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1

Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96) and significant (P ? 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ? 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ? 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity. PMID:24812474

Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Arambewela, L. S. R.; Ratnasooriya, W. D.

2014-01-01

2

Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation  

PubMed Central

The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2?mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 0.09??m2 to 35.66 0.10??m2 and 142.90 0.59??m2 to 165.05 0.58??m2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period. PMID:23766703

Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

2013-01-01

3

HETEROPHYLLY IN THE YELLOW WATERLILY, NUPHAR VARIEGATA (NYMPHAEACEAE): EFFECTS OF (CO2), NATURAL SEDIMENT TYPE, AND WATER DEPTH1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, (CO2)-, depth-, and temperature- controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free (CO 2), and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater (NH 4 1 ) favored floating leaf development. Low CO 2-grown plants

JOHN E. TITUS; P. G ARY SULLIVAN

4

Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications  

SciTech Connect

Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Bah, Clara Shui Fern [Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago (New Zealand)] [Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago (New Zealand); Lin, Peng [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Tsao, Sai Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ng, Tzi Bun, E-mail: b021770@mailserv.cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)

2010-06-11

5

The re-stocking of captive-bred ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) into the Betampona Reserve, Madagascar: methodology and recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since November 1997 the Madagascar Fauna Group has released 13 captive-bred black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) into the Betampona Reserve in eastern Madagascar. The release programme has three major aims: (1) to assess the ability of captive-bred V. v. variegata to adapt to life in their natural habitat; (2) to investigate the contribution that such a release

Adam Britt; Charles Welch; Andrea Katz; Bernard Iambana; Ingrid Porton; Randall Junge; Graham Crawford; Cathy Williams; David Haring

2004-01-01

6

Influence of shading on net photosynthetic and transpiration rates, stomatal diffusive resistance, nitrate reductase and biomass productivity of a woody legume tree species ( Erythrina variegata Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the sun and shade adaptations of plants to semi-arid climatic conditions investigations were undertaken withErythrina variegata Lam. The studies revealed that shading decreased root and shoot growth, leaf density, leaf area, specific leaf weight, relative\\u000a growth rate and relative leaf growth rate. Consequently the dry biomass accumulation was adversely affected in shade grown\\u000a plants. Synthesis of chlorophyll

K Muthuchelian; Kailash Paliwal; A Gnanam

1989-01-01

7

Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs.  

PubMed

General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO(2) levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO(2) and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1)) under two levels of CO(2) (360 and 860 ?L L(-1), respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO(2) than under ambient CO(2) for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1), the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO(2) was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient CO(2) with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO(2) significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in promoting utilization of CO(2) fertilization for improvement of phytoextraction of soils contaminated with radionuclides. PMID:22507353

Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

2012-10-01

8

OA02.04. Wound healing property of Kanchanara [Bauhinia variegata Linn] - An experimental study.  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Wound a clinical entity, is commonly seen as a result of various etiological factors like trauma etc. Kanchanara a plant origin drug. Many of the Nighantu's have mentioned vrana shodhana and vrana ropana properties of Kanchanara. Hence present study of evaluating wound healing property of Kanchanara bark in the form of churna and ointment [sikta taila base] preparations has been taken up. Method: Albino rats were the experimental model. 36 albino rats were selected and divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each. 3 groups were used for excision wound model and remaining 3 groups were used for incision wound model, one group being served as the control and remaining two group for the trial drug. Churna and ointment were used for both excision and incision groups. Albino rats were wounded under aseptic conditions using wound techniques suggested by Marton and Malone [1972] and also by hunts model[1969]. In case of excision wound area of wound was measured once in 4 days by using graph sheet. In case of incision wound tensile strength was found out by using tensinometer on 10th post wounding day. Result: The statistical values of both groups were compared with control group and it showed that: 1. Kanchanara ointment promoted epithelization, wound contraction and period of epithelization was reduced in case of excision wound. 2. In incision wound also Kanchanara ointment helps in increasing collagenation and tensile strength. Both ointment and churna group are highly significant when compared with control group. On comparison of ointment group with churna group it statistically showed insignificance. No untoward side effects were noticed during the trial and the wound, healed with minimal scar. Conclusion: Kanchanara ointment and its churna is an effective, safe and well tolerated therapy in the treatment of both excision and incision wound.

Hiremath, Shilpa; Pradeep

2013-01-01

9

Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.390.57g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.20.8g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively. Supersized LDs (5.951.02?m) accumulated maximum TAG in sonicated HSAE grown cells were visualized by fluorescent BODIPY (505/515nm) stain. GC-MS analysis revealed unique longer carbon chain FAME profile containing Arachidic acid (C20:0) 5%, Behenic acid (C22:0) 9.7%, Heptacosanoic acid (C27:0) 14.98%, for the first time in this yeast when grown on industrially competent sonicated HSAE, showing more similarity to algal oils. PMID:24746767

Patel, Alok; Pravez, Mohammad; Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Parul A

2014-08-01

10

Heterophylly in the yellow waterlily, Nuphar variegata (Nymphaeaceae): effects of [CO2], natural sediment type, and water depth.  

PubMed

We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, [CO(2)]-, depth-, and temperature-controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free [CO(2)], and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater [NH(4)(+)] favored floating leaf development. Low CO(2)-grown plants initiated floating leaf development significantly earlier than high CO(2)-grown plants, which produced significantly more submersed leaves and fewer floating leaves. Mean floating leaf biomass was significantly greater than mean submersed leaf biomass but was not influenced by CO(2) enrichment, whereas mean submersed leaf biomass increased 88% at high [CO(2)]. At the shallower depth (35 cm), floating leaves required 50% less biomass investment per leaf than at 70 cm, and a significantly greater proportion of plants had floating leaves (70 vs. 23-43% at 35 vs. 70 cm, respectively) for the last three of the eight leaf censuses. Sediment type, water depth, and especially free [CO(2)] all can influence leaf morphogenesis in Nuphar variegata, and the development of more and larger submersed leaves with CO(2) enrichment favors the exploitation of high [CO(2)] when it is present in the water column. PMID:21669680

Titus, J E; Gary Sullivan, P

2001-08-01

11

Mint virus X: a novel potexvirus associated with symptoms in 'Variegata'mint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Mentha gracilis 'Variegata', an ornamental mint clone first de- scribed about 200 years ago, exhibits virus-like vein banding symptoms. Double- stranded RNA and virion isolations revealed the presence of three viruses in a 'Variegata' plant. Cloning and sequencing disclosed that one of the viruses was a previously unidentified species with similarities to members of the Flexiviridae family, designated as

I. E. Tzanetakis; J. D. Postman; R. R. Martin

2005-01-01

12

Mint virus X: a novel potexvirus associated with symptoms in Variegata mint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.Mentha??gracilis Variegata, an ornamental mint clone first described about 200 years ago, exhibits virus-like vein banding symptoms. Double-stranded\\u000a RNA and virion isolations revealed the presence of three viruses in a Variegata plant. Cloning and sequencing disclosed\\u000a that one of the viruses was a previously unidentified species with similarities to members of the Flexiviridae family, designated as Mint virus X (MVX).

I. E. Tzanetakis; J. D. Postman; R. R. Martin

2006-01-01

13

A bactericidal protein in Bombina variegata pachypus skin venom.  

PubMed

The skin venom of the yellow bellied toad Bombina variegata pachypus has an antimicrobial activity which seems to be correlated to the presence of a 6700 mol. wt polypeptide. This polypeptide was purified by electroelution from SDS-urea-polyacrylamide gels and characterized for its antimicrobial activity. A bactericidal action was detected at concentrations with little or no cytolytic effect. The determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration showed that there was activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and also against yeasts. The skin secretions of three other anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea and Discoglossus pictus) were examined for the presence of antimicrobial activities. Only the Hyla arborea secretion exhibited antimicrobial properties. A small amount of a 6700 mol. wt polypeptide was detected among the Hyla secreted products. PMID:2048146

Mastromei, G; Barberio, C; Pistolesi, S; Delfino, G

1991-01-01

14

Porphyria Variegata and Porphyria Cutanea Tarda in Siblings: Chemical and Genetic Aspects (Addendum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A porphyria kindred in which the index case has porphyria variegata had also been shown to include a case of porphyria cutanea tarda, typical both from chemical and clinical features. The possibility that this was purely acquired rather than genetic seemed unlikely, but could not be wholly excluded. Recently, a niece of both of these cases, although asymptomatic, has been

C. J. Watson; R. A. Cardinal; I. Bossenmaier; Z. J. Petryka

1976-01-01

15

Depth-related variation in epiphytic communities growing on the brown alga Lobophora variegata in a Caribbean coral reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobophora variegata is a dominant macroalga on coral reefs across the Caribbean. Over the last two decades, it has expanded its vertical distribution\\u000a to both shallow and deep reefs along the leeward coast of the island of Curaao, Southern Caribbean. However, the ecological\\u000a implications of this expansion and the role of L. variegata as a living substratum are poorly known.

A. FrickeT; T. V. Titlyanova; M. M. Nugues; K. Bischof

16

Distribution and foraging behaviour of the Peruvian Booby ( Sula variegata ) off northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Peruvian Booby (Sula variegata) is one of the most numerous guano bird species in the Humboldt Current. We used a combination of data logger deployment,\\u000a at-sea observations and colony-based work to investigate the foraging and diving behaviour, as well as the at-sea distribution\\u000a and food choice of Peruvian Boobies breeding at Isla Pajaros, northern central Chile. Birds foraged in

Katrin Ludynia; Stefan Garthe; Guillermo Luna-Jorquera

2010-01-01

17

[Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of different shading (light transmittance 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) on the photosynthesis characteristics of two ornamental foliage plants Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata. After shading for six weeks, the net photosynthesis rates of two plants measured ex situ under natural light enhanced, compared to those measured in situ, and, with the increase of shading degree, the net photosynthetic rates had an increasing trend, with the maximum being 9.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Photinia x frasery and 8.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Aucuba japonica var. variegata. In the meantime, the transpiration rates of the two plants increased significantly. Shading increased the chlorophyll a, b, and a+b contents and the chlorophyll/carotenoids ratio, decreased the chlorophyll a/b, but less affected the carotenoids content. The phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegate was 2.08 and 3.21, and 0.55 and 1.60, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of the two plants were relatively stable, indicating the minor influence of external environment factors on pigments. Aucuba japonica var. variegata had a higher shading tolerance than Photinia x frasery. PMID:22007450

Zhang, Cong-ying; Fang, Yan-ming; Ji, Hong-li; Ma, Cheng-tao

2011-07-01

18

Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11222.67?mg?QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40?mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5?mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (1040??g/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 9099% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts. PMID:24093108

Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K.; Pandey, Abhay K.

2013-01-01

19

Growth and cesium uptake responses of Phytolacca americana Linn. and Amaranthus cruentus L. grown on cesium contaminated soil to elevated CO2 or inoculation with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54, or in combination.  

PubMed

Growth and cesium uptake responses of plants to elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, can be explored for clean-up of contaminated soils, and this induced phytoextraction may be better than the natural process. The present study used open-top chambers to investigate combined effects of Burkholderia sp. D54 inoculation and elevated CO(2) (860 ?L L(-1)) on growth and Cs uptake by Phytolacca americana and Amaranthus cruentus grown on soil spiked with various levels of Cs (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). Elevated CO(2) and bacterial inoculation, alone or in combination, significantly increased biomass production with increased magnitude, ranging from 22% to 139% for P. americana, and 14% to 254% for A. cruentus. Total tissue Cs in both plants was significantly greater for bacterial inoculation treatment singly, and combined treatments of bacterial inoculation and elevated CO(2) than for the control treatment in most cases. Regardless of CO(2) concentrations and bacterial inoculation, A. cruentus had higher tissue Cs concentration, Cs transfer factors and concentration ratios than P. americana, but they had slightly different contents of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that combined effects of elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation with regard to plant ability to grow and remove radionuclides from soil can be explored for CO(2)- and microbe-assisted phytoextraction technology. PMID:22074893

Tang, Shirong; Liao, Shangqiang; Guo, Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Ruigang; Zhou, Xiaomin

2011-12-30

20

Characterization of the molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi plant extracts against the fasciola vector Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

The molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata leaf and Mimusops elengi bark was studied against vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. The toxicity of both plants was time and concentration-dependent. Among organic extracts, ethanol extracts of both plants were more toxic. Toxicity of B. variegata leaf ethanolic extract (96h LC50- 14.4 mg/L) was more pronounced than M. elengi bark ethanolic extract (96h LC50-15.0 mg/L). The 24h LC50 of column purified fraction of B. variegata and M. elengi bark were 20.3 mg/L and 18.3 mg/L, respectively. Saponin and quercetin were characterized and identified as active molluscicidal component. Co-migration of saponin (Rf 0.48) and quercetin (Rf 0.52) with column purified bark of M. elengi and leaf of B. variegata on thin layer chromatography demonstrate same Rf value i.e. 0.48 and 0.52, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the possibility of using M. elengi and/or B. variegata as potent molluscicide. PMID:22634884

Singh, Kanchan Lata; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

2012-01-01

21

Semecarpus anacardium Linn.: A review  

PubMed Central

Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Family: Anacardiaceae), commonly known Ballataka or Bhilwa, has been used in various traditional system of medicines for various ailments since ancient times. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which show various medicinal properties. The fruit and nut extract shows various activities like antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-reproductive, CNS stimulant, hypoglycemic, anticarcinogenic and hair growth promoter. The article reviews the various activities of the plant. PMID:22228947

Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Badola, Ashutosh; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, M. S. M.

2010-01-01

22

The tropical brown alga Lobophora variegata as a bioindicator of mining1 contamination in the New Caledonia lagoon: a field transplantation study2  

E-print Network

1 The tropical brown alga Lobophora variegata as a bioindicator of mining1 contamination in the New field and laboratory studies have identified the alga Lobophora variegata as a good21 candidate key contaminants, i.e. Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr,25 Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn. Algae from clean and contaminated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal\\u000a activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Geetha Gopalakrishnan

2008-01-01

24

The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata: A Source of Antiprotozoal Compounds  

PubMed Central

Lobophora variegata, a brown alga collected from the coast of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, was studied for antiprotozoal activity against Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The whole extract showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis, with an IC50 value of 3.2 ?g/mL. For the fractions, the best antiprotozoal activity was found in non-polar fractions. The chloroform fraction of the extract contained a major sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-myristoyl-3-O-(6?-sulfo-?-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (1), together with small amounts of 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6?-sulfo-?-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (2) and a new compound identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(6?-sulfo-?-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (3). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and careful analysis of FAB-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. This is the first report on the isolation of SQDGs from L. variegata. The mixture of 13 showed good activity against E. histolytica and moderate activity against T. vaginalis with IC50s of 3.9 and 8.0 ?g/mL, respectively, however, the activity of 13 is not as effective as metronidazole. These results afford ground information for the potential use of the whole extract and fractions of this species in protozoal infections. PMID:20479979

Cantillo-Ciau, Zulema; Moo-Puc, Rosa; Quijano, Leovigildo; Freile-Pelegrin, Yolanda

2010-01-01

25

Feleucins: Novel Bombinin Precursor-Encoded Nonapeptide Amides from the Skin Secretion of Bombina variegata  

PubMed Central

The first amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide (AMP) to be identified was named bombinin, reflecting its origin from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata). Bombinins and their related peptides, the bombinin Hs, were subsequently reported from other bombinid toads. Molecular cloning of bombinin-encoding cDNAs from skin found that bombinins and bombinin Hs were coencoded on the same precursor proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning of two novel cDNAs from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library of B. variegata whose open-reading frames each encode a novel bombinin (GIGGALLNVGKVALKGLAKGLAEHFANamide) and a C-terminally located single copy of a novel nonapeptide (FLGLLGGLLamide or FLGLIGSLLamide). These novel nonapeptides were named feleucin-BV1 and feleucin-BV2, respectively. The novel bombinin exhibited 89% identity to homologues from the toads, B. microdeladigitora and B. maxima. The feleucins exhibited no identity with any amphibian AMP archived in databases. Synthetic feleucins exhibited a weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus (128256?mg/L) but feleucin-BV1 exhibited a synergistic action with the novel bombinin. The present report clearly demonstrates that the skin secretions of bombinid toads continue to represent a source of peptides of novel structure that could provide templates for the design of therapeutics. PMID:25003126

Bai, Bing; Hou, Xiaojuan; Duan, Jinao

2014-01-01

26

Variation in mycorrhizal performance in the epiphytic orchid Tolumnia variegata in vitro : the potential for natural selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotic seed germination is a critical stage in orchid life histories. Natural selection may act to favor plants that efficiently use mycorrhizal fungi. However, the necessary conditions for natural selection variation, heritability, and differences in fitness have not been demonstrated for either orchid or fungus. With the epiphytic orchid Tolumnia variegata as a model system, we ask the

J. Tupac Otero; Paul Bayman; James D. Ackerman

2005-01-01

27

Efficacy evaluation of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective was to study the effect of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat. Materials and Methods: Mastitis was induced by intracisternal inoculation of coagulase positive S. aureus (J638) at the concentration of 2000 colony forming units. Group I animals were treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone at 20 mg/kg intravenously, and Group II animals were treated with once daily oral administration of B. variegata L. stem bark powder at 6 g/kg for 7 days followed by maintenance dose at 3 g/kg for next 7 days along with repeated dose of the antibiotic at 20 mg/kg intravenously at 4 days interval. Results: No significant improvement in the clinical condition of the udder was noticed in the group treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone alone. However, in the group treated with B. variegata L. stem bark powder along with repeated dose of ceftriaxone, no S. aureus colony was seen at 96 h and onwards in milk samples with a marked decrease in somatic cell count and milk alkaline phosphatase activity and increased lactoperoxidase activity. Further, plasma and milk concentration of ceftriaxone/ceftizoxime was increased, which indicated antibacterial, bioenhancing and antiinflammatory properties of the bark powder. The Group II animals also exhibited marked reduction in polymorphonuclear cells and fibrous tissue indicating antifibrotic property of B. variegata L. Conclusion: B. variegata L. stem bark powder can be considered as an effective adjunct therapy to intravenous ceftriaxone in S. aureus chronic mastitis in goat. PMID:25298668

Dash, Jeevan Ranjan; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Samanta, Indranil; Pal, Subodh; Khan, Madhuchhanda; Patra, Nimai Charan; Sarkar, Uttam; Maji, Asit Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

2014-01-01

28

Isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci in Blue-footed ( Sula nebouxii ) and Peruvian Boobies ( Sula variegata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from Blue-footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian Boobies (S. variegata). The loci were screened in 24 Blue-footed Boobies and 27 Peruvian Boobies: 8 were polymorphic in Blue-footed Boobies with\\u000a between 2 and 10 alleles per locus and 9 were polymorphic in Peruvian Boobies with between 2 and 12 alleles per locus. Observed\\u000a heterozygosity ranged

Scott A. TaylorJames; James A. Morris-Pocock; Zhengxin Sun; Vicki L. Friesen

2010-01-01

29

Arsenic uptake by two vegetables grown in two soils amended with As-bearing animal manures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organoarsenicals are widely used as growth promoters in animal feed, resulting in unabsorbed arsenic (As) left in animal manures. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the growth and As uptake of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor Linn, a crop with an axial root system) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, a crop with a fibrous root system) grown in a paddy

Li-Xian Yao; Guo-Liang Li; Zhi Dang; Zhao-Huan He; Chang-Min Zhou; Bao-Mei Yang

2009-01-01

30

Paragyrodactylus variegatus n. sp. (Gyrodactylidae) from Homatula variegata (Dabry De Thiersant, 1874) (Nemacheilidae) in central China.  

PubMed

Paragyrodactylus variegatus n. sp. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) is described from the fins and body surface of Homatula variegata (Dabry de Thiersant, 1874) living in cold-water streams in the Qinling Mountains of central China. It represents the third known species in the genus, with all species parasitizing Asian river loaches (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae). The new species resembles most closely Paragyrodactylus iliensis Gvosdev and Martechov, 1953 , but is diagnosed by its marginal hooks being longer than 19 ?m, a sickle longer than 4 ?m, a sickle aperture shorter than the sickle distal width, and absence of a ventromedial indentation in the haptoral accessory hard part. Scanning electron microscopy reveals a central foramen in the haptoral accessory hard part, and small knob-like protuberances on the heel and toe of the marginal hook sickle. A partial 18S (448 bp) and complete ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 (1,139 bp) rDNA sequences are provided. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 18S gene, which included all sequenced genera of the Gyrodactylidae, suggests P. variegatus n. sp. is basal within Gyrodactylus sensu lato. It is proposed that the genus is a relict freshwater lineage parasitizing river loaches in the mountain plateaus of central Asia. PMID:24383574

You, Ping; King, Stanley D; Ye, Fei; Cone, David K

2014-06-01

31

Temperature-dependent chemical components accumulation in Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) during overwintering.  

PubMed

Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) is a widespread predator of aphid and has been reported as the most important naturally occurring enemy of aphids, in many countries. In this study, fluctuating levels of cryoprotectants in nonoverwintering and overwintering coccinellids were assessed in field and natural overwintering sites in Hamadan, Iran, from September of 2010 to June of 2011. Moreover, accumulations of polyols were investigated in response to subzero temperatures. Results demonstrated that concentrations of cryoprotectants changed during the study period under natural conditions. Large amounts of metabolic reserves, in the form of glycogen, accumulated before overwintering. Glycogen began to breakdown but polyols accumulated when ambient temperature decreased from October to December. Overwintering coccinellids displayed a threefold increase in levels of trehalose and a fivefold increase in levels of glucose and total cryoprotectants, but there was even a 45-fold increase in myo-inositol content when subzero temperatures were experienced. It was suggested that myo-inositol and glucose are the major cryoprotectants components in this species. In tests for cold response, the optimal temperature for polyol synthesis seems to be below -3C. From November to February, all the collected coccinellids that had been kept at 10C in the laboratory were dead after 30 d, indicating that high temperatures were not favorable for overwintering of this population. Moreover, exposure to high temperatures resulted in rapid catabolism of sugar alcohols. This result demonstrated significant correlation between ambient temperature decrease and accumulation of polyols, suggesting that low temperatures are responsible for polyols synthesis in this species. PMID:23575029

Hamedi, N; Moharramipour, S; Barzegar, M

2013-04-01

32

Qualitative and Quantitative Prey Requirements of two Aphidophagous Coccinellids, Adalia tetraspilota and Hippodamia variegata  

PubMed Central

The suitability of two prey species, Aphis pomi De Geer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), for two generalist aphidophagous coccinellids, Adalia tetraspilota (Hope) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), at various abundance levels was investigated under laboratory conditions. While both A. pomi and B. brassicae were found to be suitable, the predators performed better when feeding upon B. brassicae. The prey densities affected the developmental parameters of the two predators appreciably. Optimal growth and development was noted in the prey density range of 4080 aphids per day per predator. Both species and abundance levels of prey significantly affected the larval period of the two predators. Appreciable variation in survivorship of larvae, prepupal and pupal period, and adult weight was noted by varying the prey species and prey abundance. Longer reproductive period (oviposition period) and shorter non-reproductive periods (pre-oviposition and post-oviposition periods) were noted for females that fed on B. brassicae as compared to those that fed on A. pomi. Reproductive output was appreciably higher for females that fed on B. brassicae, and the fecundity decreased drastically under food shortage. PMID:25373219

Shah, Mohd Abas; Khan, Akhtar Ali

2014-01-01

33

Qualitative and quantitative prey requirements of two aphidophagous coccinellids,Adalia tetraspilota and Hippodamia variegata.  

PubMed

The suitability of two prey species, Aphis pomi De Geer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), for two generalist aphidophagous coccinellids, Adalia tetraspilota (Hope) (Cole- optera: Coccinellidae) and Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), at various abundance levels was investigated under laboratory conditions. While both A. pomi and B. brassicae were found to be suitable, the predators performed better when feeding upon B. brassicae. The prey densities affected the developmental parameters of the two predators appreciably. Optimal growth and development was noted in the prey density range of 40-80 aphids per day per predator. Both species and abundance levels of prey significantly affected the larval period of the two predators. Appreciable variation in survivorship of larvae, prepupal and pupal period, and adult weight was noted by varying the prey species and prey abundance. Longer reproductive period (oviposition period) and shorter non-reproductive periods (preoviposition and postoviposition periods) were noted for females that fed on B. brassicae as compared to those that fed on A. pomi. Reproductive output was appreciably higher for females that fed on B. brassicae, and the fecundity decreased drastically under food shortage. PMID:25373219

Shah, Mohd Abas; Khan, Akhtar Ali

2014-01-01

34

Effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Erythrina variegata on the performance of growing goats.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding different levels of foliage from Erythrina variegata on the performance of growing goats was studied using a local breed (Ma T'ou) with an average initial body weight of 11.2 kg (SD = 0.9). Twenty-four animals were allocated to a randomized design, with six animals (three males and three females) per treatment. The treatments were four different levels of replacement of the diet crude protein (CP) with CP from Erythrina foliage (EF) at 0 % (E-0), 20 % (E-20), 40 % (E-40), and 60 % (E-60). There were no significant differences in the dry matter (DM) intake between treatments, but total CP intake was significantly higher in the goats fed the diet E-60 compared to E-20 (61.1 and 51.4 g/day, respectively). The average daily liveweight gain of the goats did not differ between treatments and ranged from 51 to 63 g/day. Sixteen animals were kept in metabolism cages for a digestibility study and given with the same four diets as in the main experiment. The digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber was significantly higher for diet E-60 than for E-0. Neither the apparent digestibility of CP and N retention nor carcass characteristics (16 animals) differed with an increase in the level of CP from EF in the diets. In conclusion, CP from EF can replace up to 60 % of CP from a mixed diet with soybean meal without any negative effect on the growth in goats. PMID:22461199

Kongmanila, Daovy; Bertilsson, Jan; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa

2012-10-01

35

Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn fruits.  

PubMed

In view of alleged antidiabetic potential, effect of the petroleum ether, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Terminalia catappa Linn (combretaceae) fruit, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. All the three extracts of Terminalia catappa produced a significant antidiabetic activity at dose levels 1/5 of their lethal doses. Concurrent histological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by methanolic and aqueous extracts which were earlier, necrosed by alloxan. PMID:12902049

Nagappa, A N; Thakurdesai, P A; Venkat Rao, N; Singh, Jiwan

2003-09-01

36

Aqueous extracts of the marine brown alga Lobophora variegata inhibit HIV-1 infection at the level of virus entry into cells.  

PubMed

In recent years, marine algae have emerged as a rich and promising source of molecules with potent activities against various human pathogens. The widely distributed brown alga Lobophora variegata that is often associated with tropical coral reefs exerts strong antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects, but so far has not been associated with specific anti-viral activities. This study investigated potential HIV-1 inhibitory activity of L. variegata collected from different geographical regions, using a cell-based full replication HIV-1 reporter assay. Aqueous L. variegata extracts showed strong inhibitory effects on several HIV-1 strains, including drug-resistant and primary HIV-1 isolates, and protected even primary cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infection. Anti-viral potency was related to ecological factors and showed clear differences depending on light exposition or epiphyte growth. Assays addressing early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle indicated that L. variegata extracts inhibited entry of HIV-1 into cells at a pre-fusion step possibly by impeding mobility of virus particles. Further characterization of the aqueous extract demonstrated that even high doses had only moderate effects on viability of cultured and primary cells (PBMCs). Imaging-based techniques revealed extract effects on the plasma membrane and actin filaments as well as induction of apoptosis at concentrations exceeding EC50 of anti-HIV-1 activity by more than 400 fold. In summary, we show for the first time that L. variegata extracts inhibit HIV-1 entry, thereby suggesting this alga as promising source for the development of novel HIV-1 inhibitors. PMID:25144758

Kremb, Stephan; Helfer, Markus; Kraus, Birgit; Wolff, Horst; Wild, Christian; Schneider, Martha; Voolstra, Christian R; Brack-Werner, Ruth

2014-01-01

37

Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4C, 25C, and 37C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8) was determined. PMID:23662136

Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Chin Chin, Sieo; Hamid, Muhajir

2013-01-01

38

Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry.  

PubMed

Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Zandi, Keivan

2013-01-01

39

Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry  

PubMed Central

Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

2013-01-01

40

Sample Limited Characterization of a Novel Disulfide-Rich Venom Peptide Toxin from Terebrid Marine Snail Terebra variegata  

PubMed Central

Disulfide-rich peptide toxins found in the secretions of venomous organisms such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, leeches, and marine snails are highly efficient and effective tools for novel therapeutic drug development. Venom peptide toxins have been used extensively to characterize ion channels in the nervous system and platelet aggregation in haemostatic systems. A significant hurdle in characterizing disulfide-rich peptide toxins from venomous animals is obtaining significant quantities needed for sequence and structural analyses. Presented here is a strategy for the structural characterization of venom peptide toxins from sample limited (4 ng) specimens via direct mass spectrometry sequencing, chemical synthesis and NMR structure elucidation. Using this integrated approach, venom peptide Tv1 from Terebra variegata was discovered. Tv1 displays a unique fold not witnessed in prior snail neuropeptides. The novel structural features found for Tv1 suggest that the terebrid pool of peptide toxins may target different neuronal agents with varying specificities compared to previously characterized snail neuropeptides. PMID:24713808

Anand, Prachi; Grigoryan, Alexandre; Bhuiyan, Mohammed H.; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Russell, Victoria; Quinonez, Jose; Moy, Patrick; Chait, Brian T.; Poget, Sebastien F.; Holford, Mande

2014-01-01

41

Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

2010-01-01

42

Neuropharmacological activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn.  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the recent years, plants containing flavonoids have gained much more interest in research area, as they are found to be specific ligands for benzodiazepine receptors. Material and Methods: In our investigation, we evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of petroleum, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Lippia nodiflora Linn. With experimental models using test such as potentiation of diazepam-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity, motor coordination, exploratory behavior pattern, elevated plus maze and maximal electroshock convulsions. Diazepam at doses of 5, 4, and 1 mg/kg served as standard. Results: Results showed that the ethanolic extract of L. nodifl ora at both doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) and its chloroform extract at a higher dose of 500 mg/kg produced central inhibitory (sedative) effects, anticonvulsant effect and anxiolytic effect in mice. Values were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) when compared to the control group. The petroleum ether extract of plant at both dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) did not produce any central effects. Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say that the ethanolic and chloroform extracts showed the central inhibitory activity due to the presence of fl avonoids and this fact was also supported by the finding that the petroleum ether extract did not show any central effect and flavonoids were not found in it. PMID:22022169

Thirupathy, Kumaresan P.; Tulshkar, Asish; Vijaya, C.

2011-01-01

43

Pharmacognostic evaluation of Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) leaf  

PubMed Central

Objective To present a detailed pharmacognostic study of the leaf of Cayratia trifolia (C. trifolia) Linn. (Vitaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods The macroscopy, microscopy, physiochemical analysis, preliminary testing, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other WHO recommended methods for standardization were investigated. Results Leaves are trifoliolated with petioles (23 cm) long. Leaflets are ovate to oblong-ovate, (28 cm) long, (1.55 cm) wide, pointed at the tip. The leaf surface shows the anisocytic type stomata covered with guard cells followed by epidermis layer. Leaf surface contents including veins, vein islet and vein termination were also determined. Transverse section of leaf shows the epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer and vascular bandles (xylem and phloem). The mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Abundant covering trichomes emerge from the upper epidermis. Trichomes are uniseriate and multicellular. Strips of collenchyma are present below and upper layer of epidermis. Conclusions It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of the C. trifolia is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification. PMID:23569825

Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Jyoti; Kumar, Sunil; Arya, Renu; Kumar, Tarun; Gupta, Ankit

2012-01-01

44

Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g\\/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the

Pranee Jaiarj; Paranee Khoohaswan; Yuwadee Wongkrajang; Penchom Peungvicha; Potjanee Suriyawong; M. L. Sumal Saraya; Orawan Ruangsomboon

1999-01-01

45

ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON LEAF EXTRACT OF ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER Linn  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: Methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber Linn was investigated for its antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2079), Escherichia coli (NCIM-2067), Bacillus subtilis (NCIM-2063), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM-2036), Proteus vulgaris (NCIM-2027) at 100 g/disc by using disc diffusion method. The extract showed significant anti bacterial activity and were compared to chloramphenicol (30 g/disc).

S. Suresh Kumar; P. Perumal; B. Suresh

46

Linkage Analysis With Sequential Imputation Zachary Skrivanek, Shili Linn  

E-print Network

Linkage Analysis With Sequential Imputation Zachary Skrivanek, Shili Linn , and Mark Irwin information on all pedigree members, are important for linkage analysis. Exact calculation methods in linkage. In this article, we propose a Monte Carlo method for linkage analysis based on sequential imputation. Unlike exact

Irwin, Mark E.

47

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1,

A. Akinboro; A. A. Bakare

2007-01-01

48

A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)  

EPA Science Inventory

We disagree with Mr. Linn?s interpretation of our paper, ?High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness?.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

49

BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn.  

PubMed

The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p<0.001) effect was observed. PMID:22557124

Sundari, S Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T; Jaswanth, A; Valarmathy, R

2004-01-01

50

256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway construction within its length. With is super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time. Looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

51

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

52

Ficus rubiginosa Variegata, a Chlorophyll?deficient Chimera with Mosaic Patterns Created by Cell Divisions from the Outer Meristematic Layer  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Sections leaves of Ficus rubiginosa Variegata show that it is a chimera with a chlorophyll deficiency in the second layer of the leaf meristem (GWG structure). Like other Ficus species, it has a multiseriate epidermis on the adaxial and abaxial sides of the leaf, formed by periclinal cell divisions as well as anticlinal divisions. The upper and lower laminae of the leaf often exhibit small dark and light green patches of tissue overlying internal leaf tissue. Methods The distribution of chlorophyll in transverse sections of typical leaves was determined by fluorescence microscopy. Key Results Patches of dark and light green tissue which arise in the otherwise colourless palisade and spongy mesophyll tissue in the entire leaf are due to further cell divisions arising from the bundle sheath which is associated with major vascular bundles or from the green multiseriate epidermis. Leaves produced in winter exhibit more patches of green tissue than leaves which expand in mid?summer. Many leaves produced in summer have no spotting and appear like a typical GWG chimera. There is a strong relationship between the number of patches on the adaxial side of leaves and the number on the abaxial side, showing that the cell division in upper and lower layers of leaves is strongly coordinated. In both winter and summer, there are fewer patches on the abaxial side of leaves compared with the adaxial side, indicating that periclinal and anticlinal cell divisions from the outer meristematic layer are less frequent in the lower layers of leaf tissue. Most of the patches are small (<1mm in longest dimension) and thus the cell divisions which form them occur late in leaf development. Leaves which exhibit large patches generally have them on both sides of the leaves. Conclusion In this cultivar, the outer meristematic layer appears to form vascular bundle sheaths and associated internal leaf tissue in the entire leaf lamina. PMID:15145795

BEARDSELL, DAVID; NORDEN, ULLA

2004-01-01

53

Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. PMID:22228958

Galani, V. J.; Patel, B. G.; Patel, N. B.

