, E. G.; Yurkin, A. M.

2008-05-01

405

Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon.  

PubMed

Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moore's law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits. PMID:24999601

Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

2014-01-01

406

Revealing extended defects in HVPE-grown GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this communication we will summarize the results of a complementary study of structural and chemical non-homogeneities that are present in thick HVPE-grown GaN layers. It will be shown that complex extended defects are formed during HVPE growth, and are clearly visible after photo-etching on both Ga-polar surface and on any non-polar cleavage or section planes. Large chemical (electrically active) defects, such as growth striations, overgrown or empty pits (pinholes) and clustered irregular inclusions, are accompanied by non-uniform distribution of crystallographic defects (dislocations). Possible reasons of formation of these complex structures are discussed. The nature of defects revealed by selective etching was subsequently confirmed using TEM, orthodox etching and compared with the CL method. The non-homogeneities were studied in GaN crystals grown in different laboratories showing markedly different morphological characteristics.

Weyher, J. L.; ?ucznik, B.; Grzegory, I.; Smalc-Koziorowska, J.; Paskova, T.

2010-09-01

407

Bioengineered Dental Tissues Grown in the Rat Jaw  

PubMed Central

Our long-term objective is to develop methods to form, in the jaw, bioengineered replacement teeth that exhibit physical properties and functions similar to those of natural teeth. Our results show that cultured rat tooth bud cells, seeded onto biodegradable scaffolds, implanted into the jaws of adult rat hosts and grown for 12 weeks, formed small, organized, bioengineered tooth crowns, containing dentin, enamel, pulp, and periodontal ligament tissues, similar to identical cell-seeded scaffolds implanted and grown in the omentum. Radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that bioengineered teeth consisted of organized dentin, enamel, and pulp tissues. This study advances practical applications for dental tissue engineering by demonstrating that bioengineered tooth tissues can be regenerated at the site of previously lost teeth, and supports the use of tissue engineering strategies in humans, to regenerate previously lost and/or missing teeth. The results presented in this report support the feasibility of bioengineered replacement tooth formation in the jaw. PMID:18650546

Duailibi, S.E.; Duailibi, M.T.; Zhang, W.; Asrican, R.; Vacanti, J.P.; Yelick, P.C.

2009-01-01

408

Reproductive Ontogeny of Wheat Grown on the MIR Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reproductive ontogeny of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat grown on the space station Mir is chronicled from the vegetative phase through flower development. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition From the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Filament elongation, which characteristically occurs just prior to anthesis and moves the anthers through the stigmatic branches thus facilitating pollination, did no1 xcur in the flowers of spikes grown on Mir. While development of spikes on tillers typically occurs later :han that of spikes on the main stem, all flowers appear to be arrested at the same developmental point.

Bubenheim, David L.; Stieber, Joseph

1997-01-01

409

Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moores law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits.

Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D.; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

2014-07-01

410

Present and future applications of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, magnetic nanostructures are routinely grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). In the present article, we review the milestones produced in the topic in the past as well as the future applications of this technology. Regarding past milestones, we highlight the achievement of high-purity cobalt and iron deposits, the high lateral resolution obtained, the growth of 3D magnetic deposits, the exploration of magnetic alloys and the application of magnetic deposits for Hall sensing and in domain-wall conduit and magnetologic devices. With respect to future perspectives of the topic, we emphasize the potential role of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID for applications related to highly integrated 2D arrays, 3D nanowires devices, fabrication of advanced scanning-probe systems, basic studies of magnetic structures and their dynamics, small sensors (including biosensors) and new applications brought by magnetic alloys and even exchange biased systems.

De Teresa, J. M.; Fernndez-Pacheco, A.

