Science.gov

Sample records for variegata linn grown

  1. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Lin, Peng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  2. Molecular docking and analgesic studies of Erythrina variegata?s derived phytochemicals with COX enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Emran, Talha Bin; Mahib, Muhammad Mamunur Rashid; Dash, Raju

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from plants are a good source for the NSAID drug development. We studied the analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Erythrina variegata L. (Fabaceae) followed by molecular docking analysis. The analgesic activity of Erythrina variegata L. is evaluated by various methods viz., acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate and tail immersion test. Subsequently, molecular docking analysis has been performed to identify compounds having activity against COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes by using GOLD docking fitness. The result of preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extract contains alkaloids and flavonoids. In analgesic activity tests, the extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) produced a increase in pain threshold in a dose dependent manner. In acetic acid induced writhing test, the inhibitory effect was similar to the reference drug diclofenac sodium. The extract showed 18.89% writhing inhibitory effect at the dose 200 mg/kg b.w., whereas diclofenac sodium showed 79.42% inhibition of writhing at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. The results of tail immersion and hot plate test also showed potential analgesic activity of the extract which is also comparable to the standard drug morphine (5 mg/kg b.w.). Docking studies shows that phaseollin of Erythrina variegata L. has the best fitness score against the COX-1 which is 56.64 and 59.63 for COX- 2 enzyme. Phaseollin of Erythrina variegata L. detected with significant fitness score and hydrogen bonding against COX-1 and COX-2 is reported for further validation. PMID:25489172

  3. Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Found in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptea: Coccinellidae), a Palearctic lady beetles established in North America, is reported for the first time from the state of South Dakota, U.S.A. Implications for biological control and future research are discussed....

  4. Gastric pneumatosis with associated eosinophilic gastritis in four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).

    PubMed

    Niederwerder, Megan C; Stalis, Ilse H; Campbell, Gregory A; Backues, Kay A

    2013-03-01

    Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) with associated eosinophilic inflammation was documented in the gastric tissues of four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is an uncommon disease described in humans and characterized by multilocular gas-filled cystic spaces located within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. These cystic spaces can occur in any location along the gastrointestinal tract as well as within the associated connective and lymphatic tissues. The exact cause of this disease is unknown. The four black and white ruffed lemurs described in this case series were captive born and had been housed in zoological institutions at two separate locations. Three of the four cases were female lemurs, and two of the affected lemurs were directly related. The individual disease presentations spanned a 5-yr time period. Two lemurs presented dead with no premonitory signs, whereas the other two lemurs presented with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and nonspecific signs of weakness. Gastric pneumatosis, diagnosed either grossly or histopathologically in each of these four lemurs, is described as a subset of PCI in which cystic spaces are localized to the stomach wall. Significant eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate was identified on histopathology of gastric tissues and found to be associated with the cystic lesions in each lemur. No classic etiology, such as a fungal infection or a parasitic infection, was identified as the cause of the eosinophilic gastritis. This case series demonstrates that gastric pneumatosis with associated eosinophilic gastritis may be a significant gastrointestinal disease in black and white ruffed lemurs. PMID:23505706

  5. Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alok; Pravez, Mohammad; Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Parul A

    2014-08-01

    Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.39±0.57g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.2±0.8g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively. Supersized LDs (5.95±1.02?m) accumulated maximum TAG in sonicated HSAE grown cells were visualized by fluorescent BODIPY (505/515nm) stain. GC-MS analysis revealed unique longer carbon chain FAME profile containing Arachidic acid (C20:0) 5%, Behenic acid (C22:0) 9.7%, Heptacosanoic acid (C27:0) 14.98%, for the first time in this yeast when grown on industrially competent sonicated HSAE, showing more similarity to algal oils. PMID:24746767

  6. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Bishkhapra)

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Manoj K.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. is a herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal constituent of T. portulacastrum Linn. is ecdysterone and the other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2’-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. are traditionally used as analgesic, stomachic, laxative, treatment of blood disease, anemia, inflammation, and night blindness. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic. This article compiles all updated information related to T. portulacastrum Linn. Scientifically proved activities are co-related with traditional concepts. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. The novelty and applicability of T. portulacastrum are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concepts. PMID:23055639

  7. A bactericidal protein in Bombina variegata pachypus skin venom.

    PubMed

    Mastromei, G; Barberio, C; Pistolesi, S; Delfino, G

    1991-01-01

    The skin venom of the yellow bellied toad Bombina variegata pachypus has an antimicrobial activity which seems to be correlated to the presence of a 6700 mol. wt polypeptide. This polypeptide was purified by electroelution from SDS-urea-polyacrylamide gels and characterized for its antimicrobial activity. A bactericidal action was detected at concentrations with little or no cytolytic effect. The determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration showed that there was activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and also against yeasts. The skin secretions of three other anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea and Discoglossus pictus) were examined for the presence of antimicrobial activities. Only the Hyla arborea secretion exhibited antimicrobial properties. A small amount of a 6700 mol. wt polypeptide was detected among the Hyla secreted products. PMID:2048146

  8. Apoptosis Cell Death Effect of Scrophularia Variegata on Breast Cancer Cells via Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Azadmehr, Abbas; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Baradaran, Behzad; Haghdoost-Yazdi, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Scrophularia variegata M. Beib. (Scrophulariaceae) is an Iranian medicinal plant which is used for various inflammatory disorders in traditional medicine. In this study we evaluated the anti-cancer and cytotoxic effects of the Scrophularia variegata (S. variegata) ethanolic extract on the human breast cancer cell line. Methods: The cytotoxicity effect of the extract on MCF-7 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. In addition, Caspase activity, DNA ladder and Cell death were evaluated by ELISA, gel electrophoresis and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, respectively. Results: The S. variegata extract showed significant effect cytotoxicity on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Treatment with the extract induced apoptosis on the breast cancer cells by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. The results indicated that cytotoxicity activity was associated with an increase of apoptosis as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation as well as an increase of the amount of caspase 3 and caspase 9. In addition, the phytochemical assay showed that the extract had antioxidant capacity and also flavonoids, phenolic compounds and phenyl propanoids were presented in the extract. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that S. variegata extract induced apoptosis via mitochondrial intrinsic pathway on breast cancer by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and an increase of caspase 3 and caspase 9. However future studies are needed. PMID:26504768

  9. Depth-related variation in epiphytic communities growing on the brown alga Lobophora variegata in a Caribbean coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, A.; Titlyanova, T. V.; Nugues, M. M.; Bischof, K.

    2011-12-01

    Lobophora variegata is a dominant macroalga on coral reefs across the Caribbean. Over the last two decades, it has expanded its vertical distribution to both shallow and deep reefs along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, Southern Caribbean. However, the ecological implications of this expansion and the role of L. variegata as a living substratum are poorly known. This study compared epiphytic algal communities on L. variegata blades along two depth transects (6-40 m). The epiphytic community was diverse with a total of 70 species of which 49 were found directly attached to L. variegata. The epiphytic community varied significantly between blade surface, depth and site. The greatest number of genera per blade was found growing on the underside of the blades regardless of site and depth. Filamentous red algae (e.g. Neosiphonia howei) were commonly found on the upperside of the blades over the whole depth gradient, whereas the underside was mainly colonized by calcifying (e.g. Hydrolithon spp., Jania spp., Amphiroa fragillissima), fleshy red algae (e.g. Champia spp., Gelidiopsis spp., Hypnea spinella) and foliose brown alga (e.g. Dictyota spp.). Anotrichum tenue, a red alga capable of overgrowing corals, was a common epiphyte of both blade surfaces. L. variegata plays an important role as a newly available substratum. Thus, its spread may influence other algal species and studies of benthic macroalgae such as L. variegata should also take into consideration their associated epiphytic algal communities.

  10. [Spermatogenesis in the yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata variegata L.) during the seasonal activity period and in correlation with the mating call activity (Discoglossidae, Anura)].

    PubMed

    Obert, H J

    1976-01-01

    The spermatogenic tissue in the yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata has certain properties not shared by other Central European anurans. Sertoli cells are lacking; the sperms are not bundled within the seminiferous tubules, but rather they form and mature in a connective-tissue follicle that is cellular in nature. Spermatogenesis is not a continuous process, at either the spermatocyte or the spermatozoa formation stage. Rather, there are periods of stagnation and of proliferation, which can be correlated with the periods during which the male toads produce mating calls and with the pauses between the calling periods. The crucial participation of hormonal factors in these processes is discussed. PMID:1031523

  11. Antigen handling in the spleen of the yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata.

    PubMed

    Dulak, J

    1994-01-01

    The primitive anuran amphibian, the yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, possesses the spleen with a large white pulp, containing the immune-complex-trapping-cells (ICTCs). The handling of immunologically different substances in the spleen of B. variegata was investigated. Adult toads were injected into dorsal lymph sacs with a mixture of rabbit peroxidase-antiperoxidase, FITC-Ficoll and latex beads. Two hours after injection antigens were found in the blood vessels of the spleen where some cells had also PAP on their surface. At that time antigens also reached the white and the red pulps. Finally PAP was trapped on the surface of ICTCs in the white pulp and was phagocytized by the white and red pulp macrophages. FITC-Ficoll was detected in the red pulp macrophages while latex beads in macrophages of both compartments. The present study suggests that ICTCs are specialized in trapping only immune complexes. PMID:7958075

  12. Identification of fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn.: A pharmacognostical approach.

    PubMed

    Kevalia, Jignesh; Patel, Bhupesh

    2011-10-01

    Gokshura is a well-known Ayurvedic drug that is used in many preparations. Botonically it is identified as Tribulus terrestris Linn., especially the roots and fruits of the plant. But instead the fruits of another plant Pedalium murex Linn. are commonly used and the drug is frequently substituted. Pharmacognostical study has been carried out to identify the distinguishing features, both morphological and microscopic, of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn. This knowledge should help reduce the problem of substitution of the genuine drug. PMID:22661853

  13. (1S)-1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate: major sex pheromone component of Paulownia bagworm, Clania variegata.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Tan, Zhong-Xing; Zhao, Bo-Guang; Skip King, G G; Miroshnychenko, Aleksander; Lin, Guo-Qiang; Rhainds, Marc; Gries, Gerhard

    2006-08-01

    The Paulownia bagworm, Clania variegata Snell. (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), is one of the most significant forest defoliators in China. In gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection analyses of pheromone gland extracts of female C. variegata on three GC columns (DB-5, DB-23, DB-210), two compounds (A and B) elicited strong responses from male antennae. The more abundant component B was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as 1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate by transesterification, GC-mass spectrometry (MS), and comparison of its spectral and GC retention characteristics with those of synthetic compounds. In field trapping experiments in China, racemic and (1S)-1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl 3,13-dimethylpentadecanoate [but not the (1R)-stereoisomer] attracted male C. variegata. The absolute configuration of B (a molecule with three chiral centers) and the structure of component A remain to be determined. PMID:16900424

  14. 140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to provide information about the Linn Cove viaduct. Looking south-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata: A Source of Antiprotozoal Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cantillo-Ciau, Zulema; Moo-Puc, Rosa; Quijano, Leovigildo; Freile-Pelegrín, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    Lobophora variegata, a brown alga collected from the coast of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, was studied for antiprotozoal activity against Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The whole extract showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis, with an IC50 value of 3.2 ?g/mL. For the fractions, the best antiprotozoal activity was found in non-polar fractions. The chloroform fraction of the extract contained a major sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-myristoyl-3-O-(6?-sulfo-?-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (1), together with small amounts of 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6?-sulfo-?-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (2) and a new compound identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(6?-sulfo-?-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (3). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and careful analysis of FAB-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. This is the first report on the isolation of SQDGs from L. variegata. The mixture of 1–3 showed good activity against E. histolytica and moderate activity against T. vaginalis with IC50s of 3.9 and 8.0 ?g/mL, respectively, however, the activity of 1–3 is not as effective as metronidazole. These results afford ground information for the potential use of the whole extract and fractions of this species in protozoal infections. PMID:20479979

  16. Feleucins: novel bombinin precursor-encoded nonapeptide amides from the skin secretion of Bombina variegata.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Hou, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lei; Ge, Lilin; Luo, Yu; Ma, Chengbang; Zhou, Mei; Duan, Jinao; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The first amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide (AMP) to be identified was named bombinin, reflecting its origin from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata). Bombinins and their related peptides, the bombinin Hs, were subsequently reported from other bombinid toads. Molecular cloning of bombinin-encoding cDNAs from skin found that bombinins and bombinin Hs were coencoded on the same precursor proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning of two novel cDNAs from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library of B. variegata whose open-reading frames each encode a novel bombinin (GIGGALLNVGKVALKGLAKGLAEHFANamide) and a C-terminally located single copy of a novel nonapeptide (FLGLLGGLLamide or FLGLIGSLLamide). These novel nonapeptides were named feleucin-BV1 and feleucin-BV2, respectively. The novel bombinin exhibited 89% identity to homologues from the toads, B. microdeladigitora and B. maxima. The feleucins exhibited no identity with any amphibian AMP archived in databases. Synthetic feleucins exhibited a weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus (128-256 mg/L) but feleucin-BV1 exhibited a synergistic action with the novel bombinin. The present report clearly demonstrates that the skin secretions of bombinid toads continue to represent a source of peptides of novel structure that could provide templates for the design of therapeutics. PMID:25003126

  17. Feleucins: Novel Bombinin Precursor-Encoded Nonapeptide Amides from the Skin Secretion of Bombina variegata

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bing; Hou, Xiaojuan; Duan, Jinao

    2014-01-01

    The first amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide (AMP) to be identified was named bombinin, reflecting its origin from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata). Bombinins and their related peptides, the bombinin Hs, were subsequently reported from other bombinid toads. Molecular cloning of bombinin-encoding cDNAs from skin found that bombinins and bombinin Hs were coencoded on the same precursor proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning of two novel cDNAs from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library of B. variegata whose open-reading frames each encode a novel bombinin (GIGGALLNVGKVALKGLAKGLAEHFANamide) and a C-terminally located single copy of a novel nonapeptide (FLGLLGGLLamide or FLGLIGSLLamide). These novel nonapeptides were named feleucin-BV1 and feleucin-BV2, respectively. The novel bombinin exhibited 89% identity to homologues from the toads, B. microdeladigitora and B. maxima. The feleucins exhibited no identity with any amphibian AMP archived in databases. Synthetic feleucins exhibited a weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus (128–256?mg/L) but feleucin-BV1 exhibited a synergistic action with the novel bombinin. The present report clearly demonstrates that the skin secretions of bombinid toads continue to represent a source of peptides of novel structure that could provide templates for the design of therapeutics. PMID:25003126

  18. Efficacy evaluation of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Jeevan Ranjan; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Samanta, Indranil; Pal, Subodh; Khan, Madhuchhanda; Patra, Nimai Charan; Sarkar, Uttam; Maji, Asit Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the effect of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat. Materials and Methods: Mastitis was induced by intracisternal inoculation of coagulase positive S. aureus (J638) at the concentration of 2000 colony forming units. Group I animals were treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone at 20 mg/kg intravenously, and Group II animals were treated with once daily oral administration of B. variegata L. stem bark powder at 6 g/kg for 7 days followed by maintenance dose at 3 g/kg for next 7 days along with repeated dose of the antibiotic at 20 mg/kg intravenously at 4 days interval. Results: No significant improvement in the clinical condition of the udder was noticed in the group treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone alone. However, in the group treated with B. variegata L. stem bark powder along with repeated dose of ceftriaxone, no S. aureus colony was seen at 96 h and onwards in milk samples with a marked decrease in somatic cell count and milk alkaline phosphatase activity and increased lactoperoxidase activity. Further, plasma and milk concentration of ceftriaxone/ceftizoxime was increased, which indicated antibacterial, bioenhancing and antiinflammatory properties of the bark powder. The Group II animals also exhibited marked reduction in polymorphonuclear cells and fibrous tissue indicating antifibrotic property of B. variegata L. Conclusion: B. variegata L. stem bark powder can be considered as an effective adjunct therapy to intravenous ceftriaxone in S. aureus chronic mastitis in goat. PMID:25298668

  19. Recurrent calcium phosphate urolithiasis in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata).

    PubMed

    Cushing, Andrew C; Kollias, George; Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Streeter, Renee; Ahou-Madi, Noha

    2014-03-01

    An adult intact male black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) suffered recurrent bouts of urethral blockage over a 3-yr period caused by calcium phosphate (apatite form) uroliths. Surgical intervention was required in two of the three instances. Various attempts at medical management failed to control formation of the stones, and the underlying etiology remains unclear. In addition, there have been consistent, multiple, unchanging renal mineralizations over the course of the case. Medical management failed to significantly alter the urinary pH; although, to date, no further problems have been noted. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first known report of calcium phosphate stones in a prosimian species. PMID:24712174

  20. Circadian rhythm in the pineal organ of the yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata (L.), under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Sura, P

    1992-01-01

    A circadian morphological rhythm of the pineal organ, as judged by changes in the nuclear volume of the photoreceptor cells, was found in sexually mature male Yellow-bellied toads (Bombina variegata) maintained continuously at 26 degrees C and on a 17L/7D illumination cycle. The greatest nuclear volume occurred at the photophase (16.00 h), and the lowest at the end of the scotophase (4.00 h). PMID:1306508

  1. Differentiation and development of gonads in the yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura: Bombinatoridae).

    PubMed

    Piprek, Rafa? P; Pecio, Anna; Szymura, Jacek M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate consecutive stages of gonadal development of the yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata) with particular emphasis on the origin of somatic and germ cell lineages as well as the timing of gonial cell migration. Changes in gonadal basal lamina distribution helped to explain the exceptional mode of gonadal differentiation in this species. Atypical and rapid differentiation of the male gonad in B. variegata is the result of the ability of gonial cells to migrate into the center of the gonad relatively early. Thus, the testis medulla contains germ cells from the onset of gonadal differentiation into cortex and medulla, whereas in other anurans a sterile medulla is characteristic of both future testes and ovaries; germ cells translocate into the medulla during the subsequent stage of testis development. This atypical testiculogenesis is probably the result of an acceleration of the sex determination period, indicating a contribution of sex determination heterochrony to the course of gonadogenesis. The results also suggest that medullar cells are derived from proliferating coelomic epithelial cells. Moreover, Sertoli cells constitute an integral part of the germinal epithelium in B. variegata, as in other vertebrates. Spermatids do not contact Sertoli cells just before spermiation and do not form bundles. PMID:20064008

  2. Can black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) solve object permanence tasks?

    PubMed

    Mallavarapu, Suma; Perdue, Bonnie M; Stoinski, Tara S; Maple, Terry L

    2013-04-01

    We examined object permanence in black-and-white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) at Zoo Atlanta. A series of visible and invisible displacement tasks with suitable controls were presented to five adult subjects. Subjects performed significantly above chance on all regular tasks, except for the double invisible displacements. Subjects failed visible and invisible controls. Failure on the control trials did not appear to be because subjects used the "last box touched" strategy (subjects did not choose the last box touched significantly more than expected by chance). However, a substantial percentage of choices was made to the last box touched by the experimenter. There was no significant difference between this percentage, and the percentage of choices made to the baited box (on both visible and invisible controls), which indicates that subjects were drawn to both boxes which the experimenter visited/touched, and thus failed the controls. Based on the results from the present study, we believe that there is no evidence that black-and-white ruffed lemurs understand visible and invisible tasks in the traditional object permanence battery. PMID:23300044

  3. Developmental origin of the frontoparietal bone in Bombina variegata (Anura: Discoglossidae).

    PubMed

    Cihák, Radomír; Královec, Karel; Rocek, Zbynek

    2003-01-01

    Development of the frontoparietal bone in the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, was followed on the basis of histological analysis of transverse serial sections through the larval skulls to recognize early stages of ossification represented by osteoid (uncalcified bone matrix) and on cleared and stained specimens to investigate more advanced stages. Ossification of the frontal begins as three tiny areas of osteoid (F(1), F(2), F(3)) adjoining the dorsal surface of the orbital cartilage, which are separated by areas without osteoid. F(3) is the largest (most advanced). Prior to calcification, F(3) extends to fuse with F(2) and then with F(1), but it does not expand over the prootic fissure posteriorly. As calcification begins the strip of bone is joined posteromedially by F(4). Only then does a single ossification center corresponding to the parietal arise on the anterodorsal surface of the otic capsule. This ossification sequence corresponds to those observed in the Actinopterygii and in caudate amphibians. PMID:12420326

  4. Studies on transplantation immunity of the yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata.

    PubMed

    Góralik, E; Labuz, D; Józkowicz, A; P?ytycz, B

    1994-01-01

    Adults and tadpoles of the yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata reacted in a typically chronic manner to skin allografts and to xenografts from closely related fire-bellied toads B. bombina but they rejected quickly skin xenografts from evolutionary distant anuran species (Bufo and Rana). Adult individuals reacted to allografts slowly not only in the laboratory where their mating was ceased and the weight of lymphoid organs significantly diminished but also in the outdoor enclosure where they bred successfully. Breeding activity in captivity can be induced at any season by Biogonadyl injections. However, any hormonal manipulation (gonadectomy or Biogonadyl treatment) performed during winter/spring on animals housed in the laboratory for several months did not influence their transplantation immunity and the weights of thymuses and spleens. These results lead to conclusion that chronic allograft rejection was not a laboratory artifact caused by a hormonal imbalance but rather reflected a weak donor-host genetic disparity connected with the low MHC polymorphism of Bombina species. PMID:7503648

  5. Acaricidal activity of extracts from the leaves and aerial parts of Neoglaziovia variegata (Bromeliaceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Dantas, A C S; Machado, D M R; Araujo, A C; Oliveira-Junior, R G; Lima-Saraiva, S R G; Ribeiro, L A A; Almeida, J R G S; Horta, M C

    2015-06-01

    This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of Neoglaziovia variegata against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The mortality and fecundity of groups of engorged adult females exposed to different concentrations of ethanol, hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts obtained from the leaves and aerial parts of N.?variegata were evaluated, using three treatments with concentrations of 5, 10 e 25?mg/ml; two controls (distilled water and distilled water with drops of cremophor); with three replicates. The hexane extract of the leaves demonstrated significant results, presenting 94.1% inhibition of oviposition; 0.33% the average percentage of eclosion of eggs; and 99.8% of effectiveness. These results indicate N.?variegata, particularly the hexane extract of leaves, as potential alternative control agents of R. (B.) microplus. Pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism responsible for this effect. PMID:25979315

  6. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND CLINICAL STUDIES ON WATTAKAKA VOLUBILIS (Linn.f.)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Moni; Hepsibah, P.T.A.; Prasad, N.B.R.; Kumar, P. Sanjeev

    1996-01-01

    Morphological, anatomical and clinical studies of the leaves of Wattakaka volubilis (Linn.f) were carried out. The taila of this leaf was found to be effective in pyoderma, tinea pedis scabies cuts and wounds and plantar psoriasis. PMID:22556756

  7. Aqueous extracts of the marine brown alga Lobophora variegata inhibit HIV-1 infection at the level of virus entry into cells.

    PubMed

    Kremb, Stephan; Helfer, Markus; Kraus, Birgit; Wolff, Horst; Wild, Christian; Schneider, Martha; Voolstra, Christian R; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, marine algae have emerged as a rich and promising source of molecules with potent activities against various human pathogens. The widely distributed brown alga Lobophora variegata that is often associated with tropical coral reefs exerts strong antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects, but so far has not been associated with specific anti-viral activities. This study investigated potential HIV-1 inhibitory activity of L. variegata collected from different geographical regions, using a cell-based full replication HIV-1 reporter assay. Aqueous L. variegata extracts showed strong inhibitory effects on several HIV-1 strains, including drug-resistant and primary HIV-1 isolates, and protected even primary cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infection. Anti-viral potency was related to ecological factors and showed clear differences depending on light exposition or epiphyte growth. Assays addressing early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle indicated that L. variegata extracts inhibited entry of HIV-1 into cells at a pre-fusion step possibly by impeding mobility of virus particles. Further characterization of the aqueous extract demonstrated that even high doses had only moderate effects on viability of cultured and primary cells (PBMCs). Imaging-based techniques revealed extract effects on the plasma membrane and actin filaments as well as induction of apoptosis at concentrations exceeding EC50 of anti-HIV-1 activity by more than 400 fold. In summary, we show for the first time that L. variegata extracts inhibit HIV-1 entry, thereby suggesting this alga as promising source for the development of novel HIV-1 inhibitors. PMID:25144758

  8. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2013-01-01

    Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

  9. Characterization of cadmium-resistant endophytic fungi from Salix variegata Franch. in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China.

    PubMed

    An, Hongmei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Xinfei; Huang, Qian; Yuan, Shenhong; Yang, Xingyong; Dong, Jinyan

    2015-07-01

    The community and Cd-resistance of endophytic fungi from roots of Salix variegata Franch. collected from the water-level-fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China, were investigated. A total of 53 strains were isolated and identified to 13 morphotaxa, in which Chromosporium, Fusarium and Gonatobotrys were dominant genera. Among them, 27 isolates were selected to measure their resistance to 0.02 mg ml(-1) Cd(2+) and 11 were growth stimulated (Tolerance index>100%). Of these active isolates, four dark septate endophyte (DSE) isolates (Paraphaeosphaeria sp. SR46, Pyrenochaeta sp. SR35, Rhizopycnis vagum SR37 and R. vagum SR44) were further tested for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Cd and SR46 was found to be the most tolerant isolate with MIC of 0.39 mg ml(-1). Additionally, the maximum uptake values of these DSEs ranged from 3.01 to 7.89 mg g(-1), but there was no significant correlation between metal uptake with fungal biomass and metal tolerance. Subsequently, a pot experiment was conducted for investigating the impact of SR46 on corn seedlings in Cd-enriched soil. The results obtained suggested that SR46 reduced the Cd bioaccumulation of plant under low (100 mg kg(-1)) Cd stress and enhanced the Cd translocation from root zone to aerial parts under high (200 mg kg(-1)) Cd stress. Besides, it promoted plant growth without Cd stress. These findings indicated S. variegata harbors an endophytic fungal flora showing a high genetic diversity as well as a high level of metal resistance to Cd that has potential values in cadmium cycling and restoration of plant, soil and water system. PMID:26070690

  10. Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata)

    PubMed Central

    Baden, Andrea L; Holmes, Sheila M; Johnson, Steig E; Engberg, Shannon E; Louis, Edward E; Bradley, Brenda J

    2014-01-01

    Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow is maintained among remnant populations will help to diagnose and target conservation priorities. We sampled 209 individuals from 19 sites throughout the remaining V. variegata range. We used 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and ?550 bp of mtDNA sequence data to evaluate genetic structure and population dynamics, including dispersal patterns and recent population declines. Bayesian cluster analyses identified two distinct genetic clusters, which optimally partitioned data into populations occurring on either side of the Mangoro River. Localities north of the Mangoro were characterized by greater genetic diversity, greater gene flow (lower genetic differentiation) and higher mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity than those in the south. Despite this, genetic differentiation across all sites was high, as indicated by high average FST (0.247) and ?ST (0.544), and followed a pattern of isolation-by-distance. We use these results to suggest future conservation strategies that include an effort to maintain genetic diversity in the north and restore connectivity in the south. We also note the discordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and current subspecies taxonomy, and encourage a re-evaluation of conservation management units moving forward. PMID:25077019

  11. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON LEAF OF Coldenia procumbens Linn

    PubMed Central

    Senthamari, R.; Uvarani, M; Jayakar, B.

    2002-01-01

    The plant Coldenia procumbens Linn. is used commonly in Indian system of medicine for various ailments. The present paper deals with detailed pharmacognosy of the leaf of coldenia procumbens Linn. and includes its Macro/Micro morphological (vein islet, vein termination numbers and stomatal index) anatomical characters, Physico chemical standards such as ash values, extractive values, crude fibre content and fluorescence characters of various extracts and leaf powder after treatment with different chemical reagents under UV light. Prelimanary phytochemical tests on various extracts of the leaf have also been carried out. PMID:22557078

  12. Novel bradykinins and their precursor cDNAs from European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata) skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianbao; Orr, David F; Bjourson, Anthony J; McClean, Stephen; O'Rourke, Martin; Hirst, David G; Rao, Pingfan; Shaw, Chris

    2002-09-01

    Two novel bradykinin-related peptides (Ala3,Thr6)-bradykinin and (Val1,Thr3,Thr6)-bradykinin, were identified by a systematic sequencing study of peptides in the defensive skin secretion of the yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata. These peptides are the first amphibian skin bradykinins to exhibit amino acid substitutions at the Pro3 position of the bradykinin nonapeptide. Previously reported bradykinins from other Bombina species were not detected. Respective precursor cDNAs, designated BVK-1 and BVK-2, respectively, were cloned from a skin library by 3'- and 5'-RACE reactions. BVK-1 contained an open-reading frame of 97 amino acids encoding a single copy of (Ala3,Thr6)-bradykinin and similarly, the open-reading frame of BVK-2 consisted of 96 amino acids encoding a single copy of (Val1,Thr3,Thr6)-bradykinin. Synthetic replicates of each novel bradykinin were found to be active on mammalian arterial and small intestinal smooth muscle preparations. The structural diversity of bradykinins in amphibian defensive skin secretions may be related to defence against specific predators. PMID:12230583

  13. Chemical constituents and biological studies of Origanum vulgare Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswara Rao, Gottumukkala; Mukhopadhyay, T.; Annamalai, T.; Radhakrishnan, N.; Sahoo, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of methanolic extract of the leaves of Origanum vulgare Linn., yielded two protocatechuic acid ester derivatives, origanol A (1) and origanol B (2) along with ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), ?-sitosterol (5), and triacontanol (6). Structures of the compound were established based on physical and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass). Origanol A (1) showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity. PMID:21772760

  14. Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Begum, Sabira; Gulzar, Tahsin; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2007-07-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the stems of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. have led to the isolation of two new compounds, morindicone (9-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-methyl-3,10-anthracenedione, 1) and morinthone (4-methoxy-3-heptadecylxanthone, 2), as well as two known constituents, 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (3) and 2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 2D NMR techniques. PMID:17703727

  15. Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Thiengsusuk, Artitiya; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Ward, Stephen Andrew; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (G. mangostana) (pericarp) in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Methods 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp) at the concentrations of 12µg/mL (IC50 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) and 30 µg/mL (IC90 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%) for 12 h. Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS. Results At the IC50 concentration, about 82% of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control (non-exposed), while at the IC90 concentration, only 15% matched proteins were found. The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12 µg/mL were identified as enzymes that play role in glycolysis pathway, i.e., phosphoglycerate mutase putative, L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglycerate kinase. The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30 µg/mL of the extract. Conclusions Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp). PMID:25183269

  16. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Marcia C. Linn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulgham, Susan M.; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Susan M. Fulgham and Michael F. Shaughnessy, Contributing Editors for this journal, present their interview with Marcia C. Linn, Professor of Development and Cognition, specializing in education in mathematics, science, and technology, in the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley. Linn is currently investigating…

  17. A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We disagree with Mr. Linn’s interpretation of our paper, “High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness”.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

  18. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  19. Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Galani, V. J.; Patel, B. G.; Patel, N. B.

    2010-01-01

    Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. PMID:22228958

  20. REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND MEDICINAL ASPECTS OF JUSSIAEA SUFERUTICOSA LINN

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, T.; Sinha, Sanghamitra; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P.

    2002-01-01

    The whole plant of Jussiaea suffruticosa Linn. Has been widely used in traditional medicine of India. Important bioactive molecules of the plant extract have been explored with modern phytochemical approaches and reported to consist of betulinic acid, quercetin and ?- sitosterol. Furthermore, the experimental data obtained from rational clinical studies indicated that the methanol extract of the whole plant has found to possess potent anti-HIV, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, anti- inflammatory, anti-pyretic, diuretic and psychopharmacological activities in several animal models. This paper reveales the phytochemical and clinical importance of the plant extract. PMID:22557056

  1. Antihyperglycemic activity of Tectona grandis Linn. bark extract on alloxan induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Varma, S. B.; Jaybhaye, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    Tectona Grandis Linn.(saag - tick wood), an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk reputation among the Indian herbs as a hypoglycemic agent. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of T. grandis Linn. bark extract in control and alloxan-diabetic rats. Oral administration of the bark suspension of T. grandis (2.5 and 5 g/kg body wt.) for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose (from 250 ± 6.5 to 50 ± 2.5 mg/dL). Thus, the present study clearly shows that the T. grandis Linn. bark extract exerts anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:21170208

  2. Screening of anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Vitex leucoxylon Linn

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Padmini; Shukla, P.; Mishra, S.B.; Gopalakrishna, B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex leucoxylon Linn. in various animal experimental models. Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan, mediator-induced rat paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. The antipyretic activity was evaluated by yeast-induced pyrexia model. Results: Single administration of the ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition of rat paw edema. The ethyl acetate extract showed significant antipyretic activity in brewer yeast-induced pyrexia in rats throughout the observation period of 4 h. Conclusion: This study shows that ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. has significant anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity. PMID:21189917

  3. A low molecular weight protein with antimicrobial activity in the cutaneous 'venom' of the yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata pachypus).

