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Sample records for varying talker identity

  1. Acoustic correlates of talker sex and individual talker identity are present in a short vowel segment produced in running speech.

    PubMed

    Bachorowski, J A; Owren, M J

    1999-08-01

    Although listeners routinely perceive both the sex and individual identity of talkers from their speech, explanations of these abilities are incomplete. Here, variation in vocal production-related anatomy was assumed to affect vowel acoustics thought to be critical for indexical cueing. Integrating this approach with source-filter theory, patterns of acoustic parameters that should represent sex and identity were identified. Due to sexual dimorphism, the combination of fundamental frequency (F0, reflecting larynx size) and vocal tract length cues (VTL, reflecting body size) was predicted to provide the strongest acoustic correlates of talker sex. Acoustic measures associated with presumed variations in supralaryngeal vocal tract-related anatomy occurring within sex were expected to be prominent in individual talker identity. These predictions were supported by results of analyses of 2500 tokens of the /epsilon/ phoneme, extracted from the naturally produced speech of 125 subjects. Classification by talker sex was virtually perfect when F0 and VTL were used together, whereas talker classification depended primarily on the various acoustic parameters associated with vocal-tract filtering. PMID:10462810

  2. Learning Individual Talkers' Structural Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamide, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    Listeners are often capable of adjusting to the variability contained in individual talkers' (speakers') speech. The vast majority of findings on talker adaptation are concerned with learning the contingency between "phonological" characteristics and talker identity. In contrast, the present study investigates representations at a more abstract…

  3. Children and adults integrate talker and verb information in online processing.

    PubMed Central

    Borovsky, Arielle; Creel, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Children seem able to efficiently interpret a variety of linguistic cues during speech comprehension, yet have difficulty interpreting sources of non-linguistic and paralinguistic information that accompany speech. The current study asked whether (paralinguistic) voice-activated role knowledge is rapidly interpreted in coordination with a linguistic cue (a sentential action) during speech comprehension in an eye-tracked sentence comprehension task with children (aged 3-10) and college-aged adults. Participants were initially familiarized with two talkers who identified their respective roles (e.g. PRINCESS and PIRATE) before hearing a previously-introduced talker name an action and object (“I want to hold the sword,” in the pirate's voice). As the sentence was spoken, eye-movements were recorded to four objects that varied in relationship to the sentential talker and action (Target: SWORD, Talker-Related: SHIP, Action-Related: WAND, and Unrelated: CARRIAGE). The task was to select the named image. Even young child listeners rapidly combined inferences about talker identity with the action, allowing them to fixate on the Target before it was mentioned, although there were developmental and vocabulary differences on this task. Results suggest that children, like adults, store real-world knowledge of a talker's role and actively use this information to interpret speech. PMID:24611671

  4. On-Line Acoustic and Semantic Interpretation of Talker Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Tumlin, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work demonstrates that listeners utilize talker-specific information in the speech signal to inform real-time language processing. However, there are multiple representational levels at which this may take place. Listeners might use acoustic cues in the speech signal to access the talker's identity and information about what they tend to…

  5. Speech perception and talker segregation: Effects of level, pitch, and tactile support with multiple simultaneous talkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drullman, Rob; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.

    2004-11-01

    Speech intelligibility was investigated by varying the number of interfering talkers, level, and mean pitch differences between target and interfering speech, and the presence of tactile support. In a first experiment the speech-reception threshold (SRT) for sentences was measured for a male talker against a background of one to eight interfering male talkers or speech noise. Speech was presented diotically and vibro-tactile support was given by presenting the low-pass-filtered signal (0-200 Hz) to the index finger. The benefit in the SRT resulting from tactile support ranged from 0 to 2.4 dB and was largest for one or two interfering talkers. A second experiment focused on masking effects of one interfering talker. The interference was the target talker's own voice with an increased mean pitch by 2, 4, 8, or 12 semitones. Level differences between target and interfering speech ranged from -16 to +4 dB. Results from measurements of correctly perceived words in sentences show an intelligibility increase of up to 27% due to tactile support. Performance gradually improves with increasing pitch difference. Louder target speech generally helps perception, but results for level differences are considerably dependent on pitch differences. Differences in performance between noise and speech maskers and between speech maskers with various mean pitches are explained by the effect of informational masking. .

  6. Effects of multiple background talkers on word recognition and response awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goshorn, Edward L.; Robertson, Elizabeth K.

    2003-04-01

    Effects of background talkers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, and 14) on word recognition and awareness of errant/accurate responses were examined. Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT) words and background talkers were presented at 70 dB SPL (sound field) to ten normal-hearing subjects. DRT words and background talkers were digitally processed to produce equal VU meter levels. Three replicates were obtained for each condition. Performance measures were: (1) percent correct, corrected for guessing, transformed to rational arcsine units (PCGRAU); (2) subject's awareness of accurate responses (AA); (3) subject's awareness of errant responses (AE); and (4) a geometric-based symmetric awareness (SA). Awareness measures were derived from subject's confidence ratings to DRT stimuli. Both informational and direct masking effects were present. PCGRAU varied nonlinearly as number of talkers increased. One talker provided significantly more masking than two talkers and was equally effective as three, four, five, seven, and ten talkers as well as speech-spectrum noise. Fourteen talkers provided the most masking and was equally effective as white noise. In general, AA tended to diminish while AE tended to improve as additional background talkers were added. SA was best for 14-talker background noise but poorest for one-talker and speech-spectrum noise.

  7. Do listeners perceive coarticulatory differences for normal talkers and neurologically impaired talkers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjaden, Kris; Sussman, Joan; Yu, Ya-Ju

    2003-10-01

    Speech production studies suggest that the extent of coarticulation varies across talkers. The extent of coarticulation may even vary for repetitions of the same utterance produced by a single talker. Thus, an utterance or talker could be characterized by an average degree of coarticulation, a high degree of coarticulation, or a low degree of coarticulation. The perceptual consequences, if any, of this coarticulatory variability are not well understood, particularly for individuals with speech motor control disorders. The current study examined whether the listeners' speed and accuracy of vowel identification for naturally-produced CV sequences varied depending on the extent of anticipatory vowel coarticulation. Speakers and speech tokens included those characterized by an average degree of anticipatory coarticulation, a high degree of coarticulation, and a low degree of coarticulation. Healthy talkers, speakers with multiple sclerosis, and speakers with Parkinson's disease produced the stimuli. Consonants in CV syllables beginning with /s/, /k/, or /t/ followed by the vowels /i/ or /u/ were excised and presented to listeners for identification of the following vowel. While identification accuracy may be high across speakers and stimuli, the speed of response should vary with extent of coarticulation, if listeners are sensitive to coarticulatory cues in the acoustic speech stream.

  8. The impact of musical training and tone language experience on talker identification.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xin; Myers, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Listeners can use pitch changes in speech to identify talkers. Individuals exhibit large variability in sensitivity to pitch and in accuracy perceiving talker identity. In particular, people who have musical training or long-term tone language use are found to have enhanced pitch perception. In the present study, the influence of pitch experience on talker identification was investigated as listeners identified talkers in native language as well as non-native languages. Experiment 1 was designed to explore the influence of pitch experience on talker identification in two groups of individuals with potential advantages for pitch processing: musicians and tone language speakers. Experiment 2 further investigated individual differences in pitch processing and the contribution to talker identification by testing a mediation model. Cumulatively, the results suggested that (a) musical training confers an advantage for talker identification, supporting a shared resources hypothesis regarding music and language and (b) linguistic use of lexical tones also increases accuracy in hearing talker identity. Importantly, these two types of hearing experience enhance talker identification by sharpening pitch perception skills in a domain-general manner. PMID:25618071

  9. The impact of musical training and tone language experience on talker identification

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xin; Myers, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Listeners can use pitch changes in speech to identify talkers. Individuals exhibit large variability in sensitivity to pitch and in accuracy perceiving talker identity. In particular, people who have musical training or long-term tone language use are found to have enhanced pitch perception. In the present study, the influence of pitch experience on talker identification was investigated as listeners identified talkers in native language as well as non-native languages. Experiment 1 was designed to explore the influence of pitch experience on talker identification in two groups of individuals with potential advantages for pitch processing: musicians and tone language speakers. Experiment 2 further investigated individual differences in pitch processing and the contribution to talker identification by testing a mediation model. Cumulatively, the results suggested that (a) musical training confers an advantage for talker identification, supporting a shared resources hypothesis regarding music and language and (b) linguistic use of lexical tones also increases accuracy in hearing talker identity. Importantly, these two types of hearing experience enhance talker identification by sharpening pitch perception skills in a domain-general manner. PMID:25618071

  10. The Contributions of Talker Familiarity and Individual Talker Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schierloh, Maren; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The article details a two-phase study investigating the relative contributions of talker-familiarity and talker-intelligibility to L2 listening comprehension by learners in a classroom setting. Students from beginning to low-intermediate German FL classes participated in German language listening tasks, being exposed to speech by their German…

  11. Talker Identification across Source Mechanisms: Experiments with Laryngeal and Electrolarynx Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrachione, Tyler K.; Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine listeners' ability to learn talker identity from speech produced with an electrolarynx, explore source and filter differentiation in talker identification, and describe acoustic-phonetic changes associated with electrolarynx use. Method: Healthy adult control listeners learned to identify

  12. Talker Identification across Source Mechanisms: Experiments with Laryngeal and Electrolarynx Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrachione, Tyler K.; Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine listeners' ability to learn talker identity from speech produced with an electrolarynx, explore source and filter differentiation in talker identification, and describe acoustic-phonetic changes associated with electrolarynx use. Method: Healthy adult control listeners learned to identify…

  13. Famous talker effects in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers. PMID:24366633

  14. Understanding College Students' Spiritual Identities: Different Faiths, Varied Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

    2012-01-01

    This critical essay reviews Small's (2011) book reporting research on the spiritual identities and discursive practices of college students in intrafaith and interfaith dialogue. Small's recommendations and research methods are instructive and helpful to both scholars and practitioners in higher education and student affairs. This research opens

  15. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

    PubMed

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations. PMID:24211437

  16. EFFECTS OF TALKER GENDER ON DIALECT CATEGORIZATION

    PubMed Central

    CLOPPER, CYNTHIA G.; CONREY, BRIANNA; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the gender of an unfamiliar talker is an easy and automatic process for naïve adult listeners. Sociolinguistic research has consistently revealed gender differences in the production of linguistic variables. Research on the perception of dialect variation, however, has been limited almost exclusively to male talkers. In the present study, naïve participants were asked to categorize unfamiliar talkers by dialect using sentence-length utterances under three presentation conditions: male talkers only, female talkers only, and a mixed gender condition. The results revealed no significant differences in categorization performance across the three presentation conditions. However, a clustering analysis of the listeners’ categorization errors revealed significant effects of talker gender on the underlying perceptual similarity spaces. The present findings suggest that naïve listeners are sensitive to gender differences in speech production and are able to use those differences to reliably categorize unfamiliar male and female talkers by dialect. PMID:21423866

  17. Learning to Recognize Talkers From Natural, Sinewave, and Reversed Speech Samples

    PubMed Central

    Sheffert, Sonya M.; Pisoni, David B.; Fellowes, Jennifer M.; Remez, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    In 5 experiments, the authors investigated how listeners learn to recognize unfamiliar talkers and how experience with specific utterances generalizes to novel instances. Listeners were trained over several days to identify 10 talkers from natural, sinewave, or reversed speech sentences. The sinewave signals preserved phonetic and some suprasegmental properties while eliminating natural vocal quality. In contrast, the reversed speech signals preserved vocal quality while distorting temporally based phonetic properties. The training results indicate that listeners learned to identify talkers even from acoustic signals lacking natural vocal quality. Generalization performance varied across the different signals and depended on the salience of phonetic information. The results suggest similarities in the phonetic attributes underlying talker recognition and phonetic perception. PMID:12542137

  18. WindTalker: A P2P-Based Low-Latency Anonymous Communication Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Duan, Haixin; Liu, Wu; Wu, Jianping

    Compared with traditional static anonymous communication networks, the P2P architecture can provide higher anonymity in communication. However, the P2P architecture also leads to more challenges, such as route, stability, trust and so on. In this paper, we present WindTalker, a P2P-based low-latency anonymous communication network. It is a pure decentralized mix network and can provide low-latency services which help users hide their real identity in communication. In order to ensure stability and reliability, WindTalker imports “seed nodes” to help a peer join in the P2P network and the peer nodes can use gossip-based protocol to exchange active information. Moreover, WindTalker uses layer encryption to ensure the information of relayed messages cannot be leaked. In addition, malicious nodes in the network are the major threat to anonymity of P2P anonymous communication, so WindTalker imports a trust mechanism which can help the P2P network exclude malicious nodes and optimize the strategy of peer discovery, tunnel construction, and relaying etc. in anonymous communications. We deploy peer nodes of WindTalker in our campus network to test reliability and analyze anonymity in theory. The network measurement and simulation analysis shows that WindTalker can provide low-latency and reliable anonymous communication services.

  19. Auralization studies on talker comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Jessica; Torres, Rendell R.

    2003-10-01

    Although much research has focused on determining optimal acoustical environments for students in classrooms, relatively little has addressed the classroom as an acoustical workspace for teachers, who may suffer from stress and vocal strain due in part to poor acoustical environments. Although the primary problem is typically the background noise level (whether due to ventilation or students), it is also interesting to study systematically how controlling early reflections may improve the audible ``room response'' at the teacher's speaking location without inordinately increasing the reverberant level of the background noise. Moreover, the room response at the talker's position may help reduce the perceived need to strain the voice, as long as the reflections are not so delayed as to be disturbing. In this study approximately ten configurations of absorptive and reflective surfaces in a ``typical-sized'' classroom are auralized in real time. For each room condition, subjects rate the ``talker comfort'' in terms of perceived loudness of their speech, possible disturbance from echoes or increased background noise, and other factors. The primary descriptive physical parameter is essentially the relative amplitude and delay of clusters of early reflections, which are not always well characterized by the classical room-acoustics descriptors. Initial results of the modeling and subject testing will be presented.

  20. Honoring Native American Code Talkers: The Road to the Code Talkers Recognition Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-420)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in North American Indian code talkers continues to increase. In addition to numerous works about the Navajo code talkers, several publications on other groups of Native American code talkers--including the Choctaw, Comanche, Hopi, Meskwaki, Canadian Cree--and about code talkers in general have appeared. This article chronicles recent…

  1. When susceptible-infectious-susceptible contagion meets time-varying networks with identical infectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-Qing; Li, Xiang

    2014-10-01

    Transmission of infectious diseases among populations can be modelled as contagion processes on contact networks. These contact networks are highly evolved in time and are represented by time-varying networks. The agents in contagion processes may have finite infectivity independently of their connectivity. Here we present an analytical framework of the susceptible-infectious-susceptible contagion process on time-varying networks, namely activity-driven networks with identical infectivity. We derive the critical epidemic thresholds and immunization thresholds as a function of infectivity, and prove that targeted immunizations are more efficient than random immunizations independently of the infectivity. We validate our conclusions in a large-scale human indoor interaction data set. Finally, we assess the effects of finite size.

  2. Listening to speech in a background of other talkers: Effects of talker number and noise vocoding

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Stuart; Souza, Pamela; Ekelund, Caroline; Majeed, Arooj A

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most common interfering background sounds a listener experiences are the sounds of other talkers. In Experiment 1, recognition for natural Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) sentences was measured in normal-hearing adults at two fixed signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in 16 backgrounds with the same long-term spectrum: unprocessed speech babble (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 talkers), noise-vocoded versions of the babbles (12 channels), noise modulated with the wide-band envelope of the speech babbles, and unmodulated noise. All talkers were adult males. For a given number of talkers, natural speech was always the most effective masker. The greatest changes in performance occurred as the number of talkers in the maskers increased from 1 to 2 or 4, with small changes thereafter. In Experiment 2, the same targets and maskers (1, 2, and 16 talkers) were used to measure speech reception thresholds (SRTs) adaptively. Periodicity in the target was also manipulated by noise-vocoding, which led to considerably higher SRTs. The greatest masking effect always occurred for the masker type most similar to the target, while the effects of the number of talkers were generally small. Implications are drawn with reference to glimpsing, informational vs energetic masking, overall SNR, and aspects of periodicity. PMID:23556608

  3. Generalization to unfamiliar talkers in artificial language learning.

    PubMed

    Finley, Sara

    2013-08-01

    While there is evidence that talker-specific details are encoded in the phonetics of the lexicon (Kraljic, Samuel, & Brennan, Psychological Science 19(4):332-228, 2008; Logan, Lively, & Pisoni, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 89(2):874-886, 1991) and in sentence processing (Nygaard & Pisoni, Perception & Psychophysics, 60(3):355-376, 1998), it is unclear whether categorical linguistic patterns are also represented in terms of talker-specific details. The present study provides evidence that adult learners form talker-independent representations for productive linguistic patterns. Participants were able to generalize a novel linguistic pattern to unfamiliar talkers. Learners were exposed to spoken words that conformed to a pattern in which vowels of a word agreed in place of articulation, referred to as vowel harmony. All items were presented in the voice of one single talker. Participants were tested on items that included both the familiar talker and an unfamiliar talker. Participants generalized the pattern to novel talkers when the talkers spoke with a familiar accent (Experiment 1), as well as with an unfamiliar accent (Experiment 2). Learners showed a small advantage for talker familiarity when the words were familiar, but not when the words were novel. These results are consistent with a theory of language processing in which the lexicon stores fine-grained, talker-specific phonetic details, but productive linguistic processes are subject to abstract, talker-independent representations. PMID:23456327

  4. Talker variability in audio-visual speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Heald, Shannon L. M.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    A change in talker is a change in the context for the phonetic interpretation of acoustic patterns of speech. Different talkers have different mappings between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories and listeners need to adapt to these differences. Despite this complexity, listeners are adept at comprehending speech in multiple-talker contexts, albeit at a slight but measurable performance cost (e.g., slower recognition). So far, this talker variability cost has been demonstrated only in audio-only speech. Other research in single-talker contexts have shown, however, that when listeners are able to see a talker’s face, speech recognition is improved under adverse listening (e.g., noise or distortion) conditions that can increase uncertainty in the mapping between acoustic patterns and phonetic categories. Does seeing a talker’s face reduce the cost of word recognition in multiple-talker contexts? We used a speeded word-monitoring task in which listeners make quick judgments about target word recognition in single- and multiple-talker contexts. Results show faster recognition performance in single-talker conditions compared to multiple-talker conditions for both audio-only and audio-visual speech. However, recognition time in a multiple-talker context was slower in the audio-visual condition compared to audio-only condition. These results suggest that seeing a talker’s face during speech perception may slow recognition by increasing the importance of talker identification, signaling to the listener a change in talker has occurred. PMID:25076919

  5. The Distribution of Attention Across a Talker's Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Laura A.; Malmberg, Jeanne; Goodell, Neil K.; Boring, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 experiments, a novel experimental paradigm investigated how spatial attention is distributed across a talker's face during auditory-visual speech discourse processing. Dots were superimposed onto several talkers' faces for 17-msec durations on the talker's left side, mouth, right side, and eyebrow area. Participants reported the locations of…

  6. The Distribution of Attention Across a Talker's Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Laura A.; Malmberg, Jeanne; Goodell, Neil K.; Boring, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 experiments, a novel experimental paradigm investigated how spatial attention is distributed across a talker's face during auditory-visual speech discourse processing. Dots were superimposed onto several talkers' faces for 17-msec durations on the talker's left side, mouth, right side, and eyebrow area. Participants reported the locations of

  7. Talker Versus Dialect Effects on Speech Intelligibility: A Symmetrical Study.

    PubMed

    McCloy, Daniel R; Wright, Richard A; Souza, Pamela E

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the relative effects of talker-specific variation and dialect-based variation on speech intelligibility. Listeners from two dialects of American English performed speech-in-noise tasks with sentences spoken by talkers of each dialect. An initial statistical model showed no significant effects for either talker or listener dialect group, and no interaction. However, a mixed-effects regression model including several acoustic measures of the talker's speech revealed a subtle effect of talker dialect once the various acoustic dimensions were accounted for. Results are discussed in relation to other recent studies of cross-dialect intelligibility. PMID:26529902

  8. Effects of Talker Variability on Perceptual Learning of Dialects

    PubMed Central

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Two groups of listeners learned to categorize a set of unfamiliar talkers by dialect region using sentences selected from the TIMIT speech corpus. One group learned to categorize a single talker from each of six American English dialect regions. A second group learned to categorize three talkers from each dialect region. Following training, both groups were asked to categorize new talkers using the same categorization task. While the single-talker group was more accurate during initial training and test phases when familiar talkers produced the sentences, the three-talker group performed better on the generalization task with unfamiliar talkers. This cross-over effect in dialect categorization suggests that while talker variation during initial perceptual learning leads to more difficult learning of specific exemplars, exposure to intertalker variability facilitates robust perceptual learning and promotes better categorization performance of unfamiliar talkers. The results suggest that listeners encode and use acoustic-phonetic variability in speech to reliably perceive the dialect of unfamiliar talkers. PMID:15697151

  9. Same Talker, Different Language: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockmal, Verna; Bond, Z. S.

    This research investigated judgments of language samples produced by bilingual speakers. In the first study, listeners judged whether two language samples produced by bilingual speakers were spoken in the same language or in two different languages. Four bilingual African talkers recorded short passages in Swahili and in their home language (Akan,…

  10. Culturally Consistent Treatment for Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Christine; Kohnert, Kathryn; Pham, Giang; Cordero, Kelly Nett; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kan, Pui Fong; Blaiser, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss cultural influences on clinical interactions when treating late talkers, 2- to 3-year-old children with primary language delays. They use the literature to examine the cultural relevance of core components of early language treatment and propose alternative professional actions in the cases of cultural mismatches. Alternative…

  11. Caution, Student Experience May Vary: Social Identities Impact a Student’s Experience in Peer Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.; Thummaphan, Phonraphee; Lan, Ming-Chih; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for implementing active learning in college-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses, classrooms across the country are being transformed from instructor centered to student centered. In these active-learning classrooms, the dynamics among students becomes increasingly important for understanding student experiences. In this study, we focus on the role a student prefers to assume during peer discussions, and how this preferred role may vary given a student’s social identities. In addition we explore whether three hypothesized barriers to participation may help explain participation difference in the classroom. These barriers are 1) students are excluded from the discussion by actions of their groupmates; 2) students are anxious about participating in peer discussion; and 3) students do not see value in peer discussions. Our results indicate that self-reported preferred roles in peer discussions can be predicted by student gender, race/ethnicity, and nationality. In addition, we found evidence for all three barriers, although some barriers were more salient for certain students than others. We encourage instructors to consider structuring their in-class activities in ways that promote equity, which may require more purposeful attention to alleviating the current differential student experiences with peer discussions. PMID:26628561

  12. Caution, Student Experience May Vary: Social Identities Impact a Student's Experience in Peer Discussions.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Brownell, Sara E; Thummaphan, Phonraphee; Lan, Ming-Chih; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for implementing active learning in college-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses, classrooms across the country are being transformed from instructor centered to student centered. In these active-learning classrooms, the dynamics among students becomes increasingly important for understanding student experiences. In this study, we focus on the role a student prefers to assume during peer discussions, and how this preferred role may vary given a student's social identities. In addition we explore whether three hypothesized barriers to participation may help explain participation difference in the classroom. These barriers are 1) students are excluded from the discussion by actions of their groupmates; 2) students are anxious about participating in peer discussion; and 3) students do not see value in peer discussions. Our results indicate that self-reported preferred roles in peer discussions can be predicted by student gender, race/ethnicity, and nationality. In addition, we found evidence for all three barriers, although some barriers were more salient for certain students than others. We encourage instructors to consider structuring their in-class activities in ways that promote equity, which may require more purposeful attention to alleviating the current differential student experiences with peer discussions. PMID:26628561

  13. Effects of a consistent target or masker voice on target speech intelligibility in two- and three-talker mixtures.

    PubMed

    Samson, Fabienne; Johnsrude, Ingrid S

    2016-03-01

    When the spatial location or identity of a sound is held constant, it is not masked as effectively by competing sounds. This suggests that experience with a particular voice over time might facilitate perceptual organization in multitalker environments. The current study examines whether listeners benefit from experience with a voice only when it is the target, or also when it is a masker, using diotic presentation and a closed-set task (coordinate response measure). A reliable interaction was observed such that, in two-talker mixtures, consistency of masker or target voice over 3-7 trials significantly benefited target recognition performance, whereas in three-talker mixtures, target, but not masker, consistency was beneficial. Overall, this work suggests that voice consistency improves intelligibility, although somewhat differently when two talkers, compared to three talkers, are present, suggesting that consistent-voice information facilitates intelligibility in at least two different ways. Listeners can use a template-matching strategy to extract a known voice from a mixture when it is the target. However, consistent-voice information facilitates segregation only when two, but not three, talkers are present. PMID:27036241

  14. The impact of intended emotion on dynamic changes in talker amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieberg, Kimberly; Hall, Michael D.

    2003-10-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted on auditory affect, and less research has focused on quantifying the nature of potential acoustic cues to emotion. A production study was conducted to address the possibility that one dynamic acoustic variable, talker amplitude, may systematically vary as a function of intended affect. Six talkers (three male, three female) were instructed to produce 200 target words with different emotional valences (e.g., joy versus sadness). Target words were phonetically balanced (PB), and each word was produced within a standard carrier phrase. Temporally specific intensity measurements were recorded for each target word. Descriptively and statistically distinct contours were obtained as a function of intended emotion. Furthermore, talkers differed in the way they produced amplitude contours for each emotion. The perceptual relevance of the observed affect-based differences in amplitude then was evaluated. Average contours for joy and sadness were applied to an emotionally neutral set of (CV) stimuli. Listeners discriminated the resulting contours within a two-alternative forced choice task, and sensitivity was evaluated using signal detection analyses. Implications for the potential role of amplitude in the perception of emotion, as well as for the representation of talker information, in words will be discussed.