2010-01-01

54

Identification of volatiles in leaves of Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' is an aromatic medicinal plant, its foliage producing an intense, unique fragrant odor. This study identified 46 volatile compounds in the leaf tissue of this plant using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The major compounds included 1, 8-cineole (43.5%), p-cymene (14.7%), humulene (5.5%), camphor (5.3%), linalool (4.7%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (3.8%), gamma-cadinene (3.3%), humulene oxide II (2.1%) and a-terpineol (1.5%). The majority of the volatiles were terpenoids of which oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant, accounting for 57.2% of the total volatiles. Alcohols made up the largest (52.8%) and aldehydes the smallest (0.2%) portions of the volatiles. Many bioactive compounds were present in the volatiles. PMID:25230513

Chen, Jian Yan; Ye, Zheng Mei; Huang, Tian Yi; Chen, Xiao Dan; Li, Yong Yu; Wu, Shao Hua

2014-07-01

55

Dterminisme gntique du nombre de cca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo Trutta, Linn)  

E-print Network

Déterminisme génétique du nombre de cæca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo Trutta, Linné) et objet l'estimation de la variabilité génétique de ce caractère chez la Truite fario (Salmo trutta Linné la Truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo Gairdneri, Richardson) III. - Effet du génotype et de la taille des

Boyer, Edmond

56

Larvicidal activity of a toxin from the seeds of Jatropha curcas Linn. against Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.  

PubMed

The larvicidal effects of the crude protein extract and purified toxin, Jc-SCRIP, from the seed coat of Jatropha curcas Linn. against the third instar larvae of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, were investigated. This test compared the effects of the purified toxin with crude protein extracts from seed kernels of J. curcas and Ricinus communis. At various concentrations of purified toxin and crude protein extract, the larval mortality of both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were positively correlated with increased exposure time. The larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the toxin and both extracts than the larvae of Ae. aegypti. After 24 hours of exposure, the extract showed larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with (LC50) values of 3.89 mg/ml and 0.0575 mg/ml, respectively. The toxin, Jc-SCRIP, showed larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with (LC50) values of 1.44 mg/ml and 0.0303 mg/ ml, respectively. These results indicated that the crude protein extract and Jc-SCRIP were more toxic to the third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus than that of Ae. aegypti. The potent larvicidal activities of the seed coat extract and the Jc-SCRIP toxin from J. curcas suggest that they may be used as bioactive agents to control the mosquito population. PMID:22735851

Chanthakan, Nuchsuk; Nuanchawee, Wetprasit; Sittiruk, Roytrakul; Sunanta, Ratanapo

2012-06-01

57

Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0?mg/kg, 5?mg/kg, 10?mg/kg, and 20?mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. PMID:24920536

Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

2014-09-01

58

Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia Linn. fruits  

PubMed Central

Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po.) showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads. PMID:22247882

Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen; Upwar, Nitin; Waseem, Naheed; Talaviya, Hetal; Patel, Zalak

2010-01-01

59

Antimicrobial activities of Gloriosa superba Linn (Colchicaceae) extracts.  

PubMed

The methanol extract of the rhizomes of Gloriosa superba Linn (Colchicaceae) and its subsequent fractions in different solvent systems were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Excellent antifungal sensitivity was expressed by the n-butanol fraction against Candida albicans and Candida glaberata (up to 90%) and against Trichophyton longifusus (78%) followed by the chloroform fraction against Microsporum canis (80%). In the antibacterial bioassay, the crude extract and subsequent fractions showed mild to moderate antibacterial activities. Chloroform fraction displayed highest antibacterial sensitivity against Staphylococcus aureous (88%) followed by the crude extract (59%). The total phenol content of the crude extract and fractions of the plant expressed no significant correlation with the antimicrobial activities. PMID:18615278

Khan, Haroon; Khan, Murad Ali; Mahmood, Tahira; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

2008-12-01

60

A review on pharmacology and toxicology of Elephantopus scaber Linn.  

PubMed

Elephantopus scaber Linn., family Asteraceae, is a small herb found in the Neotropics, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. The parts of this plant have been used traditionally for the treatment of number of diseases in many countries. The plant has been extensively screened for anticancer activity. Sesquiterpene lactones such as deoxyelephantopin, isodeoxyelephantopin, scabertopin and isoscabertopin. have been found to be prominent anticancer constituents. Many other biological activities such as antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiasthamatic, antiplatelet and wound healing ability have been reported in various research articles. This review has been envisaged with an intention to provide the scientific information about the pharmacological and toxicological profile of E. scaber. PMID:24499355

Hiradeve, Sachin M; Rangari, Vinod D

2014-01-01

61

Anxiolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn in mice using experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn (Amaranthaceae). Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were used. Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera (MEAA) was administered in the doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. Hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration (LDE) tests were used for determination of anxiolytic activity. Results: The methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in HB test. The extract also significantly increased the time spent and the number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE test, the extract produced significant increase in time spent and number of crossings and decreased the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearing, assisted rearing and the squares crossed. Conclusion: In the present study, MEAA exhibited anxiolytic activity which might be attributed to its phyto-constituents viz. alkaloid, steroid and triterpenes. Since Achyranthes aspera is ubiquitous and abundantly grown, it could be a fairly economical therapeutic agent for management of anxiety disorders. PMID:22345872

Barua, Chandana C.; Talukdar, Archana; Begum, Shameem Ara; Borah, Prabodh; Lahkar, Mangala

2012-01-01

62

Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3)?g/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9)?g/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7)?g/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1)?g/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7)?g/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6)ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2014-10-01

63

Evidence for Asymmetrical Divergence-Gene Flow of Nuclear Loci, but Not Mitochondrial Loci, between Seabird Sister Species: Blue-Footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) Boobies  

PubMed Central

Understanding the process of speciation requires understanding how gene flow influences divergence. Recent analyses indicate that divergence can take place despite gene flow and that the sex chromosomes can exhibit different levels of gene flow than autosomes and mitochondrial DNA. Using an eight marker dataset including autosomal, z-linked, and mitochondrial loci we tested the hypothesis that blue-footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies diverged from their common ancestor with gene flow, paying specific attention to the differences in gene flow estimates from nuclear and mitochondrial markers. We found no gene flow at mitochondrial markers, but found evidence from the combined autosomal and z-linked dataset that blue-footed and Peruvian boobies experienced asymmetrical gene flow during or after their initial divergence, predominantly from Peruvian boobies into blue-footed boobies. This gene exchange may have occurred either sporadically between periods of allopatry, or regularly throughout the divergence process. Our results add to growing evidence that diverging species can remain distinct but exchange genes. PMID:23614045

Taylor, Scott A.; Anderson, David J.; Friesen, Vicki L.

2013-01-01

64

Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:22690244

Mondal, Arijit; Karan, Sanjay Kumar; Singha, Tanushree; Rajalingam, D.; Maity, Tapan Kumar

2012-01-01

65

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn  

PubMed Central

In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddys hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewers yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewers yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:21218059

Purnima, A.; Koti, B. C.; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Jaji, M. S.; Swamy, A. H. M. Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y. V.; Sadiq, A. Jaffar

2010-01-01

66

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn.  

PubMed

In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy's hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:21218059

Purnima, A; Koti, B C; Thippeswamy, A H M; Jaji, M S; Swamy, A H M Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y V; Sadiq, A Jaffar

2010-07-01

67

Potential dermal wound healing agent in Blechnum orientale Linn  

PubMed Central

Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally to treat wounds, boils, blisters or abscesses and sores, stomach pain and urinary bladder complaints. The aim of the study was to validate the ethnotherapeutic claim and to evaluate the effects of B. orientale water extract on wound healing activity. Methods Water extract of B. orientale was used. Excision wound healing activity was examined on Sprague-Dawley rats, dressed with 1% and 2% of the water extract. Control groups were dressed with the base cream (vehicle group, negative control) and 10% povidone-iodine (positive control) respectively. Healing was assessed based on contraction of wound size, mean epithelisation time, hydroxyproline content and histopathological examinations. Statistical analyses were performed using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test. Results Wound healing study revealed significant reduction in wound size and mean epithelisation time, and higher collagen synthesis in the 2% extract-treated group compared to the vehicle group. These findings were supported by histolopathological examinations of healed wound sections which showed greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts and angiogenesis in the 2% extract-treated group. Conclusions The ethnotherapeutic use of this fern is validated. The water extract of B. orientale is a potential candidate for the treatment of dermal wounds. Synergistic effects of both strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the extract are deduced to have accelerated the wound repair at the proliferative phase of the healing process. PMID:21835039

2011-01-01

68

Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn  

PubMed Central

Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis. PMID:23661867

Kannan, R.; Prasant, K.; Babu, U. V.

2012-01-01

69

Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Ko??aikkarantai)  

PubMed Central

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

Ramachandran, Shakila

2013-01-01

70

UPPER PLEISTOCENE GULO GULO (LINNE , 1758) REMAINS FROM THE SRBSKO CHLUM-KOMIN HYENA  

E-print Network

UPPER PLEISTOCENE GULO GULO (LINNE´ , 1758) REMAINS FROM THE SRBSKO CHLUM-KOMIN HYENA DEN CAVE sites. The Gulo gulo Linne´ material was found in one of the largest Ice Age spotted-hyena dens of carnivore scavenging. The absence of juvenile G. gulo suggests possible importation of the wolverines

71

Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. leaves and flowers extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of aqueous extract of C. ternatea leaves and flowers on serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, protein, urea, creatinine were examined in control and extract treated diabetic rats. Glycogen was examined both in the liver

P. Daisy; Kanakappan Santosh; M. Rajathi

72

Anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn in Nigerian dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was studied in 20 Nigerian dogs that were naturally infected with nematodes. They were randomly divided into 4 groups, A, B, C and D. Groups A and B each comprised 4 dogs while groups C and D comprised 6 dogs each. Group A animals were untreated, while those

Adeolu Alex Adedapo; Olufemi Olaitan Shabi; Oyeduntan Adeyoju

73

Capparis sepiaria Linn - Pharmacognostical standardization and toxicity profile with chemical compounds identification (GC-MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was intended to evaluate the various pharmacognostical procedures in the leaves of Capparis sepiaria Linn., (Capparidaceae). The various pharmacognostical parameters were carried out as per WHO guidelines procedure i.e., bitterness, fineness, microscopical sections, loss on drying, water and alcoholic extractive values, water insoluble ash, acid soluble ash, total ash, swelling index, foaming index, heavy metal analysis, phytochemical

P. Rajesh; S. Latha; P. Selvamani; V. Rajesh Kannan

2010-01-01

74

Chemistry and medicinal properties of the Bakul ( Mimusops elengi Linn): A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots and reports confirm that a great variety of fruiting trees are indigenous to this region of the world. Mimusops elengi Linn (family Sapotaceae) commonly known as Bakul is one such tree native to the Western Ghat region of the peninsular India. However, today this tree is also found growing in other parts

Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga; Ramakrishna J. Pai; Harshith P. Bhat; Princy Louis Palatty; Rekha Boloor

2011-01-01

75

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Studies on the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. is extensively used in Indian traditional and folklore medicines to cure various human ailments. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and sugars. In vitro antibacterial studies on the ethanolic leaf extracts were carried out on ten medically important bacterial strains, including Salmonella typimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia,

M. Sathiya; P. Parimala; K. Muthuchelian

2008-01-01

76

Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.  

PubMed

In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis. PMID:18688644

Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha

2008-11-01

77

A study of cytogenetical relationships between Sorghum vulgare Pers., S. virgatum (HACK.) Stapf, and S. halepense (Linn.  

E-print Network

A STUPY OF CYTOGENETICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ~SO H VIP PERS, , S. VIRGATUM (HACK. ) STAPF, AND S. HALEPENSE (LINN. ) A Thesis By Samir P. Mouftah Submitted to the Graduate School of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major Subject: Genetics A STUDY OP CYTOGENETICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOBOHUM VULGARE PERS. , S. VIRGATUM (HACK. ) STAPF~ AND S. HALEPENSE (LINN. ) A Thesis By Samir P. Mouftah Approved...

Mouftah, Samir Pacha Mohamed Sabri

2012-06-07

78

Adsorption of basic dyes on activated carbon prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low cost activated carbon was prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn by phosphoric acid activation. Its ability to remove the basic dyes, malachite green (MG) and rhodamine B (RB) was evaluated. The surface area of P.orientale Linn activated carbon (PLAC) was found to be 1398m2\\/g. The effects of experimental parameters such as initial concentration, contact time, pH, ionic strength and temperature

Li Wang; Jian Zhang; Ran Zhao; Cong Li; Ye Li; Chenglu Zhang

2010-01-01

79

Toxicological assessment of Ricinus communis Linn root extracts.  

PubMed

Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae) plant parts are claimed to be used as carminative, asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, anti-inflammatory, cathartic, and aphrodisiac. The toxicological study was carried out in the root part of the plant. The collected root was extracted with methanol and water. The extracts were vacuum-dried to yield the respective aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts. Toxicological assessment sought to determine the safety of Ricinus communis root extracts. The extracts were evaluated in the acute toxicity study (OECD-423 guidelines) and 90 days repeated dose toxicological assessment in Wistar albino rats. The acute oral toxicity of the aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality at the dose level of 2000?mg/kg in rats. In the 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity) repeated dose toxicity study the extracts (AE and ME) were administered 1000?mg/kg daily through oral route. The sub-chronic toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in body weight, food, and water intake. Hematology parameters RBC, WBC, DLC, Hb, blood clotting time, and the biochemical parameters glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, total protein, total bilirubin AST, ALT, and ALP were estimated. Histopathology observation of the major vital organs (liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, ovary, testis, and brain) were tested. The hematology, biochemical and histopathology evaluations did not show any adverse effects in any of the organs tested. These results demonstrate the non-toxic nature of the root extracts AE and ME can be used for long-term usage in clinical practice. PMID:21142779

Ilavarasan, Raju; Mallika, Moni; Venkataraman, Subramanian

2011-03-01

80

Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.  

PubMed

Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138C and 136C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm(-1) (-OH), 1660?cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414?cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219?cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

2014-01-01

81

Pharmacognostical evaluation of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. leaf and stem  

PubMed Central

Background: Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn (Sapindaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine, known as kar?aspho?a. The root of it is officially included in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia for its therapeutic uses such as jvara, ku??ha, p???u, k?aya and sandhiv?ta etc. As no detailed analysis of macroscopy, microscopy characters of the plant, except root, have been carried out till date, it was thought worth to carry out the detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of leaves and stem, following standard pharmacognostical procedures. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies of C. halicacabum were carried out, and in this, the macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical analyses were done. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content, extractive values were determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf and stem components were observed. Results: Macroscopically the leaves are bi-ternate, ovate-lanceolate in shape with dentate margin. Microscopically, leaf shows prominent midrib and thin dorsiventral lamina. The midrib shows the presence of epidermal layers, angular collenchyma, palisade cells and vascular strands comprised of thin walled xylem and thick walled phloem elements. The lamina shows prominent, narrow and cylindrical upper epidermis. The upper epidermal cells are large and contain mucilage, whereas lower epidermis possesses thin, small and elliptical epidermal cells. The mesophyll was differentiated into two zones upper and lower. The upper zones show narrow cylindrical palisade cells and lower zone shows 2-3 layers of loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells. In the Paradermal section of the lamina we observe anomocytic stomata. The transverse section of stem shows a pentagonal appearance with five short blunt ridges and prominent cuticle. Parenchymatous cells, cortical sclerenchyma, lignified xylem fibers, phloem and pit were also found. In the powder microscopy of whole plant, glandular trichomes, non-glandular trichomes, fragments of lamina, xylem elements, parenchyma cells and fibers are observed. Phytochemical screening reveals that the C. halicacabum extract contains glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and saponin. Conclusion: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in identification, quality, purity and standardization of C. halicacabum. PMID:25161325

Zalke, Ashish S.; Duraiswamy, B.; Gandagule, Upendra B.; Singh, Nidhi

2013-01-01

82

Anti-microbial screening of endophytic fungi from Hypericum perforatum Linn.  

PubMed

Anti-microbial properties of 21 endophytic fungal strains from Hypericum perforatum Linn. were evaluated against three human pathogens, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Rhodotorula glutinis, and two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Pyricularia grisea. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate extracts of endophytic fermentation broth had stronger anti-microbial activities than their fermentation broth. And the inhibitory effect of the endophytic extracts on human pathogens was better than those on phytopathogens. Among these endophytic fungi, strains GYLQ-10, GYLQ-24 and GYLQ-22 respectively showed the strongest activities against S. aureu, E. coli, R. glutinis. GYLQ-14 and GYLQ-22 exhibited the most pronounced effect on P. Grisea while both GYLQ-06 and GYLQ-08 had the strongest anti-microbial activities against R. cerealis. Till now, this study is the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from H. perforatum Linn. and their anti-microbial evaluation. PMID:25176358

Zhang, Huawei; Ying, Chen; Tang, Yifei

2014-09-01

83

Dterminisme gntique du nombre de cca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo trutta, Linn)  

E-print Network

Déterminisme génétique du nombre de cæca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo trutta, Linné) et!xGOT et al., 1976) nous avions décrit cette variabilité intraspécifique chez la Truite Fario (Salmo trutta la Truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson) II. - Effet du génotype du milieu d'élevage et de

Boyer, Edmond

84

Anti-inflammatory effect of phenethyl isothiocyanate, an active ingredient of Raphanus sativus Linne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an active ingredient of Raphanus sativus Linne (Cruciferae). However, regulatory mechanism of PEITC involved in caspase-1 signalling has not been fully elucidated in mast cells. First, PEITC inhibited the production of IL-6 through the inhibition of caspase-1\\/receptor-interacting protein 2, followed by regulation of NF-?B\\/I?B? pathway or p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases. Second, PEITC

Phil-Dong Moon; Na-Ra Han; Hyun-Ja Jeong; Hyung-Min Kim

85

Effects of Cadmium on Chlorophyll Content, Photochemical Efficiency, and Photosynthetic Intensity of Canna indica Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium (Cd) on growth status, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency, and photosynthetic intensity were studied on Canna indica Linn. Plant specimens that were produced from a constructed wetland and precultivated hydroponically in 20 L of 1\\/10 Hoagland solution under greenhouse conditions for 1 week were exposed to cadmium in concentrations of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2

Shuiping Cheng; Feng Ren; Wolfgang Grosse; Zhenbin Wu

2002-01-01

86

Phytoremediation of Triazophos by Canna Indica Linn. in a Hydroponic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytoremediation of triazophos (O, O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-base) sulfur phosphate, TAP) by Canna indica Linn. in a hydroponic system was studied. After 21 d of exposure, the removal kinetic constant (K) of TAP was 0.02290.0339 d and the removal percentage of TAP was 4155% in the plant system and the K and removal percentage of TAP were about 0.002 d

Shuiping Cheng; Jin Xiao; Huiping Xiao; Liping Zhang; Zhenbin Wu

2007-01-01

87

Process Improvement to Preserve the Color of Instant Pennywort Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method to maintain color of instant Pennywort (Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban or Buo-Bok) during processing was investigated. Two methods of preparation before juice extraction were studied: blanching the Buo-Bok at 95- 100oC for 0 to 10 minutes or blanching Buo-Bok at 95-100oC and then immersing it in 0.005% citric acid solution (pH 4.5) before extracting the juice and adding ZnCl2

Saiwarun Chaiwanichsiri; Narongchai Dharmsuriya; Nirachara Sonthornvit; Theeranun Janjarasskul

2000-01-01

88

Hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent of Rubia cordifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent isolated from Rubia cordifolia Linn., were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Rubiadin at a dose of 50, 100 and 200mg\\/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase

Guntupalli M. Mohana Rao; Chandana V. Rao; Palpu Pushpangadan; Annie Shirwaikar

2006-01-01

89

Comparative pharmacogonostic studies of genuine and commercial samples of trianthema decandra linn.  

PubMed

Trianthema decandra Linn. (Fam ficoidaceae) Commonly known a "Vellai sharunai'on Tamil and Punaranavi in Sanskrit the roots are used in hepatitis, asthma and suppression of menses the genuine and tree commercial samples of the root of R. Decandra in have been compared pharmacognostically for the first time in the present investigation all the pharmacognostic findings reveal adulteration in the commercial samples. PMID:22556996

Gopalakrishnan, S; Venkataraman, R

2000-07-01

90

In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Premna integrifolia Linn (Lamiaceae), and to test the efficacy of the oil and various organic extracts as an antibacterial potential. The chemical compositions of the essential oil were analyzed by GCMS. Twenty-nine compounds representing 94.81% of the total leaves oil were identified, of which

Atiqur Rahman; Zakia Sultana Shanta; M. A. Rashid; Tanzima Parvin; Shajia Afrin; Mst Khodeza Khatun; M. A. Sattar

91

Gifted Children Grown Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes the outcomes of a longitudinal study of 210 British children that compared the recognized and the unrecognized gifted with their classmates. It describes what has happened to them and their families as they have grown up in very different circumstances, in poverty or wealth, through many types of schooling and life

Freeman, Joan

92

Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats  

PubMed Central

Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as Radish is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine. PMID:23960756

Devaraj, V.C.; Gopala Krishna, B.; Viswanatha, G.L.; Satya Prasad, V.; Vinay Babu, S.N.

2011-01-01

93

A study of the antidiabetic activity of Barleria prionitisLinn  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the antidiabetic activity of Barleria prionitis Linn in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Alcoholic extract of leaf and root of B. prionitis was tested for their antidiabetic activity. Albino rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In three groups, diabetes was induced using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and all the rats were given different treatments consisting of vehicle, alcoholic extract of leaves, and alcoholic extract roots of B. prionitis Linn (200 mg/kg) for 14 days. The same treatment was given to the other three groups, comprising non-diabetic (normal) animals. Blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin, liver glycogen, serum insulin, and body weight were estimated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, before and 2 weeks after administration of drugs. Results: Animals treated with the alcoholic extract of leaves of B. prionitis Linn showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level (P<0.01) and glycosylated hemoglobin (P<0.01). A significant increase was observed in serum insulin level (P<0.01) and liver glycogen level (P<0.05), whereas the decrease in the body weight was arrested by administration of leaf extract to the animals. The alcoholic extract of roots showed a moderate but non-significant antidiabetic activity in experimental animals. Conclusion: The study reveals that the alcoholic leaf extract of B. prionitis could be added in the list of herbal preparations beneficial in diabetes mellitus. PMID:20711368

Dheer, Reema; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

2010-01-01

94

Study on the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on cellular immune function in tumour-bearing mice.  

PubMed

We investigated the anti-tumour effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne, and its relationship with the immune function of tumour-bearing organisms. MTT assay was used to observe the effect of different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on proliferation of lymphocytes in tumour-bearing mice. ELISA assay was also used to detect the levels of IL-2 in mice, and a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to detect the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on intralymphocytic free calcium ion concentration in tumour-bearing mice. Different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne significantly inhibited the growth of mouse H22 solid tumours, improved the survival time of tumour-bearing mice, increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated the levels of IL-2, and increased the concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. Polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne have certain anti-tumour effect, which is related with the cellular immune function that regulates the body. PMID:24146499

Chen, Hai; Qi, Xiaodong

2013-01-01

95

Phyllosphere of Organically Grown Strawberries  

E-print Network

Phyllosphere of Organically Grown Strawberries Interactions between the Resident Microbiota, Alnarp Print: SLU Service/Repro, Alnarp 2013 #12;Phyllosphere of Organically Grown Strawberries of biological control agents (BCAs) is regarded as a promising measure to control important foliar strawberry

96

Graphic Grown Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their

Kim, Ann

2009-01-01

97

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL  

PubMed Central

The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by ?-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans PMID:24825986

Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

2010-01-01

98

Urease inhibitory activity of ursane type sulfated saponins from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn.  

PubMed

Five ursane type sulfated saponins have been isolated from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. (locally called Chashum). The urease inhibitory effects of these compounds have been investigated for the first time as well as their molecular docking studies have also been carried out to check the structure-activity relationship. The IC50 values of these compounds could not be found due to paucity of the samples. The molecular docking studies were performed only for the most active compound mono sodium salt of 3?,23-di-O-sulfonyl-23-hydroxyurs-20(21)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (Zygofaboside A; 1). PMID:24182987

Khan, Saleha Suleman; Khan, Ajmal; Khan, Afsar; Wadood, Abdul; Farooq, Umar; Ahmed, Amir; Zahoor, Aqib; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Sener, Bilge; Erdemoglu, Nurgun

2014-02-15

99

A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions.  

PubMed

Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds. PMID:22131723

Asha, K V; Rajashekhara, N; Chauhan, M G; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, P P

2010-04-01

100

A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions  

PubMed Central

Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds. PMID:22131723

Asha, K. V.; Rajashekhara, N.; Chauhan, M.G.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, P. P.

2010-01-01

101

Enzyme inhibition activities of the extracts from rhizomes of Gloriosa superba Linn (Colchicaceae).  

PubMed

An alcoholic extract obtained from the rhizomes of Gloriosa superba Linn (Colchicaceae) was screened for enzyme inhibition activities. The crude extract and its subsequent fractions including chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous were screened against lipoxygenase, actylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and urease. An outstanding inhibition on lipoxygenase was observed. The highest enzyme inhibition potency was expressed by the chloroform fraction (90%) among the tested fractions on lipoxygenase. Overall 67-90% inhibition was found for lipoxygenase, 46-69% for acetylcholinesterase and 10-33% for butyrylcholinesterase, while urease was not inhibited. PMID:18237025

Khan, Haroon; Khan, Murad Ali; Hussan, Iqbal

2007-12-01

102

Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

2011-01-01

103

Determination of Anthelmintic Activity of the Leaf and Bark Extract of Tamarindus Indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

Das, S. S.; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A. K.

2011-01-01

104

Hepatoprotective Effects of Arctium lappa Linne on Liver Injuries Induced by Chronic Ethanol Consumption and Potentiated by Carbon Tetrachloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol\\/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection

Song-Chow Lin; Chia-Hsien Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Yun-Ho Lin; Chin-Fa Chen; I-Cheng Chen; Li-Ya Wang

2002-01-01

105

Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of a Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) phytotherapeutic gel and miconazole (Daktarin oral gel) against three standard streptococci strains (mutans ATCC 25175, sanguis ATCC 10577 and mitis ATCC 9811), S. mutans clinically isolated and Candida albicans either alone or in association. The effect of minimum inhibitory concentrations of the gels

Maria do Socorro; Vieira PEREIRA; Maria Helena Pereira; Maria do Socorro Vieira Pereira; Jane Sheila Higino; Maria Helena Pereira Peixoto

2006-01-01

106

The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Ornamental Fish Toxicity of the Water Extract of Indian Almond Leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamental fish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried

Nantarika Chansue

107

Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

2011-01-01

108

Clinical evaluation of Veerataru (Dichrostachys cinerea Linn.) in the management of Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria)  

PubMed Central

Veerataru is quoted to be effective in various conditions of Mootravaha Srotodushti such as Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria), Mootraghata (Anuria), Ashmari (Urinary calculi), Sharkara (Concretions) etc., by various Acharyas. Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria) is a disease of Basti (Bladder). It comes under Mootraapravruttijanyavyadhi, where Kruchchhrata (Shoola Pain and Daha-Burning) during mootra pravrutti is the chief symptom. As per modern view, dysuria is a leading feature of lower or mid urinary tract infection. Antibiotics have their own limitations due to re-infections and recurrence even after long-term therapy, due to development of resistance of the microorganisms to the drugs. By considering all the above facts and to fulfill the lacuna about the absence of scientific data of Veerataru, the present research work had been taken up especially to evaluate its efficacy on Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria). Patients suffering from Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria) were selected and divided into two groups, i.e. Group A received Kwatha (decoction) of Veerataru-Dichrostachys cinerea Linn. (Trial drug) and Group B received Kwatha of Punarnava-Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Standard control) respectively. The effects of therapy were assessed by a specially prepared clinical research proforma. The result showed better symptomatic relief in Group A, i.e. trial drug as compared to Group B, i.e. standard control group. PMID:24501517

Patel, Bhupesh R.; Sharma, P. P.

2013-01-01

109

Solanum nigrum Linn. water extract inhibits metastasis in mouse melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer notoriously resistant to current cancer therapies. Thus, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Solanum nigrum Linn., commonly used in Oriental medicine, has showed antineoplastic activity in human cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitive effect of S. nigrum Linn. water extract (SNWE) on melanoma metastasis and dissect the underlying mechanisms of SNWE actions. B16-F1 cells were analyzed for migrating and invasive abilities with SNWE treatment, and several putative targets involved in metastatic melanoma were examined. In parallel, primary mouse xenograft and lung metastasis of melanoma models were established to examine the therapeutic potential of SNWE. The results indicated SNWE significantly inhibited B16-F1 cell migration and invasion. Meanwhile, decreased Akt activity and PKC?, Ras, and NF-?B protein expressions were detected in dose-dependent manners. In line with this notion, >50% reduced tumor weight and lung metastatic nodules were observed in 1% SNWE fed mice. This was associated with reduced serum MMP-9 as well as Akt activity and PKC?, Ras, and NF-?B protein expressions. Thus, this work indicates SNWE has potential application for treating metastatic melanoma. PMID:21028816

Wang, Hsueh-Chun; Wu, Dun-Hao; Chang, Yun-Ching; Li, Yi-Ju; Wang, Chau-Jong

2010-11-24

110

Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.)  

PubMed Central

In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

Doshi, Krunal A.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

2013-01-01

111

Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.).  

PubMed

In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

Doshi, Krunal A; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

2013-04-01

112

Phytochemical Screening and Toxicity Studies on the Leaves of Capparis sepiaria Linn. (Capparidaceae).  

PubMed

Capparis sepiaria Linn. (Family: Capparidaceae) is a rare indigenous in South India but has widespread distribution in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. The present study intended with various phytochemical screening and toxicity studies were carried out on the leaves of the Capparis sepiaria. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of the ethanolic extract of revealed that the presence of reducing sugar, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, glycosides, alkaloids, gums, resins, amino acids, proteins and anthraquinones. The toxicity studies were performed as acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity determined the LD50 value of 300-5000 mg/kg body weight 4-6 weeks. The results of the various phytochemical tests indicated that the plant to be rich in various biologically active compounds which could serve as potential source of the crude drugs and in addition the plant is not toxic to the experimental model. PMID:25206253

Rajesh, P; Latha, S; Selvamani, P; Kannan, V Rajesh

2009-12-01

113

Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M. M.; Jain, S. K.; Tripathi, M.

2010-01-01

114

EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF AERIAL PARTS of Celsia coromandeliane Vahl AND Mollugo pentaphylla Linn  

PubMed Central

The anthelmintic activities of different extracts of aerial parts of Celsia coromandeliane Vahl and Mollugo pentaphylla Linn were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheritima posthuma). It was found that petroleum ether (PECC), chloroform (CCC), ethanol (ECC) extract of C. coromandeliane and petroleum ether (PEMP), benzene (BMP), ethyl acetate (EAMP), ethanol (EMP) extract of M. pentaphylla showed anthelmintic activities at the concentration of 5 mg/ml of each. The anthelmintic effects of CCC, PEMP, BMP and EAMP at 5 mg/ml and PECC at 10-mg/ml concentrations are comparable with that of the effects produced by the reference standards albendazole (10 mg/ml) and piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml). PMID:22557204

Pal, Dilip Kumar; Majumder, Avijit; Bandyopadhyay, Pranab Kumar; Jena, Anima; Panday, Rajesh

2006-01-01

115

Identification of seven water-soluble non-storage proteins from pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) seeds.  

PubMed

As pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) processing is fast growing, the usage of pomegranate processing wastes containing seeds has been receiving great attention. The protein component accounts for 100-130?g/kg of the seeds in weight. However, so far, there is no information on the composition and function of the pomegranate seed proteins. In this study, a global view of water-soluble non-storage proteins isolated from mature pomegranate seeds were studied using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. With the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach, over 120 protein spots were resolved, of which 7 abundant protein spots showing low molecular mass were identified. These identified proteins may be linked to seed development and metabolism, but more importantly, the occurrence of these proteins provides the possibility of conversion the pomegranate processing wastes into useful products or raw material for food industry. PMID:22859647

Yang, Haixia; Li, Meiliang; Qi, Xin; Lv, Chenyan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhao, Guanghua

2012-08-01

116

Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review  

PubMed Central

Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

2014-01-01

117

Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review.  

PubMed

Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

2014-05-01

118

Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.  

PubMed

Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60C for 1h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-?-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98??7.48% (g/100g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

2014-02-01

119

Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.  

PubMed Central

Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

2012-01-01

120

Blechnum Orientale Linn - a fern with potential as antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial agent  

PubMed Central

Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints and sterilization of women. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activity of five solvent fractions obtained from the methanol extract of the leaves of Blechnum orientale Linn. Methods Five solvent fractions were obtained from the methanol extract of B. orientale through successive partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Total phenolic content was assessed using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals. Cytotoxic activity was tested against four cancer cell lines and a non-malignant cell using MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was assessed using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Standard phytochemical screening tests for saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids were also conducted. Results The ethyl acetate, butanol and water fractions possessed strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 8.6-13.0 ?g/ml) and cytotoxic activity towards human colon cancer cell HT-29 (IC50 27.5-42.8 ?g/ml). The three extracts were also effective against all Gram-positive bacteria tested: Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Stapylococcus epidermidis(minimum inhibitory concentration MIC 15.6-250 ?g/ml; minimum bactericidal concentration MBC 15.6-250 ?g/ml). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed highest total phenolic content (675-804 mg gallic acid equivalent/g). Conclusions The results indicate that this fern is a potential candidate to be used as an antioxidant agent, for colon cancer therapy and for treatment of MRSA infections and other MSSA/Gram-positive bacterial infectious diseases. PMID:20429956

2010-01-01

121

A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae)  

PubMed Central

Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant. PMID:22279376

Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

2011-01-01

122

A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae).  