    PubMed

    Barberio, C; Delfino, G; Mastromei, G

    1987-01-01

    The cutaneous 'venom' was collected from dorsal skin fragments of the yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata pachypus by means of stimulation with noradrenaline. Light and electron microscope observations gave evidence that the 'venom' corresponds to the secretory products of both serous gland types (i.e. with small or large granules) characteristic of this genus, which had discharged their contents upon stimulation. The serous 'venom', when tested for antimicrobial activity, inhibited the growth of several bacterial strains. Heat treatment, dialysis, protease digestion and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed that the antimicrobial activity was thermostable and associated with a low molecular weight protein. This protein was purified and homogeneity determined by CM-cellulose chromatography and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The purified protein has a molecular weight of 6700, displays antibacterial properties and appears different from the antimicrobially active peptides previously isolated from the 'venom' of the toad. PMID:3672549

  4. Peptide IC-20, encoded by skin kininogen-1 of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, antagonizes bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mu; Zhou, Mei; Bai, Bing; Ma, Chengbang; Wei, Le; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to determine if the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata), in common with other related species, contains a bradykinin inhibitor peptide and to isolate and structurally characterize this peptide. Materials and Methods: Lyophilized skin secretion obtained from this toad was subjected to reverse phase HPLC fractionation with subsequent bioassay of fractions for antagonism of the bradykinin activity using an isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle preparation. Subsequently, the primary structure of the peptide was established by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectroscopy, and molecular cloning, following which a synthetic replicate was chemically synthesised for bioassay. Results: A single peptide of molecular mass 2300.92 Da was resolved in HPLC fractions of skin secretion and its primary structure determined as IYNAIWP-KH-NK-KPGLL-. Database interrogation with this sequence indicated that this peptide was encoded by skin kininogen-1 previously cloned from B. variegata. The blank cycles were occupied by cysteinyl (C) residues and the peptide was located toward the C-terminus of the skin kininogen, and flanked N-terminally by a classical –KR- propeptide convertase processing site. The peptide was named IC-20 in accordance (I = N-terminal isoleucine, C = C-terminal cysteine, 20 = number of residues). Like the natural peptide, its synthetic replicate displayed an antagonism of bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation. Conclusion: IC-20 represents a novel bradykinin antagonizing peptide from amphibian skin secretions and is the third such peptide found to be co-encoded with bradykinins within skin kininogens. PMID:21687349

  5. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300?ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  6. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) ?g/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) ?g/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) ?g/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) ?g/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) ?g/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

  7. Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Jaiarj, P; Khoohaswan, P; Wongkrajang, Y; Peungvicha, P; Suriyawong, P; Saraya, M L; Ruangsomboon, O

    1999-11-01

    The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the extract, (P < 0.01). However, the anticough activity is less potent than that of 3 mg/kg dextromethorphan which decreased frequency of cough by 78% (P < 0.01). An experiment on isolated rat tracheal muscle showed that the extract directly stimulated muscle contraction and also synergized with the stimulatory effect of pilocarpine. This effect was antagonized by an atropine. Moreover, growth of Staphylococcus aureus and beta-streptococcus group A, as determined by the disc diffusion method, was inhibited by water, methanol and chloroform extract of dry guava leaves (P < 0.001). The LD50 of guava leaf extract was more than 5 g/kg, p.o. These results suggest that guava leaf extract is recommended as a cough remedy. PMID:10619385

  8. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. PMID:25528746

  9. Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Ko??aikkarantai)

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Shakila

    2013-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

  10. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

  11. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem.

    PubMed

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B J; Harisha, C R; Shukla, V J

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material. PMID:22529673

  12. A review on therapeutic potential of Lygodium flexuosum Linn

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Esha; Mani, Munesh; Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    From the centuries, herbal medicines are used to treat various diseases and now they had become an item of global importance, with both medicinal and economic implications. The demand of herbal medicine is being increasing day by day due to their safety and efficacy. Now herbals had taken over the allopathic system due to their less side effect and efficient working mechanism. Herbals are playing and pivotal role in increasing the economy of the country and had taken the nation on to the new path to achieve the goal of development. Lygodium flexuosum (Linn) Sw. is a fern found nearly throughout India up to an elevation of 1500 meter. It belongs to the family Lygodiaceae and widely used in treating various ailments like jaundice, dysmenorrhea, wound healing and eczema. It is the rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and cumarin. The main constitute of the plant is lygodinolide which is mainly used in wound healing. In the present review an attempt had been made to explore different aspects of L. flexuosum. PMID:23055636

  13. Antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn (Henna) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Habbal, O; Hasson, SS; El-Hag, AH; Al-Mahrooqi, Z; Al-Hashmi, N; Al-Bimani, Z; Al-Balushi, MS; Al-Jabri, AA

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity of henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn) obtained from different regions of Oman against a wide array of micro-organisms. Methods Fresh henna samples were obtained from different regions of Oman as leaves and seeds. 100 g fresh and dry leaves and 50 g of fresh and dry seeds were separately soaked in 500 mL of ethanol for three days, respectively, with frequent agitation. The mixture was filtered, and the crude extract was collected. The crude extract was then heated, at 48 °C in a water bath to evaporate its liquid content. The dry crude henna extract was then tested for its antibacterial activity using well-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility technique. Henna extracts were investigated for their antibacterial activity at different concentrations against a wide array of different micro-organisms including a laboratory standard bacterial strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662) (P. aeruginosa) and eleven fresh clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from patients attending the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH). 2-Hydroxy-p-Nathoqinone-Tech (2-HPNT, MW=174.16, C10H6O3) was included as control (at 50% concentration) along with the henna samples tested. Results Henna samples demonstrated antibacterial activity against all isolates but the highest susceptibility was against P. aeruginosa with henna samples obtained from Al-sharqyia region. Conclusions Omani henna from Al-sharqyia region demonstrates high in vitro anti-P. aeruginosa activity compared with many henna samples from different regions of Oman. PMID:23569753

  14. Evidence for Asymmetrical Divergence-Gene Flow of Nuclear Loci, but Not Mitochondrial Loci, between Seabird Sister Species: Blue-Footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) Boobies

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Scott A.; Anderson, David J.; Friesen, Vicki L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the process of speciation requires understanding how gene flow influences divergence. Recent analyses indicate that divergence can take place despite gene flow and that the sex chromosomes can exhibit different levels of gene flow than autosomes and mitochondrial DNA. Using an eight marker dataset including autosomal, z-linked, and mitochondrial loci we tested the hypothesis that blue-footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies diverged from their common ancestor with gene flow, paying specific attention to the differences in gene flow estimates from nuclear and mitochondrial markers. We found no gene flow at mitochondrial markers, but found evidence from the combined autosomal and z-linked dataset that blue-footed and Peruvian boobies experienced asymmetrical gene flow during or after their initial divergence, predominantly from Peruvian boobies into blue-footed boobies. This gene exchange may have occurred either sporadically between periods of allopatry, or regularly throughout the divergence process. Our results add to growing evidence that diverging species can remain distinct but exchange genes. PMID:23614045

  15. The effect of laboratory environment on the morphology of the spleen and the thymus in the yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata (L.).

    PubMed

    Dulak, J; P?ytycz, B

    1989-01-01

    The morphological changes were observed in the spleen and the thymus of the yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, kept under standard laboratory conditions. The mean splenic weights of toads studied soon after capture in July and September were 16.0 mg and 17.7 mg, respectively. In contrast, the mean splenic weights significantly decreased in animals maintained in the laboratory from July till September (to 11.6 mg) and from July till December (to 6.8 mg). In the spleen of toads kept in the laboratory the lymphocyte aggregations were diminished in the white pulp while the amount of connective tissues increased both in the white and in the red pulps. Melano-macrophages were more abundant in the red pulp of toads kept in the laboratory than in freshly collected ones. The thymuses of toads kept in the laboratory were decreased in size and depleted of the majority of their cortical lymphocytes. It is suggested that the morphological changes of the yellow-bellied toad lymphoid organs might be the results of stressful laboratory conditions and lower antigenic stimulation in the laboratory than in nature. PMID:2767309

  16. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Sonibare, Mubo A.; Adeniran, Adedapo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+?-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results More than 80% shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30% whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. PMID:25182434

  17. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm?1 (–OH), 1660?cm?1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm?1 (–COO–), 1414?cm?1 (–COO–), and 1219?cm?1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  18. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm(-1) (-OH), 1660?cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414?cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219?cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  19. 78 FR 65040 - Chicago Central & Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Linn County, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board Chicago Central & Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Linn County, Iowa Chicago Central & Pacific Railroad Company (CCP) \\1\\ has filed a verified notice of..., 29 N. Wacker Dr., Suite 920, Chicago, IL 60606. If the verified notice contains false or...

  20. SIZE, AGE, SEXUAL MATURITY; AND SEX RATIO IN OCEAN QUAHOGS, ARCTICA ISLANDICA LINNE,

    E-print Network

    SIZE, AGE, SEXUAL MATURITY; AND SEX RATIO IN OCEAN QUAHOGS, ARCTICA ISLANDICA LINNE, OFF LONG) and moderate (491 tubule development. Only 28 clams were fully mature. Age and growth were assessed from most other bivalves, lack external characteristics for a de- termination of sex, maturation

  1. Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

  2. Food, Glorious Food Mary-Slater Linn & Jeffrey Nystuen with Chef Chandra Longsaravane getting ready to

    E-print Network

    Nystuen, Jeffrey A.

    35 Food, Glorious Food Mary-Slater Linn & Jeffrey Nystuen with Chef Chandra Longsaravane getting. How different would the food be from Thailand? Would there be unique flavors and products? Let's prowl the food markets, try the street stalls, verify the recommendations of the guidebook. We signed up

  3. Identification and molecular cloning of novel trypsin inhibitor analogs from the dermal venom of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) and the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata).

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2003-06-01

    The structural diversity of polypeptides in amphibian skin secretion probably reflects different roles in dermal regulation or in defense against predators. Here we report the structures of two novel trypsin inhibitor analogs, BOTI and BVTI, from the dermal venom of the toads, Bombina orientalis and Bombina variegata. Cloning of their respective precursors was achieved from lyophilized venom cDNA libraries for the first time. Amino acid alignment revealed that both deduced peptides, consisting of 60 amino acid residues, including 10 cysteines and the reactive center motif, -CDKKC-, can be affirmed as structural homologs of the trypsin inhibitor from Bombina bombina skin. PMID:12948839

  4. Dynamic PathBased Software Watermarking # C. Collberg E. Carter S. Debray A. Huntwork J. Kececioglu C. Linn M. Stepp

    E-print Network

    Kececioglu, John

    . Kececioglu C. Linn M. Stepp Department of Computer Science University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Carter, A. Huntwork, and M. Stepp was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant

  5. Anti-microbial screening of endophytic fungi from Hypericum perforatum Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Ying, Chen; Tang, Yifei

    2014-09-01

    Anti-microbial properties of 21 endophytic fungal strains from Hypericum perforatum Linn. were evaluated against three human pathogens, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Rhodotorula glutinis, and two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Pyricularia grisea. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate extracts of endophytic fermentation broth had stronger anti-microbial activities than their fermentation broth. And the inhibitory effect of the endophytic extracts on human pathogens was better than those on phytopathogens. Among these endophytic fungi, strains GYLQ-10, GYLQ-24 and GYLQ-22 respectively showed the strongest activities against S. aureu, E. coli, R. glutinis. GYLQ-14 and GYLQ-22 exhibited the most pronounced effect on P. Grisea while both GYLQ-06 and GYLQ-08 had the strongest anti-microbial activities against R. cerealis. Till now, this study is the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from H. perforatum Linn. and their anti-microbial evaluation. PMID:25176358

  6. Protective Effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Leaf Extract on Gastric Lesions in Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Sini, Karanayil R; Sinha, Barij N; Rajasekaran, Aiyolu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to study the anti-ulcer activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Capparis zeylanica Linn on experimental animal models. The methanol extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves was investigated for anti-ulcer activity against aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. HCl-Ethanol induced ulcer in mice and indomethacin induced ulcer in rats at 200 mg/kg body weight p.o. A significant (p<0.01, p<0.001) anti-ulcer activity was observed in all the models. Pylorus ligation showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. It also showed 88.5% ulcer inhibition in HCl-ethanol induced ulcer and 83.78% inhibition in indomethacin induced ulcer. PMID:23407576

  7. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

  8. Graphic Grown Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  9. Responses of Portulaca oleracea Linn. to selenium exposure.

    PubMed

    Prabha, D; Sivakumar, S; Subbhuraam, C V; Son, H K

    2015-05-01

    The present study was investigated to evaluate the uptake and accumulation of selenium (Se) by the stem cuttings of Portulaca oleracea L. grown in alfisol amended with various concentrations of Se. P. oleracea accumulated a maximum of 63.4 µg g(-1) dry weight in a short growth period of 42 days. The order of accumulation of Se among the plant parts was leaves (31.5 ?g g(-1)) > stems (16.4 ?g g(-1)) > roots (15.5 ?g g(-1)). The accumulation potential was fourfold higher than the plant available concentration of 15.2 ?g g(-1) of Se g(-1) of soil (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extracted). Although the plant was able to accumulate Se in their tissues, increase in Se concentrations in soil caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the growth rate of plants (regeneration of leaves, number of leaves, number of roots, root length, stem length and biomass). PMID:23363577

  10. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    PubMed

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

  11. Determination of Anthelmintic Activity of the Leaf and Bark Extract of Tamarindus Indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Das, S. S.; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

  12. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, A; Bakare, A A

    2007-07-25

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectively. There was concentration-dependent and statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth by the extracts when compared with the control. The EC(50) obtained for decoctions of Azadirachta indica. Cymbopogon citratus, Mangifera indica and Carica papaya were 0.6, 3.0, 1.4 and 0.8%, respectively. It was 2.6 and 0.8% for the squeezed extracts of Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida, respectively. All the tested extracts were observed to have mitodepressive effects on cell division and induced mitotic spindle disturbance in Allium cepa. These results suggest an inhibitory, mitodepressive and turbagenic activities of the aqueous extracts on Allium cepa. PMID:17572030

  13. Effect of leaf extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Ruchi; Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Singh, Ranjit

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the nootropic activity of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves in rats. The raw material of Capparis zeylanica leaves was successively extracted with petroleum ether and methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus and macerated to form an aqueous extract. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated for their effect on spatial learning and memory in rats using the Morris water maze task. Three doses (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg; p.o.) of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica were administered for 7 successive days to separate groups of animals. Results showed that both the extracts significantly enhanced memory, as shown by decrease in escape latency time. Furthermore, methanolic and aqueous extracts in all doses tested significantly increased the time spent in the target quadrant during the probe trial, indicating retention of spatial memory of the location of a previously placed platform in the target quadrant. These findings indicate that methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves have potent nootropic activity. The anti-oxidant property of Capparis zeylanica may contribute favorably to the memory enhancement effect. However, further studies are needed to identify the exact mechanism of action. PMID:22261859

  14. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

  15. Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn. showed remarkable antihyperglycemic activity due to its possible systematic effect involving in the pancreatic and extra pancreatic mechanism. Forever, the antihyperlipidemic activity was exerted possible by lowering the higher level of lipid profile and decreasing the intercalated disc space in the heart. The antioxidant activity of extract was due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increasing the SOD, GPx and CAT. It was corroborate that the extract shown the Paederia foetida Linn leaves potential to be act as antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties. PMID:24564866

  16. New Ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpene Glycosides and Benzophenone from Ranunculus muricatus Linn.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bi-Ling; Zou, Hui-Liang; Qin, Fang-Min; Li, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Guang-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, ranunculosides A (1) and B (2), and a new benzophenone, ranunculone C (3), were isolated from the aerial part of Ranunculus muricatus Linn. The chemical structures of compounds 1-3 were established to be (2S)-ent-kauran-2?-ol-15-en-14-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, (2S,4S)-ent-kauran-2?,18-diol-15-en-14-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, and (R)-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl]-2-hydroxylpropanoic acid, respectively, by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the combinational application of RP-HPLC analysis and Mosher's method. PMID:26694331

  17. Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

    2014-02-01

    Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-?-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98?±?7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

  18. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Jamkhande, Prasad G.; Wattamwar, Amruta S.

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (??? niú x?n gu?; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  19. Hyperascyrones A-H, polyprenylated spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives from Hypericum ascyron Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hucheng; Chen, Chunmei; Liu, Junjun; Sun, Bin; Wei, Guangzheng; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jinwen; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Yonghui

    2015-07-01

    Eight polyprenylated spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives (PSAPs), hyperascyrones A-H, were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum ascyron Linn., together with six known analogs. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and their absolute configurations were determined by electronic circular dichroism calculations (ECD, Gaussian 09). Structures of previously reported tomoeones C, D, G, and H were revised. Hyperascyrones A-H were evaluated for their cytotoxic and anti-HIV-1 activities, with hyperascyrones C and G exhibiting significant cytotoxicities against HL-60 cell lines with IC50 values of 4.22 and 8.36 ?M, respectively. In addition, the chemotaxonomic significance of these compounds was also discussed. PMID:25800107

  20. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

  1. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, Parameshwar P

    2013-10-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  2. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

    2013-01-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2012-01-01

    Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

  4. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Wattamwar, Amruta S

    2015-07-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. ( niú x?n gu?; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Toxicity Studies on the Leaves of Capparis sepiaria Linn. (Capparidaceae).

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P; Latha, S; Selvamani, P; Kannan, V Rajesh

    2009-12-01

    Capparis sepiaria Linn. (Family: Capparidaceae) is a rare indigenous in South India but has widespread distribution in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. The present study intended with various phytochemical screening and toxicity studies were carried out on the leaves of the Capparis sepiaria. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of the ethanolic extract of revealed that the presence of reducing sugar, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, glycosides, alkaloids, gums, resins, amino acids, proteins and anthraquinones. The toxicity studies were performed as acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity determined the LD50 value of 300-5000 mg/kg body weight 4-6 weeks. The results of the various phytochemical tests indicated that the plant to be rich in various biologically active compounds which could serve as potential source of the crude drugs and in addition the plant is not toxic to the experimental model. PMID:25206253

  6. Hepatoprotective and antibacterial activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn. against lipopolysaccharides on HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Arumanayagam, S.; Arunmani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lippia nodiflora (LN) Linn is a small herb distributed throughout the world. The plant extracts of LN is used traditionally as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antitumor, antidiabetic, and possess hepatoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: To study the antibacterial and hepatoprotective effect of LN, we used methanolic extracts of leaves on HepG2 cells. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) is a well-characterized hepatotoxin, so toxicity was induced on liver cells using LPS. Up-regulation of inflammation genes were quantified. Results and Conclusions: In our present study, we have showed that LN reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production against LPS induced toxicity on HepG2 cells, and ther by decreased the apoptotic gene expression and protect the liver cells against toxicity. PMID:25709206

  7. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

  8. Protein Crystals Grown in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A collage of protein and virus crystals, many of which were grown on the U.S. Space Shuttle or Russian Space Station, Mir. The crystals include the proteins canavalin; mouse monoclonal antibody; a sweet protein, thaumatin; and a fungal protease. Viruses are represented here by crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus and satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The crystals are photographed under polarized light (thus causing the colors) and range in size from a few hundred microns in edge length up to more than a millimeter. All the crystals are grown from aqueous solutions and are useful for X-ray diffraction analysis. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  9. Locally Grown Internship Program Description

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    Locally Grown Internship Program Description J&C Tropicals, a well-established and growing national, and will finish the internship having gained experience in various aspects of farming and distributing locally Education Compensation: Paid Internship. TBD #12;Learning outcomes: -Student will learn different aspects

  10. The structures of four bombesins and their cloned precursor-encoding cDNAs from acid-solvated skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Wang, Hui; Xue, Yilu; Wu, Youjia; Zhou, Mei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Wang, Lei; Shaw, Chris

    2012-08-01

    Four different bombesins (bombesin, His(6)-bombesin, Phe(13)-bombesin and Asp(2)-, Phe(4)-SAP-bombesin) have been identified by a systematic sequencing study of peptides in reverse phase HPLC fractions of the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, that had been solvated in 0.1% (v/v) aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and stored frozen at -20°C for 12 years. By using a 3'- and 5'-RACE PCR strategy, the corresponding biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs of all four peptides were cloned from a cDNA library made from the same long-term frozen, acid-solvated skin secretion sample following thawing and lyophilization. Canonical bombesin and His(6)-bombesin are classical bombesin sub-family members, whereas Phe(13)-bombesin and Asp(2)-, Phe(4)-SAP-bombesin, belong to the litorin/ranatensin sub-family of bombesin-like peptides (BLPs). Assignment of these peptides to respective sub-families, was based upon both their primary structural similarities and their comparative pharmacological activities. An interesting observation in this study, was that the nucleotide sequences of the open-reading frames of cloned cDNAs encoding bombesin and its His(6)-substituted analog, were identical except for a single base that was responsible for the change observed at the position 6 residue in the mature peptide from Asn to His. In contrast, the precursor cDNA nucleotide sequences encoding the Phe(13)-bombesins, exhibited 53 base differences. The pharmacological activities of synthetic replicates of each bombesin were compared using two different mammalian smooth muscle preparations and all four peptides were found to be active. However, there were significant differences in their relative potencies. PMID:22687368

  11. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Md.; Atikur Rahman, Md.; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1?mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. PMID:25861372

  12. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  13. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs. PMID:25761857

  14. Flood of June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin, Linn County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin in Linn County, Iowa, following thunderstorm activity over east-central Iowa. The rain gage at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, recorded a 24-hour rainfall of 4.76 inches at 6:00 p.m. on June 4th. Radar indications estimated as much as 6 inches of rain fell in the headwaters of the Indian Creek Basin. Peak discharges on Indian Creek of 12,500 cubic feet per second at County Home Road north of Marion, Iowa, and 24,300 cubic feet per second at East Post Road in southeast Cedar Rapids, were determined for the flood. The recurrence interval for these peak discharges both exceed the theoretical 500-year flood as computed using flood-estimation equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Information about the basin and flood history, the 2002 thunderstorms and associated flooding, and a profile of high-water marks are presented for selected reaches along Indian and Dry Creeks.

  15. Structure and Antioxidant Activities of Proanthocyanidins from Elephant Apple (Dillenia indica Linn.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Caili; Yang, Dongying; Peh, Wan Yi Elaine; Lai, Shaojuan; Feng, Xiao; Yang, Hongshun

    2015-10-01

    Proanthocyanidins were isolated and purified from fruits of elephant apple (Dillenia indica Linn.) and their structural and bioactive properties were examined. Bate-Smith alcoholysis, FTIR, and (13) C NMR spectra revealed that elephant apple proanthocyanidins (EAPs) contained a dominant amount of B-type procyanidins (PC) with a minor amount of B-type prodelphinidins (PD) but no A-type interflavan linkage. (13) C NMR spectrum indicated that the cis isomer was dominant in EAPs. The electron spray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectra of EAPs showed the clear ion peaks corresponding to B-type PC dimer to B-type PD with degree of polymerization of 11. EAPs had strong antioxidant activity, which was evidenced by the high oxygen radical scavenging capacity at 1.06 × 10(4) ?mol TE/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power of 2320 ?mol Fe(II)/g. The results suggest that EAPs could be extracted to be used as promising functional food materials. PMID:26416622

  16. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    PubMed Central

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

  17. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit

    PubMed Central

    llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

  18. Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dada, E. O.; Ekundayo, F. O.; Makanjuola, O. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms. PMID:24711746

  19. Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well. PMID:23569896

  20. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

  1. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

  2. Progressive deconstruction of Arundo donax Linn. to fermentable sugars by acid catalyzed ionic liquid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    You, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Li-Ming; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Acid enhanced ionic liquid (IL) 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) pretreatment has shown great potential for boosting the yield of sugars from biomass cost-effectively and environmental-friendly. Pretreatment with shorter processing time will promote the commercial viability. In this work, pretreatment of reduced Amberlyst catalysis time of 34min was demonstrated to be the most effective among time-varying pretreatments, evidenced by partial removal of hemicellulose and cellulose crystal transformation of Arundo donax Linn. A higher fermentable sugar concentration of 10.42g/L (2% substrate) was obtained after 72h of saccharification than the others. Total processing time to reach 92% glucose yield was cut down to approximately 26h. Progressive deconstruction of crop cell wall was occurred with increased catalysis time by gradual releasing of H3O(+) of Amberlyst. However, vast lignin re-deposited polymers on fibers could hinder further enzymatic hydrolysis. These discoveries provide new insights into a more economic pretreatment for bioethanol production. PMID:26363822

  3. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.

    PubMed

    Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  4. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Materials and Methods: Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Results: Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study. PMID:24501447

  5. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  6. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    PubMed

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

  7. Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116. PMID:25176251

  8. Protic acid resin enhanced 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride pretreatment of Arundo donax Linn.

    PubMed

    You, Tingting; Zhang, Liming; Zhou, Sukun; Xu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    To improve the cellulose digestibility of energy crop Arudo donax Linn. with cost-efficient, a novel pretreatment of protic acid resin Amberlyst 35DRY catalyzed inexpensive ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) was developed in this work. The pretreatment was performed at 160°C with [C4mim]Cl for 1.5h, followed by Amberlyst 35DRY catalyzed at 90°C for 1h. The IL-Amberlyst pretreatment was demonstrated to be effective, evidenced by the reduction in cellulose crystallinity (31.4%) and increased porosity caused by extensive swelling the undissolved biomass and partial depolymerization of the longer cellulose chain of the dissolved biomass by Amberlyst. Consequently, a higher glucose yield (92.8%) was obtained than for the single [C4mim]Cl pretreatment (42.8%) at an enzyme loading of 20 FPU/g substrate. Overall, the enhanced pretreatment was competitive by using inexpensive and recyclable IL-Amberlyst 35DRY pretreated system with shorter processing time and reduced enzyme usage. PMID:25001325

  9. Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

    2012-07-01

    The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Characterization, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides from Prunella vulgaris Linn.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Huang, Qiang; Fu, Xiong; Yue, Xiu-Jie; Liu, Rui Hai; You, Li-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides from Prunella vulgaris Linn (P. vulgaris) were fractionated using DEAE-Sepharose fast-flow column to obtain several eluents of water (PV-P1), 0.1M NaCl (PV-P2) and 0.2M NaCl (PV-P3). Structural analyses showed that PV-P1 had a higher molecular weight and degree of branching as compared to PV-P2 and PV-P3. Tertiary structure analyses indicated that PV-P1, PV-P2 and PV-P3 did not have triple-helical conformation. PV-P2 and PV-P3 showed stronger antioxidant activities than PV-P1, as measured radical scavenging capacities. PV-P1 showed stronger immunomodulatory activities than PV-P2 and PV-P3 in term of stimulation of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. PV-P1, PV-P2 and PV-P3 did not exhibit cytotoxicities against RAW 264.7 at the concentrations tested. These results suggest that P. vulgaris polysaccharides could be explored as potential antioxidant and immunomodulatory agents for the complementary medicine or functional foods. PMID:25596012

  11. Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Pattanayak, Priyabrata; Behera, Pritishova; Das, Debajyoti; Panda, Sangram K.

    2010-01-01

    The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medicinal practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional system of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn. have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin disease, arthritis, eye diseases, insect bites and so on. The O. sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess anti-fertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, analgesic, antispasmodic and adaptogenic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituents present in O. sanctum L. have been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials. The pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of O. sanctum L. The results of the above studies support the use of this plant for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethno-botanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances. PMID:22228948

  12. Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2%?w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use. PMID:22084720

  13. Mn accumulation and tolerance in Celosia argentea Linn.: a new Mn-hyperaccumulating plant species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xuehong; Zhu, Yinian; Yu, Ke

    2014-02-28

    Identifying a hyperaccumulator is an important groundwork for the phytoextraction of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Celosia argentea Linn., which grew on a Mn tailing wasteland, was found to hyperaccumulate Mn (14 362mgkg(-1) in leaf dry matter) in this study. To investigate Mn tolerance and accumulation in C. argentea, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Results showed that the biomass and the relative growth rate of C. argentea were insignificantly different (p>0.05) at the Mn supply level ranging from 2.5mgL(-1) (control) to 400mgL(-1). Manganese concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached maxima of 20228, 8872, and 2823mgkg(-1) at 600mgMnL(-1), respectively. The relative rate of Mn accumulation increased by 91.2% at 400mgMnL(-1). Over 95% of the total Mn taken up by C. argentea was translocated to shoots. Thus, C. argentea exhibits the basic characteristics of a Mn-hyperaccumulator. This species has great potential to remediate Mn-contaminated soil cheaply and can also aid the studies of Mn uptake, translocation, speciation, distribution and detoxification in plants. PMID:24444455

  14. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study.

    PubMed

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M; Thakar, Anup B; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-07-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

  15. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Solanum Melongena Linn. in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity study according to OECD425 guidelines was done to find out the LD50 of test drug. Carrageenan induced paw oedema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena L. (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg b.w.) was used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st h, 3rd h, and 5th h after the carrageenan injection. Results: In acute oral toxicity study none of the animals died at the dose of 2000mg/kg. Aqueous extract of Solanum melongena Linn leaf in the dose of 200mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (p <0.05) at 3rd hr and highly significant anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.001) at 5th hr; in the dose of 400 mg/kg, test drug showed p<0.01 at 3rd and p<0.001 at 5th hr and in the dose of 100mg/kg it showed significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at 5th hr. In doses of 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of S. melongena L showed the percentage of inhibition of 42.62% which is less than the standard drug aspirin which showed 64.5% inhibition. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn has anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25738003

  16. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

    2010-10-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

  17. Evaluation of the pesticidal potential of the congress grass, Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. on the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    PubMed

    Sohal, S K; Rup, P J; Kaur, H; Kumari, N; Kaur, J

    2002-01-01

    Petroleum ether extracts of leaves, stem and inflorescence of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. at 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000 ppm concentrations were tested in the laboratory for their toxic effects on the mean life span and progeny production of adults of the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.). The investigations revealed a significant decrease in life span and progeny production with treatment. Among the three plant parts tested for their efficacy, the leaf extract showed the most significant effect in causing a dose dependent decline in both the life span and progeny production. PMID:12617312

  18. Euphorbia helioscopia Linn as a green source for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their optical and catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Babaei, Ferydon; Maham, Mehdi

    2015-07-15

    During this study, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Euphorbia helioscopia Linn leaf extract for the synthesis of propargylamines. Also, the structural and optical properties are studied. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by TEM, XRD, FT-IR and UV-visible techniques. UV-visible studies show an absorption band at 440 nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, the catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity, superior cycling stability and excellent substrate applicability. PMID:25854504

  19. Use of agricultural land evaluation and site assessment in Linn County, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddleston, J. Herbert; Pease, James R.; Forrest, William G.; Hickerson, Hugh J.; Langridge, Russell W.

    1987-07-01

    Oregon state law requires each county in the state to identify agricultural land and enact policies and regulations to protect agricultural land use. State guidelines encourage the preservation of large parcels of agricultural land and discourage partitioning of agricultural land and construction of nonfarm dwellings in agricultural areas. A land evaluation and site assessment (LESA) system was developed in Linn County to aid in the identification of agricultural land and provide assistance to decision makers concerning the relative merits of requests to partition existing parcels of ricultural land and introduce nonagricultural uses. Land evaluation was determined by calculating soil potential ratings for each agricultural soil in the county based on the soil potentials for winter wheat, annual ryegrass, permanent pasture, and irrigated sweet corn. Soil potential ratings were expressed on a scale of 0 to 150 points. The land evaluation score for a parcel consists of the weighted average soil potential rating for all of the soils in the parcel, weighted by the percentage of each soil present in the parcel. Site assessment was based on the size of a parcel and on the amount of existing conflict between agricultural and nonagricultural uses, particularly rural residential uses, both adjacent to and in the vicinity of a parcel. Parcel size refers to both size in relation to a typical field and size in relation to a typical farm unit. Conflict takes into account the number of nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile (0.4 km) of a parcel, the amount of the perimeter that adjoins conflicting land uses, and the residential density adjacent to the parcel. Empirical scales were derived for assigning points to each of the site assessment factors. Both parcel size and conflict were worth 75 points in the model. For parcel size, 45 points were allocated to field size and 30 points to farm-unit size. For conflict, 30 points were allocated to nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile and 45 points to perimeter conflicts. The LESA model was validated by testing on 23 parcels in Linn County for which requests to partition and/or convert to nonagricultural uses had been received by the County Planning Department. This testing was an essential part of the development process, as it pointed out inconsistencies and errors in the model and allowed continuous adjustment of factors and point scales. The results of application of the final model to three of the case studies are presented to illustrate the concepts. Three possible uses of the information generated by the LESA system include determining the relative agricultural value of a parcel, determining grades of agricultural land suitability, and determining the impacts of changing land use on other parcels in the vicinity. Relative agricultural value is a direct outcome of application of the evaluation criteria in the LESA model. Good, marginal, and nonagricultural grades of agricultural suitability were determined by examining the data from all 23 test cases and establishing threshold point values for soil quality, conflict, parcel size, and total LESA score. Impact analyses were not done in this study, but could be achieved by calculating LESA scores for all parcels possibly affected by a land-use change both before and after a proposed change. All three applications fall short of making a specific land-use decision, but they do provide information that should be of value to the local jurisdiction charged with making such decisions.