  15. Perception of talker similarity by normal-hearing children and hearing-impaired children with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Miranda

    2002-05-01

    This project investigated judgments of perceptual similarity, specifically, how similar do two sentences need to be in terms of fundamental and formant frequencies for children to categorize both utterances as spoken by the same talker? Same-different judgments were obtained using an adaptive testing procedure in which the similarity of voice pairs was systematically varied. Participants included five-year-old normal-hearing children and prelingually deafened school-age cochlear implant users with 2+ years of implant experience. Stimuli consisted of natural sentence-length utterances of a fixed syntactic form processed and resynthesized to form a stimulus continuum of differentially similar-sounding voices. Auditory comprehension skills were measured using materials from the same stimulus set. Comprehension was also measured against a competing talker masker. An adaptive testing procedure adjusted the similarity of masker voice to target voice according to each child's performance. The probability of ``same talker'' judgments is reported for each group of children as a function of pitch difference size. Preliminary results indicate a commonality in the auditory skills necessary for both talker discrimination and auditory comprehension. The relationship between discrimination of similar-sounding talkers and the ability to perceptually separate voices will also be discussed. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD.

  16. A Time Varying Evaluation of Identity Theory and Father Involvement for Full Custody, Shared Custody, and No Custody Divorced Fathers

    PubMed Central

    DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested identity theory models of father involvement for 230 divorced fathers of young children aged 4 to 11 followed over 18 months. Research questions were (1) Do measures of identity salience and centrality of the fathering role predict fathering involvement over time? (2) Does father involvement predict fathering identity over time? (3) Does father custody moderate these relationships? Involvement was assessed as contact frequency, number of father-child activities, and positive involvement observed during father-child interaction. Comparisons showed that the quantity of involvement differed by custody but there were few differences in the quality of involvement. Fathers did not exhibit significant mean decreases in involvement and custodial groups did not differ in the growth rates for involvement nor identity measures. However, there were significant individual differences in growth rates, meaning there was variance in fathers increasing and decreasing in measures over time. Time 1 father identities, measured as salience and centrality, predicted days per month, overnights per month, and father child activities over time. Time-varying predictors suggested that identities were more predictive of growth in involvement than vice versa although father involvement predicted salience and primarily centrality. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:20617120

  17. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant

  18. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant…

  19. Courtship attention in sagebrush lizards varies with male identity and female reproductive state

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Erica; Martins, Emília P.

    2008-01-01

    Previous experiments suggest that males spend more time with the more receptive of 2 novel females or the one with the higher fitness potential. However, males often court individual females repeatedly over a season; for example, male lizards sequentially visit familiar females as they patrol territorial boundaries. It may benefit males to vary display intensity as they move between multiple females. In this study, we explored the factors influencing amount of male courtship to familiar females in the sagebrush lizard, Sceloporus graciosus. We tested whether males vary the amount of courtship exhibited due to individual differences among males, female reproductive state, or female fitness potential. Each male was allowed to interact separately, but repeatedly, with 2 females until both females laid eggs. Male courtship behavior with each of the 2 females was assayed at an intermediate point, after 3 weeks of interaction. We found that individual differences among males were considerable. The number of male courtship displays was also positively correlated with female latency to lay eggs, with males displaying more often toward females with eggs that had not yet been fertilized. Courtship behavior was not well predicted by the number of eggs laid or by female width, both measures of female quality. Thus, male S. graciosus appear to alter courtship intensity more in response to signals of female reproductive state than in response to variation in potential female fitness. PMID:19458780

  20. The Neonatal CD4+ T Cell Response to a Single Epitope Varies in Genetically Identical Mice.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ryan W; Rajpal, Miriam N; Jenkins, Marc K

    2015-09-01

    Neonatal infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Increased susceptibility to infection in the neonate is attributed in part to defects in T cell-mediated immunity. A peptide:MHC class II tetramer-based cell enrichment method was used to test this hypothesis at the level of a single epitope. We found that naive T cells with TCRs specific for the 2W:I-A(b) epitope were present in the thymuses of 1-d-old CD57BL/6 mice but were barely detectable in the spleen, likely because each mouse contained very few total splenic CD4(+) T cells. By day 7 of life, however, the total number of splenic CD4(+) T cells increased dramatically and the frequency of 2W:I-A(b)-specific naive T cells reached that of adult mice. Injection of 2W peptide in CFA into 1-d-old mice generated a 2W:I-A(b)-specific effector cell population that peaked later than in adult mice and showed more animal-to-animal variation. Similarly, 2W:I-A(b)-specific naive T cells in different neonatal mice varied significantly in generation of Th1, Th2, and follicular Th cells compared with adult mice. These results suggest that delayed effector cell expansion and stochastic variability in effector cell generation due to an initially small naive repertoire contribute to defective peptide:MHC class II-specific immunity in neonates. PMID:26179899

  1. Liana competition with tropical trees varies seasonally but not with tree species identity.

    PubMed

    Leonor, Alvarez-Cansino; Schnitzer, Stefan A; Reid, Joseph P; Powers, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Lianas in tropical forests compete intensely with trees for above- and belowground resources and limit tree growth and regeneration. Liana competition with adult canopy trees may be particularly strong, and, if lianas compete more intensely with some tree species than others, they may influence tree species composition. We performed the first systematic, large-scale liana removal experiment to assess the competitive effects of lianas on multiple tropical tree species by measuring sap velocity and growth in a lowland tropical forest in Panama. Tree sap velocity increased 60% soon after liana removal compared to control trees, and tree diameter growth increased 25% after one year. Although tree species varied in their response to lianas, this variation was not significant, suggesting that lianas competed similarly with all tree species examined. The effect of lianas on tree sap velocity was particularly strong during the dry season, when soil moisture was low, suggesting that lianas compete intensely with trees for water. Under the predicted global change scenario of increased temperature and drought intensity, competition from lianas may become more prevalent in seasonal tropical forests, which, according to our data, should have a negative effect on most tropical tree species. PMID:26236888

  2. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant group difference was on the third person regular –s inflection. This was also the only significant difference when we compared late talkers with continuing delay, late bloomers (who scored within 1 standard deviation of the comparison group in mean length of utterance), and typically developing peers. The late talker and comparison children differed greatly in mean total scores on the Index of Productive Syntax (Scarborough, 1990), a measure of syntactic complexity. The group with continuing delay scored significantly lower on the IPSyn than the late bloomer and typically developing groups, which did not differ from each other. Conclusions Findings are consistent with the higher order language group differences found through adolescence in these late talkers relative to comparison peers with similar socioeconomic status and similar nonverbal abilities, supporting the notion that late talkers have an ongoing weakness in language endowment that manifests differently over the course of development. PMID:25631704

  3. The Effect of Intensified Language Exposure on Accommodating Talker Variability

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study systematically examined the role of intensified exposure to a second language on accommodating talker variability. Method English native listeners (n = 37) were compared with Mandarin listeners who had either lived in the United States for an extended period of time (n = 33) or had lived only in China (n = 44). Listeners responded to target words in an English word-monitoring task in which sequences of words were randomized. Half of the sequences were spoken by a single talker and the other half by multiple talkers. Results Mandarin listeners living in China were slower and less accurate than both English listeners and Mandarin listeners living in the United States. Mandarin listeners living in the United States were less accurate than English natives only in the more cognitively demanding mixed-talker condition. Conclusions Mixed-talker speech affects processing in native and nonnative listeners alike, although the decrement is larger in nonnatives and further exaggerated in less proficient listeners. Language immersion improves listeners' ability to resolve talker variability, and this suggests that immersion may automatize nonnative processing, freeing cognitive resources that may play a crucial role in speech perception. These results lend support to the active control model of speech perception. PMID:25811169

  4. Tuned with a Tune: Talker Normalization via General Auditory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Erika J. C.; Liu, Ran; Lotto, Andrew J.; Holt, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    Voices have unique acoustic signatures, contributing to the acoustic variability listeners must contend with in perceiving speech, and it has long been proposed that listeners normalize speech perception to information extracted from a talker’s speech. Initial attempts to explain talker normalization relied on extraction of articulatory referents, but recent studies of context-dependent auditory perception suggest that general auditory referents such as the long-term average spectrum (LTAS) of a talker’s speech similarly affect speech perception. The present study aimed to differentiate the contributions of articulatory/linguistic versus auditory referents for context-driven talker normalization effects and, more specifically, to identify the specific constraints under which such contexts impact speech perception. Synthesized sentences manipulated to sound like different talkers influenced categorization of a subsequent speech target only when differences in the sentences’ LTAS were in the frequency range of the acoustic cues relevant for the target phonemic contrast. This effect was true both for speech targets preceded by spoken sentence contexts and for targets preceded by non-speech tone sequences that were LTAS-matched to the spoken sentence contexts. Specific LTAS characteristics, rather than perceived talker, predicted the results suggesting that general auditory mechanisms play an important role in effects considered to be instances of perceptual talker normalization. PMID:22737140

  5. Overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in the identification of nonnative speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-01-01

    This investigation explored the generalization of phonetic learning across talkers following training on a nonnative (Hindi dental and retroflex) contrast. Participants were trained in two groups, either in the morning or in the evening. Discrimination and identification performance was assessed in the trained talker and an untrained talker three times over 24 h following training. Results suggest that overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in identification, but not necessarily discrimination, of nonnative speech sounds. PMID:25618106

  6. Articulatory-to-Acoustic Relations in Talkers with Dysarthria: A First Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the strength of interspeaker and intraspeaker articulatory-to-acoustic relations of vowel contrast produced by talkers with dysarthria and controls. Methods: Six talkers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), six talkers with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 12 controls repeated a…

  7. Reading Voices and Hearing Text: Talker-Specific Auditory Imagery in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jessica D.; Nygaard, Lynne C.

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine if linguistic representations accessed during reading include auditory imagery for characteristics of a talker's voice. In 3 experiments, participants were familiarized with two talkers during a brief prerecorded conversation. One talker spoke at a fast speaking rate, and one spoke at a slow…

  8. Articulatory-to-Acoustic Relations in Talkers with Dysarthria: A First Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the strength of interspeaker and intraspeaker articulatory-to-acoustic relations of vowel contrast produced by talkers with dysarthria and controls. Methods: Six talkers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), six talkers with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 12 controls repeated a

  9. Children's Perception of Speech Produced in a Two-Talker Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mallory; Buss, Emily; Jacks, Adam; Taylor, Crystal; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the degree to which children benefit from the acoustic modifications made by talkers when they produce speech in noise. Method: A repeated measures design compared the speech perception performance of children (5-11 years) and adults in a 2-talker masker. Target speech was produced in a 2-talker background or in

  10. Children's Perception of Speech Produced in a Two-Talker Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mallory; Buss, Emily; Jacks, Adam; Taylor, Crystal; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the degree to which children benefit from the acoustic modifications made by talkers when they produce speech in noise. Method: A repeated measures design compared the speech perception performance of children (5-11 years) and adults in a 2-talker masker. Target speech was produced in a 2-talker background or in…

  11. Age-Related Changes to Spectral Voice Characteristics Affect Judgments of Prosodic, Segmental, and Talker Attributes for Child and Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were

  12. Age-Related Changes to Spectral Voice Characteristics Affect Judgments of Prosodic, Segmental, and Talker Attributes for Child and Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were…

  13. Effects of phonetically-cued talker variation on semantic encoding.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Meghan; Kataoka, Reiko

    2013-12-01

    This study reports equivalence in recognition for variable productions of spoken words that differ greatly in frequency. General American (GA) listeners participated in either a semantic priming or a false-memory task, each with three talkers with different accents: GA, New York City (NYC), and Southern Standard British English (BE). GA/BE induced strong semantic priming and low false recall rates. NYC induced no semantic priming but high false recall rates. These results challenge current theory and illuminate encoding-based differences sensitive to phonetically-cued talker variation. The findings highlight the central role of phonetic variation in the spoken word recognition process. PMID:25669293

  14. Experience with a talker can transfer across modalities to facilitate lipreading.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Kauyumari; Dias, James W; Rosenblum, Lawrence D

    2013-10-01

    Rosenblum, Miller, and Sanchez (Psychological Science, 18, 392-396, 2007) found that subjects first trained to lip-read a particular talker were then better able to perceive the auditory speech of that same talker, as compared with that of a novel talker. This suggests that the talker experience a perceiver gains in one sensory modality can be transferred to another modality to make that speech easier to perceive. An experiment was conducted to examine whether this cross-sensory transfer of talker experience could occur (1) from auditory to lip-read speech, (2) with subjects not screened for adequate lipreading skill, (3) when both a familiar and an unfamiliar talker are presented during lipreading, and (4) for both old (presentation set) and new words. Subjects were first asked to identify a set of words from a talker. They were then asked to perform a lipreading task from two faces, one of which was of the same talker they heard in the first phase of the experiment. Results revealed that subjects who lip-read from the same talker they had heard performed better than those who lip-read a different talker, regardless of whether the words were old or new. These results add further evidence that learning of amodal talker information can facilitate speech perception across modalities and also suggest that this information is not restricted to previously heard words. PMID:23955059

  15. Effects of Talker Variability on Vowel Recognition in Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-ping; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of talker variability on vowel recognition by cochlear implant (CI) users and by normal-hearing (NH) participants listening to 4-channel acoustic CI simulations. Method: CI users were tested with their clinically assigned speech processors. For NH participants, 3 CI processors were simulated, using different

  16. Effects of Talker Variability on Vowel Recognition in Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-ping; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of talker variability on vowel recognition by cochlear implant (CI) users and by normal-hearing (NH) participants listening to 4-channel acoustic CI simulations. Method: CI users were tested with their clinically assigned speech processors. For NH participants, 3 CI processors were simulated, using different…

  17. Bimodal Hearing and Speech Perception with a Competing Talker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyschny, Verena; Landwehr, Markus; Hahn, Moritz; Walger, Martin; von Wedel, Hasso; Meister, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of bimodal stimulation upon hearing ability for speech recognition in the presence of a single competing talker. Method: Speech recognition was measured in 3 listening conditions: hearing aid (HA) alone, cochlear implant (CI) alone, and both devices together (CI + HA). To examine…

  18. The Effect of Intensified Language Exposure on Accommodating Talker Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Wang, Suiping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study systematically examined the role of intensified exposure to a second language on accommodating talker variability. Method: English native listeners (n = 37) were compared with Mandarin listeners who had either lived in the United States for an extended period of time (n = 33) or had lived only in China (n = 44). Listeners…

  19. Preschoolers' Use of Talker Information in On-Line Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2012-01-01

    A crucial part of language development is learning how various social and contextual language-external factors constrain an utterance's meaning. This learning process is poorly understood. Five experiments addressed one hundred thirty-one 3- to 5-year-old children's use of one such socially relevant information source: talker characteristics.…

  20. Bimodal Hearing and Speech Perception with a Competing Talker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyschny, Verena; Landwehr, Markus; Hahn, Moritz; Walger, Martin; von Wedel, Hasso; Meister, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of bimodal stimulation upon hearing ability for speech recognition in the presence of a single competing talker. Method: Speech recognition was measured in 3 listening conditions: hearing aid (HA) alone, cochlear implant (CI) alone, and both devices together (CI + HA). To examine

  1. Pragmatic Functions of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Kaufman, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    Toddlers who are "late talkers" demonstrate reduced expressive vocabulary in the absence of physical, social, cognitive, or sensory impairment; they are usually identified at age 2, when they produce fewer than 50 words and do not combine words (Rescorla, 1989). This study analyzed spontaneous language samples of 10 late talking toddlers and 11…

  2. The effects of hearing loss and age on the benefit of spatial separation between multiple talkers in reverberant rooms

    PubMed Central

    Marrone, Nicole; Mason, Christine R.; Kidd, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between hearing loss, reverberation, and age on the benefit of spatially separating multiple masking talkers from a target talker. Four listener groups were tested based on hearing status and age. On every trial listeners heard three different sentences spoken simultaneously by different female talkers. Listeners reported keywords from the target sentence, which was presented at a fixed and known location. Maskers were colocated with the target or presented from spatially separated and symmetrically placed loudspeakers, creating a situation with no simple “better-ear.” Reverberation was also varied. The target-to-masker ratio at threshold for identification of the fixed-level target was measured by adapting the level of the maskers. On average, listeners with hearing loss showed less spatial release from masking than normal-hearing listeners. Age was a significant factor although small differences in hearing sensitivity across age groups may have contributed to this effect. Spatial release was reduced in the more reverberant room condition but in most cases a significant advantage remained. These results provide evidence for a large benefit of spatial separation in a multitalker situation that is likely due to perceptual factors. However, this benefit is significantly reduced by both hearing loss and reverberation. PMID:19045792

  3. Identification of 20-ms speech samples from normal and neurologically impaired talkers: Do coarticulation differences matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Joan E.; Tjaden, Kris; Yu, Ya-Ju

    2001-05-01

    Prior studies of speech suggest that the extent of coarticulation varies both across and within talkers. Speakers sometime use average, high, or low amounts of coarticulation. The perceptual consequences of coarticulatory variability are not well understood, particularly for the speech of individuals with motor control disorders. In the current study, listeners heard the same 20-ms tokens that were used to calculate the degree of anticipatory coarticulation of the following vowel. Acoustic measures were made from the first 20 ms of stop consonants [k] or [t], or from a point 70 ms preceding the vowel in [s] productions. Healthy talkers, speakers with Multiple Sclerosis, and speakers with Parkinson's disease produced the stimuli. Speech tokens included three degrees of anticipatory coarticulation: average, high, and low. The listeners' task was to identify whether the vowels that followed the consonant were originally [i] or [u]. Results showed that identification accuracy was poorer for the current 20-ms tokens than for prior speech samples including all aperiodicity of consonants. Identification was poorest for [s] and best for [k] tokens. The speed of listener response gave some indication of the differing extents of coarticulation. Perceptual validity for the 20-ms measure of coarticulation is discussed.

  4. Talker familiarity and spoken word recognition in school-age children*

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2014-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers’ voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German–English bilingual talkers and were tested on the speech of six bilinguals, three of whom were familiar. Results revealed that children do show improved spoken language processing when they are familiar with the talkers, but this improvement was limited to highly familiar lexical items. This restriction of the familiar talker advantage is attributed to differences in the representation of highly familiar and less familiar lexical items. In addition, children did not exhibit accent-general learning; despite having been exposed to German-accented talkers during training, there was no improvement for novel German-accented talkers. PMID:25159173

  5. Language exposure facilitates talker learning prior to language comprehension, even in adults.

    PubMed

    Orena, Adriel John; Theodore, Rachel M; Polka, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Adults show a native language advantage for talker identification, which has been interpreted as evidence that phonological knowledge mediates talker learning. However, infants also show a native language benefit for talker discrimination, suggesting that sensitivity to linguistic structure due to systematic language exposure promotes talker learning, even in the absence of functional phonological knowledge or language comprehension. We tested this hypothesis by comparing two groups of English-monolingual adults on their ability to learn English and French voices. One group resided in Montréal with regular exposure to spoken French; the other resided in Storrs, Connecticut and did not have French exposure. Montréal residents showed faster learning and better retention for the French voices compared to their Storrs-residing peers. These findings demonstrate that systematic exposure to a foreign language bolsters talker learning in that language, expanding the gradient effect of language experience on talker learning to perceptual learning that precedes sentence comprehension. PMID:26113447

  6. IEEE 488 bus pseudo-controller linking talker with listener

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, G.M.

    1984-02-01

    A circuit is described that places talker/listener addresses on an IEEE 488 bus. This circuit is applied together with an ICS Electronics Corporation Model 4824 IEEE 488 Bus Serial Interface Card to permit a DEC VT (trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation) 102 terminal to copy to a Commodore Model 2022 printer. The circuit takes the place of a controller to initiate the bus link. Command conflicts between the VT102 and the 2022 restrict the printer operation to the uppercase mode.

  7. Late talkers: do good predictors of outcome exist?

    PubMed

    Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Both small-scale and epidemiological longitudinal studies of early language delay indicate that most late talkers attain language scores in the average range by age 5, 6, or 7. However, late talker groups typically obtain significantly lower scores than groups with typical language histories on most language measures into adolescence. These findings support a dimensional account of language delay, whereby late talkers and typically developing peers differ quantitatively on a hypothetical language ability spectrum. Variation in language ability is presumed to derive from variation in skills subserving language, such as auditory perception/processing, word retrieval, verbal working memory, motor planning, phonological discrimination, and grammatical rule learning. Expressive language screening at 18-35 months can serve an important public health function by identifying children whose expressive delay is secondary to autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, hearing impairment, receptive language delay, or demographic risk. Finally, the review suggests that demographic risk associated with low SES may become more important as a causal factor in language delay as children get older. PMID:23362033

  8. Effect of spectral normalization on different talker speech recognition by cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuping; Galvin, John; Fu, Qian-Jie; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2008-05-01

    In cochlear implants (CIs), different talkers often produce different levels of speech understanding because of the spectrally distorted speech patterns provided by the implant device. A spectral normalization approach was used to transform the spectral characteristics of one talker to those of another talker. In Experiment 1, speech recognition with two talkers was measured in CI users, with and without spectral normalization. Results showed that the spectral normalization algorithm had small but significant effect on performance. In Experiment 2, the effects of spectral normalization were measured in CI users and normal-hearing (NH) subjects; a pitch-stretching technique was used to simulate six talkers with different fundamental frequencies and vocal tract configurations. NH baseline performance was nearly perfect with these pitch-shift transformations. For CI subjects, while there was considerable intersubject variability in performance with the different pitch-shift transformations, spectral normalization significantly improved the intelligibility of these simulated talkers. The results from Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that spectral normalization toward more-intelligible talkers significantly improved CI users' speech understanding with less-intelligible talkers. The results suggest that spectral normalization using optimal reference patterns for individual CI patients may compensate for some of the acoustic variability across talkers. PMID:18529199

  9. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Vowel Intelligibility for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the range of talker variability for vowel intelligibility in clear versus conversational speech for older adults with hearing loss and to determine whether talkers who produced a clear speech benefit for young listeners with normal hearing also did so for older adults with hearing loss. Method: Clear and conversational vowels

  10. Listen to Your Mother!: The Role of Talker Familiarity in Infant Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Brittan A.; Newman, Rochelle S.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the acoustic cues infants might use to selectively attend to one talker in the presence of background noise. This study examined the role of talker familiarity as a possible cue. Infants either heard their own mothers (maternal-voice condition) or a different infant's mother (novel-voice condition) repeating isolated words

  11. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Vowel Intelligibility for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the range of talker variability for vowel intelligibility in clear versus conversational speech for older adults with hearing loss and to determine whether talkers who produced a clear speech benefit for young listeners with normal hearing also did so for older adults with hearing loss. Method: Clear and conversational vowels…

  12. Talker Familiarity and Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English…

  13. Influence of Phonotactic Probability/Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Learning in Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Marton, Klara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Toddlers who are late talkers demonstrate delays in phonological and lexical skills. However, the influence of phonological factors on lexical acquisition in toddlers who are late talkers has not been examined directly. Aims: To examine the influence of phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density on word learning in toddlers who were…

  14. Comparison of Two Word Learning Techniques and the Effect of Neighborhood Density for Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVeney, Shari L.; Cress, Cynthia J.; Reid, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The investigators compared two techniques for teaching expressive vocabulary to late talkers: modeling with an expectant pause and modeling with an evoked child production. They also explored the influence of neighborhood density on children's real word learning. Three late talkers (ages 25-33 months) received two alternating vocabulary…

  15. Assertive and Responsive Conversational Skills of Italian-Speaking Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonifacio, Serena; Girolametto, Luigi; Bulligan, Manuela; Callegari, Monica; Vignola, Sandra; Zocconi, Elisabetta

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the pragmatic abilities of late talkers at 24 months of age indicates that they have difficulties initiating conversational interactions, but possess intact responsiveness skills. This study uses a parent-administered questionnaire for evaluating the conversational skills of late talkers and suggesting pragmatic…

  16. Heeding the Voice of Experience: The Role of Talker Variation in Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments used the head-mounted eye-tracking methodology to examine the time course of lexical activation in the face of a non-phonemic cue, talker variation. We found that lexical competition was attenuated by consistent talker differences between words that would otherwise be lexical competitors. In Experiment 1, some English cohort…

  17. Listen to Your Mother!: The Role of Talker Familiarity in Infant Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Brittan A.; Newman, Rochelle S.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the acoustic cues infants might use to selectively attend to one talker in the presence of background noise. This study examined the role of talker familiarity as a possible cue. Infants either heard their own mothers (maternal-voice condition) or a different infant's mother (novel-voice condition) repeating isolated words…

  18. Acoustic-phonetic correlates of talker intelligibility for adults and children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazan, Valerie; Markham, Duncan

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated acoustic-phonetic correlates of intelligibility for adult and child talkers, and whether the relative intelligibility of different talkers was dependent on listener characteristics. In experiment 1, word intelligibility was measured for 45 talkers (18 women, 15 men, 6 boys, 6 girls) from a homogeneous accent group. The material consisted of 124 words familiar to 7-year-olds that adequately covered all frequent consonant confusions; stimuli were presented to 135 adult and child listeners in low-level background noise. Seven-to-eight-year-old listeners made significantly more errors than 12-year-olds or adults, but the relative intelligibility of individual talkers was highly consistent across groups. In experiment 2, listener ratings on a number of voice dimensions were obtained for the adults talkers identified in experiment 1 as having the highest and lowest intelligibility. Intelligibility was significantly correlated with subjective dimensions reflecting articulation, voice dynamics, and general quality. Finally, in experiment 3, measures of fundamental frequency, long-term average spectrum, word duration, consonant-vowel intensity ratio, and vowel space size were obtained for all talkers. Overall, word intelligibility was significantly correlated with the total energy in the 1- to 3-kHz region and word duration; these measures predicted 61% of the variability in intelligibility. The fact that the relative intelligibility of individual talkers was remarkably consistent across listener age groups suggests that the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of a talker's utterance are the primary factor in determining talker intelligibility. Although some acoustic-phonetic correlates of intelligibility were identified, variability in the profiles of the ``best'' talkers suggests that high intelligibility can be achieved through a combination of different acoustic-phonetic characteristics. .