PubMed

Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant. PMID:22279376

Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

2011-07-01

123

Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n=10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol\\/80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n=10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml\\/kg carbon tetrachloride

Song-Chow Lin; Chia-Hsien Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Yun-Ho Lin; Chin-Fa Chen; I-Cheng Chen; Li-Ya Wang

2002-01-01

124

Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent,\\u000a vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Thymol was 1.6-fold more toxic than the oil toward fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi with LD50 values of 48.88 and 80.77g\\/ml, respectively. Egg laying by female adults of

S. K. Pandey; Shikha Upadhyay; A. K. Tripathi

2009-01-01

125

A Valued Medicinal Plant - Chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) : Successful Plant Regeneration Through Various Explants and Field Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocols for plant propagation through axillary bud proliferation and organo- genesis were established for Chitrak - Plumbago zeylanica Linn. (Plumbaginaceae). MS medium with 4.4 mg\\/l BA and 1.4 mg\\/l IAA elicited the maximum number of shoots (12 multiple shoots) from nodal explants. Leaf based callus differentiated into more than 30 shoots on MS with 160 mg\\/l adenine sulphate. The regenerated

Binita B. Chaplot; Ashok M. Dave; Yogesh T. Jasrai

2006-01-01

126

Impact of cool temperatures on transformation of human and armadillo lymphocytes (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linn.) as related to leprosy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CENTURY-LONG search for an unaltered animal in which to study leprosy in humans culminated in the finding that the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linn.), a primitive mammal native to the southern Western Hemisphere, develops disseminated lepromatous leprosy following inoculation with Mycobacterium leprae isolated from human tissue1-3. Previous animals only developed leprosy following inoculation with leprosy bacilli after having been

David T. Purtilo

1974-01-01

127

The structures of four bombesins and their cloned precursor-encoding cDNAs from acid-solvated skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata.  

PubMed

Four different bombesins (bombesin, His(6)-bombesin, Phe(13)-bombesin and Asp(2)-, Phe(4)-SAP-bombesin) have been identified by a systematic sequencing study of peptides in reverse phase HPLC fractions of the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, that had been solvated in 0.1% (v/v) aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and stored frozen at -20C for 12 years. By using a 3'- and 5'-RACE PCR strategy, the corresponding biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs of all four peptides were cloned from a cDNA library made from the same long-term frozen, acid-solvated skin secretion sample following thawing and lyophilization. Canonical bombesin and His(6)-bombesin are classical bombesin sub-family members, whereas Phe(13)-bombesin and Asp(2)-, Phe(4)-SAP-bombesin, belong to the litorin/ranatensin sub-family of bombesin-like peptides (BLPs). Assignment of these peptides to respective sub-families, was based upon both their primary structural similarities and their comparative pharmacological activities. An interesting observation in this study, was that the nucleotide sequences of the open-reading frames of cloned cDNAs encoding bombesin and its His(6)-substituted analog, were identical except for a single base that was responsible for the change observed at the position 6 residue in the mature peptide from Asn to His. In contrast, the precursor cDNA nucleotide sequences encoding the Phe(13)-bombesins, exhibited 53 base differences. The pharmacological activities of synthetic replicates of each bombesin were compared using two different mammalian smooth muscle preparations and all four peptides were found to be active. However, there were significant differences in their relative potencies. PMID:22687368

Bai, Bing; Wang, Hui; Xue, Yilu; Wu, Youjia; Zhou, Mei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Wang, Lei; Shaw, Chris

2012-08-01

128

Antipsychotic-like activity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). Methods In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC) at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and methamphetamine ( 5 mg/kg, i.p) injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI Juice, TNJ) was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. Results The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o) significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. Conclusions The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies are warranted to identify the active principles responsible for the antipsychotic activity of noni. PMID:23082808

2012-01-01

129

Rheological characterization and drug release studies of gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn. (TC gum) as a release retarding excipient in oral controlled drug delivery system. The rheological properties of TC gum were studied and different formulation techniques were used to evaluate the comparative drug release characteristics. The viscosity was found to be dependent on concentration and pH. Temperature up to 60 degrees C did not show significant effect on viscosity. The rheological kinetics evaluated by power law, revealed the shear thinning behavior of the TC gum dispersion in water. Matrix tablets of TC gum were prepared with the model drug dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DH) by direct compression, wet granulation and solid dispersion techniques. The dissolution profiles of the matrix tablets were compared with the pure drug containing capsules using the USP Basket apparatus with 500 ml phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 as a dissolution medium. The drug release from the compressed tablets containing TC gum was comparatively sustained than pure drug containing capsules. Even though all the formulation techniques showed reduction of dissolution rate, aqueous wet granulation showed the maximum sustained release of more than 8 h. The release kinetics estimated by the power law revealed that the drug release mechanism involved in the dextromethorphan matrix is anomalous transport as indicated by the release exponent n values. Thus the study confirmed that the TC gum might be used in the controlled drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer. PMID:18661243

Kumar, Sadhis V; Sasmal, Dinakar; Pal, Subodh C

2008-01-01

130

Medico-historical review of Nyagr?dha (Ficus bengalensis Linn.).  

PubMed

Nyagr?dha the Banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis Linn.) is a sacred medicinal plant since Vedic times. The English name Banyan is given by the Britishers to this tree because under the tree Banias i.e., the Hindu merchants used to assemble for business. The triad Ganges, the Himalayas and the Banyan tree are symbolise the images of India, hence it is considered as National Tree. Ficus means fig and bengalensis means belonging to or is of Bengal. To the most of Indians it is Sacred and symbolizes all three Gods of Hindus. The bark represents Lord Visnu, Brahma the roots and Siva the branches. Since Vedic times its small branches are used in Yaja (a sacrificial rite) and known for its giant structure. Alexander the Great is said to have camped under a banyan tree, which was big enough to shelter his whole army of 7,000 men. As per V?da it checks the environmental pollution and one of the source of L?ks? (Lac). Its medicinal importance is well documented in Ayurv?da literature. However, more research needs for understanding the medicinal properties of this symbolic tree. PMID:19580111

Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

2007-01-01

131

Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea Linn. (EECT) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activity in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Antihyperglycemic activity of EECT was studied in normal fasted and glucose fed hyperglycemic and epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats by estimating fasting serum glucose (FSG) by glucose oxidisae or peroxidase enzymatic method. Antioxidant activity of EECT was studied by assaying lipid peroxide/Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide, catalase (CAT) and glutathione levels in diabetic rats. The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by decreasing FSG in all hyperglycemic models except epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats; in which improvement in FSG was observed only with EECT in 400 mg/kg dose, whereas significant decrease in TBARS (P < 0.001), nitric oxide (P < 0.001) and significant increase in SOD (P < 0.001), CAT (P < 0.01) and reduced glutathione levels (P < 0.001) was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) compared to diabetic control group. The results indicated that EECT has remedial effects on hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:24696583

Talpate, Karuna A.; Bhosale, Uma A.; Zambare, Mandar R.; Somani, Rahul

2013-01-01

132

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 g/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 g/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 g/ml and 2.13 g/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 g/ml and 5.13 g/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

133

Protective effect of Thunbergia laurifolia (Linn.) on lead induced acetylcholinesterase dysfunction and cognitive impairment in mice.  

PubMed

Thunbergia laurifolia (linn., TL), a natural phenolic compound, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The current study ascertains the total phenolic content present in TL aqueous leaf extract and also examines the antioxidant ability of the extract in preserving acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of mice exposed to lead in vivo and in vitro model. Mice were given lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1 g/L) together with TL 100 and 200 mg/kg/day. The result showed that Pb induced AChE dysfunction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. TL significantly prevented Pb induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner which was indicated by comparatively better performance of TL treated mice in Morris Water Maze Swimming Test and increased AChE activity in the tissue sample collected from the brains of these mice. TL also exhibited the greatest amount of phenolic content, which has a significant positive correlation with its antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggested that the total phenolic compounds in TL could exhibit antioxidant and in part neuroprotective properties. It may play a potential treatment strategy for Pb contamination. PMID:24455676

Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

2013-01-01

134

Evaluation of Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: A Novel Phytofood from Ladakh  

PubMed Central

Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?7090%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 g per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2? scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

2013-01-01

135

Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

2014-01-01

136

Mn accumulation and tolerance in Celosia argentea Linn.: a new Mn-hyperaccumulating plant species.  

PubMed

Identifying a hyperaccumulator is an important groundwork for the phytoextraction of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Celosia argentea Linn., which grew on a Mn tailing wasteland, was found to hyperaccumulate Mn (14 362mgkg(-1) in leaf dry matter) in this study. To investigate Mn tolerance and accumulation in C. argentea, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Results showed that the biomass and the relative growth rate of C. argentea were insignificantly different (p>0.05) at the Mn supply level ranging from 2.5mgL(-1) (control) to 400mgL(-1). Manganese concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached maxima of 20228, 8872, and 2823mgkg(-1) at 600mgMnL(-1), respectively. The relative rate of Mn accumulation increased by 91.2% at 400mgMnL(-1). Over 95% of the total Mn taken up by C. argentea was translocated to shoots. Thus, C. argentea exhibits the basic characteristics of a Mn-hyperaccumulator. This species has great potential to remediate Mn-contaminated soil cheaply and can also aid the studies of Mn uptake, translocation, speciation, distribution and detoxification in plants. PMID:24444455

Liu, Jie; Shang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xuehong; Zhu, Yinian; Yu, Ke

2014-02-28

137

Five diterpenoids (agallochins A-E) from the mangrove plant Excoecaria agallocha Linn.  

PubMed

Chemical examination of the hexane extract of the roots of Excoecaria agallocha Linn collected from the Godavari estuary resulted in the isolation of altogether eleven diterpenoids of which five (1-5) are new. The structures of the new diterpenoids have been elucidated by a study of their physical and spectral (UV, IR, 1H, 13C, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC and MASS) data as 3-oxo-ent-13epi-8(13)-epoxy-15-chloro-14-hydroxylabdane (1), ent-15-chloro-13,14-dihydroxylabd-8(9)-en-3-one (2), ent-15-chloro-labd-8(9)ene-3alpha,13,14-triol (3), ent-11beta-hydroxy-8(14),15-isopimaradien-3-one (4), 8,13-epoxy-3-nor-2,3-seco-14-epilabden-2,4-olide (5). The six known diterpenoids have been characterised respectively as ent-3-oxo-13-epi-manoyl oxide (6), ent-3beta-hydroxy-13-epi-manoyl oxide (7), (13R,14S)-ent-8alpha,13;14,15-diepoxy-13-epi-labdan-3-one (8), ent-16-hydroxy-3-oxo-13-epimanoyl oxide (9), ent-15-hydroxylabda-8(17),13E-dien-3-one (10), labda-8(17),13E-diene-3beta,15-diol (11) by a comparative study of their spectral data with the literature values. PMID:11140521

Anjaneyulu, A S; Rao, V L

2000-12-01

138

In Vitro ?-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Extract of Amaranthus Caudatus Linn  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study was aimed to investigate the ?-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus Linn (MeAc). Methods Methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus was screened for ?-amylase inhibition activity by CNPG3 method (2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltotrioside) and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging, and 2.2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. MeAc was also screened for non enzymatic hemoglycosylation. Results The methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus showed potent ?-amylase inhibition activity (IC50 19.233 g/ml). MeAc showed significant antioxidant activity in all the in vitro antioxidant models. Furthermore, the MeAc was found to be extremely effective in scavenging ABTS radical activity (IC50 48.751.1 g/ml) when compared to DPPH (IC50 77.50.4 g/ml), SOD (IC50 62.52.1 g/ml), hydroxyl (IC50 88.501.8 g/ml) and NO (IC50 67.52.2 g/ml) scavenging activity. Conclusions The methanolic extract of A. caudatus showed potent ?-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities. PMID:22043408

Kumar, Ashok; Khan, Saleemulla

2011-01-01

139

Protective Effect of Thunbergia laurifolia (Linn.) on Lead Induced Acetylcholinesterase Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairment in Mice  

PubMed Central

Thunbergia laurifolia (linn., TL), a natural phenolic compound, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The current study ascertains the total phenolic content present in TL aqueous leaf extract and also examines the antioxidant ability of the extract in preserving acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of mice exposed to lead in vivo and in vitro model. Mice were given lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1?g/L) together with TL 100 and 200?mg/kg/day. The result showed that Pb induced AChE dysfunction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. TL significantly prevented Pb induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner which was indicated by comparatively better performance of TL treated mice in Morris Water Maze Swimming Test and increased AChE activity in the tissue sample collected from the brains of these mice. TL also exhibited the greatest amount of phenolic content, which has a significant positive correlation with its antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggested that the total phenolic compounds in TL could exhibit antioxidant and in part neuroprotective properties. It may play a potential treatment strategy for Pb contamination. PMID:24455676

Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

2013-01-01

140

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.  

PubMed

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 g/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 g/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 g/ml and 2.13 g/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 g/ml and 5.13 g/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

141

Evaluation of CNS Depressant Activity of Different Plant parts of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn.  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out with the water-soluble portion of the ethanol extracts of flowers, barks, seeds and leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. to confirm their CNS depressant activity. The ethanol extracts of the plant parts were obtained by soxhlet extraction. After performing the gross behavioral study, the CNS depressant activity was evaluated by observing the prolongation of sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium in mice. Attempts have been made to explore the possible mechanism behind this activity by determining their effect on brain monoamine neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. The gross behavioral study showed that ethanol extracts of the leaves, flowers and seeds possess significant CNS depressant activity. The leaves, flowers, seeds and barks (600 mg/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of sleep and so found to cause decrease dopamine and increase serotonin level. From which it can be concluded that the CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extracts of seeds, leaves and flowers may be due to the decrease in dopamine and increase in serotonin level. PMID:21369448

Das, Sanjita; Sasmal, D.; Basu, S. P.

2008-01-01

142

Chronic toxicity study of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze seeds in albino rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the body weight, organ weight and bone marrow cytology to a significant extent. Among the 18 hematological parameters studied, significant changes were observed in three parameters, namely, significant decrease in hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and hematocrit. Of 16 biochemical parameters studied, significant changes were observed in 5 parameters, namely, decrease in total protein, albumin, bilirubin and significant increase in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride. The histopathology of 18 organs revealed changes such as fatty changes, glomerular congestion and tubular hemorrhage in the kidneys, decrease in the cellularity of the spleen, epithelial disruption in jejunum, decrease in spermatogenesis in the testis, epithelial proliferation in ventral prostate and decrease in epithelial proliferation in the uterus. Thus, toxicity profile obtained from the present study shows that B. monosperma seeds are likely to produce toxic effect when administered in a powder form. PMID:22131770

Donga, Shilpa; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Ashok, B K; Mishtry, I U

2011-01-01

143

Evaluation of mucilage of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of diclofenac.  

PubMed

This article reports the exploitation of novel hydrophilic excipient, that is, mucilage from Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn, for the development of sustained release tablet. Swelling ratio and flow properties analyses of dried mucilage powder were carried out. A 3(2) full factorial design was used. In factorial design, amounts of dried mucilage and dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) were taken as independent factors and percentage drug release in 60 and 300 min and time for 80% drug release as dependent variables. Matrix tablet containing dried mucilage and diclofenac sodium (DS) was prepared through direct compression techniques. DS tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, in vitro drug release and water uptake, and mass loss study. The dried mucilage powder shows superior swelling capacity and excellent flow properties. Prepared tablets have acceptable hardness, friability, and uniformity in weight. It was found that batch HD8 fulfills all selected criteria. Drug release kinetics from these formulations corresponded best to the zero-order kinetics. Water uptake was independent whereas mass loss was dependent on agitation speed. The concept of similarity factor (f(2)) was used to prove similarity of dissolution profile in distilled water and phosphate buffer and was found to be 90.68. It was concluded that mucilage can be used as release-retarding agent for 12 h when the drug-mucilage ratio was 1:1.5. So, matrix tablet containing dried mucilage is most suitable for sustained release of DS. PMID:18686091

Jani, Girish K; Shah, Dhiren P

2008-08-01

144

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) extract and their antimicrobial, antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

The present work focuses the use of the aqueous extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. (Amaranthaceae) in producing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate aqueous. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannins, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates and proteins and they serve as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were also tested for proteins and ascorbic acid. Its pH was also determined (5.63). The AgNPs obtained was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, Zeta sizer and TG-DSC. SEM images which revealed the presence of various shapes and sizes. FT-IR spectrum showed the AgNPs having a coating of proteins indicating a dual role of bio-molecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. Presence of impurities and melting point profile were screened by TG-DSC analyzer. AgNPs were synthesized from the silver nitrate through the reducing power of ascorbic acid present in A. sessilis leaves. In this study, we also investigated antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of green synthesized AgNPs. The antimicrobial activity is investigated by Bauer et al.'s method. Antioxidant activity was done by DPPH method. PMID:23006568

Niraimathi, K L; Sudha, V; Lavanya, R; Brindha, P

2013-02-01

145

Antioxidative polyphenols from Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitizing on Hevea brasiliensis.  

PubMed

Two new phenolic glycosides, linamarin gallate (1) and walsuraside B (2), together with nine known compounds, catechin (3), epicatechin (4), epicatechin 3-O-gallate (5), epicatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate (6), epicatechin 3-O-(3,5-O-dimethyl)gallate (7), epicatechin 3-O-(3,4,5-O-trimethyl)gallate (8), quercetin 3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (9), rutin (10), and peltatoside (11), were isolated from the leafy twigs of Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. Compound 1 was characterized as an unusual cyanogenic glycoside, while compound 8 was isolated for the first time from a natural source. This is the first report of a cyanogenic glycoside from mistletoes. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by 1D ((1)H, (13)C), 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and by mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds (1-11) were evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. PMID:23422225

Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Lai, Daowan; Okoye, Festus B C; Osadebe, Patience O; Proksch, Peter

2013-04-01

146

[Analysis of macroelements and microelements in Chinese traditional medicine Plumbago zeylanica Linn by ICP-AES].  

PubMed

Twenty macroelements and microelements were analyzed in the leaves, stems and roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn from Guangxi by inductively.coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Four macroelements, Na, K, Ca and Mg, five essential microelements, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr and Co, and eight other elements, Mo, Sb, Bi, Cd, Sr, Pb, Cd and As, were detected in all samples. The contents of the elements are varied in different parts of P. zeylanica. For all the determined elements, the contents in the leaves and roots are relatively higher as compared to those in the stems and it is in concurrence with the active parts of Plumbago zeylanica for the cure of antioxidant and anticancer drugs, as the elements Na, K, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Sr, Cu and Co are the highest in leaves, followed by those is in roots. Many anticancer herbs usually show comparatively rich Zn, Mn, Fe, as well as Cr,Sr and Cu. Plumbago zeylanica exists with abundant Zn, Mn and Fe and a certain amount of Cr, Sr and Cu. The results would provide useful data for discussing the relationship between the elements in Chinese traditional medicine and its activities, and could be useful for the exploitation of the Chinese traditional medicinal resources. PMID:19626914

Tan, Ming-xiong; Chen, Zhen-feng; Wang, Heng-shan; Liu, Yan-cheng; Liang, Hong

2009-04-01

147

Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of methanolic leaf and root extracts of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea) is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. This study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of C. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models. Materials and Methods: The different antinociception models such as hot plate, tail-flick and formalin tests were used along with naloxone (a non-selective opioid antagonist) to establish the antinociceptive activity of both leaf and root extracts. Results: Both C. ternatea leaf and root extracts markedly demonstrated antinociceptive action in experimental animals. Results of formalin test showed that the antinociceptive activity of the extracts may be mediated at both central and peripheral level. Moreover, the results of hot plate and tail-flick tests further implies that C. ternatea root extract mediates antinociceptive activity centrally at supraspinal and spinal levels whereas, the C. ternatea leaf extract's antinociceptive activity is mediated centrally at supraspinal level only. It is believed that the opioid receptors are probably involved in antinociceptive activity of both C. ternatea root extract. Conclusions: Our studies support the traditional use of C. ternatea leaf and root against pain. The extracts can also be utilised as a new source of central analgesics in treatment of pain.

Kamilla, Linggam; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

2014-01-01

148

Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 g/disc. Conclusions The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds. PMID:23569993

Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A.T.M.; Howlader, Md. Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

2012-01-01

149

Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.  

PubMed

Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?70-90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 g per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(-) scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

Kaur, Tarandeep; Hussain, Khadim; Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

2013-01-01

150

Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

2012-07-01

151

Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats  

PubMed Central

The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2%?w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use. PMID:22084720

Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.

2011-01-01

152

Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms  

PubMed Central

Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

2012-01-01

153

The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. PE (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) increased cell viability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol (96 microl/m) by increasing % MTT and decreasing the release of transaminase. Hepatotoxic markers studied in rats included serum transaminases (AST and ALT), serum triglyceride (STG), hepatic triglyceride (HTG), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta together with histopathological examination. Pretreatment of rats with PE at oral dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg or SL (silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent) at 5 mg/kg, 4 h before ethanol, lowered the ethanol induced levels of AST, ALT and IL-1beta. The 75 mg/kg PE dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PE (75 mg/kg/day) or SL (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4 g/kg/day, p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT, IL-1beta back to normal. Histopathological studies confirmed the beneficial roles of PE and SL against ethanol induced liver injury in rats. PMID:16750340

Pramyothin, Pornpen; Samosorn, Patcharavadee; Poungshompoo, Somlak; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

2006-10-11

154

Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study  

PubMed Central

Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

2012-01-01

155

Fast Plants Grown in Light and Dark  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photograph of two five-day-old Standard Fast Plants grown in Bottle Growing Systems--one grown with full light, one grown in the dark. This is a good example of a quick way to stimulate discussion about the matter and energy sources and needs that germinating seeds have in comparison to seedlings or plants.

Lauffer, Hedi B.

156

Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 0.49 vs 12.0 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 0.87 vs 12.0 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion and gastric ulcers in ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl induced and 90% ethanol-induced ulcer models. PMID:21160779

Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

2009-01-01

157

Role of Aloe barbadensis Linn in the Removal of Toxic Heavy Metal of Kukkutandatwak (Shell of Hen's Egg): A Drug Used in Indian System of Medicine (Ayurveda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Kukkutandatwak (Shell of hen's egg) is being used as calcium supplement in Ayurveda (Indian system of medicine).The present study is intended to standardisation of Kukkutandatwak (shell of hen's egg) and Aloe barbadensis Linn. The standardisation were carried out as per Pharmacopoeial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations and WHO guidelines of quality control for medicinal plants. The potential of heavy

Alok Sharma; V. Rao; R. K. Tiwari; Lalit Kumar Tyagi; M. L. Kori; Virendra Singh; Kalpesh Gaur; Kruna Shankar

158

Far infrared-assisted extraction followed by capillary electrophoresis for the determination of bioactive constituents in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a method based on capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection and far infrared-assisted extraction has been developed for the determination of rutin, gentisic acid, and quercetin in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn. The effects of detection potential, irradiation time, and the voltage applied on the infrared generator were investigated to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The detection

Haotian Duan; Yi Chen; Gang Chen

2010-01-01

159

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and BioChemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake

E. C. Chuku; D. N. Ogbonna; B. A. Onuegbu; M. T. V. Adeleke

2008-01-01

160

Effect of different fractions of petroleum ether (60-80 degrees) extract of the seeds of Lagerstroemia speciosa (Linn. ex Murray) Pers. on some microorganisms.  

PubMed

In a model experiment, seed extracts were applied to different bacterial test organisms. Different fractions of seed extracts in petroleum ether (60-80 degrees C) of Lagerstroemia speciosa (Linn. ex. Murray) Pers. when applied to both Gram positive and Gram negative test bacteria, some fractions showed high antagonistic activity. PMID:7737896

Sinhababu, A; Basak, B; Laskar, S; Chakrabarty, D; Sen, S K

1994-01-01

161

Use of agricultural land evaluation and site assessment in Linn County, Oregon, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oregon state law requires each county in the state to identify agricultural land and enact policies and regulations to protect agricultural land use. State guidelines encourage the preservation of large parcels of agricultural land and discourage partitioning of agricultural land and construction of nonfarm dwellings in agricultural areas. A land evaluation and site assessment (LESA) system was developed in Linn County to aid in the identification of agricultural land and provide assistance to decision makers concerning the relative merits of requests to partition existing parcels of ricultural land and introduce nonagricultural uses. Land evaluation was determined by calculating soil potential ratings for each agricultural soil in the county based on the soil potentials for winter wheat, annual ryegrass, permanent pasture, and irrigated sweet corn. Soil potential ratings were expressed on a scale of 0 to 150 points. The land evaluation score for a parcel consists of the weighted average soil potential rating for all of the soils in the parcel, weighted by the percentage of each soil present in the parcel. Site assessment was based on the size of a parcel and on the amount of existing conflict between agricultural and nonagricultural uses, particularly rural residential uses, both adjacent to and in the vicinity of a parcel. Parcel size refers to both size in relation to a typical field and size in relation to a typical farm unit. Conflict takes into account the number of nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile (0.4 km) of a parcel, the amount of the perimeter that adjoins conflicting land uses, and the residential density adjacent to the parcel. Empirical scales were derived for assigning points to each of the site assessment factors. Both parcel size and conflict were worth 75 points in the model. For parcel size, 45 points were allocated to field size and 30 points to farm-unit size. For conflict, 30 points were allocated to nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile and 45 points to perimeter conflicts. The LESA model was validated by testing on 23 parcels in Linn County for which requests to partition and/or convert to nonagricultural uses had been received by the County Planning Department. This testing was an essential part of the development process, as it pointed out inconsistencies and errors in the model and allowed continuous adjustment of factors and point scales. The results of application of the final model to three of the case studies are presented to illustrate the concepts. Three possible uses of the information generated by the LESA system include determining the relative agricultural value of a parcel, determining grades of agricultural land suitability, and determining the impacts of changing land use on other parcels in the vicinity. Relative agricultural value is a direct outcome of application of the evaluation criteria in the LESA model. Good, marginal, and nonagricultural grades of agricultural suitability were determined by examining the data from all 23 test cases and establishing threshold point values for soil quality, conflict, parcel size, and total LESA score. Impact analyses were not done in this study, but could be achieved by calculating LESA scores for all parcels possibly affected by a land-use change both before and after a proposed change. All three applications fall short of making a specific land-use decision, but they do provide information that should be of value to the local jurisdiction charged with making such decisions.

Huddleston, J. Herbert; Pease, James R.; Forrest, William G.; Hickerson, Hugh J.; Langridge, Russell W.

1987-07-01

162

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of flower extract of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Millingtonia hortensis Linn is an abundant resource of flavonoids, which might be beneficial in protecting liver tissue from injury. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of M. hortensis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanism involved therein were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents. 30 adult Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups. Control group received vehicle, group-2 received CCl4 alone (1 ml/kg body weight, intraperitonially), groups 3 - 5 received the ethanolic flower extract in 2 dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg) and Curcumin (100 mg/kg) as a standard for 8 days orally, followed by CCl4 as a single dose on the 8th day. 48 hours later, blood was withdrawn, serum was subjected to biochemical assessments, and liver homogenate was examined for lipid peroxides, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopatological studies. Results: CCl4 treatment produced a profound increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, hepatic marker enzymes and bilirubin content compared with the control (P < 0.05). Pre-treatment with the flower extract of M. hortensis significantly enhanced the levels of endogenous antioxidants and reduced the levels of hepatic marker enzymes in relation to the CCl4 treated group (P < 0.05). Balloning degeneration and fatty changes in hepatocytes was prevented by pre-treatment with the flower extract. Conclusion: The antioxidant nature of the flower extract of M. hortensis could be responsible for averting damage to the liver. PMID:23248564

Babitha, S.; Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J. F.

2012-01-01

163

Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 0.47, compared to 1.05 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 0.06 as compared with 0.23 0.03 and 1.12 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

2014-01-01

164

Arsenic toxicity in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.): significance of potassium nutrition.  

PubMed

In a hydroponic culture, experiments were performed to study the influence of potassium (K) supplementation (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100mgL(-1)) on the arsenic (As; 0, 8, and 10mgL(-1))-accrued changes in growth traits (plant biomass, root-shoot length) and the contents of lepidine, As and K, in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) at 10days after treatment. The changes in these traits were correlated with shoot proline content, protein profile, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11). In general, As-alone treatments significantly decreased the growth traits but lead to significant enhancements in shoot proline and enzyme activities. K-supplementation to As-treated L. sativum seedlings decreased shoot-As content, reduced As-induced decreases in growth traits but enhanced the content of shoot proline, and the activities of the studied enzymes maximally with K100 + As8 and As10mgL(-1). Both 8 and 10mgL(-1) of As drastically downregulated the shoot proteins ranging from 43-65kDa. With As10mgL(-1), there was a total depletion of protein bands below 23kDa; however, K80mgL(-1) maximally recovered and upregulated the protein bands. Additionally, protein bands were downregulated (at par with As-alone treatment) above K80mgL(-1) level. Interestingly, As-stress increased lepidine content in a dose-dependent manner which was further augmented with the K-supplementation. It is suggested that K protects L. sativum against As-toxicity by decreasing its accumulation and strengthening antioxidant defense system and protein stability. PMID:23529401

Umar, Shahid; Gauba, Nidhi; Anjum, Naser A; Siddiqi, Tariq O

2013-09-01

165

Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400?mg/kg and 900?mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6?weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900?mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26?mg/g, 1.4?mg/g and 1.19??g/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes. PMID:22943464

2012-01-01

166

Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (?), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient.

Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

2014-01-01

167

Screening of flavonoid "quercetin" from the rhizome of Smilax china Linn. for anti-psoriatic activity  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess anti-psoriatic activity of the methanol extract and the isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of Smilax china (S. china) Linn. Methods Mouse tail test was used for the evaluation of anti-psoriatic activity. Methanol extract (100and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (25and 50 mg/kg b.w.) were tested in Swiss albino mice. Parameters studied in the mouse tail test were changes in epidermal thickness and percentage orthokeratotic values. The anti-inflammatory role of the methanol extract and isolated flavonoid quercetin was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. In vitro antiproliferant assay on HaCaT cell lines was also carried out. Results The isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of S. china produced significant orthokeratosis (P<0.01) in the mouse tail test. In epidermal thickness, a significant reduction with respect to control was observed in groups treated with retinoic acid and isolated flavonoid quercetin. The methanol extract (200 mg/kg) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (50 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory effect in terms of significant inhibition (P<0.001) in leukocyte migration. Maximum antiproliferant activity was shown by isolated flavonoid quercetin (IC50, 62.4210.20 g/mL). Conclusions From the above data, the flavonoid quercetin shows significant orthokeratosis, anti-inflammatory and maximum antiproliferant activities. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-psoriatic effect of the flavonoid quercetin which is promising for further investigations to prove its anti-psoriatic activity. PMID:23569912

Vijayalakshmi, A; Ravichandiran, V; Malarkodi, Velraj; Nirmala, S; Jayakumari, S

2012-01-01

168

Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn fruits against cadmium chloride toxicity in albino rats.  

PubMed

The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD50 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl2 toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl2-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl2 induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl2-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl2 ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl2 ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl2-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby. PMID:25022247

Abdel-Rahim, Emam A; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E; Ali, Rhaam F; Mahmoud, Hend A

2014-09-01

169

Influence of various host plants on the consumption and utilization of food by Pieris brassicae (Linn.).  

PubMed

Pieris brassicae (Linn.) is a destructive cosmopolitan pest of cruciferous crops. It is present wherever its host plants occur, and it is considered to be one of the most widely distributed of all the Lepidoptera. We investigated the affect of various host plants on the food consumption and utilization by P. brassicae. We quantified consumption of food, larval duration, pupal duration and weight on cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), radish (Raphanus sativus), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and mustard (Brassica campestris) under laboratory conditions. Insect-host relationships can be better understood by knowing the rate of food consumption, its digestibility and conversion of food eaten to body tissue. The consumption of food generally increased with the advancement of larval age. In our study we found that consumption of food was highest on radish and lowest on broccoli. The highest consumption of a particular host does not always indicate greater suitability of that host, until and unless other factors like consumption index (CI), relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), approximate digestibility (AD) and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) are also considered. In the current investigation, factors like CI, RGR, ECI and ECD were highest on cabbage. Low body weight of pupa is associated with rapid development. On cabbage, the weight of pupa of both sexes was found lowest. Thus, from the present study, it can be concluded that cabbage is a more suitable host for P. brassicae than other host plants evaluated. Hence, on cabbage, the values of Waldbauer indices were highest and P. brassicae developed with a faster rate. PMID:22030306

Ansari, M S; Hasan, F; Ahmad, N

2012-04-01

170

Films Grown on Silicon Substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of thickness and annealing temperature on magnetic properties of ultrathin ?-Fe2O3 films with MgO buffer layer grown on silicon substrate is investigated. The saturation magnetization and coercive force of samples at room temperature increase with increasing of annealing temperature, and decrease as annealing temperature is above 873 K (600 C). The saturation magnetization of samples decreases with increasing of the thickness of ?-Fe2O3 at room temperature. The samples with 3 to 4 nm thick ?-Fe2O3 annealed at 873 K (600 C) show saturation magnetization of about 400 emu/cm3, which is close to the bulk value of ~390 emu/cm3 within the error range.

Sun, Bai; Zhao, Wenxi; Xiong, Yuanqiang; Lin, Yingyan; Chen, Peng

2014-10-01

171

Arsenic uptake by two vegetables grown in two soils amended with As-bearing animal manures.  