  20. Nocardia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the coastal rhizosphere of Artemisia Linn., China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Wei; Feng, Wei-Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Bai, Juan-Luan; Yuan, Bo; Ju, Xiu-Yun; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Ji-Hong; Lv, Ai-Jun; Qin, Sheng

    2015-07-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain KLBMP S0043(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Artemisia Linn. collected from the coastal region of Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, in east China and was studied in detail for its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain KLBMP S0043(T) is a member of the genus Nocardia. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that strain KLBMP S0043(T) is closely related to Nocardia asteroides NBRC 15531(T) (97.61 %) and Nocardia neocaledoniensis SBHR OA6(T) (97.38 %); similarity to other type strains of the genus Nocardia was found to be less than 97.2 %. The organism has chemical and morphological features consistent with its classification in the genus Nocardia such as meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan and arabinose and galactose as the diagnostic sugars. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-8(H4?-cycl). Mycolic acids were detected. The diagnostic phospholipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The predominant cellular fatty acids were identified as C16:0, C18:0, C18:1?9c, 10-methyl C18:0 [tuberculostearic acid (TBSA)] and summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c/C16:1?6c). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 71.4 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strain from its most closely related strains. Based on morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain KLBMP S0043(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP S0043(T) (=CGMCC 4.7204 (T) = KCTC 29678(T)). PMID:25896308

  1. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    SciTech Connect

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 ?m. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  2. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application

    PubMed Central

    Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (?), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient. PMID:25426443

  3. Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.

    PubMed

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days. PMID:24353141

  4. Evaluation of Antidiarrheal Activity of Methanolic Extract of Maranta arundinacea Linn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Khalilur; Chowdhury, Md. Ashraf Uddin; Islam, Mohammed Taufiqual; Chowdhury, Md. Anisuzzaman; Uddin, Muhammad Erfan; Sumi, Chandra Datta

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common causes for thousands of deaths every year. Therefore, identification of new source of antidiarrheal drugs becomes one of the most prominent focuses in modern research. Our aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea linn. (MEMA) leaves in rats and brine shrimp, respectively. Antidiarrheal effect was evaluated by using castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility tests at 200?mg/kg and 400?mg/kg body weight in rats where the cytotoxic activity was justified using brine shrimp lethality bioassay at different concentrations of MEMA. The extract showed considerable antidiarrheal effect by inhibiting 42.67% and 57.75% of diarrheal episode at the doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg, respectively. MEMA also significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the castor oil-induced intestinal volume (2.14 ± 0.16 to 1.61 ± 0.12?mL) in enteropooling test as well as intestinal transit (33.00 to 43.36%) in GI motility test, compared to their respective control. These observed effects are comparable to that of standard drug loperamide (5?mg/kg). On the other hand, in brine shrimp lethality test after 24?h, surviving brine shrimp larvae were counted and LD50 was assessed. Result showed that MEMA was potent against brine shrimp with LD50 value of 420?µg/mL. So the highest dose of 400?µg/mL of MEMA was not toxic to mice. So these results indicate that bioactive compounds are present in methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea leaves including significant antidiarrheal activity and could be accounted for pharmacological effects. PMID:26346095

  5. Arsenic toxicity in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.): significance of potassium nutrition.

    PubMed

    Umar, Shahid; Gauba, Nidhi; Anjum, Naser A; Siddiqi, Tariq O

    2013-09-01

    In a hydroponic culture, experiments were performed to study the influence of potassium (K) supplementation (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg L(-1)) on the arsenic (As; 0, 8, and 10 mg L(-1))-accrued changes in growth traits (plant biomass, root-shoot length) and the contents of lepidine, As and K, in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) at 10 days after treatment. The changes in these traits were correlated with shoot proline content, protein profile, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11). In general, As-alone treatments significantly decreased the growth traits but lead to significant enhancements in shoot proline and enzyme activities. K-supplementation to As-treated L. sativum seedlings decreased shoot-As content, reduced As-induced decreases in growth traits but enhanced the content of shoot proline, and the activities of the studied enzymes maximally with K100 + As8 and As10 mg L(-1). Both 8 and 10 mg L(-1) of As drastically downregulated the shoot proteins ranging from 43-65 kDa. With As10 mg L(-1), there was a total depletion of protein bands below 23 kDa; however, K80 mg L(-1) maximally recovered and upregulated the protein bands. Additionally, protein bands were downregulated (at par with As-alone treatment) above K80 mg L(-1) level. Interestingly, As-stress increased lepidine content in a dose-dependent manner which was further augmented with the K-supplementation. It is suggested that K protects L. sativum against As-toxicity by decreasing its accumulation and strengthening antioxidant defense system and protein stability. PMID:23529401

  6. Study of wound healing activity of Tectona grandis Linn. leaf extract on rats

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Sushilkumar B.; Giri, Sapna P.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study is to determine the wound healing activity of Tectona grandis (TG) Linn. leaf extract on rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy albino rats (150-200 g) of either sex were taken for excision and incision wound model. Animals were divided into four groups of six animals in each group. For Group simple ointment served as control. The Groups 2 and 3 had 5 and 10% ointment of TG leaf extract and Group 4 soframycin ointment served as standard. In excision wound percentage of wound contraction was assessed, whereas in incision wound tensile strength was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by t-test. Results: In excision wound model, 5% ointment of TG leaf extract showed a reduction in wound area 8th day onwards. Reduction in wound area was very significant (P < 0.01) as compared to control. Whereas 10% ointment of TG leaf extract and standard showed a reduction in wound area fourth day onwards, which was highly significant (P < 0.001) as compared to control. In incision wound model, animals treated with 5% ointment of TG leaf extract showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in tensile strength as compare to control. However, animals treated with 10% ointment of TG leaf extract showed very significant (P < 0.001) increase in tensile strength as compare with control. However, animals treated with soframycin showed highly significant (P < 0.001) increase in tensile strength as compare with control. Conclusions: TG leaf extract showed significant wound healing activity. PMID:24991074

  7. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    PubMed

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction. PMID:23648758

  8. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Pradhan, Paresh; Borah, Sudarshana; Mahato, Kabita; Kumar, Mritunjay

    2013-01-01

    Stem bark of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. was extracted in methanol to evaluate their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic activity was determined on Wistar albino rats by hot plate method, tail flick assay, and tail immersion method using Morphine sulphate as standard drug at a dose of 5?mg/kg of body weight and the results were expressed as mean increase in latency after drug administration?±?SEM. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by Carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema using diclofenac sodium as standard drug at a dose of 100?mg/kg of body weight and expressed in terms of mean increase in paw volume?±?SEM. Stem bark extract was given at a dose of 250?mg/kg and 500?mg/kg of body weight. Both standard drugs and extract were administered orally to the animals. Control received distilled water orally. Results showed that Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. had potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23984409

  9. Vitamin C content of organically grown produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organically grown produce is the fastest growing sector of fresh market sales in the U.S. While accounting for only 3% of total produce sales, it is growing by 20% per year. There has been much debate over the relative health merits of organically grown fruits and vegetables. Most consumers believ...

  10. Photoluminescence of carbon nanotubes grown over trench

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Photoluminescence of carbon nanotubes grown over trench Shinya Iwasaki 1 , Yutaka Ohno 2 , Yoichi_iwasa@echo.nuee.nagoya-u.ac.jp The optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) grown over trench are sensitive to environ- mental atmosphere [1, 2]. We have compared E11 and E22 of the SWNTs over trench

  11. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2014-11-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  12. Determination of Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa Linn. by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS: An Application in Turmeric Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Kamran; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Altaf; Ahmad, Niyaz; Amir, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Cucuma longa Linn. (Fam-Zingiberaceae) is a valued medicinal plant contains curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) as major bioactive constituents. Previously reported analytical methods for analysis of curcuminoids were found to suffer from low resolution, lower sensitivity and longer analytical times. In this study, a rapid, sensitive, selective high-throughput ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of curcuminoids with an aim to reduce analysis time and enhance efficiency. UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis showed large variation (1.408-5.027% w/w) of curcuminoids among different samples with respect to their occurrence of metabolite and their concentration. The results showed that Erode (south province) contains highest quantity of curcuminoids and concluded to be the superior varieties. The results obtained here could be valuable for devising strategies for cultivating this medicinal plant. PMID:25838167

  13. Isolation and structure elucidaton of polyphenols from Loranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis with antiinflammatory property

    PubMed Central

    Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Okoye, Festus Basden Chied; Osadebe, Patience Ogoamaka

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of polyphenols isolated from the leaves of mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the isolated compounds were evaluated on the basis of their ability to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumuor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Semi-preparative HPLC separation of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (n-BuOH) fractions of the leaves of mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis led to the isolation of four polyphenols: 3-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-(-)-epicatechin (TMECG) (1); (-)-epicatechin-3-O-(3?-O-methyl)-gallate (ECG3?Me) (2); rutin (3) and peltatoside (4). Compounds 1-4 were isolated for the first time from this plant while 1 was isolated for the first time in nature. These compounds (1-4) were readily identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. The polyphenols proved to have anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by the suppression of inducible nitric oxide (iNO) and cytokine (TNF-?) levels in the culture supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. However, the study showed that the quercetin diglycosides showed stronger inhibition of proinflammatory mediators than the epicatechin derivates. These data provide evidence that polyphenolic compounds isolated from the mistletoe parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis may contribute to its anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the expression of inducible nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-?. PMID:26417309

  14. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

  19. Molecule diagram from space-grown crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researchers' at Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, in Buffalo, N.Y. have analyzed the molecular structures of insulin crystals grown during Space Shuttle experiments and are unlocking the mystery of how insulin works.

  20. Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity: antioxidant and histological study in mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, C; Sarathi, M; Balasubramanian, G; Thomas, John; Balachander, V; Babu, V Sarath; Bilal, S Mohammed Yusuf; Majeed, S Abdul; Madan, N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Nambi, K S N; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-04-01

    The isolated and identified triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera Linn. was explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (L. aspera Linn.) extract significantly antagonized the spectacled cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. It was compared with commercial antiserum obtained from King Institute of Preventive Medicine (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India). N. naja naja venom induced a significant decrease in antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, catalase, reduced GSH and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increased lipid peroxidase (LPO) activity in different organs such as heart, liver, kidney and lungs. The histological changes following the antivenom treatment were also evaluated in all these organs. There were significant alterations in the histology. Triterpenoid from methanol extract of L. aspera Linn. at a dose level of 75 mg per mouse significantly attenuated (neutralized) the venom-induced antioxidant status and also the LPO activity in different organs. PMID:23857030

  1. Wood quality from fast-grown plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Zobel, B.

    1981-01-01

    As forestry becomes more intensive and as forestry operations move toward the tropical areas, an increasing proportion of the wood available to the industry will come from young, fast-grown plantations. The wood of such trees, especially from the conifers, is so different that it will have a major effect on utilization and product standards. Acceptability of wood from fast-grown plantations will change as solid wood and paper quality standards change. Some of the primary effects on wood and products from fast-grown plantations are discussed in this paper. The wood is very suitable for some products and poor for others. The paper reports on conifers and hardwoods separately, with a large section on Eucalyptus.

  2. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years especially, under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 microns, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 microns. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be discussed in detail.

  3. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Vujisic, L.; Szofran, F. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years, especially under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 micrometers, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5 mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 micrometers. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be discussed in detail.

  4. Putative KS virus grown in laboratory.

    PubMed

    Folkers, G

    1996-03-01

    For the first time in a laboratory, researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, have grown the herpesvirus, thought to cause Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The virus, known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), was grown in a cell line derived from a lymph system cancer. This advancement may have important implications for the development of diagnostic tests and treatments for the virus. The role KSHV plays in KS is still being debated, although many feel there is enough circumstantial evidence that implicates this herpesvirus. KS is commonly seen in homosexual men with HIV disease, among African populations, and elderly men from the Mediterranean region. PMID:11363797

  5. MBE grown nanorods and Martin Aagesen

    E-print Network

    Nygård, Jesper

    MBE grown nanorods and nanoplates PhD Thesis Martin Aagesen Nano-Science Center Niels BohrD Thesis c Martin Aagesen E-mail: aagesen@fys.ku.dk Nano-Science Center Niels Bohr Institute Faculty (MBE). Most of the work has been carried out at the Nano-Science Center and the Niels Bohr Institute

  6. We Proudly Serve Locally Grown Foods

    E-print Network

    Chandy, John A.

    We Proudly Serve Locally Grown Foods Our recipes feature local bounty from Connecticut & the region SUBSTITUTIONS: Tofu, breaded soy let or Beyond MeatTM chicken strips. Local food item SALADS Mediterranean tortillas lled with arugula, pickled salsa & bruléed avocado. 13.25 Chuck & Augie's 8oz. Grilled Burger* 8oz

  7. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  8. Molecule diagram from earth-grown crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Like many chemicals in the body, the three-dimensional structure of insulin is extremely complex. When grown on the ground, insulin crystals do not grow as large or as ordered as researchers desire--obscuring the blueprint of the insulin molecules.

  9. Rice Plants Grown With and Without Endophytes

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These rice plants show the difference in growth of rice plants exposed to salt when grown with and without endophytes, which are mutually beneficial microscopic fungi that live in most plants. The plant on the left was colonized with a fungi that made it salt-tolerant, but it wasn't exposed to ...

  10. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zakiah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

  11. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of Turnera ulmifolia Linn. var. elegans against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Brito, Naira J N; López, Jorge A; do Nascimento, Maria Aparecida; Macêdo, José B M; Silva, Gabriel Araujo; Oliveira, Cláudia N; de Rezende, Adriana Augusto; Brandão-Neto, José; Schwarz, Aline; Almeida, Maria das Graças

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether the leaves of Turnera ulmifolia Linn. var. elegans extract exert significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of its hydroethanolic extract (HEETU) was evaluated by assessing (a) its radical scavenging ability in vitro, and (b) its in vivo effect on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The in vitro antioxidant assay (DPPH) clearly supported HEETU free radical scavenging potential. Moreover, glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) were significantly enhanced in CCl(4)-treated rats due to oral HEETU-treatment (500 mg/kgb.w.) over 7 and 21 days. In addition, an improvement was observed in lipid peroxidation and serum biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), indicating a protective effect against CCl(4)-induced liver injuries, confirmed by histopathological studies. The HEETU effect was comparable to the standard drug Legalon® (50 mg/kgb.w.) under the same experimental condition. Quantitative analysis of the HPLC extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, wich mediate the effects of antioxidant and oxidative stress. In conclusion, extract components exhibit antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22940430

  12. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, D.; Yoganandam, G. P.; Dey, A.; Deb, L.

    2013-01-01

    To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16th days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

  13. Cytotoxic effect of xanthones from pericarp of the tropical fruit mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) on human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing J; Sanderson, Barbara J S; Zhang, Wei

    2011-09-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree from South East Asia and its fruit pericarp is a well-known traditional medicine. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of three xanthone compounds (?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, and 8-deoxygartanin) from mangosteen pericarp was investigated using the human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell line. Significant dose-dependent reduction in % cell viability was induced. ?-Mangostin and 8-deoxygartanine at 5 ?g/ml increased the cell cycle arrest in G(1) phase (90% and 92%) compared with untreated cells (78%). All compounds induced apoptosis, of the highest being ?-mangostin at 7.5 ?g/ml that induced 59.6% early apoptosis, compared to 1.7% in untreated cells. The apoptotic effect of ?-mangostin was via caspase activation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane pathways as evidenced by 25-fold increased caspase-3 activity and 9-fold decreased mitochondrial membrane potential when compared to untreated cells. In conclusion, these xanthones, especially ?-mangostin, are potential candidates as anti-melanoma agents. PMID:21723363

  14. Unraveling the Structural Modifications in Lignin of Arundo donax Linn. during Acid-Enhanced Ionic Liquid Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    You, Tingting; Zhang, Liming; Guo, Siqin; Shao, Lupeng; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-23

    Solid acid-enhanced ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment is of paramount importance for boosting the yield of sugars from biomass cost-effectively and environmentally friendly. To unravel the chemical and supramolecular structural changes of lignin after pretreatment, IL-acid lignin (ILAL) and subsequent residual cellulolytic enzyme lignin (RCEL) were isolated from Arundo donax Linn. The structural features were compared with those of the corresponding milled wood lignin (MWL). Results indicated that the pretreatment caused loss of ?-O-4', ?-?', ?-1' linkages and formation of condensed structures in lignin. A preferential breakdown of G-type lignin may have occurred, evidenced by an increased S/G ratio revealed by 2D HSQC NMR analysis. It was determined that the depolymerization of ?-O-4' linkage, lignin recondensation, and cleavage of ferulate-lignin ether linkages took place. Moreover, a simulation module was first developed to define morphological changes in lignin based on AFM and TEM analyses. Briefly, tree branch like aggregates was destroyed to monodisperse particles. PMID:26621450

  15. Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-01-01

    Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

  16. Amelioration of inflammation by phenolic rich methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S; John, Febi; Indira, M

    2015-10-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation play vital role in the development of MI. The Indian basil or Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.), owing to its antioxidant potential, is used in the traditional system of Indian medicine to treat various disorders. We evaluated methanolic extract of O. sanctum (Tulsi) leaves on inflammation in isoproterenol (ISP) induced MI in rats. ISP-induced MI increased the levels of cardiac markers, phospholipases and phospholipid content. However, the same were reduced on pre-treatment with methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. The activities of 5-lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase-2 and levels of leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 were also elevated in ISP-treated rats, which were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in extract pre-treated rats. The enhanced mRNA expressions of nuclear factor kappa-B, 5-lipoxygenase activating protein and receptor for leukotriene B4 on MI induction, were considerably reduced (P < 0.001) on extract pre-treatment. Histopathological analysis also confirmed the findings. The results also revealed the high phenolic content of methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. The study demonstrated that methanolic extract of Tulsi leaves can decrease inflammation in the cardiac tissue of ISP-induced MI in rats and its effect may be through downregulation of oxidative stress and arachidonic acid pathway. This cardioprotective effect may be due to the high phenolic content of methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. PMID:26665293

  17. Isolation of a haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) from the Indian venomous butterfish (Scatophagus argus, Linn) sting extract.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, S; Muhuri, D C; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

    2004-05-01

    A haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) was isolated and purified from the spine extract of the Indian venomous butterfish, S. argus Linn, by two step ion exchange chromatography. The toxin was homogeneous in native and SDS-PAGE gel. SDS-molecular weight of the toxin was found to be 18.1 +/- 0.09 kDa. SA-HT produced severe haemorrhage on stomach wall but devoid of cutaneous haemorrhage. UV, EDTA, trypsin, protease, cyproheptadine, indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid and BW755C treatment significantly antagonized the haemorrhagic activity of SA-HT. The toxin produced dose and time dependent oedema on mice hind paw, which was significantly encountered by cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW755C. SA-HT increased capillary permeability on guinea pig dorsal flank. On isolated guineapig ileum, rat fundus and uterus, SA-HT produced slow contraction which was completely antagonised by prostaglandin blocker SC19220. On isolated rat duodenum, SA-HT produced slow relaxation. SA-HT significantly increased plasma plasmin, serum MDA level and decreased serum SOD level indicating the possible involvement of cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. PMID:15233468

  18. Anti-diabetic activity of methanolic extract of Alpinia galanga Linn. aerial parts in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh Kumar; Mishra, Garima; Singh, Pradeep; Jha, Keshri K.; Khosa, Ratan L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Alpinia galanga Linn. belongs to the family Zingiberaceae has been used as a traditional medicine in China for relieving stomach ache, treating cold, invigorating the circulatory systems, diabetes, and reducing swelling. Aim: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of A. galanga aerial parts on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 60 mg/kg bodyweight. Test drug methanolic extract of A. galanga (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.w.) as standard drug was administered orally for 21 consecutive days in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profiles, as well as initial and final changes in body weight were assessed along with histopathology. All the parameters were statistically analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni t-test. Results: Experimental findings showed significant dose dependent antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract in terms of reduction of fasting blood glucose level and various biochemical parameters in diabetic rats when compared with that of the diabetic control group, which might be due to the stimulatory effect of methanolic extracts on the regenerating ?-cells and also on the surviving ?-cells. Conclusion: Methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. galanga was effective in controlling blood glucose level and improve lipid profile in euglycemic as well as diabetic rats.

  19. Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.

    PubMed

    Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-02-01

    Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

  20. Ontogenesis of the collapsed layer during haustorium development in the root hemi-parasite Santalum album Linn.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Zhang, X; Teixeira da Silva, J A; Liang, K; Deng, R; Ma, G

    2014-01-01

    The structure and development of collapsed layers of the haustorium were studied in Santalum album Linn. Through light and transmission electron microscopy, it was shown that the collapsed layers originated from starch-containing cells when the haustorium developed an internal gland, thickened gradually and ultimately developed into the mantle, which, combined with the sucker, buckled the host root. We report on the presence of inter-collapsed layers for the first time. These layers develop after penetration into the host and are located between the intrusive tissues and the vascular meristematic region, gradually linking the collapsed layers and remains around the sucker. The proliferation of cells in the meristematic region and the 'host tropism' of cortical layers contribute to pressure within the haustorium and result in development of the collapsed layers. Besides, starch-containing cells that turn into collapsed layers are vulnerable to pressure as they lack a large vacuole, have uneven cell wall thickness and a loose cell arrangement. We proposed that the functions of collapsed layers are to efficiently assure that cell inclusion and energy concentrate at the inner meristematic region and are recycled to affect penetration, reinforce the physical connection between the sandalwood haustorium and host root, and supply space for haustorial development. PMID:23590414

  1. Therapeutic Effect of Saponin Rich Fraction of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kothavade, Pankaj S.; Bulani, Vipin D.; Nagmoti, Dnyaneshwar M.; Deshpande, Padmini S.; Gawali, Nitin B.; Juvekar, Archana R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Achyranthes aspera Linn. (AA) is used in folklore for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments and arthritis like conditions. Anti-inflammatory activity of saponin rich (SR) fraction of AA has been previously reported. The objective of this study was to assess the antiarthritic effect of SR fraction of Achyranthes aspera in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Methods. Arthritis was assessed by arthritis score, paw volume, changes in tibiotarsal joint thickness, hyperalgesic parameters, and spleen and thymus index. Haematological, serum, biochemical, and inflammatory cytokine and in vivo antioxidant parameters were measured on the last day of the study. Results. SR fraction significantly suppressed paw swelling and arthritic score and improved the pain threshold in motility and stair climbing tests. There was a reversal in the levels of altered parameters, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide. SR fraction significantly decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. Moreover, histopathology revealed a significant reduction in synovial hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and bone destruction in the joints. Conclusion. These observations explain the therapeutic benefit of SR fraction of AA in suppressing the progression of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. PMID:26273477

  2. Protective effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mannasaheb, Basheerahmed A.A.; Kulkarni, Preeti V.; Sangreskopp, Mashood Ahmed; Savant, Chetan; Mohan, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Natural plants always provide core compounds for new drug development. In the present life and food style, inflammatory bowel disease has become common and needs a lead compound for its drug development. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats based on its traditional anti-inflammatory use. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with A. americana leaf extract in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. daily for 7 days. On 8th day, 2 ml of 4% v/v acetic acid in saline was instilled into rats’ rectum. Prednisolone was used as standard drug and it was administered on the day of acetic acid instillation and continued for 3 days. Extract treatment was continued till 11th day. Body weight, ulcer score, colonic muscle contraction, antioxidant activity and histopathology were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. Results: A. americana have retained total body weight significantly (P < 0.01) and decreased colon weight/length ratio. Extract have shown a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in ulcer scores, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase activity. Further, extract have shown significant improvement in colonic muscle contraction, histopathology of colon etc., which is comparable with standard drug. Conclusion: A. americana possess protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

  3. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

  4. Genotoxic assessment of calcium hypochlorite and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds-two commonly used water purifying agents.

    PubMed

    Neelamkavil, Sandhya Vincent; Thoppil, John E

    2015-01-01

    The role of water in our daily lives cannot be highlighted enough, and ensuring the availability of pure water is an urgent need. Bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds are commonly used in water purification as a disinfectant and anticoagulant, respectively, yet their safety levels have not been analyzed so far. Hence, a genotoxic assessment was conducted using Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay. Reduction in mitotic index and increase in abnormality percentage was observed for both, but this effect was dose dependent. All values were statistically significant at p<0.05%. Bleaching powder was found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic compared with the control. Abnormality percentage was found to be significantly high when compared with the positive control. Chromosome aberrations like binucleate condition, micronuclei formation, stickiness, and lesions could only be observed in root meristems treated with positive control and bleaching powder. The seeds of S. potatorum expressed mild cytotoxicity, but the genotoxic effect was found to be negligible when compared with positive control. Other chromosome aberrations observed included chromosome bridges, c-metaphases, chromosome laggards, shift in microtubule organizing centre, polyploidy, early movement of chromosomes, vagrant chromosomes, as well as diagonal, disturbed, and scattered arrangement of chromosomes. Thus, the genotoxic effect of bleaching powder warns people to use a safer choice of S. potatorum in water purification, whenever possible, as in the condition of muddy, coagulated water. PMID:25411981

  5. Study on the release routes of allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., and its anti-cyanobacteria mechanisms on Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Ye, Jinyun; Zhong, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Allelochemicals in Pistia stratiotes Linn. have a strong anti-cyanobacteria effect on Microcystis aeruginosa. To further determine the release routes of allelochemicals in P. stratiotes and understand their anti-cyanobacteria mechanisms, we aimed to systematically investigate the allelopathic effects of leaf leachates, leaf volatilization, root exudates, and residue decomposition of P. stratiotes on M. aeruginosa. The influences of P. stratiotes allelochemicals on the physiological properties of M. aeruginosa were also studied. Root exudates of P. stratiotes exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa growth. The residue decomposition and leaf leachates exhibited a relatively strong inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa growth. By contrast, the leaf volatilization stimulated M. aeruginosa growth. Therefore, root exudation was determined to be the main release route of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes. The mixed culture experiment of P. stratiotes root exudates and M. aeruginosa showed that the allelochemicals released from root exudation had no effect on the electron transfer of M. aeruginosa photosynthetic system II. However, it reduced the phycocyanin (PC) content and phycocyanin to allophycocyanin (PC/APC) ratio in the photosynthetic system. As the root exudates concentration increased, the electrical conductivity (EC) and superoxide anion radical (O2 (*-)) values in the M. aeruginosa culture fluid increased significantly, indicating that the allelochemicals released from the root of P. stratiotes inhibited algae growth by affecting the PC and PC/APC levels in photosynthesis, destroying the cell membrane, and increasing O2 (*-) content to result in oxidative damage of M. aeruginosa. PMID:26233747

  6. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

  7. Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha. PMID:22629204

  8. Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-08-01

    The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

  9. Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, Annette S.; Wurstbauer, Ulrich; Pinczuk, Aron; Garcia, Jorge M.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.

    2013-06-01

    We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al. [ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

  10. Functional analysis of aggression in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata).

    PubMed

    Farmer-Dougan, Valeri

    2014-01-01

    A functional analysis was conducted to assess the antecedent and reinforcing conditions underlying aggressive behavior in a female lemur in captivity. Results showed that her aggression was primarily the result of human attention. A replacement behavior-training program was introduced, and the lemur's aggression was successfully eliminated. These results demonstrate the utility of using functional assessment and analyses in zoos with captive wild nonhuman animals. PMID:24911429

  11. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  12. Nucleolus in clinostat-grown plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shen-Miller, J.; Dannenhoffer, J. ); Hinchman, R. )

    1991-05-01

    The clinostat is an apparatus that is used to mimic zero gravity in studies of plant growth in the absence of gravitropic response. Clinostat-grown tissue cultures of carrot exhibit significant increases both in the number of nuclei containing more than one nucleolus and in nucleolar volume. Oat seedlings germinated and grown on clinostats exhibit a decreased rate of shoot elongation, increased tissue sensitivity to applied auxin, and an increased response to gravitropic stimulation. Clinostat treatment clearly affects plant metabolism. The nucleolus is the region in the nucleus where ribosome synthesis and assembly take place. The 18S, 5.8S, and 25S ribosomal genes, in tandem units, are located in the nucleolus. Ribosomes orchestrate the production of all proteins that are necessary for the maintenance of cell growth, development, and survival. A full study of the effects of nullification of gravitropism, by clinostat rotation, on nucleolar development in barley has been initiated. The authors study developmental changes of nucleolar number and diameter in clinostat-grown root tissues. Preliminary results show that barley roots exhibit changes in nucleolar number and diameter. Growth rates of barley root and shoot also appear to be reduced, in measurements of both length and weight.

  13. Virulency of novel nanolarvicide from Trichoderma atroviride against Aedes aegypti (Linn.): a CLSM analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam

    2015-08-01

    Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmitting dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These diseases' transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas as a major public health concern. In present investigation, Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. Moreover, T. atroviride is a free-living and rapidly growing fungi common in soil and root ecosystem. This fungi is an exceptionally good model for biocontrol and more significant as a bioagent. T. atroviride was grown in malt extract. T. atroviride culture filtrates were exposed to silver nitrates solution for 24 h at 25 °C for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were characterized to find their unique properties with UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The T. atroviride culture filtrates have formed hexagonal (diamond shape) AgNPs with the range of size of 14.01-21.02 nm. These AgNPs have shown significant efficacies against first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti. The LC90 and LC99 values for the first instar were 1 and 3 ppm, second instar 2 and 3.18 ppm, third instar 3.12 and 4.12 ppm, and fourth instar 6.30 and 6.59 ppm, respectively, after an exposure of 7 h. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies were verdict that these AgNPs embedded in the cuticle of larvae and cause instant lethality in 7 h. Present investigations have demonstrated that the AgNPs of T. atroviride culture filtrates synthesized can be used for larvae control of A. aegypti. T. atroviride is synthesized to silver nanoparticles to be a promising new candidate for application in mosquito control. We therefore suggested that the ability of T. atroviride culture filtrates in synthesis can also be explored for synthesizing silver nanoparticles for commercial exploitation. PMID:25907629

  14. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption...

  15. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption...

  16. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption...

  17. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption...

  18. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption...