  19. Functionally integrated neural processing of linguistic and talker information: An event-related fMRI and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caicai; Pugh, Kenneth R; Mencl, W Einar; Molfese, Peter J; Frost, Stephen J; Magnuson, James S; Peng, Gang; Wang, William S-Y

    2016-01-01

    Speech signals contain information of both linguistic content and a talker's voice. Conventionally, linguistic and talker processing are thought to be mediated by distinct neural systems in the left and right hemispheres respectively, but there is growing evidence that linguistic and talker processing interact in many ways. Previous studies suggest that talker-related vocal tract changes are processed integrally with phonetic changes in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (STG/STS), because the vocal tract parameter influences the perception of phonetic information. It is yet unclear whether the bilateral STG is also activated by the integral processing of another parameter - pitch, which influences the perception of lexical tone information and is related to talker differences in tone languages. In this study, we conducted separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) experiments to examine the spatial and temporal loci of interactions of lexical tone and talker-related pitch processing in Cantonese. We found that the STG was activated bilaterally during the processing of talker changes when listeners attended to lexical tone changes in the stimuli and during the processing of lexical tone changes when listeners attended to talker changes, suggesting that lexical tone and talker processing are functionally integrated in the bilateral STG. It extends the previous study, providing evidence for a general neural mechanism of integral phonetic and talker processing in the bilateral STG. The ERP results show interactions of lexical tone and talker processing 500-800ms after auditory word onset (a simultaneous posterior P3b and a frontal negativity). Moreover, there is some asymmetry in the interaction, such that unattended talker changes affect linguistic processing more than vice versa, which may be related to the ambiguity that talker changes cause in speech perception and/or attention bias to talker changes. Our findings have implications for understanding the neural encoding of linguistic and talker information. PMID:26343322

  20. Phoneme contrasts with two, same-talker speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, Mark; Mishler, Pamela

    2003-04-01

    People often have difficulty hearing speech in the presence of concurrent conversations. This well-known cocktail-party effect can be parsed into energetic and informational masking effects. The purpose of this study was to measure and model the effects of energetic and informational masking that occur when two words, spoken by the same talker are heard at the same time. The word identification test used in the experiments was the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). The MRT was used as both the stimulus and the masker, which afforded a multitude of consonant contrasts. The phrases were presented monaurally at 75 dB SPL over Sennheiser HD-520 headphones to four normal hearing listeners. The independent variables included 30 pairs of MRT word lists spoken by three male and three female talkers. The dependent variable was the percent correct identifications of the two consonants. Listeners performed at 94% correct for the first word choice and 72% correct for the second word choice. The distribution of errors was analyzed by place of articulation, manner of articulation, and speech-to-speech-ratio of the phoneme pairs and compared to articulation index predictions for speech intelligibility.

  1. Effect of number of masking talkers and auditory priming on informational masking in speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyman, Richard L.; Balakrishnan, Uma; Helfer, Karen S.

    2004-05-01

    Three experiments investigated factors that influence the creation of and release from informational masking in speech recognition. The target stimuli were nonsense sentences spoken by a female talker. In experiment 1 the masker was a mixture of three, four, six, or ten female talkers, all reciting similar nonsense sentences. Listeners' recognition performance was measured with both target and masker presented from a front loudspeaker (F-F) or with a masker presented from two loudspeakers, with the right leading the front by 4 ms (F-RF). In the latter condition the target and masker appear to be from different locations. This aids recognition performance for one- and two-talker maskers, but not for noise. As the number of masking talkers increased to ten, the improvement in the F-RF condition diminished, but did not disappear. The second experiment investigated whether hearing a preview (prime) of the target sentence before it was presented in masking improved recognition for the last key word, which was not included in the prime. Marked improvements occurred only for the F-F condition with two-talker masking, not for continuous noise or F-RF two-talker masking. The third experiment found that the benefit of priming in the F-F condition was maintained if the prime sentence was spoken by a different talker or even if it was printed and read silently. These results suggest that informational masking can be overcome by factors that improve listeners' auditory attention toward the target.

  2. The establishment of open articulatory postures by deaf and hearing talkers.

    PubMed

    Tye-Murray, N

    1991-06-01

    Previous researchers have proposed that prelingually deafened talkers do not displace the tongue body to establish vowel steady-state postures and displace the jaw excessively. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the opening gesture lingual displacement patterns of three deaf and two hearing adult talkers. Cinefluorography and x-ray microbeam data indicated that the deaf subjects displaced their tongue bodies during the opening gestures. However, their glossal movement trajectories were qualitatively dissimilar to those of the hearing subjects. Whereas the hearing subjects moved the tongue differently for different vowel contexts, the deaf subjects had similar trajectories for all contexts. The common trajectories suggest that some deaf talkers contract their tongue muscles such that the tongue body moves similarly for all vowels. The deaf subjects also appeared to have a less flexible tongue body during speech production than the hearing subjects. Means for quantifying and comparing the lingual behaviors of deaf and hearing talkers are considered. PMID:2072668

  3. Effects of Hearing Loss and Cognitive Load on Speech Recognition with Competing Talkers.

    PubMed

    Meister, Hartmut; Schreitmüller, Stefan; Ortmann, Magdalene; Rählmann, Sebastian; Walger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Everyday communication frequently comprises situations with more than one talker speaking at a time. These situations are challenging since they pose high attentional and memory demands placing cognitive load on the listener. Hearing impairment additionally exacerbates communication problems under these circumstances. We examined the effects of hearing loss and attention tasks on speech recognition with competing talkers in older adults with and without hearing impairment. We hypothesized that hearing loss would affect word identification, talker separation and word recall and that the difficulties experienced by the hearing impaired listeners would be especially pronounced in a task with high attentional and memory demands. Two listener groups closely matched for their age and neuropsychological profile but differing in hearing acuity were examined regarding their speech recognition with competing talkers in two different tasks. One task required repeating back words from one target talker (1TT) while ignoring the competing talker whereas the other required repeating back words from both talkers (2TT). The competing talkers differed with respect to their voice characteristics. Moreover, sentences either with low or high context were used in order to consider linguistic properties. Compared to their normal hearing peers, listeners with hearing loss revealed limited speech recognition in both tasks. Their difficulties were especially pronounced in the more demanding 2TT task. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanisms, different error sources, namely having misunderstood, confused, or omitted words were investigated. Misunderstanding and omitting words were more frequently observed in the hearing impaired than in the normal hearing listeners. In line with common speech perception models, it is suggested that these effects are related to impaired object formation and taxed working memory capacity (WMC). In a post-hoc analysis, the listeners were further separated with respect to their WMC. It appeared that higher capacity could be used in the sense of a compensatory mechanism with respect to the adverse effects of hearing loss, especially with low context speech. PMID:26973585

  4. Effects of Hearing Loss and Cognitive Load on Speech Recognition with Competing Talkers

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Hartmut; Schreitmüller, Stefan; Ortmann, Magdalene; Rählmann, Sebastian; Walger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Everyday communication frequently comprises situations with more than one talker speaking at a time. These situations are challenging since they pose high attentional and memory demands placing cognitive load on the listener. Hearing impairment additionally exacerbates communication problems under these circumstances. We examined the effects of hearing loss and attention tasks on speech recognition with competing talkers in older adults with and without hearing impairment. We hypothesized that hearing loss would affect word identification, talker separation and word recall and that the difficulties experienced by the hearing impaired listeners would be especially pronounced in a task with high attentional and memory demands. Two listener groups closely matched for their age and neuropsychological profile but differing in hearing acuity were examined regarding their speech recognition with competing talkers in two different tasks. One task required repeating back words from one target talker (1TT) while ignoring the competing talker whereas the other required repeating back words from both talkers (2TT). The competing talkers differed with respect to their voice characteristics. Moreover, sentences either with low or high context were used in order to consider linguistic properties. Compared to their normal hearing peers, listeners with hearing loss revealed limited speech recognition in both tasks. Their difficulties were especially pronounced in the more demanding 2TT task. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanisms, different error sources, namely having misunderstood, confused, or omitted words were investigated. Misunderstanding and omitting words were more frequently observed in the hearing impaired than in the normal hearing listeners. In line with common speech perception models, it is suggested that these effects are related to impaired object formation and taxed working memory capacity (WMC). In a post-hoc analysis, the listeners were further separated with respect to their WMC. It appeared that higher capacity could be used in the sense of a compensatory mechanism with respect to the adverse effects of hearing loss, especially with low context speech. PMID:26973585

  5. Message and Talker Identification in Older Adults: Effects of Task, Distinctiveness of the Talkers' Voices, and Meaningfulness of the Competing Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi-Katz, Jessica; Arehart, Kathryn Hoberg

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated (a) the effects of task, vocal distinctiveness of the competing talkers, and meaningfulness of the competitor on older listeners' identification of a target in the presence of competition and (b) the factors that are most predictive of the variability in target identification observed among older…

  6. Auditory masking of speech in reverberant multi-talker environments.

    PubMed

    Weller, Tobias; Buchholz, Jörg M; Best, Virginia

    2016-03-01

    Auditory localization research needs to be performed in more realistic testing environments to better capture the real-world abilities of listeners and their hearing devices. However, there are significant challenges involved in controlling the audibility of relevant target signals in realistic environments. To understand the important aspects influencing target detection in more complex environments, a reverberant room with a multi-talker background was simulated and presented to the listener in a loudspeaker-based virtual sound environment. Masked thresholds of a short speech stimulus were measured adaptively for multiple target source locations in this scenario. It was found that both distance and azimuth of the target source have a strong influence on the masked threshold. Subsequently, a functional model was applied to analyze the factors influencing target detectability. The model is comprised of an auditory front-end that generates an internal representation of the stimuli in both ears, followed by a decision device combining d' information across time, frequency and both ears. The model predictions of the masked thresholds were overall in very good agreement with the experimental results. An analysis of the model processes showed that head shadow effects, signal spectrum, and reverberation have a strong impact on target audibility in the given scenario. PMID:27036267

  7. Talker Localization Based on Interference between Transmitted and Reflected Audible Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Masato; Nakasako, Noboru; Shinohara, Toshihiro; Uebo, Tetsuji

    In many engineering fields, distance to targets is very important. General distance measurement method uses a time delay between transmitted and reflected waves, but it is difficult to estimate the short distance. On the other hand, the method using phase interference to measure the short distance has been known in the field of microwave radar. Therefore, we have proposed the distance estimation method based on interference between transmitted and reflected audible sound, which can measure the distance between microphone and target with one microphone and one loudspeaker. In this paper, we propose talker localization method based on distance estimation using phase interference. We expand the distance estimation method using phase interference into two microphones (microphone array) in order to estimate talker position. The proposed method can estimate talker position by measuring the distance and direction between target and microphone array. In addition, talker's speech is regarded as a noise in the proposed method. Therefore, we also propose combination of the proposed method and CSP (Cross-power Spectrum Phase analysis) method which is one of the DOA (Direction Of Arrival) estimation methods. We evaluated the performance of talker localization in real environments. The experimental result shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. The influence of target-masker similarity in a three-talker diotic listening task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Nandini; Brungart, Douglas

    2005-04-01

    In diotic cocktail-party listening tasks, performance decreases dramatically when the number of talkers increases from two (one target and one masker) to three (one target and two maskers). In this experiment, listeners were asked to extract information from a Coordinate Response Measure (CRM) target phrase that was masked by one or two interfering utterances. The maskers were either semantically similar to the target (i.e., CRM phrases with different call signs than the target phrase) or semantically different from the target (time-reversed, contextually dissimilar, or in a different language than the target phrase). The two-talker results showed that performance was much worse when the interfering phrase was semantically similar to the target than when it was semantically different. However, given that one interfering talker was similar to the target, the contextual similarity of the second interfering talker had very little effect on performance; in other words, target intelligibility in the presence of two CRM maskers was no worse than with one CRM masker and one time-reversed or foreign-language masker. These results suggest that the disruption of speech segregation caused by the addition of a second interfering talker cannot be explained solely by contextual similarity between the target and masking speech.

  9. Poor phonetic perceivers are affected by cognitive load when resolving talker variability.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C M

    2015-08-01

    Speech training paradigms aim to maximise learning outcomes by manipulating external factors such as talker variability. However, not all individuals may benefit from such manipulations because subject-external factors interact with subject-internal ones (e.g., aptitude) to determine speech perception and/or learning success. In a previous tone learning study, high-aptitude individuals benefitted from talker variability, whereas low-aptitude individuals were impaired. Because increases in cognitive load have been shown to hinder speech perception in mixed-talker conditions, it has been proposed that resolving talker variability requires cognitive resources. This proposal leads to the hypothesis that low-aptitude individuals do not use their cognitive resources as efficiently as those with high aptitude. Here, high- and low-aptitude subjects identified pitch contours spoken by multiple talkers under high and low cognitive load conditions established by a secondary task. While high-aptitude listeners outperformed low-aptitude listeners across load conditions, only low-aptitude listeners were impaired by increased cognitive load. The findings suggest that low-aptitude listeners either have fewer available cognitive resources or are poorer at allocating attention to the signal. Therefore, cognitive load is an important factor when considering individual differences in speech perception and training paradigms. PMID:26328675

  10. Object name learning and object perception: a deficit in late talkers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan S; Smith, Linda B

    2005-02-01

    Two experiments examined the relation between early object name learning and the ability to represent objects by their abstract shapes. In Experiment 1, two-year-old children with productive vocabularies in the bottom 20th percentile--'late talkers'--were compared with (1) same-age children with larger vocabularies, and (2) younger children matched for productive vocabulary, on their ability to recognize named common objects. Object categories were represented two ways: by lifelike, perceptually rich toys, and by grey caricatures of those objects' abstract shapes. All 3 groups recognized lifelike objects equally well. Both typically-developing control groups were better than late talkers at recognizing shape caricatures of objects whose names they knew. In Experiment 2, late talkers and age-matched controls identified named objects represented by lifelike toys and by duplicates of those toys covered in grey textured paint. Age-matched controls knew more of the object names overall, but both they and the late talkers performed equally well on both kinds of test objects. Thus, late talkers had some difficulty in Experiment 1 recognizing objects from abstract shape cues, but no difficulty in Experiment 2 when the shape cues were realistic. The findings imply a relation between the growth of productive vocabulary and the emergence of the ability to represent object categories by abstract shape. PMID:15779885

  11. Differential neural contributions to native- and foreign-language talker identification

    PubMed Central

    Perrachione, Tyler K.; Pierrehumbert, Janet B.; Wong, Patrick C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are remarkably adept at identifying individuals by the sound of their voice, a behavior supported by the nervous system’s ability to integrate information from voice and speech perception. Talker-identification abilities are significantly impaired when listeners are unfamiliar with the language being spoken. Recent behavioral studies describing the language-familiarity effect implicate functionally integrated neural systems for speech and voice perception, yet specific neuroscientific evidence demonstrating the basis for such integration has not yet been shown. Listeners in the present study learned to identify voices speaking a familiar (native) or unfamiliar (foreign) language. The talker-identification performance of neural circuitry in each cerebral hemisphere was assessed using dichotic listening. To determine the relative contribution of circuitry in each hemisphere to ecological (binaural) talker identification abilities, we compared the predictive capacity of dichotic performance on binaural performance across languages. We found listeners’ right-ear (left hemisphere) performance to be a better predictor of overall accuracy in their native language than a foreign one. The enhanced predictive capacity of the classically language-dominant left-hemisphere on overall talker-identification accuracy demonstrates functionally integrated neural systems for speech and voice perception during natural talker identification. PMID:19968445

  12. Quantifying the intelligibility of speech in noise for non-native talkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijngaarden, Sander J.; Steeneken, Herman J. M.; Houtgast, Tammo

    2002-12-01

    The intelligibility of speech pronounced by non-native talkers is generally lower than speech pronounced by native talkers, especially under adverse conditions, such as high levels of background noise. The effect of foreign accent on speech intelligibility was investigated quantitatively through a series of experiments involving voices of 15 talkers, differing in language background, age of second-language (L2) acquisition and experience with the target language (Dutch). Overall speech intelligibility of L2 talkers in noise is predicted with a reasonable accuracy from accent ratings by native listeners, as well as from the self-ratings for proficiency of L2 talkers. For non-native speech, unlike native speech, the intelligibility of short messages (sentences) cannot be fully predicted by phoneme-based intelligibility tests. Although incorrect recognition of specific phonemes certainly occurs as a result of foreign accent, the effect of reduced phoneme recognition on the intelligibility of sentences may range from severe to virtually absent, depending on (for instance) the speech-to-noise ratio. Objective acoustic-phonetic analyses of accented speech were also carried out, but satisfactory overall predictions of speech intelligibility could not be obtained with relatively simple acoustic-phonetic measures.

  13. Perceptual-Gestural (Mis)Mapping in Serial Short-Term Memory: The Impact of Talker Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Robert W.; Marsh, John E.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the poorer serial recall of talker-variable lists (e.g., alternating female-male voices) as compared with single-voice lists were examined. We tested the novel hypothesis that this "talker variability effect" arises from the tendency for perceptual organization to partition the list into streams based on voice such that…

  14. Children's Identification of Consonants in a Speech-Shaped Noise or a Two-Talker Masker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate child-adult differences for consonant identification in a noise or a 2-talker masker. Error patterns were compared across age and masker type to test the hypothesis that errors with the noise masker reflect limitations in the peripheral encoding of speech, whereas errors with the 2-talker masker reflect target-masker…

  15. Perceptual-Gestural (Mis)Mapping in Serial Short-Term Memory: The Impact of Talker Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Robert W.; Marsh, John E.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the poorer serial recall of talker-variable lists (e.g., alternating female-male voices) as compared with single-voice lists were examined. We tested the novel hypothesis that this "talker variability effect" arises from the tendency for perceptual organization to partition the list into streams based on voice such that

  16. Language familiarity modulates relative attention to the eyes and mouth of a talker.

    PubMed

    Barenholtz, Elan; Mavica, Lauren; Lewkowicz, David J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether the audiovisual speech cues available in a talker's mouth elicit greater attention when adults have to process speech in an unfamiliar language vs. a familiar language. Participants performed a speech-encoding task while watching and listening to videos of a talker in a familiar language (English) or an unfamiliar language (Spanish or Icelandic). Attention to the mouth increased in monolingual subjects in response to an unfamiliar language condition but did not in bilingual subjects when the task required speech processing. In the absence of an explicit speech-processing task, subjects attended equally to the eyes and mouth in response to both familiar and unfamiliar languages. Overall, these results demonstrate that language familiarity modulates selective attention to the redundant audiovisual speech cues in a talker's mouth in adults. When our findings are considered together with similar findings from infants, they suggest that this attentional strategy emerges very early in life. PMID:26649759

  17. Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect

    PubMed Central

    Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Véronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1–4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring. PMID:25400572

  18. Perception of Talker Age by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.; Wagner, Laura

    2013-01-01

    People with high-functioning Autism (HFA) can accurately identify social categories from speech, but they have more difficulty connecting linguistic variation in the speech signal to social stereotypes associated with those categories. In the current study, the perception and evaluation of talker age by young adults with HFA was examined. The…

  19. Differential Neural Contributions to Native- and Foreign-Language Talker Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrachione, Tyler K.; Pierrehumbert, Janet B.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are remarkably adept at identifying individuals by the sound of their voice, a behavior supported by the nervous system's ability to integrate information from voice and speech perception. Talker-identification abilities are significantly impaired when listeners are unfamiliar with the language being spoken. Recent behavioral studies…

  20. The Development of Language-Specific and Language-Independent Talker Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to investigate how differences in language ability relate to differences in processing talker information in the native language and an unfamiliar language by comparing performance for different ages and for groups with impaired language. Method: Three groups of native English listeners with typical…

  1. He Says Potato, She Says Potahto: Young Infants Track Talker-Specific Accents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherhead, Drew; White, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most fundamental aspects of learning a language is determining the mappings between words and referents. An often-overlooked complication is that infants interact with multiple individuals who may not produce words in the same way. In the present study, we explored whether 10- to 12-month-olds can use talker-specific knowledge to infer

  2. Influence of Stuttering Variation on Talker Group Classification in Preschool Children: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of seventeen 3- to 5-year-old CWS and nine 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no…

  3. He Says Potato, She Says Potahto: Young Infants Track Talker-Specific Accents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherhead, Drew; White, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most fundamental aspects of learning a language is determining the mappings between words and referents. An often-overlooked complication is that infants interact with multiple individuals who may not produce words in the same way. In the present study, we explored whether 10- to 12-month-olds can use talker-specific knowledge to infer…

  4. The Development of Language-Specific and Language-Independent Talker Processing

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Susannah V.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors aimed to investigate how differences in language ability relate to differences in processing talker information in the native language and an unfamiliar language by comparing performance for different ages and for groups with impaired language. Method Three groups of native English listeners with typical language development (TLD; ages 7–9, ages 10–12, adults) and 2 groups with specific language impairment (SLI; ages 7–9, ages 10–12) participated in the study. Listeners heard pairs of words in both English and German (unfamiliar language) and were asked to determine whether the words were produced by the same or different talkers. Results In English, talker discrimination improved with age. In German, performance improved with age for the school-age children but was worse for adult listeners. No differences were found between TLD and SLI children. Conclusion These results show that as listeners’ language skills develop, there is a trade-off between more general perceptual abilities useful for processing talker information in any language and those that are relevant to their everyday language experiences and, thus, tied to the phonology. The lack of differences between the children with and without language impairments suggests that general auditory processing may be intact in at least some children with SLI. PMID:23275425

  5. The Nationwide Speech Project: A multi-talker multi-dialect speech corpus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2001-05-01

    Most research on regional phonological variation relies on field recordings of interview speech. Recent research on the perception of dialect variation by naive listeners, however, has relied on read sentence materials in order to control for phonological and lexical content and syntax. The Nationwide Speech Project corpus was designed to obtain a large amount of speech from a number of talkers representing different regional varieties of American English. Five male and five female talkers from each of six different dialect regions in the United States were recorded reading isolated words, sentences, and passages, and in conversations with the experimenter. The talkers ranged in age from 18 and 25 years old and they were all monolingual native speakers of American English. They had lived their entire life in one dialect region and both of their parents were raised in the same region. Results of an acoustic analysis of the vowel spaces of the talkers included in the Nationwide Speech Project will be presented. [Work supported by NIH.

  6. Children with Specific Language Impairment and Resolved Late Talkers: Working Memory Profiles at 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruccelli, Nadia; Bavin, Edith L.; Bretherton, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The evidence of a deficit in working memory in specific language impairment (SLI) is of sufficient magnitude to suggest a primary role in developmental language disorder. However, little research has investigated memory in late talkers who recover from their early delay. Drawing on a longitudinal, community sample, this study compared the…

  7. The Role of Single Talker Acoustic Variation in Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galle, Marcus E.; Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the addition of multiple talkers during habituation improves 14-month-olds' performance in the switch task (Rost & McMurray, 2009). While the authors suggest that this boost in performance is due to the increase in acoustic variability (Rost & McMurray, 2010), it is also possible that there is…

  8. The Role of Single Talker Acoustic Variation in Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galle, Marcus E.; Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the addition of multiple talkers during habituation improves 14-month-olds' performance in the switch task (Rost & McMurray, 2009). While the authors suggest that this boost in performance is due to the increase in acoustic variability (Rost & McMurray, 2010), it is also possible that there is

  9. The Effect of Talker and Intonation Variability on Speech Perception in Noise in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazan, Valerie; Messaoud-Galusi, Souhila; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine whether children with dyslexia (hereafter referred to as "DYS children") are more affected than children with average reading ability (hereafter referred to as "AR children") by talker and intonation variability when perceiving speech in noise. Method: Thirty-four DYS and 25 AR children were…

  10. Efficacy of Multiple-Talker Phonetic Identification Training in Postlingually Deafened Cochlear Implant Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sharon E.; Zhang, Yang; Nelson, Peggy B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study implemented a pretest-intervention-posttest design to examine whether multiple-talker identification training enhanced phonetic perception of the /ba/-/da/ and /wa/-/ja/ contrasts in adult listeners who were deafened postlingually and have cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Nine CI recipients completed 8 hours of identification…

  11. The Development of Language-Specific and Language-Independent Talker Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to investigate how differences in language ability relate to differences in processing talker information in the native language and an unfamiliar language by comparing performance for different ages and for groups with impaired language. Method: Three groups of native English listeners with typical

  12. Individual Differences in Learning Talker Categories: The Role of Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the question of how an auditory category is learned by having school-age listeners learn to categorize speech not in terms of linguistic categories, but instead in terms of talker categories (i.e., who is talking). Findings from visual-category learning indicate that working memory skills affect learning, but the literature is equivocal: sometimes better working memory is advantageous, and sometimes not. The current study examined the role of different components of working memory to test which component skills benefit, and which hinder, learning talker categories. Results revealed that the short-term storage component positively predicted learning, but that the Central Executive and Episodic Buffer negatively predicted learning. As with visual categories, better working memory is not always an advantage. PMID:25721393

  13. [INTERACT: a model of evaluation and intervention for children who are "late talkers"].