PubMed

Organoarsenicals are widely used as growth promoters in animal feed, resulting in unabsorbed arsenic (As) left in animal manures. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the growth and As uptake of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor Linn, a crop with an axial root system) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, a crop with a fibrous root system) grown in a paddy soil (PS) and a lateritic red soil (LRS) amended with 2% and 4% (w/w) As-bearing chicken manure and pig manure, respectively. Soils without any fertilizers were the controls. The biomass, As contents and total As uptake of the shoots, As transfer factors (TFs) from roots to shoots and the root/shoot (R/S) ratios of water spinach were significantly higher than those of amaranth (p<0.0015). The biomass, total As uptake and R/S ratios showed significant difference for soil types (p<0.0031). Manure amendments increased the biomass of both vegetables, reduced the As contents in amaranth but increased those in water spinach. The As contents were negatively correlated with the biomass in amaranth, but positive correlation was observed for water spinach. The total As uptake by amaranth was decreased in PS and insignificantly affected in LRS by manure application, but that by water spinach was significantly increased in both soils. We suggest that the higher As uptake by water spinach might be related to its root structure and R/S ratio. Heavy application of As-bearing animal manures should be avoided in water spinach. PMID:18929443

Yao, Li-Xian; Li, Guo-Liang; Dang, Zhi; He, Zhao-Huan; Zhou, Chang-Min; Yang, Bao-Mei

2009-05-30

172

Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 ?M). When tested on K+ (80 mM)-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 ?M)-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 ?M), caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml) also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml). The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic component(s) was separated in the organic fraction, whereas the spasmogenic component was concentrated in the aqueous fraction. Conclusion These results indicate that A. spinosus possesses laxative activity partially mediated through cholinergic action. The spasmolytic effect was mediated through calcium channel blocking (CCB), while bronchodilator activity through a combination of ?-adrenergic and CCB pathways, which may explain the traditional uses of A. spinosus in gut and airways disorders. PMID:23025418

2012-01-01

173

Nucleolar transformation in plants grown on clinostats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cells of carrot calli (Daucus carota L.) grown on clinostats (simulated weightlessness) exhibit increases in nucleolar number and volume. In clinostat-grown whole barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Steptoe), nucleoli in ~70% of root meristem and root cortical cells in the 1 mm root apex exhibit multiple nodulations after one day of growth. The nucleolar nodules (1.1 m mean

J. Shen-Miller; R. R. Hinchman

1995-01-01

174

Nucleolus in clinostat-grown plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinostat is an apparatus that is used to mimic zero gravity in studies of plant growth in the absence of gravitropic response. Clinostat-grown tissue cultures of carrot exhibit significant increases both in the number of nuclei containing more than one nucleolus and in nucleolar volume. Oat seedlings germinated and grown on clinostats exhibit a decreased rate of shoot elongation,

J. Shen-Miller; J. Dannenhoffer; R. Hinchman

1991-01-01

175

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 g/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 g/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 g/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 g/ml for compound 2. PMID:23983504

Habib, M. Rowshanul

2009-01-01

176

Comparative physico-chemical profile of Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds processed through water and Nimbu Swarasa (lemon juice).  

PubMed

Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.), known as Indian liquorice, is reputed as one of the world's most deadly but most beautiful seed belonging to the family Fabaceae, characterised under the Upavisha (semi-poisonous drugs) and used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Gunja only after proper Shodhana (purification procedures) in different media such as Godugdha (cow's milk), Kanji (sour gruel), etc., Apart from the classical methods, some traditional practitioners use Nimbu Swarasa for the Shodhana of Gunja seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to carry out Shodhana of Gunja seeds using Nimbu Swarasa and water. This study revealed differences in physico-chemical parameters of purified samples, in comparison to raw drugs. PMID:24696580

Roy, Sudipta; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, Vinay J

2013-10-01

177

Composition and Structure of Protein Bodies and Spherosomes Isolated from Ungerminated Seeds of Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) Moench  

PubMed Central

Protein bodies and spherosomes have been isolated from mature seeds of Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) Moench by a procedure which successfully disrupts the protein starch complex in the grain. Protein bodies from whole grain are 68% protein and have a distinct border and a monolithic appearance. Those from embryo are 95% protein and have diffuse borders, vacuoles, and appear very granular. Aleurone tissue protein bodies are 46% protein with a structure similar to those from embryo, but possibly are composed of a protein carbohydrate mixture. Spherosomes from all sources are quite similar in composition and structure. They have an average composition of 27% protein, 12% phosphorus, and 8.6% metals. Microscopically, they appear as small vesicles bounded by a wall which is probably composed of protein and the potassiummagnesium salt of phytic acid. Images PMID:16659009

Adams, Clifford A.; Novellie, Lawrence

1975-01-01

178

Protective effects of burdock ( Arctium lappa Linne) on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effects of burdock (Arctium lappa Linne) on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and nitric oxide production were investigated. The results showed that methanolic extracts of burdock (MEB) and their major components, chlorogenic acid (CHA) and caffeic acid (CA), showed marked antioxidant activity against oxidative damage of liposome (p<0.05), deoxyribose (p<0.05) and protein (p<0.05). In addition, at a concentration

Bor-Sen Wang; Gow-Chin Yen; Lee-Wen Chang; Wen-Jye Yen; Pin-Der Duh

2007-01-01

179

Nephroprotective activities of the aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya Linn. in carbon tetrachloride induced renal injured Wistar rats: a dose- and time-dependent study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the dose related effect of the aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya Linn. extract (CPE) was evaluated by pre-treating three groups of rats (made up of six male rats per group) with 100 - 400 mg\\/kg body weight per oral of the extract for 7 days before challenging with 1.5 ml\\/kg body weight of 20% carbon

JA Olagunju; AA Adeneye; AG Adeleke

180

Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and\\u000a National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria\\u000a (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency

Anshu S. Chatli; Viraj Beri; B. S. Sidhu

2008-01-01

181

150 kDa glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne stimulates caspase-3 activation and reduces inducible nitric oxide production in HCT116 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the apoptotic effects of glycoprotein (SNL glycoprotein, 150-kDa) isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne, which has been used as an antipyretic and anticancer agent in folk medicine. We found that SNL glycoprotein consists of carbohydrate content (69.74%) and protein content (30.26%), which contains more than 50% hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine and proline.

Sei-Jung Lee; Kye-Taek Lim

2006-01-01

182

Effect of urea molasses mineral granules (UMMG) on rumen fermentation pattern and blood biochemical constituents in goat kids fed sola (Aeschonomene indica Linn) grass-based diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on twenty graded jamunapari goat kids fed on four different groups. Group I was fed solely on roughage, i.e. sola (Aeschonomene indica Linn) grass hay and rice straw (70:30). Groups II, III and IV were fed on de-oiled rice bran (100 g\\/d), urea molasses mineral granules (50 g\\/d) and urea molasses mineral granules (50 g\\/d) plus

Nisha Jain; Sita Prasad Tiwari; Pushpraj Singh

183

Polymorphs of Rubrene Crystal Grown from Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of rubrene were grown by slow cooling of solutions in various solvents. Hexagonal single crystals were obtained from p-xylene, whereas parallelogram-shaped crystals were grown from aniline. Both types of crystal were obtained from propan-1-ol. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the hexagonal and parallelogram-shaped crystals belonged to the orthorhombic system and the triclinic system, respectively. The triclinic crystals showed much poorer carrier mobilities than did the orthorhombic crystals.

Matsukawa, Takeshi; Yoshimura, Masashi; Uchiyama, Masahito; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Nakao, Akiko; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Takeya, Junichi; Kitaoka, Yasuo; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo

2010-08-01

184

Comparison Of LEC-Grown And VGF-Grown GaSb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaSb 2? diameter ingots doped with Tellurium have been grown by Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) on a (1 0 0) orientation. The ingots were grown in quartz crucibles with the use of an encapsulant and both 6 mm diameter and 50 mm diameter seeds. Twinning in the seed or in the cone of the crucible occurred in almost all cases when a 6 mm diameter seed was used, while using full-diameter (50 mm ID) seeds with a carefully controlled diameter resulted in single-crystal growth. The quality of the VGF-grown GaSb:Te from both 6 mm and full-diameter seeds has been compared to our commercially produced Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) grown GaSb. The donor density and raman spectra of the VGF-grown GaSb are comparable to the electronic properties of LEC-grown GaSb, but slightly lower mobilities for the VGF-material are observed. The etch pit density (EPD) in VGF-grown GaSb from 6 mm diameter seeds is extremely low, around 5 per cm2. As expected the EPD of LEC-grown GaSb is significantly higher, due to the higher stress induced in the material during growth. Interestingly, the EPD for GaSb grown by VGF from full diameter seeds is comparable to the EPD from LEC-grown material. It is believed that seeding in VGF-growth induces stress and, therefore, a higher EPD. The use of small seeds ensures that dislocations can grow out. The crystal quality of the three materials is compared by comparing the X-ray rocking curves. LEC-grown GaSb and VGF-grown GaSb from full-diameter and 6 mm diameter seeds show a FWHM of 14.6, 15.1, and 20.7 arcsec, respectively.

Reijnen, L.; Brunton, R.; Grant, I. R.

2004-11-01

185

Ion implanted epitaxially grown ZnSe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The epitaxial growth of ZnSe on (100) Ge using the close-spaced transport process is described. Substrate temperature of 575 C and source temperatures of 675 C yield 10 micron, single crystal layers in 10 hours. The Ge substrates provides a nonreplenishable chemical transport agent and the epitaxial layer thickness is limited to approximately 10 microns. Grown epitaxial layers show excellent photoluminescence structure at 77 K. Grown layers exhibit high resistivity, and annealing in Zn vapor at 575 C reduces the resistivity to 10-100 ohms-cm. Zinc vapor annealing quenches the visible photoluminescence.

1974-01-01

186

Coulomb breakup reactions of 11Li in the coupled-channel 9Li+n+n model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the three-body Coulomb breakup of a two-neutron halo nucleus 11Li. We use the coupled-channel 9Li+n+n three-body model, which includes the coupling between last neutron states and the various two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) configurations in 9Li due to the tensor and pairing correlations. The three-body scattering states of 11Li are described by using the combined methods of complex scaling and the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The calculated breakup cross section successfully reproduces the experiments. The large mixing of the s state in the halo ground state of 11Li is shown to play an important role in the explanation of shape and strength of the breakup cross section. In addition, we predict the invariant mass spectra for binary subsystems of 11Li. It is found that the two kinds of virtual s states of 9Li-n and n-n systems in the final three-body states of 11Li largely contribute to make low-lying peaks in the invariant mass spectra. On the other hand, in the present analysis, it is suggested that the contributions of the p-wave resonances of 10Li are hardly confirmed in the spectra.

Kikuchi, Yuma; Myo, Takayuki; Kat?, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Kiyomi

2013-03-01

187

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

2014-01-01

188

Study of anti-inflammatory activity in the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn.--an Indian medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn. (Harsingar) is widely used as a decoction in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for treatment of sciatica and arthritis, but it has not yet been screened scientifically. In the present study, the water soluble portion of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor tristis (NAT) was screened for the presence of anti-inflammatory activity. NAT inhibited the acute inflammatory oedema produced by different phlogistic agents, viz. carrageenin, formalin, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and hyaluronidase in the hindpaw of rats. The acute inflammatory swelling in the knee joint of rats induced by turpentine oil was also significantly reduced. In subacute models, NAT was found to check granulation tissue formation significantly in the granuloma pouch and cotton pellet test. Acute and chronic phases of formaldehyde induced arthritis were significantly inhibited. NAT was also found to inhibit the inflammation produced by immunological methods, viz. Freund's adjuvant arthritis and PPD induced tuberculin reaction. Thus anti-inflammatory activity in leaves of Harsingar supports its use in various inflammatory conditions by the followers of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. PMID:6482481

Saxena, R S; Gupta, B; Saxena, K K; Singh, R C; Prasad, D N

1984-08-01

189

Effect of steel plant effluent on acid and alkaline phosphatases of gills, liver and gonads of Cyprinus carpio Linn. (1758)  

E-print Network

Fishes are aquatic and poikilothermic animals. Hence, their existence and performance is dominated by the quality of their environment. Pollution of water bodies forces them to acclimatize to various factors thus imposing a considerable amount of stress on their lives. This ability to detect sudden changes in environment and monitoring short or long term changes in water quality makes the fish efficient biomarkers. The Bhilai Steel Plant is situated 30 kilometers (west) of Raipur, the capital of Chhattisgarh. Besides good quality steel, it also produces important by products, such as, Coal tar, Naphthalene and Benzol. Effluents generated are dumped into the two local rivers, the Kharoon and the Sheonath through various channels. Analysis of the physicochemical constituents of the different effluents reveals the coke oven effluent to contain a high amount of phenol, besides the presence of other toxic substances and hence is not expected to be congenial for the existence of fish. Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linn, 1758) were exposed to different concentrations (10,20,30%)of this effluent for a short term duration and changes in acid and alkaline phosphatases recorded in the three organs,viz.,gills,liver and gonads at different time points (48,96 and 160 hours).The various concentrations of the effluent were found to alter the acidic and alkaline phosphatase activity in the three organs. Hence, the results from present investigations may be useful in the assessment of environmental stress in the aquatic ecosystem.

Chetna Bakde; Aditi Niyogi Poddar

190

In Vitro Callus Culture of Heliotropium indicum Linn. for Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity.  

PubMed

The total phenolic and flavonoid content and percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of callus and in vivo plant parts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. were estimated. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 2.0mg/l with benzyladenine (BA) 0.5mg/l showed the highest amount of callus biomass (1.87g/tube). The morphology of callus was significantly different according to the plant growth regulators and their concentrations used in the medium. The highest amount of total phenolic (21.70mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GAE/g)) and flavonoid (4.90mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g)) content and the maximum percentage (77.78%) of radical scavenging activity were estimated in the extract of inflorescence. The synergistic effect of NAA (2.0mg/l) and BA (0.5mg/l) enhances the synthesis of total phenolic (9.20mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (1.25mg QE/g) content in the callus tissue. The callus produced by the same concentration shows 45.24% of free radical scavenging activity. While comparing the various concentrations of NAA with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for the production of callus biomass, total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity, all the concentrations of NAA were found to be superior than those of 2,4-D. PMID:25248992

Kumar, Muthusamy Senthil; Chaudhury, Shibani; Balachandran, Srinivasan

2014-12-01

191

Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi.  

PubMed

Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Thymol was 1.6-fold more toxic than the oil toward fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi with LD(50) values of 48.88 and 80.77 microg/ml, respectively. Egg laying by female adults of A. stephensi was much significantly reduced when exposed to vapors of thymol compared to the oil of T. ammi seeds, and similar effects were recorded for subsequent egg hatching and larval survival. Vapor toxicity assay showed LC(50) value of 79.5 mg/mat for thymol against adults of A. stephensi, whereas the crude oil exhibited the LC(50) value of 185.4 mg/mat. Thymol provided complete repellency toward A. stephensi adults at the dose of 25.0 mg/mat after 1 h duration, whereas same degree of repellency was obtained by the oil at the dose of 55.0 mg/mat, indicating its double-fold activity than the oil. PMID:19343365

Pandey, S K; Upadhyay, Shikha; Tripathi, A K

2009-08-01

192

Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves  

PubMed Central

To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16th days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

Biswas, D.; Yoganandam, G. P.; Dey, A.; Deb, L.

2013-01-01

193

Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.*  

PubMed Central

Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

2014-01-01

194

Antioxidant activity and protective effect of Turnera ulmifolia Linn. var. elegans against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine whether the leaves of Turnera ulmifolia Linn. var. elegans extract exert significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of its hydroethanolic extract (HEETU) was evaluated by assessing (a) its radical scavenging ability in vitro, and (b) its in vivo effect on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The in vitro antioxidant assay (DPPH) clearly supported HEETU free radical scavenging potential. Moreover, glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) were significantly enhanced in CCl(4)-treated rats due to oral HEETU-treatment (500 mg/kgb.w.) over 7 and 21 days. In addition, an improvement was observed in lipid peroxidation and serum biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), indicating a protective effect against CCl(4)-induced liver injuries, confirmed by histopathological studies. The HEETU effect was comparable to the standard drug Legalon (50 mg/kgb.w.) under the same experimental condition. Quantitative analysis of the HPLC extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, wich mediate the effects of antioxidant and oxidative stress. In conclusion, extract components exhibit antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22940430

Brito, Naira J N; Lpez, Jorge A; do Nascimento, Maria Aparecida; Macdo, Jos B M; Silva, Gabriel Araujo; Oliveira, Cludia N; de Rezende, Adriana Augusto; Brando-Neto, Jos; Schwarz, Aline; Almeida, Maria das Graas

2012-12-01

195

Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. PMID:23073108

Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

2012-12-01

196

Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

2014-08-01

197

Nutrient management of soil grown crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of the fertilization of soil grown crops in greenhouses can be distinguished in the addition of fertilizers before cultivation, the base dressing and those added during the cultivations period of the crops, the top dressing. The growing period of the crops in greenhouse production varies strongly. Some vegetable crops like radish and lettuce have a growing period between

C. Sonneveld; W. Voogt

2007-01-01

198

Transport studies on CVD-grown graphene  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we report transport studies performed on CVD-grown graphene. We perform resistivity and hall measurements on a large-area sample at 4' K. We measure the carrier mobility of the sample and find it to be on ...

Huntley, Miriam Hanna

2009-01-01

199

Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

1992-01-01

200

Grown-ups Ought To Know Better.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the articles by Sam Brightman collected in this volume from the newsletter, "Adult & Continuing Education Today (ACET)" are the following: "Grown-Ups Ought to Know Better"; "Adult Education: The Only Sure Factor Is Growth"; "Adult Education Important in This Election Year"; "Will Nursery School External Degree Programs Come Next?";

Brightman, Samuel C.

201

An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men nave to treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) have been perceived by the public as a strong aphrodisiac herbal product. However, studies addressing the potential beneficial effects of saffron on erectile function (EF) in men with ED are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron administration on EF in men with ED. After a 4-week baseline assessment, 346 men

M R Safarinejad; N Shafiei; S Safarinejad; Safarinejad

2010-01-01

202

Agroforestry on alkali soil: effect of planting methods and amendments on initial growth, biomass accumulation and chemical composition of mesquite ( Prosopis juliflora (SW) DC) with inter-space planted with and without Karnal grass ( Diplachne fusca Linn. P. Beauv.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth responses of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (SW) DC.) during establishment stage to planting methods and amendments were studied in a highly alkali soil (Aquic Natrustalf, ESP 94), at the experimental farm of the Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal in July, 1984. Six combinations of planting methods and amendments with and without Karnal grass (Diplachne fusca Linn. P Beauv) in

Gurbachan Singh; I. P. Abrol; S. S. Cheema

1988-01-01

203

Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.  

PubMed

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

2012-01-01

204

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

205

EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII SPRENG. AND MORUS ALBA LINN. ON THE AGE OF ATTAINMENT OF PUBERTY AND OVARIAN FOLLICULOGENESIS IN RATS  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. (Curry leaf) and Morus alba Linn. (Mulberry leaf) on the age of attainment of puberty, relative ovary and uterus weight and the number of ovarian surface follicles in female Wistar albino rats. The rats were reared from 20 to 70 days of age in six groups consisting of eight rats in each group. Group I and II were orally administered with 0.5 ml distilled water and 0.5 ml 10% DMSO, respectively. Group III, IV, V and VI were orally administered with methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii at 500 mg/kg b.w. and 1000 mg/kg b.w. and methanolic extracts of Morus alba at 250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The significant advancement in the mean age of attainment of puberty was observed along with increase in number of surface follicles on both the ovaries in Group III, IV and VI. Whereas, the relative ovary weight was non significant (P>0.05) in all the treated groups, the relative uterus weight was significant (P<0.05) in Group IV and Group VI. These observations were attributed to the effects of phytoestrogens present in the methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. and Morus alba Linn PMID:24825989

Nandini, M. S.; Veena, T.; Swamy, M. Narayana

2010-01-01

206

Development of HPLC method by UV-VIS detection for the quantification of phenolic acids in different Ocimum sanctum Linn. extracts.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of five phenolic acids including Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid, Syringic acid, Benzoic acid and Vanillic acid by HPLC with UV-VIS detector. These Phenolic acids were separated by analytical column Intersil ODS-3 C18, a gradient elution system of ACN and acidified water solution with 1ml/min flow rate and quantified in a total run of 30 minutes at 210nm wavelength. In the quantitative analysis of these compounds showed good regression (0.995-0.999). The limit of detection [LOD] and limit of quantification [LOQ] of these compounds were in the range of 0.15-0.46 and 0.42-2.47 ?g/mL. The average recoveries were between 95.8-103.1% and their RSD values were less than 3.34%. By the proposed method Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid and Syringic acid were found and quantified in Methanolic, Ethanolic and Acetonic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. While the two other phenolic acids benzoic acid and vanillic acid was not found in the extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. PMID:25176382

Shafqatullah; Khan, Rasool; Hassan, Waseem; Hussain, Arshad; Asadullah; Rehman, Khaliqur; Ali, Javid

2014-09-01

207

Piper betel Linn (betel vine), the maligned Southeast Asian medicinal plant possesses cancer preventive effects: time to reconsider the wronged opinion.  

PubMed

Since antiquity, Piper betel Linn (betel vine; family Piperaceae) has been an important medicinal agent in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia countries. The leaves are the most valued plant part and in the past were routinely used as a chewing agent to prevent halitosis. The leaves are also supposed to harden the gum, conserve the teeth and to prevent indigestion, bronchitis, constipation, congestion, coughs and asthma. Innumerable scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal claims. Betel leaves are an integral component of the betel quid that consists of areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and slaked lime; a highly abused agent with carcinogenic properties. Regular chewing of betel quid is associated mainly with oral cancer and detail studies with individual constituents of the quid have shown that both tobacco and areca nut are carcinogenic, while slaked lime is shown to promote the process of carcinogenesis. However unlike other constituents of the betel quid, the betel leaves devoid carcinogenic effects and on the contrary possesses cancer preventive effects including against the carcinogens present in tobacco. This review for the first time provides information on cancer preventive effects and also addresses the various mechanisms which might be involved. PMID:22296348

Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Palatty, Princy L; Rao, Prathima; Rao, Suresh; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2011-01-01

208

Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

Wilson, Michael

1997-12-01

209

Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers  

SciTech Connect

We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States) [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain)] [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2013-06-17

210

Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated. Results: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of ?-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:21808555

Verma, Laxmi; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Rajak, H.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.

2010-01-01

211

Are randomly grown graphs really random?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze a minimal model of a growing network. At each time step, a new vertex is added; then, with probability ?, two vertices are chosen uniformly at random and joined by an undirected edge. This process is repeated for t time steps. In the limit of large t, the resulting graph displays surprisingly rich characteristics. In particular, a giant component emerges in an infinite-order phase transition at ?=1/8. At the transition, the average component size jumps discontinuously but remains finite. In contrast, a static random graph with the same degree distribution exhibits a second-order phase transition at ?=1/4, and the average component size diverges there. These dramatic differences between grown and static random graphs stem from a positive correlation between the degrees of connected vertices in the grown graph-older vertices tend to have higher degree, and to link with other high-degree vertices, merely by virtue of their age. We conclude that grown graphs, however randomly they are constructed, are fundamentally different from their static random graph counterparts.

Callaway, Duncan S.; Hopcroft, John E.; Kleinberg, Jon M.; Newman, M. E. J.; Strogatz, Steven H.

2001-10-01

212

Nucleolus in clinostat-grown plants  

SciTech Connect

The clinostat is an apparatus that is used to mimic zero gravity in studies of plant growth in the absence of gravitropic response. Clinostat-grown tissue cultures of carrot exhibit significant increases both in the number of nuclei containing more than one nucleolus and in nucleolar volume. Oat seedlings germinated and grown on clinostats exhibit a decreased rate of shoot elongation, increased tissue sensitivity to applied auxin, and an increased response to gravitropic stimulation. Clinostat treatment clearly affects plant metabolism. The nucleolus is the region in the nucleus where ribosome synthesis and assembly take place. The 18S, 5.8S, and 25S ribosomal genes, in tandem units, are located in the nucleolus. Ribosomes orchestrate the production of all proteins that are necessary for the maintenance of cell growth, development, and survival. A full study of the effects of nullification of gravitropism, by clinostat rotation, on nucleolar development in barley has been initiated. The authors study developmental changes of nucleolar number and diameter in clinostat-grown root tissues. Preliminary results show that barley roots exhibit changes in nucleolar number and diameter. Growth rates of barley root and shoot also appear to be reduced, in measurements of both length and weight.

Shen-Miller, J.; Dannenhoffer, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Hinchman, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-05-01

213

Interactions Between American Pondweed and Monoecious Hydrilla Grown in Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the potential for monoecious hydrilla ( Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) to invade existing aquatic plant com- munities, monoecious hydrilla was grown in mixtures with American pondweed ( Potamogeton nodosus Poiret). When grown with hydrilla from axillary turions, American pond- weed was a stronger competitor. When grown with hydrilla from tubers, American pondweed was equally as strong a competitor

DAVID F. SPENCER; GREGORY G. KSANDER

214

29 CFR 780.814 - Grown in commercial quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grown in commercial quantities. 780.814 Section 780...15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities 780.814 Grown in commercial quantities. Cotton must be...

2012-07-01

215

29 CFR 780.814 - Grown in commercial quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grown in commercial quantities. 780.814 Section 780...15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities 780.814 Grown in commercial quantities. Cotton must be...

2011-07-01

216

29 CFR 780.814 - Grown in commercial quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grown in commercial quantities. 780.814 Section 780...15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities 780.814 Grown in commercial quantities. Cotton must be...

2013-07-01

217

29 CFR 780.814 - Grown in commercial quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grown in commercial quantities. 780.814 Section 780...15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities 780.814 Grown in commercial quantities. Cotton must be...

2010-07-01

218

Auxin Transport Is Required for Hypocotyl Elongation in Light-Grown but Not Dark-Grown Arabidopsis1  

E-print Network

in darkness, however, NPA disrupted the gravity response but did not affect elongation. The extent of inhi 75% inhibition at 50 mol m 2 s 1 of white light. Plants grown under continuous blue or far-red light showed NPA-induced hypocotyl inhibition similar to that of white-light-grown plants. Plants grown under

Estelle, Mark

219

Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

2001-01-01

220

GaAs nanoneedles grown on sapphire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous integration of dissimilar single crystals is of intense research interests. Lattice mismatch has been the most challenging bottleneck which limits the growth of sufficient active volume for functional devices. Here, we report self-assembled, catalyst-free, single crystalline GaAs nanoneedles grown on sapphire substrates with 46% lattice mismatch. The GaAs nanoneedles have a 2-3 nm tip, single wurtzite phase, excellent optical quality, and dimensions scalable with growth time. The needles have the same sharp, hexagonal pyramid shape from 100 nm (1.5 min growth) to 9 ?m length (3 h growth).

Chuang, Linus C.; Moewe, Michael; Ng, Kar Wei; Tran, Thai-Truong D.; Crankshaw, Shanna; Chen, Roger; Ko, Wai Son; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

2011-03-01

221

Reactive gold thin films grown on iridium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of our studies on the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on Au thin films grown epitaxially on Ir{1 1 1} surface, using nuclear reaction analysis. We found that H 2 dissociatively adsorbs on these Au{1 1 1} films. This feature can be contrasted to the well-known noble bulk Au surfaces, which do not dissociate hydrogen molecules. We attribute this to the local surface properties, e.g., electron localization (the narrowing of the s-band, the s-band center model), which can explain the unexpected high reactivity of a thin Au{1 1 1} film.

Okada, Michio; Ogura, Shouhei; Dio, Wilson Agerico; Wilde, Markus; Fukutani, Katsuyuki; Kasai, Toshio

2005-06-01

222

Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

2001-01-01

223

Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

2003-01-01

224

Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its invitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the chemical composition and invitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GCMS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The

Poonkodi Kathirvel; Subban Ravi

2012-01-01

225

Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its invitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the chemical composition and invitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GCMS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The

Poonkodi Kathirvel; Subban Ravi

2011-01-01

226

Perfect crystals grown from imperfect interfaces  

PubMed Central

The fabrication of advanced devices increasingly requires materials with different properties to be combined in the form of monolithic heterostructures. In practice this means growing epitaxial semiconductor layers on substrates often greatly differing in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. With increasing layer thickness the relaxation of misfit and thermal strains may cause dislocations, substrate bowing and even layer cracking. Minimizing these drawbacks is therefore essential for heterostructures based on thick layers to be of any use for device fabrication. Here we prove by scanning X-ray nanodiffraction that mismatched Ge crystals epitaxially grown on deeply patterned Si substrates evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface. We show that relaxing thermal and misfit strains result just in lattice bending and tiny crystal tilts. We may thus expect a new concept in which continuous layers are replaced by quasi-continuous crystal arrays to lead to dramatically improved physical properties. PMID:23880632

Falub, Claudiu V.; Meduna, Mojmir; Chrastina, Daniel; Isa, Fabio; Marzegalli, Anna; Kreiliger, Thomas; Taboada, Alfonso G.; Isella, Giovanni; Miglio, Leo; Dommann, Alex; von Kanel, Hans

2013-01-01

227

An Evaluation of the Genotoxic Effects of the Seed Decoction of Cassia tora Linn. (Leguminosae) in an Allium cepa Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytological effects of Cassia tora seed decoction were evaluated in Allium cepa root tip cells. Bulbs were grown in pure tap water (controls, Gr. I) and also in six concentrations (0.15 mg\\/ml, 0.31 mg\\/ml, 0.62 mg\\/ml, 1.25 mg\\/ml, 2.5 mg\\/ml and 5 mg\\/ml) of C. tora seed decoction in tap water (experimental, Grs. II). Parameters of study were 'mean root

2008-01-01

228

Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.  

PubMed

Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract. PMID:23885412

Purivirojkul, Watchariya

2012-01-01

229

Breakdown Current Density of CVD-Grown Multilayer Graphene Interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene wires have been fabricated from large-area multilayer graphene sheets grown by chemical vapor deposition. As the methane concentration increases, a larger percentage of thicker graphene layers are grown. The multilayer graphene sheets have an average thickness of 10-20 nm with sheet resistances between 500 and 1000 ?\\/sq. The sheet resistance shows a strong correlation with the average surface roughness.

Kyeong-Jae Lee; Anantha P. Chandrakasan; Jing Kong

2011-01-01

230

Phosphorus Management of Lucerne Grown on Calcareous Soil in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lucerne or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is grown as a forage crop on many livestock farms. In calcareous soils in eastern Turkey, lucerne production requires phosphorus (P) additions as the soils are naturally P deficient. Phosphorus sorption isotherms were used to estimate P fertilizer needs for lucerne grown for two years in a 3-cut system on a calcareous P deficient

Metin Turan; F. Mehmet Kiziloglu; Quirine M. Ketterings

2009-01-01

231

29 CFR 780.813 - County where cotton is grown.  

...2014-07-01 false County where cotton is grown. 780.813 Section 780...STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet...Section 13(b)(15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities...

2014-07-01

232

GaN Nanowires Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique properties of GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy are reviewed. These properties include the absence of residual strain, exclusion of most extended defects, long photoluminescence lifetime, low surface recombination ve- locity, and high mechanical quality factor. The high purity of the nanowires grown by this method allows for controllable n- type doping. P-type doping presents more challenges

Kris A. Bertness; Norman A. Sanford; Albert V. Davydov

2011-01-01

233

Electrical characterization of electrochemically grown single copper nanowires  

E-print Network

Electrical characterization of electrochemically grown single copper nanowires M. E. Toimil 2003 Single- and poly-crystalline copper wires with diameters down to 30 nm are grown in etched ion functioning as semi- conductor elements or simply as connectors to or within molecular devices are very

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

234

Vapor grown silicon dioxide improves transistor base-collector junctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor grown silicon dioxide layer protects base-collector junction in silicon planar transistors during the emitter diffusion process. This oxide fills in any imperfections that exist in the thermally grown oxide layer and is of greater thickness than that layer. This process is used to deposit protective silicon dioxide coatings on optical surfaces.

Carley, D. R.; Duclos, R. A.

1966-01-01

235

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

236

Diamond films grown from fullerene precursors  

SciTech Connect

Fullerene precursors have been shown to result in the growth of diamond films from argon microwave plasmas. In contradistinction to most diamond films grown using conventional methane-hydrogen mixtures, the fullerene-generated films are nanocrystalline and smooth on the nanometer scale. They have recently been shown to have friction coefficients approaching the values of natural diamond. It is clearly important to understand the development of surface morphology during film growth from fullerene precursors and to elucidate the factors leading to surface roughness when hydrogen is present in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) gas mixtures. To achieve these goals, we are measuring surface reflectivity of diamond films growing on silicon substrates over a wide range of plasma processing conditions. A model for the interpretation of the laser interferometric data has been developed, which allows one to determine film growth rate, rms surface roughness, and bulk losses due to scattering and absorption. The rms roughness values determined by reflectivity are in good agreement with atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. A number of techniques, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and near-edge x-ray absorption find structure (NEXAFS) measurements, have been used to characterize the films. A mechanism for diamond-film growth involving the C{sub 2} molecule as a growth species will be presented. The mechanism is based on (1) the observation that the optical emission spectra of the fullerene- containing plasmas are dominated by the Swan bands of C{sub 2} and (2) the ability of C{sub 2} to insert directly into C-H and C-C bonds with low activation barriers, as shown by recent theoretical calculations of reactions of C{sub 2} with carbon clusters.

Gruen, D.M.; Zuiker, C.D.; Krauss, A.R.

1995-07-01

237

7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989...OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules... 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California....

2011-01-01

238

Auxin Transport Is Required for Hypocotyl Elongation in Light-Grown but Not Dark-Grown Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

Many auxin responses are dependent on redistribution and/or polar transport of indoleacetic acid. Polar transport of auxin can be inhibited through the application of phytotropins such as 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). When Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown in the light on medium containing 1.0 ?m NPA, hypocotyl and root elongation and gravitropism were strongly inhibited. When grown in darkness, however, NPA disrupted the gravity response but did not affect elongation. The extent of inhibition of hypocotyl elongation by NPA increased in a fluence-rate-dependent manner to a maximum of about 75% inhibition at 50 ?mol m?2 s?1 of white light. Plants grown under continuous blue or far-red light showed NPA-induced hypocotyl inhibition similar to that of white-light-grown plants. Plants grown under continuous red light showed less NPA-induced inhibition. Analysis of photoreceptor mutants indicates the involvement of phytochrome and cryptochrome in mediating this NPA response. Hypocotyls of some auxin-resistant mutants had decreased sensitivity to NPA in the light, but etiolated seedlings of these mutants were similar in length to the wild type. These results indicate that light has a significant effect on NPA-induced inhibition in Arabidopsis, and suggest that auxin has a more important role in elongation responses in light-grown than in dark-grown seedlings. PMID:9489005

Jensen, Philip J.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Estelle, Mark

1998-01-01

239

Environmental effects on flavour development in Australian - grown strawberry varieties.  