2014-12-01

411

Electrical and mechanical properties of vapour grown gallium monotelluride crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical vapour deposition (PVD) of gallium monotelluride (GaTe) in different crystalline habits was established in the growth ampoule, strongly depending on the temperature gradient. Proper control on the temperatures of source and growth zones in an indigenously fabricated dual zone furnace could yield the crystals in the form of whiskers and spherulites. Optical and electron microscopic images were examined to predict the growth mechanism of morphologies. The structural parameters of the grown spherulites were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The stoichiometric composition of these crystals was confirmed using energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX). The type and nature of electrical conductivity were identified by the conventional hot probe and two probe methods, respectively. The mechanical parameters, such as Vickers microhardness, work hardening index, and yield strength, were deduced from microindentation measurements. The results show that the vapour grown p-GaTe crystals exhibit novel physical properties, which make them suitable for device applications.

Reshmi, P. M.; Kunjomana, A. G.; Chandrasekharan, K. A.

2013-10-01

412

Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.  

PubMed

It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

2015-01-01

413

Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.  

PubMed

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 ?g ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 ?g ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth. PMID:23100719

Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

2008-06-01

414

The mitigating effect of calcification-dependent of utilization of inorganic carbon of Chara vulgaris Linn on NH4-N toxicity.  

PubMed

Increased ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations in water bodies have been reported to adversely affect the dominant species of submersed vegetation in meso-eutrophic waters worldwide. However calcareous plants were lowly sensitive to NH4-N toxicity. In order to make clear the function of calcification in the tolerance of calcareous plants to NH4-N stress, we studied the effects of increased HCO3(-) and additional NH4-N on calcification and utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in Chara vulgaris Linn in a 7-d sub-acute experiment (light:dark 12:12h) carried out in an open experimental system in lab. Results revealed that calcification was dependent of utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon. Additional HCO3(-) significantly decreased the increase of pH while additional NH4-N did not. And additional HCO3(-) significantly improved calcification while NH4-N did in versus in relation to the variation of DIC concentration. However, addition of both HCO3(-) and NH4-N increased utilization of DIC. This resulted in calcification to utilization of DIC ratio decreased under additional NH4-N condition while increased under additional HCO3(-) conditions in response to the variation of solution pH. In the present study, external HCO3(-) decreased the increase of solution pH by increasing calcification, which correspondingly mitigated the toxic effect of high NH4-N. And we argue that the mitigating effect of increased HCO3(-) on NH4-N toxicity is dependent of plant calcification, and it is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to the dominance of calcareous plants in meso-eutrophic water bodies. PMID:23755986

Wang, Heyun; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

2013-09-01

415

Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Background: The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka. Objective: The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6th hour postchallenge. Chronic inflammation was developed by using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Paw volume, ankle joint circumference, and body weight were assessed on 1st, 4th, 8th, 14th, 17th, and 21st day. Paste was applied once every day to the inflamed area of the paw of respective groups of animals, continuously for 14 days. Statistics: The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. P ? 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulations did not show any dermal toxicity and found to be safe. Both the pastes significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed, carrageenan-induced paw edema at 6th hour and Holoptelea integrifolia appears to be more effective than Plumbago zeylanica. Significant reduction was observed in paw volume, ankle joint circumference and animal body weight gained. Conclusions: The tested formulations (P. zeylanica root and H. integrifolia bark pastes) showed significant antiinflammatory activity. The present findings therefore support its utility in arthritic pain, inflammation and the claim of traditional practitioners. PMID:24812473

Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Roy, Subarna; Kholkute, S. D.

2014-01-01

416

The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats  

PubMed Central

Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective.

Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

2014-01-01

417

Trypsin and elastase inhibitors from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) seeds: purification, amino acid sequences, and inhibitory activities of four new inhibitors.  