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Serena; Stefani, Loredana Hvastja; Zocconi, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    According to criteria applied in literature toddlers were identified as late talkers if they had less than 50-word expressive vocabulary and no word combinations at 24 months of age. The intervention programmes that use the parents as the primary agents of intervention and use child-centred techniques maximise the quality of parental communication during the emerging language period of the child. INTERACT is an early highly individualised parent and child-centered clinical intervention based on the social-pragmatic theorical approach. It is developed for 24-30 months old children with emerging language. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the gains of the child's expressive language skills and the use of multiword utterances and the changes of the maternal/parental communicative style. Six male children described as late talkers and their mothers participated for six months to INTERACT program. At initial intervention children's average age was 27 months and the average of number words producted was 26. All the mothers show high levels of directiveness. At the end of intervention the expressive vocabulary of late talkers increase in number of different words reaching an average of 407 words and an average linguistic age of 31 months, the gain is fourteen months in six months. The mothers show significant changes in their communicative style, the directiveness and the asynchronous/devaluing behaviours decrease. PMID:16922040

  14. English sentence recognition in speech-shaped noise and multi-talker babble for English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native listeners.

    PubMed

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate English sentence recognition in quiet and two types of maskers, multi-talker babble (MTB) and long-term speech-shaped noise (LTSSN), with varied signal-to-noise ratios, for English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native listeners. Results showed that first, sentence recognition for non-native listeners was affected more by background noise than that for native listeners; second, the masking effects of LTSSN were similar between Chinese and Korean listeners, but the masking effects of MTB were greater for Chinese than for Korean listeners, suggesting possible interaction effects between the non-native listener's native language and speech-like competing noise in sentence recognition. PMID:23145700

  15. An Experimental Evaluation of an Audio Tape Learning Program for Shipboard Damage Control Central Sound Powered Telephone Talker Procedures. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, John F.; McCutcheon, Richard E., Jr.

    In the event of an emergency aboard a vessel, the sound powered telephone talkers have the responsibility of receiving damage reports from various portions of the ship, logging them, and passing them on to a Damage Control Assistant (DCA) who then can direct the damage control procedures. The talker must not only be thoroughly familiar with sound…

  16. A Follow-Up Study on Italian Late Talkers: Development of Language, Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, Impulsiveness, and Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Odorico, Laura; Assanelli, Alessandra; Franco, Fabia; Jacob, Valentina

    2007-01-01

    This follow-up study compares cognitive and language aspects of a group of Italian children ages 4-6 years, who had shown delayed expressive language abilities at 24 months of age (late talkers), with those of a group of children with a history of normal expressive language development (average talkers). Children were given a battery of…

  17. Not so fast! Talker variability in serial recall at standard presentation rates.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Claire; Miller, Leonie M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2015-03-01

    In serial recall tasks, presenting items in alternating female and male voices impairs performance relative to the single-voice presentation. This phenomenon, termed the talker-variability effect (TVE), was recently reexamined by Hughes, Marsh, and Jones (2009, 2011), who used the effect as confirmatory evidence for their perceptual-gestural account of serial recall performance. Despite the authors' claim of generalisability, the serial recall paradigm employed did not reflect the standard parameters more generally adopted in verbal short-term memory research. Specifically, the presentation rate of the stimuli was almost 3 times that typically used. We sought to determine if the TVE, as observed by Hughes et al., was generalisable to the standard serial recall task by directly comparing recall performance in talker-variable conditions at fast and slow stimulus presentation rates. Experiment 1 employed a systematic replication of the foundational study undertaken by Hughes et al. (2009). Utilising a novel stimulus set, Experiment 2 provided a subsequent test of the generalisability of the TVE, examining the influence of item properties. Both experiments showed a robust TVE at the atypical fast presentation rate; however, for the slower item presentation, the TVE was unreliable. Furthermore, error analysis suggests that item recall also contributes to the TVE, contrary to the current explanation proposed by Hughes et al. (2009, 2011). The challenge of the present data to the perceptual-gestural account of the TVE is explored. Alternative accounts that focus on the resource cost of categorical speech perception in the context of talker variability are posited. PMID:25730639

  18. Speaking and Hearing Clearly: Talker and Listener Factors in Speaking Style Changes

    PubMed Central

    Smiljanić, Rajka; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the research concerning the nature of the distinct, listener-oriented speaking style called ‘clear speech’ and its effect on intelligibility for various listener populations. We review major findings that identify talker, listener and signal characteristics that contribute to the characteristically high intelligibility of clear speech. Understanding the interplay of these factors sheds light on the interaction between higher level cognitive and lower-level sensory and perceptual factors that affect language processing. Clear speech research is, thus, relevant for both its theoretical insights and practical applications. Throughout the review, we highlight open questions and promising future directions. PMID:20046964

  19. Recognition test for an open set of talkers represented by their acoustic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, A.; Ibba, G.; Paoloni, A.; Ragona, R.

    1981-03-01

    A method based on a precise statistical formulation is presented which allows the use of a limited set of acoustic parameters for the recognition of the speaker in an open test. A number of speech realizations are collected for a group of different speakers. A second collection is made of utterances to be compared with the known speakers. In the general case a new utterance may not belong to any of the talkers referred to the test. Error of false identification and rejection is estimated as a measure of procedure effectiveness. Some considerations are made about the feasibility of the proposed method in the field practice of speaker recognition.

  20. Talker adaptation in speech perception: Adjusting the signal or the representations?

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Delphine; Drucker, Sarah J.; Scarborough, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    Past research has established that listeners can accommodate a wide range of talkers in understanding language. How this adjustment operates, however, is a matter of debate. Here, listeners were exposed to spoken words from a speaker of an American English dialect in which the vowel /æ/ is raised before /g/, but not before /k/. Results from two experiments showed that listeners’ identification of /k/-final words like back (which are unaffected by the dialect) was facilitated by prior exposure to their dialect-affected /g/-final counterparts, e.g., bag. This facilitation occurred because the competition between interpretations, e.g., bag or back, while hearing the initial portion of the input [bæ], was mitigated by the reduced probability for the input to correspond to bag as produced by this talker. Thus, adaptation to an accent is not just a matter of adjusting the speech signal as it is being heard; adaptation involves dynamic adjustment of the representations stored in the lexicon, according to the characteristics of the speaker or the context. PMID:18653175

  1. Perception of Speech Produced by Native and Nonnative Talkers by Listeners with Normal Hearing and Listeners with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Caili; Galvin, John J.; Chang, Yi-ping; Xu, Anting; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the understanding of English sentences produced by native (English) and nonnative (Spanish) talkers by listeners with normal hearing (NH) and listeners with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Sentence recognition in noise was measured in adult subjects with CIs and subjects with NH, all of whom were…

  2. Talker-Specific Generalization of Pragmatic Inferences based on Under- and Over-Informative Prenominal Adjective Use

    PubMed Central

    Pogue, Amanda; Kurumada, Chigusa; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    According to Grice’s (1975) Maxim of Quantity, rational talkers formulate their utterances to be as economical as possible while conveying all necessary information. Naturally produced referential expressions, however, often contain more or less information than what is predicted to be optimal given a rational speaker model. How do listeners cope with these variations in the linguistic input? We argue that listeners navigate the variability in referential resolution by calibrating their expectations for the amount of linguistic signal to be expended for a certain meaning and by doing so in a context- or a talker-specific manner. Focusing on talker-specificity, we present four experiments. We first establish that speakers will generalize information from a single pair of adjectives to unseen adjectives in a speaker-specific manner (Experiment 1). Initially focusing on exposure to underspecified utterances, Experiment 2 examines: (a) the dimension of generalization; (b) effects of the strength of the evidence (implicit or explicit); and (c) individual differences in dimensions of generalization. Experiments 3 and 4 ask parallel questions for exposure to over-specified utterances, where we predict more conservative generalization because, in spontaneous utterances, talkers are more likely to over-modify than under-modify. PMID:26834667

  3. Lexical Training through Modeling and Elicitation Procedures with Late Talkers Who Have Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouri, Theresa A.

    2005-01-01

    Late talkers with specific language impairment and developmental delay make up a large portion of our early childhood caseloads; therefore, an understanding of best clinical practices for these populations is essential. Early lexical learning was examined in 2 interactive treatment approaches with 29 late-talking preschoolers with language and…

  4. Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Nov. 26, 2002. NASA Dryden is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert.

  5. Perception of Speech Produced by Native and Nonnative Talkers by Listeners with Normal Hearing and Listeners with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Caili; Galvin, John J.; Chang, Yi-ping; Xu, Anting; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the understanding of English sentences produced by native (English) and nonnative (Spanish) talkers by listeners with normal hearing (NH) and listeners with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Sentence recognition in noise was measured in adult subjects with CIs and subjects with NH, all of whom were

  6. Recognition of spoken words by native and non-native listeners: Talker-, listener-, and item-related factors

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, Ann R.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically “easy” words (words with few phonetically similar sounding “neighbors” with which they could be confused), and the other list contained lexically “hard” (wordswords with many phonetically similar sounding “neighbors”). An analysis of the intelligibility data obtained with native speakers of English (experiment 1) showed a strong effect of lexical similarity. Easy words had higher intelligibility scores than hard words. A strong effect of speaking rate was also found whereby slow and medium rate words had higher intelligibility scores than fast rate words. Finally, a relationship was also observed between the various stimulus factors whereby the perceptual difficulties imposed by one factor, such as a hard word spoken at a fast rate, could be overcome by the advantage gained through the listener's experience and familiarity with the speech of a particular talker. In experiment 2, the investigation was extended to another listener population, namely, non-native listeners. Results showed that the ability to take advantage of surface phonetic information, such as a consistent talker across items, is a perceptual skill that transfers easily from first to second language perception. However, non-native listeners had particular difficulty with lexically hard words even when familiarity with the items was controlled, suggesting that non-native word recognition may be compromised when fine phonetic discrimination at the segmental level is required. Taken together, the results of this study provide insight into the signal-dependent and signal-independent factors that influence spoken language processing in native and non-native listeners. PMID:10530030

  7. Dimensional feature weighting utilizing multiple kernel learning for single-channel talker location discrimination using the acoustic transfer function.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Ryoichi; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Ariki, Yasuo

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a method for discriminating the location of the sound source (talker) using only a single microphone. In a previous work, the single-channel approach for discriminating the location of the sound source was discussed, where the acoustic transfer function from a user's position is estimated by using a hidden Markov model of clean speech in the cepstral domain. In this paper, each cepstral dimension of the acoustic transfer function is newly weighted, in order to obtain the cepstral dimensions having information that is useful for classifying the user's position. Then, this paper proposes a feature-weighting method for the cepstral parameter using multiple kernel learning, defining the base kernels for each cepstral dimension of the acoustic transfer function. The user's position is trained and classified by support vector machine. The effectiveness of this method has been confirmed by sound source (talker) localization experiments performed in different room environments. PMID:23363107

  8. Talker sex mediates the influence of neighborhood density on vowel articulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    Words with high phonological neighborhood densities (ND) are more difficult to perceive than words with low NDs [P. Luce and D. Pisoni (1998)]. Previous research has shown that the F1/F2 acoustic vowel space is larger for vowels in words with high ND relative to words with low NDs [B. Munson and N.P. Solomon (2004); R. Wright (2004)]. This may represent talkers' tacit attempts to partially counter the perception difficulties associated with high-ND words. If so, then we would expect to see a larger effect of ND on vowel articulation in women, who have been observed to produce more intelligible speech than men, and to accommodate more to conversational partners than men [V. Hazan and D. Markham (2004); L. Namy et al. (2002)]. This hypothesis was tested by examining the influence of ND on vowel-space articulation by 22 women and 22 men. As expected, women produced overall more-dispersed vowel spaces than men, and vowel spaces associated with high-ND words were more-dispersed than low-ND words. Contrary to expectations, the influence of ND on vowel-space expansion was strongest in men. This appeared to be due a tendency for women not to produce contracted vowel spaces for low-ND words.

  9. Masker location uncertainty reveals evidence for suppression of maskers in two-talker contexts.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kachina; Alais, David; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara; Carlile, Simon

    2011-10-01

    In many natural settings, spatial release from masking aids speech intelligibility, especially when there are competing talkers. This paper describes a series of three experiments that investigate the role of prior knowledge of masker location on phoneme identification and spatial release from masking. In contrast to previous work, these experiments use initial stop-consonant identification as a test of target intelligibility to ensure that listeners had little time to switch the focus of spatial attention during the task. The first experiment shows that target phoneme identification was worse when a masker played from an unexpected location (increasing the consonant identification threshold by 2.6 dB) compared to when an energetically very similar and symmetrically located masker came from an expected location. In the second and third experiments, target phoneme identification was worse (increasing target threshold levels by 2.0 and 2.6 dB, respectively) when the target was played unexpectedly on the side from which the masker was expected compared to when the target came from an unexpected, symmetrical location in the hemifield opposite the expected location of the masker. These results support the idea that listeners modulate spatial attention by both focusing resources on the expected target location and withdrawing attentional resources from expected locations of interfering sources. PMID:21973359

  10. Identity Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    This research examines two mechanisms by which persons' identities change over time. First, on the basis of identity control theory (ICT), I hypothesize that while identities influence the way in which a role is played out, discrepancies between the meanings of the identity standard and the meanings of the role performance will result in change.…

  11. Understanding Civic Identity in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Cabrera, Alberto F.

    2015-01-01

    Past literature has examined ways in which college students adopt civic identities. However, little is known about characteristics of students that vary in their expression of these identities. Drawing on data from American College Testing (ACT), this study employs multinomial logistic regression to understand attributes of students who vary in…

  12. Influence of hearing loss on children’s identification of spondee words in a speech-shaped noise or a two-talker masker

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Hillock-Dunn, Andrea; Duncan, Nicole; Roush, Patricia A.; Buss, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This study compared spondee identification performance in presence of speech-shaped noise or two competing talkers across children with hearing loss and age-matched children with normal hearing. The results showed a greater masking effect for children with hearing loss compared to children with normal hearing for both masker conditions. However, the magnitude of this group difference was significantly larger for the two-talker compared to the speech-shaped noise masker. These results support the hypothesis that hearing loss influences children’s perceptual processing abilities. PMID:23492919

  13. Evaluation of an Audiovisual-FM System: Investigating the Interaction between Illumination Level and a Talker's Skin Color on Speech-Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Laplante-Levesque, Ariane; Labelle, Maude; Doucet, Katrine; Potvin, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    A program designed to evaluate the benefits of an audiovisual-frequency modulated (FM) system led to some questions concerning the effects of illumination level and a talker's skin color on speech-reading performance. To address those issues, the speech of a Caucasian female was videotaped under 2 conditions: a light skin color condition and a…

  14. Evaluation of an audiovisual-FM system: investigating the interaction between illumination level and a talker's skin color on speech-reading performance.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Labelle, Maude; Doucet, Katrine; Potvin, Marie-Christine

    2006-06-01

    A program designed to evaluate the benefits of an audiovisual-frequency modulated (FM) system led to some questions concerning the effects of illumination level and a talker's skin color on speech-reading performance. To address those issues, the speech of a Caucasian female was videotaped under 2 conditions: a light skin color condition and a dark skin color condition. For the latter condition, makeup was applied to the talker's face. For both skin color conditions, the talker was recorded while speaking sentences under 7 different levels of illumination: 2, 3, 4, 16, 60, 256, and 600 footcandles (fc). Fifteen participants completed the speech perception task in a visual-only modality. The results revealed a significant interaction of illumination level and skin color. For the light skin color condition, speech-reading performance improved systematically as the illumination level increased from 3 to 16 fc. For the dark skin color condition, no differences in speech-reading performance were observed between the 2-fc and the 3-fc conditions. However, a large improvement in speech-reading performance was observed as the illumination level increased from 4 fc to 16 fc. It is speculated that in addition to an overall effect of illumination level, the contrast in luminance at the level of the talker's face has an effect on speech-reading performance. PMID:16787900

  15. Is the Good-Imitator-Poor-Talker Profile Syndrome-Specific in Down Syndrome?: Evidence from Standardised Imitation and Language Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanvuchelen, M.; Feys, H.; De Weerdt, W.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of the Down syndrome (DS) behavioural phenotype during early development may be of great importance for early intervention. The main goal of this study was to investigate the good-imitator-poor-talker developmental profile in DS at preschool age. Twenty children with Down syndrome (DS; mean nonverbal mental age NMA 1 y10 m) and 15…

  16. Exploring Early Years Educators' Ownership of Language and Communication Knowledge and Skills: A Review of Key Policy and Initial Reflections on "Every Child a Talker" and Its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    This article examines four significant policy documents that have informed the Department for Children School and Families (DCSF)' s "Every Child a Talker" (ECaT). The analysis focuses on where the ownership of knowledge in relation to communication and language lies as part of policy implementation and training processes. The article then…

  17. Brand Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are outlined;…

  18. Bridging Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaux, Kay; Burke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sociology and psychology are no strangers in the theoretical world of self and identity. Early works by William James (1890), a psychologist, and George Herbert Mead (1934), a sociologist, are often taken as a starting point by investigators in both fields. In more recent years, with the development of a number of identity theories in both fields,…

  19. English vowel identification in long-term speech-shaped noise and multi-talker babble for English and Chinese listeners.

    PubMed

    Mi, Lin; Tao, Sha; Wang, Wenjing; Dong, Qi; Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2013-05-01

    The identification of 12 English vowels was measured in quiet and in long-term speech-shaped noise (LTSSN) and multi-talker babble for English-native (EN) listeners and Chinese-native listeners in the U.S. (CNU) and China (CNC). The signal-to-noise ratio was manipulated from -15 to 0 dB. As expected, EN listeners performed significantly better in quiet and noisy conditions than CNU and CNC listeners. Vowel identification in LTSSN was similar between CNU and CNC listeners; however, performance in babble was significantly better for CNU listeners than for CNC listeners, indicating that exposing non-native listeners to native English may reduce informational masking of multi-talker babble. PMID:23656099

  20. Age-related changes to spectral voice characteristics affect judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes for child and adult speech

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics covary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. Spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers’ voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were associated with differences in judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Method Speech was modified by lowering formants and fundamental frequency, for 5-year-old children’s utterances, or raising them, for adult caregivers’ utterances. Next, participants differing in awareness of the manipulation (Exp. 1a) or amount of speech-language training (Exp. 1b) made judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of spectral modification on intelligibility. Finally, in Exp. 3 trained analysts used formal prosody coding to assess prosodic characteristics of spectrally-modified and unmodified speech. Results Differences in perceived age were associated with differences in ratings of speech rate, fluency, intelligibility, likeability, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and speech-language disorder/delay; effects of training and awareness of the manipulation on ratings were limited. There were no significant effects of the manipulation on intelligibility or formally coded prosody judgments. Conclusions Age-related voice characteristics can greatly affect judgments of speech and talker characteristics, raising cautionary notes for developmental research and clinical work. PMID:23275414

  1. Performing Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuman, Amy N.; Simmons, Jake; Kinane, Ryan D.; Stow, Brandon D.

    2008-01-01

    The intercultural communication course offers a unique space for the introduction of pluralistic realities and lived experiences. Intercultural communication instructors are faced with the formidable task of facilitating a course that provides an outlet for exploring complex information related to the negotiation of cultural identities and value…

  2. Projected Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mark Alan

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the idea behind Projected Identities, an art activity wherein students fuse art-making processes and digital image manipulations in a series of exploratory artistic self-examinations. At some point in every person's life they've been told something hard to forget. Students might, for example, translate phrases like, "Good…

  3. Contribution of low-frequency harmonics to Mandarin Chinese tone identification in quiet and six-talker babble background.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Azimi, Behnam; Bhandary, Moulesh; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Mandarin Chinese tone identification in quiet and multi-talker babble conditions for normal-hearing listeners. Tone identification was measured with speech stimuli and stimuli with low and/or high harmonics that were embedded in three Mandarin vowels with two fundamental frequencies. There were six types of stimuli: all harmonics (All), low harmonics (Low), high harmonics (High), and the first (H1), second (H2), and third (H3) harmonic. Results showed that, for quiet conditions, individual harmonics carried frequency contour information well enough for tone identification with high accuracy; however, in noisy conditions, tone identification with individual low harmonics (e.g., H1, H2, and H3) was significantly lower than that with the Low, High, and All harmonics. Moreover, tone identification with individual harmonics in noise was lower for a low F0 than for a high F0, and was also dependent on vowel category. Tone identification with individual low-frequency harmonics was accounted for by local signal-to-noise ratios, indicating that audibility of harmonics in noise may play a primary role in tone identification. PMID:24437783

  4. Musical America: United yet Varied Identities for Classroom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan; Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2008-01-01

    More than ever, today's America is diverse beyond anyone's wildest dreams, and the music that resonates in families and neighborhoods, on concert stages, in schools, dance halls, and clubs, and through the media is as wide a variety as exists anywhere in the world. America's music is decidedly difficult to pin down as a single and united style, as…

  5. Speech understanding in noise with the Roger Pen, Naida CI Q70 processor, and integrated Roger 17 receiver in a multi-talker network.

    PubMed

    De Ceulaer, Geert; Bestel, Julie; Mülder, Hans E; Goldbeck, Felix; de Varebeke, Sebastien Pierre Janssens; Govaerts, Paul J

    2016-05-01

    Roger is a digital adaptive multi-channel remote microphone technology that wirelessly transmits a speaker's voice directly to a hearing instrument or cochlear implant sound processor. Frequency hopping between channels, in combination with repeated broadcast, avoids interference issues that have limited earlier generation FM systems. This study evaluated the benefit of the Roger Pen transmitter microphone in a multiple talker network (MTN) for cochlear implant users in a simulated noisy conversation setting. Twelve post-lingually deafened adult Advanced Bionics CII/HiRes 90K recipients were recruited. Subjects used a Naida CI Q70 processor with integrated Roger 17 receiver. The test environment simulated four people having a meal in a noisy restaurant, one the CI user (listener), and three companions (talkers) talking non-simultaneously in a diffuse field of multi-talker babble. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were determined without the Roger Pen, with one Roger Pen, and with three Roger Pens in an MTN. Using three Roger Pens in an MTN improved the SRT by 14.8 dB over using no Roger Pen, and by 13.1 dB over using a single Roger Pen (p < 0.0001). The Roger Pen in an MTN provided statistically and clinically significant improvement in speech perception in noise for Advanced Bionics cochlear implant recipients. The integrated Roger 17 receiver made it easy for users of the Naida CI Q70 processor to take advantage of the Roger system. The listening advantage and ease of use should encourage more clinicians to recommend and fit Roger in adult cochlear implant patients. PMID:25983309

  6. Lexical training through modeling and elicitation procedures with late talkers who have specific language impairment and developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Kouri, Theresa A

    2005-02-01

    Late talkers with specific language impairment and developmental delay make up a large portion of our early childhood caseloads; therefore, an understanding of best clinical practices for these populations is essential. Early lexical learning was examined in 2 interactive treatment approaches with 29 late-talking preschoolers with language and developmental disabilities. Children were randomly assigned to either a mand-elicited imitation (MEI) condition in which elicitations and imitative prompts were used or to a modeling with auditory bombardment (Mod-AB) condition in which auditory bombardment and play modeling were incorporated with no response demands on participants. Lexical production of target vocabulary words already comprehended was measured during a 10-session training period and then during two 50-min play interactions with a parent/caretaker in the home after treatment was completed. Results indicated that the MEI procedure was relatively more effective in facilitating frequency and rate of target word learning in the treatment setting, but no significant differences were found between conditions in the number or percentage of target words generalized to the home setting. Mod-AB children produced more target words that were limited to the home setting than did MEI children, whose productivity was more balanced across settings. Treatment by aptitude regression analyses indicated that none of the preintervention language, cognitive, or total development aptitude scores were predictive of child performance in 1 treatment condition or the other, although Battelle Developmental Inventory communication scores and sizes of preintervention lexicons were predictive of child performance across conditions. Empirical and clinical issues pertaining to the efficacy of modeling- and elicitation-based procedures for late-talking preschoolers are discussed. PMID:15934450

  7. Designing acoustics for linguistically diverse classrooms: Effects of background noise, reverberation and talker foreign accent on speech comprehension by native and non-native English-speaking listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhao Ellen

    The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects of BNL and RT on the comprehension of English speech from native English and native Mandarin Chinese talkers as perceived by native and non-native English listeners, and to provide acoustic design guidelines to supplement the existing standard. This dissertation presents two studies on the effects of RT and BNL on more realistic classroom learning experiences. How do native and non-native English-speaking listeners perform on speech comprehension tasks under adverse acoustic conditions, if the English speech is produced by talkers of native English (Study 1) versus native Mandarin Chinese (Study 2)? Speech comprehension materials were played back in a listening chamber to individual listeners: native and non-native English-speaking in Study 1; native English, native Mandarin Chinese, and other non-native English-speaking in Study 2. Each listener was screened for baseline English proficiency level, and completed dual tasks simultaneously involving speech comprehension and adaptive dot-tracing under 15 acoustic conditions, comprised of three BNL conditions (RC-30, 40, and 50) and five RT scenarios (0.4 to 1.2 seconds). The results show that BNL and RT negatively affect both objective performance and subjective perception of speech comprehension, more severely for non-native listeners than for native listeners. While the presence of foreign accent is generally detrimental, an interlanguage benefit was identified on both speech comprehension and the self-report frustration and perceived performance ratings, specifically for non-native listeners with matched foreign accent as the talker. Suggested design guidelines for BNL and RT are identified for attaining optimal speech comprehension performance to improve classroom acoustics for the non-native English-speaking population.