E-print Network

??The volatile compositions of two popular strawberry varieties, Albion (US-bred) and Juliette (Australian-bred), grown in Australia were analysed with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCGC) combined (more)

Samykanno, K

2012-01-01

240

ESFI-SOS transistors on as-grown sapphire wafers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility to grow the silicon film on an as-grown substrate rather than on a mechanically processed substrate is considered. The concept is implemented with the aid of sapphire wafers obtained by the edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) technique. The wafers are ground on one side only, the other side remaining as an as-grown substrate. The principal advantage of the use

H. Splittgerber; D. Takacs; H. Schloetterer

1977-01-01

241

Distribution of major xanthones in the pericarp, aril, and yellow gum of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana linn.) fruit and their contribution to antioxidative activity.  

PubMed

Xanthone compounds in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) fruit have been reported to have biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and the major xanthone compounds in mangosteen are ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin. The objectives of this research were to quantify and qualify the major xanthones in each part of the mangosteen fruit with and without yellow gum from the point of view of effective utilization of agricultural product. Quantitative evaluation revealed that yellow gum had extremely high amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin (382.2 and 144.9 mg/g on a wet basis, respectively) followed by pericarp and aril. In mangosteen fruit with yellow gum inside, xanthones seemed to have shifted from the pericarp and to have concentrated in a gum on the surface of aril, and there was almost no difference between the amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin in whole fruits with and without yellow gum. Pericarp and yellow gum showed much higher radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential than the aril. PMID:23649258

Sukatta, Udomlak; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Okadome, Hiroshi; Sotome, Itaru; Nanayama, Kazuko; Thanapase, Warunee; Isobe, Seiichiro

2013-01-01

242

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (281C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

243

Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

1996-01-01

244

Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

245

Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (Linn.) Enhances Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Facilitates Osteoblastogenesis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation rate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (osteoblastogenesis) and extracellular matrix calcification. This study also aimed to determine the additive effect of osteogenic media and Cissus quadrangularis on proliferation, differentiation and calcification. METHODS MSCs were cultured in media with or without Cissus quadrangularis for 4 weeks and were then stained for alkaline phosphatase. Extracellular matrix calcification was confirmed by Von Kossa staining. marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultures in control media and osteogenic media supplemented with Cissus quadrangularis extract (100, 200, 300 ?g/mL) were also subjected to a cell proliferation assay (MTT). RESULTS Treatment with 100, 200 or 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhanced the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into ALP-positive osteoblasts and increased extracellular matrix calcification. Treatment with 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis also enhanced the proliferation rate of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cells grown in osteogenic media containing Cissus quadrangularis exhibited higher proliferation, differentiation and calcification rates than did control cells. CONCLUSION The results suggest that Cissus quadrangularis stimulates osteoblastogenesis and can be used as preventive/ alternative natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:19841707

Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR; Rao, Muddanna S; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan; Muttigi, Manjunatha S

2009-01-01

246

SERS-applicable silver nanoisland film grown under protective coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used recently developed out-diffusion technique of growing silver nanoisland films on glass surface to grow silver nanoislands under TiO2 layer deposited on the glass. After covering the surface of silver ion-exchanged glasses with TiO2 film using atomic layer deposition technique and subsequent thermal processing of the samples in hydrogen their optical absorption spectra demonstrate the absorption peak corresponding to surface plasmon resonance in grown silver nanoislands. The spectral position of the peak is shifted relatively to the peak observed in the spectra of the nanoisland film grown on the surface of ion exchanged and annealed glass samples without dielectric cover. The applicability of the silver nanoislands grown under several nm thick protective TiO2 coating in surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy is demonstrated.

Reduto, I.; Chervinskii, S.; Matikainen, A.; Baklanov, A.; Kamenskii, A.; Lipovskii, A.

2014-10-01

247

Thermal Stability of Corrugated Epitaxial Graphene Grown on Re(0001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel approach to determine the relationship between the corrugation and the thermal stability of epitaxial graphene grown on a strongly interacting substrate. According to our density functional theory calculations, the C single layer grown on Re(0001) is strongly corrugated, with a buckling of 1.6 , yielding a simulated C 1s core level spectrum which is in excellent agreement with the experimental one. We found that corrugation is closely knit with the thermal stability of the C network: C-C bond breaking is favored in the strongly buckled regions of the moir cell, though it requires the presence of diffusing graphene layer vacancies.

Miniussi, E.; Pozzo, M.; Baraldi, A.; Vesselli, E.; Zhan, R. R.; Comelli, G.; Mente?, T. O.; Nio, M. A.; Locatelli, A.; Lizzit, S.; Alf, D.

2011-05-01

248

Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Background: The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka. Objective: The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6th hour postchallenge. Chronic inflammation was developed by using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Paw volume, ankle joint circumference, and body weight were assessed on 1st, 4th, 8th, 14th, 17th, and 21st day. Paste was applied once every day to the inflamed area of the paw of respective groups of animals, continuously for 14 days. Statistics: The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. P ? 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulations did not show any dermal toxicity and found to be safe. Both the pastes significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed, carrageenan-induced paw edema at 6th hour and Holoptelea integrifolia appears to be more effective than Plumbago zeylanica. Significant reduction was observed in paw volume, ankle joint circumference and animal body weight gained. Conclusions: The tested formulations (P. zeylanica root and H. integrifolia bark pastes) showed significant antiinflammatory activity. The present findings therefore support its utility in arthritic pain, inflammation and the claim of traditional practitioners. PMID:24812473

Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Roy, Subarna; Kholkute, S. D.

2014-01-01

249

Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.  

PubMed

It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

Gmral, Nurhan; Doguc Kumbul, Duygu; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

2013-01-01

250

Investigation of the extracts from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. radiata Sch. Bip. for antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity against human tumor cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines of extracts from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. radiata Sch. Bip. (BP). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Furthermore, the antioxidant properties of different polarity fractions extracted from BP were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging test and FRAP assay. The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-BP) showed the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions. In addition, the anti-proliferative activities of the extracts on four human tumor cells, namely MCF-7, HepG2, MGC 803 and RKO, were investigated by MTT method. The EE-BP displayed the most remarkable anti-proliferative effect against the tumor cells, particularly RKO cell in dose- and time-dependent manner. The antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity correlated highly with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Furthermore, The active ingredient BP-6, namely 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,3'-dimethyl-flavonol, was isolated and purified with the purity above 99.00% and content of 0.15% in EE-BP detected by HPLC, which could significantly inhibit the proliferation of RKO cells with the IC(50) value of 6.66?mol/l. In order to characterize the apoptotic RKO cells, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assay were performed. Apoptotic cell numbers increased in a dose-dependent manner after the treatment with different concentrations of EE-BP and BP-6 for 12 and 6h, respectively. DNA ladders in apoptotic RKO cells could be easily visualized when exposed to 200?g/ml of the EE-BP for 36h. Taken together, our work indicated that BP had potentially therapeutic value against colorectal cancer. PMID:22382861

Wu, Jianguo; Wan, Zhongxian; Yi, Jun; Wu, Yanbin; Peng, Wei; Wu, Jinzhong

2013-01-01

251

Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9?g/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug. PMID:22797325

Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

2012-09-01

252

Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.  

PubMed

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 ?g ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 ?g ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth. PMID:23100719

Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

2008-06-01

253

Clinical study on the effect of decoction of Pavetta indica Linn. in treatment of Purishaja Krimi with special reference to Enterobius vermicularis infestation.  

PubMed

Pavetta indica Linn. (Family: Rubiaceae; Sanskrit name: Papata) is 2-5 m tall, shrub or small tree with opposite branches and grows in the Asia - Pacific region including Sri Lanka. Purishaja Krimi is one of the worm infestations described in Ayurveda. Enterobius vermicularis is among the most common of worms affecting children and adults. E. vermicularis is considered as one type of Purishaja Krimi. Sri Lankan traditional and ayurvedic physicians use P. indica to treat different ailments including Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis) infestations successfully. Since no scientific studies have been undertaken to study these effects so far, the present clinical study was carried out to evaluate the effect of P. indica in treatment of E. vermicularis infestation. Fifty patients between age of 5 and 12 years (Group A and B) and 50 patients between 13 and 65 years (Group C and D) with symptoms of E. vermicularis infestations such as itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea or constipation and presence of ova in stools were selected. Two decoction of the trail drug with different concentration was prepared. Group A and Group B were treated with 60 ml of decoction 1 and 60 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Group C and Group D were treated with 120 ml of decoction 2 and 120 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Groups A and C showed complete or partial reduction of symptoms, that is; itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea and also ova of E. vermicularis were absent in stools after treatment with P. indica. Decoction of P. indica can be recommended as an effective treatment for Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis infestation). PMID:24501518

Ediriweera, E R H S S; Rajapaksha, R P V J; Rathnayaka, R L Y U; Premakeerthi, W M S A; Premathilaka, S

2013-07-01

254

Effect of Processing on Proximate Composition, Antinutritional and Toxic Contents of Kernels from Cucurbitaceae Species Grown in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry seeds of melonCitrullus vulgaris_Schrad, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf. syn. Colocynthis citrullus Linn. O. Ktze, Cucumeropsis mannii Naud (Cult.) syn. Cucumeropsis edulis (Hook.f) Cogn. and gourdLagenaria sicceraria var. 1 (Molina) were used. The effects of germination, toasting and boiling on proximate composition, phytic acid, oxalate, total phenols, hydrocyanic acid and saponin contents were determined on control and treated samples. Apart

G. I. O. Badifu

2001-01-01

255

PLUTONIUM UPTAKE BY PLANTS GROWN IN SOLUTION CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Plants grown in aquatic systems were shown to rapidly accumulate large amounts of plutonium, about 40% of which was removed by washing. Detergent removed debris, most of which consisted of particles larger than 0.8 micrometers. After removing a portion of the bound Pu by rinsing ...

256

Marketing Locally Grown Food Products in Globally Branded Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research study measures the perception patrons of a McDonald's restaurant for locally grown food products used in standard menu items. A survey questionnaire attempts to determine differences in consumer knowledge regarding the use of local Swiss food products and whether an increase in frequency of patronizing the restaurant will occur as a result of this program. The issue of

Michael Vieregge; Nancy Scanlon; James Huss

2007-01-01

257

Nitrogen use in switchgrass grown for bioenergy across the USA  

E-print Network

Nitrogen use in switchgrass grown for bioenergy across the USA V.N. Owens a , D.R. Viands b , H Available online 17 August 2013 Keywords: Nitrogen removal Switchgrass Bioenergy Nitrogen use efficiency as a forage, conservation, and bioenergy crop [1e5]. It offers a number of distinct benefits including broad

Pawlowski, Wojtek

258

Succinic Acid Synthesis by Ethanol-Grown Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The synthesis of succinic acid in ethanol-containing media has been tested in 32 yeasts of different genera (Debaryomyces, Candida, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Torulopsis). The capability of succinic acid synthesis was revealed in 29 strains, from which two most effective produ- cers were selected. When grown in a fermentor under high aeration in mineral medium with pulsed addition of ethanol, the

Svetlana V. Kamzolova; Alsu I. Yusupova; Emiliya G. Dedyukhina; Tatiana I. Chistyakova; Tatiana M. Kozyreva; Igor G. Morgunov

2009-01-01

259

Succinic acid production by yeasts grown under different hypoxic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown under different hypoxic conditions (oxygen deprivation, high hexose concentrations and inhibition of the mitochondrial synthesis of proteins) accumulates significant amounts of succinic acid as an end product. Similar results have been obtained with the impaired respiration mutant.

Jos Antonio Lupiaez; Alberto Machado; Ignacio NUlqEZ DE CASTRO; Federico Mayor

1974-01-01

260

Ancient maize from Chacoan great houses: Where was it grown?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we compare chemical (87Sr\\/86Sr and elemental) analyses of archaeological maize from dated contexts within Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to potential agricultural sites on the periphery of the San Juan Basin. The oldest maize analyzed from Pueblo Bonito probably was grown in an area located 80 km to the west at the base of the Chuska

Larry Benson; Linda Cordell; Kirk Vincent; Howard Taylor; John Stein; G. Lang Farmer; Kiyoto Futa

2003-01-01

261

Original article Foliar senescence in maize plants grown  

E-print Network

Original article Foliar senescence in maize plants grown under different water regimes Arturo) Abstract - The leaf ontogeny of potted maize plants subjected to severe water stress was carried out and water-stressed plants received 100 and 50 % of the water evapotranspired, respectively. After 30 days

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

Morphology and modulus of vapor grown carbon nano fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of morphologies have been observed in vapor grown carbon nano fibers (CNFs) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In one case, a truncated cone microstructure was observed, with outer and inner diameters of 60 and 25nm, respectively. In this type of CNF, graphite sheets were oriented at about 15 to the fiber axis. The second type of fiber was

Tetsuya Uchida; David P. Anderson; Marilyn L. Minus; Satish Kumar

2006-01-01

263

FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES CornMichigan-grown corn is available  

E-print Network

FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES CornMichigan-grown corn is available August through September. yield hOW TO STORE QUICK AND EASY SERVING TIPS recipe Corn FOOD SAFETY TIPS One pound 5 medium ears of corn. 5 to 6 to preserve FREEZING WHOLE CORN KERNELS Select ears with plum, tender kernels and thin, sweet milk. Remove

264

Bioengineered Dental Tissues Grown in the Rat Jaw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our long-term objective is to develop methods to form, in the jaw, bioengineered replacement teeth that exhibit physical properties and functions similar to those of natural teeth. Our results show that cultured rat tooth bud cells, seeded onto biodegradable scaffolds, implanted into the jaws of adult rat hosts and grown for 12 weeks, formed small, organized, bioengineered tooth crowns, containing

S. E. Duailibi; M. T. Duailibi; W. Zhang; R. Asrican; J. P. Vacanti; P. C. Yelick

2008-01-01

265

75 FR 10409 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-09-0063; FV09-966-2 FIR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee), for the 2009-10...to $0.0275 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2010-03-08

266

78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-13-0076; FV13-966-1 PR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2013...to $0.0375 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2013-12-24

267

77 FR 43709 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0080; FV11-966-1 FR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-12...to $0.037 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2012-07-26

268

78 FR 9307 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-12-0051; FV12-966-1 IR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13...to $0.024 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2013-02-08

269

78 FR 28120 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-12-0051; FV12-966-1 FIR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13...to $0.024 per 25- pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2013-05-14

270

77 FR 21492 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0080; FV11-966-1 PR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-12...to $0.037 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee locally...

2012-04-10

271

Methyl halide emissions from greenhouse-grown mangroves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two mangrove species, Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle, were greenhouse grown for nearly 1.5 years from saplings. A single individual of each species was monitored for the emission of methyl halides from aerial tissue. During the first 240 days, salinity was incrementally increased with the addition of seawater, and was maintained between 18 and 28 for the duration of the

Steven L. Manley; Nun-Yii Wang; Maggie L. Walser; Ralph J. Cicerone

2007-01-01

272

Tolerance of Two Hydroponically Grown Salix Genotypes to Excess Zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woody cuttings from two Salix genotypes (genotype Iclone LUC-31, Salix alba and genotype II- clone STOTT, Salix viminalis) were grown hydroponically for 14 days at increasing concentrations of Zn: control, 50, 100 or 150 ? M Zn. Genotype tolerance to excess zinc (Zn) was evaluated using a root elongation test. The changes in growth, Zn, iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and

Andon Vassilev; Araceli Perez-Sanz; Ann Cuypers; Jaco Vangronsveld

2007-01-01

273

RESPONSE OF CHEMOSTAT GROWN ENTERIC BACTERIA TO CHLORINE DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of antecedent growth conditions on the sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated. The two organisms were grown in a defined medium supplemented with glucose either in the chemostat or in batch culture, and the influence of growth...

274

Domain wall nucleation evidenced on naturally grown surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interesting photographic evidence for domain wall nucleation has been found on the naturally grown surfaces of KNbO3 single crystals. The observed small domain wall portions have linear dimensions in agreement with the critical lengths of nucleation predicted by the theory of Ingle and Joshi (1984). The wall portions can be identified as 60 degrees or 90 degrees since they show

S. G. Ingle; H. C. Dutta; A. P. David

1988-01-01

275

Free-grown polypyrrole thin films as aroma sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the use of free-grown thin polypyrrole films as fast response sensors of volatile compounds. Using a variety of dopants, the polymeric films were prepared directly on conducting glass substrates. Ultraviolet-visible and near infrared regions absorbance measurements were used to investigate the deposition process and the doping level of the films. We identify the polymerization time as the fundamental

J. E. G de Souza; F. L dos Santos; B. B Neto; C. G dos Santos; M. V. B dos Santos; C. P de Melo

2003-01-01

276

Arachidonic acid production by Mortierella alpina grown on solid substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortierella alpina grown in solid state fermentations on cereal substrates gave up to 16% lipid in the final biomass. Arachidonic was at 50% of total fatty acids, with a yield of 36 mg\\/g of original substrate. Microbial lipid production was successfully scaled up to use 5-kg dry substrate batches.

S. Stred'ansk; D. Slugeti; M. Stred'ansk; J. Grego

1993-01-01

277

Spectrophotometric phytochrome measurements in light-grown Avena sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochrome was studied spectrophotometrically in Avena sativa L. seedlings that had been grown for 6 d in continous white fluorescent light from lamps. Greening was prevented through the use of the herbicide San 9789. When placed in the light, phytochrome (Ptot) decreased with first order kinetics (t1\\/2 2 h) but reached a stable low level (2.5% of the dark

Merten Jabben I; Gerald F. Deitzer

1978-01-01

278

75 FR 20514 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...cranberries grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...of cranberries produced in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut,...

2010-04-20

279

Studies on conventional and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method grown ferroelectric glycine phosphite (GPI) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent single crystals of glycine phosphite were grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and conventional slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) which had the sizes of 100 mm in length, 30 mm diameter and 10118 mm 3. The conventional slow evaporation and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method grown glycine phosphite single crystals were characterized using laser damage threshold, chemical etching, Vickers microhardness, UV-vis-NIR and dielectric analysis. The laser damage threshold value was higher in SR method grown GPI crystal as against conventional method grown crystal. The SR method grown GPI has higher hardness and also higher transmittance compared to conventional method grown crystal. The chemical etching and dielectric loss measurements indicate that the crystal grown by SR method has low density of defects and low value of dielectric loss compared to conventional method grown GPI crystal.

Senthil Pandian, M.; Pattanaboonmee, N.; Ramasamy, P.; Manyum, P.

2011-01-01

280

75 FR 77563 - Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...917-3 CR] Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda...eligible California nectarine, pear, and peach growers to determine whether they favor...the handling of nectarines, pears, and peaches grown in California. DATES: The...

2010-12-13

281

78 FR 24331 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations...apricots grown in designated Counties in Washington. The interim rule suspended the minimum...1400 Independence SW., STOP 0237, Washington, DC 20250-0237; Telephone:...

2013-04-25

282

Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

2007-07-01

283

Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moores law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits.

Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D.; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

2014-07-01

284

Symmetry and spin dephasing in (110)-grown quantum wells.  

PubMed

Symmetry and spin dephasing in (110)-grown GaAs quantum wells (QWs) are investigated applying magnetic field induced photogalvanic effect and time-resolved Kerr rotation. We show that magnetic field induced photogalvanic effect provides a tool to probe the symmetry of (110)-grown quantum wells. The photocurrent is only observed for asymmetric structures but vanishes for symmetric QWs. Applying Kerr rotation we prove that in the latter case the spin relaxation time is maximal; therefore, these structures set the upper limit of spin dephasing in GaAs QWs. We also demonstrate that structure inversion asymmetry can be controllably tuned to zero by variation of delta-doping layer positions. PMID:18518322

Bel'kov, V V; Olbrich, P; Tarasenko, S A; Schuh, D; Wegscheider, W; Korn, T; Schller, C; Weiss, D; Prettl, W; Ganichev, S D

2008-05-01

285

Growth and characterization of hexamethylenetetramine crystals grown from solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic nonlinear optical single crystals of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT; 10 10 5 mm3) were prepared by crystallization from methanol solution. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization techniques such as single crystal XRD, powder XRD, UV-Vis and electrical studies. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed the crystalline structure of the grown crystals. Their crystalline nature was also confirmed by powder XRD technique. The optical transmittance property was identified from UV-Vis spectrum. Dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency at different temperatures. DC conductivity and photoconductivity studies were also carried out for the crystal. The powder second harmonic generation efficiency (SHG) of the crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser and the efficiency was found to be two times greater than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

Babu, B.; Chandrasekaran, J.; Balaprabhakaran, S.

2014-06-01

286

Radial segregation in VGF-RMF grown germanium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper experimental results of the radial dopant segregation in Ge:Ga single crystals grown by the vertical gradient freeze technique with a rotating magnetic field are presented. The segregation is analysed on the basis of the carrier concentration measured by means of Hall effect and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In growth without the field the carrier concentration increases towards the axis, whereas much more uniform radial concentration profiles are found in crystals grown under the influence of the rotating field indicating a pronounced impact of the melt flow on the dopant segregation. Apparently, the accumulation of the Ga solute near the centre of the melt during growth under natural buoyancy is reduced by the electromagnetically induced flow. This phenomenon is discussed with respect to analytical and numerical results published recently.

Bellmann, M. P.; Ptzold, O.; Grtner, G.; Mller, H. J.; Stelter, M.

2009-03-01

287

Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its related fractures have become global health issues in the recent days. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease; it is characterized by a rapid loss of mineralized bone tissue. Hormone replacement therapy has proven efficacious in preventing bone loss but not desirable to many women due to its side-effects. Therefore we are in need to search the natural compounds for a treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in women with no toxic effects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ), a plant used in folk medicine, on an osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. In this experiment, healthy female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control (OVX). Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) and petroleum-ether extract of CQ (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 months. The findings were assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (an osteoblastic marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (an osteoclastic marker) in upper end of femur. The study revealed for the first time that the petroleum-ether extract of CQ reduced bone loss, as evidenced by the weight gain in femur, and also reduced the osteoclastic activity there by facilitating bone formation when compared to the OVX group. The osteoclastic activity was confirmed by TRAP staining, and the bone formation was assessed by ALP staining in the femur sections. The color intensity of TRAP and ALP enzymes from the images were evaluated by image analysis software developed locally. The effect of CQ was found to be effective on both enzymes, and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The biological activity of CQ on bone may be attributed to the phytogenic steroids present in it. PMID:19736603

Potu, Bhagath K; Nampurath, Gopalan K; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna R; Prasad, Keerthana; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Dharmavarapu, Praveen K; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, Kumar MR

2009-01-01

288

pH sensor properties of electrochemically grown iridium oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open-circuit potential of an electrochemically grown iridium oxide film is measured and shows a pH sensitivity between ?60 and ?80 mV\\/pH. This sensitivity is found to depend on the state of oxidation of the iridium oxide film; for a higher state of oxidation (or more of the oxide in the high valence state), the sensitivity is also higher. This

W. Olthuis; M. A. M. Robben; P. Bergveld; M. Bos; Linden van der W. E

1990-01-01

289

Electrophysiological characterization of nicotinic receptors of aneurally grown human myotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It seems necessary to characterize electrophysiological properties of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) to obtain reference values for the study of diseased muscles. We therefore investigated nAChRs in aneurally grown human myotubes using the patch-clamp technique. Pulses of acetylcholine (ACh) were applied to outside-out patches with a fast application system. The peak and the rise time of the current elicited

J. Bufler; P. Fischer; D. Pongratz; Ch. Franke

1995-01-01

290

Multilayer composites from vapor-grown carbon nano-fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layer-by-layer assembled (LBL) materials from single-wall carbon nanotubes and multiwall carbon nanotubes revealed promising mechanical properties attributed to the uniform distribution of inorganic filler in the organic polyelectrolyte matrix. In this paper, we extend the family of LBL layered nanocomposites to include another important building block i.e. vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCFs). Besides the advantages of low cost, mass production, and

Bong Sup Shim; John Starkovich; Nicholas Kotov

2006-01-01

291

Annealing studies on CBD grown CdS thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

CdS films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) at 60C without stirring. The crystallographic structure of the films and the size of the crystallites in the films were studied by X-ray diffraction. The energy gap of the films was found to decrease by annealing. The best annealing temperature for CBD grown CdS films was found to be 300C from

H. Metin; R Esen

2003-01-01

292

Floc Formation by Azospirillum lipoferum Grown on Poly-?-Hydroxybutyrate  

PubMed Central

Azospirillum lipoferum RG6xx was grown under conditions similar to those resulting in encystment of Azotobacter spp. A. lipoferum produced cells of uniform shape when grown on nitrogen-free ?-hydroxybutyrate agar. Cells accumulated poly-?-hydroxybutyrate and often grew as chains or filaments that eventually lost motility and formed capsules. Within 1 week, vegetative A. lipoferum inocula were converted into microflocs arising from filaments or chains. Cells within microflocs were pleomorphic, contained much poly-?-hydroxybutyrate, and were encapsulated. Some cells had a cystlike morphology. Up to 57% of the dry weight of encapsulated flocs was poly-?-hydroxybutyrate, whereas vegetative cells grown in broth with combined nitrogen had only 3% of their dry weight as poly-?-hydroxybutyrate. Neither encapsulated cells in flocs nor nonencapsulated vegetative cells were significantly desiccation resistant. Under starvation conditions (9 days) only 25% of encapsulated cells remained viable, whereas vegetative cells multiplied severalfold. In short-term germination experiments with encapsulated flocs, nitrate, ammonium, and soil extract promoted formation of motile vegetative cells. Most cells in treatments lacking combined nitrogen eventually depleted their visible poly-?-hydroxybutyrate reserves without germinating. The remaining cells retained the reserve polymer and underwent size reduction. Images PMID:16347792

Bleakley, Bruce H.; Gaskins, Murray H.; Hubbell, David H.; Zam, Stephan G.

1988-01-01

293

Hyperspectral imaging for detecting pathogens grown on agar plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (size, growth pattern, color, etc.) of colonies grown on agar plates has been widely used to tentatively differentiate organisms. However, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate target organisms like Campylobacters from other contaminants grown together on the same agar plates. A hyperspectral imaging system operating at the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral region from 400 nm to 900 nm was set up to measure spectral signatures of 17 different Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter subspecies. Protocols for culturing, imaging samples and for calibrating measured data were developed. The VNIR spectral library of all 17 organisms commonly encountered in poultry was established from calibrated hyperspectral images. A classification algorithm was developed to locate and identify Campylobacters, non-Campylobacter contaminants, and background agars with 99.29% accuracy. This research has a potential to be expanded to detect other pathogens grown on agar media.

Yoon, Seung Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Line, John E.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

2007-09-01

294

MBE-grown InGaAs photocathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The material constitution of modern photocathodes (i.e. third generation) has remained a constant for almost two decades. The active GaAs layer is grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and processed to create a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface for photoemission. Thus, these types of cathodes are limited in their spectral response by the band gap energy of the GaAs. There is interest in extending this range past 1000nm while preserving a high quantum efficiency (QE). This would allow taking advantage of an increased luminescence of night sky in the infrared. MOCVD grown InGaAs photocathodes have a photoresponse (PR) in the near infrared. Still, a major drawback to date has been its low QE. We believe that the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to grow this alloy will permit the fabrication of a higher quality device beyond today's standards, with improved equivalent background illumination and higher QE over a 700nm to 1100nm spectral range. To demonstrate this concept two reflection mode InGaAs photocathode were grown. These cathodes were NEA activated with Cs:O in situ in the MBE reactor after their growth and their PR recorded. Following the activation, optical characterization techniques (i.e. photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy) were employed to probe electron and phonon energy to relate fundamental material parameters to the observed PR. The collected information is being used to correct and enhance growth characteristics to increase spectral response and QE.

Bourree, Loig E.; Chasse, David R.; Thamban, P. L. Stephan; Glosser, Robert

2003-02-01

295

Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes  

SciTech Connect

Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

2000-03-01

296

76 FR 37617 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California; Section 610 Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-06-0185; FV06-925-610 Review] Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern...Order No. 925 regulating the handling of grapes grown in a designated area of southeastern...part 925), regulates the handling of grapes grown in a designated area of...

2011-06-28

297

Dielectric Spectroscopy Study of ZnSe Grown by Physical Vapor Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dielectric properties of ZnSe samples grown by physical vapor transport were measured as a function of frequency. Differences can be seen in the dielectric properties of samples grown under different conditions. The spectra of heat treated samples were also acquired and were found to exhibit significant deviations from those of the as grown crystals.

Kokan, J.; Gerhardt, R.; Su, Ching-Hua

1997-01-01

298

Longevity and Fecundity of Japanese Beetle ( Popillia japonica ) on Foliage Grown Under Elevated Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 experience physiological changes that inuence their suitability as food. Previous studies have found increased insect herbivory on plants grown under elevated CO2. To determine effects of consuming foliage of soybean (Glycine max) grown under elevated CO2 on adult survivorship and fecundity,

Bridget F. ONeill; Arthur R. Zangerl; Evan H. DeLucia; May R. Berenbaum

2008-01-01

299

Phase separation and ordering in InGaN alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

E-print Network

Phase separation and ordering in InGaN alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy D. Doppalapudia phenomena in InGaN alloys produced by molecular beam epitaxy. Films grown at substrate temperatures of 700 annealing to 725 °C, underwent phase separation, similar to those grown at the same temperature. The InGaN

Basu, Soumendra N.

300

Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its invitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.  

PubMed

This study examines the chemical composition and invitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for invitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3?g?mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity. PMID:21939371

Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

2012-01-01

301

Annealing to reduce scattering centers in Czochralski-grown beta-BaB2O4.  

PubMed

When a visible laser beam passes through beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO), scattered light can be observed along the beam within the crystal. Scattering centers caused by structural defects in Czochralski-grown BBO can be reduced by 95% by annealing at 920 degrees C. In the flux-grown BBO, centers actually increase by the same annealing because the process causes microcracks and/or secondary inclusions. It is shown that annealed Czochralski-grown BBO is superior to flux-grown BBO (annealed or as-grown) in terms of optical loss. PMID:18305712

Kouta, H; Kuwano, Y

1999-02-20

302

Characterization of ZnSe Single Crystals Grown by Physical Vapor Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ZnSe bulk crystals were grown by self-seeded physical vapor transport technique in horizontal and vertical configurations. The impurities and defects in the grown crystals were studied by glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS) and low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The PL results on the starting material and the grown crystals are consistent with the low impurity levels measured by GDMS. The crystalline quality of the grown crystals were examined by synchrotron white beam X-ray topography (SWBXT) and high resolution triple X-ray diffraction (HRTXD). The SWBXT shows that, aside from twins, the overall crystalline quality of the vapor grown ZnSe crystals, especially in the contactless grown region, was quite high. The HRTXD results are in line with the SWBXT findings. The comparison between the HRTXD on a chemical-mechanically polished and a cleaved surface seems to indicate that polishing damage can obscure the true microstructure in the as-grown ZnSe crystals.

Su, Ching-Hua; Dudley, M.; Matyi, R.; Feth, S.; Lehoczky, S. L.

1999-01-01

303

Self-doping effects in epitaxially grown graphene  

SciTech Connect

Self-doping in graphene has been studied by examining single-layer epitaxially grown graphene samples with differing characteristic lateral terrace widths. Low energy electron microscopy was used to gain real-space information about the graphene surface morphology, which was compared with data obtained by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the effect of the monolayer graphene terrace width on the low energy dispersions. By altering the graphene terrace width, we report significant changes in the electronic structure and quasiparticle relaxation time of the material, in addition to a terrace width-dependent doping effect.

Siegel, David A.; Zhou, Shuyun Y.; El Gabaly, Farid; Fedorov, Alexei V.; Schmid, Andreas K.; Lanzara, Alessandra

2008-09-19

304

Defects in GaSe grown by Bridgman method.  

PubMed

Optical quality GaSe crystals have been grown by vertical Bridgman method. The structural properties and micromorphology of a cleaved GaSe(001) surface have been evaluated by RHEED, SEM and AFM. The cleaved GaSe(001) is atomically flat with as low roughness as ?0.06 nm excepting local hillock type defects. The hillock-type formations are round-shaped with a bottom diameter of ?200 nm and a height of ?20-35 nm. The drastic depletion of the hillock material by gallium has been indicated by EDX measurements. PMID:25182595

Kokh, K A; Atuchin, V V; Gavrilova, T A; Kozhukhov, A; Maximovskiy, E A; Pokrovsky, L D; Tsygankova, A R; Saprykin, A I

2014-12-01

305

Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through irnovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystal growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a desease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Dr. Marianna Long, associate director of the Center of Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, is a co-investigator on the research. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

1998-01-01

306

Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through innovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystals growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a disease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Champion Deivanaygam, a researcher at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, assists in this work. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

1998-01-01

307

Scientists Inspect Plant Grown onboard the ISS in 2002  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Astroculture (tm) unit is growing plants on its second flight on the International Space Station. Dr. Weijia Zhou (left), director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects soybeans grown in the plant growth unit aboard ISS in 2002. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Partnership Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

2003-01-01

308

Electrical properties of TGS crystals grown by a new technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cooled sting technique used to grow triglycine sulphate (TGS) crystals is investigated. The sting procedure, which achieves supersaturation by cooling the seed crystal mounted on the sting is described and a diagram is provided. Temperature differentials of 1.5 and 1.0 C are optimum for growing (001) and (010) orientation TGS seeds. The data obtained are compared with previous data and good correlation is shown; it is inferred that TGS crystals of any orientation can be grown at a uniform rate of 1 mm/day using this technique.

Batra, A. K.; Lal, R. B.; Aggarwal, M. D.