PubMed

Serine proteinase inhibitors of the squash family were isolated from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) seeds by the conventional purification method. Heat treatment of the extract of the seeds allowed removal of large amounts of protein without loss of trypsin and elastase inhibitory activities. From the supernatants thus obtained, the inhibitors were isolated to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and reversed phase chromatography. One trypsin inhibitor (Momordica charantia trypsin inhibitor-III; MCTI-III) and three elastase inhibitors (Momordica charantia elastase inhibitor-II, -III, and -IV; MCEI-II, -III, and -IV) were newly isolated in addition to trypsin inhibitors MCTI-I and -II and elastase inhibitor MCEI-I previously reported [Hara, S. et. al. (1989). J. Biochem. 105, 88-92]. The primary structures of the four new inhibitors were determined as follows. [sequence: see text] The dissociation constants, Ki, of MCTI-III complex with bovine beta-trypsin, and of MCEI-II, -III, -IV with porcine elastase were determined to be 1.9 x 10(-7) M, 9.4 x 10(-9) M, 4.0 x 10(-9) M, and 4.7 x 10(-9) M, respectively. Although MCTI-III differed from MCTI-I in only two amino acids, having Gly(3) and Gln(13) in place of Arg(3) and Arg(13), the Ki value of MCTI-III was 20-fold larger than that of MCTI-I. Addition of an amino terminal Glu residue, a dipeptide (Glu-Glu-), and a tripeptide (Glu-Glu-Glu-) to MCEI-I strengthened its elastase inhibitory activity by 200-fold. PMID:7608135

Hamato, N; Koshiba, T; Pham, T N; Tatsumi, Y; Nakamura, D; Takano, R; Hayashi, K; Hong, Y M; Hara, S

1995-02-01

418

Iron acquisition by mycorrhizal maize grown on alkaline soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vesicular?arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) are known to improve the mineral nutritional status of plants. Since information on effects of VAMF on plant iron (Fe) nutrition is limited, an Fe deficient?susceptible maize (Zea mays L., ysi\\/ysi) was grown on alkaline Quinlan (Typic Ustochrept, pH 8.0) and Ulysses (Aridic Haplustoll, pH 7.8) soils with Glomus VAMF isolates G. etunicatum WV579A (Ge), G.

R. B. Clark; S. K. Zeto

1996-01-01

419

Establishment Stand Thresholds for Switchgrass Grown as a Bioenergy Crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season (C4) perennial grass and a potential bioenergy crop. On-farm switchgrass field scale trials, which were initiated to obtain economic production information for switchgrass grown as a bioenergy crop in the northern Plains, provided information on establishment year stands and post-establish- ment year yields and stands both within and across fields and were used

M. R. Schmer; K. P. Vogel; R. B. Mitchell; L. E. Moser; K. M. Eskridge; R. K. Perrin

2006-01-01

420

Nutrient Analysis of Iowa Grown Field Peas for Swine Feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peas are a new crop in Iowa and have potential as an ingredient for supplementing pig diets. However, it is essential to know the nutrient levels before incorporating peas in swine diets. Pea seeds can be ground and incorporated directly in the pigs diet on the farm without further processing.\\u000aField peas (winter, spring, and summer types) grown in southeast

Josephat Njoka; Mark S. Honeyman; Tom Miller

2007-01-01

421

Multilayer composites from vapor-grown carbon nano-fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layer-by-layer assembled (LBL) materials from single-wall carbon nanotubes and multiwall carbon nanotubes revealed promising mechanical properties attributed to the uniform distribution of inorganic filler in the organic polyelectrolyte matrix. In this paper, we extend the family of LBL layered nanocomposites to include another important building block i.e. vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCFs). Besides the advantages of low cost, mass production, and

Bong Sup Shim; John Starkovich; Nicholas Kotov

2006-01-01

422

Nano transfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates  

DOEpatents

Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoconduit material coupled to a surface of the substrate. The substrate defines an aperture and the nanoconduit material defines a nanoconduit that is i) contiguous with the aperture and ii) aligned substantially non-parallel to a plane defined by the surface of the substrate.

Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN); Guillorn, Michael A. (Ithaca, NY); Ilic, Bojan (Ithaca, NY); Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Knoxville, TX); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-03-27

423

Pyroelectric nano-rods grown inside alumina nano-pores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the formation and properties of nano-composite pyroelectric thin films. They consist of pyroelectric triglycine sulfate (TGS) single-crystal nano-rods grown inside a highly dense array of alumina pores (about 65nm diameter and density of 1011cm?2). The nucleation and growth of the TGS single crystals are obtained by precipitation from a supersaturated aqueous solution. Nucleation is preferred only at

M. Nitzani; S. Berger

2007-01-01

424

EDLC characteristics of CNTs grown on nanoporous alumina templates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with uniform diameter were grown on the porous alumina templates. Well ordered nanoporous alumina templates for the growth of CNTs were fabricated by two-step anodization method in oxalic acid electrolyte. The diameter and length of pores of the porous alumina templates were ca. 90nm and 2?m, respectively, and the pore density was about ~1010pores\\/cm2. The barrier layer

Mi Jung; Hyun-Gi Kim; Jae-Kyoung Lee; Oh-Shim Joo; Sun-il Mho

2004-01-01

425

A study of the oxide grown on WSi2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern single-poly electrically erasable programmable read-only memories (EEPROM) use a stacked silicide\\/polysilicon (polycide) floating gate as a charge storage element. In these devices the ability to retain stored charge relies on the quality of the top silicon dioxide, thermally grown on the silicide, which is known to be affected by the oxidation procedure. The authors have studied silicon dioxide films,

P. Ghezzi; F. Pio; G. Queirolo; C. Riva

1991-01-01

426

pH sensor properties of electrochemically grown iridium oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open-circuit potential of an electrochemically grown iridium oxide film is measured and shows a pH sensitivity between ?60 and ?80 mV\\/pH. This sensitivity is found to depend on the state of oxidation of the iridium oxide film; for a higher state of oxidation (or more of the oxide in the high valence state), the sensitivity is also higher. This

W. Olthuis; M. A. M. Robben; P. Bergveld; M. Bos; Linden van der W. E

1990-01-01

427

Nitric acid oxidation of vapor grown carbon nanofibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor grown carbon nanofibers (Pyrograf III) with 100300 nm diameters and ?10100 ?m lengths were oxidized in 6971 wt.% nitric acid (115 C) for various times (10 min to 24 h). These fibers were remarkably oxidation-resistant. XPS (O1s) showed that the surface atomic oxygen percent increased from 6.3 to 18.322.5% for 1090 min oxidations followed by a drop to 1415%

Priya V. Lakshminarayanan; Hossein Toghiani; Charles U. Pittman Jr.

2004-01-01

428

Phase equilibrium and nucleation in VLS-grown nanowires.  

PubMed

Phase diagrams accounting for capillarity and surface stress in VLS-grown nanowires have been calculated, and linearized forms for the compositions of the solid and liquid are given. The solid-vapor interfacial energy causes a significant depression of the liquidus, and the impurity concentration in the wire decreases with decreasing wire diameter. Nucleation calculations give upper bounds on the nucleation temperature and liquid supersaturation during growth that are consistent with measurements in the Au-Ge system. PMID:18954122

Schwalbach, Edwin J; Voorhees, Peter W

2008-11-01

429

Magnetite films grown directly on organic semiconductor layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetite (Fe3O4) films were grown directly on thin layers of two organic semiconductors (p-conjugated oligomers), 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3) and sexitiophene (T6) by pulsed electron beam deposition, also called channel spark ablation (CSA), for which spin injection effects have been demonstrated at low and room temperatures. The room temperature ferromagnetism for both kind of films found by magneto-optical Kerr rotation (MOKE)

V. Dediu; E. Arisi; I. Bergenti; A. Riminucci; M. Murgia; G. Ruani

2006-01-01

430

Laterally grown ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the growth of ZnO nanowires on ZnO:Ga\\/glass templates and the fabrication of laterally grown ZnO nanowire ethanol sensors. It was found that growth direction of the nanowires depends strongly on growth parameters. It was also found that resistivity of the fabricated sensor decreased upon ethanol gas injection. By introducing 1500ppm ethanol gas, it was found that the device