  8. Recognition memory in noise for speech of varying intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Rachael C; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which noise impacts normal-hearing young adults' speech processing of sentences that vary in intelligibility. Intelligibility and recognition memory in noise were examined for conversational and clear speech sentences recorded in quiet (quiet speech, QS) and in response to the environmental noise (noise-adapted speech, NAS). Results showed that (1) increased intelligibility through conversational-to-clear speech modifications led to improved recognition memory and (2) NAS presented a more naturalistic speech adaptation to noise compared to QS, leading to more accurate word recognition and enhanced sentence recognition memory. These results demonstrate that acoustic-phonetic modifications implemented in listener-oriented speech enhance speech-in-noise processing beyond word recognition. Effortful speech processing in challenging listening environments can thus be improved by speaking style adaptations on the part of the talker. In addition to enhanced intelligibility, a substantial improvement in recognition memory can be achieved through speaker adaptations to the environment and to the listener when in adverse conditions. PMID:24437779

  9. [Rethinking identity].

    PubMed

    Dorais, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Pioneering work conducted over the past decades used to design sex, gender and sexual orientation in order to go beyond the traditional binary model. In general, professionals in the health and social services, however, are a little bit slow to take note of this paradigm shift making more space for human diversity, and much less to the marginalization or pathologizing of differences. In this article, the work of Alfred Kinsey, Sandra Bem and Anne Fausto-Sterling will be especially presented, respectively on sexual orientation, gender and sex. It will be proposed to include their contributions (and also those of their successors) in a model taking into account both the diversity and the fluidity that may be present in identities and self-expressions related to sex, gender and sexual orientation. PMID:26966847

  10. Identity Style, Parental Authority, and Identity Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzonsky, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The role that parental authority patterns and social-cognitive identity styles may play in establishing identity commitments was investigated. The results indicated that family authority and identity style variables combined accounted for 50% of the variation in strength of identity commitment. As hypothesized, the relationship between parental…

  11. Subjective and psychophysiological indices of listening effort in a competing-talker task

    PubMed Central

    Mackersie, Carol L.; Cones, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background The effects of noise and other competing backgrounds on speech recognition performance are well documented. There is less information, however, on listening effort and stress experienced by listeners during a speech recognition task that requires inhibition of competing sounds. Purpose The purpose was a) to determine if psychophysiological indices of listening effort were more sensitive than performance measures (percentage correct) obtained near ceiling level during a competing speech task b) to determine the relative sensitivity of four psychophysiological measures to changes in task demand and c) to determine the relationships between changes in psychophysiological measures and changes in subjective ratings of stress and workload. Research Design A repeated-measures experimental design was used to examine changes in performance, psychophysiological measures, and subjective ratings in response to increasing task demand. Study Sample Fifteen adults with normal hearing participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 27 (range: 24–54). Data Collection and Analysis Psychophysiological recordings of heart rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, and electromyographic activity (EMG) were obtained during listening tasks of varying demand. Materials from the Dichotic Digits Test were used to modulate task demand. The three levels of tasks demand were: single digits presented to one ear (low-demand reference condition), single digits presented simultaneously to both ears (medium demand), and a series of two digits presented simultaneously to both ears (high demand). Participants were asked to repeat all the digits they heard while psychophysiological activity was recorded simultaneously. Subjective ratings of task load were obtained after each condition using the NASA-TLX questionnaire. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were completed for each measure using task demand and session as factors. Results Mean performance was higher than 96% for all listening tasks. There was no significant change in performance across listening conditions for any listener. There was, however, a significant increase in mean skin conductance and EMG activity as task demand increased. Heart rate and skin temperature did not change significantly. There was no strong association between subjective and psychophysiological measures, but all participants with mean normalized effort ratings of greater than 4.5 (i.e. effort increased by a factor of at least 4.5) showed significant changes in skin conductance. Conclusions Even in the absence of substantial performance changes, listeners may experience changes in subjective and psychophysiological responses consistent with activation of a stress response. Skin conductance appears to be the most promising measure for evaluating individual changes in psychophysiological responses during listening tasks. PMID:21463566

  12. Lateralization of Visuospatial Attention across Face Regions Varies with Emotional Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Laura A.; Malloy, Daniel M.; LeBlanc, Katya L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-established that linguistic processing is primarily a left-hemisphere activity, while emotional prosody processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere. Does attention, directed at different regions of the talker's face, reflect this pattern of lateralization? We investigated visuospatial attention across a talker's face with a

  13. Lateralization of Visuospatial Attention across Face Regions Varies with Emotional Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Laura A.; Malloy, Daniel M.; LeBlanc, Katya L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-established that linguistic processing is primarily a left-hemisphere activity, while emotional prosody processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere. Does attention, directed at different regions of the talker's face, reflect this pattern of lateralization? We investigated visuospatial attention across a talker's face with a…

  14. Varying constants quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P. E-mail: abalcerz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2015-02-01

    We discuss minisuperspace models within the framework of varying physical constants theories including Λ-term. In particular, we consider the varying speed of light (VSL) theory and varying gravitational constant theory (VG) using the specific ansätze for the variability of constants: c(a) = c{sub 0} a{sup n} and G(a)=G{sub 0} a{sup q}. We find that most of the varying c and G minisuperspace potentials are of the tunneling type which allows to use WKB approximation of quantum mechanics. Using this method we show that the probability of tunneling of the universe ''from nothing'' (a=0) to a Friedmann geometry with the scale factor a{sub t} is large for growing c models and is strongly suppressed for diminishing c models. As for G varying, the probability of tunneling is large for G diminishing, while it is small for G increasing. In general, both varying c and G change the probability of tunneling in comparison to the standard matter content (cosmological term, dust, radiation) universe models.

  15. Time-varying BRDFs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials. PMID:17356224

  16. Assemblage: Raising Awareness of Student Identity Formation through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drouin, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Asking students to physically construct manifestations of their identities is not necessarily a new technique, but the author wanted students to experience the iterative and fluid nature of identity formation with the hopes of beginning a longer discussion of how other individuals, groups, and varying contexts shape identities with and without…

  17. Personal Identity in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  18. Alternative Identities in Multicultural Schools in Israel: Emancipatory Identity, Mixed Identity and Transnational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Economic and technological processes of globalization and the increasing migrations of people in the world undermine dominant national identities. One of the main characteristics of our time is the instability of identities and the continuous invention of new/old identities. Traditions and ethnic identities are deconstructed and reconstructed.…

  19. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, I Anand

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner. PMID:20582220

  20. Time Varying Feature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

    2012-04-01

    The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex. Keeping track of feature property value corrections or even feature (state change) cancellations for auditing purposes is also not easy to achieve. The aviation domain has strong requirements to represent and manage the state of aeronautical features through time. Being able to efficiently encode and manage feature state changes, keeping track of all changes for auditing purposes and being able to determine the future state of an aeronautical feature as currently known to the system are vital for aeronautical applications. In order to support these requirements, the Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) which has been developed by the aviation domain is based on the so called AIXM Temporality Model (AIXM-TM). The AIXM-TM defines various rules for modeling, representing and handling the state of aeronautical features through time. This is a promising approach that can be incorporated into the GFM so that ultimately the modeling and management of time varying feature data is supported in an interoperable and harmonized way in all geospatial domains. This presentation gives an introduction to the main concepts of the AIXM-TM. It also shows how the GFM can be extended to support time varying feature data. Finally, the relationship of O&M and time varying features is discussed.

  1. Blade pitch varying mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L.

    1988-04-19

    A gas turbine engine is described comprising: (a) a stationary member; (b) first and second rotating structures coaxially disposed about the stationary member; (c) an annular gas flowpath coaxial with the first and second rotating structures; (d) first and second rotor blades attached to the first and second rotating structures; (e) forward and aft rows of variable pitch propulsor blades coupled to and disposed radially outwardly of the first and second rotating structures respectively; (f) a first gear coaxially coupled to one of the propulsor blades whereby angular displacement of the first gear about a radius of the rotating structure varies the pitch of the propulsor blade with respect to the rotating structure; (g) a second gear rotatably coupled to the first gear; (h) a third gear rigidly coupled to the second gear; (i) a fourth gear rigidly coupled to the rotating structure and rotatably coupled to the thrid gear, (j) means for eccentrically revolving the second gear and the third gear with respect to the first gear and the fourth gear, respectively, whereby the first gear is angularly displaced with respect to the fourth gear.

  2. Perceived consequences of hypothetical identity-inconsistent sexual experiences: effects of perceiver's sex and sexual identity.

    PubMed

    Preciado, Mariana A; Johnson, Kerri L

    2014-04-01

    Most people organize their sexual orientation under a single sexual identity label. However, people may have sexual experiences that are inconsistent with their categorical sexual identity label. A man might identify as heterosexual but still experience some attraction to men; a woman might identify as lesbian yet enter into a romantic relationship with a man. Identity-inconsistent experiences are likely to have consequences. In the present study, we examined lay perceptions of the consequences of identity-inconsistent sexual experiences for self-perceived sexuality and for social relationships among a sexually diverse sample (N = 283). We found that the perceived consequences of identity-inconsistent experiences for self-perception, for social stigmatization, and for social relationships varied as a function of participant sex, participant sexual identity (heterosexual, gay, lesbian), and experience type (fantasy, attraction, behavior, love). We conclude that not all identity-inconsistent sexual experiences are perceived as equally consequential and that the perceived consequences of such experiences vary predictably as a function of perceiver sex and sexual identity. We discuss the role lay perceptions of the consequences of identity-inconsistent sexual experiences may play in guiding attitudes and behavior. PMID:23733152

  3. Language, Power and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodak, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    How are identities constructed in discourse? How are national and European identities tied to language and communication? And what role does power have--power in discourse, over discourse and of discourse? This paper seeks to identify and analyse processes of identity construction within Europe and at its boundaries, particularly the diversity of…

  4. Conversations: Identity Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthey, Sarah J.; Moje, Elizabeth Birr

    2002-01-01

    Presents a "conversation" between the authors that discusses various theories of identity, the relationship between identity and literacy, and how identities and literacies are constructed and practiced within relationships of race, gender, class, and space. Addresses findings of recent studies and the authors' thoughts about what these findings…

  5. Identity security awareness.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Nayna C

    2004-01-01

    Identity theft is an increasing concern when organizations, businesses, and even childbirth educators ask for a client's Social Security number for identification purposes. In this column, the author suggests ways to protect one's identity and, more importantly, decrease the opportunities for identity theft. PMID:17273374

  6. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…

  7. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards

  8. Social Identity and Preferences*

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel J.; Choi, James J.; Strickland, A. Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Social identities prescribe behaviors for people. We identify the marginal behavioral effect of these norms on discount rates and risk aversion by measuring how laboratory subjects’ choices change when an aspect of social identity is made salient. When we make ethnic identity salient to Asian-American subjects, they make more patient choices. When we make racial identity salient to black subjects, non-immigrant blacks (but not immigrant blacks) make more patient choices. Making gender identity salient has no effect on intertemporal or risk choices. PMID:20871741

  9. Neurodegeneration and Identity.

    PubMed

    Strohminger, Nina; Nichols, Shaun

    2015-09-01

    There is a widespread notion, both within the sciences and among the general public, that mental deterioration can rob individuals of their identity. Yet there have been no systematic investigations of what types of cognitive damage lead people to appear to no longer be themselves. We measured perceived identity change in patients with three kinds of neurodegenerative disease: frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Structural equation models revealed that injury to the moral faculty plays the primary role in identity discontinuity. Other cognitive deficits, including amnesia, have no measurable impact on identity persistence. Accordingly, frontotemporal dementia has the greatest effect on perceived identity, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has the least. We further demonstrated that perceived identity change fully mediates the impact of neurodegenerative disease on relationship deterioration between patient and caregiver. Our results mark a departure from theories that ground personal identity in memory, distinctiveness, dispositional emotion, or global mental function. PMID:26270072

  10. Exploring medical identity theft.

    PubMed

    Mancilla, Desla; Moczygemba, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    The crime of medical identity theft is a growing concern in healthcare institutions. A mixed-method study design including a two-stage electronic survey, telephone survey follow-up, and on-site observations was used to evaluate current practices in admitting and registration departments to reduce the occurrence of medical identity theft. Survey participants were chief compliance officers in acute healthcare organizations and members of the Health Care Compliance Association. Study results indicate variance in whether or how patient identity is confirmed in healthcare settings. The findings of this study suggest that information systems need to be designed for more efficient identity management. Admitting and registration staff must be trained, and compliance with medical identity theft policies and procedures must be monitored. Finally, biometric identity management solutions should be considered for stronger patient identification verification. PMID:20169017

  11. Exploring Medical Identity Theft

    PubMed Central

    Mancilla, Desla; Moczygemba, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    The crime of medical identity theft is a growing concern in healthcare institutions. A mixed-method study design including a two-stage electronic survey, telephone survey follow-up, and on-site observations was used to evaluate current practices in admitting and registration departments to reduce the occurrence of medical identity theft. Survey participants were chief compliance officers in acute healthcare organizations and members of the Health Care Compliance Association. Study results indicate variance in whether or how patient identity is confirmed in healthcare settings. The findings of this study suggest that information systems need to be designed for more efficient identity management. Admitting and registration staff must be trained, and compliance with medical identity theft policies and procedures must be monitored. Finally, biometric identity management solutions should be considered for stronger patient identification verification. PMID:20169017

  12. Selective attention to facial emotion and identity in children with autism: evidence for global identity and local emotion.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongning; Hakoda, Yuji

    2012-08-01

    The present study sought to test the global-identity and local-emotion processing hypothesis in face perception by examining emotional interference in face perception in children with high-functioning autism/Asperger's syndrome. Participants judged either the expression or the identity of faces while identity/expression was either held constant or varied (Garner paradigm). The results revealed that emotional expressions interfered with identity processing in face perception for autism spectrum disorder individuals. Taken together with previous findings, our results suggest that emotion judgment mainly depends on local processing, while identity judgment mainly depends on global processing. PMID:22753237

  13. Effect of fundamental-frequency and sentence-onset differences on speech-identification performance of young and older adults in a competing-talker backgrounda

    PubMed Central

    Hee Lee, Jae; Humes, Larry E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the benefits of differences between sentences in fundamental frequency (F0) and temporal onset for sentence pairs among listener groups differing in age and hearing sensitivity. Two experiments were completed with the primary difference between experiments being the way in which the stimuli were presented. Experiment 1 used blocked stimulus presentation, which ultimately provided redundant acoustic cues to mark the target sentence in each pair, whereas Experiment 2 sampled a slightly more restricted stimulus space, but in a completely randomized presentation order. For both experiments, listeners were required to detect a cue word (“Baron”) for the target sentence in each pair and to then identify the target words (color, number) that appeared later in the target sentence. Results of Experiment 1 showed that F0 or onset separation cues were beneficial to both cue-word detection and color-number identification performance. There were no significant differences across groups in the ability to detect the cue word, but groups differed in their ability to identify the correct color-number words. Elderly adults with impaired hearing had the greatest difficulty with the identification task despite the application of spectral shaping to restore the audibility of the speech stimuli. For the most part, the primary results of Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, although, in the latter experiment, all older adults, whether they had normal or impaired hearing, performed worse than young adults with normal hearing. From Experiment 2, the benefits received for a difference in F0 between talkers of 6 semitones were equivalent to those received for an onset asynchrony of 300 ms between sentences and, for such conditions, the combination of both sound-segregation cues resulted in an additive benefit. PMID:22978898

  14. Personal Identity in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimura, Kazumi; Mizokami, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores characteristics of identity formation among Japanese adolescents and young adults living in a cultural context where individualism has been increasingly emphasized even while maintaining collectivism. We argue that, to develop a sense of identity in Japanese culture, adolescents and young adults carefully consider others'…

  15. Institutionalizing Catholic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heft, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The organizers of the conference on Renewing Mission and Identity in Business Education invited me to offer a description of the efforts made at the University of Dayton to institutionalize its Catholic identity. Until 2006, when I left Dayton to begin leading full-time the Institute for Advanced Catholic Studies at the University of Southern…

  16. Academic Identities under Threat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the lived experience of practising academics as part of an inquiry into the vexed question of "academic identities". Identity is understood not as a fixed property, but as part of the lived complexity of a person's project. The article reports on data from a small study in one university. The data suggest that academic…

  17. Personal Identity in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimura, Kazumi; Mizokami, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores characteristics of identity formation among Japanese adolescents and young adults living in a cultural context where individualism has been increasingly emphasized even while maintaining collectivism. We argue that, to develop a sense of identity in Japanese culture, adolescents and young adults carefully consider others'

  18. Ecological Identity through Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue offers an epistemic and ontological orientation upon which an ecological identity can be established as part of an integrated, environmental education. I consider here the significance of a relational self in establishing this ecological identity, as well as the benefits from doing so. This relational,…

  19. Tomboy as protective identity.

    PubMed

    Craig, Traci; Lacroix, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The tomboy in contemporary U.S. culture is a complex identity, providing meaning to many girls and women. In this article, we argue tomboy as a gendered social identity also provides temporary "protections" to girls and women in three main ways. First, tomboy identity can excuse masculine-typed behavior in girls and women and, in doing so, protect women from presumptions about sexual reputation and sexual orientation. Second, tomboy identities can provide some protection for lesbian girls and women who prefer to not divulge their sexual orientation. And, third, tomboy identity can gain women limited privilege to spaces for which masculinity is an unspoken requirement. The temporary nature of the protections provided to tomboys undermines the ability of tomboys to truly transcend the binary gender system. PMID:21973066

  20. Relationships between Identity and Self-Representations during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makros, Jenny; McCabe, Marita P.

    2001-01-01

    Studied variations in the magnitude of self-belief discrepancies among adolescents with different levels of identity development using a sample of 336 male and female adolescents. Multivariate analyses of variance showed that respondents with different identity statuses significantly varied on the magnitude of self-discrepancy experiences,…

  1. Professional Identity Development: A Review of the Higher Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; Macklin, Rob; Bridges, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extant higher education literature on the development of professional identities. Through a systematic review approach 20 articles were identified that discussed in some way professional identity development in higher education journals. These articles drew on varied theories, pedagogies and learning strategies; however,…

  2. Cloning and identity.

    PubMed

    Agar, Nicholas

    2003-02-01

    Critics of human cloning allege that the results of the process are likely to suffer from compromised identities making it near impossible for them to live worthwhile lives. This paper uses the account of the metaphysics of personal identity offered by Derek Parfit to investigate and support the claim of identity-compromise. The cloned person may, under certain circumstances, be seen as surviving, to some degree, in the clone. However, I argue that rather than warranting concern, the potential for survival by cloning ought to help protect against the misuse of the technology. PMID:12715279

  3. Native American Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horse, Perry G.

    2005-01-01

    Many issues and elements--including ethnic nomenclature, racial attitudes, and the legal and political status of American Indian nations and Indian people--influence Native American identity. (Contains 3 notes.)

  4. Who stole my identity?

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Raymond C

    2003-01-01

    What you personally and as a manager should know about identity theft, its ramifications, and how to help your institution prevent potential thieves from stealing confidential information. PMID:12629794

  5. Autoethnography: Inquiry into Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppes, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides guidelines and suggestions for assessing student development using autoethnography, a qualitative research method. Autoethnography guides students in examining the nexus between personal and professional identities, including skills, challenges, values, histories, and hopes for the future.

  6. Identity verifier performance

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.

    1987-01-01

    This report is a transcript of a paper given at the Smart Card Applications and Technologies Conference, October 14, 1987. Identity verification techniques are identified and discussed, and statistical performance data is given. 20 figs. (JF)

  7. Story telling: crafting identities

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance clients are seeking to craft new identities that better position them in their careers. The focus of the present article is on narrative career counselling's potential contribution in providing a meaningful and useful experience for career guidance clients. To illustrate the potential of narrative career counselling, the story telling approach is offered as an example to illustrate how identity can be crafted in contextually and culturally sensitive ways. PMID:24009405

  8. On a New Trigonometric Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hongwei

    2002-01-01

    A new trigonometric identity derived from factorizations and partial fractions is given. This identity is used to evaluate the Poisson integral via Riemann sum and to establish some trigonometric summation identities.

  9. Tools for Understanding Identity

    SciTech Connect

    Creese, Sadie; Gibson-Robinson, Thomas; Goldsmith, Michael; Hodges, Duncan; Kim, Dee DH; Love, Oriana J.; Nurse, Jason R.; Pike, William A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2013-12-28

    Identity attribution and enrichment is critical to many aspects of law-enforcement and intelligence gathering; this identity typically spans a number of domains in the natural-world such as biographic information (factual information – e.g. names, addresses), biometric information (e.g. fingerprints) and psychological information. In addition to these natural-world projections of identity, identity elements are projected in the cyber-world. Conversely, undesirable elements may use similar techniques to target individuals for spear-phishing attacks (or worse), and potential targets or their organizations may want to determine how to minimize the attack surface exposed. Our research has been exploring the construction of a mathematical model for identity that supports such holistic identities. The model captures the ways in which an identity is constructed through a combination of data elements (e.g. a username on a forum, an address, a telephone number). Some of these elements may allow new characteristics to be inferred, hence enriching the holistic view of the identity. An example use-case would be the inference of real names from usernames, the ‘path’ created by inferring new elements of identity is highlighted in the ‘critical information’ panel. Individual attribution exercises can be understood as paths through a number of elements. Intuitively the entire realizable ‘capability’ can be modeled as a directed graph, where the elements are nodes and the inferences are represented by links connecting one or more antecedents with a conclusion. The model can be operationalized with two levels of tool support described in this paper, the first is a working prototype, the second is expected to reach prototype by July 2013: Understanding the Model The tool allows a user to easily determine, given a particular set of inferences and attributes, which elements or inferences are of most value to an investigator (or an attacker). The tool is also able to take into account the difficulty of the inferences, allowing the user to consider different scenarios depending on the perceived resources of the attacker, or to prioritize lines of investigation. It also has a number of interesting visualizations that are designed to aid the user in understanding the model. The tool works by considering the inferences as a graph and runs various graph-theoretic algorithms, with some novel adaptations, in order to deduce various properties. Using the Model To help investigators exploit the model to perform identity attribution, we have developed the Identity Map visualization. For a user-provided set of known starting elements and a set of desired target elements for a given identity, the Identity Map generates investigative workflows as paths through the model. Each path consists of a series of elements and inferences between them that connect the input and output elements. Each path also has an associated confidence level that estimates the reliability of the resulting attribution. Identity Map can help investigators understand the possible ways to make an identification decision and guide them toward the data-collection or analysis steps required to reach that decision.

  10. Dogs discriminate identical twins.

    PubMed

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  11. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  12. Narrating Career, Positioning Identity: Career Identity as a Narrative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Kirsi

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to traditional definitions of career identity as an individual construct, this article argues for a discursive approach to career identity as a narrative practice. Career identity is conceptualized as a practice of articulating, performing and negotiating identity positions in narrating career experiences. By using the concept of

  13. Narrating Career, Positioning Identity: Career Identity as a Narrative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Kirsi

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to traditional definitions of career identity as an individual construct, this article argues for a discursive approach to career identity as a narrative practice. Career identity is conceptualized as a practice of articulating, performing and negotiating identity positions in narrating career experiences. By using the concept of…

  14. The Individual and Ethnic Identity: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Henry H.; And Others

    This guide to teaching ethnicity from the ethnic individual's point of view is designed to accompany the student sourcebook, The Individual and Ethnic Identity (see SO 013 157). The sourcebook, suitable for secondary and higher education, contains quotations of 51 individuals from varying ethnic backgrounds and varying degrees of ethnicity. It…

  15. The Visual Identity Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant-Gadd, Laurie; Sansone, Kristina Lamour

    2008-01-01

    Identity is the focus of the middle-school visual arts program at Cambridge Friends School (CFS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Sixth graders enter the middle school and design a personal logo as their first major project in the art studio. The logo becomes a way for students to introduce themselves to their teachers and to represent who they are

  16. The Symbolic Identity Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goud, Nelson H.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the role of symbols in attaining total psychic growth by applying concepts of C. Jung, R. Assagiolo, and L. Kubie. Describes a new strategy, the symbolic identity technique, which involves environmental exploration in a relaxed, receptive manner in order to discover something in the outer environment that reflects one's inner nature.