  19. Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation. PMID:25374344

  20. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200?mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10?cm; P<.001, 200?mg/kg; 6?h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100?mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20?mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15?min before AM (200?mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 ?g/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  1. In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of Sida rhombifolia Linn (Malvaceae) against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhoea. Acute toxicity of the most active extract was determined and major bioactive components were screened. Methods The agar disc diffusion and the agar dilution method were used for the determination of inhibition diameters and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) respectively. The acute toxicity study was performed according WHO protocol. Results The aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) was the most active with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 - 23.6 mm, however at 200 ?g/dic this activity was relatively weak compared to gentamycin. The MICs of the aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) varied from 49.40 to 78.30 ?g/ml. Salmonella dysenteriae was the most sensitive (49.40 ?g/ml). For the acute toxicity study, no deaths of rats were recorded. However, significant increase of some biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine (CRT) were found. The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins Conclusion The results showed that the aqueous-methanol extract of S. rhombifolia exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Some toxic effects were found when rats received more than 8 g/kg bw of extract. Antibacterial; Enterobacteria; Acute toxicity; Phytochemical analysis PMID:20663208

  2. Inhibition of melanogenesis versus antioxidant properties of essential oil extracted from leaves of Vitex negundo Linn and chemical composition analysis by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tzu-Yun; Chang, Long-Zen; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidative properties of the essential oil extracted from leaves of V. negundo Linn and the analysis of the chemical composition of this essential oil. The efficacy of the essential oil was evaluated spectrophotometrically, whereas the volatile chemical compounds in the essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that the essential oil effectively suppresses murine B16F10 tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and showed potent reducing power versus metal-ion chelating properties in a dose-dependent pattern. The chemical constituents in the essential oil are sesquiterpenes (44.41%), monoterpenes (19.25%), esters (14.77%), alcohols (8.53%), aromatic compound (5.90%), ketone (4.96%), ethers (0.4%) that together account for 98.22% of its chemical composition. It is predicted that the aromatic compound in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from V. negundo Linn leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells and showed potent antioxidant activities. The essential oil can thereby serve as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant. PMID:22466851

  3. Flavonoid rich fraction of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (Yam) enhances mitochondrial enzymes and antioxidant status and thereby protects heart from isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, K S; Vasanthi, Hannah R; Rajamanickama, G V

    2010-12-01

    With recent advances in nutrition sciences, natural products and health-promoting foods have received extensive attention from both health professionals and the common population. The flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. has a strong free radical scavenging activity. FRF (150 mg/kg) when intervened for a period of 35 days prior to isoproterenol (ISO) challenge to rats maintained the creatine kinase - MB (CK-MB) activity in serum without elevation. Alterations in the antioxidant status in the mitochondria were recognized in the heart tissue of ISO induced rats. ISO induced rats pretreated with FRF (150 mg/kg) ameliorated the lipid peroxidation and thereby enhanced the antioxidant status as evidenced by the increase in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes such isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (?-KGDH), which were found decreased in the ISO induced rats showed an enhanced activity in FRF (150 mg/kg) pretreated rats. The activity of NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome-C-oxidase the enzymes, which transfer the electron in the electron transport chain (ETC) was also increased significantly (p<0.05) in FRF (150 mg/kg) pretreated rats, when compared with ISO induced rats. These results suggest the cardioprotective effect of FRF of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. in ISO induced MI by attenuating the lipid peroxidation by scavenging free radicals and modulating the energy producing mitochondrial enzymes. PMID:20874686

  4. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  5. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  6. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  7. Phytochemical phenolics in organically grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Young, Janice E; Zhao, Xin; Carey, Edward E; Welti, Ruth; Yang, Shie-Shien; Wang, Weiqun

    2005-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with risks for several chronic diseases in humans. Phytochemicals, and in particular, phenolic compounds, present in plant foods may be partly responsible for these health benefits through a variety of mechanisms. Since environmental factors play a role in a plant's production of secondary metabolites, it was hypothesized that an organic agricultural production system would increase phenolic levels. Cultivars of leaf lettuce, collards, and pac choi were grown either on organically certified plots or on adjacent conventional plots. Nine prominent phenolic agents were quantified by HPLC, including phenolic acids (e. g. caffeic acid and gallic acid) and aglycone or glycoside flavonoids (e. g. apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin). Statistically, we did not find significant higher levels of phenolic agents in lettuce and collard samples grown organically. The total phenolic content of organic pac choi samples as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, however, was significantly higher than conventional samples (p < 0.01), and seemed to be associated with a greater attack the plants in organic plots by flea beetles. These results indicated that although organic production method alone did not enhance biosynthesis of phytochemicals in lettuce and collards, the organic system provided an increased opportunity for insect attack, resulting in a higher level of total phenolic agents in pac choi. PMID:16302198

  8. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  9. Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, A. J.; Amamou, W.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Kawakami, R. K.; Hammel, P. C.

    2014-05-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidth—an often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1 nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

  10. Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, A. J.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Hammel, P. C.; Amamou, W.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2014-05-07

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidth—an often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1?nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

  11. Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

  12. Impurity contamination in fast grown KDP

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Ming; DeYoreo, J.; Zaitseva, N.; Torres, R.

    1996-12-31

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) has traditionally been used as a nonlinear optical material for frequency conversion to produce second and third harmonic radiation. A high laser-induced damage threshold for KDP crystals is required for high power laser applications, such as laser fusion. High quality KDP crystals for such applications can be produced by a recently developed rapid crystal growth method. The authors report the results of an impurity contamination study in rapidly-grown KDP crystals. Using absorption spectroscopy, they identified the impurity contamination in the different growth sectors of the crystals. They show that the level of contamination depends on the growth rate achieved during the rapid growth. The impurities observed by absorption spectroscopy are identified as the origin of lattice distortion and optical birefringence in the KDP crystals. The study of impurity incorporation during crystal growth is important for understanding the damage mechanism of KDP.

  13. Perfect crystals grown from imperfect interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Falub, Claudiu V.; Medu?a, Mojmír; Chrastina, Daniel; Isa, Fabio; Marzegalli, Anna; Kreiliger, Thomas; Taboada, Alfonso G.; Isella, Giovanni; Miglio, Leo; Dommann, Alex; von Känel, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of advanced devices increasingly requires materials with different properties to be combined in the form of monolithic heterostructures. In practice this means growing epitaxial semiconductor layers on substrates often greatly differing in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. With increasing layer thickness the relaxation of misfit and thermal strains may cause dislocations, substrate bowing and even layer cracking. Minimizing these drawbacks is therefore essential for heterostructures based on thick layers to be of any use for device fabrication. Here we prove by scanning X-ray nanodiffraction that mismatched Ge crystals epitaxially grown on deeply patterned Si substrates evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface. We show that relaxing thermal and misfit strains result just in lattice bending and tiny crystal tilts. We may thus expect a new concept in which continuous layers are replaced by quasi-continuous crystal arrays to lead to dramatically improved physical properties. PMID:23880632

  14. The main chemical composition and in vitro antifungal activity of the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Wen; Li, Sheng-Kun; Wu, Wen-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The essential oils of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum Linn.var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth., an endemic medicinal plant growing in China, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds, representing 74.19% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (29.68%), (Z)-cinnamic acid methyl ester (21.49%), cyclohexene (4.41%), alpha- cadinol (3.99%), 2,4-diisopropenyl-1-methyl-1-vinylcyclohexane (2.27%), 3,5-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-dimethyl-diethyl ester (2.01%), beta-cubebene (1.97%), guaia-1(10),11-diene (1.58%), cadinene (1.41%) (E)-cinnamic acid methyl ester (1.36%) and beta-guaiene (1.30%). The essential oils showed significant antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:19136915

  15. Evaluation of the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn. on forced swimming induced chronic fatigue syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, P.; Borah, M.; Das, S.

    2015-01-01

    The fruit of Cassia fistula Linn. is a legume, has antioxidant and lots of other medicinal properties. As oxidants are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome, the present study was done to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of C. fistula Linn. (EECF) on forced swimming induced chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Albino mice of 25-40 grams were grouped into five groups (n=5). Group A served as naive control and group B served as stress control. Group C received EECF 200 mg/kg and group D received EECF 400 mg/kg respectively. Group E received imipramine 20 mg/kg (standard). All animals were treated with their respective agent orally daily for 7 days. Except for group A, animals in other groups were subjected to force swimming 6 min daily for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was assessed on day 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th. Anxiety level (by elevated plus maze and mirrored chamber) and loco-motor activity (by open field test) were assessed 24 h after last force swimming followed by biochemical estimations of oxidative biomarkers in brain homogenate at the end of study. Treatment with EECF resulted in significant reduction in the duration of immobility, reduced anxiety and increased loco-motor activity. Malondialdehyde level was also reduced and catalase level was increased in the extract treated group and standard group compared to stress control group. The study indicates that EECF has protective effect against experimentally induced CFS. PMID:26600847

  16. Systemic regulation of photosynthetic function in field-grown sorghum.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Liu, Yujun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuangdao

    2015-09-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of developing leaves of plants grown under artificial conditions are, to some extent, regulated systemically by mature leaves; however, whether systemic regulation of photosynthesis occurs in field-grown crops is unclear. To explore this question, we investigated the effects of planting density on growth characteristics, gas exchange, leaf nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll a fluorescence in field-grown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Our results showed that close planting resulted in a marked decline in light intensity in lower canopy. Sorghum plants grown at a high planting density had lower net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (E) than plants grown at a low planting density. Moreover, in the absence of mineral deficiency, close planting induced a slight increase in leaf nitrogen concentration. The decreased photosynthesis in leaves of the lower canopy at high planting density was caused mainly by the low light. However, newly developed leaves exposed to high light in the upper canopy of plants grown at high planting density also exhibited a distinct decline in photosynthesis relative to plants grown at low planting density. Based on these results, the photosynthetic function of the newly developed leaves in the upper canopy was not determined fully by their own high light environment. Accordingly, we suggest that the photosynthetic function of newly developed leaves in the upper canopy of field-grown sorghum plants is regulated systemically by the lower canopy leaves. The differences in systemic regulation of photosynthesis were also discussed between field conditions and artificial conditions. PMID:26057699

  17. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780...STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet...Section 13(b)(15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities...

  18. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780...STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet...Section 13(b)(15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities...

  19. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780...STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet...Section 13(b)(15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities...

  20. 78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...AMS-FV-13-0082; FV14-981-1 CR] Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum...be conducted among eligible growers of almonds in California to determine whether they...marketing order that regulates the handling of almonds grown in California. DATES: The...

  1. 78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 981 Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a... continuance of the marketing order that regulates the handling of almonds grown in California. DATES:...

  2. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a... of the marketing order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES:...

  3. 78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...AMS-FV-13-0037; FV13-955-2 CR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum...conducted among eligible producers of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia to determine whether...that regulates the handling of Vidalia onions produced in the production area....

  4. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. Silicon samples grown under reduced melt convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binetti, S.; Gonik, M.; Le Donne, A.; Croel, A.

    2015-05-01

    In any crystallization process, convection rules the formation and distribution of impurities and precipitates. Silicon is actually a well studied material; however the distribution of impurities and their related precipitation processes are still not investigated from the point of view of diffusion and segregation phenomena. In principle, experimentation under microgravity can contribute to a better understanding of the processes occurring during solidification since the chemical segregation and distribution of impurities can be studied under purely diffusive transport conditions. In ground experiments, the effect of a reduced melt convection growth process and its effect on the crystal quality could be studied growing silicon by the Axial Heating Process (AHP). For this purpose, a modified Float Zone (FZ) technique using an additional AHP heater submerged into the melt was applied in this work to grow silicon single crystal. The obtained samples were inspected by resistivity measurements and spectroscopic techniques (PL, FT-IR). The spatial distribution of the dopant along the ingot obtained by local resistivity measurements was compared with a theoretical distribution of dopant. PL measurements confirm the high quality level of the grown ingots and infrared spectroscopy reveals low carbon and oxygen concentration. Such an approach seems to be very promising also for solar grade Si solidification for PV applications.

  6. Irrigation frequency alters nutrient uptake in container-grown Rhododendron plants grown with different rates of nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of irrigation frequency (same amount of water per day given at different times) on nutrient uptake of container-grown evergreen Rhododendron ‘P.J.M. Compact’ (PJM) and ‘English Roseum’ (ER) and deciduous Rhododendron ‘Gibraltar’ (AZ) grown with different rates of nitrogen (N) fertilize...

  7. Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is coated on U.S. currency. After deposition, the growth is carried out in a hot-filament chemical vapor deposition apparatus. A tungsten hot filament placed in the flow of H2 at a temperature greater than 1,600 C creates atomic hydrogen, which serves to reduce the Fe catalyst into a metallic state. The catalyst can now precipitate SWNTs in the presence of growth gases. The gases used for the experiments reported are C2H2, H2O, and H2, at rates of 2, 2, and 400 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm), respectively. In order to retain the flakes, a cage is constructed by spot welding stainless steel or copper mesh to form an enclosed area, in which the flakes are placed prior to growth. This allows growth gases and atomic hydrogen to reach the flakes, but does not allow the flakes, which rapidly nucleate SWNTs, to escape from the cage.

  8. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  9. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  10. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  11. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  12. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...produced from grapes grown outside of California. 989.157 Section 989.157 ...RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations...produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  13. Carbon microspheres grown by using hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hunsoo; Lee, Chanmi; Park, Minah; Lee, Chanbin; Yi, Sam Nyung; Yang, Min; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Kim, Suck-Whan; Yu, Young Moon; Shin, Kee Sam; Bae, Jong Seong; Sawaki, Nobuhiko

    2015-10-01

    A carbon microsphere of a core-shell type was grown by using a new method of mixed-source hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The surface and the cross section of the carbon microsphere grown by using the new method were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristics of the carbon microsphere were investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). From these measurements, the diameters of the carbon spheres were about a few hundred micrometers. Furthermore, we showed that carbon microspheres of the core-shell type could be grown successfully by using a mixed-source HVPE method and that they had larger sizes than those grown by using existing methods. This mixed-source HVPE method is proposed as a new method for making carbon microspheres.

  14. GUIDELINES AND ACCEPTABLE POSTHARVEST PRACTICES FOR ORGANICALLY GROWN PRODUCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic foods are produced using agricultural practices that emphasize renewable resources and conservation of soil and water. Horticultural crops are grown and processed without synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, ingredients and processing aids. Crops or ingredients derived from genetic engineeri...

  15. At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups

    MedlinePLUS

    ... At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. For up-to-date health information tailor-made just for ...

  16. Nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    SciTech Connect

    Melechko, Anatoli V.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2011-08-23

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoreplicant structure coupled to a surface of the substrate.

  17. Defect Density Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Szoke, J.; Szofran, F. R.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several (111)-oriented, Ga-doped germanium crystals were grown in pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) containers by the Bridgman and the detached Bridgman growth techniques. Growth experiments in closed-bottom pBN containers resulted in nearly completely detached-grown crystals, because the gas pressure below the melt can build up to a higher pressure than above the melt. With open-bottom tubes the gas pressure above and below the melt is balanced during the experiment, and thus no additional force supports the detachment. In this case the crystals grew attached to the wall. Etch pit density (EPD) measurements along the axial growth direction indicated a strong improvement of the crystal quality of the detached-grown samples compared to the attached samples. Starting in the seed with an EPD of 6-8 x 10(exp 3)/square cm it decreased in the detached-grown crystals continuously to about 200-500/square cm . No significant radial difference between the EPD on the edge and the middle of the crystal exists. In the attached grown samples the EPD increases up to a value of about 2-4 x 10(exp 4)/square cm (near the edge) and up to 1 x 10(exp 4)/square cm in the middle of the sample. Thus the difference between the detached- and the attached-grown crystals with respect to the EPD is approximately two orders of magnitude.

  18. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  19. Anticancer activity of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Indian gooseberry): inhibition of transcription factor AP-1 and HPV gene expression in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mahata, Sutapa; Pandey, Arvind; Shukla, Shirish; Tyagi, Abhishek; Husain, Syed Akhtar; Das, Bhudev Chandra; Bharti, Alok Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Plant products of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. are traditionally consumed for its immense nutritive and medicinal values. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which it exerts it effects is less understood. In this study, we investigated mechanism of action of P. emblica fruit extract (PE) by studying its effect on activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity and human papillomavirus (HPV) transcription that are essential for tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells. PE resulted in a dose-and time-dependent inhibition of DNA binding activity of constitutively active AP-1 in both HPV16-positive (SiHa) and HPV18-positive (HeLa) cervical cancer cells. PE-induced AP-1 inhibition was found mediated through downregulation of constituent AP-1 proteins, c-Jun, JunB, JunD, and c-Fos; however, the kinetics of their inhibition varied in both the cell types. Inhibition of AP-1 by PE was accompanied by suppression of viral transcription that resulted in growth inhibition of cervical cancer cells. Growth inhibitory activity of PE was primarily manifested through induction of apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that P. emblica exhibits its anticancer activities through inhibition of AP-1 and targets transcription of viral oncogenes responsible for development and progression of cervical cancer thus indicating its possible utility for treatment of HPV-induced cervical cancers. PMID:23682787

  20. Distribution of major xanthones in the pericarp, aril, and yellow gum of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana linn.) fruit and their contribution to antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Sukatta, Udomlak; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Okadome, Hiroshi; Sotome, Itaru; Nanayama, Kazuko; Thanapase, Warunee; Isobe, Seiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Xanthone compounds in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) fruit have been reported to have biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and the major xanthone compounds in mangosteen are ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin. The objectives of this research were to quantify and qualify the major xanthones in each part of the mangosteen fruit with and without yellow gum from the point of view of effective utilization of agricultural product. Quantitative evaluation revealed that yellow gum had extremely high amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin (382.2 and 144.9 mg/g on a wet basis, respectively) followed by pericarp and aril. In mangosteen fruit with yellow gum inside, xanthones seemed to have shifted from the pericarp and to have concentrated in a gum on the surface of aril, and there was almost no difference between the amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin in whole fruits with and without yellow gum. Pericarp and yellow gum showed much higher radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential than the aril. PMID:23649258

  1. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250?mm?×?4.6?mm, 5??), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water?:?methanol?:?glacial acetic acid (65?:?34?:?1?v/v). The flow rate was 1.0?mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310?nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617?min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10??g/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  2. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40?mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200??g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6??g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ?1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100?mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40?mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60?mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5?mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5?mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  3. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic Activities and Characterisation of Functional Phenolic Acids of Achyranthes aspera Linn.: A Medicinal Plant Used for the Treatment of Wounds and Ringworm in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R.; Ghebrehiwot, Habteab M.; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Aremu, Adeyemi O.; Gruz, Ji?í; Šubrtová, Michaela; Doležal, Karel; du Plooy, Christian P.; Abdelgadir, Hafiz A.; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) commonly known as Prickly Chaff flower (English) is traditionally used for treating a number of ailments. Different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds and ringworm in East Africa and elsewhere for a number of ailments. In this study, leaf extracts of A. aspera collected from two different geographical locations (Ciaat, Eritrea and Ukulinga, South Africa) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic activities and the plant characterized for functional phenolic acids as well as protein binding capacity. The pathogens used in the tests were, two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), a filamentus yeast-like fungus (Candida albicans) and a free-living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans). The water and acetone extracts of the samples collected from Ciaat exhibited good antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activity (MIC < 1 mg/ml) except the water extract against E. coli which showed moderate activity. In contrast, the extracts collected from Ukulinga exhibited moderate to weak activities except for the acetone (aq.) extracts which had good activity against some of the tested organisms. UHPLC-MS/MS revealed variation in the levels of some functional phenolic compounds, with rutin, chlorogenic acid and genistein not being detected in the extracts from Ukulinga. The variation was also observed in the protein binding capacity, which could offer a predictive wound healing model. All extracts from plant samples collected at Ciaat expressed significant dominant potency compared to similar extracts from Ukulinga. PMID:26635604

  4. Defect studies in 4H- Silicon Carbide PVT grown bulk crystals, CVD grown epilayers and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrappa, Shayan M.

    Silicon Carbide [SiC] which exists as more than 200 different polytypes is known for superior high temperature and high power applications in comparison to conventional semiconductor materials like Silicon and Germanium. The material finds plethora of applications in a diverse fields due to its unique properties like large energy bandgap, high thermal conductivity and high electric breakdown field. Though inundated with superior properties the potential of this material has not been utilized fully due to impeding factors such as defects especially the crystalline ones which limit their performance greatly. Lots of research has been going on for decades to reduce these defects and there has been subsequent improvement in the quality as the diameter of SiC commercial wafers has reached 150mm from 25mm since its inception. The main focus of this thesis has been to study yield limiting defect structures in conjunction with several leading companies and national labs using advanced characterization tools especially the Synchrotron source. The in depth analysis of SiC has led to development of strategies to reduce or eliminate the density of defects by studying how the defects nucleate, replicate and interact in the material. The strategies discussed to reduce defects were proposed after careful deliberation and analysis of PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers. Following are some of the results of the study: [1] Macrostep overgrowth mechanism in SiC was used to study the deflection of threading defects onto the basal plane resulting in stacking faults. Four types of stacking faults associated with deflection of c/c+a threading defects have been observed to be present in 76mm, 100mm and 150mm diameter wafers. The PVT grown bulk crystals and CVD grown epilayers in study were subjected to contrast studies using synchrotron white beam X-ray topography [SWBXT]. The SWBXT image contrast studies of these stacking faults with comparison of calculated phase shifts for postulated fault vectors by macrostep overgrowth of surface outcrops, has revealed faults to be of four types of which one of the following are discussed in detail which is the Shockley faults. The fault vector were determined by taking into account the contrast from stacking faults in SWBXT undergoing phase shift as the X-ray wave fields cross the fault plane. The deflected dislocations onto the basal plane were responsible for the stacking faults and were observed to be detrimental to the devices grown on them as they replicate to the epilayer. In the wafers studied at different stages of the SiC crystal boule resulted in reduction of threading defects as they at certain stage get deflected out of the crystal causing drop of defects density. [2] A novel technique known as the Ray Tracing Simulation was used to determine the sense of c/c+a dislocations obtained via Grazing-Incidence X-ray Topography. Determination of the complete sense and burgers vector of these dislocations was very important to augment our proposed models on stacking faults associated with these defects. Orientation contrast mechanism in X- ray diffraction topography was previously determined to be the dominant factor in SiC by our group and the same principles were used for the simulation. The results were surmised after extensive comparison between experimental and simulation images for the c+2a defects. [3] With the BPD density down to a record level of few hundred per square centimeter in several wafers in multiple regions made it possible to observe the conversion of sessile Threading Edge Dislocations [TED] to glissile BPDs with this repeating multiple times. Previously the high density of Basal Plane Dislocations [BPD] prevented from discerning the details accurately in the SiC images taken by SWBXT. The contribution of SWBXT in accurately categorizing the nature of dislocations in SiC has enabled the crystal growth community to incorporate strategies to mitigate their influence. One of them has been recognizing BPDs as deformation induced defects which have led to the development of

  5. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  6. Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

  7. YIELD COMPARISON OF INDICA AND US CULTIVARS GROWN IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES AND BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two subspecies of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) are indica, grown in tropical areas like southern China, and japonica, grown in temperate areas. Tropical japonicas are the japonica subgroup grown in the southern US. When indica rices are grown in the southern US and compared to tropical japoni...

  8. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cigarette and pipe tobacco. (b) Type 92. Foreign-grown flue-cured tobacco. (c) Type 93. Foreign-cured burley tobacco. (d) Type 95. Foreign-grown dark air-cured. (e) Type 96. Foreign-grown fire-cured. (f) Type 99. Other Foreign-grown cigarette and dark tobacco. Reports...

  9. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cigarette and pipe tobacco. (b) Type 92. Foreign-grown flue-cured tobacco. (c) Type 93. Foreign-cured burley tobacco. (d) Type 95. Foreign-grown dark air-cured. (e) Type 96. Foreign-grown fire-cured. (f) Type 99. Other Foreign-grown cigarette and dark tobacco. Reports...

  10. Antifungal activity of Curcuma longa grown in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wuthi-udomlert, M; Grisanapan, W; Luanratana, O; Caichompoo, W

    2000-01-01

    Curcuma longa Linn. or turmeric (Zingiberaceae) is a medicinal plant widely used and cultivated in tropical regions. According to Thai traditional texts, fresh and dried rhizomes are used as peptic ulcer treatment, carminatives, wound treatment and anti-inflammatory agent. Using hydro distillation, 1.88% and 7.02% (v/w) volatile oils were extracted from fresh and dried rhizomes, respectively, and 6.95% (w/w)crude curcuminoids were extracted from dried rhizomes. Dried powder was extracted with 95% ethanol and yielded 29.52% (w/w) crude ethanol extract composed of curcumin (11.6%), demethoxycurcumin (10.32%) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (10.77%). These extracts were tested for antifungal activity by agar disc diffusion method against 29 clinical strains of dermatophytes. It was found that crude ethanol extract exhibited an inhibition zone range of 6.1 to 26.0 mm. There was no inhibition activity from crude curcuminoids while curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycutcumin gave different inhibition zone diameters ranging from 6.1 to 16.0 mm. Although antifungal activity of undiluted freshly distilled oil and 18-month-old oil revealed some differences, the inhibition zone diameters for both extracts varied within 26.1 to 46.0 mm. With 200 mg/ml ketoconazole, the activities of the standard agent were similar to the oil, both freshly distilled and 18-month-old, but were significantly different from those of curcuminoid compounds and crude ethanol extracts (p < 0.01). Turmeric oil was also tested for its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by broth dilution method. The MICs of freshly distilled and 18-month-old oils were 7.8 and 7.2 mg/ml respectively. PMID:11414453

  11. Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (Linn.) Enhances Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Facilitates Osteoblastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR; Rao, Muddanna S; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan; Muttigi, Manjunatha S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation rate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (osteoblastogenesis) and extracellular matrix calcification. This study also aimed to determine the additive effect of osteogenic media and Cissus quadrangularis on proliferation, differentiation and calcification. METHODS MSCs were cultured in media with or without Cissus quadrangularis for 4 weeks and were then stained for alkaline phosphatase. Extracellular matrix calcification was confirmed by Von Kossa staining. marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultures in control media and osteogenic media supplemented with Cissus quadrangularis extract (100, 200, 300 ?g/mL) were also subjected to a cell proliferation assay (MTT). RESULTS Treatment with 100, 200 or 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhanced the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into ALP-positive osteoblasts and increased extracellular matrix calcification. Treatment with 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis also enhanced the proliferation rate of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cells grown in osteogenic media containing Cissus quadrangularis exhibited higher proliferation, differentiation and calcification rates than did control cells. CONCLUSION The results suggest that Cissus quadrangularis stimulates osteoblastogenesis and can be used as preventive/ alternative natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:19841707

  12. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-?m-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270?nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500?nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600?nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  13. Crystalline boron nanowires grown on the diamond surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, H.; Dai, D.; Zhu, C. X.; Chen, G. X.; Jiang, N.

    2014-03-01

    Crystalline boron nanowires (BNWs) have been grown on the entire surface of diamond powders by a solid-solid reaction approach. A series of analysis technique were employed to investigate the as-grown BNWs. The as-grown BNWs are in length of several micron-meters with the diameter ranging from 20-200 nm. And the BNWs crystalline structure is identified to be tetragonal structure. Systematic analyses reveal that the growth models such as classic VLS (vapor-liquid-solid) model are not applicable to explain this kind of BNW's growth mechanism. Hereby, an extended VLS model is proposed which can perfectly interpret the BNW?s growth process on diamond surface and match experiment results very well.

  14. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-?m-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100–270?nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500?nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600?nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  15. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-?m-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100–270?nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500?nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600?nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  16. Shock initiation experiments on ratchet grown PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Richard L; Thompson, Darla G; Olinger, Barton W; Deluca, Racci; Bartram, Brian D; Pierce, Timothy H; Sanchez, Nathaniel J

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the shock initiation behavior of PBX 9502 pressed to less than nominal density (nominal density is 1.890 {+-} 0.005 g/cm{sup 3}) with PBX 9502 pressed to nominal density and then ''ratchet grown'' to low density. PBX 9502 is an insensitive plastic bonded explosive consisting of 95 weight % dry-aminated tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) and 5 weight % Kel-F 800 plastic binder. ''Ratchet growth'' - an irreversible increase in specific volume - occurs when an explosive based on TATB is temperature cycled. The design of our study is as follows: PBX 9502, all from the same lot, received the following four treatments. Samples in the first group were pressed to less than nominal density. These were not ratchet grown and used as a baseline. Samples in the second group were pressed to nominal density and then ratchet grown by temperature cycling 30 times between -54 C and +80 C. Samples in the final group were pressed to nominal density and cut into 100 mm by 25.4 mm diameter cylinders. During thermal cycling the cylinders were axially constrained by a 100 psi load. Samples for shock initiation experiments were cut perpendicular (disks) and parallel (slabs) to the axial load. The four sample groups can be summarized with the terms pressed low, ratchet grown/no load, axial load/disks, and axial load/slabs. All samples were shock initiated with nearly identical inputs in plate impact experiments carried out on a gas gun. Wave profiles were measured after propagation through 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm of explosive. Side by side comparison of wave profiles from different samples is used as a measure of relative sensitivity. All reduced density samples were more shock sensitive than nominal density PBX 9502. Differences in shock sensitivity between ratchet grown and pressed to low density PBX 9502 were small, but the low density pressings are slightly more sensitive than the ratchet grown samples.

  17. Spatial localisation of curcumin and rapid screening of the chemical compositions of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.) using Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Rahman, A F M Motiur; Angawi, Rihab F; Kadi, Adnan A

    2015-04-15

    Curcumin is a potent antioxidant agent having versatile biological activities is present in turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.). Powder of turmeric rhizomes is consumes as curry spicy worldwide, especially in Asia. In this study, we demonstrate that, bioactive curcumin and its analog demethoxycurcumin are chiefly concentrated in the pith rather than the other parts of the turmeric rhizomes and it was discovered using modern atmospheric ionisation source 'Direct Analysis in Real Time' (DART) connected with an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. In addition, all the major components present in turmeric rhizomes were detected in positive and/or in negative ion mode using DART. PMID:25466050

  18. Thermal Stability of Corrugated Epitaxial Graphene Grown on Re(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniussi, E.; Pozzo, M.; Baraldi, A.; Vesselli, E.; Zhan, R. R.; Comelli, G.; Mente?, T. O.; Niño, M. A.; Locatelli, A.; Lizzit, S.; Alfè, D.

    2011-05-01

    We report on a novel approach to determine the relationship between the corrugation and the thermal stability of epitaxial graphene grown on a strongly interacting substrate. According to our density functional theory calculations, the C single layer grown on Re(0001) is strongly corrugated, with a buckling of 1.6 Å, yielding a simulated C 1s core level spectrum which is in excellent agreement with the experimental one. We found that corrugation is closely knit with the thermal stability of the C network: C-C bond breaking is favored in the strongly buckled regions of the moiré cell, though it requires the presence of diffusing graphene layer vacancies.

  19. 78 FR 62959 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... assessment rate established for the Kiwifruit Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2013-14 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.035 to $0.025 per 9-kilo volume-fill container or equivalent of...

  20. 75 FR 55944 - Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...AMS-FV-10-0060; FV10-984-1 IR] Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2010-11 and...0174 per kernelweight pound of assessable walnuts. The Board locally administers the...

  1. 76 FR 8871 - Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...AMS-FV-10-0060; FV10-984-1 FIR] Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2010- 11 and...0174 per kernelweight pound of assessable walnuts. The Board locally administers the...

  2. 78 FR 57101 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ...AMS-FV-13-0056; FV13-984-1 PR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2013-14 and...per kernelweight pound of merchantable walnuts. The Board locally administers the...

  3. 76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ...AMS-FV-11-0062; FV11-984-1 FR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2011-12 and...0175 per kernelweight pound of assessable walnuts. The Board locally administers the...

  4. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ...AMS-FV-11-0062; FV11-984-1 PR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2011-12 and...0175 per kernelweight pound of assessable walnuts. The Board locally administers the...

  5. 78 FR 77327 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...AMS-FV-13-0056; FV13-984-1 FR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2013-14 and...per kernelweight pound of merchantable walnuts. The Board locally administers the...

  6. Sulfur management and miticide use in winegrapes grown in California

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Minghua

    Sulfur management and miticide use in winegrapes grown in California Minghua Zhang1,2 *, Jennifer@ucdavis.edu Accepted 5 December 2011; First published online 20 February 2012 Research Paper Abstract Proper sulfur associated with sulfur's impacts on air quality and odors, particularly in wine tourism regions. Data from

  7. PLUTONIUM UPTAKE BY PLANTS GROWN IN SOLUTION CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants grown in aquatic systems were shown to rapidly accumulate large amounts of plutonium, about 40% of which was removed by washing. Detergent removed debris, most of which consisted of particles larger than 0.8 micrometers. After removing a portion of the bound Pu by rinsing ...

  8. 78 FR 62959 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...AMS-FV-13-0071; FV13-920-2 IR] Kiwifruit Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...the assessment rate established for the Kiwifruit Administrative Committee (Committee...volume-fill container or equivalent of kiwifruit. The Committee locally administers...

  9. X-ray Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2005-01-01

    Germanium (111)-oriented crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, in both detached and attached configurations. Microstructural characterization of these crystals has been performed using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and double axis x-ray diffraction. Dislocation densities were measured from x-ray topographs obtained using the reflection geometry. For detached-grown crystals, the dislocation density is 4-6 x 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the seed region, and decreases in the direction of growth to less than 10(exp 3) per square centimeter, and in some crystals reaches less than 10(exp 2) per square centimeter. For crystals grown in the attached configuration, dislocation densities were on the order of 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the middle of the crystals, increasing to greater than 10(exp 5) per square centimeter near the edge. The measured dislocation densities are in excellent agreement with etch pit density results. The rocking curve linewidths were relatively insensitive to the dislocation densities. However, broadening and splitting of the rocking curves were observed in the vicinity of subgrain boundaries identified by x-ray topography in some of the attached-grown crystals.

  10. Modeling Macronutrient Absorption of Hydroponically-Grown Cut Flower Roses

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    129 Modeling Macronutrient Absorption of Hydroponically-Grown Cut Flower Roses Neil S. Mattson of the nutrient supply necessary for crop production. Cut flower rose production typically uses hydroponics where flower stems and test whether an existing mathematical model is suitable for describing nitrogen

  11. 76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Federal Register on August 16, 2011 (75 FR 50703). Copies of the proposed rule were also mailed or sent... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY... established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2011-12 and subsequent marketing years from...

  12. 78 FR 57101 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY... assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2013-14 and subsequent marketing years from $0.0175 to $0.0189 per kernelweight pound of merchantable walnuts. The Board...

  13. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 PR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2012 and...61 to $31.32 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

  14. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...AMS-FV-09-0089; FV10-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2010 and...63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

  15. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...AMS-FV-09-0089; FV10-932-1 PR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2010 and...63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

  16. 78 FR 45841 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...AMS-FV-12-0076; FV13-932-1 FIR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2013 and...32 to $21.16 per ton of assessable olives handled. The Committee locally...

  17. 78 FR 24979 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ...AMS-FV-12-0076; FV13-932-1 IR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2013 and...32 to $21.16 per ton of assessable olives handled. The Committee locally...