1985-11-01

309

Stresses in thermally grown alumina scales near edges and corners.  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the residual stress near edges and corners of thermally grown alumina scales. Micro-fluorescence measurements, performed on alloys with composition Fe-5Cr-28Al (at.%, bal. Fe) oxidized at 900 C, showed a large (>50%) reduction in hydrostatic stress in the vicinity of edges and corners. Surprisingly, stress relaxation persists out to distances ten times the scale thickness from the edge. Finite element analysis calculations confirm the experimental results and provide a considerably more detailed picture of the stress distribution and its components.

Grimsditch, M.

1998-06-03

310

Characterization of Cellulolytic Bacterial Cultures Grown in Different Substrates  

PubMed Central

Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30C and agitated at 200?rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1?:?0.2, 1?:?0.3, 1?:?0.4, and 1?:?0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067?DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885?ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248?DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842?ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC. PMID:24319380

Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Sazili, Awis Qurni

2013-01-01

311

InSb thin films grown by electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have grown InSb thin films on Cu substrates using the electrodeposition technique. The electrochemical bath from which the InSb thin films were grown was made up of a mixture of aqueous solutions of 0.05 M InCl3 and 0.03M SbCl3, 0 .20M citric acid and 0.30M sodium citrate. Citric acid and sodium citrate were used as complexing agents to bring the reduction potential of In and Sb closer to maintain binary growth. The electrodeposited films were characterized by structural, morphological and optical studies. X-ray diffraction studies show that the films are polycrystalline InSb having the zinc blende structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. FTIR spectra of InSb thin films show a sharp absorption peak at wave number 1022 cm-1 corresponding to the band gap. Hot probe analysis shows that the InSb thin films have p type conductivity.

Singh, Joginder; Rajaram, P.

2014-04-01

312

Surface-Active Lipids from Nocardia erythropolis Grown on Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Nocardia erythropolis (ATCC 4277) was grown in a 28-liter fermentor on mineral salts medium and 4% hydrocarbon. Extraction of the neutral lipids with pentane removed approximately 90% of the surface activity of the culture medium. The residual surface activity of the culture medium was attributed to the polar lipid fraction which was not extracted with pentane. Analysis of the pentane extracts with thin-layer chromatography showed the presence of four major compounds. A fatty alcohol reached a maximum concentration in the early log phase of growth and then decreased to the end of the fermentation. A monoglyceride, an ester, and a fatty acid appeared during the log phase of growth and continued to increase until the end of the fermentation. The fatty acids isolated from the culture grown on hexadecane had a carbon skeleton with the same length as the substrate, with 70% of the component as the saturated acid and 30% as a monounsaturated homolog. When isolated from a kerosene culture, the fatty acids consisted of a number of homologs from C18 to C20, including branched-chain and unsaturated acids, reflecting the distribution of the branched-chain isomers in the substrate. Images PMID:16345679

Macdonald, Colin R.; Cooper, David G.; Zajic, James E.

1981-01-01

313

Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health. PMID:23326371

Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

2013-01-01

314

Photocurrent spectroscopy of Ge nanoclusters grown on oxidized silicon surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germanium (Ge) nanoclusters are grown by a molecular-beam epitaxy technique on chemically oxidized Si(100) surface at 700C. Evidence for long-term photoinduced changes of surface conductivity in structures with Ge nanoclusters (NCs) grown on silicon oxide is presented. Photoexcitation NCs or Si by quanta with different energy allows observing two non-equilibrium steady-states with excess and shortage of conductivity values as compare to equilibrium one. The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) behaviour was observed after interband excitation of electron-hole pairs in Si(001) substrate. This effect may be attributed to spatial carrier separation of photoexcited electron-hole pairs by macroscopic fields in the depletion layer of near-surface Si. Photoquenching of surface conductivity, driven by optical recharging of Ge NC's and Si/SiO2 interface states, is observed. Conductivity decay is discussed in the terms of hole`s accumulation by Ge-NC states enhancing the local-potential variations and, therefore, decreasing the surface conductivity of p-Si.

Mykytiuk, A. A.; Kondratenko, S. V.; Lysenko, V. S.; Kozyrev, Yu. N.

2014-05-01

315

How good can CVD-grown monolayer graphene be?  

PubMed

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is considered the most promising method for pushing graphene into commercial products. However, CVD grown graphene is usually of low quality. In this work we explore how good can CVD-derived monolayer graphene be. Through the combinational optimization of the main processes of growth, transfer, device fabrication and measurements, we show that the optimized CVD graphene can present performance comparable to mechanical exfoliated ones: in particular, high carrier mobility at room temperature on the Si/SiO2 substrate, perfect electron-hole symmetry and excellent uniformity (the mobility ranged from 5000 to 12?000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with an average mobility of ?8800 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 50% were higher than 10?000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). In addition we found that the adsorbed oxygen and water molecules on graphene lead to p-type doping in graphene, and transferred charges bring charged impurity scattering to the transporting carriers in the graphene channel. It is therefore necessary to carry out electrical measurements under vacuum to obtain high intrinsic carrier mobility CVD grown graphene. PMID:25381813

Chen, Bingyan; Huang, Huixin; Ma, Xiaomeng; Huang, Le; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

2014-12-21

316

Gene expression from plants grown on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three experiments were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006 as part of the TROPI experiments. These experiments were performed to study graviTROPIsm and photoTROPIsm responses of Arabidopsis in microgravity (g). Seedlings were grown with a variety of light and gravitational treatments for approximately five days. The frozen samples were returned to Earth during three space shuttle missions in 2007 and stored at -80 C. Due to the limited amount of plant biomass returned, new protocols were developed to minimize the amount of material needed for RNA extraction as a preparation for microarray analysis. Using these new protocols, RNA was extracted from several sets of seedlings grown in red light followed by blue light with one sample from 1.0g treatment and the other at g. Using a 2-fold change criterion, microarray (Affymetrix, GeneChip) results showed that 613 genes were upregulated in the g sample while 757 genes were downregulated. Upregulated genes in response to g included transcription factors from the WRKY (15 genes), MYB (3) and ZF (8) families as well as those that are involved in auxin responses (10). Downregulated genes also included transcription factors such as MYB (5) and Zinc finger (10) but interestingly only two WRKY family genes were down-regulated during the g treatment. Studies are underway to compare these results with other samples to identify the genes involved in the gravity and light signal transduction pathways (this project is Supported By: NASA NCC2-1200).

Stimpson, Alexander; Pereira, Rhea; Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie

317

Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater.  

PubMed

This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability. Desmodesmus sp. and two mixed cultures were successfully grown on wastewater. Desmodesmus sp. grew rapidly, to a higher maximum biomass concentration of 0.58 g/L. A native mixed culture dominated by Oscillatoria and Arthrospira, reached 0.45 g/L and exhibited the highest lipid and FAME yield. The FAME obtained from ozone-flotation exhibited the greatest oxidative stability, as the degree of saturation was high. In principle ozone could therefore be used as a combined method of harvesting and reducing FAME unsaturation. During microalgae treatment, the total nitrogen in wastewater was reduced by 55.4-83.9%. More importantly, total coliform removal was as high as 99.8%. PMID:24412481

Komolafe, Oladapo; Velasquez Orta, Sharon B; Monje-Ramirez, Ignacio; Yez Noguez, Isaura; Harvey, Adam P; Orta Ledesma, Mara T

2014-02-01

318

Single crystal diamond detectors grown by chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection properties of heteropitaxial (polycrystalline, pCVD) and homoepitaxial (single crystal, scCVD) diamond films grown by microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in the Laboratories of Roma "Tor Vergata" University are reported. The pCVD diamond detectors were tested with ?-particles from different sources and 12C ions produced by 15 MV Tandem accelerator at Southern National Laboratories (LNS) in Catania (Italy). pCVDs were also used to monitor 14 MeV neutrons produced by the D-T plasma at Joint European Torus (JET), Culham, U.K. The limit of pCVDs is the poor energy resolution. To overcome this problem, we developed scCVD diamonds using the same reactor parameters that optimized pCVD diamonds. scCVD were grown on a low cost (1 0 0) HPHT single crystal substrate. A detector 110 ?m thick was tested under ?-particles and under 14 MeV neutron irradiation. The charge collection efficiency spectrum measured under irradiation with a triple ?-particle source shows three clearly resolved peaks, with an energy resolution of about 1.1%. The measured spectra under neutron irradiation show a well separated C(n,?0)9Be12 reaction peak with an energy spread of 0.5 MeV for 14.8 MeV neutrons and 0.3 MeV for 14.1 MeV neutrons, which are fully compatible with the energy spread of the incident neutron beams.

Tuv, C.; Angelone, M.; Bellini, V.; Balducci, A.; Donato, M. G.; Faggio, G.; Marinelli, M.; Messina, G.; Milani, E.; Morgada, M. E.; Pillon, M.; Potenza, R.; Pucella, G.; Russo, G.; Santangelo, S.; Scoccia, M.; Sutera, C.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.

2007-01-01

319

Analysis of Phase Separation in Czochralski Grown Single Crystal Ilmenite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ilmenite (FeTiOs) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with an energy gap of 2.58 eV. Ilmenite has properties suited for radiation tolerant applications, as well as a variety of other electronic applications. Single crystal ilmenite has been grown from the melt using the Czochralski method. Growth conditions have a profound effect on the microstructure of the samples. Here we present data from a variety of analytical techniques which indicate that some grown crystals exhibit distinct phase separation during growth. This phase separation is apparent for both post-growth annealed and unannealed samples. Under optical microscopy, there appear two distinct areas forming a matrix with an array of dots on order of 5 pm diameter. While appearing bright in the optical micrograph, atomic force microscope (AFM) shows the dots to be shallow pits on the surface. Magnetic force microscope (MFM) shows the dots to be magnetic. Phase identification via electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) indicates two major phases in the unannealed samples and four in the annealed samples, where the dots appear to be almost pure iron. This is consistent with micrographs taken with a scanning probe microscope used in the magnetic force mode. Samples that do not exhibit the phase separation have little or no discernible magnetic structure detectable by the MFM.

Wilkins, R.; Powell, Kirk St. A.; Loregnard, Kieron R.; Lin, Sy-Chyi; Muthusami, Jayakumar; Zhou, Feng; Pandey, R. K.; Brown, Geoff; Hawley, M. E.

1998-01-01

320

Respiratory Development in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Grown at Controlled Oxygen Tension  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown in batch culture over a wide range of oxygen concentrations, varying from the anaerobic condition to a maximal dissolved oxygen concentration of 3.5 ?M. The development of cells was assayed by measuring amounts of the aerobic cytochromes aa3, b, c, and c1, the cellular content of unsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol, and the activity of respiratory enzyme complexes. The half-maximal levels of membrane-bound cytochromes aa3, b, and c1, were reached in cells grown in O2 concentrations around 0.1 ?M; this was similar to the oxygen concentration required for half-maximal levels of unsaturated fatty acid and sterol. However, the synthesis of ubiquinone and cytochrome c and the increase in fumarase activity were essentially linear functions of the dissolved oxygen concentration up to 3.5 ?M oxygen. The synthesis of the succinate dehydrogenase, succinate cytochrome c reductase, and cytochrome c oxidase complexes showed different responses to changes in O2 concentration in the growth medium. Cyanide-insensitive respiration and P450 cytochrome content were maximal at 0.25 ?M oxygen and declined in both more anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Cytochrome c peroxidase and catalase activities in cell-free homogenates were high in all but the most strictly anaerobic cells. PMID:4352179

Rogers, P. J.; Stewart, P. R.

1973-01-01

321

Heat Capacity Study of Solution Grown Crystals of Isotactic Polystyrene  

SciTech Connect

We have performed measurements of the specific heat capacity on isotactic polystyrene (iPS) crystals grown from dilute solution. Solution grown crystal (SGC) samples had larger crystal fractions and greatly reduced rigid amorphous fractions compared to their bulk cold-crystallized counterparts. Heat capacity studies were performed from below the glass transition temperature to above the melting temperature by using quasi-isothermal temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and standard DSC. Two or three endotherms are observed, which represent the melting of crystals. The small rigid amorphous fraction relaxes in a wide temperature range from just above the glass transition temperature to just below the first crystal melting endotherm. As in bulk iPS, 1 multiple reversing melting was found in iPS SGCs, supporting the view that double melting in iPS may be due to dual thermal stability distribution existing along one single lamella.2 The impact of reorganization and annealing on the melt endotherms was also investigated. Annealing occurs as a result of the very slow effective heating rate of the quasi-isothermal measurements compared to standard DSC. The improvement of crystal perfection through annealing causes the reversing melting endotherms to occur at a temperature higher than the endotherms seen in the standard DSC scan.

Xu,H.; Cebe, P.

2005-01-01

322

Sludge-Grown Algae for Culturing Aquatic Organisms: Part II. Sludge-Grown Algae as Feeds for Aquatic Organisms  

PubMed

This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae (Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms. PMID:8661608

Wong; Hung; Chiu

1996-05-01

323

Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part II. Sludge-grown algae as feeds for aquatic organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms.

Wong, M. H.; Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.

1996-05-01

324

Root-Shoot lnteraction in the Greening of Wheat Seedlings Grown under Red Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat seedlings grown with roots exposed to constant red light (300-500 pmol m-* s-') did not accumulate chlorophyll in the leaves. In contrast, seedlings grown with their roots shielded from light accumulated chlorophylls. Chlorophyll biosynthesis could be induced in red-light-grown chlorophyll-deficient yellow plants by either reducing the red-light intensity at the root surface to 100 pmol m-'s-' or supplementing with

Baishnab C. Tripathy; Christopher S. Brown

325

Identity of succinate dehydrogenase in chemotrophically and phototrophically grown Rhodospirillum rubrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific succinate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.1 succinate: phenazine methosulfate oxidoreductase) activity of membranes of aerobically grown Rhodospirillum rubrum was found to be 47-fold greater than that of membranes from phototrophically grown cells. The enzymes obtained from cells grown under both conditions were compared in crossed immunoelectrophoresis and were shown to have the same electrophoretic mobility and immunological identity. As succinate

Mary Lynne Perille Collins; Carrie A. Norton Hughes

1983-01-01

326

Growth temperature dependence of transport properties of InAs epilayers grown on GaP  

E-print Network

with a lattice mismatch of 7%. In the present study, InAs was grown on the wide-band-gap semiconductor GaPGrowth temperature dependence of transport properties of InAs epilayers grown on GaP Victor Souwa 23 June 2000 Undoped InAs was grown by molecular-beam epitaxy directly on GaP at a set of different

Woodall, Jerry M.

327

Spheroplast formation and partial purification of microbodies from hydrocarbon-grown cells of Cladosporium resinae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cells ofCladosporium resinae form greater numbers of microbodies when grown onn-alkanes than when grown on glucose. To facilitate isolation of microbodies, hydrocarbon-grown cells were spheroplasted. Of four spheroplasting agents and five osmotic supports examined, best results were obtained after a 4-h incubation with Novozym 234 plus chitinase and with 0.8 M sorbitol as osmotic support. Equal numbers of spheroplasts

David B. Carson; Joseph J. Cooney

1988-01-01

328

Native defects in MBE-grown CdTe  

SciTech Connect

Deep-level traps in both n- and p-type CdTe layers, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates, have been investigated by means of deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Four of the traps revealed in the DLTS spectra, which displayed exponential kinetics for capture of charge carriers into the trap states, have been assigned to native point defects: Cd interstitial, Cd vacancy, Te antisite defect and a complex formed of the Te antisite and Cd vacancy. Three further traps, displaying logarithmic capture kinetics, have been ascribed to electron states of treading dislocations generated at the mismatched interface with the substrate and propagated through the CdTe layer.

Olender, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Makosa, Andrzej; Tkaczyk, Zbigniew; Kolkovsky, Valery; Karczewski, Grzegorz [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikw32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

2013-12-04

329

Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

Photocurrent spectroscopy was used to measure the infrared absorption of germanium-tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy. To study dependence on Sn composition, the photocurrent was measured at 100 K on alloys of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} with atomic percentages of Sn up to 9.8%. The optical absorption coefficient was calculated from the photocurrent, and it was found that the absorption edge and extracted bandgap energy decreased with increasing Sn content. For all Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} samples, a fundamental bandgap below that of bulk Ge was observed, and a bandgap energy as low as 0.624 eV was found for a Sn percentage of 9.8% at 100 K.

Coppinger, Matthew; Hart, John; Bhargava, Nupur; Kim, Sangcheol; Kolodzey, James [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2013-04-08

330

Ancient maize from Chacoan great houses: Where was it grown?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this article, we compare chemical (87Sr/86Sr and elemental) analyses of archaeological maize from dated contexts within Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to potential agricultural sites on the periphery of the San Juan Basin. The oldest maize analyzed from Pueblo Bonito probably was grown in an area located 80 km to the west at the base of the Chuska Mountains. The youngest maize came from the San Juan or Animas river flood-plains 90 km to the north. This article demonstrates that maize, a dietary staple of southwestern Native Americans, was transported over considerable distances in pre-Columbian times, a finding fundamental to understanding the organization of pre-Columbian southwestern societies. In addition, this article provides support for the hypothesis that major construction events in Chaco Canyon were made possible because maize was brought in to support extra-local labor forces.

Benson, L.; Cordell, L.; Vincent, K.; Taylor, H.; Stein, J.; Farmer, G.L.; Futa, K.

2003-01-01

331

Grown organic matter as a fuel raw material resource  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive search was made on biomass production from the standpoint of climatic zones, water, nutrients, costs and energy requirements for many species. No exotic species were uncovered that gave hope for a bonanza of biomass production under culture, location, and management markedly different from those of existing agricultural concepts. A simulation analysis of biomass production was carried out for six species using conventional production methods, including their production costs and energy requirements. These estimates were compared with data on food, fiber, and feed production. The alternative possibility of using residues from food, feed, or lumber was evaluated. It was concluded that great doubt must be cast on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. The feasibility of collecting residues may be nearer, but the competition for the residues for return to the soil or cellulosic production is formidable.

Roller, W. L.; Keener, H. M.; Kline, R. D.; Mederski, H. J.; Curry, R. B.

1975-01-01

332

Pyroelectric nano-rods grown inside alumina nano-pores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the formation and properties of nano-composite pyroelectric thin films. They consist of pyroelectric triglycine sulfate (TGS) single-crystal nano-rods grown inside a highly dense array of alumina pores (about 65 nm diameter and density of 1011 cm -2). The nucleation and growth of the TGS single crystals are obtained by precipitation from a supersaturated aqueous solution. Nucleation is preferred only at the bottom of the pores due to a tight control of temperature, composition and pore diameter. Growth of single crystals with preferred crystallographic orientation is obtained with the aid of an applied electric field. Various crystallographic orientations (1 0 0) (-1 1 0) (-1 2 0) are obtained separately as a single preferred orientation by changing the amplitude of the electric field during crystal growth. The films exhibit ferroelectric behavior.

Nitzani, M.; Berger, S.

2007-03-01

333

Properties of diamond grown from CO2 containing gas chemistries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural, optical and mechanical properties of CVD diamond grown using chemistries on the H-CO tie line have been investigated. A microwave plasma CVD system has been used with methane and ethylene containing gas chemistries to grow free standing optical quality diamond layers. When these feed stock gases are combined with carbon dioxide and hydrogen they enable the H-CO tie line to be traversed up to the central region of the Bachmann growth diagram. The structural properties were assessed using SEM, cathodoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques. The optical properties were assessed using several techniques including measurements of spectral emissivity over a range of temperatures and the role of nitrogen impurities identified. The trends in the optical characteristics will be discussed in relation to differences in mechanical properties with a view of evaluating the viability of using oxygen-based chemistries for the fabrication of diamond components.

Mollart, Tim P.; Lewis, Keith L.; Williams, G. M.

1999-07-01

334

Light-emission from in-situ grown organic nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic crystalline nanofibers made from phenylene-based molecules exhibit a wide range of extraordinary optical properties such as intense, anisotropic and polarized luminescence that can be stimulated either optically or electrically, waveguiding and random lasing. For lighting and display purposes, the high quantum yield and the easy tunability of the color by changing the molecular building blocks are especially important. The application of such nanostructures as electrically driven light-emitters requires integration with suitable metal electrodes for efficient carrier injection. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of a method for achieving such nanostructure integration. The method relies on growing the nanostructures directly between metal electrodes on a substrate that has been specially designed to guide the nanostructures growth. We present results in terms of morphological characterization and demonstrate how appropriate biasing with an AC gate voltage enables electroluminescence from these in-situ grown organic nanostructures.

de Oliveira Hansen, Roana M.; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Gnter

2011-10-01

335

Electrical characterization of plasma-grown oxides on gallium arsenide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma-grown GaAs oxides and their interfaces have been characterized by measuring the electrical properties of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and of Schottky junctions. The current transport mechanism in the oxide at high electrical field was found to be Frankel-Poole emission, with an electron trap center at 0.47 eV below the conduction band of the oxide. The interface-state density, evaluated from capacitance and conductance measurements, exhibits a U-shaped interface-state continuum extending over the entire band gap. Two discrete deep states with high concentration are superimposed on this continuum at 0.40 and 0.70 eV below the conduction band. The results obtained from measurements on Schottky junctions have excluded the possibility that these two deep states originate from plasma damage. Possible origins of these states are discussed in this paper.

Hshieh, F. I.; Bhat, K. N.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

1985-01-01

336

Nutritional value of Agaricus sylvaticus: mushroom grown in Brazil.  

PubMed

The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus), known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the A. sylvaticus mushroom grown in Brazil. Mushrooms were obtained in dehydrated form from a producer in Minas Gerais State. Through this study it was able to observe the fungus' rich chemical composition, highlighting the variety and quantity of minerals as well as its high protein content. There are many components of this mushroom that have medicinal properties, which are recognized as excellent antioxidants. Results also proved that the composition of A. sylvaticus presented differences when compared to the chemical composition of other Agaricaceae fungi. PMID:22732967

Vinhal Costa Orsine, J; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, M R; Ramrez Asquieri, E

2012-01-01

337

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO3 films and their electrochromic characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the synthesis of nanostructured tungsten trioxide (WO3) films and their electrochromic characteristics. Plate-like monoclinic WO3 nanostructures were grown directly on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by a simple and low-cost crystal-seed-assisted hydrothermal method. The growth mechanism of the film is investigated. HRTEM analysis reveals the single crystalline quality of the WO3 nanostructure. The film exhibits tunable transmittance modulation under different voltages and repetitive cycling between the clear and blue states has no deleterious effect on its electrochromic performance after 3000 cycles. The electrochromic device composed of the WO3 film has high electrochromic stability, colour contrast and reasonable switching response with a colouration efficiency of 38.2 cm2 C-1 at 632.8 nm.

Jiao, Zhihui; Sun, Xiao Wei; Wang, Jinmin; Ke, Lin; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

2010-07-01

338

Large-scale oxide nanostructures grown by thermal oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale oxide nanostructures of CuO, Fe2O3, Co3O4, ZnO, etc. were prepared by catalyst-free thermal oxidation process in atmosphere using pure metal as the starting material. Various single crystalline nanostructure arrays, including nanowires, nanobelts, nononeedles, nanoflakes, and nanowalls were obtained. These nanostructures can be grown from bulk materials, like foils or sheet, or from the microsized metal powders and the pre-deposited metal film. The growth time, temperature and substrate have important effects on the morphology, size and distribution of the nanostructures. Different from V-S or V-L-S mechanisms, the growth of nanostructure is found to be based on the metal ion diffusion process. The gradual oxidation process of the metals was clearly demonstrated. The properties of these nanostructures including gas sensing, magnetism, photoluminescence, and field emission were extensively investigated.

Liu, Z. W.; Zhong, M. L.; Tang, C. M.

2014-06-01

339

Some karyological observations on plants grown in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to assess whether cell division in a plant root would be affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Root materials from sunflower, oat, and mung bean plants grown on STS-2 and STS-3 were utilized for the experiments. It is found that all oat, sunflower, and mung seedlings showed a reduced number of cells in division as they went through their first cell division cycle on earth when compared to their ground controls. A significant number of oat, mung, and sunflower plantlets exhibited random root orientation and the lack of strictly orthotropic growth of their shoot systems in the flight samples. In addition, it is found that the mung roots were apparently least affected in terms of their cytology despite the fact that their roots were often randomly oriented.

Krikorian, A. D.; Oconnor, S. A.

1982-01-01

340

Characterization of MPCVD diamond films grown on porous silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrally and temporally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL), micro-Raman spectroscopy and the investigation with a scanning force microscopy in a contact current mode (CCM-SFM) are used for characterizing the properties of diamond films. The diamond films and particles are grown by microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) on top of monocrystalline and porous silicon (PS) surfaces. The PS layers with different thicknesses and porosity are formed on (111) and (100) silicon by anodization in 12 percent HF solution (HF : H2O equals 1 : 3) at constant current density. A 15 keV electron-beam is used for CL excitation. The CL investigations are carried out at 77 K using an optical multichannel analysis system with simultaneous resolutions of (Delta) (lambda) equals0.2 nm and (Delta) tequals1 ns. Complementary Raman analysis has shown that the synthesized films exhibit diamond structure with good crystalline quality. Diamond films on monocrystalline silicon mostly yield a Raman peak shift of 3-5 cm-1 towards higher wave numbers compared to those of natural diamond due to the presence of compressive stress. The presence of PS allows to reduce stress in diamond films up to a peak shift of 1-2 cm-1 under the same deposition conditions. Intensity and FWHM of the cathodoluminescence as well as the FWHM of the Raman spectrum on PS decrease compared to those of silicon. This indicates that PS is superior to monocrystalline silicon concerning the crystalline quality of the diamond films. High- lateral-resolution analysis, in order to correlate the surface topography with the electrical properties of these diamond films, is carried out by a CCM-SFM. From these characterization methods crucial material system parameters are deduced revealing the influence of a thin PS layer on the crystalline and electrical properties of the diamond films grown on top.

Heiderhoff, R.; Spitzl, R.; Maywald, M.; Raiko, V.; Balk, Ludwig J.; Engemann, J.

1994-04-01

341

A Comparison of ZnO Nanowires and Nanorods Grown Using MOCVD and Hydrothermal Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of ZnO nanowires (NWs) and nanorods (NRs) grown using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and hydrothermal synthesis, respectively, on p-Si (100), GaN/sapphire, and SiO2 substrates is reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal that ZnO NWs grown using MOCVD had diameters varying from 20 nm to 150 nm and approximate lengths ranging from 0.7 ?m to 2 ?m. The NWs exhibited clean termination/tips in the absence of any secondary nucleation. The NRs grown using the hydrothermal method had diameters varying between 200 nm and 350 nm with approximate lengths between 0.7 ?m and 1 ?m. However, the NRs grown on p-Si overlapped with each other and showed secondary nucleation. x-Ray diffraction (XRD) of (0002)-oriented ZnO NWs grown on GaN using MOCVD demonstrated a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 0.0498 ( ?) compared with 0.052 ( ?) for ZnO NRs grown on similar substrates using hydrothermal synthesis, showing better crystal quality. Similar crystal quality was observed for NWs grown on p-Si and SiO2 substrates. Photoluminescence (PL) of the NWs grown on p-Si and SiO2 showed a single absorption peak attributed to exciton-exciton recombination. ZnO NWs grown on GaN/sapphire had defects associated with oxygen interstitials and oxygen vacancies.

Rivera, Abdiel; Zeller, John; Sood, Ashok; Anwar, Mehdi

2013-05-01

342

High resolution diffraction imaging of crystals grown in microgravity and closely related terrestrial crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Irregularities found in three crystals grown in space, in four crystals grown entirely on the ground were examined and compared. Irregularities were observed in mercuric iodide, lead tin telluride, triglycine sulfate, and gallium arsenide by high resolution synchrotron x radiation diffraction imaging. Radiation detectors made from mercuric iodide crystals grown in microgravity were reported to perform far better than conventional detectors grown from the same material under full gravity. Effort is now underway to reproduce these 'space' crystals, optimize their properties, and extend comparable superiority to other types of materials.

Steiner, B.; Dobbyn, R.; Black, D.; Burdette, H.; Kuriyama, M.; Spal, R.; Vandenberg, L.; Fripp, A.; Simchick, R.; Lal, R.

1991-01-01

343

Evidence that an internal carbonic anhydrase is present in 5% CO/sub 2/-grown and air-grown Chlamydomonas. [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO/sub 2/. Both air-grown cells, that have a CO/sub 2/ concentrating system, and 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells also accumulated some C/sub i/, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO/sub 2/ fixation by high CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase.

Moroney, J.V.; Togasaki, R.K.; Husic, H.D.; Tolbert, N.E.

1987-07-01

344

Spectroscopic and Thermal Studies of Gel-Grown Copper Malonate Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper malonate crystals were grown using silica gel as the growth medium. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT Raman). The thermal decomposition of the compound was investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) measurements.

Mathew, Varghese; Joseph, Jochan; Jacob, Sabu; Xavier, Lizymol; Abraham, K. E.

345

Mid-Atlantic Consumer Purchasing Behavior and Knowledge of Locally Grown and Seasonal Produce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mid-Atlantic urban consumers were surveyed on their fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviors and their knowledge of produce grown in the region. Consumers were generally unaware of what produce is grown in the mid-Atlantic and during what months they are harvested. Additionally, differences pertaining to number of produce items purchased were

Chamberlain, Amy J.; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Hyde, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

346

Characterization of 3CSiC crystals grown by thermal decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane  

E-print Network

for publication 20 August 1996 Single crystal 3C­SiC platelets, formed by thermal decomposition spectroscopy. Single crystal 3C­SiC platelets have been grown14,15 from the thermal decompositionCharacterization of 3C­SiC crystals grown by thermal decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane A. J

Steckl, Andrew J.

347

76 FR 43533 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Suspension of Handling Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FV11-916/917-5 FIR] Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Suspension of Handling...specified under the California nectarine and peach marketing orders (orders). The interim...regulating the handling of nectarines and peaches grown in California, hereinafter...

2011-07-21

348

76 FR 31295 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FV11-916/917-6] Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal...Federal marketing orders for nectarines and peaches grown in California (orders). Continuance...among growers of California nectarines and peaches in January and February 2011. Fewer...

2011-05-31

349

Biomass, Flavonol Levels and Sensory Characteristics of Allium cultivars Grown Hydroponically at Ambient and  

E-print Network

04ICES-136 Biomass, Flavonol Levels and Sensory Characteristics of Allium cultivars Grown growth chambers to evaluate the effect of elevated CO2 (1200 ppm) versus ambient CO2 (400 ppm) on biomass planting (dap). Regardless of cultivar or dap, plants grown at elevated CO2 had greater biomass

Paré, Paul W.

350

EVOLUTION OF POROSITY AND TEXTURE IN THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS GROWN BY EB-PVD  

E-print Network

EVOLUTION OF POROSITY AND TEXTURE IN THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS GROWN BY EB-PVD Scott G. Terry barrier coatings (TBCs) grown by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) are key factors in determining the coating compliance, and consequently its resistance to spallation, as well as its thermal

Clarke, David R.

351

Identification of optimum potassium nutrition of greenhouse plants grown in recirculating subirrigation  

E-print Network

of this research was to determine the optimum potassium nutrition of greenhouse plants grown in recirculating subirrigation. New Guinea impatiens 'Ovation Salmon Pink Swirl' were grown in recirculating subirrigation trays using 0 -12 mM K, with constant 1.5 mM P...

Blessington, Trisha R.

2012-06-07

352

76 FR 16322 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0011; FV11-929-1] Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts...conducted among eligible growers of cranberries in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode...marketing order regulating the handling of cranberries grown in the production area....

2011-03-23

353

75 FR 5898 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-09-0073; FV10-929-1 PR] Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts...order that regulates the handling of cranberries grown in the States of Massachusetts...order is administered locally by the Cranberry Marketing Committee...

2010-02-05

354

Solanum nigrum grown in contaminated soil: Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zinc accumulation and histolocalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zn tissue accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in a non-contaminated and a naturally contaminated Zn matrix and the effect of inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on metal uptake were assessed. S. nigrum grown in the contaminated soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, accumulating up to 1622mg Zn kg?1. The presence of both Glomus claroideum and

Ana P. G. C. Marques; Rui S. Oliveira; Kalina A. Samardjieva; Jos Pissarra; Antnio O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

2007-01-01

355

Trapping cold atoms using surface-grown carbon nanotubes P. G. Petrov,1,* S. Machluf,1  

E-print Network

Trapping cold atoms using surface-grown carbon nanotubes P. G. Petrov,1,* S. Machluf,1 S. Younis,1 atomic clouds into magnetic traps created by single-wall carbon nanotubes grown directly onto dielectric surfaces. We show that atoms may be captured for experimen- tally sustainable nanotube currents, generating

Joselevich, Ernesto

356

PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR THE ACCUMULATION OF CADMIUM BY CONTAINER-GROWN PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Research into the dietary availability of Cd, a toxic heavy metal, called for prediction of Cd accumulation by edible crop species to be grown to maturity under greenhouse conditions. Examination of the literature revealed that Cd accumulation in plants grown under greenhouse and...

357

Electron Emission Observations from As-Grown and Vacuum-Coated Chemical Vapor Deposited Diamond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field emission has been observed from chemical vapor deposited diamond grown on Mo and Si substrates. Emission was observed at fields as low as 20 kV/cm. The samples were tested in the as-grown form, and after coating with thin films of Au, CsI, and Ni. T...