  17. Story Telling: Crafting Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance clients are seeking to craft new identities that better position them in their careers. The focus of the present article is on narrative career counselling's potential contribution in providing a meaningful and useful experience for career guidance clients. To illustrate the potential of narrative career counselling, the story

  18. Gendered Avatar Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolums, Viola

    2011-01-01

    Gendered appearance in "World of Warcraft" is of particular interest because it seems to infiltrate interactions between individuals without serving a functional purpose within the game itself. It provides an opportunity to look at avatar choice in environments that have a primary purpose aside from existing as an arena for creating identity, and…

  19. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  20. Beyond Gender Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the continuing significance of gender identity as a category of analysis within the field of gender theory and research in education. I begin by considering contemporary discussions of the limitations of research relating to gender theory and research in education. Following on from this, I explore some contemporary…

  1. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  2. School Refuser Child Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroobant, Emma; Jones, Alison

    2006-01-01

    "School refuser" is an always-already negative child identity. The term is used to categorize children or adolescents who appear to dislike and fear school (or aspects of school) and persistently refuse to attend or attend very unwillingly. Given that school attendance is generally considered a necessary social good, regular and anxious refusal to…

  3. Discourses of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Leeuwen, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This lecture discusses the concept of lifestyle, which emerged in the field of marketing in the 1970s, as a new, and increasingly pervasive, discourse of identity cutting through older "demographic" discourses. Distributed by mediated experts and role models, and realized through the semiotics of "composites of connotation", it redraws the…

  4. Story Telling: Crafting Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance clients are seeking to craft new identities that better position them in their careers. The focus of the present article is on narrative career counselling's potential contribution in providing a meaningful and useful experience for career guidance clients. To illustrate the potential of narrative career counselling, the story…

  5. Language, Identity, and Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdinast-Vulcan, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The exilic mode of being, a living on boundary-lines, produces a constant relativization of one's home, one's culture, one's language, and one's self, through the acknowledgement of otherness. It is a homesickness without nostalgia, without the desire to return to the same, to be identical to oneself. The encounter with the other which produces a…

  6. Teaching European Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  7. Graduate Identity and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey William; Jolly, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of graduate identity as a way of deepening the understanding of graduate employability. It does this through presenting research in which over 100 employers in East Anglia were asked to record their perceptions of graduates in respect of their employability. The findings suggest a composite and complex graduate…

  8. Language, Identity, and Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdinast-Vulcan, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The exilic mode of being, a living on boundary-lines, produces a constant relativization of one's home, one's culture, one's language, and one's self, through the acknowledgement of otherness. It is a homesickness without nostalgia, without the desire to return to the same, to be identical to oneself. The encounter with the other which produces a

  9. Discourses of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Leeuwen, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This lecture discusses the concept of lifestyle, which emerged in the field of marketing in the 1970s, as a new, and increasingly pervasive, discourse of identity cutting through older "demographic" discourses. Distributed by mediated experts and role models, and realized through the semiotics of "composites of connotation", it redraws the

  10. Women and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Ann; And Others

    An interdisciplinary course on women and identity for college-level women's studies instructors is presented. Materials for the course are taken from myth, psychology, sociology, feminism, art, and other disciplines. It is divided into seven units: sexuality, fertility, work and family, fear and envy, women's networks, individuality, and social…

  11. Disincentives, Identities, and Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Nancy M.

    When smoking decisions are understood in terms of the beliefs and attitudes which determine them, prevention programs can focus on changing these beliefs and attitudes. A study was conducted to measure students' attitudes and beliefs on the short-term health effects of smoking, on the social consequences of smoking, and on specific identities

  12. The Visual Identity Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant-Gadd, Laurie; Sansone, Kristina Lamour

    2008-01-01

    Identity is the focus of the middle-school visual arts program at Cambridge Friends School (CFS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Sixth graders enter the middle school and design a personal logo as their first major project in the art studio. The logo becomes a way for students to introduce themselves to their teachers and to represent who they are…

  13. Disclosing a dyslexic identity.

    PubMed

    Evans, William

    Potential difficulties experienced by nursing students diagnosed with dyslexia can be minimised with the introduction of appropriate policies and guidance around reasonable adjustment and support. In order to access all relevant services, however, a student must actively decide to disclose their dyslexic identity to relevant faculty personnel. Disclosure of such personal information is a complex matter and, critically, requires a receptive environment where diversity and disability are embraced in a positive and meaningful way. The act of disclosure for the most part has previously been described in simplistic terms, with the focus being solely on the behaviour itself and not on the individual's own positioning of their dyslexia or the social context associated with the act. There is an onus on all students with dyslexia to self-monitor how this aspect of their identity interacts with their professional duty of care. PMID:25849235

  14. Implicit self and identity.

    PubMed

    Devos, Thierry; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2003-10-01

    Recent advances in research on implicit social cognition offer an opportunity to challenge common assumptions about self and identity. In the present article, we critically review a burgeoning line of research on self-related processes known to occur outside conscious awareness or conscious control. Our discussion focuses on these implicit self-related processes as they unfold in the context of social group memberships. That is, we show that group memberships can shape thoughts, preferences, motives, goals, or behaviors without the actor's being aware of such an influence or having control over such expressions. As such, this research brings to the fore facets of the self that often contrast with experiences of reflexive consciousness and introspection. Far from being rigid or monolithic, these processes are highly flexible, context-sensitive, and deeply rooted in socio-structural realities. As such, work on implicit self and identity renew thinking about the interplay between the individual and the collective. PMID:14625361

  15. Gender identity and adjustment in black, Hispanic, and white preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Corby, Brooke C; Hodges, Ernest V E; Perry, David G

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years). Relations between gender identity and adjustment varied across ethnic/racial groups, indicating that S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's model requires amendment. It is suggested that the implications of gender identity for adjustment depend on the particular meanings that a child attaches to gender (e.g., the specific attributes the child regards as desirable for each sex); these meanings may vary across and within ethnic/racial groups. Cross-ethnic/racial investigation can aid theory building by pointing to constructs that are neglected in research with a single ethnic/racial group but that are crucial components of basic developmental processes. PMID:17201524

  16. Does Everyone Have a Musical Identity?: Reflections on "Musical Identities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracyk, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    The book, "Musical Identities" (Raymond MacDonald, David Hargreaves, Dorothy Miell, eds.; Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002) consists of 11 essays on the psychology of music. The editors divided the essays into two groups: those on developing musical identities ("identities in music" involving recognizable social and cultural…

  17. Time-varying cosmological term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term using the Lagrangian formalism characterized by a scalar field ϕ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(ϕ). This model is applied to Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW)cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansats to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  18. John Locke on Personal Identity**

    PubMed Central

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body. PMID:21694978

  19. Ethnic Identity: Crisis and Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Aureliano Sandoval

    1990-01-01

    Presents Chicano/Latino ethnic identity development model that fosters understanding of ethnic identity conflicts particular to Chicano and Latino clients. Presents five stages (causal, cognitive, consequence, working through, and successful resolution) in relationship to ethnic identity conflicts, interventions, and resolution. Combines several…

  20. Citizenship, Diversity and National Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the issues of citizenship, diversity and national identity in the context of the introduction of citizenship education in the UK. It considers the historical context of national identity in the UK and notes that the "British national identity has historically implied diversity". It also analyses the views of British national…

  1. Identity theft and your practice.

    PubMed

    Asbell, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a growing problem in America. The federal government has passed laws to help "prevent" identity theft. However, several powerful medical associations are fighting the legislation. Americans need to know what is happening with these laws and why these laws are important to protect providers from lawsuits and consumers of healthcare from medical identity theft. PMID:21090197

  2. Identity Development in Deaf Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2014-01-01

    We studied identity development during 5 years in seven deaf adolescents who attended a school for deaf children in the highest level of regular secondary education (age between 14 and 18 years), administering identity interviews every year. Identity development is conceptualized as the processes of exploration and commitment formation (Bosma,…

  3. Identity Development and Multicultural Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Patrick H.; Lidderdale, Melissa A.; Thiagarajan, Monica; Null, Ursla

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of identity development, measured by the Self-identity Inventory (SII), and universal-diverse orientation (UDO) to multicultural counseling competence. After controlling for personal identity variables, multicultural coursework and training, and social desirability, multiple regression analyses indicated…

  4. Identity Development in Deaf Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2014-01-01

    We studied identity development during 5 years in seven deaf adolescents who attended a school for deaf children in the highest level of regular secondary education (age between 14 and 18 years), administering identity interviews every year. Identity development is conceptualized as the processes of exploration and commitment formation (Bosma,

  5. Identity formation in multiparty negotiations.

    PubMed

    Swaab, Roderick I; Postmes, Tom; Spears, Russell

    2008-03-01

    Based on the recently proposed Interactive Model of Identity Formation, we examine how top-down deductive and bottom-up inductive identity formations influence intentions and behaviour in multiparty negotiations. Results show that a shared identity can be deduced from the social context through recognition of superordinate similarities. However, shared identities can also be induced by intragroup processes in which individuals get acquainted with one another on an interpersonal basis. Both top-down and bottom-up processes led to the formation of a sense of shared identity, and this in turn exerted a positive influence on behavioural intentions and actual behaviour in multiparty negotiations. PMID:17588289

  6. Identity, the Identity Statuses, and Identity Status Development: A Contemporary Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Alan S.

    1999-01-01

    Maintains that van Hoof misrepresents views of theorists and researchers working with identity status constructs. Examines the paradigm's theoretical underpinnings and the construct validity of ego identity. Provides empirical evidence for six propositions within the theory of identity status development. Examines literature reviewed by van Hoof…

  7. Comparing Psychological and Sociological Approaches to Identity: Identity Status, Identity Capital, and the Individualization Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, James E.; Schwartz, Seth J.

    2002-01-01

    Explores a link between the psychologically oriented identity status paradigm, and the sociologically oriented individualization theory. The primary link between these two approaches appears to be that the individualization process can be operationalized in terms of agency in identity formation. Concludes that identity statuses representing…

  8. Online Identities and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru; Ali, Bader; Ozguven, Hatice; Lord, Julien

    Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between online identities and social networking. Online social networks (OSNs) are growing at a rapid pace and has millions of members in them. While the recent trend is to create explicit OSNs such as Facebook and MySpace, we also have implicit OSNs such as interaction graphs created by email and instant messaging services. Explicit OSNs allow users to create profiles and use them to project their identities on the web. There are many interesting identity related issues in the context of social networking including how OSNs help and hinder the definition of online identities.

  9. Precedent autonomy and personal identity.

    PubMed

    Quante, Michael

    1999-12-01

    Debates on precedent autonomy and some forms of paternalistic interventions, which are related to questions of personal identity, are analyzed. The discussion is based on the distinction between personal identity as persistence and as biographical identity. It first is shown that categorical objections to advance directives and "Ulysses contracts" are based on false assumptions about personal identity that conflate persistence and biographical identity. Therefore, advance directives and "Ulysses contracts" are ethically acceptable tools for prolonging one's autonomy. The notions of personality and biographical identity are used to analyze the ethically relevant features. Thereby, it is shown that these concepts are operative in and useful for thinking in biomedical ethics. The overall conclusion is that categorical arguments against precedent autonomy or "Ulysses contracts" are based on misleading theories of personal identity and that advance directives are an ethically respectable tool for prolonging individuals' autonomy in cases of dementia and mental illness. PMID:11657917

  10. Identity style and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development. PMID:1469598

  11. Comparing psychological and sociological approaches to identity: identity status, identity capital, and the individualization process.

    PubMed

    Côtè, James E; Schwartz, Seth J

    2002-12-01

    Psychologists have been studying identity processes at the intrapsychic level that resemble what sociologists have noted at the macro-societal level. Specifically, using the identity capital model introduced in previous issues of this journal (Côté, Journal of Adolescence, 19, 419-430; 20, 421-437), we explore a link between the psychologically oriented identity status paradigm, and the sociologically oriented individualization theory. The primary link between these two disciplinary approaches appears to be that the individualization process can be operationalized in terms of agency in identity formation. The relationship between agency and identity formation has been recognized by identity status researchers for some time, but primarily in terminology referring to the intrapsychic level; hence, in some respects, identity status researchers anticipated individualization theory. This link was empirically investigated in three studies of ethnically diverse samples. It was concluded, with a high degree of replication, that the identity statuses representing identity confusion (Diffusion) and identity synthesis (Achievement) appear to represent forms of default and developmental individualization, respectively. This comparison of similar elements between psychological and sociological perspectives may yield a richer understanding of identity formation processes, and help to pave the way for future interdisciplinary research.. PMID:12490176

  12. Measuring ethnic identity in the Ethnic Identity Scale and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eunju

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the newly developed ethnic identity measures of the Ethnic Identity Scale (EIS) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) from psychometric and theoretical perspectives. Survey data from 289 counseling students in California were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analyses supported three correlated factors of the EIS (exploration, resolution, and affirmation) and two correlated factors of the MEIM-R (exploration, commitment) for both European American and minority students. Consistent with the theories of Erikson's and Marcia's identity development, the EIS and the MEIM-R nicely depicted (a) Marcia's 4 (2 × 2) identity statuses of diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement and (b) the hierarchy of identity statuses in relation to subjective well-being as an indicator of adjustment, especially for minority students. Additionally, European American and minority students revealed differences as to the salience and importance of ethnic identity. Recommendations for using the EIS and the MEIM-R are provided. PMID:21604838

  13. IdentityMap Visualization of the Super Identity Model

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-15

    The Super Identity Model is a collaboration with six United Kingdom universities to develop use cases used to piece together a person's identity across biological, cyber, psychological, and biographical domains. PNNL visualized the model in a web-based application called IdentityMap. This is the first step in a promising new field of research. Interested future collaborators are welcome to find out more by emailing superid@pnnl.gov.

  14. Science Identity's Influence on Community College Students' Engagement, Persistence, and Performance in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccitelli, Melinda

    In the United States (U.S.), student engagement, persistence, and academic performance levels in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs have been unsatisfactory over the last decade. Low student engagement, persistence, and academic performance in STEM disciplines have been identified as major obstacles to U.S. economic goals and U.S. science education objectives. The central and salient science identity a college student claims can influence his engagement, persistence, and academic achievement in college science. While science identity studies have been conducted on four-year college populations there is a gap in the literature concerning community college students' science identity and science performance. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between community college students claimed science identities and engagement, persistence, and academic performance. A census sample of 264 community college students enrolled in biology during the summer of 2015 was used to study this relationship. Science identity and engagement levels were calculated using the Science Identity Centrality Scale and the Biology Motivation Questionnaire II, respectively. Persistence and final grade data were collected from institutional and instructor records. Engagement significantly correlated to, r =.534, p = .01, and varied by science identity, p < .001. Percent final grade also varied by science identity (p < .005), but this relationship was weaker (r = .208, p = .01). Results for science identity and engagement and final grade were consistent with the identity literature. Persistence did not vary by science identity in this student sample (chi2 =2.815, p = .421). This result was inconsistent with the literature on science identity and persistence. Quantitative results from this study present a mixed picture of science identity status at the community college level. It is suggested, based on the findings, that community college curriculum workers in biology consider student's science identity in terms of improving engagement and final grade, but not persistence. Additionally, as results were mixed, it is recommended that this study be repeated to examine these relationships further.

  15. Blessed Complexities, Cursed Confusions: Identity Conflicts of Multilingual Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Herin, Julie

    2007-01-01

    People have enough trouble defining themselves and determining what they want in life when they operate within a single language and culture, but the job gets trickier when they live in a world of multiple lexicons, grammars, histories, cultures, audiences and social systems, where identity and perceptions vary by language context. This paper…

  16. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  17. Social Identity Change: Shifts in Social Identity during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A.; Halloran, Michael J.; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then

  18. Threading "Stitches" to Approach Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Connie E.

    2010-01-01

    As LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex) issues become increasingly integrated into multicultural education discourses, we as educators need to examine the implications of our pedagogies for teaching about gender and sexual identities. This article explores my teaching of non-conforming gender identities in…

  19. Social Identity Change: Shifts in Social Identity during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A.; Halloran, Michael J.; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then…

  20. Identity Support, Identity Devaluation, and Well-Being among Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Kristin P.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2005-01-01

    This research tested predictions about the association of identity support and identity devaluation with psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression). Lesbian women completed baseline surveys (N=42), then provided daily experience reports during a 2-week period (n=38), and completed a 2-month follow-up survey (n=34).…

  1. Teacher Educator Identity Emerging from Identity as a Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, M. Shaun; Pinnegar, Stefinee

    2011-01-01

    Experience is fundamental in identity development. In research, concepts and issues around identity are shaped and confronted in moments of reflection. The act of reflection requires a backward attention to engender a present understanding and create future possibilities. Kim and Greene, and Young and Erickson capture this temporal aspect of…

  2. High School Identity Climate and Student Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Yisrael; Schachter, Elli P.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated whether schools characterized by high school students as being rich in identity promoting features contribute to student identity development. A theoretical model posited that student perceptions of teachers as caring role models and their school as cultivating the whole student will foster student exploration and…

  3. Identities in flux: cognitive network activation in times of change.

    PubMed

    Menon, Tanya; Smith, Edward Bishop

    2014-05-01

    Using a dynamic cognitive model, we experimentally test two competing hypotheses that link identity and cognitive network activation during times of change. On one hand, affirming people's sense of power might give them confidence to think beyond the densest subsections of their social networks. Alternatively, if such power affirmations conflict with people's more stable status characteristics, this could create tension, deterring people from considering their networks' diversity. We test these competing hypotheses experimentally by priming people at varying levels of status with power (high/low) and asking them to report their social networks. We show that confirming identity-not affirming power-cognitively prepares people to broaden their social networks when the world is changing around them. The emotional signature of having a confirmed identity is feeling comfortable and in control, which mediates network activation. We suggest that stable, confirmed identities are the foundation from which people can exhibit greater network responsiveness. PMID:24576631

  4. Sexual identity in the American Deep South: the concordance and discordance of sexual activity, relationships, and identities.

    PubMed

    Baunach, Dawn Michelle; Burgess, Elisabeth O

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the association between sexual identity and sexual behavior and how that association varies across gender and race in the American Deep South. Multinomial logistic regression analysis is used to determine the likelihood of each sexual identity given past sexual behavior, sexual relationships, and other social characteristics. The more traditional cultural climate of the South appears to suppress identification as a sexual minority. Sexual identification in the Deep South is primarily a product of sexual activity and sexual relationships, although attitudes toward and contact with the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community play a minor role. Although most participants' sexual behaviors and identities were in concordance, sexual discordance was highest for White women and lowest for White men. Discordance was also associated with traditional men's roles attitudes, negative homosexuality attitudes, and contact with the LGBT community. It is hoped that these results encourage scholarship that deconstructs the sexual behavior and identity of all groups, not just oppressed groups. PMID:23952925

  5. The Identity Factor in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Kimberle

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that the O. J. Simpson murder trial reflects impoverished discourse in America about social identity and power, particularly relating to race, gender, and class. The debate over the relevance and centrality of identity divides American society deeply because it is at the heart of the discrepancy between what America wants to be and…

  6. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. PMID:23998673

  7. Black Youth, Identity, and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Garrett Albert

    2005-01-01

    This article examines stage models of racial identity that researchers and educators use to explain the subjective processes that influence how black youth navigate school. Despite the explicit challenge that most models of racial identity have posed to racist discourses in the research literature, the underlying ethics of their developmental

  8. Teacher Investment in Learner Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenelle

    2009-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings

  9. Fibonacci Identities, Matrices, and Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Danrun

    2005-01-01

    General strategies used to help discover, prove, and generalize identities for Fibonacci numbers are described along with some properties about the determinants of square matrices. A matrix proof for identity (2) that has received immense attention from many branches of mathematics, like linear algebra, dynamical systems, graph theory and others…

  10. Exploring Leader Identity and Development.

    PubMed

    Priest, Kerry L; Middleton, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Taking on a leader identity can be a motivating force for pursuing leader development. This chapter explores the reciprocal and recursive nature of identity development and leader development, emphasizing how shifting views of self influence one's motivation to develop as a leader. PMID:26895262

  11. Naxi Intellectuals and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haibo, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of Naxi intellectuals in the ethnic identity resurgence of the Naxi since the 1980s in China. The article illustrates 3 aspects of Naxi intellectuals' approach to the identity construction of the Naxi: researching the Naxi, engaging in cultural activities and exhibitions, and teaching the Naxi culture to the younger…

  12. Fibonacci Identities, Matrices, and Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Danrun

    2005-01-01

    General strategies used to help discover, prove, and generalize identities for Fibonacci numbers are described along with some properties about the determinants of square matrices. A matrix proof for identity (2) that has received immense attention from many branches of mathematics, like linear algebra, dynamical systems, graph theory and others

  13. Black Youth, Identity, and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Garrett Albert

    2005-01-01

    This article examines stage models of racial identity that researchers and educators use to explain the subjective processes that influence how black youth navigate school. Despite the explicit challenge that most models of racial identity have posed to racist discourses in the research literature, the underlying ethics of their developmental…

  14. Teacher Investment in Learner Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenelle

    2009-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings…

  15. Palestinian Children Crafting National Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habashi, Janette

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the formulation of national identity in Palestinian children by exploring their understanding of its paradoxes. Twelve Palestinian children were interviewed from cities, villages and refugee camps in the West Bank. The children express the multiple dimensions of national identity in terms of "self" and "other"; however these

  16. Explanatory Identities and Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thagard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although mind-brain identity remains controversial, many other identities of ordinary things with scientific ones are well established. For example, air is a mixture of gases, water is H[subscript 2]O, and fire is rapid oxidation. This paper examines the history of 15 important identifications: air, blood, cloud, earth, electricity, fire, gold,…

  17. The Joint Accomplishment of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Victoria; Gresalfi, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Identity has become a central concept in the analysis of learning from social perspectives. In this article, we draw on a situative perspective to conceptualize identity as a "joint accomplishment" between individuals and their interactions with norms, practices, cultural tools, relationships, and institutional and cultural contexts.…

  18. National Identity in Korean Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyojeong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of national identity has evolved during the last half century within the Korean social studies curriculum. There have been seven curricular revisions since the first national curriculum was released in 1955. Each time the concept of national identity was changed with the biggest changes to this concept within the last two iterations of…

  19. Palestinian Children Crafting National Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habashi, Janette

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the formulation of national identity in Palestinian children by exploring their understanding of its paradoxes. Twelve Palestinian children were interviewed from cities, villages and refugee camps in the West Bank. The children express the multiple dimensions of national identity in terms of "self" and "other"; however these…

  20. Explanatory Identities and Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thagard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although mind-brain identity remains controversial, many other identities of ordinary things with scientific ones are well established. For example, air is a mixture of gases, water is H[subscript 2]O, and fire is rapid oxidation. This paper examines the history of 15 important identifications: air, blood, cloud, earth, electricity, fire, gold,

  1. Identity Options in Russian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shardakova, Marya; Pavlenko, Aneta

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a new analytical approach to the study of identity options offered in foreign and second language textbooks. This approach, grounded in poststructuralist theory and critical discourse analysis, is applied to 2 popular beginning Russian textbooks. Two sets of identity options are examined in the study: imagined learners…

  2. Identity, Citizenship and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitter, Laurance

    2011-01-01

    Questions of identity such as "Who am I?" are often answered by appeals to one or more affiliations with a specific nation (citizenship), culture, ethnicity, religion, etc. Taking as given the idea that identity over time--including identification and re-identification--for objects of a particular kind requires that there be criteria of identity…

  3. National Development Generates National Identities.

    PubMed

    Golob, Tea; Makarovi?, Matej; Suklan, Jana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to test the relationship between national identities and modernisation. We test the hypotheses that not all forms of identity are equally compatible with modernisation as measured by Human Development Index. The less developed societies are characterised by strong ascribed national identities based on birth, territory and religion, but also by strong voluntarist identities based on civic features selected and/or achieved by an individual. While the former decreases with further modernisation, the latter may either decrease or remain at high levels and coexist with instrumental supranational identifications, typical for the most developed countries. The results, which are also confirmed by multilevel regression models, thus demonstrate that increasing modernisation in terms of development contributes to the shifts from classical, especially ascribed, identities towards instrumental identifications. These findings are particularly relevant in the turbulent times increasingly dominated by the hardly predictable effects of the recent mass migrations. PMID:26841050

  4. National Development Generates National Identities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to test the relationship between national identities and modernisation. We test the hypotheses that not all forms of identity are equally compatible with modernisation as measured by Human Development Index. The less developed societies are characterised by strong ascribed national identities based on birth, territory and religion, but also by strong voluntarist identities based on civic features selected and/or achieved by an individual. While the former decreases with further modernisation, the latter may either decrease or remain at high levels and coexist with instrumental supranational identifications, typical for the most developed countries. The results, which are also confirmed by multilevel regression models, thus demonstrate that increasing modernisation in terms of development contributes to the shifts from classical, especially ascribed, identities towards instrumental identifications. These findings are particularly relevant in the turbulent times increasingly dominated by the hardly predictable effects of the recent mass migrations. PMID:26841050

  5. Brain Activation of Identity Switching in Multiple Identity Tracking Task

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Chuang; Hu, Siyuan; Wei, Liuqing; Zhang, Xuemin; Talhelm, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    When different objects switch identities in the multiple identity tracking (MIT) task, viewers need to rebind objects’ identity and location, which requires attention. This rebinding helps people identify the regions targets are in (where they need to focus their attention) and inhibit unimportant regions (where distractors are). This study investigated the processing of attentional tracking after identity switching in an adapted MIT task. This experiment used three identity-switching conditions: a target-switching condition (where the target objects switched identities), a distractor-switching condition (where the distractor objects switched identities), and a no-switching condition. Compared to the distractor-switching condition, the target-switching condition elicited greater activation in the frontal eye fields (FEF), intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and visual cortex. Compared to the no-switching condition, the target-switching condition elicited greater activation in the FEF, inferior frontal gyrus (pars orbitalis) (IFG-Orb), IPS, visual cortex, middle temporal lobule, and anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, the distractor-switching condition showed greater activation in the IFG-Orb compared to the no-switching condition. These results suggest that, in the target-switching condition, the FEF and IPS (the dorsal attention network) might be involved in goal-driven attention to targets during attentional tracking. In addition, in the distractor-switching condition, the activation of the IFG-Orb may indicate salient change that pulls attention away automatically. PMID:26699865

  6. Body Integrity Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Rianne M.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. Methods Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation) were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. Results Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. Conclusions The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience. PMID:22514657

  7. Ethnic Identity and Self-Esteem: Examining the Role of Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored ethnic identity and self-esteem among 1062 Mexican-origin adolescents who were attending one of three schools, which varied in their ethnic composition (i.e., predominately Latino, predominately non-Latino, and balanced Latino/non-Latino). Significant relationships emerged between ethnic identity and self-esteem among…

  8. Relationship Duration Moderation of Identity Status Differences in Emerging Adults' Same-Sex Friendship Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. Durell

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has not yielded consistent identity and intimacy associations for female and male emerging adults. Intimacy varies with time spent in a relationship, and relationship duration may explain variations in the identity process association with intimacy. Data from 278 female and 156 male emerging adults revealed relationship duration…

  9. The Relationship between Processing Facial Identity and Emotional Expression in 8-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzer, Gudrun; Jovanovic, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    In Experiment 1, it was investigated whether infants process facial identity and emotional expression independently or in conjunction with one another. Eight-month-old infants were habituated to two upright or two inverted faces varying in facial identity and emotional expression. Infants were tested with a habituation face, a switch face, and a…

  10. Coming to an Asexual Identity: Negotiating Identity, Negotiating Desire

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Kristin S.