  18. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2012 and subsequent...61 to $31.32 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

  19. 76 FR 35957 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...AMS-FV-10-0115; FV11-932-1 FIR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent...from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

  20. 76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...AMS-FV-10-0115; FV11-932-1 IR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent...from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

  1. 76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent fiscal years from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally administers the...

  2. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... increase the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2010 and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee...

  3. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... June 5, 2012 (77 FR 33104). Copies of the proposed rule were also mailed or sent via facsimile to all... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment...

  4. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... concerning this action was published in the Federal Register on March 3, 2010 (75 FR 9536). Copies of the... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment...

  5. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... 2011-12 and subsequent marketing years from $0.0174 to $0.0175 per kernelweight pound of...

  6. 78 FR 77327 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Register on September 17, 2013 (78 FR 57101). Copies of the proposed rule were also made available to all... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment...

  7. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed... handled. The Committee locally administers the Federal marketing order, which regulates the handling...

  8. Energy content of tropical grasses and legumes grown for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass samples of the tropical grasses Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Staph, Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick, Brachiaria decumbens Staph, Panicum maximum Jacq., Pennistetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng and three species of the tropical legume Stylosanthes grown in Mato Grosso do Su...

  9. PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT REMOVAL BY PERIPHYTON GROWN IN DAIRY MANURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing algae to scrub nutrients from manure presents an alternative to the current practice of land application and provides utilizable algal biomass as an end product. Previous studies in our laboratory on manure from two different dairy farms showed that removal by periphyton grown on ATS (algal...

  10. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... marketing activities, $50,000 for inspection equipment development, and $333,500 for administration...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule...

  11. 78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This... to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order that regulates the handling...

  12. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  13. Structure and growth process of vapor-grown carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koyama, T.; Endo, M.

    1983-01-01

    The structure, effect of heat, and growth process of vapor-grown carbon fibers are investigated. The growth process of the carbon fibers could be divided into three stages; nucleation, elongation, and thickening processes. Also, a multi-layered structure can be produced as well as graphitization.

  14. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  15. Flower Bud Transcriptome Analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and Primary Investigation of Drought Induced Flowering: Pathway Construction and G-Quadruplex Prediction Based on Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRX?39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants. PMID:25738565

  16. The mitigating effect of calcification-dependent of utilization of inorganic carbon of Chara vulgaris Linn on NH4-N toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heyun; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Increased ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations in water bodies have been reported to adversely affect the dominant species of submersed vegetation in meso-eutrophic waters worldwide. However calcareous plants were lowly sensitive to NH4-N toxicity. In order to make clear the function of calcification in the tolerance of calcareous plants to NH4-N stress, we studied the effects of increased HCO3(-) and additional NH4-N on calcification and utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in Chara vulgaris Linn in a 7-d sub-acute experiment (light:dark 12:12h) carried out in an open experimental system in lab. Results revealed that calcification was dependent of utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon. Additional HCO3(-) significantly decreased the increase of pH while additional NH4-N did not. And additional HCO3(-) significantly improved calcification while NH4-N did in versus in relation to the variation of DIC concentration. However, addition of both HCO3(-) and NH4-N increased utilization of DIC. This resulted in calcification to utilization of DIC ratio decreased under additional NH4-N condition while increased under additional HCO3(-) conditions in response to the variation of solution pH. In the present study, external HCO3(-) decreased the increase of solution pH by increasing calcification, which correspondingly mitigated the toxic effect of high NH4-N. And we argue that the mitigating effect of increased HCO3(-) on NH4-N toxicity is dependent of plant calcification, and it is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to the dominance of calcareous plants in meso-eutrophic water bodies. PMID:23755986

  17. The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective. PMID:25558167

  18. Evaluation of acute toxicity and anti-ulcerogenic study of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B.K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disorders like hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently now days because of a faulty lifestyle. Starches (Satwa) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely, Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used in folklore practice, as Tugaksheeree, for the treatment of the above-mentioned complaints. Aim: To assess the acute toxicity potential of the C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea along with their assessment for adaptogenic activity, by noting their effect on forced swimming-induced hypothermia and gastric ulceration in rats. Materials and Methods: For acute toxicity study, the effect of test drugs C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea rhizome starch were studied after a single administration of up to three dose levels, with 4400 mg/kg as the maximum dose. The animals were observed for 72 hours periodically and mortality was recorded up to seven days. The adaptogenic and anti-ulcer activities were assessed by determining and comparing the changes in rectal temperature, ponderal changes, ulcer index and histopathological parameters in the test drug group with that of stress control group. Results: Both the drugs did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality even up to the maximum dose level of 4400 mg/kg. Both the test drugs significantly reversed the stress-induced gastric ulceration in comparison to stress-control rats. Starch from rhizome of C. angustifolia reversed forced swimming-induced hypothermia apparently, but not to a significant extent. However, the reversal of hypothermia found statistically significant in the rhizome starch of the M. arundinacea treated group. Conclusion: M. arundinacea had better anti-stress activity in comparision to C. angustifolia. PMID:26195908

  19. Changes in litter quality with CO{sub 2} enrichment: Pot-grown vs. field-grown plants

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, E.G.; Norby, R.J.; Irwin, R.A. |

    1995-06-01

    There is wide-spread concern that decomposition rates will be reduced in an enriched-CO{sub 2} world, leading to changes in nutrient cycling dynamics. Observations of changes in litter quality - i.e., reduced N concentrations and increased lignin:N or C:N ratios - underlie this concern. Much of the published data results from studies on plants grown in pots. In studies utilizing pot-grown plants, litter C:N ratios averaged 46% higher at elevated CO{sub 2} and lignin:N was 52% higher. In contrast, no differences in litter quality due to CO{sub 2} enrichment were seen in any studies in which plants were grown in the ground. We grew sugar maple (Acer saccharum L.) in open-top chambers, either in the ground or in buried pots containing soil from the chamber. Seedlings were exposed to factorial combinations of CO{sub 2} (ambient or ambient + 30 Pa CO{sub 2}) and temperature (ambient or ambient + 4{degrees}C). First year foliar litter was collected as it abscised and analyzed for N and lignin using near-infrared spectroscopy. Comparison of litter produced at elevated CO{sub 2} by the field-grown seedlings to that of the potted seedlings may lend insight into the limitations of extrapolating from potted plants to natural ecosystems.

  20. Magnetic properties of manganese ferrite films grown at atomic scale

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo Xu; Yang, Aria; Yoon, Soack-Dae; Christodoulides, Joe A.; Harris, Vincent G.; Vittoria, Carmine

    2005-05-15

    Manganese ferrite is a partial inverse spinel which, when prepared by conventional growth techniques, has {approx}20% of the Mn{sup 2+} ions on the octahedral sublattice. Here we describe a layer-by-layer growth scheme at atomic scale by which the percentage of Mn{sup 2+} ions on the octahedral sublattice can be artificially controlled. Manganese ferrite films grown by this technique exhibits different degrees of cation inversion when grown on {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace} MgO substrates. It was observed that saturation magnetization varied in a wide range of values depending on chemical composition and oxygen pressure. Although bulk manganese ferrite was low anisotropy magnetic material, uniaxial anisotropy was observed at room temperature in the films deposited on {l_brace}100{r_brace} MgO substrates, and its magnitude and direction sensitively depended on chemical composition and oxygen pressure during deposition.

  1. The mechanical properties of tungsten grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. D.; Giannattasio, A.; Yao, Z.; Hetherington, C. J. D.; Nellist, P. D.; Roberts, S. G.

    2009-04-01

    The mechanical properties of polycrystalline tungsten grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) have been investigated. Fracture tests were performed on the material over the 24-967 °C temperature range at a low strain rate. The material was found to be brittle or semi-brittle across the entire temperature range investigated. This behaviour differs significantly from that previously found in conventionally-grown polycrystalline tungsten, which, under similar experimental conditions, is found to be ductile above approximately 120 °C. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicates that in the CVD tungsten, there is a significant concentration of fluorine at grain boundaries. It is therefore suggested that fluorine segregation to grain boundaries is responsible for the increased brittleness observed in the CVD tungsten.

  2. Inversion domains in GaN grown on sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, L.T.; Northrup, J.E.; OKeefe, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Planar defects observed in GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire have been identified as inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) by a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, multiple dark field imaging, and convergent beam electron diffraction techniques. Films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metalorganic vapor deposition (MOCVD), and hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) were investigated and all were found to contain IDBs. The IDBs in the MBE and HVPE films extended from the interface to the film surface and formed columnar domains that ranged in width from 3 to 20 nm in the MBE films and up to 100 nm in the HVPE films. For the films investigated, the MBE films had the highest density, and the MOCVD films had the lowest density of IDBs. The nucleation of inversion domains (IDs) may result from step-related inhomogeneities of the GaN/sapphire interface. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Reproductive Ontogeny of Wheat Grown on the MIR Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Stieber, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    The reproductive ontogeny of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat grown on the space station Mir is chronicled from the vegetative phase through flower development. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition From the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Filament elongation, which characteristically occurs just prior to anthesis and moves the anthers through the stigmatic branches thus facilitating pollination, did no1 xcur in the flowers of spikes grown on Mir. While development of spikes on tillers typically occurs later :han that of spikes on the main stem, all flowers appear to be arrested at the same developmental point.

  4. Columnar grown copper films on polyimides strained beyond 100%

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Lee, Hae-Ryung; Hwan Oh, Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Many flexible electronic devices contain metal films on polymer substrates to satisfy requirements for both electrical conductivity and mechanical durability. Despite numerous trials to date, the stretchability of metal interconnects remains an issue. In this paper, we have demonstrated a stretchable metal interconnect through control of the texture of a copper film with columnar grown grains on a polyimide (PI) substrate. The columnar grown copper films (CGC films) were deposited by regulating radio frequency (RF) sputtering powers. CGC films were able to sustain their electrical conductivity at strains above 100%. Instead of ultimate electrical discontinuity by channel crack propagation, CGC films maintained their conductivity by forming ligament structures, or a ‘conductive net,’ through trapped micro-cracks. XRD, AFM and in situ SEM analysis were used to investigate these stretchable conductors. PMID:26337668

  5. Silicon nanowires grown by metal-catalyst-free VLS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Takeshi; Morishima, Satoru; Ishii, Yuya; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2014-02-01

    The synthesis of single-crystal silicon (Si) nanowires by a metal-catalyst-free vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process was studied. Silicon nanowires have been successfully synthesized by simple thermal treatment without any metal catalyst. For cases without metal catalysts, Si nanowires are grown by VLS processes assisted by sulfur. It is thought that sulfur instead of metals plays important role in this synthesis technique which is distinct from the conventional metalcatalytic VLS process. For the case without metal catalysts, single-crystal Si nanowires are grown by a VLS process in which the silicon sulfides produced by a reaction between Si and sulfur act as both molten eutectic alloy droplets and the source gases for nanowire growth.

  6. Present and future applications of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Teresa, J. M.; Fernández-Pacheco, A.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, magnetic nanostructures are routinely grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). In the present article, we review the milestones produced in the topic in the past as well as the future applications of this technology. Regarding past milestones, we highlight the achievement of high-purity cobalt and iron deposits, the high lateral resolution obtained, the growth of 3D magnetic deposits, the exploration of magnetic alloys and the application of magnetic deposits for Hall sensing and in domain-wall conduit and magnetologic devices. With respect to future perspectives of the topic, we emphasize the potential role of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID for applications related to highly integrated 2D arrays, 3D nanowires devices, fabrication of advanced scanning-probe systems, basic studies of magnetic structures and their dynamics, small sensors (including biosensors) and new applications brought by magnetic alloys and even exchange biased systems.

  7. Columnar grown copper films on polyimides strained beyond 100.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Lee, Hae-Ryung; Oh, Kyu Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Many flexible electronic devices contain metal films on polymer substrates to satisfy requirements for both electrical conductivity and mechanical durability. Despite numerous trials to date, the stretchability of metal interconnects remains an issue. In this paper, we have demonstrated a stretchable metal interconnect through control of the texture of a copper film with columnar grown grains on a polyimide (PI) substrate. The columnar grown copper films (CGC films) were deposited by regulating radio frequency (RF) sputtering powers. CGC films were able to sustain their electrical conductivity at strains above 100%. Instead of ultimate electrical discontinuity by channel crack propagation, CGC films maintained their conductivity by forming ligament structures, or a 'conductive net,' through trapped micro-cracks. XRD, AFM and in situ SEM analysis were used to investigate these stretchable conductors. PMID:26337668

  8. Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D.; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-07-01

    Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moore’s law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits.

  9. Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moore's law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits. PMID:24999601

  10. Columnar grown copper films on polyimides strained beyond 100%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Lee, Hae-Ryung; Hwan Oh, Kyu

    2015-09-01

    Many flexible electronic devices contain metal films on polymer substrates to satisfy requirements for both electrical conductivity and mechanical durability. Despite numerous trials to date, the stretchability of metal interconnects remains an issue. In this paper, we have demonstrated a stretchable metal interconnect through control of the texture of a copper film with columnar grown grains on a polyimide (PI) substrate. The columnar grown copper films (CGC films) were deposited by regulating radio frequency (RF) sputtering powers. CGC films were able to sustain their electrical conductivity at strains above 100%. Instead of ultimate electrical discontinuity by channel crack propagation, CGC films maintained their conductivity by forming ligament structures, or a ‘conductive net,’ through trapped micro-cracks. XRD, AFM and in situ SEM analysis were used to investigate these stretchable conductors.

  11. 76 FR 80209 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting Requirements and New Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...AMS-FV-11-0041; FV11-920-1 FR] Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting...order that regulates the handling of kiwifruit grown in California. The order is administered locally by the Kiwifruit Administrative Committee...

  12. 76 FR 48742 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting Requirements and New Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...AMS-FV-11-0041; FV11-920-1 PR] Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting...order that regulates the handling of kiwifruit grown in California. The order is administered locally by the Kiwifruit Administrative Committee...

  13. 75 FR 37288 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ...AMS-FV-08-0085; FV08-920-3] Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending...which regulates the handling of kiwifruit grown in California. The amendments are based on proposals by the Kiwifruit Administrative Committee...

  14. 78 FR 43758 - Kiwifruit Grown in California and Imported Kiwifruit; Relaxation of Minimum Grade Requirement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...AMS-FV-13-0032; FV13-920-1 IR] Kiwifruit Grown in California and Imported Kiwifruit; Relaxation of Minimum Grade Requirement...requirement under the marketing order for kiwifruit grown in California (order), and for...

  15. 75 FR 77563 - Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...FV10-916/917-3 CR] Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance...conducted among eligible California nectarine, pear, and peach growers to determine whether...regulating the handling of nectarines, pears, and peaches grown in California....

  16. Nano transfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOEpatents

    Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN); Guillorn, Michael A. (Ithaca, NY); Ilic, Bojan (Ithaca, NY); Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Knoxville, TX); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-03-27

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoconduit material coupled to a surface of the substrate. The substrate defines an aperture and the nanoconduit material defines a nanoconduit that is i) contiguous with the aperture and ii) aligned substantially non-parallel to a plane defined by the surface of the substrate.

  17. 75 FR 55944 - Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the California Walnut Board (Board) for the 2010-11 and subsequent marketing years from $0.0177 to $0.0174 per kernelweight pound of assessable walnuts. The Board locally administers the marketing order that regulates the handling of walnuts grown in California. Assessments upon walnut handlers are used by the Board to fund reasonable and......

  18. Glucosinolates in collard greens grown under three soil management practices.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs, ?-D-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates) are polar compounds present in varying amounts in members of the Brassicaceae family. They suppress soil-borne pests due to the biofumigant properties of the highly toxic isothiocyanates present in Brassica vegetables. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) assess variation in GSLs concentrations among collard plants grown under three soil management practices: sewage sludge (SS) mixed with native soil, chicken manure (CM) mixed with native soil, and no-mulch (NM) native soil, (2) quantify GSLs concentrations in collard roots, leaves, and stems at harvest for potential use of their crude extracts in plant protection, and (3) assess myrosinase activity in soil amended with CM and SS mixed with native soil. Separation of GSLs was accomplished by adsorption on a DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange resin using disposable pipette tips filled with DEAE, a weak base, with a net positive charge when ionized and exchange anions such as GSLs (hydrophilic plant secondary metabolites). Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of collard endogenous myrosinase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSLs molecule by addition of standardized myrosinase and colorimetric determination of the liberated glucose moiety. Across all treatments, SS and CM increased soil organic matter content from 2.2% in native soil to 4.2 and 6.5%, respectively. GSLs concentrations were significantly greater in collard leaves (30.9 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight) compared to roots and stems (7.8 and 1.2 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight), respectively. Leaves of collard grown in soil amended with SS contained the greatest concentrations of GSLs compared to leaves of plants grown in CM and NM treatments. Accordingly, leaves of collard plants grown in soil amended with SS could play a significant role in sustainable agriculture as alternative tools for soil-borne disease management in conventional and organic agriculture. PMID:25826105

  19. Photoluminescence Spectra of thin Zno films grown by ALD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, I. Kh.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Labzovskaya, M. E.; Lisachenko, A. A.; Mogunov, Ya. A.; Nazarov, D. V.; Novikov, B. V.; Romanychev, A. I.; Serov, A. Yu.; Smirnov, A. N.; Titov, V. V.; Filosofov, N. G.

    2015-09-01

    The photoluminescence of ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on silicon substrates has been investigated. A new broad photoluminescence band has been revealed in the exciton region of the spectrum. The properties of the band in the spectra of the films with different crystallographic orientations of substrates have been studied in a wide temperature range at different excitation levels. A model describing the origin of the new band has been proposed.

  20. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  1. Induced abnormality in Mir- and Earth grown Super Dwarf wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Chernova, L.; Pdolsky, I.

    2003-01-01

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing 'Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  2. Induced abnormality in Mir- and Earth grown Super Dwarf wheat.

    PubMed

    Bubenheim, D L; Stieber, J; Campbell, W F; Salisbury, F B; Levinski, M; Sytchev, V; Podolsky, I; Chernova, L; Pdolsky, I

    2003-01-01

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing 'Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples. PMID:12580182

  3. Developmental, nutritional and hormonal anomalies of weightlessness-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Carman, J G; Hole, P; Salisbury, F B; Bingham, G E

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of water in weightlessness, as occurs in orbiting spacecraft, presents multiple challenges for plant growth. Soils remain saturated, impeding aeration, and leaf surfaces remain wet, impeding gas exchange. Herein we report developmental and biochemical anomalies of "Super Dwarf" wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown aboard Space Station Mir during the 1996-97 "Greenhouse 2" experiment. Leaves of Mir-grown wheat were hyperhydric, senesced precociously and accumulated aromatic and branched-chain amino acids typical of tissues experiencing oxidative stress. The highest levels of stress-specific amino acids occurred in precociously-senescing leaves. Our results suggest that the leaf ventilation system of the Svet Greenhouse failed to remove sufficient boundary layer water, thus leading to poor gas exchange and onset of oxidative stress. As oxidative stress in plants has been observed in recent space-flight experiments, we recommend that percentage water content in apoplast free-spaces of leaves be used to evaluate leaf ventilation effectiveness. Mir-grown plants also tillered excessively. Crowns and culms of these plants contained low levels of abscisic acid but high levels of cytokinins. High ethylene levels may have suppressed abscisic acid synthesis, thus permitting cytokinins to accumulate and tillering to occur. PMID:26256629

  4. Atomistic Stress Fluctuation at Surfaces and Edges of Epitaxially Grown Silver

    E-print Network

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Atomistic Stress Fluctuation at Surfaces and Edges of Epitaxially Grown Silver Nanorods Saw-Wai Hla of epitaxially grown silver nanorods on a -MoTe2 surface have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy peculiarities occurring at surfaces and edges of epitaxially grown silver nanorods on a (001) van der Waals

  5. 78 FR 24331 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...AMS-FV-12-0028; FV12-922-2 FIR] Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington...prescribed under the marketing order for apricots grown in designated Counties in Washington...CFR 922), regulating the handling of apricots grown in designated counties in...

  6. Grown-in Defects of InSb Crystals: Models and Computation

    E-print Network

    Huang, Huaxiong

    to the heat flux in the system. Keywords: Crystal growth; Czochralski Technique; Point defects; RecombinationGrown-in Defects of InSb Crystals: Models and Computation N. Vaidya , H. Huang , and D. Liang In this paper, we present a model for grown-in point defects inside indium anti- monide crystals grown

  7. 78 FR 28118 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and... the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered locally by the Vidalia Onion Committee...

  8. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  9. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  10. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  11. 76 FR 4254 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased... raisins produced from grapes grown in California. Assessments upon raisin handlers are used by the... CFR part 989), regulating the handling of raisins produced from grapes grown in...

  12. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  13. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  14. Dielectric Spectroscopy Study of ZnSe Grown by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokan, J.; Gerhardt, R.; Su, Ching-Hua

    1997-01-01

    The dielectric properties of ZnSe samples grown by physical vapor transport were measured as a function of frequency. Differences can be seen in the dielectric properties of samples grown under different conditions. The spectra of heat treated samples were also acquired and were found to exhibit significant deviations from those of the as grown crystals.

  15. 78 FR 28118 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...AMS-FV-12-0071; FV13-955-1 IR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting...under the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is...

  16. Titanium distribution in Ti-sapphire single crystals grown by Czochralski and Verneuil technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alombert-Goget, G.; Li, H.; Faria, J.; Labor, S.; Guignier, D.; Lebbou, K.

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of Ti3+ and Ti4+ ions were evaluated by photoluminescence measurement in the wafers cut from different positions of the ingots grown by Czochralski and Verneuil techniques. Particular radial distributions of Ti4+ as function of the position in the ingot were observed in the crystals grown by Verneuil technique different than the crystals grown by Czochralski method.

  17. 76 FR 37617 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California; Section 610 Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...AMS-FV-06-0185; FV06-925-610 Review] Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern...Order No. 925 regulating the handling of grapes grown in a designated area of southeastern...part 925), regulates the handling of grapes grown in a designated area of...

  18. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States. 982...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative...Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States....

  19. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States. 982...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative...Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States....

  20. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States. 982...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative...Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States....

  1. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States. 982...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative...Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States....

  2. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States. 982...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative...Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States....

  3. Rhus javanica Linn protects against hydrogen peroxide?induced toxicity in human Chang liver cells via attenuation of oxidative stress and apoptosis signaling.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chanjin; Koppula, Sushruta; Yoo, Seunghoon; Yum, Munjeong; Kim, Jinseoub; Lee, Jaedong; Song, Mindong

    2016-01-01

    Rhus javanica Linn, a traditional medicinal herb from the family Anacardiaceae, has been used in the treatment of liver diseases, cancer, parasitic infections, malaria and respiratory diseases in China, Korea and other Asian countries for centuries. In the present study, the protective effects of R. javanica ethanolic extract (RJE) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in human Chang liver cells was investigated. The cell cytotoxicity and viability were assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured using respective enzymatic kits. Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometric analysis. The protein expression levels of p53, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were assessed by western blotting. Human Chang liver cells were treated with different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 or 0.5 mg/ml) of RJE, and were subsequently exposed to H2O2 (30 µM). Treatment with H2O2 (30 µM) significantly induced cytotoxicity (P<0.05) and reduced the viability of the Chang liver cells. However, pretreatment of the cells with RJE (0.1, 0.3 or 0.5 mg/ml) significantly increased the cell viability (P<0.001 at 0.5 mg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner following H2O2 treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with RJE increased the enzyme activities of SOD and CAT, and decreased the sub-G1 growth phase of the cell cycle in response to H2O2-induced oxidative stress (P<0.001 at 0.3 and 0.5 mg/ml H2O2). RJE also regulated the protein expression levels of p53, Bax, caspase-3 and Bcl-2. These results suggested that RJE may protect human Chang liver cells against oxidative damage by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes and regulating antiapoptotic oxidative stress mechanisms, thereby providing insights into the mechanism which underpins the traditional claims made for RJE in the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:26648020

  4. Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Potu, Bhagath K; Nampurath, Gopalan K; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna R; Prasad, Keerthana; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Dharmavarapu, Praveen K; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, Kumar MR

    2009-01-01

    The increasing incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its related fractures have become global health issues in the recent days. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease; it is characterized by a rapid loss of mineralized bone tissue. Hormone replacement therapy has proven efficacious in preventing bone loss but not desirable to many women due to its side-effects. Therefore we are in need to search the natural compounds for a treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in women with no toxic effects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ), a plant used in folk medicine, on an osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. In this experiment, healthy female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control (OVX). Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) and petroleum-ether extract of CQ (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 months. The findings were assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (an osteoblastic marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (an osteoclastic marker) in upper end of femur. The study revealed for the first time that the petroleum-ether extract of CQ reduced bone loss, as evidenced by the weight gain in femur, and also reduced the osteoclastic activity there by facilitating bone formation when compared to the OVX group. The osteoclastic activity was confirmed by TRAP staining, and the bone formation was assessed by ALP staining in the femur sections. The color intensity of TRAP and ALP enzymes from the images were evaluated by image analysis software developed locally. The effect of CQ was found to be effective on both enzymes, and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The biological activity of CQ on bone may be attributed to the phytogenic steroids present in it. PMID:19736603

  5. Comparative Floral Development of Mir-Grown and Ethylene-Treated, Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William F.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Klassen, Steven; Naegle, Erin; Strickland, Darren T.; Bingham, Gail E.; Levinskikh, Margarita; Iljina, Galena M.; Veselova, Tatjana D.

    2001-01-01

    To study plant growth in microgravity, we grew Super Dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Svet growth chamber onboard the orbiting Russian space station, Mir, and in identical ground control units at the Institute of BioMedical Problems in Moscow, Russia. Seedling emergence was 56% and 73% in the two root-module compartments on Mir and 75% and 90% on Earth. Growth was vigorous (produced ca. 1 kg dry mass), and individual plants produced 5 to 8 tillers on Mir compared with 3 to 5 on Earth-grown controls. Upon harvest in space and return to Earth, however, all inflorescences of the flight-grown plants were sterile. To ascertain if Super Dwarf wheat responded to the 1.1 to 1.7 micromol/mol atmospheric levels of ethylene measured on the Mir prior to and during flowering, plants on earth were exposed to 0, 1, 3, 10, and 20 micromol/mol of ethylene gas and 1200 micromol/mol CO2 from 7d after emergence to maturity. As in our Mir wheat, plant height, awn length, and the flag leaf were significantly shorter in the ethylene-exposed plants than in controls; inflorescences also exhibited 100% sterility. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of florets from Mir-grown and ethylene-treated, earth-grown plants showed that development ceased prior to anthesis, and the anthers did not dehisce. Laser scanning confocal microscopic (LSCM) examination of pollen grains from Mir and ethylene-treated plants on earth exhibited zero, one, and occasionally two, but rarely three nuclei; pollen produced in the absence of ethylene was always trinucleate, the normal condition. The scarcity of trinucleate pollen, abrupt cessation of floret development prior to anthesis, and excess tillering in wheat plants on Mir and in ethylene-containing atmospheres on earth build a strong case for the ethylene on Mir as the agent for the induced male sterility and other symptoms, rather than microgravity.

  6. Annealing to reduce scattering centers in Czochralski-grown beta-BaB2O4.

    PubMed

    Kouta, H; Kuwano, Y

    1999-02-20

    When a visible laser beam passes through beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO), scattered light can be observed along the beam within the crystal. Scattering centers caused by structural defects in Czochralski-grown BBO can be reduced by 95% by annealing at 920 degrees C. In the flux-grown BBO, centers actually increase by the same annealing because the process causes microcracks and/or secondary inclusions. It is shown that annealed Czochralski-grown BBO is superior to flux-grown BBO (annealed or as-grown) in terms of optical loss. PMID:18305712

  7. Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3?µg?mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity. PMID:21939371

  8. Synthetic Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Copper Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Ting Fung; Shen, Tian; Cao, Helin; Jauregui, Luis A.; Wu, Wei; Yu, Qingkai; Newell, David; Chen, Yong P.

    2013-04-01

    The discovery of graphene, a single layer of covalently bonded carbon atoms, has attracted intense interest. Initial studies using mechanically exfoliated graphene unveiled its remarkable electronic, mechanical and thermal properties. There has been a growing need and rapid development in large-area deposition of graphene film and its applications. Chemical vapor deposition on copper has emerged as one of the most promising methods in obtaining large-scale graphene films with quality comparable to exfoliated graphene. In this paper, we review the synthesis and characterizations of graphene grown on copper foil substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. We also discuss potential applications of such large-scale synthetic graphene.

  9. Defects in zinc oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Francis C. C.; Wang, Zilan; Ping Ho, Lok; Younas, M.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.; Su, S. C.; Shan, C. X.

    2016-01-01

    ZnO films are grown on c-plane sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition method. Systematic studies on the effects of annealing are performed to understand the thermal evolutions of the defects in the films. Particular attention is paid to the discussions of the ZnO/sapphire interface thermal stability, the Zn-vacancy related defects having different microstructures, the origins of the green luminescence (?2.4-2.5 eV) and the near band edge (NBE) emission at 3.23 eV.

  10. Scientists Inspect Plant Grown onboard the ISS in 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Astroculture (tm) unit is growing plants on its second flight on the International Space Station. Dr. Weijia Zhou (left), director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects soybeans grown in the plant growth unit aboard ISS in 2002. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Partnership Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

  11. Chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene: the thinnest solid lubricant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Seop; Lee, Hee-Jung; Lee, Changgu; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Jang, Houk; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo

    2011-06-28

    As an atomically thin material with low surface energy, graphene is an excellent candidate for reducing adhesion and friction when coated on various surfaces. Here, we demonstrate the superior adhesion and frictional characteristics of graphene films which were grown on Cu and Ni metal catalysts by chemical vapor deposition and transferred onto the SiO(2)/Si substrate. The graphene films effectively reduced the adhesion and friction forces, and multilayer graphene films that were a few nanometers thick had low coefficients of friction comparable to that of bulk graphite. PMID:21545092

  12. Inversion domains in AlN grown on (0001) sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Paduano, Q.S.; Weyburne, D.W.

    2003-08-25

    Al-polarity inversion domains formed during AlN layer growth on (0001) sapphire were identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They resemble columnar inversion domains reported for GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire. However, for AlN, these columns have a V-like shape with boundaries that deviate by 2 {+-} 0.5{sup o} from the c-axis. TEM identification of these defects agrees with the post-growth surface morphology as well as with the microstructure revealed by etching in hot aqueous KOH.

  13. Defects in GaSe grown by Bridgman method.

    PubMed

    Kokh, K A; Atuchin, V V; Gavrilova, T A; Kozhukhov, A; Maximovskiy, E A; Pokrovsky, L D; Tsygankova, A R; Saprykin, A I

    2014-12-01

    Optical quality GaSe crystals have been grown by vertical Bridgman method. The structural properties and micromorphology of a cleaved GaSe(001) surface have been evaluated by RHEED, SEM and AFM. The cleaved GaSe(001) is atomically flat with as low roughness as ?0.06 nm excepting local hillock type defects. The hillock-type formations are round-shaped with a bottom diameter of ?200 nm and a height of ?20-35 nm. The drastic depletion of the hillock material by gallium has been indicated by EDX measurements. PMID:25182595

  14. Low defect, high purity crystalline layers grown by selective deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D. (inventors); Daud, T.

    1985-01-01

    The purity and perfection of a semiconductor is improved by depositing a patterned mask of a material impervious to impurities of the semiconductor on a surface of a blank. When a layer of semiconductor is grown on the mask, the semiconductor will first grow from the surface portions exposed by the openings in the mask and will bridge the connecting portions of the mask to form a continuous layer having improved purity, since only the portions overlying the openings are exposed to defects and impurities.

  15. Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Youngwoo; Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August; Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong; Woo Park, Yung

    2014-01-13

    We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

  16. Enhanced current injection in thermal oxides grown on texturized silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcer, M.; Buehlmann, H. J.; Ilegems, M.

    1986-03-01

    A new method to obtain enhanced electron injection in MOS structures by means of an oxide layer grown on monocrystalline silicon, is described. It is shown that texturization of the Si surface prior to oxidation can lead to markedly enhanced electron injection, with field enhancement factors mu = E(inj)/E(a) reaching values in the range from about 2-4 to 8.6. Preliminary measurements suggest that the improved injection efficiency is obtained without deleterious effects on the trapping properties of the thermal oxide. The proposed technique may be used as an alternative to conventional Fowler-Nordheim emission processes for write/erase operations in EEPROM-type devices.

  17. Nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOEpatents

    Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN), Guillorn, Michael A. (Ithaca, NY); Ilic, Bojan (Ithaca, NY); Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Knoxville, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-05-17

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. A method includes depositing a catalyst particle on a surface of a substrate to define a deterministically located position; growing an aligned elongated nanostructure on the substrate, an end of the aligned elongated nanostructure coupled to the substrate at the deterministically located position; coating the aligned elongated nanostructure with a conduit material; removing a portion of the conduit material to expose the catalyst particle; removing the catalyst particle; and removing the elongated nanostructure to define a nanoconduit.