A. Lamouri, Y. Wang, G. T. Mearini, I. L. Krainsky, J. A. Dayton, W. Mueller

1996-01-01

358

The gravitropic setpoint angle of dark-grown rye seedlings and the role of ethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orientation growth of coleoptiles of dark-grown seedlings of rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Marder II), when grown under various conditions, was analysed with respect to the gravivector ('gravitropic setpoint angle', GSA). Coleoptiles growing through moist ver- miculite attain and maintain a GSA with an average of about 180?, i.e. a vertical orientation. Seedlings growing uncovered either on the surface

Hans G. Edelmann; Gennadi Gudi; Frank Kuhnemann

2002-01-01

359

Electron transport in acetate-grown Methanosarcina acetivorans  

PubMed Central

Background Acetate is the major source of methane in nature. The majority of investigations have focused on acetotrophic methanogens for which energy-conserving electron transport is dependent on the production and consumption of H2 as an intermediate, although the great majority of acetotrophs are unable to metabolize H2. The presence of cytochrome c and a complex (Ma-Rnf) homologous to the Rnf (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation) complexes distributed in the domain Bacteria distinguishes non-H2-utilizing Methanosarcina acetivorans from H2-utilizing species suggesting fundamentally different electron transport pathways. Thus, the membrane-bound electron transport chain of acetate-grown M. acetivorans was investigated to advance a more complete understanding of acetotrophic methanogens. Results A component of the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CdhAE) was partially purified and shown to reduce a ferredoxin purified using an assay coupling reduction of the ferredoxin to oxidation of CdhAE. Mass spectrometry analysis of the ferredoxin identified the encoding gene among annotations for nine ferredoxins encoded in the genome. Reduction of purified membranes from acetate-grown cells with ferredoxin lead to reduction of membrane-associated multi-heme cytochrome c that was re-oxidized by the addition of either the heterodisulfide of coenzyme M and coenzyme B (CoM-S-S-CoB) or 2-hydoxyphenazine, the soluble analog of methanophenazine (MP). Reduced 2-hydoxyphenazine was re-oxidized by membranes that was dependent on addition of CoM-S-S-CoB. A genomic analysis of Methanosarcina thermophila, a non-H2-utilizing acetotrophic methanogen, identified genes homologous to cytochrome c and the Ma-Rnf complex of M. acetivorans. Conclusions The results support roles for ferredoxin, cytochrome c and MP in the energy-conserving electron transport pathway of non-H2-utilizing acetotrophic methanogens. This is the first report of involvement of a cytochrome c in acetotrophic methanogenesis. The results suggest that diverse acetotrophic Methanosarcina species have evolved diverse membrane-bound electron transport pathways leading from ferredoxin and culminating with MP donating electrons to the heterodisulfide reductase (HdrDE) for reduction of CoM-S-S-CoB. PMID:21781343

2011-01-01

360

InGaAs Quantum Well Grown on High-Index Surfaces for Superluminescent Diode Applications  

PubMed Central

The morphological and optical properties of In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs quantum wells grown on various substrates are investigated for possible application to superluminescent diodes. The In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs quantum wells are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100), (210), (311), and (731) substrates. A broad photoluminescence emission peak (~950 nm) with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 48 nm is obtained from the sample grown on (210) substrate at room temperature, which is over four times wider than the quantum well simultaneously grown on (100) substrate. On the other hand, a very narrow photoluminescence spectrum is observed from the sample grown on (311) with FWHM = 7.8 nm. The results presented in this article demonstrate the potential of high-index GaAs substrates for superluminescent diode applications. PMID:20672090

2010-01-01

361

Secretomic survey of Trichoderma harzianum grown on plant biomass substrates.  

PubMed

The present work aims at characterizing T. harzianum secretome when the fungus is grown in synthetic medium supplemented with one of the four substrates: glucose, cellulose, xylan, and sugarcane bagasse (SB). The characterization was done by enzymatic assays and proteomic analysis using 2-DE/MALDI-TOF and gel-free shotgun LC-MS/MS. The results showed that SB induced the highest cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities when compared with the other substrates, while remarkable differences in terms of number and distribution of protein spots in 2-DE gels were also observed among the samples. Additionally, treatment of the secretomes with PNGase F revealed that most spot trails in 2-DE gels corresponded to N-glycosylated proteoforms. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the samples identified 626 different protein groups, including carbohydrate-active enzymes and accessory, noncatalytic, and cell-wall-associated proteins. Although the SB-induced secretome displayed the highest cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities, it did not correspond to a higher proteome complexity because CM-cellulose-induced secretome was significantly more diverse. Among the identified proteins, 73% were exclusive to one condition, while only 5% were present in all samples. Therefore, this study disclosed the variation of T. harzianum secretome in response to different substrates and revealed the diversity of the fungus enzymatic toolbox. PMID:24593137

Gmez-Mendoza, Diana Paola; Junqueira, Magno; do Vale, Luis Henrique Ferreira; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa; Ferreira Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes; Sousa, Marcelo Valle de; Ricart, Carlos Andr Ornelas

2014-04-01

362

N-rich fluid inclusions in octahedrally-grown diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen is generally considered a trace component in the Earth's mantle. Mantle volatiles sampled from mid-ocean ridge basalts or preserved as fluid inclusions in xenoliths are dominated by CO2, with only traces of nitrogen. Here we describe CO2-N2 fluid inclusions with 40 mol% N2 and silicate melt inclusions with ?0.1 wt% dissolved N2 in mantle-derived diamonds from 3 different cratons. The diamonds are octahedrally-grown, which is the most common growth habit and rarely reported to contain fluid inclusions. The inclusions have C/N ratios <1, more than two orders of magnitude below typical mantle values. We propose that nitrogen can become concentrated to high degrees by processes related to diamond growth. A growing diamond does not readily consume the nitrogen available, suggesting incompatible behaviour. Residual N2 from this process represents a concentrated nitrogen flux escaping the convecting mantle. Hidden nitrogen fluxes like this might be significant in counteracting the large apparent net influx by subduction. Based on nitrogen and carbon speciation in the inclusions, we propose that redox processes control the liberation of nitrogen from the convecting mantle, by the oxidation of NH+4 in silicates to mobile N2, concurrent with a parallel oxidation process releasing carbonate melt from the asthenosphere. Isotopic fractionation accompanying changes in nitrogen speciation could help account for the apparent isotopic mismatch between surficial and mantle nitrogen.

Smith, Evan M.; Kopylova, Maya G.; Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Afanasiev, Valentin P.

2014-05-01

363

Ethylene Inhibits Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus Grown on Peanuts  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus synthesize aflatoxins when they grow on a variety of susceptible food and feed crops. These mycotoxins are among the most carcinogenic naturally occurring compounds known and they pose significant health risks to humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that ethylene and CO2 act alone and together to reduce aflatoxin synthesis by A. parasiticus grown on laboratory media. To demonstrate the potential efficacy of treatment of stored seeds and grains with these gases, we tested ethylene and CO2 for ability to inhibit aflatoxin accumulation on Georgia Green peanuts stored for up to 5 days. We demonstrated an inverse relationship between A. parasiticus spore inoculum size and the level of toxin accumulation. We showed that ethylene inhibits aflatoxin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner on peanuts; CO2 also inhibits aflatoxin synthesis over a narrow dose range. Treatments had not discernable effect on mold growth. These observations support further exploration of this technology to reduce aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops in the field and during storage. PMID:17418318

Gunterus, A.; Roze, L.V.; Beaudry, R.; Linz, J. E.

2007-01-01

364

Screw dislocations in GaN grown by different methods  

SciTech Connect

A study of screw dislocations in Hydride-Vapor-Phase-Epitaxy (HVPE) template and Molecular-Beam-Epitaxy (MBE) over-layers was performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in plan-view and in cross-section. It was observed that screw dislocations in the HVPE layers were decorated by small voids arranged along the screw axis. However, no voids were observed along screw dislocations in MBE overlayers. This was true both for MBE samples grown under Ga-lean and Ga-rich conditions. Dislocation core structures have been studied in these samples in the plan-view configuration. These experiments were supported by image simulation using the most recent models. A direct reconstruction of the phase and amplitude of the scattered electron wave from a focal series of high-resolution images was applied. It was shown that the core structures of screw dislocations in the studied materials were filled. The filed dislocation cores in an MBE samples were stoichiometric. However, in HVPE materials, single atomic columns show substantial differences in intensities and might indicate the possibility of higher Ga concentration in the core than in the matrix. A much lower intensity of the atomic column at the tip of the void was observed. This might suggest presence of lighter elements, such as oxygen, responsible for their formation.

Liliental-Weber, Z.; Zakharov, D.; Jasinski, J.; O'Keefe, M.A.; Morkoc, H.

2003-05-27

365

Properties of GaN grown on sapphire substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Epitaxial growth of GaN on sapphire substrates using an open-tube growth furnace has been carried out to study the effects of substrate orientation and transfer gas upon the properties of the layers. It has been found that for the (0001) substrates, surface appearance was virtually independent of carrier gas and of doping levels. For the (1(-1)02) substrates surface faceting was greatly reduced when He was used as a transfer gas as opposed to H2. Faceting was also reduced when the GaN was doped with Zn, and the best surfaces for the (1(-1)02) substrates were obtained in a Zn-doped run using He as the transfer gas. The best sample in terms of electrical properties for the (1(-1)02) substrate had a mobility greater than 400 sq cm/V per sec and a carrier concentration of about 10 to the 17th per cu cm. This sample was undoped and used He as the transfer gas. The best (0001) sample was also grown undoped with He as the transfer gas and had a mobility of 300 sq cm/V per sec and a carrier concentration of 1 x 10 to the 18th per cu cm.

Crouch, R. K.; Debnam, W. J.; Fripp, A. L.

1978-01-01

366

Semiconductor components for femtosecond semiconductor disk lasers grown by MOVPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diode-pumped semiconductor disk lasers (SCDLs), also known as optically-pumped semiconductor vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (OPS-VECSELs), are promising light sources for achieving high output power in combination with nearly diffraction-limited beam quality as well as for generating short pulses at very high repetition rates. Combining a SCDL gain section with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SAM) and a pump laser diode allows for simple mode-locked all-semiconductor laser designs. The design of these SAM and SCDL gain structures grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is presented discussing the different approaches to obtain short pulses. For the SAM structures the common design using an As-implanted and annealed quantum well (QW) was replaced by a structure using a surface-near QW, which caused a significant reduction of the relaxation time. SCDL gain structures with 4-13 QWs and different barrier designs were tested. The shortest pulses were achieved with an asymmetric 4-QW-graded-index barrier design. Pumping this optimized SCDL gain element with an 840 nm laser diode, pulses as short as 290 fs at a repetition rate of 3 GHz and a wavelength of 1036 nm have been obtained.

Zorn, M.; Klopp, P.; Saas, F.; Ginolas, A.; Krger, O.; Griebner, U.; Weyers, M.

2008-11-01

367

Calcium oxalates grown in human urine under different batch conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallisation in solution is often studied as it is the major crystalline phase in kidney stones, and as such contributes to a large proportion of pathological mineralisation. A variety of different methods are used to produce CaOx in urine, particularly with the goal of investigating mineral/organic interactions. Interpretation of growth phenomena in these studies often neglects the methodological differences, which are not always trivial. CaOx was grown simultaneously from a single pool of urine using six different protocols comparable to those found in the literature. The variations between the CaOx populations generated was great, with CaOx trihydrate detected as the most common hydromorph in two of the methods used, even though it is usually discounted in stone research. Crystal morphologies, density, particle size and surface area varied in all the methods tested, and a common technique used to remove organic matter from the crystal surface resulted in total phase transformation in one of the crystal populations. In conclusion, inter-assay comparisons of CaOx product are likely to be meaningless unless strict protocols are adhered to. Results indicate that certain crystalline properties considered relevant to stone formation may actually be a symptom of the experimental conditions.

Walton, R. C.; Kavanagh, J. P.; Heywood, B. R.; Rao, P. N.

2005-11-01

368

Gold coverage and faceting of MBE grown silicon nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the faceting of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown nanowires and the post-growth repartition of the gold used as catalyst. Electron microscopy analysis are performed using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy - High Angle Annular Dark Field (STEM-HAADF), electron tomography, and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to collect complementary information. The nanowires present very little to no faceting at the very top, very close to the catalyst, suggesting the nanowires grow with a quasi-circular section at the early stages of growth. The nanowires are then found to have an hexagonal and/or dodecagonal section and present a finer saw-tooth faceting on the main faces. We find gold clusters spread on the surfaces of the nanowires, but we could not observe any gold inside the nanowires. Furthermore, the gold coverage is uneven on the different facets of the nanowire. The creation of these facets and the gold coverage are two linked phenomena balancing each other.

David, Thomas; Roussel, Luc; Neisius, Thomas; Cabie, Martiane; Gailhanou, Marc; Alfonso, Claude

2013-11-01

369

Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.  

PubMed

As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. PMID:23837648

Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

2013-11-01

370

Epitaxially-Grown GaN Junction Field Effect Transistors  

SciTech Connect

Junction field effect transistors (JFET) are fabricated on a GaN epitaxial structure grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The DC and microwave characteristics of the device are presented. A junction breakdown voltage of 56 V is obtained corresponding to the theoretical limit of the breakdown field in GaN for the doping levels used. A maximum extrinsic transconductance (gm) of 48 mS/mm and a maximum source-drain current of 270 mA/mm are achieved on a 0.8 m gate JFET device at VGS= 1 V and VDS=15 V. The intrinsic transconductance, calculated from the measured gm and the source series resistance, is 81 mS/mm. The fT and fmax for these devices are 6 GHz and 12 GHz, respectively. These JFETs exhibit a significant current reduction after a high drain bias is applied, which is attributed to a partially depleted channel caused by trapped hot-electrons in the semi-insulating GaN buffer layer. A theoretical model describing the current collapse is described, and an estimate for the length of the trapped electron region is given.

Baca, A.G.; Chang, P.C.; Denbaars, S.P.; Lester, L.F.; Mishra, U.K.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Zhang, L.; Zolper, J.C.

1999-05-19

371

[Characterization of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) grown in Venezuela].  

PubMed

In recent years, the consumption of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been promoted as a functional food for its health benefits, mainly attributable to its content of omega-3 fatty acids, lignans and dietary fiber. This study evaluated the microbiological quality, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of flaxseed grown in Venezuela and compared them to the values of a Canadian variety widely sold in the country. Total coliforms, molds and yeasts, S. aureus and sporulated of the genera Bacillus (aerobic) and Clostridium (anaerobic), moisture, fat, protein, total dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble, mucilage, minerals, fatty acid profile, equivalent HCN content, aw, color, polyphenols and antioxidant properties, like antiradical efficiency (AE), concentration of antioxidant needed to decrease the initial concentration by 50 %EC50) and the time required to reach the EC50 (TEC50) were evaluated. Significant differences in seed composition were determined, where its high content of fat, protein, alfa-linolenic acid and dietary fiber stand out. Differences were observed in the mucilage content, but not in soluble, insoluble and total fiber content. Equivalent HCN concentration in both seeds is in the order of 40 mg/100 g, which poses no health risks, considering their consumption patterns. Venezuelan flaxseed contains higher content of polyphenols than the Canadian does, but the antioxidant capacity of the latter is higher; both have an EA rated as average and a slow reaction time (TEC50 > 30 min). PMID:23610908

Cuevas, Zoitza Ostojich; Sangronis, Elba

2012-06-01

372

Factors affecting radionuclide availability to vegetables grown at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

A field study was conducted in 1977 on /sup 238/ /sup 239/Pu and /sup 137/Cs availability to zucchini squash (Curcurbita melopepo, hybrid seneca) and green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, Landreths stringless) grown under home-garden conditions in an area at Los Alamos National Laboratory used for treated radioactive liquid waste disposal. Radionuclide concentrations were measured as a function of tissue type, height above the soil, fertilization regime, and for the squash, food-cleansing procedures. Analysis of variance procedures was used to analyze the data. Ratios of the concentration of a radionuclide in oven-dried vegetation to dry soil ranged from 0.0004 to 0.116 for the Pu isotopes, and from 0.051 to 0.255 for /sup 137/Cs. Fertilization with cattle manure reduced the Pu concentration ratios by 30% and /sup 137/Cs by 50%. Vegetative parts sampled within 20 cm of the ground surface were contaminated about four times as much as those parts growing further from the ground surface. About 65% of the contamination was removed by washing, indicating the presence of surficial contamination. The 50-year radiation dose commitment to humans consuming vegetables from the garden plot would be less than 0.05 mrem and would be due almost entirely to /sup 137/Cs.

White, G.C.; Hakonson, T.E.; Ahlquist, A.J.

1981-07-01

373

Listeria monocytogenes Grown at 7?C Shows Reduced Acid Survival and an Altered Transcriptional Response to Acid Shock Compared to L. monocytogenes Grown at 37?C  

PubMed Central

Survival of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in acidic environments (e.g., in the human stomach) is vital to its transmission. Refrigerated, ready-to-eat foods have been sources of listeriosis outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether growth at a low temperature (i.e., 7C) affects L. monocytogenes survival or gene transcription after exposure to a simulated gastric environment (i.e., acid shock at 37C). L. monocytogenes cells grown at 7C were less resistant to artificial gastric fluid (AGF) or acidified brain heart infusion broth (ABHI) than bacteria grown at higher temperatures (i.e., 30C or 37C). For L. monocytogenes grown at 7C, stationary-phase cells were more resistant to ABHI than log-phase cells, indicating that both temperature and growth phase affect acid survival. Microarray transcriptomic analysis revealed that the number and functional categories of genes differentially expressed after acid shock differed according to both growth temperature and growth phase. The acid response of L. monocytogenes grown to log phase at 37C involved stress-related transcriptional regulators (i.e., ?B, ?H, CtsR, and HrcA), some of which have been implicated in adaptation to the intracellular environment. In contrast, for bacteria grown at 7C to stationary phase, acid exposure did not result in differential expression of the stress regulons examined. However, two large operons encoding bacteriophage-like proteins were induced, suggesting lysogenic prophage induction. The adaptive transcriptional response observed in 37C-grown cells was largely absent in 7C-grown cells, suggesting that temperatures commonly encountered during food storage and distribution affect the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive gastric passage and ultimately cause disease. PMID:22447604

Ivy, R. A.; Wiedmann, M.

2012-01-01

374

As-grown deep-level defects in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on freestanding GaN  

SciTech Connect

Traps of energy levels E{sub c}-0.26 and E{sub c}-0.61 eV have been identified as as-grown traps in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition by using deep level transient spectroscopy of the Schottky contacts fabricated by resistive evaporation. The additional traps of E{sub c}-0.13 and E{sub c}-0.65 eV have been observed in samples whose contacts are deposited by electron-beam evaporation. An increase in concentration of the E{sub c}-0.13 and E{sub c}-0.65 eV traps when approaching the interface between the contact and the GaN film supports our argument that these traps are induced by electron-beam irradiation. Conversely, the depth profiles of as-grown traps show different profiles between several samples with increased or uniform distribution in the near surface below 50 nm. Similar profiles are observed in GaN grown on a sapphire substrate. We conclude that the growth process causes these large concentrations of as-grown traps in the near-surface region. It is speculated that the finishing step in the growth process should be an essential issue in the investigation of the surface state of GaN.

Chen Shang; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Honda, Unhi; Shibata, Tatsunari; Matsumura, Toshiya; Tokuda, Yutaka [Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Kachi, Tetsu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Yokomichi, Nagakute 480-1192 (Japan)

2012-09-01

375

75 FR 43039 - Fresh Prunes Grown in Designated Counties in Washington and in Umatilla County, OR; Suspension of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prunes Grown in Designated Counties in Washington and in Umatilla County, OR; Suspension...assessment requirements prescribed under the Washington-Oregon fresh prune marketing order...prunes grown in designated counties in Washington and in Umatilla County, Oregon,...

2010-07-23

376

Oxygen isotopes in calcite grown under cave-analogue conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speleothem oxygen isotopes and growth rates are valuable proxies for reconstructing climate history. There is debate, however, about the conditions that allow speleothems to grow in oxygen isotope equilibrium, and about the correct equilibrium fractionation factors. We report results from a series of carbonate growth experiments in karst-analogue conditions in the laboratory. The setup closely mimics natural processes (e.g. precipitation driven by CO 2-degassing, low ionic strength solution, thin solution film) but with a tight control on growth conditions (temperature, pCO 2, drip rate, calcite saturation index and the composition of the initial solution). Calcite is dissolved in water in a 20,000 ppmV pCO 2 environment. This solution is dripped onto glass plates (coated with seed-carbonate) in a lower pCO 2 environment (<2500 ppmV), where degassing leads to calcite growth. Experiments were performed at 7, 15, 25 and 35 C. At each temperature, calcite was grown at three drip rates (2, 6 and 10 drips per minute) on separate plates. The mass of calcite grown in these experiments varies with temperature ( T in K) and drip rate ( d_ r in drips min -1) according to the relationship daily growth mass = 1.254 + 1.478 ? 10 -9 ? e0.0679 T + ( e0.00248 T - 2) ? (-0.779 d_ r2 + 10.05 d_ r + 11.69). This relationship indicates a substantial increase of growth mass with temperature, a smaller influence of drip rate on growth mass at low temperature and a non-linear relationship between drip rate and growth mass at higher temperatures. Low temperature, fast dripping conditions are found to be the most favourable for reducing effects associated with evaporation and rapid depletion of the dissolved inorganic carbon reservoir (rapid DIC-depletion). The impact of evaporation can be large so caves with high relative humidity are also preferable for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Even allowing for the maximum offsets that may have been induced by evaporation and rapid DIC-depletion, ? 18O measured in some of our experiments remain higher than those predicted by Kim and O'Neil (1997). Our new results are well explained by equilibrium at a significantly higher ?calcite-water, with a kinetic-isotope effect that favours 16O incorporation as growth rate increases. This scenario agrees with recent studies by Coplen (2007) and Dietzel et al. (2009). Overall, our results suggest that three separate processes cause ? 18O to deviate from true isotope equilibrium in the cave environment. Two of these drive ? 18O to higher values (evaporation and rapid DIC-depletion) while one drives ? 18O to lower values (preferential incorporation of 16O in the solid carbonate at faster growth rates). While evaporation and DIC-depletion can be avoided in some settings, the third may be inescapable in the cave environment and means that any temperature to ? 18O relationship is an approximation. The controlled conditions of the present experiments also display limitations in the use of the Hendy test to identifying equilibrium growth.

Day, C. C.; Henderson, G. M.

2011-07-01

377

Fatty Acid Composition of Cladosporium resinae Grown on Glucose and on Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Cladosporium resinae was grown in submerged cultures on glucose; on Jet-A commercial aviation fuel; and on a series of n-alkanes, n-decane through n-tetradecane. Cell yield was greatest on glucose and least on Jet-A; n-alkanes were intermediate. Among n-alkanes cell yield decreased as chain length increased, except for n-dodecane, which supported less growth than n-tridecane or n-tetradecane. The total fatty acids of stationary-phase cells were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. In all cases the predominant fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1, and 18:2. The fatty acid composition of glucose-grown cells was similar to that of hydrocarbon-grown cells. Cells grown on n-tridecane or n-tetradecane yielded small amounts of acids homologous to the carbon source, but a similar correlation was not noted for n-decane, n-undecane, or n-dodecane. Cells grown on n-undecane or n-tridecane contained more odd-carbon fatty acids than cells grown on the other substrates, and the effect was more pronounced in n-tridecane-grown cells. Thus, the fatty acids of this organism are derived chiefly from de novo synthesis rather than from direct incorporation of oxidized hydrocarbons. The extent of direct incorporation increases as the chain length of the hydrocarbon growth substrate is increased. PMID:5166858

Cooney, J. J.; Proby, C. M.

1971-01-01

378

Optical, structural, thermal and dielectric spectroscopy characterizations of seeded melt grown 2-hydroxy biphenyl single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic single crystal of 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HB) was grown by top seeded melt growth method. Scanning electron microscopy studies has been carried out on the surface of the grown crystals to investigate the nature of growth and defects. The crystalline perfection and lattice parameters of 2-HB has been determined by single crystal XRD analysis and it belongs to orthorhombic crystal system with space group Fdd2. The functional groups and molecular associations were confirmed by FT-IR. The optical characteristics such as cut-off and transmittance were carried out using UV-Vis-NIR spectra. Absence of absorption in the region between 320 and 1100 nm makes the grown crystal desirable to optical applications. Thermal stability of grown crystals was characterized by thermogravimetric (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses. Broadband dielectric studies reveals that dielectric constant of grown crystal is low. The resistivity of grown crystal was studied by impedance analysis. The second harmonic generation intensity of 3.8 mJ was studied. The grown crystal belongs to soft material studied by hardness test.

Sadhasivam, S.; Rajesh, Narayana Perumal

2014-09-01

379

GaN/SiC heterojunctions grown by LP CVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterojunction bipolar transistors (HJBT) on the basis of GaN/SiC heterostructures have several advantages over group III nitride heterostructures grown on sapphire. For example 6H-SiC has less of a thermal and structural mismatch to GaN than sapphire has. Furthermore there is not the problem of optical recombination in a highly doped base region as there is for the group III nitrides on account of their direct bandgap. However, despite the well acknowledged potential of the GaN/SiC material system there are still unanswered questions relating to the technology used as well as to some fundamental properties of GaN/SiC heterostructures. Therefore we investigated epitaxial growth and physical properties of n-GaN/ p-SiC heterojunctions with respect to their significance to n-GaN/ p-SiC/ n-SiC HJBT. We grew n-type GaN ( n=10 18 cm -3) on p-type ( p=210 18 cm -3) and n-type ( n=410 18 cm -3) 6H-SiC substrates in a horizontal hot wall reactor. This approach is very similar to the more common HVPE. Instead of synthesizing GaCl in situ from HCl and metallic Ga we used GaCl 3 as the Ga precursor. All our experiments were carried out at low pressures around 1 mbar resulting in a good homogeneity. As it is common for the more usual HVPE we grew GaN without a buffer layer. From thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS) as well as temperature dependent I- V characteristics we gained knowledge about deep level defects and the role of interface traps. The microstructure of the interface was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore we present details about device processing by ion beam sputter etching with carbon dioxide (CO 2) as the working gas.

Topf, Michael; Cavas, Fehmi; Meyer, Bruno K.; Kempf, Bertilo; Krtschil, Andre; Witte, Hartmut; Veit, Peter; Christen, Jrgen

2000-02-01

380

Photosynthesis of individual field-grown cotton leaves during ontogeny.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic characteristics of field-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves were determined at several insertion levels within the canopy during the growing season. Single-leaf measurements of net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance to CO2 (gsCO2), substomatal CO2, leaf area expansion, leaf nitrogen, and light intensity (PPFD) were recorded for undisturbed leaves within the crop canopy at 3-4 day intervals during the development of all leaves at main-stem nodes 8, 10, and 12. Patterns of Pn during leaf ontogeny exhibited three distinct phases; a rapid increase to maximum at 16-20 days after leaf unfolding, a relatively short plateau, and a period of linear decline to negligible Pn at 60-65 days. Analysis of the parameters which contributed to the rise and fall pattern of Pn with leaf age indicated the primary involvement of leaf area expansion, leaf nitrogen, PPFD, and gsCO2 in this process. The response of Pn and gsCO2 to incident PPFD conditions during canopy development was highly age dependent. For leaves less than 16 days old, the patterns of Pn and gsCO2 were largely controlled by non-PPFD factors, while for older leaves Pn and gsCO2 were more closely coupled to PPFD-mediated processes. Maximum values of Pn were not significantly different for any of the leaves monitored in this study, however, those leaves at main-stem node 8 did possess a significantly diminished photosynthetic capacity with age compared to upper canopy leaves. This accelerated decline in Pn could not be explained by age-related variations in gsCO2 since all leaves showed similar changes in gsCO2 with leaf age. PMID:24421058

Wullschleger, S D; Oosterhuis, D M

1990-02-01

381

Multiband spectral emitters matched to MBE grown photovoltaic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clearly TPV devices are of considerable interest for power generation. For practical devices it is desirable to have high efficiencies combined with low temperature operation. Photovoltaic cells which can convert the energy at the longer wavelengths of interest are needed to complete such a system. The spectral emission peak of Yb2O3 is well matched to the band gap of Si; however, the longer wavelength, spectral emissions of other rare earth oxides can also be exploited through the use of III-V semiconductor compounds such as GaSb or alloys of GaInAsSb. By doping GaSb with InAs, the band gap of the resulting material can be effectively varied depending upon the concentration of InAs in the quaternary alloy. The ability to tailor the emitter materials and, in conjunction, the photovoltaic materials leads to greater efficiencies through spectral matching. Two binary rare earth oxide combinations, Er2O3/Ho2O3 and Er2O3/Yb2O3, were studied. The mixtures were found to give multiple peak spectral emission in the wavelengths of interest. The intensity of the peaks were compositionally dependent though it did not vary in a linear fashion. Photon efficiencies of the molecular beam epitaxially (MBE) grown GaSb cell and GaInAsSb quaternary cell were measured when used in conjunction with the Er2O3/Ho2O3 emitters in which the concentration of Er2O3 and Ho2O3 were varied. The results demonstrated promise for further work.

Wong, Eva M.; Hickey, Jeffrey P.; Holmquist, Glenn A.; Uppal, Parvez N.; Waldman, Cye H.

1996-02-01

382

Multiband spectral emitters matched to MBE grown photovoltaic cells  

SciTech Connect

Clearly TPV devices are of considerable interest for power generation. For practical devices it is desirable to have high efficiencies combined with low temperature operation. Photovoltaic cells which can convert the energy at the longer wavelengths of interest are needed to complete such a system. The spectral emission peak of Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} is well matched to the band gap of Si; however, the longer wavelength, spectral emissions of other rare earth oxides can also be exploited through the use of III{endash}V semiconductor compounds such as GaSb or alloys of GaInAsSb. By doping GaSb with InAs, the band gap of the resulting material can be effectively varied depending upon the concentration of InAs in the quaternary alloy. The ability to tailor the emitter materials and, in conjunction, the photovoltaic materials leads to greater efficiencies through spectral matching. Two binary rare earth oxide combinations, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were studied. The mixtures were found to give multiple peak spectral emission in the wavelengths of interest. The intensity of the peaks were compositionally dependent though it did not vary in a linear fashion. Photon efficiencies of the molecular beam epitaxially (MBE) grown GaSb cell and GaInAsSb quaternary cell were measured when used in conjunction with the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} emitters in which the concentration of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} were varied. The results demonstrated promise for further work. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Wong, E.M.; Hickey, J.P.; Holmquist, G.A. [Quantum Group Inc., 11211 Sorrento Valley Road, San Diego, California 92121-1324 (United States); Uppal, P.N. [Lockhead-Martin Labs., 1450 South Rolling Road, Baltimore, Maryland 21227-3898 (United States); Waldman, C.H. [Consultant, P.O. Box 231157, San Diego, California 92023-1157 (United States)

1996-02-01

383

Pesticide residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and organic foods: insights from three US data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of pesticide residue data was performed to describe and quantify differences between organically grown and non-organic fresh fruits and vegetables. Data on residues in foods from three different market categories (conventionally grown, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown\\/no detectable residues (NDR), and organically grown) were compared using data from three test programmes: The Pesticide Data Program of the US Department

B. P. Bakery; C. M. Benbrook; E. Groth III; K. Lutz Benbrook

2002-01-01

384

Characterization of Semi-Insulating CdTe Crystals Grown by Horizontal Seeded Physical Vapor Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CdTe crystals were grown by horizontal seeded physical vapor transport technique in uncoated and boron nitride coated fused silica ampoules with the source materials near the congruent sublimation condition. The grown crystals were characterized by current-voltage measurements, low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy, near IR transmission optical microscopy, spark source mass spectroscopy and chemical etching. The measured resistivities of the crystals were in the high-10(exp 8) ohm-cm range. Although the crystal grown in the boron nitride coating was contaminated with boron from the photoluminescence measurements, the coating yielded a single crystal with no inclusions or precipitates.

Chattopadhyay, K.; Feth, S.; Chen, H.; Burger, A.; Su, Ching-Hua

1998-01-01

385

Reduction of threading dislocation density in Al XGa 1- XN grown on periodically grooved substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth technique using periodically grooved substrates to prepare a GaN single crystal with low dislocation density. By this technique, GaN single crystals have been grown without a selective growth mask or GaN single crystal seeds. Moreover, the AlGaN single crystal, which is important for optoelectronic devices in the UV region, can also be grown using this technique. The reduction of the threading dislocation density in Al XGa 1- XN single crystals grown on periodically grooved substrates was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

Mochizuki, Shingo; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Sano, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu

2002-04-01

386

High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates.  

PubMed

GaN films grown on PSS are investigated by XRD, CL, SEM and TEM. There are low threading dislocations (TDs) with larger fill factor, which results in better electrostatic discharge (ESD) yield of LEDs. The effect of growth rate on dislocations in GaN films grown on PSS is investigated by TEM. It is found that dislocations density decreases as the growth rates decrease. And the performance of InGaN-based LEDs on different PSS is analyzed. The performance of LEDs grown on different PSS is determined by slanted angle and fill factor simultaneously. PMID:21747566

Huang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jian-Ping; Kong, Jun-Jie; Yang, Hui; Wang, Huai-Bing

2011-07-01

387

Characterization of Si(100) homoepitaxy grown in the STM at low temperatures  

SciTech Connect

We explore the growth of low-temperature bulk-like Si(100) homoepitaxy with regard to microscopic surface roughness and defects We characterize films grown at different temperatures up to 500K in-situ by means of an effusion cell added to our UHVSTM. The development of novel architectures for future generation computers calls for high-quality homoepitaxial (WOO) grown at low temperature. Even though Si(100) can be grown crystalline up to a limited thickness: the microstructure reveals significant small-scale surface roughness and defects specific to low-temperature growth. Both can he detrimental to fabrication and operation of small-scale electronic devices.

Grube, H. (Holger); Brown, G. W. (Geoffrey W.); Pomeroy, J. M. (Joshua M.); Hawley, M. E. (Marilyn E.)

2002-01-01

388

Influence of film growth conditions on carrier mobility of hot wall epitaxially grown fullerene based transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot wall epitaxially grown C 60 based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) show relatively high electron mobilities of 0.4-1 cm 2/Vs. We report results of thin film grown with various growth conditions such as preheating and initial substrate temperatures resulting in strikingly different fullerene film nanomorphology. The mobility is enhanced up to 3 cm 2/Vs for films grown at a substrate temperatures of 130 C. This improvement in the mobility is explained in terms of a transition from a disordered interface consisting of small-elongated grains to a well-ordered C 60 film with bigger and rounder grains.

Montaigne Ramil, A.; Singh, Th. B.; Haber, N. T.; Marjanovi?, N.; Gnes, S.; Andreev, A.; Matt, G. J.; Resel, R.; Sitter, H.; Sariciftci, S.