    2010-01-01

    Sexuality is generally considered an important aspect of self-hood. Therefore, individuals who do not experience sexual attraction, and embrace an asexual identity are in a unique position to inform the social construction of sexuality. This study explores the experiences of asexual individuals utilizing open ended Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual people. In this paper I describe several distinct aspects of asexual identities: the meanings of sexual, and therefore, asexual behaviors, essentialist characterizations of asexuality, and lastly, interest in romance as a distinct dimension of sexuality. These findings have implications not only for asexual identities, but also for the connections of asexuality with other marginalized sexualities. PMID:20593009

  11. African American Racial Identity across the Lifespan: Identity Status, Identity Content, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Cluster analytic methods were used to create 4 theorized ethnic identity statuses (achieved, foreclosed, moratorium, and diffused) among 940 African American adolescents (13-17 years old), college students (18-23 years old), and adults (27-78 years old). Evidence for the existence of 4 identity statuses was found across the 3 age groups. The…

  12. Identity and Intimacy during Adolescence: Connections among Identity Styles, Romantic Attachment and Identity Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Pittman, Joe F.; Cadely, Hans Saint-Eloi; Tuggle, Felicia J.; Harrell-Levy, Marinda K.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of adult attachment and psychosocial development theories suggests that adolescence is a time when capacities for romantic intimacy and identity formation are co-evolving. The current study addressed direct, indirect and moderated associations among identity and romantic attachment constructs with a diverse sample of 2178 middle…

  13. Identity and Intimacy during Adolescence: Connections among Identity Styles, Romantic Attachment and Identity Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Pittman, Joe F.; Cadely, Hans Saint-Eloi; Tuggle, Felicia J.; Harrell-Levy, Marinda K.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of adult attachment and psychosocial development theories suggests that adolescence is a time when capacities for romantic intimacy and identity formation are co-evolving. The current study addressed direct, indirect and moderated associations among identity and romantic attachment constructs with a diverse sample of 2178 middle

  14. Young African American children constructing identities in an urban integrated science-literacy classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Justine M.

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which the four children saw and performed themselves as students and as science students in their classroom. Interview data were used for the narrative analysis and classroom Discourse and artifacts were used for the discursive analysis. A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted for both analyses. The findings highlight the diversity and richness of perspectives and forms of engagement these young children shared and enacted, and help us see African American children as knowers, doers, and talkers of science individually and collectively. In their stories about themselves, all the children identified themselves as smart but they associated with smartness different characteristics and practices depending on their strengths and preferences. Drawing on the children's social, cultural, and ethnolinguistic resources, the dialogic and multimodal learning spaces facilitated by their teacher allowed the children to explore, negotiate, question, and learn science ideas. The children in this study brought their understandings and ways of being into the "lived-in" spaces co-created with classmates and teacher and influenced how these spaces were created. At the same time, each child's ways of being and understandings were shaped by the words, actions, behaviors, and feelings of peers and teacher. Moreover, as these four children engaged with science-literacy activities, they came to see themselves as competent, creative, active participants in science learning. Although their stories of "studenting" seemed dominated by following rules and being well-behaved, their stories of "sciencing" were filled with exploration, ingenuity, risk taking, and thinking. The study calls for (a) research that is positioned within children's perspectives and give voice to the experiences of African American children in urban schools, (b) teacher education that supports teachers' efforts to help urban school students become academically successful, and (c) policy that foregrounds identity development along with subject-matter learning.

  15. Extended Identity for Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapiador, Antonio; Fumero, Antonio; Salvachúa, Joaquín

    Nowadays we are experiencing the consolidation of social networks (SN). Although there are trends trying to integrate SN platforms. they remain as data silos between each other. Information can't be exchanged between them. In some cases, it would be desirable to connect this scattered information, in order to build a distributed identity. This contribution proposes an architecture for distributed social networking. Based on distributed user-centric identity, our proposal extends it by attaching user information. It also bridges the gap between distributed identity and distributed publishing capabilities.

  16. Looking for Daisy: Constructing Teacher Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Research on teacher identities is both important and increasing. In this forum contribution I re-interpret assertions about an African American science teacher's identities in terms of Jonathon Turner's ("2002") constructs of role identity and sub-identity. I contest the notion of renegotiation of identities, suggesting that particular role…

  17. Chicana Identity Construction: Pushing the Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Helen; De Los Santos, Esmeralda

    2005-01-01

    Identity concepts that Chicana feminists have described as central to their developmental experience are not reflected in the traditional views of identity, feminist accounts of women's identity, or ethnic identity theory. Chicana feminist Gloria Anzaldua initially postulated that in the straddling of two cultures, a hybrid or mestiza identity is…

  18. Looking for Daisy: Constructing Teacher Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Research on teacher identities is both important and increasing. In this forum contribution I re-interpret assertions about an African American science teacher's identities in terms of Jonathon Turner's ("2002") constructs of role identity and sub-identity. I contest the notion of renegotiation of identities, suggesting that particular role

  19. Effect of varying light intensity on blood physiological reactions of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) from 22 to 56 d of age at 50% RH on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes of heavy broilers reared under environmentally controlled conditions. Four identical trials were conducted wi...

  20. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  1. How Places Shape Identity: The Origins of Distinctive LBQ Identities in Four Small U.S. Cities.

    PubMed

    Brown-Saracino, Japonica

    2015-07-01

    Tools from the study of neighborhood effects, place distinction, and regional identity are employed in an ethnography of four small cities with growing populations of lesbian, bisexual, and queer-identified (LBQ) women to explain why orientations to sexual identity are relatively constant within each site, despite informants' within-city demographic heterogeneity, but vary substantially across the sites, despite common place-based attributes. The author introduces the concept of "sexual identity cultures"--and reveals the defining role of cities in shaping their contours. She finds that LBQ numbers and acceptance, place narratives, and newcomers' encounters with local social attributes serve as touchstones. The article looks beyond major categorical differences (e.g., urban/rural) to understand how and why identities evolve and vary and to reveal the fundamental interplay of demographic, cultural, and other city features previously thought isolatable. The findings challenge notions of identity as fixed and emphasize the degree to which self-understanding and group understanding remain collective accomplishments. PMID:26430710

  2. [The concept of personal identity].

    PubMed

    Job, Alfredo J

    2013-01-01

    This work reviews the different meanings of "personal identity" from a philosophical point of view. Start point is its etymology and then what has been said about it since the Antique Greek to our days is summarized. PMID:24251299

  3. Colonial and post-colonial aspects of Australian identity.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Bruce; Donoghue, Jed

    2007-06-01

    Since the 1988 Bicentennial and the 2001 centenary of federation celebrations colonial images have flourished in Australia, highlighting the roles of convicts and free settlers during early colonization. Old sites, such as Port Arthur have been re-invigorated, and in 2004 Tasmanians celebrated the bicentenary of 'white' settlement. However, social scientists have given little attention to the role of colonial and post-colonial figures and myths as aspects of Australian national identity. We seek to address this issue by examining how convicts, free settlers, bushrangers and ANZACs are associated with contemporary identity in Australia. We examine evidence from the 2003 Australian Survey of Social Attitudes and find that historical figures such as the ANZACs and post-World War II immigrants comprise important aspects of national identity. A substantial majority of Australians judged ANZACs to be important, countering recent claims of the 'demise of the digger'. Sporting heroes are also at the core of Australian identity. Colonial figures appear to be far less important, although views on national identity vary according to social location. In particular, left-wing, university educated, younger, postmaterialist Australians view convicts and bushrangers as relatively important, indicating the salience of the larrikin in Australian identity. PMID:17610618

  4. Adolescent girls' constructions of smoking identities: implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, B; Lucas, K; Fernbach, M

    1997-02-01

    A model of social identities constructed in terms of group membership is used to explore the incidence of cigarette smoking among adolescent girls. A sharp increase in girls' smoking at about 14 years of age related both to age and to puberty is demonstrated in a discriminant function analysis. The model is successful in identifying membership in never smoked and regular smoker groups but does not identify occasional smokers. Girls' ratings of 13 identity descriptors are summarised in similar, three scale nonsmoker and smokers identities. The nonsmoker identity is rated higher on the "mature" and "sensible" scales while the smoker identity is rated higher on the "fun-loving" scale and a fourteenth descriptor, breaks rules. The descriptors loading on the "mature" scale are contested suggesting that members of both smoking and nonsmoking groups value cool, popular, grown-up and makes up own mind. Material from focus group discussions demonstrates that the particular meanings of some descriptors may vary with group membership and values. Both the prevalence analysis and the focus group material support the hypothesis that interventions are best targeted at specific groups and that the occasional smoker identity needs to be targeted specifically in interventions designed to reduce smoking among adolescent girls. PMID:9063774

  5. Science Identity in Informal Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schon, Jennifer A.

    The national drive to increase the number of students pursuing Science Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) careers has brought science identity into focus for educators, with the need to determine what encourages students to pursue and persist in STEM careers. Science identity, the degree to which students think someone like them could be a scientist is a potential indicator of students pursuing and persisting in STEM related fields. Science identity, as defined by Carlone and Johnson (2007) consists of three constructs: competence, performance, and recognition. Students need to feel like they are good at science, can perform it well, and that others recognize them for these achievements in order to develop a science identity. These constructs can be bolstered by student visitation to informal education centers. Informal education centers, such as outdoor science schools, museums, and various learning centers can have a positive impact on how students view themselves as scientists by exposing them to novel and unique learning opportunities unavailable in their school. Specifically, the University of Idaho's McCall Outdoor Science School (MOSS) focuses on providing K-12 students with the opportunity to learn about science with a place-based, hands-on, inquiry-based curriculum that hopes to foster science identity development. To understand the constructs that lead to science identity formation and the impact the MOSS program has on science identity development, several questions were explored examining how students define the constructs and if the MOSS program impacted how they rate themselves within each construct. A mixed-method research approach was used consisting of focus group interviews with students and pre, post, one-month posttests for visiting students to look at change in science identity over time. Results from confirmatory factor analysis indicate that the instrument created is a good fit for examining science identity and the associated constructs for students attending the MOSS residential program. Analysis of results from paired-samples t-test indicates that MOSS does contribute to a positive change in science identity and this change does persist one month following the visit to MOSS, although a slight decline is seen. The results from this research and creation of this instrument provide useful tools for educators interested in increasing their students' science identity.

  6. Explanatory Identities and Conceptual Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thagard, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Although mind-brain identity remains controversial, many other identities of ordinary things with scientific ones are well established. For example, air is a mixture of gases, water is H2O, and fire is rapid oxidation. This paper examines the history of 15 important identifications: air, blood, cloud, earth, electricity, fire, gold, heat, light, lightning, magnetism, salt, star, thunder, and water. This examination yields surprising conclusions about the nature of justification, explanation, and conceptual change.

  7. Lateralization of visuospatial attention across face regions varies with emotional prosody.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Laura A; Malloy, Daniel M; LeBlanc, Katya L

    2009-02-01

    It is well-established that linguistic processing is primarily a left-hemisphere activity, while emotional prosody processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere. Does attention, directed at different regions of the talker's face, reflect this pattern of lateralization? We investigated visuospatial attention across a talker's face with a dual-task paradigm, using dot detection and language comprehension measures. A static image of a talker was shown while participants listened to speeches spoken in two prosodic formats, emotional or neutral. A single dot was superimposed on the speaker's face in one of 4 facial regions on half of the trials. Dot detection effects depended on emotion condition--in the neutral condition, discriminability was greater for the right-, than for the left-, side of the face image, and at the mouth, compared to the eye region. The opposite effects occurred in the emotional prosody condition. The results support a model wherein visuospatial attention used during language comprehension is directed by the left hemisphere given neutral emotional prosody, and by the right hemisphere given primarily negative emotional prosodic cues. PMID:18639372

  8. Efficient Encoding and Rendering of Time-Varying Volume Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Smith, Diann; Shih, Ming-Yun; Shen, Han-Wei

    1998-01-01

    Visualization of time-varying volumetric data sets, which may be obtained from numerical simulations or sensing instruments, provides scientists insights into the detailed dynamics of the phenomenon under study. This paper describes a coherent solution based on quantization, coupled with octree and difference encoding for visualizing time-varying volumetric data. Quantization is used to attain voxel-level compression and may have a significant influence on the performance of the subsequent encoding and visualization steps. Octree encoding is used for spatial domain compression, and difference encoding for temporal domain compression. In essence, neighboring voxels may be fused into macro voxels if they have similar values, and subtrees at consecutive time steps may be merged if they are identical. The software rendering process is tailored according to the tree structures and the volume visualization process. With the tree representation, selective rendering may be performed very efficiently. Additionally, the I/O costs are reduced. With these combined savings, a higher level of user interactivity is achieved. We have studied a variety of time-varying volume datasets, performed encoding based on data statistics, and optimized the rendering calculations wherever possible. Preliminary tests on workstations have shown in many cases tremendous reduction by as high as 90% in both storage space and inter-frame delay.

  9. Looking for Daisy: constructing teacher identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2009-09-01

    Research on teacher identities is both important and increasing. In this forum contribution I re-interpret assertions about an African American science teacher's identities in terms of Jonathon Turner's (2002) constructs of role identity and sub-identity. I contest the notion of renegotiation of identities, suggesting that particular role identities can be brought to the foreground and then backgrounded depending on the situation and the need to confirm a sub-identity. Finally, I recommend the inclusion of teachers' voices in identity research through greater use of co-authoring roles for teachers.

  10. Facial identity and facial expression are initially integrated at visual perceptual stages of face processing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Katie; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that facial identity and facial expression are analysed in functionally and anatomically distinct streams within the core visual face processing system. To investigate whether expression and identity interact during the visual processing of faces, we employed a sequential matching procedure where participants compared either the identity or the expression of two successively presented faces, and ignored the other irrelevant dimension. Repetitions versus changes of facial identity and expression were varied independently across trials, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during task performance. Irrelevant facial identity and irrelevant expression both interfered with performance in the expression and identity matching tasks. These symmetrical interference effects show that neither identity nor expression can be selectively ignored during face matching, and suggest that they are not processed independently. N250r components to identity repetitions that reflect identity matching mechanisms in face-selective visual cortex were delayed and attenuated when there was an expression change, demonstrating that facial expression interferes with visual identity matching. These findings provide new evidence for interactions between facial identity and expression within the core visual processing system, and question the hypothesis that these two attributes are processed independently. PMID:26581627

  11. Regulatory T cell identity: formation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xudong; Zheng, Ye

    2015-06-01

    T regulatory (Treg) cells are central to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) is essential for specifying the Treg cell lineage during development, and continued expression of Foxp3 in mature Treg cells is necessary for suppressive function. Loss of Foxp3 expression in Treg cells is associated with autoimmune pathology. Here, we review recent insights into the mechanisms that maintain Treg cell stability and function, and place these findings within the broader understanding of mechanisms that establish Treg cell identity during development. We integrate emerging principles in Treg cell lineage maintenance with the mechanisms that allow Treg cells to sense and respond to varied inflammatory environments, and outline important areas of future inquiry in this context. PMID:25981968

  12. Deconstructing crop processes and models via identities.

    PubMed

    Porter, John R; Christensen, Svend

    2013-11-01

    This paper is part review and part opinion piece; it has three parts of increasing novelty and speculation in approach. The first presents an overview of how some of the major crop simulation models approach the issue of simulating the responses of crops to changing climatic and weather variables, mainly atmospheric CO2 concentration and increased and/or varying temperatures. It illustrates an important principle in models of a single cause having alternative effects and vice versa. The second part suggests some features, mostly missing in current crop models, that need to be included in the future, focussing on extreme events such as high temperature or extreme drought. The final opinion part is speculative but novel. It describes an approach to deconstruct resource use efficiencies into their constituent identities or elements based on the Kaya-Porter identity, each of which can be examined for responses to climate and climatic change. We give no promise that the final part is 'correct', but we hope it can be a stimulation to thought, hypothesis and experiment, and perhaps a new modelling approach. PMID:23534680

  13. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Sadana, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  14. Racial(ized) Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Afrocentric Values: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in Understanding African American Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin O.

    2005-01-01

    A survey of the literature reveals that there is conceptual confusion and inconsistent and sometimes inappropriate usage of the terms racial identity, ethnic identity, and Afrocentric values. This study explored the extent to which Black racial(ized) identity attitudes were related to ethnic identity and Afrocentric cultural values. Two hundred…

  15. Drawing Identity: Beginning Pre-Service Teachers' Professional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltman, Susan; Glass, Christine; Dinham, Judith; Chalk, Beryl; Nguyen, Bich

    2015-01-01

    Developing a professional teacher identity can be complex as pre-service teachers engage with a process informed by their previous experiences of teachers and teaching, by learning in their pre-service course, by field placements, and by societal expectations. Using drawing as the method for gathering data, pre-service teachers in an Australian…

  16. Split Identity: Intransitive Judgments of the Identity of Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rips, Lance J.

    2011-01-01

    Identity is a transitive relation, according to all standard accounts. Necessarily, if "x = y" and "y = z," then "x = z." However, people sometimes say that two objects, "x" and "z," are the same as a third, "y," even when "x" and "z" have different properties (thus, "x = y" and "y = z," but "x is not equal to z"). In the present experiments,

  17. "Doing Identity" in the Botswana Classroom: Negotiating Gendered Institutional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on post-structural and post-colonial conceptions of gender, this paper explores multiple student masculinities and femininities in the classrooms of four junior secondary schools in Botswana. These gendered identities, it is argued, are negotiated within broader institutional constraints that have been socio-historically produced. Such

  18. Men as victims: "victim" identities, gay identities, and masculinities.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-11-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they thought they had resolved. Being victimized can reinvoke shame that is rooted in failure or unwillingness to uphold masculine norms. For some gay men, victimization therefore has connotations of nonmasculinity that make being a victim an undesirable status, yet that status must be claimed to obtain a response from criminal justice or victim services. Men who experience homophobic abuse are helped by accepting a victim identity, but only if they can quickly move on from it by reconstructing a masculine gay (nonvictim) identity. This process can be facilitated by agencies such as the police and victim services, provided they help men exercise agency in "fighting back," that is, resisting further victimization and recovering. PMID:22610831

  19. Integrating Identities: Ethnic and Academic Identities among Diverse College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lovey H. M.; Syed, Moin

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Students of Color continue to be underrepresented at the undergraduate level. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of non-academic psychosocial factors for understanding college experiences. One factor, identity, is a broad, multidimensional construct that comprises numerous distinct domains, including political,

  20. Identity in Flux: Negotiating Identity While Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jennifer T.; Natrajan-Tyagi, Rajeswari; Platt, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    Study abroad is one aspect of global movement that connects individuals of diverse backgrounds. Individuals studying abroad are proffered to negotiate self-identity when they confront novelty and new contexts. This study chose to use the qualitative method of phenomenological interviews to examine how individuals experience themselves and others

  1. Blended Identities: Identity Work, Equity and Marginalization in Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikoop, Will

    2013-01-01

    This article is a theoretical study of the self-presentation strategies employed by higher education students online; it examines student identity work via profile information and avatars in a blended learning environment delivered through social networking sites and virtual worlds. It argues that students are faced with difficult choices when

  2. Drawing Identity: Beginning Pre-Service Teachers' Professional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltman, Susan; Glass, Christine; Dinham, Judith; Chalk, Beryl; Nguyen, Bich

    2015-01-01

    Developing a professional teacher identity can be complex as pre-service teachers engage with a process informed by their previous experiences of teachers and teaching, by learning in their pre-service course, by field placements, and by societal expectations. Using drawing as the method for gathering data, pre-service teachers in an Australian

  3. Blended Identities: Identity Work, Equity and Marginalization in Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikoop, Will

    2013-01-01

    This article is a theoretical study of the self-presentation strategies employed by higher education students online; it examines student identity work via profile information and avatars in a blended learning environment delivered through social networking sites and virtual worlds. It argues that students are faced with difficult choices when…

  4. Identity in Flux: Negotiating Identity While Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jennifer T.; Natrajan-Tyagi, Rajeswari; Platt, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    Study abroad is one aspect of global movement that connects individuals of diverse backgrounds. Individuals studying abroad are proffered to negotiate self-identity when they confront novelty and new contexts. This study chose to use the qualitative method of phenomenological interviews to examine how individuals experience themselves and others…

  5. Integrating Identities: Ethnic and Academic Identities among Diverse College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lovey H. M.; Syed, Moin

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Students of Color continue to be underrepresented at the undergraduate level. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of non-academic psychosocial factors for understanding college experiences. One factor, identity, is a broad, multidimensional construct that comprises numerous distinct domains, including political,…

  6. Split Identity: Intransitive Judgments of the Identity of Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rips, Lance J.

    2011-01-01

    Identity is a transitive relation, according to all standard accounts. Necessarily, if "x = y" and "y = z," then "x = z." However, people sometimes say that two objects, "x" and "z," are the same as a third, "y," even when "x" and "z" have different properties (thus, "x = y" and "y = z," but "x is not equal to z"). In the present experiments,…

  7. "Doing Identity" in the Botswana Classroom: Negotiating Gendered Institutional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on post-structural and post-colonial conceptions of gender, this paper explores multiple student masculinities and femininities in the classrooms of four junior secondary schools in Botswana. These gendered identities, it is argued, are negotiated within broader institutional constraints that have been socio-historically produced. Such…

  8. Can Salience of Gender Identity Impair Math Performance among 7-8 Years Old Girls? The Moderating Role of Task Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuville, Emmanuelle; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Can the salience of gender identity affect the math performance of 7-8 year old girls? Third-grade girls and boys were required to solve arithmetical problems of varied difficulty. Prior to the test, one half of the participants had their gender identity activated. Results showed that activation of gender identity affected girls' performance but…

  9. RFID identity theft and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrigel, Alexander; Zhao, Jian

    2006-02-01

    This paper reviews the ICAO security architecture for biometric passports. An attack enabling RFID identity theft for a later misuse is presented. Specific countermeasures against this attack are described. Furthermore, it is shown that robust high capacity digital watermarking for the embedding and retrieving of binary digital signature data can be applied as an effective mean against RFID identity theft. This approach requires only minimal modifications of the passport manufacturing process and is an enhancement of already proposed solutions. The approach may also be applied in combination with a RFID as a backup solution (damaged RFID chip) to verify with asymmetric cryptographic techniques the authenticity and the integrity of the passport data.

  10. Politicized Collective Identity: A Social Psychological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Bernd; Klandermans, Bert

    2001-01-01

    Develops a social psychological model of politicized collective identity that revolves around three conceptual themes (collective identity, the struggle for power, and the wider societal context of that power struggle). Discusses how collective identity has been politicized, showing that politicized collective identity has important consequences…

  11. Multiple Identities and Education for Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alistair

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores concepts of multiple and nested identities and how these relate to citizenship and rights, and the implications of identities and rights for active citizenship education. Various theoretical conceptions of identity are analysed, and in particular ideas concerning multiple identities that are used contingently, and about…

  12. Teacher Identity Work in Mathematics Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumayer-Depiper, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Becoming a teacher is not developing an identity, but is developing identity as a continuous process of constructing and deconstructing understandings within the complexities of social practice, beliefs, experiences, and social norms. I take up this stance on identity as articulated in Judith Butler's (1999) work with gender identity and…

  13. The Objectification of Identity across Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Stanton

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes one way in which students develop durable, classroom-specific identities. When students enter new groups their identities are often fluid. Over time, however, students and teachers generally come to identify individuals in predictable ways. Durable identities emerge across events, as signs of identity come to presuppose a…

  14. A Dialogical Approach to Conceptualizing Teacher Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Sanne F.; Meijer, Paulien C.

    2011-01-01

    In recent attempts to address the notion of teacher identity, scholars have stressed how identity is dynamically evolving, intrinsically related to others, and consists of multiple identities. Though these postmodern characterizations represent radically new perceptions of identity, they are not extensively discussed in relation to previous

  15. Teacher Identity Work in Mathematics Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumayer-Depiper, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Becoming a teacher is not developing an identity, but is developing identity as a continuous process of constructing and deconstructing understandings within the complexities of social practice, beliefs, experiences, and social norms. I take up this stance on identity as articulated in Judith Butler's (1999) work with gender identity and

  16. A Dialogical Approach to Conceptualizing Teacher Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Sanne F.; Meijer, Paulien C.