  18. Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through innovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystals growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a disease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Champion Deivanaygam, a researcher at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, assists in this work. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  19. Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through irnovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystal growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a desease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Dr. Marianna Long, associate director of the Center of Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, is a co-investigator on the research. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  20. Mechanoresponses of human primary osteoblasts grown on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kroustalli, A; Kotsikoris, V; Karamitri, A; Topouzis, S; Deligianni, D

    2015-03-01

    Bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties. A good understanding of these mechanosensory mechanisms in bone has the potential to provide new strategies in the highly evolving field of bone tissue engineering. The aim of the present investigation was to study the interactive effects of local mechanical stimuli on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/osteoblast interface, using an in vitro model that allows the study of cell growth, attachment and differentiation. Strain was applied at physiological levels [strain magnitudes 500 microstrain (??), at frequency of load application 0.5 Hz]. The effect of mechanical strain and substrate was thus studied by measuring the messenger RNA expression of alkaline phosphatase, vinculin, collagen 1A, and integrins ?1, ?3, ?4, and ?v, using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The osteoblasts grown on MWCNTs displayed quick adaptation to the new environment by modulating the expression of key adhesion integrins. Furthermore, the addition of mechanical strain interplayed with the extracellular matrix and was efficiently transduced by cells grown on MWCNTs, providing stronger adhesion and survival. MWCNTs are therefore a material perfectly compatible with osteoblast differentiation, adhesion, and growth, and should be further evaluated, to derive new-generation biomaterial scaffolds for the treatment of skeletal defects which require bone reconstruction. PMID:24910375

  1. InSb thin films grown by electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Joginder Rajaram, P.

    2014-04-24

    We have grown InSb thin films on Cu substrates using the electrodeposition technique. The electrochemical bath from which the InSb thin films were grown was made up of a mixture of aqueous solutions of 0.05 M InCl{sub 3} and 0.03M SbCl{sub 3}, 0 .20M citric acid and 0.30M sodium citrate. Citric acid and sodium citrate were used as complexing agents to bring the reduction potential of In and Sb closer to maintain binary growth. The electrodeposited films were characterized by structural, morphological and optical studies. X-ray diffraction studies show that the films are polycrystalline InSb having the zinc blende structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. FTIR spectra of InSb thin films show a sharp absorption peak at wave number 1022 cm{sup ?1} corresponding to the band gap. Hot probe analysis shows that the InSb thin films have p type conductivity.

  2. Magnesium diffusion profile in GaN grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzarti, Z.; Halidou, I.; Bougrioua, Z.; Boufaden, T.; El Jani, B.

    2008-07-01

    The diffusion of magnesium has been studied in GaN layers grown on sapphire substrate by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor-phase-epitaxy (MOVPE) in a "home-made" reactor. Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to visualise the Mg profiles in two kinds of multi-sublayer GaN structures. One structure was grown with a variable flow of Ga precursor (TMG) and the second one with a variable growth temperature. In both cases, the Mg dopant precursor (Cp 2Mg) flow was kept constant. Using the second Fick's law to fit the experimental SIMS data, we have deduced an increasing then a saturating Mg diffusion coefficient versus the Mg concentration. Mg incorporation was found to get higher for lower growth rate, i.e. when TMG flow is reduced. Furthermore, based on the temperature-related behaviour we have found that the activation energy for Mg diffusion coefficient in GaN was 1.9 eV. It is suggested that Mg diffuses via substitutional sites.

  3. Physical properties of vapour grown indium monotelluride platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunjomana, A. G.; Chandrasekharan, K. A.; Teena, M.

    2015-02-01

    Indium monotelluride (InTe) crystals were grown from vapour phase under different temperature gradients by employing physical vapour deposition (PVD) method. The morphology of these crystals such as whiskers, needles, platelets etc., strongly depends on the temperature distribution in the horizontal dual zone furnace. InTe platelets were deposited by setting the temperature of the charge (TC) and growth (TS) zones at 1073 K and 773 K (?T=300 K), respectively, for different growth periods (24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). The surface growth features have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopes, which indicate layer growth mechanism for all the crystals. Various crystals grown under ?T=200 K and 300 K (retaining TS invariant) were examined by X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. InTe samples exhibited consistent lattice parameters, density and atomic percentage, establishing stoichiometry and chemical homogeneity. The results obtained for Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, power factor, dislocation density and microhardness are found to be reproducible as well. The vapour deposited InTe platelets are mechanically stable and possess high value of TEP, which ensure their practical application in thermoelectric power generation.

  4. Preferential orientation of Te precipitates in melt-grown CZT

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Edwards, Danny J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Bliss, Mary; Jaffe, John E.

    2009-05-18

    Cadmium zinc telluride (Cd1-xZnxTe or CZT) has proved to be a useful material for semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometers and other electro-optic devices. It is often grown Te-rich to optimize its electrical characteristics, but this off-stoichiometric growth leads to the formation of semimetallic Te precipitates in the semiconducting host crystal. These precipitates can impair device performance and their formation needs to be inhibited, if possible, during growth. Characterization of melt-grown CZT has shown that Te precipitates are often faceted. In this study, characterization of several particles of different shapes revealed that most of the Te precipitates were preferentially oriented with the {101}CZT||{-12-10}Te . A secondary orientation relationship was also observed as {11-1}CZT||{01-11}Te for one of the {111}CZT family of planes. One of the particles exhibited {110}CZT||{01-10}Te and {001}CZT||{0001}Te . Precipitates were often found on {111}CZT twin boundaries and, in these cases, it was possible to assign specific orientations with respect to the twin plane. The expected orientation of the {0001}-plane of Te aligned with the {111}-plane of CZT was not observed even though a good lattice match is predicted in ab initio models. Observations of strained and polycrystalline Te precipitates are also discussed with relevance to the ab initio model and to impacts on electronic properties.

  5. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21-47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. PMID:24890330

  6. Gene expression from plants grown on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimpson, Alexander; Pereira, Rhea; Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie

    Three experiments were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006 as part of the TROPI experiments. These experiments were performed to study graviTROPIsm and photoTROPIsm responses of Arabidopsis in microgravity (µg). Seedlings were grown with a variety of light and gravitational treatments for approximately five days. The frozen samples were returned to Earth during three space shuttle missions in 2007 and stored at -80° C. Due to the limited amount of plant biomass returned, new protocols were developed to minimize the amount of material needed for RNA extraction as a preparation for microarray analysis. Using these new protocols, RNA was extracted from several sets of seedlings grown in red light followed by blue light with one sample from 1.0g treatment and the other at µg. Using a 2-fold change criterion, microarray (Affymetrix, GeneChip) results showed that 613 genes were upregulated in the µg sample while 757 genes were downregulated. Upregulated genes in response to µg included transcription factors from the WRKY (15 genes), MYB (3) and ZF (8) families as well as those that are involved in auxin responses (10). Downregulated genes also included transcription factors such as MYB (5) and Zinc finger (10) but interestingly only two WRKY family genes were down-regulated during the µg treatment. Studies are underway to compare these results with other samples to identify the genes involved in the gravity and light signal transduction pathways (this project is Supported By: NASA NCC2-1200).

  7. Analysis of Phase Separation in Czochralski Grown Single Crystal Ilmenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, R.; Powell, Kirk St. A.; Loregnard, Kieron R.; Lin, Sy-Chyi; Muthusami, Jayakumar; Zhou, Feng; Pandey, R. K.; Brown, Geoff; Hawley, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Ilmenite (FeTiOs) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with an energy gap of 2.58 eV. Ilmenite has properties suited for radiation tolerant applications, as well as a variety of other electronic applications. Single crystal ilmenite has been grown from the melt using the Czochralski method. Growth conditions have a profound effect on the microstructure of the samples. Here we present data from a variety of analytical techniques which indicate that some grown crystals exhibit distinct phase separation during growth. This phase separation is apparent for both post-growth annealed and unannealed samples. Under optical microscopy, there appear two distinct areas forming a matrix with an array of dots on order of 5 pm diameter. While appearing bright in the optical micrograph, atomic force microscope (AFM) shows the dots to be shallow pits on the surface. Magnetic force microscope (MFM) shows the dots to be magnetic. Phase identification via electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) indicates two major phases in the unannealed samples and four in the annealed samples, where the dots appear to be almost pure iron. This is consistent with micrographs taken with a scanning probe microscope used in the magnetic force mode. Samples that do not exhibit the phase separation have little or no discernible magnetic structure detectable by the MFM.

  8. Chemical and microstructural characterization of thermally grown alumina scales

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Richier, C.; Veal, B.W.

    1995-09-01

    An experimental program has been initiated to evaluate the chemical, microstructural, and mechanical integrity of thermally grown oxide scales to establish requirements for improved corrosion performance in terms of composition, structure, and properties. Iron aluminides of several compositions were selected for the study. Oxidation studies were conducted in air and oxygen environments at 1000{degrees}C. The results showed that the scaling kinetics followed a parabolic rate law but that the rates in early stages of oxidation were significantly greater than in later stages; the difference could be attributed to the presence of fast-growing transient iron oxides in the layer during the early stages. Further, scale failure occurred via gross spallation, scale cracking, and nodule formation and was influenced by alloy composition. Auger electron spectroscopy of Ar-exposed specimens of ternary Fe-Cr-Al alloy showed sulfur on the gas/scale side of the interface; the sulfur decreased as the exposure time increased. Raman spectroscopy and ruby fluorescence were used to examine the scale development as a function of oxidation temperature. Ruby-line shift is used to examine phase transformations in alumina and to calculate compressive strains in thermally grown scales.

  9. Crystal chemistry of hydrothermally grown ternary alkali rare earth fluorides.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Colin D; Comer, Sara; Fulle, Kyle; Sanjeewa, Liurukara D; Kolis, Joseph W

    2015-12-01

    The structural variations of several alkali metal rare earth fluoride single crystals are summarized. Two different stoichiometric formulations are considered, namely those of ARE2F7 and ARE3F10 (A = K, Rb, Cs; RE = Y, La-Lu), over a wide range of ionic radii of both the alkali and rare earth (RE) ions. Previously reported and several new single-crystal structures are considered. The new single crystals are grown using hydrothermal methods and the structures are compared with literature reports of structures grown from both melts and hydrothermal fluids. The data reported here are combined with the literature data to gain a greater understanding of structural subtleties surrounding these systems. The work underscores the importance of the size of the cations to the observed structure type and also introduces synthetic technique as a contributor to the same. New insights based on single-crystal structure analysis in the work introduce a new disordered structure type in the case of ARE2F7, and examine the trends and boundaries of the ARE3F10 stoichiometry. Such fundamental structural information is useful in understanding the potential applications of these compounds as optical materials. PMID:26634734

  10. Chirality of electrodeposits grown in a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Mhíocháin, T R Ní; Coey, J M D

    2004-06-01

    Electrodeposits grown around a point cathode in a flat, horizontal electrochemical cell have fractal form. When grown in the presence of a perpendicular applied magnetic field, the deposits develop a spiral structure with chirality which reverses on switching the field direction. These structures are modeled numerically using biased variants of the diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model. The effects of electric and magnetic fields are modeled successfully by varying the probabilities that a random walker will move in a given direction as a result of a Coulomb force and the Lorentz force-induced flow of electrolyte past the deposit surface. By contrast, a numerical model which considers only the effect of the Lorentz force on individual ions, without reference to the surface of the growing deposit, produces spiral structures with incorrect chirality. The modified DLA model is related to the differential equations for diffusion, migration, and convection. Length scales in the problem are understood by associating the step length of the random walker with the diffusion layer thickness, the lookup radius with the hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness and a point on the numerical deposit with a nucleation center for growth of a crystallite. PMID:15244565

  11. Lipid composition of slash pine tissue cultures grown with lunar and earth soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Baur, P. S.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lipid analyses were conducted on slash pine tissues grown in culture in the presence of lunar (Apollo 15) and earth soils. Significant reductions in the total lipids, fatty acids, and sterol components were found in the tissues grown in contact with each of the soils employed when compared to the control. Tissues grown with lunar soil showed the greatest reductions. These results are discussed with respect to previous ultrastructural studies on similarly treated slash pine tissues and lipid analyses on tobacco tissue cultures.

  12. Thermal Warpage of Large Diameter Czochralski-Grown Silicon Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Hirofumi; Aoshima, Takaaki

    1988-12-01

    Thermal warping of large diameter Czochralski-grown silicon wafers as affected by oxygen precipitation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The difference of wafer warpage and its shape between the heating and cooling processes is clarified by thermal stresses calculated from temperature gradients in wafers for each process. The critical temperatures for the slip occurrence are determined for the heating and cooling processes as a function of the microdefect density. Then, the optimized process conditions to avoid slip dislocations are obtained experimentally. The critical stress curve for the processed wafers in MOS devices is determined by comparison with the thermal stress curves calculated under various process conditions, and thereby predicting the slip-free conditions for wafers in a row with various diameters from 100 to 200 mm.

  13. Electrical characterization of plasma-grown oxides on gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hshieh, F. I.; Bhat, K. N.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma-grown GaAs oxides and their interfaces have been characterized by measuring the electrical properties of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and of Schottky junctions. The current transport mechanism in the oxide at high electrical field was found to be Frankel-Poole emission, with an electron trap center at 0.47 eV below the conduction band of the oxide. The interface-state density, evaluated from capacitance and conductance measurements, exhibits a U-shaped interface-state continuum extending over the entire band gap. Two discrete deep states with high concentration are superimposed on this continuum at 0.40 and 0.70 eV below the conduction band. The results obtained from measurements on Schottky junctions have excluded the possibility that these two deep states originate from plasma damage. Possible origins of these states are discussed in this paper.

  14. Vapor grown carbon fiber for space thermal management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Max L.; Hickok, J. Kyle; Brito, Karren K.; Begg, Lester L.

    1990-01-01

    Research that uses a novel, highly graphitic, vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) to fabricate composites for thermal management applications is described. These VGCF/Carbon composites have shown a specific thermal conductivity with values of twenty-to-ten times that of copper in the 500-900 K temperature range needed for waste heat management. It is concluded that development of this high specific thermal conductivity composite for thermal radiator panels will provide the foundation for a reevaluation of space power designs heretofore limited by the mass of waste heat dissipation systems. Further, it is suggested that through optimization of fiber handling and composite processing, thermal conductivities exceeding 1000 W/m-K (at 300 K) are achievable in composites reinforced with VGCF.

  15. Sustainability and economic evaluation of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Mendes, Adélio M; Caetano, Nídia S; Martins, António A

    2014-09-01

    This article evaluates the sustainability and economic potential of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater for biodiesel and biomass production. Three sustainability and two economic indicators were considered in the evaluation within a life cycle perspective. For the production system the most efficient process units were selected. Results show that harvesting and oil separation are the main process bottlenecks. Microalgae with higher lipid content and productivity are desirable for biodiesel production, although comparable to other biofuel's feedstock concerning sustainability. However, improvements are still needed to reach the performance level of fossil diesel. Profitability reaches a limit for larger cultivation areas, being higher when extracted biomass is sold together with microalgae oil, in which case the influence of lipid content and areal productivity is smaller. The values of oil and/or biomass prices calculated to ensure that the process is economically sound are still very high compared with other fuel options, especially biodiesel. PMID:24830377

  16. Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Coppinger, Matthew; Hart, John; Bhargava, Nupur; Kim, Sangcheol; Kolodzey, James

    2013-04-08

    Photocurrent spectroscopy was used to measure the infrared absorption of germanium-tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy. To study dependence on Sn composition, the photocurrent was measured at 100 K on alloys of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} with atomic percentages of Sn up to 9.8%. The optical absorption coefficient was calculated from the photocurrent, and it was found that the absorption edge and extracted bandgap energy decreased with increasing Sn content. For all Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} samples, a fundamental bandgap below that of bulk Ge was observed, and a bandgap energy as low as 0.624 eV was found for a Sn percentage of 9.8% at 100 K.

  17. Homogeneity of material and optical properties in HEM grown sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, M.; Hibbard, D.

    2015-09-01

    Sapphire crystal boules, approximately 34 cm in diameter and 22 cm tall, grown by the Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) are currently being sliced, ground and polished for use as window substrates in a variety of aerospace applications. As the need for larger volumes of higher quality material increases, it is necessary to evaluate and understand the homogeneity of optical and material properties within sapphire boules to ensure the needs of the industry can be met. The optical homogeneity throughout the full useable thickness of a representative sapphire boule was evaluated by measuring the transmitted wavefront error of multiple thin slices. This approach allowed the creation of a full-volume three-dimensional homogeneity map. Additionally, the uniformity of other critical characteristics of the material was evaluated at multiple locations within a boule. Specific properties investigated were equibiaxial flexural strength, index of refraction, Knoop hardness, coefficient of thermal expansion and modulus of elasticity. The results of those evaluations will be reported.

  18. Native defects in MBE-grown CdTe

    SciTech Connect

    Olender, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Makosa, Andrzej; Tkaczyk, Zbigniew; Kolkovsky, Valery; Karczewski, Grzegorz

    2013-12-04

    Deep-level traps in both n- and p-type CdTe layers, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates, have been investigated by means of deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Four of the traps revealed in the DLTS spectra, which displayed exponential kinetics for capture of charge carriers into the trap states, have been assigned to native point defects: Cd interstitial, Cd vacancy, Te antisite defect and a complex formed of the Te antisite and Cd vacancy. Three further traps, displaying logarithmic capture kinetics, have been ascribed to electron states of treading dislocations generated at the mismatched interface with the substrate and propagated through the CdTe layer.

  19. (Ga,In)P nanowires grown without intentional catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, Carolina F.; Viana, Bartolomeu C.; Luz-Lima, Cleanio da; Perea-Lopez, Nestor; Terrones, Mauricio; Falcão, Eduardo H. L.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Chassagnon, Remi; Pinto, André L.; Sampaio, Luiz C.; Sacilotti, Marco

    2015-12-01

    We have grown (Ga,In)P nanowires through the MOCVD method without a intentional catalyst. The organometallic precursor triethylgallium ((C2H5)3 Ga), used as Ga source, is transported by the N2 gas carrier to the reactor chamber where reacts with the InP vapor pressure producing the nanowires. Two different reactor pressures (70 and 740 Torr) were used leading to nanowires with different In contents. The nanowires are straight or wool-like and exhibit a twinned structure. They emit an intense orange to red color visible even to the naked eyes. Interface tunneling process at Ga1-xInx P /Ga1-yIny P interfaces (x ? y) is proposed to explain this efficient light emission mechanism.

  20. Grown organic matter as a fuel raw material resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, W. L.; Keener, H. M.; Kline, R. D.; Mederski, H. J.; Curry, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive search was made on biomass production from the standpoint of climatic zones, water, nutrients, costs and energy requirements for many species. No exotic species were uncovered that gave hope for a bonanza of biomass production under culture, location, and management markedly different from those of existing agricultural concepts. A simulation analysis of biomass production was carried out for six species using conventional production methods, including their production costs and energy requirements. These estimates were compared with data on food, fiber, and feed production. The alternative possibility of using residues from food, feed, or lumber was evaluated. It was concluded that great doubt must be cast on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. The feasibility of collecting residues may be nearer, but the competition for the residues for return to the soil or cellulosic production is formidable.

  1. Structural insights into magnetic clusters grown inside virus capsids.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, M; Aljabali, A A A; Berlanga, I; Mas-Ballesté, R; Saxena, P; Warren, S; Lomonossoff, G P; Evans, D J; de Pablo, P J

    2014-12-10

    Magnetic nanoparticles have multiple applications in materials science. In particular, virus capsids have been suggested as promising templates for building up nanometric-sized magnetic clusters by taking advantage of their inner cavity as a nanoreactor. In this study we investigate the magnetization of individual cobalt-filled cowpea mosaic virus empty virus-like particles using atomic force microscopy. We also combine the analysis of the effects of dehydration on the structure of virus particles with a comparison of their magnetic signal to that provided by commercially available magnetic nanoparticles of similar size. These two approaches allow the evaluation of the structure of the metallic cluster grown inside the virus capsid. We conclude that, rather than forming solid clusters, cobalt inside viruses forms a discontinuous structure that does not completely fill the virus cavity and reaches about 10% of its volume. PMID:25405995

  2. Stress determination in thermally grown alumina scales using ruby luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Renusch, D.; Veal, B.W.; Koshelev, I.; Natesan, K.; Grimsditch; Hou, P.Y.

    1996-06-01

    By exploiting the strain dependence of the ruby luminescence line, we have measured the strain in alumina scales thermally grown on Fe-Cr- Al alloys. Results are compared and found to be reasonably consistent with strains determined using x rays. Oxidation studies were carried out on alloys Fe - 5Cr - 28Al and Fe - 18Cr - 10Al (at.%). Significantly different levels of strain buildup were observed in scales on these alloys. Results on similar alloys containing a ``reactive element`` (Zr or Hf) in dilute quantity are also presented. Scales on alloys containing a reactive element (RE) can support significantly higher strains than scales on RE-free alloys. With the luminescence technique, strain relief associated with spallation thresholds is readily observed.

  3. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  4. Carbon films grown from plasma on III-V semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, J. J.; Warner, J. D.; Liu, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Dielectric carbon films were grown on n- and p-type GaAs and InP substrates using plasmas generated at 30 KHz from gaseous hydrocarbons. The effect of gas source, flow rate, and power on film growth were investigated. Methane and n-butane gases were utilized. The flow rate and power ranged from 30 to 50 sccm and 25 to 300 W, respectively. AES measurements show only carbon to be present in the films. The relative Ar ion sputtering rate (3 KeV) of carbon depends on the ratio power/pressure. In addition, the degree of asymmetry associated with the carbon-semiconductor interface is approximately power-independent. SIMS spectra indicate different H-C bonding configurations to be present in the films. Band gaps as high as 3.05 eV are obtained from optical absorption studies.

  5. Some karyological observations on plants grown in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.; Oconnor, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess whether cell division in a plant root would be affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Root materials from sunflower, oat, and mung bean plants grown on STS-2 and STS-3 were utilized for the experiments. It is found that all oat, sunflower, and mung seedlings showed a reduced number of cells in division as they went through their first cell division cycle on earth when compared to their ground controls. A significant number of oat, mung, and sunflower plantlets exhibited random root orientation and the lack of strictly orthotropic growth of their shoot systems in the flight samples. In addition, it is found that the mung roots were apparently least affected in terms of their cytology despite the fact that their roots were often randomly oriented.

  6. Ancient maize from Chacoan great houses: Where was it grown?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Cordell, L.; Vincent, K.; Taylor, H.; Stein, J.; Farmer, G.L.; Futa, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we compare chemical (87Sr/86Sr and elemental) analyses of archaeological maize from dated contexts within Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to potential agricultural sites on the periphery of the San Juan Basin. The oldest maize analyzed from Pueblo Bonito probably was grown in an area located 80 km to the west at the base of the Chuska Mountains. The youngest maize came from the San Juan or Animas river flood-plains 90 km to the north. This article demonstrates that maize, a dietary staple of southwestern Native Americans, was transported over considerable distances in pre-Columbian times, a finding fundamental to understanding the organization of pre-Columbian southwestern societies. In addition, this article provides support for the hypothesis that major construction events in Chaco Canyon were made possible because maize was brought in to support extra-local labor forces.

  7. Lipid accumulation by Rhodococcus rhodochrous grown on glucose.

    PubMed

    Shields-Menard, Sara A; Amirsadeghi, Marta; Sukhbaatar, Badamkhand; Revellame, Emmanuel; Hernandez, Rafael; Donaldson, Janet R; French, W Todd

    2015-05-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from costly vegetable oil feedstocks. Some microorganisms can accumulate lipids when nutrients are limited and carbon is in excess. Rhodococcus rhodochrous is a gram-positive bacterium most often used in bioremediation or acrylamide production. The purpose of this study was to investigate and characterize the lipid accumulation capabilities of R. rhodochrous. Shake flasks and a large-scale fermentation were used to cultivate R. rhodochrous in varying concentrations of glucose. R. rhodochrous achieved almost 50 % of dry cell mass as lipid when grown in 20 g/L of glucose. Wax esters and triglycerides were identified in R. rhodochrous lipid extract. The transesterified extractables of R. rhodochrous consisted of mostly palmitic (35 %) and oleic (42 %) acid methyl esters. This study shows R. rhodochrous to be an oleaginous bacterium with potential for application in alternative fuels. PMID:25656153

  8. Gold Nanowire Bundles Grown Radially Outward from Silicon Micropillars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youju; Ferhan, Abdul Rahim; Cho, Seok-Jin; Lee, Haiwon; Kim, Dong-Hwan

    2015-08-19

    One-dimensional (1D) micro- and nanostructures have become increasingly popular because of their tremendous prospect in various applications. While the design and fabrication of these structures from a single component in two-dimensional (2D) arrays is common, the attainment of hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) architectures made up of multicomponent one-dimensional structures is rare. Herein we report, for the first time, the lateral growth of gold nanowires from the sidewalls of substrate grown silicon micropillars to form a unique "wire-on-pillar" architecture. Unlike zero-dimensional (0D) point-like, 1D linear, and 2D planar Au structures, the obtained 3D "wire-on-pillar" Au architecture provides abundant hotspots between adjacent Au wires, which led to remarkably high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. PMID:26203674

  9. Glycoalkaloids in potato tubers grown under controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitithamyong, A.; Vonelbe, J. H.; Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1999-01-01

    Tuber content of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGA) was determined for the potato cultivars, Norland, Russet Burbank, and Denali grown under different environmental conditions in growth chambers. The lowest TGA concentrations (0.30 to 0.35 mg g-1 dry tissue) were found in the cv. Norland with 400 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), 12 h day length, 16 C temperature, and 350 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide. The ratio of alpha-chaconine to alpha-solanine was close to 60:40 under all growing conditions, except that it was 50:50 under the low temperature of 12 C. Cultivars responded similarly to environmental conditions although TGA was about 20% greater in cv. Russet Burbank and about 30% greater in Denali compared to Norland. The largest changes in TGA occurred with changes in temperature. In comparison to 16 C, TGA were 40% greater at 12 C, 80% greater at 20 C, and 125% greater at 24 C (0.70 mg g-1 dry weight). The TGA concentration increased from 10 to 25% with an increase in light from 400 to 800 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF for all three cultivars. TGA increased 20% with extension of the day length from 12 to 24 hr and also increased 20% when carbon dioxide was increased from 350 to 1000 micromoles mol-1. TGA concentrations were not influenced by changes in relative humidity from 50 to 80%. TGA concentrations decreased only slightly in harvests made from 9 to 21 weeks after planting. Variations in TGA among the different growing conditions and cultivars were below 20 mg/100 g fresh weight (approximately 1.0 mg g-1 dry weight) recognized as the upper concentration for food safety. However the results suggest that TGA should be considered when potatoes are grown at temperatures above 20 C.

  10. Increased root production in soybeans grown under space flight conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.

    The GENEX ({Gen}e {Ex}pression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87) was developed to investigate whether direct and/or indirect effects of microgravity are perceived as an external stimulus for soybean seedling response. Protocols were designed to optimize root and shoot formation, gas exchange and moisture uniformity. Six surface sterilized soybean seeds (Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to each pouch (thereby initiating the process of seed germination on-orbit), and subsequently transferred them to four passive, light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight material, (2) the corresponding ground control population, plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions. No significant growth differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is open to speculation. Funded under NASA Contract NAS10-12180.

  11. Epitaxially grown layered MFI-bulk MFI hybrid zeolitic materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wun-gwi; Zhang, Xueyi; Lee, Jong Suk; Tsapatsis, Michael; Nair, Sankar

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 ?m), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (?0.55 nm) and mesopores (?3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N(2) physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO(2) and good CO(2)/CH(4) selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO(2) and CH(4) gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. PMID:23045956

  12. High resolution diffraction imaging of crystals grown in microgravity and closely related terrestrial crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, B.; Dobbyn, R.; Black, D.; Burdette, H.; Kuriyama, M.; Spal, R.; Vandenberg, L.; Fripp, A.; Simchick, R.; Lal, R.

    1991-01-01

    Irregularities found in three crystals grown in space, in four crystals grown entirely on the ground were examined and compared. Irregularities were observed in mercuric iodide, lead tin telluride, triglycine sulfate, and gallium arsenide by high resolution synchrotron x radiation diffraction imaging. Radiation detectors made from mercuric iodide crystals grown in microgravity were reported to perform far better than conventional detectors grown from the same material under full gravity. Effort is now underway to reproduce these 'space' crystals, optimize their properties, and extend comparable superiority to other types of materials.

  13. Elasticity theory of pseudomorphic heterostructures grown on substrates of arbitrary thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povolotskyi, Michael; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2006-09-01

    A theoretical model for lattice mismatched pseudomorphically grown heterostructure, which is based on continuum elasticity theory is described. Two distinct types of coherently grown structures are considered, namely, those grown on a thick substrate and these grown on a freestanding one. Special cases of structures that are homogeneous or periodic in some directions are considered. The theory can be applied for an arbitrary crystallographic direction of the heterostructure growth. The model has been applied to AlN /GaN nanocolumn and GaAs /InAs heterostructure. Calculation of strain induced shape deformation is shown.

  14. Psoralea corylifolia Linn.—“Kushtanashini”

    PubMed Central

    Khushboo, P. S.; Jadhav, V. M.; Kadam, V. J.; Sathe, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Plants have been the basis of many traditional medicines throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies to mankind. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. The recent resurgence of plant remedies resulted from several factors, such as effectiveness of plant medicines and lesser side effects compared with modern medicines. Psoralea corylifolia, commonly known as babchi, is a popular herb, which has since long been used in traditional Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for its magical effects to cure various skin diseases. This plant is also pharmacologically studied for its chemoprotective, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory properties. This review attempts to highlight the available literature on P. corylifolia with respect to its ethnobotany, pharmacognostic characteristics, traditional uses, chemical constituents, and summary of its various pharmacologic activities and clinical effects. Other aspects, such as toxicology and precautions are also discussed. This will be helpful to create interest toward babchi and may be useful in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economical value. PMID:22228944

  15. Evidence that an internal carbonic anhydrase is present in 5% CO/sub 2/-grown and air-grown Chlamydomonas. [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, J.V.; Togasaki, R.K.; Husic, H.D.; Tolbert, N.E.

    1987-07-01

    Inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO/sub 2/. Both air-grown cells, that have a CO/sub 2/ concentrating system, and 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells also accumulated some C/sub i/, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO/sub 2/ fixation by high CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase.

  16. The formation of threading defects in sublimation grown silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Edward Kyle

    The goal of this thesis was to investigate and provide evidence for the mechanisms involved in the formation of threading defects during physical vapor transport growth of Silicon Carbide and using this evidence to adjust growth parameters to decrease the overall density of these defects. The relationship between seed mounting and the formation of thermal decomposition cavities in physical vapor transport grown silicon carbide was investigated. The seed locally decomposes at void locations and Si-bearing species are transported through the void. The decomposition produces a cavity in the seed; the silicon is deposited on and diffuses into the graphite lid. The formation of thermal decomposition cavities can be suppressed by the application of a diffusion barrier on the seed crystal backside. The subsurface damage generated by the polishing of silicon carbide crystals was investigated by measuring dislocation densities in sublimation grown SiC layers and high-resolution x-ray diffraction. Physical vapor transport growth on silicon carbide seeds, that are given a typical polishing finish of 1 mum diamond paste, leads to the nucleation of threading edge dislocations on the order of 107 cm-2 and threading screw dislocations in densities on the order of 106 cm-2 . A possible nucleation mechanism for threading edge and screw dislocations during the physical vapor transport growth of SiC has been investigated. Growth over intentionally deposited carbon inclusions led to an edge and screw dislocation density orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding crystal. This was explained by both the lateral overgrowth of the deposit and the nucleation of material on a second phase precipitate. The sublimation growth of silicon carbide on seed crystals with no surface damage and no surface deposits was investigated. Nucleation of 2D islands on the growth surface lead to deviations in the c-stacking and produced both Frank and Shockley stacking faults. These stacking faults correlate with threading dislocations, acting as the origin of looping dislocation pairs. The growth rate is shown to affect the threading dislocation density. A growth rate of 0.0215 mm/hr produces a crystal with a threading screw dislocation density of only 20 cm-2 while a growth rate of 1.5 mm/hr results in a density of 4 x 10 3 cm-2. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  17. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, D.E.

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V{sub Ga}. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1{mu}m. Gallium vacancies, V{sub Ga}, was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3} Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As{sub Ga} in the layer. As As{sub Ga} increases, photoquenchable As{sub Ga} decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As{sub Ga} content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga{sub As}, as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As{sub Ga}-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V{sub Ga} enhanced diffusion of As{sub Ga} to As precipitates. The supersaturated V{sub GA} and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As{sub Ga}-related defects gives 2.0 {plus_minus} 0.3 eV and 1.5 {plus_minus} 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As{sub Ga} and V{sub Ga}. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As{sub Ga}-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 {plus_minus} 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As{sub Ga}-Be{sub Ga} pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  18. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, D.E.