2006-02-01

389

Structure of droplet-epitaxy-grown InAs/GaAs quantum dots  

SciTech Connect

We have used a direct x-ray phasing method, coherent Bragg rod analysis, to obtain sub-angstrom resolution electron density maps of the InAs/GaAs dot system. The dots were grown by the droplet heteroepitaxy (DHE) technique and their structural and compositional properties are compared with those of dots grown by the strain-driven Stranski-Krastanov method. Our results show that the Ga diffusion into the DHE-grown dots is somewhat larger; however, other characteristics such as the composition of the dots uppermost layers, the interlayer spacing, and the bowing of the atomic layers are similar.

Cohen, Eyal; Yochelis, Shira; Westreich, Ohad; Shusterman, Sergey; Kumah, Divine P.; Clarke, Roy; Yacoby, Yizhak; Paltiel, Yossi (Michigan); (Hebrew); (Soreq NRC, Israel)

2011-09-06

390

Photosynthetic adaptation of pea plants grown at different light intensities: State 1 - State 2 transitions and associated chlorophyll fluorescence changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of pea plants grown at different light intensities has been made. Using a leaf oxygen electrode, it was shown that plants grown under low light intensities had lower saturated rates of photosynthesis than high-light-grown plants however, at low light intensities the photosynthetic rates were similar for both types of plants. State 1- State 2 transitions have been monitored

M. Hodges; J. Barber

1983-01-01

391

Electrical transport properties of n-type (110)-oriented bismuth thin films grown at 110 K on glass substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and properties of the Bi thin films, grown by pulsed laser deposition at 110 K on glass substrates in vacuum, were found to be very different from those grown at higher temperatures. The preferred orientation of the films changed from (111), when grown at room temperature, to (110), as characterized by x-ray diffraction. The films became very smooth

Keng Shuo Wu; Ming Yau Chern

2008-01-01

392

Minirhizotron imaging reveals that nodulation of field-grown soybean is enhanced by free-air CO2  

E-print Network

Minirhizotron imaging reveals that nodulation of field-grown soybean is enhanced by free-air CO2.Thisstudyutilisedminirhizotronimagingasanovelinsitumethodforassessingthenumber,sizeanddistribution of nodules in field-grown soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) and reduced precipitation. We found that nodule numbers were 134­229% greater in soybeans grown at elevated

Homes, Christopher C.

393

CONTENIDO DE NITRATOS EN LECHUGAS CULTIVADAS EN SISTEMAS HIDROPNICOS 1 NITRATE CONTENT IN LETTUCES GROWN IN HYDROPONIC SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrate content in leafy vegetables grown in hydroponic systems was studied. High levels of nitrate may be hazardous to human health. The European Commission indicates that lettuce plants grown in a greenhouse in winter should contain a nitrate concentration below 4,500 mg\\/kg (fresh weight). This study determined the nitrate contents of lettuces grown by float and nutrient film technique

Gilda Carrasco; Jaime Tapia; Miguel Urrestarazu

2006-01-01

394

Biomass and nitrogen traits of summer pigeon peas and winter wheat grown for three rotations in containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] cultivars, Georgia-1 and ICPL-87, were grown without inoculation and with Bradyrhizobium inoculation (multistrain, TAL 1127, or TAL 1132) to evaluate legume dry weight (DW) and nitrogen (N) content, soil mineral N, and subsequent wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity. Pigeon peas were grown during summer and TAM 101 wheat was grown during winter, along with

Srinivas C. Rao; Charles T. MacKown; James E. Bidlack

2002-01-01

395

Roles of ionic strength and biofilm roughness on adhesion kinetics of Escherichia coli onto groundwater biofilm grown on  

E-print Network

groundwater biofilm grown on PVC surfaces Dao Janjaroen a , Fangqiong Ling a , Guillermo Monroy b , Nicolas Pathogens a b s t r a c t Mechanisms of Escherichia coli attachment on biofilms grown on PVC coupons were. coli on clean PVC surfaces and biofilms grown on PVC surfaces for different ages. Two mechanisms of E

Boppart, Stephen

396

Effect of Mulch Surface Color on Root-knot of Tomato Grown in Simulated Planting Beds1  

E-print Network

Effect of Mulch Surface Color on Root-knot of Tomato Grown in Simulated Planting Beds1 B. A in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in simulated planting beds. Tomato plants were inoculated temperature varied less than 0.5 °C between soil chambers at solar noon. Tomatoes grown over white mulch

Decoteau, Dennis R.

397

Flower species identification and coverage estimation based on hyperspectral remote sensing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring grass species and coverage accurately makes a significant contribution to species diversity research and sustainable development of grassland ecosystem. Plants grown in grassland usually own unique spectral characteristics in florescence. Compared with the nutrient stage, species are more easily identified during florescence. In this study, flowers such as Galium verum Linn., Hemerocallis citrina Baroni, Serratula centauroides Linn., Clematis hexapetala

Yingying Gai; Wenjie Fan; Xiru Xu; Yuanzhen Zhang

2011-01-01

398

75 FR 72935 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Relaxation of the Minimum Grade...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...922 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0062; FV06-922-2 C] Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Relaxation of the Minimum Grade Requirement; Correction AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Correcting...

2010-11-29

399

EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF FIELD-GROWN CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acidic rainfall on yields of radish (Raphanus sativa), garden beet (Beta vulgaris), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under standard agronomic practices. The experimental design a...

400

The growth and crystallography of bismuth tri-iodide crystals grown by vapor transport  

SciTech Connect

A single crystal of bismuth tri-iodide (BiI{sub 3}) of dimensions 1.2 {times} 1.2 {times} 0.4 cm{sup 3} has been grown by physical vapor transport. The lattice parameters of the hexagonal crystal and its polycrystaleme powder precursor were measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and were in agreement, indicating that the vapor phase growth and sublimation purification processing at temperatures below 330{degree}C did not significantly affect the stoichiometry. X-ray rocking measurements of the single crystal showed low angle boundaries of the order of 0.05{degree}. In tests as gamma radiation detectors, neither melt grown nor vapor grown crystals were satisfactory, but the vapor grown crystals were promising. Several observations suggest that better performance may be achievable with purer bismuth tri-iodide.

Nason, D. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations; Keller, L. [CAMET Research, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)

1995-10-01

401

75 FR 18394 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...cranberries produced in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...cranberries produced in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut,...

2010-04-12

402

Threshold of stimulated emission in GaN layers grown by various techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room-temperature luminescence properties of dense electron-hole plasma were studied in GaN epilayers grown by various techniques (by LUMILOG grown on sapphire substrate, by AIXTRON via a MOCVD reactor grown on SiO and by UNIPRESS by the MOCVD technique grown on sapphire). By studying emission properties of plasma in lateral thin stripe excitation geometry the values of the threshold of the stimulated emission were estimated. A linear decrease of the stimulated emission threshold with a decrease in the density of the dislocations in GaN layers was observed. This dependence was shown to be mainly contributed by a decrease in carrier lifetime, while the impact of variation in carrier diffusion coefficient was found to be minor. Incorporation of iron into GaN layer significantly increased the stimulated emission threshold. The role of the light-scattering losses on the values of the stimulated emission threshold was discussed.

Krotkus, Simonas; Miasojedovas, Saulius; Jur?nas, Saulius

2014-10-01

403

Antigenic Differences Between Gonococci Grown in Guinea Pig Skin Chambers and 'in vitro'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Efficient diagnostic tests are needed to reduce gonorrhoea. For many bacterial species antigens responsible for virulence revealed in organisms grown in vivo have been produced in vitro and used in diagnostic tests. Hence the objective was to examine gono...

H. Smith

1976-01-01

404

Origami-inspired nanofabrication utilizing physical and magnetic properties of in situ grown carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in particular the vertically-aligned variety grown through a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)-based process, are highly versatile nanostructures that can be used in a variety of ...

In, Hyun Jin

2010-01-01

405

A comparison of the bromination dynamics of pitch-based and vapor-grown graphite fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical resistance of pitch based P-100 fibers and experimental organic vapor grown fibers was recorded in-situ during bromination and subsequent exposure to ambient laboratory air. The results indicate that the bromination and debromination reactions proceed much slower for vapor grown fibers than for pitch based. While this may be due in part to the larger diameter of the vapor grown fibers, the majority of the effect can probably be attributed to the differences in graphene plane orientation between the fiber types. Although the reactions are slower in the vapor grown than in the pitch based fibers, the extent of reaction as measured by the change in electrical resistance is essentially the same, with comparable (or larger) decreases in resistivity. The bromination reaction proceeds with one or more plateaus in the resistance versus time curves, which suggests staging and strengthens the argument that these fibers produce true intercalation compounds.

Gaier, J. R.

1986-01-01

406

75 FR 51924 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY...assessment rate established for the Washington Apricot Marketing Committee (Committee...from $1.00 to $1.50 per ton for Washington apricots. The Committee is...

2010-08-24

407

78 FR 21518 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY...assessment rate established for the Washington Apricot Marketing Committee (Committee...from $1.50 to $0.50 per ton of Washington apricots handled. The Committee...

2013-04-11

408

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHEMOSTAT-GROWN 'YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA' AND 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE' TO CHLORINE DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agents could be influenced by growth environment. The susceptibility of two enteric bacteria, Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae, to chlorine dioxide was investigated. These organisms were grown in a defined medium in a c...

409

Plastic Relaxation In Single In?Ga????N/GaN Epilayers Grown On Sapphire  

E-print Network

Plastic relaxation was observed in In?Ga????N/GaN epilayers grown on c-plane sapphire substrates. The relaxation obeys the universal hyperbolic relation between the strain and the reciprocal of the layer ...

Song, T.L.

410

THIN FILM SILICON FOR SOLAR CELL APPLICATION GROWN FROM LIQUID PHASE ON METALLURGICAL GRADE SILICON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid phase epitaxy was applied to grow roughly 10 m thick n-type polycrystalline silicon film on p-type metallurgical grade (MG) silicon substrate at 900 C in gallium\\/indium solution. GaAs, dissolved in the melt, served as an arsenic donor source for the as-grown film. The carrier concentration of both the substrate and the as- grown film was 1 1018 cm?3

H. G. Svavarsson; D. M. Danielsson; J. T. Gudmundsson

411

Magnetoresistance effect in InSb thin film grown using molecular beam epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magneto-resistance effect in InSb thin films grown on semi-insulating GaAs (100) surface using molecular beam epitaxy was studied, along with the effect of Si doping. The temperature dependence of the resistivity in the InSb thin films with high electron mobility decreased significantly when Si was used as a donor impurity. Consequently, InSb thin film grown using MBE can be

Atsushi Okamoto; Takashi Yoshida; Shogo Muramatsu; Ichiro Shibasaki

1999-01-01

412

Soilless indoor-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.): Approaching the modelling task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process-based modelling approaches developed for field crops were adapted to address the behaviour of indoor-grown soil-less lettuce under alternative growth conditions. The equations for crop growth and development were simplified to common and consistent terms, re-designed against the peculiarities of a controlled environment and implemented into an easy-to-use, management-oriented, software tool. An array of experiments, where lettuce was grown in

Luca Incrocci; Gianni Fila; Gianni Bellocchi; Alberto Pardossi; Carlo Alberto Campiotti; Roberto Balducchi

2006-01-01

413

Are plants grown under low visible irradiance sensitive to low levels of ultraviolet-B radiation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical question in ultraviolet-B radiation research is how different portions of the solar spectrum influence plant UV B sensitivity. Field-grown plants show only subtle responses to supplemental UV-B radiation in many aspects of growth, yet plants grown under low visible light (as in most growth chambers and greenhouses) show much more discernible changes. Here we assess a specific aspect

Stephan D. Flint; Martyn M. Caldwell; Ron J. Ryel

2005-01-01

414

Electrical measurements of Hg 1 ? x Mn x Te films grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary electrical measurements of mercury manganese telluride (MMT) films, grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), are reported. The epitaxial films were grown on insulating (100)GaAs substrates with a buffer layer of ZnTe and CdTe by the interdiffused multilayer process (IMP). Electrical transport measurements were made on samples of x = 0.050.08 and x = 0.080.11, at magnetic fields of

A. B. Horsfall; S. Oktik; I. Terry; A. W. Brinkman

1996-01-01

415

Experimental Study on the Properties of Mercury Cadmium-Telluride Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pseudo binary alloy Hg_{ rm 1-x}Cd_{rm x}Te(HCT) grown by molecular beam epitaxy(MBE) has received great attention over the last decade for use in infrared detectors and imaging arrays. Since 1981, when this alloy was first grown by MBE, significant attention has been given to studies of the MBE growth and properties of HCT. This study looked at properties of

Sivalingam Sivananthan

1988-01-01

416

Carbon nanoparticles grown in the subsurface-region of porous SiO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) were grown in the subsurface-region of porous SiO2 templates that had been subjected to plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The over-layer multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown in the surface region of the template were removed by a sonication process. Mechanical scrubbing of the template surface was used to remove the subsurface for investigation. The powder obtained was

P S Alegaonkar; H C Lee; S H Lee; A F Moses; D Fink; J B Yoo

2007-01-01

417

Catalase deficiency reduces survival and pleiotropically affects agronomic performance in field-grown barley progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-grown plants of the catalase-deficient mutant RPr79\\/4 show necrotic lesions in leaves and preferentially die. Initially, necrotic lesions exhibited by RPr79\\/4 were used to indirectly assess the role of distinct levels of catalase on the survival and agronomic performance of field-grown barley progeny. The segregation of three control traits was also analyzed to eliminate the influence of any obvious meiotic

Alberto Acevedo; Antonio D??az Paleo; Mar??a Laura Federico

2001-01-01

418

Optical properties of Ge nanowires grown on Si(100) and (111) substrates: Nanowire-substrate heterointerfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering (RS) measurements of (111) oriented Ge nanowires (NWs) grown by chemical vapor deposition on (100) and (111) silicon substrates. Our PL measurements strongly suggest that the observed emission originates at low-defect density Ge NW - Si substrate interfaces. Both, PL and RS data indicate that Si-Ge intermixing and strain are more pronounced for the Ge NW - (111) Si interface, while NWs grown on (100) Si substrates are relaxed.

Kamenev, B. V.; Sharma, V.; Tsybeskov, L.; Kamins, T. I.

2005-11-01

419

Optical Properties of Ge Nanowires Grown on Silicon (100) and (111) Substrates: Nanowire-substrate Heterointerfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Raman scattering (RS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements of (111) oriented Ge nanowires (NWs) grown by chemical vapor deposition on (100) and (111) silicon substrates. PL measurements strongly suggest that the observed high internal quantum efficiency emission originates at low-defect density Ge NW -- Si substrate interfaces. A higher level of Si-Ge intermixing and strain has been detected for the Ge NW - (111) Si interface, while NWs grown on (100) Si substrates are relaxed.

Tsybeskov, Leonid; Kamins, Theodore

2005-03-01

420

Internal bias field in triglycine sulphate crystals with L-, ?-alanine grown at negative temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric and pyroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate (TGS) crystals with L, ?-alanine impurities grown at negative temperatures have been investigated. It is shown that a lower impurity concentration (2 mol % in solution) in this temperature range leads to the formation of internal bias fields of the same order of magnitude (800 V/cm) as for TGS crystals grown at T ? 50C but with an L, ?-alanine concentration of 20 mol % in solution.

Milovidova, S. D.; Rogazinskaya, O. V.; Sidorkin, A. S.; Ionova, E. V.; Kirichenko, A. P.; Bavykin, S. A.

2010-09-01

421

Seasonal variation of root distribution of irrigated, field-grown Russet Burbank potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root density of irrigated, field-grown Russet Burbank potatoes grown on Plainfield loamy sand was determined periodically\\u000a from soil core samples during the 1973 growing season. Total root length and weight also were measured.\\u000a \\u000a Under these growing conditions, the roots essentially were restricted to the plow layer in this soil, decreasing rapidly below\\u000a this depth. The root density in the plow

D. B. Lesczynski; C. B. Tanner

1976-01-01

422

Increase in Chlorella strains calorific values when grown in low nitrogen medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calorific value of five strains of Chlorella grown in Watanabe and low-nitrogen medium was determined. The algae were grown in small (2L) stirred tank bioreactors and the best growth was obtained with Chlorella vulgaris with a growth rate of 0.99 d?1 and the highest calorific value (29 KJ\\/g) was obtained with C. emersonii. The cellular components were assayed at

A. M Illman; A. H Scragg; S. W Shales

2000-01-01

423

Observation of quantum-Hall effect in gated epitaxial graphene grown on SiC ,,0001...  

E-print Network

on the Si-face of semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrates by a high temperature sublimation process. A high-k gate films were grown on semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrates in an Epigress VP508 SiC hot-wall chemi- cal vaporObservation of quantum-Hall effect in gated epitaxial graphene grown on SiC ,,0001... T. Shen,1,2 J

Ye, Peide "Peter"

424

Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with naturally textured surfaces grown by MOCVD were demonstrated. In this study, a growth-interruption step and a surface treatment using biscyclopentadienyl magnesium (CP2Mg) were simultaneously performed to form a plurality of nuclei sites on the surface of a p-type cladding layer, and then a p-type contact layer was grown on the p-type cladding layer, so as

C. M. Tsai; J. K. Sheu; W. C. Lai; Y. P. Hsu; P. T. Wang; C. T. Kuo; C. W. Kuo; S. J. Chang; Y. K. Su

2005-01-01

425

Degradation-free modulation-doped field-effect transistors grown by organometallic chemical vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using AlGaAs and GaAs grown by organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD), high-transconductance modulation-doped field-effect transistors which do not exhibit the severe electrical degradation in the dark at 77 K that is ordinarily observed in such devices have been fabricated. Such degradation has been attributed to defects in the n(+)-AlGaAs. Experiments on ohmic test devices using different OMCVD grown structures suggest

R. Bhat; W. K. Chan; A. Kastalsky; M. A. Koza; P. S. Davisson

1985-01-01

426

Grown-in defects in silicon wafer: Formation mechanism and surface reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research has been the characterization of grown-in defects in a Ring-OSF structure of Czochralski silicon wafers and the modeling of defect formation mechanism. The structure consists of D-region, Ring-OSF. AOP, Defect-Free, and I-defect region. A formation of radially varying grown-in defects observed in a vacancy-rich region is proposed based on the vacancy radial concentration profile and

Ki-Man Bae

1998-01-01

427

Differential gene expression as an indicator of nitrogen sufficiency in field-grown potato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of an in-season measure of crop N sufficiency to guide fertilizer management is one approach to match the supply of N\\u000a to the crop N demand. This study examined use of gene expression in leaf tissue of field-grown potatoes for use in assessment\\u000a of potato N sufficiency. Potato cultivar Shepody was grown with six fertilizer N rates (0250kgN ha1).

Bernie J. Zebarth; Helen Tai; Sainan Luo; Pete Millard; David De Koeyer; Xiu-Qing Li; Xingyao Xiong

428

Electron emission observations from as-grown and vacuum-coated chemical vapor deposited diamond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field emission has been observed from Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond grown on Mo and Si substrates. Emission was observed at fields as low as 20 kV\\/cm. The samples were tested in the as-grown form, and after coating with thin films of Au, CsI and Ni. The emission current was typically maximum at the onset of the applied field, but

A. Lamouri; Yaxin Wang; G. T. Mearini; I. L. Krainsky; W. Mueller

1995-01-01

429

Increased ultraviolet radiation sensitivity of Escherichia coli grown at low temperature.  

PubMed

The repair of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is well understood in both lower and higher organisms. Genetic studies carried out at optimum temperature for growth, 37 C in Escherichia coli, have revealed the major pathways of DNA repair. We show that E. coli cells grown at 20 C are more sensitive to UVR than cells grown at 37 C. The analysis of knockout mutants demonstrates that cells impaired in recombinational DNA repair pathways show increased UV sensitivity at 20 C. Cells with mutations in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway genes are highly sensitive to UVR when grown at 37 C and retain that sensitivity when grown at 20 C, whereas wild-type cells are not sensitive when grown at 37 C but become more sensitive to UVR when grown at low temperatures. Our results taken along with reports from the literature suggest that the UVR sensitivity of E. coli cells at low temperature could be due to impaired NER function. PMID:24802940

Mangoli, Suhas; Rath, Devashish; Goswami, Manish; Jawali, Narendra

2014-05-01

430

Variations of two pools of glycogen and carbohydrate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown with various ethanol concentrations.  

PubMed

Glycogen, a major reservoir of energy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is found to be present as soluble and membrane-bound insoluble pools. Yeast cells can store excess glycogen when grown in media with higher concentration of sugar or when subjected to nutritional stress conditions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM-3300 was grown in media having ethanol concentrations up to 12% (v/v). The effects of externally added ethanol on glycogen and other carbohydrate content of yeast were studied by using alkali digestion process. Fermentative activities of cells grown in the presence of various ethanol concentrations (2-8% v/v) exhibited increase in values of glycogen and other carbohydrate, whereas cells grown with higher concentrations of ethanol (10-12% v/v) exhibited depletion in glycogen and carbohydrate content along with decrease in cell weight. Such inhibitory effect of ethanol was also exhibited in terms of reduction in total cell count of yeast grown in media with 2-16% (v/v) ethanol and 8% (w/v) sugar. These data suggest that, as the plasma membrane is a prime target for ethanol action, membrane-bound insoluble glycogen might play a protective role in combating ethanol stress. Elevated level of cell-surface alpha-glucans in yeast grown with ethanol, as measured by using amyloglucosidase treatment, confirms the correlation between ethanol and glycogen. PMID:20373126

Dake, M S; Jadhv, J P; Patil, N B

2010-07-01

431

Stomatal Conductance of Lettuce Grown Under or Exposed to Different Light Qualities  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The objective of this research was to examine the effects of differences in light spectrum on the stomatal conductance (Gs) and dry matter production of lettuce plants grown under a day/night cycle with different spectra, and also the effects on Gs of short-term exposure to different spectra. Methods Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants were grown with 6 h dark and 18 h light under four different spectra, redblue (RB), redbluegreen (RBG), green (GF) and white (CWF), and Gs and plant growth were measured. Key Results and Conclusions Conductance of plants grown for 23 d under CWF rose rapidly on illumination to a maximum in the middle of the light period, then decreased again before the dark period when it was minimal. However, the maximum was smaller in plants grown under RB, RGB and GF. This demonstrates that spectral quality during growth affects the diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance. Although Gs was smaller in plants grown under RGB than CWF, dry mass accumulation was greater, suggesting that Gs did not limit carbon assimilation under these spectral conditions. Temporarily changing the spectral quality of the plants grown for 23 d under CWF, affected stomatal responses reversibly, confirming studies on epidermal strips. This study provides new information showing that Gs is responsive to spectral quality during growth and, in the short-term, is not directly coupled to dry matter accumulation. PMID:15347557

KIM, HYEON-HYE; GOINS, GREGORY D.; WHEELER, RAYMOND M.; SAGER, JOHN C.

2004-01-01

432

N-H related defects in GaAsN grown through chemical beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local vibration modes of N-H related defects in GaAsN are studied using isotopes. When GaAsN is grown through chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) using triethylgallium/tris(dimethylamino)arsenic/monomethylhydrazine gas, there are several local vibration modes (LVMs) in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Signals with stretching mode peaks at 2952, 3098, and 3125 cm-1 are reported, along with new wagging and stretching mode peaks at 960 and 3011 cm-1, which exist only in crystals grown through CBE. When the film is grown using deuterated MMHy as a nitrogen source, new peaks at 2206, 2302, 2318, 2245, and 714 cm-1 appear. This suggests that D related defects are created because of the deuterated MMHy. The ratios of frequencies of these new peaks to those obtained from crystals grown using MMHy are nearly 1.34. This suggests that all defects in GaAsN grown through CBE, which appear as LVMs, are N-H related defects. Especially, those with LVMs at 960 and 3011 cm-1 are new N-H defects only found in GaAsN grown through CBE.

Ohshita, Yoshio; Ikeda, Kazuma; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Machida, Hideaki; Sudoh, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Honda, Takahiko; Inagaki, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

2014-03-01

433

Stomatal conductance of lettuce grown under or exposed to different light qualities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The objective of this research was to examine the effects of differences in light spectrum on the stomatal conductance (Gs) and dry matter production of lettuce plants grown under a day/night cycle with different spectra, and also the effects on Gs of short-term exposure to different spectra. METHODS: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants were grown with 6 h dark and 18 h light under four different spectra, red-blue (RB), red-blue-green (RBG), green (GF) and white (CWF), and Gs and plant growth were measured. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Conductance of plants grown for 23 d under CWF rose rapidly on illumination to a maximum in the middle of the light period, then decreased again before the dark period when it was minimal. However, the maximum was smaller in plants grown under RB, RGB and GF. This demonstrates that spectral quality during growth affects the diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance. Although Gs was smaller in plants grown under RGB than CWF, dry mass accumulation was greater, suggesting that Gs did not limit carbon assimilation under these spectral conditions. Temporarily changing the spectral quality of the plants grown for 23 d under CWF, affected stomatal responses reversibly, confirming studies on epidermal strips. This study provides new information showing that Gs is responsive to spectral quality during growth and, in the short-term, is not directly coupled to dry matter accumulation.

Kim, Hyeon-Hye; Goins, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

2004-01-01

434

Cu2ZnSnSe4 Photovoltaic Absorber Grown by Vertical Gradient Freeze Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality large grain single phase Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) photovoltaic absorber material was grown by vertical gradient freeze (VGF) technique for the first time. Polycrystalline CZTSe ingot was grown in a vacuum sealed quartz ampoule inside a modified three-zone vertical Bridgman furnace employing a directional cooling. Structural and compositional analyses of the grown crystals were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The grown crystals exhibited highly crystalline tetragonal structure corresponding to kesterite Cu2ZnSnSe4 with lattice parameters of a = 5.696 and c = 11.338 as evidenced from XRD pattern. Raman spectra showed three characteristic peaks at 171.5, 194.6, and 231.1 cm-1 attributed to kesterite phase CZTSe. No other secondary phases were detected in the grown crystals. Thermoelectric probe measurements showed p-type conductivity of the grown crystals and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) along the crystal growth direction showed uniform and stoichiometric elemental distribution. Our results show that VGF technique can be used to grow high quality kesterite compounds for photovoltaic application.

Das, Sandip; Mandal, Krishna C.

2013-12-01

435

L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

Augustine, M. Sajimol; Mathew, Lizzy; Alex, Roselin; Deepa, G. D.; Jayalekshmi, S.

2014-01-01

436

Treatment of dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana with a brassinosteroid-biosynthesis inhibitor, brassinazole, induces some characteristics of light-grown plants.  

PubMed

When a brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor, brassinazole (Brz), was applied at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2 microM. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh seedlings grown in the dark exhibited morphological features of light-grown plants, i.e. short hypocotyls, expanded cotyledons, and true leaves, in a dose-dependent manner. Control (non Brz-treated) seedlings grown in the dark for 40 d did not develop leaf primordia. However, treatment with the lowest concentration of Brz induced the development of leaf buds, although it hardly induced any short hypocotyls, and treatment with the highest concentration of Brz induced both short hypocotyls and leaves. Labeling experiments with the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine revealed that amplification of cell nuclei and organellar nucleoids is activated in the shoot apical meristems of dark-grown Brz-treated seedlings. These results suggest that Brz-treatment induces development of true leaves. Furthermore, condensation and scattering of plastid nucleoids, which is known to occur during the differentiation of etioplasts into chloroplasts, was observed in the plastids of dark-grown Brz-treated cotyledons. In addition, high levels of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase proteins accumulated in the plastids of the cotyledons. Electron microscopy showed that the plastids were etioplasts with a prolamellar body and few thylakoid membranes. These results suggest that Brz treatment in the dark induces the initial steps of plastid differentiation, which occur prior to the development of thylakoid membranes. This is a novel presumed function of brassinosteroids. These cytological changes seen in Brz-treated Arabidopsis were exactly the same as those seen in a brassinosteroid-biosynthesis-deficient mutant, det2, supporting the hypothesis that Brz has no side-effects except inhibiting brassinosteroid biosynthesis, and should prove a useful tool in clarifying the role of brassinosteroids. PMID:11144262

Nagata, N; Min, Y K; Nakano, T; Asami, T; Yoshida, S

2000-11-01

437

Analysis of peg formation in cucumber seedlings grown on clinostats and in a microgravity (space) environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar out-growth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. Previous studies have indicated that peg formation is gravity dependent. In this study we analyzed peg formation in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) grown under conditions of normal gravity, microgravity, and simulated microgravity (clinostat rotation). Seeds were germinated on the ground, in clinostats and on board the space shuttle (STS 95) for 1-2 days, frozen and subsequently examined for their stage of development, degree of hook formation, number of pegs formed, and peg morphology. The frequency of peg formation in space grown seedlings was found to be nearly identical to that of clinostat grown seedlings and to differ from that of seedlings germinated under normal gravity only in a minority of cases; approximately 6% of the seedlings formed two pegs and nearly 2% of the seedlings lacked pegs, whereas such abnormalities did not occur in ground controls. The degree of hook formation was found to be less pronounced for space grown seedlings, compared to clinostat grown seedlings, indicating a greater degree of decoupling between peg formation and hook formation in space. Nonetheless, in all seedlings having single pegs and a hook, the peg was found to be positioned correctly on the inside of the hook, showing that there is coordinate development even in microgravity environments. Peg morphologies were altered in space grown samples, with the pegs having a blunt appearance and many pegs showing alterations in expansion, with the peg extending out over the edges of the seed coat and downwards. These phenotypes were not observed in clinostat or ground grown seedlings.

Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

1999-01-01

438

Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants.  

PubMed

Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the effects of spectral quality on disease development when other wavelengths were included in the light source (MH-, 660/BF-, and 660/735-grown plants) were equivocal. These results demonstrate that spectral quality may be useful as a component of an integrated pest management program for future space-based controlled ecological life support systems. PMID:11540250

Schuerger, A C; Brown, C S

1997-02-01

439

Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the effects of spectral quality on disease development when other wavelengths were included in the light source (MH-, 660/BF-, and 660/735-grown plants) were equivocal. These results demonstrate that spectral quality may be useful as a component of an integrated pest management program for future space-based controlled ecological life support systems.

Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

440

Morphology of Arabidopsis grown under chronic centrifugation and on the clinostat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morphological measurements were made on populations of Arabidopsis thaliana grown from seed for 21 days under essentially constant environmental conditions except for the influence of gravitational or centrifugal accelerations. Growth conditions were what had been proposed for experiments in an artificial satellite. Observations are reported for plants grown at normal 1-g upright or on horizontal clinostats and for plants grown on a centrifuge. Increased g-force, up to 15 times normal, was found to have significant but small effects on some morphological end points. The plants' sensitivity to the magnitude of the g-force was much less than to its vector direction. Data from centrifuge experiments were extrapolated to zero-g to predict a set of morphological characteristics of a plant developing in the satellite environment. As an alternative means of predicting properties of a zero-g plant, characteristics of plants grown on horizontal clinostats were measured. The results of these two predictive methods were not in agreement. Clinostat grown plants were morphologically distinct from upright stationary controls.

Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.; Chapman, D. K.

1976-01-01

441

Lipids of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cells Grown on Hydrocarbons and on Trypticase Soy Broth1  

PubMed Central

Lipids were extracted from cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown on a pure hydrocarbon (tridecane), mixed hydrocarbons (JP-4 jet fuel), and on Trypticase Soy Broth. Total lipids produced from each substrate represented from 7.1 to 8.2% of cellular dry weight, of which 5.0 to 6.4% were obtained before cellular hydrolysis (free lipids) and 1.7 to 2.0% were extracted after cellular hydrolysis (bound lipids). Free lipids from cells grown on each medium were separated into four fractions by thin-layer chromatography. All fractions were present in cells from each type of medium, and the neutral fraction constituted the largest fraction. The fatty acid composition of free lipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Cells grown on each medium contained saturated and unsaturated C14 to C20 fatty acids. Trace amounts of C13 fatty acids were found in tridecane-grown cells. Saturated C16 and C18 were the major acids present in all cells. Quantitative differences were found in fatty acids produced on the three media, but specific correlations between substrate carbon sources and fatty acid content of cells were not evident. Tridecane-grown cells contained only traces of C13 acid and small amounts of C15 and C17 acids, suggesting that the organism's fatty acids were derived from de novo synthesis rather than by direct incorporation of the hydrocarbon. PMID:4976464

Edmonds, Paul; Cooney, J. J.

1969-01-01

442

Growth and electrical properties of AlOx grown by mist chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum oxide (AlOx) thin films were grown using aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(acac)3) as a source solute by mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD). The AlOx thin films grown at temperatures above 400C exhibited a breakdown field (EBD) over 6 MV/cm and a dielectric constant (?) over 6. It is suggested that residual OH bonding in the AlOx thin films grown at temperatures below 375C caused degradation of the breakdown field (EBD). With FC type mist CVD, the reaction proceeded efficiently (Ea = 22-24 kJ/mol) because the solvent, especially H2O, worked as a stronger oxygen source. The AlOx film could be grown at 450C with a high deposition rate (23 nm/min) and smooth surface (RMS = 1.5 nm). Moreover, the AlOx thin films grown by mist CVD had excellent practicality as insulators because the gate leakage current (IG) of the oxide thin film transistor (TFT) with an IGZO/AlOx stack was suppressed below 1 pA at a gate voltage (VG) of 20 V.

Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Uchida, Takayuki; Sanada, Masaru; Furuta, Mamoru

2013-03-01

443

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3Linn, Lane,...

2014-01-01

444

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3Linn, Lane,...

2012-01-01

445

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3Linn, Lane,...

2011-01-01

446

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3Linn, Lane,...

2013-01-01

447

Universal ac conduction in large area atomic layers of CVD-grown MoS2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we report on the ac conductivity [?'(?);10mHzgrown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). ?'(?) is observed to display a "universal" power law, i.e., ?'(?)?s measured within a broad range of temperatures, 10 K grown MoS2 is due to electron hopping through a quantum mechanical tunneling process. The ac conductivity also displays scaling behavior, which leads to the collapse of the ac conductivity curves obtained at various temperatures into a single master curve. These findings establish a basis for our understanding of the transport mechanism in atomically thin, CVD-grown MoS2 layers.

Ghosh, S.; Najmaei, S.; Kar, S.; Vajtai, R.; Lou, J.; Pradhan, N. R.; Balicas, L.; Ajayan, P. M.; Talapatra, S.

2014-03-01