Ting-Jen Hsueh; Cheng-Liang Hsu; Shoou-Jinn Chang; I-Cherng Chen

2007-01-01

431

AlGaN ultraviolet photoconductors grown on sapphire  

Microsoft Academic Search

AlxGa1?xN (0?x?0.50) ultraviolet photoconductors with a minimum cutoff wavelength shorter than 260 nm have been fabricated and characterized. The AlGaN active layers were grown on (00?1) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The spectral responsivity of the GaN detector at 360 nm is about 1 A\\/W biased at 8 V at room temperature. The carrier lifetime derived from

D. Walker; X. Zhang; P. Kung; A. Saxler; S. Javadpour; J. Xu; M. Razeghi

1996-01-01

432

Pyrolytic carbon nanotubes from vapor-grown carbon fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of as-grown and heat-treated pyrolytic carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) produced by hydrocarbon pyrolysis are discussed on the basis of a possible growth process. The structures are compared with those of nanotubes obtained by the arc method (ACNT; arc-formed carbon nanotubes). PCNTs, with and without secondary pyrolytic deposition (which results in diameter increase) are found to form during pyrolysis of

Morinobu Endo; Kenji Takeuchi; Kiyoharu Kobori; Katsushi Takahashi; Harold W. Kroto; A. Sarkar

1995-01-01

433

Preparation of vapor-grown carbon fibers from deoiled asphalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCFs) with high-purity have been successfully prepared from the thermal cracking of deoiled asphalt (DOA) with ferrocene as catalyst by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in argon atmosphere and characterized systematically by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Results showed that VGCFs with a diameter of 150200nm and

Yongzhen Yang; Xuguang Liu; Bingshe Xu; Tianbao Li

2006-01-01

434

Diluted magnetic semiconductor GaMnSb grown in Shen-Zhou 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diluted magnetic semiconductor GaMnSb was grown in aircraft Shen-Zhou 3 (SZ-3) under microgravity conditions. GaMnSb was grown in the multi-sample crystal furnace, in which six samples were grown through auto-control. The designed ampoule was successfully recovered after the space growth of GaMnSb in SZ-3. The structural, electric, optic, and magnetic properties of GaMnSb grown in SZ-3 were analyzed.

Chen, N. F.; Zhang, F.; Wu, J.; Zhong, X.; Lin, L.

435

Induced abnormality in Mir- and earth grown super dwarf wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet ``Greenhouse'' exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of `Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing `Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples.

Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Pdolsky, I.; Chernova, L.

436

Induced abnormality in Mir- and Earth grown Super Dwarf wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing 'Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Chernova, L.; Pdolsky, I.

2003-01-01

437

Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes  

SciTech Connect

Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

2000-03-01

438

Atomistic Stress Fluctuation at Surfaces and Edges of Epitaxially Grown Silver  

E-print Network

Atomistic Stress Fluctuation at Surfaces and Edges of Epitaxially Grown Silver Nanorods Saw-Wai Hla of epitaxially grown silver nanorods on a -MoTe2 surface have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy peculiarities occurring at surfaces and edges of epitaxially grown silver nanorods on a (001) van der Waals

Hla, Saw-Wai

439

High resolution diffraction imaging of crystals grown in microgravity and closely related terrestrial crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irregularities found in three crystals grown in space, in four crystals grown entirely on the ground were examined and compared. Irregularities were observed in mercuric iodide, lead tin telluride, triglycine sulfate, and gallium arsenide by high resolution synchrotron x radiation diffraction imaging. Radiation detectors made from mercuric iodide crystals grown in microgravity were reported to perform far better than conventional

B. Steiner; R. Dobbyn; D. Black; H. Burdette; M. Kuriyama; R. Spal; L. Vandenberg; A. Fripp; R. Simchick; R. Lal

1991-01-01

440

29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations. 780.506 Section 780...Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime...Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco 780.506 Dependence of...

2011-07-01

441

29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of shade-grown tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Definition of shade-grown tobacco. 780.505 Section 780.505 ...Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime...Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco 780.505 Definition of...

2010-07-01

442

29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations. 780.506 Section 780...Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime...Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco 780.506 Dependence of...

2010-07-01

443

29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of shade-grown tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Definition of shade-grown tobacco. 780.505 Section 780.505 ...Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime...Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco 780.505 Definition of...