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V[sub Ga]. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1[mu]m. Gallium vacancies, V[sub Ga], was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10[sup 19] cm[sup [minus]3] Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As[sub Ga] in the layer. As As[sub Ga] increases, photoquenchable As[sub Ga] decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As[sub Ga] content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga[sub As], as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As[sub Ga]-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V[sub Ga] enhanced diffusion of As[sub Ga] to As precipitates. The supersaturated V[sub GA] and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As[sub Ga]-related defects gives 2.0 [plus minus] 0.3 eV and 1.5 [plus minus] 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As[sub Ga] and V[sub Ga]. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As[sub Ga]-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 [plus minus] 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As[sub Ga]-Be[sub Ga] pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  19. As-Grown Gallium Nitride Nanowire Electromechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montague, Joshua R.

    Technological development in recent years has led to a ubiquity of micro- and nano-scale electromechanical devices. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pressure, mass, etc., are now found in nearly all electronic devices at both the industrial and consumer levels. As has been true for integrated circuit electronics, these electromechanical devices have continued to be scaled down in size. For many nanometer-scale structures with large surface-to-volume ratio, dissipation (energy loss) becomes prohibitively large causing a decreasing sensitivity with decreasing sensor size. In this work, gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires are investigated as singly-clamped (cantilever) mechanical resonators with typical mechanical quality factors, Q (equal to the ratio of resonance frequency to peak full-width-at-half-maximum-power) and resonance frequencies, respectively, at or above 30,000, and near 1 MHz. These Q values---in vacuum at room temperature---indicate very low levels of dissipation; they are essentially the same as those for bulk quartz crystal resonators that form the basis of simple clocks and mass sensors. The GaN nanowires have lengths and diameters, respectively, of approximately 15 micrometers and hundreds of nanometers. As-grown GaN nanowire Q values are larger than other similarly-sized, bottom-up, cantilever resonators and this property makes them very attractive for use as resonant sensors. We demonstrate the capability of detecting sub-monolayer levels of atomic layer deposited (ALD) films, and the robust nature of the GaN nanowires structure that allows for their 'reuse' after removal of such layers. In addition to electron microscope-based measurement techniques, we demonstrate the successful capacitive detection of a single nanowire using microwave homodyne reflectometry. This technique is then extended to allow for simultaneous measurements of large ensembles of GaN nanowires on a single sample, providing statistical information about the distribution of individual nanowire properties. We observe nanowire-to-nanowire variations in the temperature dependence of GaN nanowire resonance frequency and in the observed mechanical dissipation. We also use this ensemble measurement technique to demonstrate unique, very low-loss resonance behavior at low temperatures. The low dissipation (and corresponding large Q values) observed in as-grown GaN nanowires also provides a unique opportunity for studying fundamental energy loss mechanisms in nano-scale objects. With estimated mass sensitivities on the level of zeptograms (10-21 g) in a one second averaging time, GaN nanowires may be a significant addition to the field of resonant sensors and worthy of future research and device integration.

  20. 78 FR 43758 - Kiwifruit Grown in California and Imported Kiwifruit; Relaxation of Minimum Grade Requirement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 920 and 944 Kiwifruit Grown in California and Imported Kiwifruit... order for kiwifruit grown in California (order), and for kiwifruit imported into the United States that are shipped to the fresh market, by increasing the tolerance of kiwifruit which is ``badly...

  1. 76 FR 80209 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting Requirements and New Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Federal Register on August 9, 2011 (76 FR 48742). Copies of the rule were mailed or sent via facsimile to... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting Requirements and New... handling of kiwifruit grown in California. The order is administered locally by the...

  2. Helicopter Parents and Landing Pad Kids: Intense Parental Support of Grown Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Wesselmann, Eric D.; Zarit, Steven; Furstenberg, Frank; Birditt, Kira S.

    2012-01-01

    Popular media describe adverse effects of helicopter parents who provide intense support to grown children, but few studies have examined implications of such intense support. Grown children (N = 592, M age = 23.82 years, 53% female, 35% members of racial/ethnic minority groups) and their parents (N = 399, M age = 50.67 years, 52% female; 34%…

  3. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions...

  4. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. 30... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.44 Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. No...

  5. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. 30... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.44 Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. No...

  6. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions...

  7. Growth and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization of Two Prairie Grasses Grown in

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Roger C.

    Growth and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization of Two Prairie Grasses Grown in Soil from (AMF) colonization of two prairie grasses (Wild rye [Ely- mus canadensis] and Little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium]), an early- and a late-dominating species in prairie restorations, respectively, grown

  8. Surface reconstructions of cubic gallium nitride ,,001... grown by radio frequency nitrogen plasma molecular beam epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Surface reconstructions of cubic gallium nitride ,,001... grown by radio frequency nitrogen plasma molecular beam epitaxy under gallium-rich conditions Muhammad B. Haider, Rong Yang, Costel Constantin; published online 27 October 2006 Cubic GaN has been grown under gallium Ga -rich growth conditions using

  9. Raman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films grown by Hot Filament CVD

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    the formation of closed packed diamond grains for the film grown at 5 torr with methane and hydrogen flowH4 flow-rate ratio of standard polycrystalline diamond deposition parameters on formationRaman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films grown by Hot Filament CVD

  10. 75 FR 7981 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Secretary's Decision and Referendum Order on Proposed Amendments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...AMS-FV-08-0085; FV08-920-3] Kiwifruit Grown in California; Secretary's Decision...order), which regulates the handling of kiwifruit grown in California, and provides growers...amendments are based on proposals by the Kiwifruit Administrative Committee...

  11. 75 FR 67605 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Changes to District Boundaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...AMS-FV-08-0085; FV08-920-3 FIR] Kiwifruit Grown in California; Changes to District...administrative rules and regulations of the kiwifruit marketing order (order). The interim...part 920), regulating the handling of kiwifruit grown in California, hereinafter...

  12. 75 FR 43038 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Changes to District Boundaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...AMS-FV-08-0085; FV08-920-3 IR] Kiwifruit Grown in California; Changes to District...administrative rules and regulations of the kiwifruit marketing orders (order). The order regulates the handling of kiwifruit grown in California and is...

  13. 76 FR 4201 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...AMS-FV-08-0085; FV08-920-3 C] Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending...order), which regulates the handling of kiwifruit grown in California. The amendments...with the highest shipping volumes. The Kiwifruit Administrative Committee...

  14. Risk of Rhizoctonia Web Blight Development on Container-Grown Azalea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia spp., is an annual problem in the southern United States on container-grown azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) that receive daily irrigation. Disease progress was assessed weekly from mid-May to early October in blocks of nursery-grown plants at four...

  15. A New Substrate for Container-Grown Plants: Clean Chip Residual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clean Chip Residual (CCR) is a potential new nursery substrate that is a forestry by-product composed of approximately 50% wood, 40% bark and 10% needles. This study evaluated CCR as a growth substrate for container-grown nursery crops. Two perennial species were grown in one of eight substrates (10...

  16. 78 FR 1127 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...AMS-FV-12-0028; FV12-922-2 IR] Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington...requirements prescribed under the Washington apricot marketing order for the 2012-13 fiscal...marketing order regulates the handling of apricots grown in designated Counties in...

  17. Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition

    E-print Network

    Kwok, Hoi S.

    Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition X 18 August 1998; accepted for publication 23 March 1999 ZnO thin films were epitaxially grown on c-sapphire and unavailable in large wafers for the time being, ZnO thin film, especially on sapphire, is a relatively good

  18. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra of GaN epitaxial layer grown on Si (111) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dan-Mei; Zhao, De-Gang; Jiang, De-Sheng; Liu, Zong-Shun; Zhu, Jian-Jun; Chen, Ping; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiang; Shi, Ming

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties of GaN grown on Si (111) substrate are studied. The main emission peaks of GaN films grown on Si (111) are investigated and compared with those grown on sapphire substrates. The positions of free and bound exciton luminescence peaks, i.e., FXA and D0X peaks, of GaN films grown on Si (111) substrates undergo red shifts compared with those grown on sapphire. This is attributed to the fact that the GaN films grown on sapphire are under the action of compressive stress, while those grown on Si (111) substrate are subjected to tensile stress. Furthermore, the positions of these peaks may be additionally shifted due to different stress conditions in the real sample growth. The emission peaks due to stacking faults are found in GaN films grown on Si (111) and an S-shaped temperature dependence of PL spectra can be observed, owing to the influence of the quantum well (QW) emission by the localized states near the conduction band gap edge and the temperature-dependent distribution of the photo-generated carriers. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61474110, 61377020, 61376089, 61223005, and 61176126) and the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No. 60925017).

  19. Al 2O 3 shaped crystals grown under stationary stable state and optical characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehari, A.; Mehnaoui, M.; Breton, G.; Gullin, Y.; Orival, S.; Panczer, G.; Brenier, A.; Lebbou, K.; Godfroy, J.; Labor, S.; Legal, H.

    2010-05-01

    Sapphire rod shaped single crystals were grown from the melt under stationary stable state using pulling down technique. The utilisations of sapphire crystals for optical applications require high quality, especially chemical homogeneity and defects minimisation. We will present the growth conditions and crystals quality of sapphire rods grown by pulling down technology using Al 2O 3 spherical powder.

  20. Accumulation of lead and arsenic by carrots grown on four lead-arsenate contaminated orchard soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised about possible human food chain transfer of contaminants resulting from crops grown on orchard soils with histories of lead arsenate use. The objective of this study was to determine the uptake of arsenic and lead by three cultivars of carrots. Carrots were grown on four ...

  1. Identification of optimum potassium nutrition of greenhouse plants grown in recirculating subirrigation 

    E-print Network

    Blessington, Trisha R.

    2002-01-01

    of this research was to determine the optimum potassium nutrition of greenhouse plants grown in recirculating subirrigation. New Guinea impatiens 'Ovation Salmon Pink Swirl' were grown in recirculating subirrigation trays using 0 -12 mM K, with constant 1.5 mM P...

  2. 75 FR 64681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...AMS-FV-10-0077; FV10-983-3 CR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and...California, Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio producers to determine whether they...marketing order regulating the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona,...

  3. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section 30.43 Agriculture...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions are...

  4. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. 30.44 Section 30.44 Agriculture...STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups...foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. No group divisions are...

  5. Optical characterization of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-print Network

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    Optical characterization of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition M. Alevli properties of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition have been studied. Raman, infrared at elevated temperatures, a high-pressure chemical vapor deposition HPCVD system has been established at GSU.6

  6. Yield and Oil Composition of Thirty-Eight Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Accessions Grown in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) has been grown as an essential oil crop in many countries; however, the herbage yield, oil content, composition, and bioactivity of basil grown in Mississippi and other Southern U.S. states has not been explored. The hypothesis of this study was that certain basil ...

  7. 76 FR 16322 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 929 Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island... New York; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum... favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of cranberries grown in the...

  8. Field-emission properties of individual GaN nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition

    E-print Network

    Ural, Ant

    Field-emission properties of individual GaN nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition Yongho-emission properties of individual GaN nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition Yongho Choi,1,a) Mario Michan,1 nanowires were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition. Devices containing individual GaN nanowires were

  9. Superficial scald susceptibility and a-farnesene metabolism in ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in California and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in northern California (CA) consistently show development of the physiological storage disorder superficial scald, particularly after prolonged storage of 4–5 months in air. In contrast, fruit of this cultivar grown in central Washington (WA) are typically less susceptible to ...

  10. Existence of self-similar evolution of crystals grown from supersaturated vapor

    E-print Network

    Ikegami, Takashi

    .e. lim |x| (x) = . (1.2) The velocity of the growing crystal is determined by the normal derivativeExistence of self-similar evolution of crystals grown from supersaturated vapor Yoshikazu Giga1. This system arises in modeling crystals grown from supersaturated vapor. We show exis- tence of self

  11. 76 FR 18003 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... 25, 2011 (76 FR 4254). Copies of the proposed rule were provided to all raisin handlers by the... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased... produced from grapes grown in California. Assessments upon raisin handlers are used by the committee...

  12. 76 FR 8917 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This... determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of pears grown...

  13. 78 FR 30782 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Change in Minimum Grade Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...AMS-FV-12-0067; FV13-915-1 PR] Avocados Grown in South Florida; Change in...currently prescribed under the Florida avocado marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of avocados grown in South Florida, and is...

  14. 78 FR 56816 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ...AMS-FV-12-0071; FV13-955-1 FIR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting...under the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The interim...corresponding assessments to the Vidalia Onion Committee (Committee) from the...

  15. 75 FR 5898 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...AMS-FV-09-0073; FV10-929-1 PR] Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts...order that regulates the handling of cranberries grown in the States of Massachusetts...order is administered locally by the Cranberry Marketing Committee...

  16. 75 FR 20514 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...AMS-FV-09-0073; FV10-929-1 FR] Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts...order that regulates the handling of cranberries grown in the States of Massachusetts...order is administered locally by the Cranberry Marketing Committee...

  17. 77 FR 52595 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...AMS-FV-12-0002; FV12-929-1 IR] Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode...order that regulates the handling of cranberries grown in the States of Massachusetts...order is administered locally by the Cranberry Marketing Committee...

  18. 76 FR 16322 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...AMS-FV-11-0011; FV11-929-1] Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts...conducted among eligible growers of cranberries in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode...marketing order regulating the handling of cranberries grown in the production area....

  19. 78 FR 24333 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...AMS-FV-12-0002; FV12-929-1 FIR] Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode...prescribed under the marketing order for cranberries grown in the States of Massachusetts...part 929), regulating the handling of cranberries produced in the States of...

  20. Structures and defects of WO3x nanorods grown by in-situ heating tungsten filament

    E-print Network

    Gao, Hongjun

    Structures and defects of WO3Àx nanorods grown by in-situ heating tungsten filament Huairuo Zhang a nanorods were grown on the tips of electrochemical etched W filaments by in-situ heating under different work, we prepare tungsten oxide nanorods by heating the electrochemical etched W filaments under

  1. PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR THE ACCUMULATION OF CADMIUM BY CONTAINER-GROWN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research into the dietary availability of Cd, a toxic heavy metal, called for prediction of Cd accumulation by edible crop species to be grown to maturity under greenhouse conditions. Examination of the literature revealed that Cd accumulation in plants grown under greenhouse and...

  2. 76 FR 8917 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...AMS-FV-10-0112; FV11-927-1 CR] Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance...conducted among eligible Oregon and Washington pear growers to determine whether they favor...marketing order regulating the handling of pears grown in Oregon and Washington....

  3. Structural Properties of Opals Grown with Vertical Controlled Drying Alex Hartsuiker*, and Willem L. Vos,

    E-print Network

    Vos, Willem L.

    Structural Properties of Opals Grown with Vertical Controlled Drying Alex Hartsuiker*, and Willem L ReceiVed January 15, 2008 We have grown thin opals of self-assembled silica colloids by the well. These self-assembled photonic crystals, also called artificial opals, have attracted much attention over

  4. Nutritive value of fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in nutritive value of fall-grown cereal-grain forages can affect cattle performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of various fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time. One variety each of hard red (HR) and soft red (SR) winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), ...

  5. Nutritive Value of Fall-Grown Cereal-Grain Forages Over Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in nutritive value of fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time can affect cattle performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate nutritive values of various fall-grown cereal-grain forages over time. One variety each of hard red (HR) and soft red (SR) winter wheat (Triticum aesti...

  6. 76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 945 Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain... conducted among eligible producers of Irish potatoes in certain designated counties in Idaho, and Malheur... handling of Irish potatoes grown in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from...

  7. Mid-Atlantic Consumer Purchasing Behavior and Knowledge of Locally Grown and Seasonal Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Amy J.; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Hyde, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Mid-Atlantic urban consumers were surveyed on their fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviors and their knowledge of produce grown in the region. Consumers were generally unaware of what produce is grown in the mid-Atlantic and during what months they are harvested. Additionally, differences pertaining to number of produce items purchased were…

  8. Evaluation of thallium quantity through grown NaI(Tl) crystal by Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faripour, H.; Peyvandi, R. Gholipour; Islami rad, S. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Improvement of crystal performance is important for the nuclear instrumentation, medical imaging and radiation measurement as industrial application. For achieving this aim, we developed to establish crystal growth process and design and fabricate crystal growth equipment. Finally, the single crystal scintillator of NaI (Tl) was grown successfully by the conventional Czochraski method and Thallium quantity was measured through grown crystal. The results showed Thallium losses by evaporation during crystal growth. Thus, the first part of grown NaI(Tl) (2.5 cm) has high light yield and is suitable for counter. The characteristics of the grown NaI(Tl) were evaluated on the excitation, emission responses. Finally, grown crystal was used as scintillators in nuclear radiation detection, industrial applications and etc.

  9. Fabrication of quantum wire circuits from MBE-grown InAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Carolyn; Xue, Chi; Eckstein, James

    2014-03-01

    If topological quantum computing using Majorana fermions evolves past tabletop experiments involving manipulation of a small number of qubits, scalability of quantum circuits will become an important consideration. At present, experiments have focused on vertically grown nanowires, which must be laid out on a substrate and electrically contacted ex situ. This severely limits the flexibility of the device geometry due to randomness in how the wires fall, and thus hinders the future scalability of the nanowire architecture. We are fabricating quantum wire circuits by lithographic methods out of thin films grown by MBE. We examine high quality MBE-grown InAs material grown GaAs and GaSb substrates, and consider its potential in building Majorana circuits. In particular, better epitaxy and transport is obtained in films grown on lattice matched GaSb, and substrate conductivity appears to freeze out at low temperatures.

  10. Dielectric spectroscopy study of ZnSe grown by physical vapor transport

    SciTech Connect

    Kokan, J.; Gerhardt, R.; Su, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    ZnSe, although generally thought of as a wide band gap semiconductor, is insulating in the as-grown state. It is only after heat treatment in a zinc rich atmosphere that semiconducting properties are observed. Therefore, dielectric spectroscopy is an appropriate tool to study the electrical properties of as grown ZnSe. The dielectric properties of large-grained samples of ZnSe grown by physical vapor transport were measured as a function of frequency. Differences can be seen in the dielectric properties of samples grown under different conditions (such as the effect of a seed and the orientation of the gravity field during growth). The spectra of heat treated samples were also acquired and were found to exhibit significant deviations from those of the as grown crystals.

  11. Epitaxially-Grown GaN Junction Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Chang, P.C.; Denbaars, S.P.; Lester, L.F.; Mishra, U.K.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Zhang, L.; Zolper, J.C.

    1999-05-19

    Junction field effect transistors (JFET) are fabricated on a GaN epitaxial structure grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The DC and microwave characteristics of the device are presented. A junction breakdown voltage of 56 V is obtained corresponding to the theoretical limit of the breakdown field in GaN for the doping levels used. A maximum extrinsic transconductance (gm) of 48 mS/mm and a maximum source-drain current of 270 mA/mm are achieved on a 0.8 µ m gate JFET device at VGS= 1 V and VDS=15 V. The intrinsic transconductance, calculated from the measured gm and the source series resistance, is 81 mS/mm. The fT and fmax for these devices are 6 GHz and 12 GHz, respectively. These JFETs exhibit a significant current reduction after a high drain bias is applied, which is attributed to a partially depleted channel caused by trapped hot-electrons in the semi-insulating GaN buffer layer. A theoretical model describing the current collapse is described, and an estimate for the length of the trapped electron region is given.

  12. Herbivore responses to plants grown in enriched carbon dioxide atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1990-05-01

    Our initial study of sagebrush and grasshopper responses to elevated and historical carbon dioxide atmospheres is complete and has been accepted for publication. The study on Biomass Allocation Patterns of Defoliated Sagebrush Grown Under Two Levels of Carbon Dioxide has completed and the manuscript has been submitted for publication. We have completed the study of plant growth under two nutrient and carbon dioxide regimes and grasshopper feeding responses. The study of a specialist feeding caterpillar, the cabbage butterfly, and a mustard hostplant has recently been completed. We were able to identify the principal allelochemicals of the mustard plants, butenyl and pentenyl isothiocyanates, by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Measurement of these chemicals has been a critical component of this study since these compounds contain nitrogen and sulphur and act as a feeding stimulant to the caterpillar. This insect responds to elevated carbon dioxide by consuming more leaves and we can now say that this is not due to a change in the feeding stimulants. Reduced leaf protein content is a critical factor for even specialist feeding insect herbivores under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. The study on Grasshopper Population Responses to Enriched Carbon Dioxide Concentration is currently in progress at the Duke University Phytotron. We have changed hostplant species in order to complement the investigations of carbon dioxide effects on tallgrass prairie. Specifically, we are using big bluestem, Andropogon geradii, as the host plant to feed to the grasshoppers. This experiment will be completed in July 1990.

  13. Extended defects in as-grown CdZnTe

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K-H.; Gul, R.; Yang, G.; Camarda, G.S.; Marchini, L.; Cui, Y.; James, R.B.; Xu, Y.; Wang, T.; Jie, W.

    2010-08-01

    We characterized samples cut from different locations in as-grown CdZnTe (CZT) ingots, using Automated Infrared (IR) Transmission Microscopy and White Beam X-ray Diffraction Topography (WBXDT), to locate and identify the extended defects in them. Our goal was to define the distribution of these defects throughout the entire ingot and their effects on detectors’ performance as revealed by the pulse-height spectrum. We found the highest- and the lowest- concentration of Te inclusions, respectively, in the head and middle part of the ingot, which could serve as guidance in selecting samples. Crystals with high concentration of Te inclusions showed high leakage current and poor performance, because the accumulated charge loss around trapping centers associated with Te inclusions distorts the internal electric field, affects the carrier transport properties inside the crystal, and finally degrades the detector’s performance. In addition, other extended defects revealed by the WBXDT measurements severely reduced the detector’s performance, since they trap large numbers of electrons, leading to a low signal for the pulse-height spectrum, or none whatsoever. Finally, we fully correlated the detector’s performance with our information on the extended defects gained from both the IR- and the WBXDT-measurements.

  14. Enhanced root production in Haplopappus gracilis grown under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  15. Very high efficiency triple junction solar cells grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, M.; Aiken, D.; Cho, B.; Cornfeld, A.; Diaz, J.; Ley, V.; Korostyshevsky, A.; Patel, P.; Sharps, P.; Varghese, T.

    2008-11-01

    The GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple junction (3J) space cell technology is nearing practical achievable conversion efficiency limits of ˜30% under 1-sun AM0 illumination. We present solar cell device-modeling results that indicate the GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs architecture with optimal bandgap energies will produce an additional 4% output power relative to the present GaInP/GaInAs/Ge 3J space cell technology. We have grown the GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs 3J cell on GaAs substrates in an inverted fashion incorporating a 1.0 eV metamorphic GaInAs cell, using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in a production scale reactor. Nearly strain-free growth of the metamorphic GaInAs cell was verified by high-resolution X-ray reciprocal space mapping. From cathodoluminescence (CL) data, the 1.0 eV metamorphic GaInAs cell threading dislocation density (TDD) is estimated to be 5×10 6 cm -2. With this level of TDDs we are able to produce a 3J IMM cells with a one-sun AM0 efficiency of 32%. In addition, external quantum efficiency (EQE) data suggests that improvements in current matching of the subcells will result in an AM0 efficiency of 33%.

  16. Carbon Nanotubes Grown By CVD in Various Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, S.; Su, C.; Cochrane, J. C.; Lehoczky. S. L.; Muntele, I.; Ila, D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the superior properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) could be used in numerous devices such as electronics and sensors, many efforts have been engaged in synthesizing particular structural or dimensional MWCNT. This presentation will illustrate MWCNT synthesized on silicon substrates by thermal CVD. On the substrate, an array of catalysts is coated using sputtering deposition. A thin Ti buffer layer is also coated on some Si substrates prior to depositing catalyst particles. Nickel, cobalt or iron transition metals are used as catalysts for the MWCNT growth. Since the diameter of MWCNT depends on the size of catalyst particles, the catalyst particle size is investigated after annealed at various temperatures. MWCNT are grown on the substrate in the temperature range of 700 to 1000 C and the pressure range of 100 torr to one atmosphere. Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 10% to 100% are used for the MWCNT synthesis. Morphology, length and diameter of these MWCNT are determined by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The detailed results of syntheses and characterizations will be discussed in the presentation.

  17. Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Wallis, D. J.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    The use of III-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is now widespread in applications such as indicator lamps, display panels, backlighting for liquid-crystal display TVs and computer screens, traffic lights, etc. To meet the huge market demand and lower the manufacturing cost, the LED industry is moving fast from 2 inch to 4 inch and recently to 6 inch wafer sizes. Although Al2O3 (sapphire) and SiC remain the dominant substrate materials for the epitaxy of nitride LEDs, the use of large Si substrates attracts great interest because Si wafers are readily available in large diameters at low cost. In addition, such wafers are compatible with existing processing lines for 6 inch and larger wafers commonly used in the electronics industry. During the last decade, much exciting progress has been achieved in improving the performance of GaN-on-Si devices. In this contribution, the status and prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si substrates are reviewed. The issues involved in the growth of GaN-based LED structures on Si and possible solutions are outlined, together with a brief introduction to some novel in situ and ex situ monitoring/characterization tools, which are especially useful for the growth of GaN-on-Si structures.

  18. thin films grown with additional NaF layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gee Yeong; Kim, Juran; Jo, William; Son, Dae-Ho; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-10-01

    CZTS precursors [SLG/Mo (300 nm)/ZnS (460 nm)/SnS (480 nm)/Cu (240 nm)] were deposited by RF/DC sputtering, and then NaF layers (0, 15, and 30 nm) were grown by electron beam evaporation. The precursors were annealed in a furnace with Se metals at 590°C for 20 minutes. The final composition of the CZTSSe thin-films was of Cu/(Zn + Sn) ~ 0.88 and Zn/Sn ~ 1.05, with a metal S/Se ratio estimated at ~0.05. The CZTSSe thin-films have different NaF layer thicknesses in the range from 0 to 30 nm, achieving a ~3% conversion efficiency, and the CZTSSe thin-films contain ~3% of Na. Kelvin probe force microscopy was used to identify the local potential difference that varied according to the thickness of the NaF layer on the CZTSSe thin-films. The potential values at the grain boundaries were observed to increase as the NaF thickness increased. Moreover, the ratio of the positively charged GBs in the CZTSSe thin-films with an NaF layer was higher than that of pure CZTSSe thin-films. A positively charged potential was observed around the grain boundaries of the CZTSSe thin-films, which is a beneficial characteristic that can improve the performance of a device.

  19. Antibacterial and antitumour activities of some plants grown in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Usta, Canan; Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2014-01-01

    Screening of antibacterial and antitumour activities of 33 different extracts prepared with three types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) was conducted. The extracts were obtained from 11 different plant species grown in Turkey: Eryngium campestre L., Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm., Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Coronilla varia L., Onobrychis oxyodonta Boiss., Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb., Asarum europaeum L., Rhinanthus angustifolius C. C. Gmelin, Doronicum orientale Hoffm., Campanula glomerata L. and Campanula olympica Boiss. Antibacterial activity against six bacteria was evaluated: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by using disc diffusion and well diffusion methods. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were most sensitive to the methanolic extract from A. europaeum. S. pyogenes was vulnerable to all used extracts of D. orientale. In addition, ethanolic or methanolic extracts of E. campestre, A. mollis, D. pentaphyllum, C. varia, R. angustifolius, C. glomerata and C. olympica displayed strong antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested gram-negative bacteria. The methanolic extract from R. angustifolius showed a broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antitumour activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium-tumefaciens-induced potato disc tumour assay. Best antitumour activity was obtained with the aqueous extract from A. europaeum and methanolic extract from E. campestre (100% and 86% tumour inhibition, respectively).

  20. Origin of anomalous piezoresistive effects in VLS grown Si nanowires.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Karl; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2015-03-11

    Although the various effects of strain on silicon are subject of intensive research since the 1950s the physical background of anomalous piezoresistive effects in Si nanowires (NWs) is still under debate. Recent investigations concur in that due to the high surface-to-volume ratio extrinsic surface related effects superimpose the intrinsic piezoresistive properties of nanostructures. To clarify this interplay of piezoresistive effects and stress related surface potential modifications, we explored a particular tensile straining device (TSD) with a monolithic embedded vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown Si NW. Integrating the suspended NW in a gate all around (GAA) field effect transistor (FET) configuration with a transparent gate stack enables optical and field modulated electrical characterization under high uniaxial tensile strain applied along the ?111? Si NW growth direction. A model based on stress-induced carrier mobility change and surface charge modulation is proposed to interpret the actual piezoresistive behavior of Si NWs. By controlling the nature and density of surface states via passivation the "true" piezoresistance of the NWs is found to be comparable with that of bulk Si. This demonstrates the indispensability of application-specific NW surface conditioning and the modulation capability of Si NWs properties for sensor applications. PMID:25651106

  1. Titanium-Catalyzed Silicon Nanostructures Grown by APCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Mohammad A. U.; Smith, Brady J.; Jackson, Justin B.; De Long, Matthew C.; Miller, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on growth of Ti-catalyzed silicon nanostructures (SNCs) through atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition. An extensive growth study relating the growth condition parameters, including the partial pressure of SiCl4 gas, reaction temperature, and reaction time, was carried out to obtain insight into the growth regimes for the observed SNCs. Based on phase diagram analysis of Ti-Si alloy and growth rate analysis of the silicon nanowires (SNWs) and silicon nanoplatelets, we believe the growth mechanism to be strongly dependent on the thermodynamics of the system, exhibiting a delicate balance that can easily tip between the growth and etching regimes of the system. Three types of SNCs were observed frequently throughout the study: nanowires, nanoplatelets, and balls. Regimes for highly etched growth were also noted through growth conditions plots. Ti-catalyzed SNWs grown using SiCl4 gas strongly suggest growth occurring through a type of vapor-solid-solid (VSS) mechanism that is limited by diffusion through the solid-catalyst interface. On the other hand, the two-dimensional SNP morphologies suggest growth occurring through the twin-plane mechanism at the edges, at 10 nm to 100 nm scales, also through a similar, VSS mechanism.

  2. N-rich fluid inclusions in octahedrally-grown diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Evan M.; Kopylova, Maya G.; Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Afanasiev, Valentin P.

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen is generally considered a trace component in the Earth's mantle. Mantle volatiles sampled from mid-ocean ridge basalts or preserved as fluid inclusions in xenoliths are dominated by CO2, with only traces of nitrogen. Here we describe CO2-N2 fluid inclusions with 40 mol% N2 and silicate melt inclusions with ?0.1 wt% dissolved N2 in mantle-derived diamonds from 3 different cratons. The diamonds are octahedrally-grown, which is the most common growth habit and rarely reported to contain fluid inclusions. The inclusions have C/N ratios <1, more than two orders of magnitude below typical mantle values. We propose that nitrogen can become concentrated to high degrees by processes related to diamond growth. A growing diamond does not readily consume the nitrogen available, suggesting incompatible behaviour. Residual N2 from this process represents a concentrated nitrogen flux escaping the convecting mantle. Hidden nitrogen fluxes like this might be significant in counteracting the large apparent net influx by subduction. Based on nitrogen and carbon speciation in the inclusions, we propose that redox processes control the liberation of nitrogen from the convecting mantle, by the oxidation of NH+4 in silicates to mobile N2, concurrent with a parallel oxidation process releasing carbonate melt from the asthenosphere. Isotopic fractionation accompanying changes in nitrogen speciation could help account for the apparent isotopic mismatch between surficial and mantle nitrogen.

  3. Branched Ta nanocolumns grown by glancing angle deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, C.M.; Gall, D.

    2006-05-15

    Periodic arrays of Ta nanocolumns, 200 nm wide and 600 nm tall, were grown by glancing angle sputter deposition onto self-assembled close-packed arrays of 260-nm-diameter silica spheres. Each sphere leads to the development of a single Ta column. As growth progresses, roughening of the column top surfaces causes branching of some columns into subcolumns. The measured fraction of branched columns f{sub b} decreases with increasing growth temperature, from 30% at 200 deg. C to 4% at 700 deg. C. This is attributed to the increased adatom mobility at elevated temperatures, leading to a larger average separation of growth mounds and, in turn, lower nucleation probabilities for subcolumns. Branching into 3 and 4 subcolumns exhibits probabilities proportional to f{sub b}{sup 2} and f{sub b}{sup 3}, respectively. A fit of the data with a simple nucleation model provides an effective activation energy for Ta surface diffusion of 2.0 eV.

  4. Photocatalytic properties of porous titania grown by oblique angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, M. J.; Williams, B.; Condon, G. Y.; Borja, J.; Lu, T. M.; Gill, W. N.; Plawsky, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    High surface area nanorods of titanium dioxide were grown by oblique angle deposition on a transparent substrate to investigate their effectiveness as photocatalytic agents for the destruction of organic contaminants in air and water. Optical transmission measurements were made that allowed for an estimation of the porosity of the film (75%-78%). Comparing transmission measurements with those from a dense anatase film showed that the penetration depth for the light into the nanorod film was 2.5 times that in a dense, anatase film. The photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine dye on the porous films was shown to depend on film thickness and annealing conditions. The effectiveness of the film was assessed by observing the change in absorbance of the dye at 610 nm over time and quantifying the film performance using a pseudo-first-order reaction rate model. Reaction rates increased as the film thickness increased from 600 nm to 1000 nm, but leveled out or decreased at thicknesses beyond 1500 nm. A transport/reaction model was used to show that there exists an optimal geometry that maximizes the overall reaction rate and that such a geometry can be simply produced using glancing angle deposition. The nanorod films were benchmarked against nanoparticle films and were shown to perform as well as 0.73 g/L of 25-nm-diameter anatase nanoparticles with surface area of 50 m2/g.

  5. Factors affecting radionuclide availability to vegetables grown at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.; Hakonson, T.E.; Ahlquist, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    A field study was conducted in 1977 on /sup 238/ /sup 239/Pu and /sup 137/Cs availability to zucchini squash (Curcurbita melopepo, hybrid seneca) and green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, Landreths stringless) grown under home-garden conditions in an area at Los Alamos National Laboratory used for treated radioactive liquid waste disposal. Radionuclide concentrations were measured as a function of tissue type, height above the soil, fertilization regime, and for the squash, food-cleansing procedures. Analysis of variance procedures was used to analyze the data. Ratios of the concentration of a radionuclide in oven-dried vegetation to dry soil ranged from 0.0004 to 0.116 for the Pu isotopes, and from 0.051 to 0.255 for /sup 137/Cs. Fertilization with cattle manure reduced the Pu concentration ratios by 30% and /sup 137/Cs by 50%. Vegetative parts sampled within 20 cm of the ground surface were contaminated about four times as much as those parts growing further from the ground surface. About 65% of the contamination was removed by washing, indicating the presence of surficial contamination. The 50-year radiation dose commitment to humans consuming vegetables from the garden plot would be less than 0.05 mrem and would be due almost entirely to /sup 137/Cs.

  6. Strain measurements in thermally grown alumina scales using ruby fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Veal, B.W.; Natesan, K.; Koshelev, I.; Grimsditch, M.; Renusch, D. Hou, P.Y.

    1996-12-31

    We have measured strains in alumina scales thermally grown on Fe-Cr- Al alloys by exploiting the strain dependence of the ruby luminescence line. Measurements were done on Fe-5Cr-28Al and Fe-18Cr-10Al (at.%, bal. Fe) oxidized between 300-1300 C with periodic cycling to room temperature. Significantly different levels of strain buildup were observed in scales on these alloys. Results on similar alloys containing a dilute reactive element (Zr or Hf) are also presented. We observe that scales on alloys containing a reactive element (RE) can support higher strains than scales on RE-free alloys. With the luminescence technique, strain relief associated with spallation thresholds is readily observed. In early stage oxidation, the evolution of transition phases is monitored using Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies. The fluorescence technique also provides a sensitive probe of early stage formation of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It appears that, in presence of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the {alpha}-alumina phase can form at anomalously low temperatures.

  7. Sun Oven Grown Cuprates Superconductivity and Periodic Lattice Distortions PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acrivos, Juana V.; Chidvinadze, J. G.; Gulanova, D. D.; Loy, D.

    2011-03-01

    Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O4 + 2 n + ? identified by the layer heavy element composition with substitution, s (2 s :2:n-1:n > 2) cuprates grown by green chemistry, transition temperatures to superconductivity Tc = 87 to 150K are related to their structure. Enhanced XRD at energies near but below the Cu K, and Pb and Bi L3-edges for pure n=2, 3 phases show Darwin shaped preferred [HKL] reflections that identify the magnitude of the allowed transition moment from the core state to extended unoccupied states determined by the electron density symmetry in that plane, confirmed by XAS of 3 ? m thick films. Weak PLD are still detected, but the stability gained by substitution of Bi by Pb is the formation of nearly symmetric Pb8 cubes in (2s : 2 : 1 : 2)13 and (2s < formula > < ? TeX super-lattices. The preferred 2D [HKL] reflection planes play the same role in the chemical activity of 3D solids as the linear bonds do in molecular reactions, governed by scattering dependent on the electron density symmetry in their highest and lowest unoccupied states. Supported by US NSF, Dreyfus, DOE Laboratories SSRL-SLAC, STUC-Ukraine and Georgia NSF.

  8. Tensile stress and creep in thermally grown oxide.

    PubMed

    Veal, Boyd W; Paulikas, Arvydas P; Hou, Peggy Y

    2006-05-01

    Structural components that operate at high temperatures (for example, turbine blades) rely on thermally grown oxide (TGO), commonly alumina, for corrosion protection. Strains that develop in TGOs during operation can reduce the protectiveness of the TGO. However, the occurrence of growth strains in TGOs, and mechanisms that cause them, are poorly understood. It is accepted that compressive strains can develop as oxygen and metal atoms meet to form new growth within constrained oxide. More controversial is the experimental finding that large tensile stresses, close to 1 GPa, develop during isothermal growth conditions in alumina TGO formed on a FeCrAlY alloy. Using a novel technique based on synchrotron radiation, we have confirmed these previous results, and show that the tensile strain develops as the early oxide, (Fe,Cr,Al)(2)O(3), converts to alpha-Al2O3 during the growth process. This allows us to model the strain behaviour by including creep and this diffusion-controlled phase change. PMID:16604078

  9. Origin of Anomalous Piezoresistive Effects in VLS Grown Si Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although the various effects of strain on silicon are subject of intensive research since the 1950s the physical background of anomalous piezoresistive effects in Si nanowires (NWs) is still under debate. Recent investigations concur in that due to the high surface-to-volume ratio extrinsic surface related effects superimpose the intrinsic piezoresistive properties of nanostructures. To clarify this interplay of piezoresistive effects and stress related surface potential modifications, we explored a particular tensile straining device (TSD) with a monolithic embedded vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) grown Si NW. Integrating the suspended NW in a gate all around (GAA) field effect transistor (FET) configuration with a transparent gate stack enables optical and field modulated electrical characterization under high uniaxial tensile strain applied along the ?111? Si NW growth direction. A model based on stress-induced carrier mobility change and surface charge modulation is proposed to interpret the actual piezoresistive behavior of Si NWs. By controlling the nature and density of surface states via passivation the “true” piezoresistance of the NWs is found to be comparable with that of bulk Si. This demonstrates the indispensability of application-specific NW surface conditioning and the modulation capability of Si NWs properties for sensor applications. PMID:25651106

  10. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated. PMID:26193291

  11. Arsenic shoot-grain relationships in field grown rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gareth J; Islam, M Rafiqul; Duan, Guilan; Lei, Ming; Zhu, Yongguan; Deacon, Claire M; Moran, Annette C; Islam, Shofiqul; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Stroud, Jacqueline L; McGrath, Steve P; Feldmann, Joerg; Price, Adam H; Meharg, Andrew A

    2010-02-15

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grains is a risk to human health. The mechanism of transfer of As from the shoot into the grain during grain filling is unknown at present. In this study As speciation in the shoot and grains at maturity were examined, and the relationships between phosphorus (P) and As, and silicon (Si) and As were established in a wide range of cultivars grown in As contaminated field trials in Bangladesh and China. No correlations were observed between shoot and grain speciation, with the inorganic form comprising 93.0-97.0% of As in the shoot and 63.0-83.7% in the grains. The percentage of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was between 1.4 and 6.6% in the shoot and 14.6 and 37.0% in the grains; however, the concentrations were comparable, ranging from 0.07 to 0.26 mg kg(-1) in the shoots and 0.03 to 0.25 mg kg(-1) in the grains. A positive correlation was observed between shoot As and shoot Si, however, no correlation was observed between shoot Si and grain As. A significant negative correlation was observed between shoot P and grain As concentrations. These results suggest that the translocation of As into the grain from the shoots is potentially using P rather than Si transport mechanisms. The findings also indicate that inorganic As and DMA translocation to the grain differ considerably. PMID:20088579

  12. Structure property relationships of carbonaceous films grown under ion enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmantel, C.; Ackermann, E.; Bewilogua, K.; Hecht, G.; Kupfer, H.; Rau, B.

    1986-11-01

    Based on our own results and in comparison with data published by other groups the structure property relationships of carbon and carbon/metal films prepared by sputtering and deposition of partially ionized species are discussed. Films grown by ion beam sputtering are dark brownish and amorphous with a small fraction of microcrystals. However, a transition to transparent and insulating layers can be effected by ion bombardment. C/Me coatings, where Me stands for Ti or Sn, were obtained by magnetron sputtering of composite targets. The films proved to be amorphous up to metal concentrations of more than 10 at. %, but metal and carbide crystals grow upon annealing. Measurements of the hardness, the electrical conductivity, and the contact behavior in dependence on the composition provided interesting information. For carbon films prepared by deposition of partially ionized benzene species it has been found that the properties depend characteristically on the ion energy; typical ''diamondlike'' i-C films are obtained by applying a bias voltage from 1--3 keV. The thermal stability of the amorphous coatings is discussed in conjunction with their electrical conductivity. Summarizing extensive structure investigations, a structure model based on tetrahedrally interlinked carbon rings is proposed. Composites of the type i-C/Me (Me: Al, Ti, Cr), which were prepared by simultaneous metal evaporation, exhibit a wide range of structure property relations.

  13. 7390 Biochemistry 1992, 31, 739&7397 Thylakoids from Pea Seedlings Grown under Intermittent Light: Biochemical and

    E-print Network

    Junge, Wolfgang

    7390 Biochemistry 1992, 31, 739&7397 Thylakoids from Pea Seedlings Grown under Intermittent Light: Thylakoid membranes were isolated from pea seedlings grown under intermittent light (2-min light/ 118

  14. Fatty Acid Composition of Cladosporium resinae Grown on Glucose and on Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, J. J.; Proby, C. M.

    1971-01-01

    Cladosporium resinae was grown in submerged cultures on glucose; on Jet-A commercial aviation fuel; and on a series of n-alkanes, n-decane through n-tetradecane. Cell yield was greatest on glucose and least on Jet-A; n-alkanes were intermediate. Among n-alkanes cell yield decreased as chain length increased, except for n-dodecane, which supported less growth than n-tridecane or n-tetradecane. The total fatty acids of stationary-phase cells were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. In all cases the predominant fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1, and 18:2. The fatty acid composition of glucose-grown cells was similar to that of hydrocarbon-grown cells. Cells grown on n-tridecane or n-tetradecane yielded small amounts of acids homologous to the carbon source, but a similar correlation was not noted for n-decane, n-undecane, or n-dodecane. Cells grown on n-undecane or n-tridecane contained more odd-carbon fatty acids than cells grown on the other substrates, and the effect was more pronounced in n-tridecane-grown cells. Thus, the fatty acids of this organism are derived chiefly from de novo synthesis rather than from direct incorporation of oxidized hydrocarbons. The extent of direct incorporation increases as the chain length of the hydrocarbon growth substrate is increased. PMID:5166858

  15. Optical, structural, thermal and dielectric spectroscopy characterizations of seeded melt grown 2-hydroxy biphenyl single crystal.

    PubMed

    Sadhasivam, S; Rajesh, Narayana Perumal

    2014-09-15

    Organic single crystal of 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HB) was grown by top seeded melt growth method. Scanning electron microscopy studies has been carried out on the surface of the grown crystals to investigate the nature of growth and defects. The crystalline perfection and lattice parameters of 2-HB has been determined by single crystal XRD analysis and it belongs to orthorhombic crystal system with space group Fdd2. The functional groups and molecular associations were confirmed by FT-IR. The optical characteristics such as cut-off and transmittance were carried out using UV-Vis-NIR spectra. Absence of absorption in the region between 320 and 1100 nm makes the grown crystal desirable to optical applications. Thermal stability of grown crystals was characterized by thermogravimetric (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses. Broadband dielectric studies reveals that dielectric constant of grown crystal is low. The resistivity of grown crystal was studied by impedance analysis. The second harmonic generation intensity of 3.8 mJ was studied. The grown crystal belongs to soft material studied by hardness test. PMID:24792201

  16. Morphology of Arabidopsis Grown under Chronic Centrifugation and on the Clinostat 123

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Allan H.; Dahl, A. Orville; Chapman, David K.

    1976-01-01

    Morphological measurements were made on populations of Arabidopsis thaliana grown from seed for 21 days under essentially constant environmental conditions except for the influence of gravitational or centrifugal accelerations. Growth conditions were what had been proposed for experiments in an artificial satellite. Observations are reported for plants grown at normal 1-g upright or on horizontal clinostats and for plants grown on a centrifuge. Increased g-force, up to 15 times normal, was found to have significant but small effects on some morphological end points. The plants' sensitivity to the magnitude of the g-force was much less than to its vector direction. Data from centrifuge experiments (which determined the g-functions for particular characters) were extrapolated to zero-g to predict a set of morphological characteristics of a plant developing in the satellite environment. As an alternative means of predicting properties of a zero-g plant, characteristics of plants grown on horizontal clinostats were measured. The results of these two predictive methods were not in agreement. Clinostat grown plants were morphologically distinct from upright stationary controls. When plants were grown while rotating in the upright position on vertical clinostats they were similar to stationary plants also grown upright, but there were small differences some of which were statistically significant. PMID:16659483

  17. Multiband spectral emitters matched to MBE grown photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Eva M.; Hickey, Jeffrey P.; Holmquist, Glenn A.; Uppal, Parvez N.; Waldman, Cye H.

    1996-02-01

    Clearly TPV devices are of considerable interest for power generation. For practical devices it is desirable to have high efficiencies combined with low temperature operation. Photovoltaic cells which can convert the energy at the longer wavelengths of interest are needed to complete such a system. The spectral emission peak of Yb2O3 is well matched to the band gap of Si; however, the longer wavelength, spectral emissions of other rare earth oxides can also be exploited through the use of III-V semiconductor compounds such as GaSb or alloys of GaInAsSb. By doping GaSb with InAs, the band gap of the resulting material can be effectively varied depending upon the concentration of InAs in the quaternary alloy. The ability to tailor the emitter materials and, in conjunction, the photovoltaic materials leads to greater efficiencies through spectral matching. Two binary rare earth oxide combinations, Er2O3/Ho2O3 and Er2O3/Yb2O3, were studied. The mixtures were found to give multiple peak spectral emission in the wavelengths of interest. The intensity of the peaks were compositionally dependent though it did not vary in a linear fashion. Photon efficiencies of the molecular beam epitaxially (MBE) grown GaSb cell and GaInAsSb quaternary cell were measured when used in conjunction with the Er2O3/Ho2O3 emitters in which the concentration of Er2O3 and Ho2O3 were varied. The results demonstrated promise for further work.

  18. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Photoautotrophically Grown Tobacco Callus Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Berlyn, Mary B.; Zelitch, Israel; Beaudette, Pamela D.

    1978-01-01

    Haploid callus cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were grown photoautotrophically on a solid agar medium in the absence of sucrose in Petri plates in an atmosphere of 1% or 3% CO2 in air. The averages of dry weight increases for four to five consecutive passages were 2.3- to 3.6-fold per 3-week passage for different subclones. Photosynthetic 14CO2 assimilation was maximum at about 1% CO2 with half-maximal rates obtained at 0.2% CO2. At saturating CO2 concentration the average rate of CO2 fixation was about 5 ?mole per gram fresh weight per hour or about 125 ?mole per mg of chlorophyll per hour. The existence of an active photorespiratory system in these tissues was established in a number of independent ways. The photosynthetic rate in 0.18% CO2 was inhibited 38 to 50% in 100% O2 compared with 21% O2. Glycolate accumulated at a constant rate in the presence of 5 mm ?-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonic acid for 20 minutes in light. This rate was rapid relative to the photosynthetic rate. Glycolate synthesis was three times faster in autotrophic than in heterotrophic cells. [1-14C]Glycolate was rapidly metabolized and the products included 14CO2, [14C]glycine, and [14C]serine, thus demonstrating an active glycolate pathway. Photorespiration was demonstrated directly by measurement of an O2-dependent release of 14CO2 in the light from callus that fixed 14CO2 for about 22 hours. Autotrophic growth in 60% O2 and 0.03% CO2 was slowed and ceased entirely after two or three passages, while heterotrophic growth was unaffected by 60% O2 in the atmosphere. The method of growing autotrophic callus which has an active photorespiratory system should facilitate the selection and analysis of photosynthetic mutants in which photorespiration is regulated. PMID:16660346

  19. Antioxidant activities of New Zealand-grown tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Toor, R K; Lister, C E; Savage, G P

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant activities, total phenolics, lycopene and ascorbic acid content of four commercial tomato cultivars (Excell, Tradiro, Flavourine and Campari) of New Zealand, grown under similar hydroponic conditions. The mean antioxidant activity of the four cultivars, as measured with the ABTS radical decolourization assay, ranged from 2329 to 3268 micromole TEAC/100 g dry matter (DM) in the hydrophilic extracts and from 178 to 303 micromole TEAC/100 g DM in the lipophilic extracts. The major antioxidant components per 100 g DM were phenolics (343-451 mg gallic acid equivalents in hydrophilic extract and 53-74 mg gallic acid equivalents in lipophilic extract), flavonoids (175-204 mg rutin equivalents), ascorbic acid (153-195 mg) and lycopene (33-54 mg). Ascorbic acid and flavonoids were found to contribute 28-38% and 29-34%, respectively, to the antioxidant activity of the hydrophilic extract of tomatoes. The results showed that the smallest cultivar (Campari) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher antioxidant activities, total phenolics and flavonoids than the larger sized cultivars (Excell, Tradiro and Flavourine). This could be attributed to the significantly (P < 0.05) higher surface area/volume ratio of the small cultivar (0.15) when compared with the large-sized cultivars (0.10-0.12). The tomato cultivar (Flavourine) with a brighter red colour (higher a*/b* value), had a higher lycopene content as well, which suggests that the a*/b* value of tomatoes can be used as an indicator of their lycopene content. The phenolics (r = 0.84**) and flavonoids (r = 0.88**) were significantly related to the antioxidant activity of the hydrophilic extract, which suggests that measurement of total phenolics or flavonoids can be used as indicators of the antioxidant activity of tomatoes. PMID:16638664

  20. Involvement of adenosine and standardization of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on cardioprotective and cardiodepressant properties in ischemic preconditioning and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Munajjam, Arshee; Vaishnav, Bhawna; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Ashok; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Akash; Sharma, Divya; Kumari, Rita; Tiwari, Ashish; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh; Srinivasan, Barthu Parthi; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) aqueous extracts on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury, as well as adenosine involvement in ischemic preconditioning and garlic extract induced cardioprotection. A model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established using Langendorff apparatus. Aqueous extract of garlic dose was standardized (0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, 0.07%, 0.05%, 0.03%, 0.01%), and the 0.05% dose was found to be the most effective. Higher doses (more than 0.05%) were highly toxic, causing arrhythmia and cardiodepression, whereas the lower doses were ineffective. Garlic exaggerated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning and garlic cardioprotection was significantly attenuated by theophylline (1,000 µmol/L) and 8-SPT (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and expressed by increased myocardial infarct size, increased LDH level, and reduced nitrite and adenosine levels. These findings suggest that adenosine is involved in the pharmacological and molecular mechanism of garlic induced cardioprotection and mediated by the modulation of nitric oxide. PMID:23554727

  1. Structure of droplet-epitaxy-grown InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Eyal; Yochelis, Shira; Westreich, Ohad; Shusterman, Sergey; Kumah, Divine P.; Clarke, Roy; Yacoby, Yizhak; Paltiel, Yossi

    2011-06-01

    We have used a direct x-ray phasing method, coherent Bragg rod analysis, to obtain sub-angstrom resolution electron density maps of the InAs/GaAs dot system. The dots were grown by the droplet heteroepitaxy (DHE) technique and their structural and compositional properties are compared with those of dots grown by the strain-driven Stranski-Krastanov method. Our results show that the Ga diffusion into the DHE-grown dots is somewhat larger; however, other characteristics such as the composition of the dots' uppermost layers, the interlayer spacing, and the bowing of the atomic layers are similar.

  2. On the nature of large-scale defect accumulations in Czochralski-grown silicon

    E-print Network

    Kalinushkin, V P; Yuryev, V A; Astafiev, O V; Murin, D I

    2011-01-01

    Czochralski-grown boron-doped silicon crystals were studied by the techniques of the low-angle mid-IR-light scattering and electron-beam-induced current. The large-scale accumulations of electrically-active impurities detected in this material were found to be different in their nature and formation mechanisms from the well-known impurity clouds in a float zone-grown silicon. A classifcation of the large-scale impurity accumulations in CZ Si:B is made and point centers constituting them are analyzed in this paper. A model of the large-scale impurity accumulations in CZ-grown Si:B is also proposed.

  3. On the nature of large-scale defect accumulations in Czochralski-grown silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinushkin, V.P.; Buzynin, A.N.; Murin, D.I.

    1996-12-01

    Czochralski-grown boron-doped silicon crystals were studied by the techniques of the low-angle mid-IR-light scattering and electron-beam-induced current. The large-scale accumulations of electrically-active impurities detected in this material were found to be different in their nature and formation mechanisms from the well-known impurity clouds in a float zone-grown silicon. A classification of the large-scale impurity accumulations in CZ Si:B is made and point centers constituting them are analyzed in this paper. A model of the large-scale impurity accumulations in CZ-grown Si:B is also proposed.

  4. Systemic Insecticides for Control of Black Vine Weevil, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Container- and Field-Grown Nursery Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black vine weevils (BVW) are serious pests of container- and field-grown nursery crops. Management programs usually target the larval stage in container-grown plants and the adults in field-grown plants. The number of effective control materials is limited and development of additional control opt...

  5. Ultrafast Differential Sample and Hold using Low Temperature grown GaAs MSM for Photonic A/D

    E-print Network

    Miller, David A. B.

    Ultrafast Differential Sample and Hold using Low Temperature grown GaAs MSM for Photonic A an ultrafast sample and hold circuit using optically triggered metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) switches made utilizing LT grown GaAs MSM switches. The short recombination lifetime and high mobility of LT grown Ga

  6. Effect of Mulch Surface Color on Root-knot of Tomato Grown in Simulated Planting Beds1

    E-print Network

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    mulches on quantity and spectra of reflected light, plant morphology, and root-knot disease was studied%), and leaf area (20%) than plants grown over black mulch. Plants grown over red mulch received a higher far films and plants grown in controlled environment R and FR light experiments suggest phytochrome involve

  7. 76 FR 27919 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment and Interest Requirements on Past Due...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia... delinquent assessment requirements in effect under the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered...

  8. 76 FR 27919 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment and Interest Requirements on Past Due...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...AMS-FV-11-0016; FV11-955-1 PR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment...under the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is...

  9. 76 FR 37618 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment and Interest Requirements on Past Due...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...AMS-FV-11-0016; FV11-955-1 FR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment...under the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is...

  10. What Will I Like Best When I'm All Grown Up? Preschoolers' Understanding of Future Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bélanger, Michèle J.; Atance, Cristina M.; Varghese, Anisha L.; Nguyen, Victoria; Vendetti, Corrie

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments investigated 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds' (N = 240) understanding that their future or "grown-up" preferences may differ from their current ones (self-future condition). This understanding was compared to children's understanding of the preferences of a grown-up (adult-now condition) or the grown-up preferences of…

  11. 78 FR 28182 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Et al.; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Et al... collection for Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and...: jeffrey.smutny@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New...

  12. Defect luminescence in oxides nanocrystals grown by laser assisted techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, J.; Soares, M. R. N.; Santos, N. F.; Holz, T.; Ben Sedrine, N.; Nico, C.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Neves, A. J.; Costa, F. M.; Monteiro, T.

    2015-06-01

    Wide band gap oxides, such as ZnO, SnO2 and ZrO2, are functional materials with a wide range of applications in several important technological areas such as those including lighting, transparent electronics, sensors, catalysis and biolabeling. Recently, doping and co-doping of oxides with lanthanides have attracted a strong interest for lighting purposes, especially among them nanophosphors for bioassays. Tailoring the crystalline materials physical properties for such applications often requires a well-controlled incorporation of dopants in the material lattice and a comprehensive understanding of their role in the oxides matrices. These undoped or intentionally doped oxides have band gap energies exceeding 3.3 eV at room temperature and are known to exhibit optically active centers that span from the ultraviolet to the near infrared region. Typically, by using photon energy excitation above the materials band gap, high quality undoped materials display narrow emission lines near the band edge due to free and bound-exciton recombination, as well as shallow donor-acceptor recombination pairs. Additionally, broad emission bands are often observed in these wide band gap hosts, hampering some of the desired physical properties for further applications. Recognizing and understanding the role of the dopant-related defects when deliberately introduced in the oxide hosts, as well as their influence on the samples luminescence properties, constitutes a matter of exploitation by the scientific community worldwide. In this work, we investigate the luminescence properties of undoped and lanthanide doped oxide materials grown by laser assisted techniques. Laser assisted flow deposition (LAFD) and pulse laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) were used for the growth of ZnO, SnO2 and yttria stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) micro and nanocrystals with different morphologies, respectively. Regarding the YSZ host, trivalent lanthanide ions were optically activated by in-situ doping and co-doping. The influence of the defect energy states on the optical properties of the different undoped and doped metal oxide hosts is investigated under ultraviolet and infrared excitation by means of photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation.

  13. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions. The collected information will then be correlated to each phase of the growth of the lettuces and to the results for the corresponding growth parameters. This will enable characterization of the microbial communities in the rhizosphere and the understanding of how these populations influence each phase of the plant growth. Conclusions are proposed for further investigations.

  14. Origami-inspired nanofabrication utilizing physical and magnetic properties of in situ grown carbon nanotubes

    E-print Network

    In, Hyun Jin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in particular the vertically-aligned variety grown through a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)-based process, are highly versatile nanostructures that can be used in a variety of ...

  15. 75 FR 34950 - Walnuts Grown in California; Changes to the Quality Regulations for Shelled Walnuts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...AMS-FV-09-0036; FV09-984-4 PR] Walnuts Grown in California; Changes to the Quality Regulations for Shelled Walnuts AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...the quality regulations for shelled walnuts under the Federal marketing order...

  16. 75 FR 51926 - Walnuts Grown in California; Changes to the Quality Regulations for Shelled Walnuts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...AMS-FV-09-0036; FV09-984-4 FR] Walnuts Grown in California; Changes to the Quality Regulations for Shelled Walnuts AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...the quality regulations for shelled walnuts under the Federal marketing order...

  17. Entrapment of Bacteria in Fluid Inclusions in Laboratory-Grown Halite

    E-print Network

    Adamski, J.C.; Roberts, Jennifer A.; Goldstein, Robert H.

    2006-08-17

    Cells of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which were genetically modified to produce green fluorescent protein, were entrapped in fluid inclusions in laboratory-grown halite. The bacteria were used to inoculate NaCl-saturated aqueous solutions...

  18. A comparison of the bromination dynamics of pitch-based and vapor-grown graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The electrical resistance of pitch based P-100 fibers and experimental organic vapor grown fibers was recorded in-situ during bromination and subsequent exposure to ambient laboratory air. The results indicate that the bromination and debromination reactions proceed much slower for vapor grown fibers than for pitch based. While this may be due in part to the larger diameter of the vapor grown fibers, the majority of the effect can probably be attributed to the differences in graphene plane orientation between the fiber types. Although the reactions are slower in the vapor grown than in the pitch based fibers, the extent of reaction as measured by the change in electrical resistance is essentially the same, with comparable (or larger) decreases in resistivity. The bromination reaction proceeds with one or more plateaus in the resistance versus time curves, which suggests staging and strengthens the argument that these fibers produce true intercalation compounds.

  19. Plastic Relaxation In Single In?Ga?â???N/GaN Epilayers Grown On Sapphire

    E-print Network

    Song, T.L.

    Plastic relaxation was observed in In?Ga?â???N/GaN epilayers grown on c-plane sapphire substrates. The relaxation obeys the universal hyperbolic relation between the strain and the reciprocal of the layer ...

  20. Threshold of stimulated emission in GaN layers grown by various techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkus, Simonas; Miasojedovas, Saulius; Jurš?nas, Saulius

    2014-10-01

    Room-temperature luminescence properties of dense electron-hole plasma were studied in GaN epilayers grown by various techniques (by LUMILOG grown on sapphire substrate, by AIXTRON via a MOCVD reactor grown on SiO and by UNIPRESS by the MOCVD technique grown on sapphire). By studying emission properties of plasma in lateral “thin stripe” excitation geometry the values of the threshold of the stimulated emission were estimated. A linear decrease of the stimulated emission threshold with a decrease in the density of the dislocations in GaN layers was observed. This dependence was shown to be mainly contributed by a decrease in carrier lifetime, while the impact of variation in carrier diffusion coefficient was found to be minor. Incorporation of iron into GaN layer significantly increased the stimulated emission threshold. The role of the light-scattering losses on the values of the stimulated emission threshold was discussed.

  1. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF FIELD-GROWN CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acidic rainfall on yields of radish (Raphanus sativa), garden beet (Beta vulgaris), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under standard agronomic practices. The experimental design a...

  2. 78 FR 67977 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... bushel carton of Florida citrus handled. The Committee locally administers the Federal marketing...

  3. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHEMOSTAT-GROWN 'YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA' AND 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE' TO CHLORINE DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agents could be influenced by growth environment. The susceptibility of two enteric bacteria, Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae, to chlorine dioxide was investigated. These organisms were grown in a defined medium in a c...

  4. 76 FR 46651 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 923 Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... sweet cherry growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating...

  5. 75 FR 64681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 983 Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio producers to determine whether they favor continuance of the...

  6. 78 FR 2908 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...the assessment rate established for the Citrus Administrative Committee (Committee...0.008 per \\4/5\\ bushel carton of citrus handled. The Committee locally administers...tangelos grown in Florida. Assessments upon citrus handlers are used by the Committee...

  7. 78 FR 32068 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...tangelos grown in Florida (order). The Citrus Administrative Committee (Committee...the order. This rule requires all fresh citrus handlers to provide the Committee with...communicate fresh market issues to fresh market citrus growers. DATES: Effective Date:...

  8. 78 FR 14236 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ...tangelos grown in Florida (order). The Citrus Administrative Committee (Committee...This action would require all fresh citrus handlers to provide the Committee with...This action would require all fresh citrus handlers to provide the Committee...

  9. 78 FR 24327 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...the assessment rate established for the Citrus Administrative Committee (Committee...0.008 per \\4/5\\ bushel carton of citrus handled. The Committee locally administers...tangelos grown in Florida. Assessments upon citrus handlers are used by the Committee...

  10. SEED PROTEIN QUANTITIES OF FIELD-GROWN SOYBEANS EXPOSED TO SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of seeds harvested from field-grown soybeans demonstrated that simulated acidic rainfalls from two experimental protocols can significantly decrease total protein contents of soybeans. Statistically significant differences in protein content per seed mass were obtained i...

  11. Study of surface morphology and alignment of MWCNTs grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Shukrullah, S. E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my Mohamed, N. M. E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my Shaharun, M. S. E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Yasar, M.

    2014-10-24

    In this research work, Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized successfully by using floating catalytic chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) method. Different ferrocene amounts (0.1, 0.125 and 0.15 g) were used as catalyst and ethylene was used as a carbon precursor at reaction temperature of 800°C. Characterization of the grown MWCNTs was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained data showed that the catalyst weight affects the nanotubes diameter, alignment, crystallinity and growth significantly, whereas negligible influence was noticed on CNTs forest length. The dense, uniform and meadow like patterns of grown CNTs were observed for 0.15 g ferrocene. The average diameter of the grown CNTs was found in the range of 32 to 75 nm. Close inspection of the TEM images also confirmed the defects in some of the grown CNTs, where few black spots were evident in CNTs structure.

  12. 77 FR 72197 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...AMS-FV-12-0031; FV12-927-2 IR] Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...assessment rate established for the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) for the...

  13. 78 FR 24036 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...AMS-FV-12-0032; FV12-927-3 FR] Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...reapportions the membership of the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) established...

  14. 77 FR 21624 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...AMS-FV-11-0070 FV11-927-3 FIR] Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...assessment rate established for the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) for the...

  15. 77 FR 21623 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...AMS-FV-11-0060; FV11-927-2 FIR] Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...assessment rate established for the Fresh Pear Committee (Committee) for the...

  16. 77 FR 72245 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...AMS-FV-12-0032; FV12-927-3 PR] Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...reapportionment of the membership of the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) established...

  17. 78 FR 21521 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...AMS-FV-12-0031; FV12-927-2 FIR] Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...assessment rate established for the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) for the...

  18. 76 FR 53811 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...AMS-FV-11-0070 FV11-927-3 IR] Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...assessment rate established for the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) for the...

  19. 76 FR 33967 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 953 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0027...Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule...

  20. 76 FR 65360 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 953 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0027...Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final...