    2011-01-01

    In recent attempts to address the notion of teacher identity, scholars have stressed how identity is dynamically evolving, intrinsically related to others, and consists of multiple identities. Though these postmodern characterizations represent radically new perceptions of identity, they are not extensively discussed in relation to previous…

  17. Problems of Identity Development of Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrbeck, Bernd

    This paper considers theory and research on identity development in deaf children and concludes that the exclusively oral method of instruction is not conducive to healthy identity development. The importance of interpersonal communication in identity development from the viewpoints of both sociological and psychoanalytical theories of identity is

  18. The Moral Self: Applying Identity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stets, Jan E.; Carter, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This research applies identity theory to understand the moral self. In identity theory, individuals act on the basis of their identity meanings, and they regulate the meanings of their behavior so that those meanings are consistent with their identity meanings. An inconsistency produces negative emotions and motivates individuals to behave…

  19. Statistical Methods with Varying Coefficient Models

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenyang

    2008-01-01

    The varying coefficient models are very important tool to explore the dynamic pattern in many scientific areas, such as economics, finance, politics, epidemiology, medical science, ecology and so on. They are natural extensions of classical parametric models with good interpretability and are becoming more and more popular in data analysis. Thanks to their flexibility and interpretability, in the past ten years, the varying coefficient models have experienced deep and exciting developments on methodological, theoretical and applied sides. This paper gives a selective overview on the major methodological and theoretical developments on the varying coefficient models. PMID:18978950

  20. Changes in Identity after Aphasic Stroke: Implications for Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Thomas; Bokhour, Barbara G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Stroke survivors with aphasia experience difficulty associated with their communication disorder. While much has been written about aphasia's impacts on partners/family, we lack data regarding the psychosocial adjustment of aphasic stroke survivors, with a paucity of data from the patients themselves. Methods. Qualitative study of lived experiences of individuals with poststroke aphasia. Each of the stroke survivors with aphasia completed 3-4 semistructured interviews. In most cases, patients' partners jointly participated in interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed using techniques derived from grounded theory. Results. 12 patients were interviewed, with the total of 45 interviews over 18 months. Themes included poststroke changes in patients' relationships and identities, which were altered across several domains including occupational identity, relationship and family roles, and social identity. While all these domains were impacted by aphasia, the impact varied over time. Conclusion. Despite the challenges of interviewing individuals with aphasia, we explored aphasia's impacts on how individuals experience their identity and develop new identities months and years after stroke. This data has important implications for primary care of patients with aphasia, including the importance of the long-term primary care relationship in supporting psychosocial adjustment to life after aphasic stroke. PMID:25685553

  1. Changes in identity after aphasic stroke: implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Musser, Benjamin; Wilkinson, Joanne; Gilbert, Thomas; Bokhour, Barbara G

    2015-01-01

    Background. Stroke survivors with aphasia experience difficulty associated with their communication disorder. While much has been written about aphasia's impacts on partners/family, we lack data regarding the psychosocial adjustment of aphasic stroke survivors, with a paucity of data from the patients themselves. Methods. Qualitative study of lived experiences of individuals with poststroke aphasia. Each of the stroke survivors with aphasia completed 3-4 semistructured interviews. In most cases, patients' partners jointly participated in interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed using techniques derived from grounded theory. Results. 12 patients were interviewed, with the total of 45 interviews over 18 months. Themes included poststroke changes in patients' relationships and identities, which were altered across several domains including occupational identity, relationship and family roles, and social identity. While all these domains were impacted by aphasia, the impact varied over time. Conclusion. Despite the challenges of interviewing individuals with aphasia, we explored aphasia's impacts on how individuals experience their identity and develop new identities months and years after stroke. This data has important implications for primary care of patients with aphasia, including the importance of the long-term primary care relationship in supporting psychosocial adjustment to life after aphasic stroke. PMID:25685553

  2. Colon Cancer Among Hispanics Varies by Birthplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hispanics Varies by Birthplace Study found people from Cuba, Puerto Rico have highest death rates from the ... were further identified by their place of origin: Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Central or South America, or ...

  3. Pediatricians Vary Widely in Diagnosing ADHD, Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158099.html Pediatricians Vary Widely in Diagnosing ADHD, Depression 5 years of data show 15 percent ... often U.S. pediatricians diagnose and prescribe drugs for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other mental health conditions, a new ...

  4. 6 Keys to Identity Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Idan

    2011-01-01

    An Identity and Access Management (IAM) project on campus can feel like a Sisyphean task: Just when access rights have finally been sorted out, the semester ends--and users change roles, leave campus, or require new processes. IT departments face a constantly changing technical landscape: (1) integrating new applications and retiring old ones; (2)…

  5. Feminist Identity among Latina Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Adriana M.; Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell

    2009-01-01

    This study explores developing conceptions of feminism among Latina adolescents, their prevalence of feminist endorsement, and whether home environment and well-being are related to feminist identity. One hundred and forty Latina girls (Grades 9 to 12, M age = 15) wrote personal narratives of their understanding of feminism and whether they…

  6. Understanding Academic Identity through Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billot, Jennie; King, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors used by higher education teachers in their narratives of academic life provide insight into aspects of academic identity. Drawing on an international study of leader/follower dynamics, the teachers' narratives reveal how academics interpret their interactions with leaders; the perceived distance between expectations and experience, and

  7. Identities for the Fibonacci Powers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Alex; Chen, Hongwei

    2008-01-01

    Based on the generating functions, for any positive integers "n" and "k", identities are established and the explicit formula for a[subscript i](k) in terms of Fibonomial coefficients are presented. The corresponding results are extended to some other famous sequences including Lucas and Pell sequences.

  8. Developing Students' Professional Digital Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Thomas; Antonczak, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the myth of the "Digital Native" and the ubiquity of Facebook use, we have found that students' digital identities are predominantly social with their online activity beyond Facebook limited to being social media consumers rather than producers. Within a global economy students need to learn new digital literacy skills to…

  9. Understanding Academic Identity through Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billot, Jennie; King, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors used by higher education teachers in their narratives of academic life provide insight into aspects of academic identity. Drawing on an international study of leader/follower dynamics, the teachers' narratives reveal how academics interpret their interactions with leaders; the perceived distance between expectations and experience, and…

  10. Entanglement conditions and polynomial identities

    SciTech Connect

    Shchukin, E.

    2011-11-15

    We develop a rather general approach to entanglement characterization based on convexity properties and polynomial identities. This approach is applied to obtain simple and efficient entanglement conditions that work equally well in both discrete as well as continuous-variable environments. Examples of violations of our conditions are presented.

  11. Cultural Identity in Tibetan Diasporas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Howard; Dorjee, Tenzin

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan civilisation is over two millenniums old and, today, its struggles in diaspora open up a new chapter in Tibetan history. Diasporic Tibetans (e.g. in India and the USA) have made tremendous efforts over the last few decades to maintain their way of life. We focus on cultural identity in the Tibetan diasporas, with special attention focused…

  12. Identity Representations in Visual Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayik, Rawia

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to address minority issues with Israeli Arab English-as-a-foreign-language ninth-grade students, I as a teacher researcher introduced picture books on the issue and invited students to respond in different modes, one of which was artistic. In one of the lessons, students created collages to represent their identities. In this…

  13. Imperialism and Samoan National Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milford, Sereisa

    1986-01-01

    Political division and domination by different foreign powers have given birth to national identity problems which Samoans face both at home and abroad. Community leaders should put aside antagonistic feelings among themselves and restore appreciation for the "faasamoa," that body of customs and traditions once shared by all Samoans. (GC)

  14. Developing Designer Identity through Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.; Hutchinson, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    As designers utilize design thinking while moving through a design space between problem and solution, they must rely on design intelligence, precedents, and intuition in order to arrive at meaningful and inventive outcomes. Thus, instructional designers must constantly re-conceptualize their own identities and what it means to be a designer.…

  15. Feminist Identity among Latina Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Adriana M.; Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell

    2009-01-01

    This study explores developing conceptions of feminism among Latina adolescents, their prevalence of feminist endorsement, and whether home environment and well-being are related to feminist identity. One hundred and forty Latina girls (Grades 9 to 12, M age = 15) wrote personal narratives of their understanding of feminism and whether they

  16. [Identity and narration: autobiographical quests].

    PubMed

    Arfuch, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to tackle the subtle relation between autobiographical narratives and identity construction, from a non essentialist conception of identity. In a perspective that articulates philosophy of language, psychoanalysis, semiotics and literary critique, we posit the concept of biographical space as an analytical instrument to make a critical update of the reconfiguration of identities and subjectivities in contemporary culture, marked by the predominance of the biographical, the private and a kind of "public intimacy". This look is more symptomatic than descriptive: it intends to account for the rise of auto/biographical narratives and life-stories, from canonic genres to their multiple derivations in the media, social networks and the most diverse artistic practices, a phenomenon that seems to reaffirm the notion of narrative identities by Ricoeur. Our analysis here, from an ethic, aesthetic and political point of view, will focus on two visual arts experiences that have recently taken place for the first time in Buenos Aires: Christian Boltanski's and Tracey Emin's, solo exhibitions, each of them with a different biographical approach. PMID:24251298

  17. Immigrant Identity in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Candice C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I report research on representations of immigrant identities in one university where teacher candidates matriculated in undergraduate and graduate degree programs. The case study occurred in a community where immigrants were highly visible. A content analysis of curriculum for teacher preparation provided a view of factors that…

  18. Politics, Policy and Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodman, Sue; Taylor, Susan; Morris, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Standards-based reform of education is a dominant political discourse in many nations. In this paper we argue that the type of standards-based reform that is enacted has important implications for teacher agency and teacher professional development. Teacher professional development and identity is explored through theories of the teacher's role in…

  19. Trig Integrals without Trig Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprows, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The standard approach to finding antiderivatives of trigonometric expressions such as sin(ax) cos(bx) is to make use of certain trigonometric identities. The disadvantage of this technique is that it gives no insight into the problem, but relies on students using a memorized formula. This note considers a technique for finding antiderivatives of…

  20. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  1. Personal Identity: Moving beyond Essence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, R. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Education's ancient and profoundly important pursuit to "know thyself", is often realised through engaging with the question "who am I?" In order to the identify "who" in this search, it is argued in this paper that personal identity should be understood to be embedded in the purposes one has for one's life through "how" one relates, and is…

  2. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  3. Brand: Identity, Image, and Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danker, Stephanie Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents face complex dilemmas such as challenging issues of identity and self-concept, and struggles with building and maintaining relationships. These issues must be embraced in the art classroom. This Instructional Resource will focus on the concept of brand--connecting visual art, marketing, and psychology--and center on ideas found in the…

  4. Music Education and Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Renewed interest in the relationship between music education and cultural identity draws its vigor from strongly divergent sources. Globalized education and globalized musical culture supply new paradigms for understanding the central tasks of music education and their responsibility to a multicultural ethic of diversity, hybridity and difference.…

  5. Gender Identity Disorder in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Dionne; Flauto, Phil

    Identity formation involves the development of self esteem, social skills, and a sense of self. Many gay and lesbian adults have noted that they were aware of their attraction to members of the same sex as early as five- and six-years-old. Reactions they received from parents and others often added to their stress. Following a description of the…

  6. [Work, identity and social ties].

    PubMed

    Chétrit, Philippe; Archain, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    When a management organisation ruins identity and social cohesion, the work it prescribes can be likened to that requested by instinct, which enslaves the animal. Wellbeing in the workplace is encouraged by recognition of the actual work carried out, a source of self-fulfillment. PMID:25619094

  7. The Ontogeny of Face Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, Elliott M.; Camp, Carole Ann

    2004-01-01

    A paradigm was designed to study how infants identify live faces. Eight- to 21-week-old infants were seated comfortably and were presented an adult female, dressed in a white laboratory coat and a white turtle neck sweater, until habituation ensued. The adult then left the room. One minute later either she or an identically garbed confederate

  8. The Ontogeny of Face Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, Elliott M.; Camp, Carole Ann

    2004-01-01

    A paradigm was designed to study how infants identify live faces. Eight- to 21-week-old infants were seated comfortably and were presented an adult female, dressed in a white laboratory coat and a white turtle neck sweater, until habituation ensued. The adult then left the room. One minute later either she or an identically garbed confederate…

  9. Developing Designer Identity through Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.; Hutchinson, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    As designers utilize design thinking while moving through a design space between problem and solution, they must rely on design intelligence, precedents, and intuition in order to arrive at meaningful and inventive outcomes. Thus, instructional designers must constantly re-conceptualize their own identities and what it means to be a designer.

  10. Immigrant Identity in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Candice C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I report research on representations of immigrant identities in one university where teacher candidates matriculated in undergraduate and graduate degree programs. The case study occurred in a community where immigrants were highly visible. A content analysis of curriculum for teacher preparation provided a view of factors that

  11. Brand: Identity, Image, and Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danker, Stephanie Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents face complex dilemmas such as challenging issues of identity and self-concept, and struggles with building and maintaining relationships. These issues must be embraced in the art classroom. This Instructional Resource will focus on the concept of brand--connecting visual art, marketing, and psychology--and center on ideas found in the

  12. Integrating Identities: The Relationships of Racial, Gender, and Ego Identities among White College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miville, Marie L.; Darlington, Pat; Whitlock, Brian; Mulligan, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    The authors proposed that racial and gender identities were related to ego identities based on common themes that exist across these different dimensions of identity. A sample of 300 White college students completed the White Racial Identity Attitude Scale (Helms & Carter, 199), the Womanliest Identity Attitude Scale (Ossana, Helms, & Leonard,…

  13. Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Liz

    2012-01-01

    The National Association of Hispanic Journalists tracks the presence of Latinos in the news. It reports that news stories in which Latinos are the subject most often concern immigration, poverty and crime. And Hollywood does no better in reflecting the broad reality of Latino life. Latino characters are often portrayed as poor and uneducated. In…

  14. Gender-Role Identity and Perceived Peer Group Acceptance among Early Adolescents in Belgian Mixed and Single-Sex Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutsaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on survey data, this paper explores the association between early adolescents' gender-role identity and sense of peer group acceptance, and how this association may vary as a function of the gender context of the school. Two indicators of gender-role identity were included in the analysis: in one measure the items reflect features of…

  15. Hungarian Youth in Transylvania Discuss Hybrid Notions of Civic Identity: Making the Case for Cultural Preservation and Multilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Alarcn, Jeannette; Ives, Bob; Bellows, Elizabeth; Alama, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand ways in which Hungarian high school students describe and articulate their civic identity, as members of varied civic communities. We conducted our study in Romania, an emerging democracy with an Hungarian national minority, as it provides a unique opportunity to examine the development of a democratic civic identity

  16. The Relations among Feminist Identity Development, Gender-Role Orientation, and Psychological Well-Being in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Kendra J.; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This study examined relations between feminist identity development, gender-role orientation, and psychological well-being in 244 women of varying ages and backgrounds. As hypothesized, both feminist identity development and gender-role orientation contributed independently to the explanation of variance in psychological well-being.…

  17. Crossing New Uncharted Territory: Shifts in Academic Identity as a Result of Modifying Teaching Practice in Undergraduate Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Sneddon, Jamie; Stewart, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    The changes in academic identity a teacher may undergo, as they modify their teaching practice, will vary depending on their experiences and the support they receive. In this paper, we describe the shifts in academic identity of two lecturers, a mathematician and a mathematics educator, as they both made changes to their teaching practice by…

  18. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  19. [Voice and identity in transsexuality].

    PubMed

    Pérez Alvarez, J C

    2011-08-01

    For the self-acceptance and social approval of transsexuals in their new identity, the voice plays a very important role. The responsibility of the phoniatrician and voice therapist is to identify in advance what type of voice change options are possible. These can either be achieved by more conservative means or through operative procedures. Whether to undergo speech therapy or perform a laryngeal surgical intervention should be discussed with the patient and determined on an individual basis. PMID:21833878

  20. On backscatter from spatially varying surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grody, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    The theory of radar backscatter from rough (spatially varying) surfaces is discussed. An integral equation developed to describe the radar backscatter from a perfectly conducting surface is applied to nonsmooth surfaces. The results are compared with those obtained by Beckmann as well as those obtained by Wright. Differences between the three solutions are discussed.

  1. Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

  2. Characteristics of time-varying inductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boteler, D. H.

    1994-03-01

    When an ac current pushes an inductor into saturation for part of each cycle, the inductor presents two values of inductance to the rest of the circuit. This situation can arise either deliberately, as in the operation of a fluxgate magnetometer, or unintentionally, as with the saturation of power transformers by geomagnetically induced currents. Analyzing such a circuit can be laborious, but often all that is required is knowledge of how the changing inductance affects slowly varying components of the current. It is shown that the effective inductance seen by slowly varying currents flowing through a time-varying inductance is given by 1/L(sub eff) = theta/L(sub 1) + (1 - theta)/L(sub 2), where theta is the proportion of time for which the inductance has value L(sub 1). This expression is comparable to that for the effective inductance of two uncoupled inductors in parallel, but allowing for the proportion of time that each one is seen by the rest of the circuit. For power transformers, where the unsaturated inductance is considerably greater than the saturated inductance, the term involving the larger inductance quickly becomes negligible as the proportion of time in saturation increases. Thus, beyond very mild saturation, the effective inductance seen by slowly varying currents flowing through the transformer is inversely related to the proportion of time in saturation.

  3. Perception, experience and body identity.

    PubMed

    López-Ibor, Juan J; Ortiz, Tomás; López-Ibor, María I

    2011-12-01

    Physician has to know the patient in the disease and not only the disease in the patient, from the dual perspective of the body as object and the body as subject. This also affects the patient who has to cope with the reality of having a body that bursts into the subject's consciousness as a vital threat, as source of discomfort and inability and being a body (Marcel). The human body in its dual aspect has been and is a great unknown, if not a great outrage in spite of the fact that we are our body and our body is each of us. We sometimes do not feel as we are and thus a confrontation arises, sometimes more normal, others more morbid. This forces the physician to face complex ethics considerations and the scientist to accept a personal identity disorder. Dualism considers that there are two substances in us, one that distinguishes us from other beings and from the rest of the individuals of the human species, the soul, the psychic life, mind or consciousness, and another more insubstancial one, the body. The aim of the first substance is to dominate the body, to survive it after death when it is, already a corpse is meant to become putrefied, is buried, incinerated or thrown to the depth of the sea. This dualism aims to explain the origin of the evil and the attitude to defeat it and it does so efficiently. This anthropology has very ancient roots (the Upvanishads, in the orphic texts, in Plato), it is the core of Gnostic thought and the foundation of the modern science since Descartes. Some monist perspectives are a masked dualism or a mereologic fallacy, according to which, the brain is conscious, when that what is conscious is the subject, although the subject, with the brain could not be conscious. Therefore, a new perspective is proposed, chiasmatic or janicular monism, that considers the adaptive value of focusing on the reality from two perspectives, as physical universe and the world of interpersonal relationships. In the agnosias and in the phantom limb there is a confrontation between the body object and the body subject that has made it possible to investigate how the perception of the own body is and how the brain generates the schema and the body image. The study of the body experience, from the phenomenology and the anthropological psychiatry perspective, has made it possible to go greater in-depth into the knowledge of the alterations of the experience of the own body in different mental diseases, especially in those in which a confrontation between the body and the personal identity arises makes it necessary to consider the process of individual identification and a category of personal identity disorders that would include body dysmorphic disorder, erythrophobia, anorexia nervosa, body integrity identity as well as the gender-type disorders (transsexualism, nonfetishistic transvestism, gender identity disorder during childhood). Key words: Dualism, Monism, Agnosia, Phantom limb, Cenesthesia, Body schema, Body image, Body experience, Personal identity disorders, Body dysmorphic disorder, Anorexia nervosa, Personal integrity identity disorder. PMID:22990877

  4. Relationship duration moderation of identity status differences in emerging adults' same-sex friendship intimacy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, H Durell

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has not yielded consistent identity and intimacy associations for female and male emerging adults. Intimacy varies with time spent in a relationship, and relationship duration may explain variations in the identity process association with intimacy. Data from 278 female and 156 male emerging adults revealed relationship duration moderated the identity commitment and exploration associations with intimacy. Findings indicated longer relationship duration was associated with lower intimacy levels for high identity commitment/high exploration females, and longer relationship duration was associated with higher intimacy levels for high commitment/low exploration females. Findings also indicated longer relationship duration was associated with higher intimacy levels for high commitment/high exploration males, and longer relationship duration was associated with lower intimacy levels for low commitment/high exploration males. Findings are discussed with regards to the empirical importance of considering relationship characteristics when examining emerging adult identity process associations with friendship intimacy. PMID:22857913

  5. Silos and Social Identity: The Social Identity Approach as a Framework for Understanding and Overcoming Divisions in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Kreindler, Sara A; Dowd, Damien A; Dana Star, Noah; Gottschalk, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Context One of health care's foremost challenges is the achievement of integration and collaboration among the groups providing care. Yet this fundamentally group-related issue is typically discussed in terms of interpersonal relations or operational issues, not group processes. Methods We conducted a systematic search for literature offering a group-based analysis and examined it through the lens of the social identity approach (SIA). Founded in the insight that group memberships form an important part of the self-concept, the SIA encompasses five dimensions: social identity, social structure, identity content, strength of identification, and context. Findings Our search yielded 348 reports, 114 of which cited social identity. However, SIA-citing reports varied in both compatibility with the SIA's metatheoretical paradigm and applied relevance to health care; conversely, some non-SIA-citers offered SIA-congruent analyses. We analyzed the various combinations and interpretations of the five SIA dimensions, identifying ten major conceptual currents. Examining these in the light of the SIA yielded a cohesive, multifaceted picture of (inter)group relations in health care. Conclusions The SIA offers a coherent framework for integrating a diverse, far-flung literature on health care groups. Further research should take advantage of the full depth and complexity of the approach, remain sensitive to the unique features of the health care context, and devote particular attention to identity mobilization and context change as key drivers of system transformation. Our article concludes with a set of “guiding questions” to help health care leaders recognize the group dimension of organizational problems, identify mechanisms for change, and move forward by working with and through social identities, not against them. PMID:22709391

  6. The Ontogeny of Career Identities in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Malanchuk, Oksana; Messersmith, Emily E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration and identity formation are primary developmental tasks during adolescence and the transition to adulthood. Yet little is known about occupational identity formation and growth during this period of life. In this paper, we describe our ongoing research on this topic. First, we present our findings on the ontogeny of the complexity of career identities. Then we discuss our findings regarding the relationship between early career identity formation and psychological well-being at ages 19 and 21. PMID:21154834

  7. Threats to Feminist Identity and Reactions to Gender Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kofta, Mirek; Rozum, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to examine conditions that modify feminists' support for women as targets of gender discrimination. In an experimental study we tested a hypothesis that threatened feminist identity will lead to greater differentiation between feminists and conservative women as victims of discrimination and, in turn, a decrease in support for non-feminist victims. The study was conducted among 96 young Polish female professionals and graduate students from Gender Studies programs in Warsaw who self-identified as feminists (M age  = 22.23). Participants were presented with a case of workplace gender discrimination. Threat to feminist identity and worldview of the discrimination victim (feminist vs. conservative) were varied between research conditions. Results indicate that identity threat caused feminists to show conditional reactions to discrimination. Under identity threat, feminists perceived the situation as less discriminatory when the target held conservative views on gender relations than when the target was presented as feminist. This effect was not observed under conditions of no threat. Moreover, feminists showed an increase in compassion for the victim when she was portrayed as a feminist compared to when she was portrayed as conservative. Implications for the feminist movement are discussed. PMID:23606785

  8. Clearing the air: identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paul G; Spencer, Steven J; Steele, Claude M

    2005-02-01

    Exposing participants to gender-stereotypic TV commercials designed to elicit the female stereotype, the present research explored whether vulnerability to stereotype threat could persuade women to avoid leadership roles in favor of nonthreatening subordinate roles. Study 1 confirmed that exposure to the stereotypic commercials undermined women's aspirations on a subsequent leadership task. Study 2 established that varying the identity safety of the leadership task moderated whether activation of the female stereotype mediated the effect of the commercials on women's aspirations. Creating an identity-safe environment eliminated vulnerability to stereotype threat despite exposure to threatening situational cues that primed stigmatized social identities and their corresponding stereotypes. PMID:15841859

  9. Positional Identity and Science Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Felicia M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the positional identity of three African American secondary science teachers. Positional identity was operationally defined in terms of race, ethnicity, economic status, gender, religion, and age. Positional identity was posited to inform why diverse teachers with differing knowledge and experiences in…

  10. American Identity in the USA: Youth Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahromi, Parissa

    2011-01-01

    National identity, how one sees oneself as a member of a given nation, is an important form of social identity. Feelings toward one's country are a matter of both individual and collective concern. In an increasingly diverse world, the issue of identifying with a nation is complex and consequential for individual identity formation as well as

  11. Gender, Legitimation, and Identity Verification in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Peter J.; Stets, Jan E.; Cerven, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Drawing upon identity theory, expectation states theory, and legitimation theory, we examine how the task leader identity in task-oriented groups is more likely to be verified for persons with high status characteristics. We hypothesize that identity verification will be accomplished more readily for male group members and legitimated task leaders…

  12. Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasr, Raja T., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of works on the role of cultural identity in second language learning and teaching includes: "Linguas estrangeiras e ideologia" (Roberto Ballalai); "Cultural Identity and Bilinguality" (Josiane F. Hamers, Michel Blanc); "Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity" (Lakshmie K. Cumaranatunge); "Ensino de linguas estrangeiras e…

  13. (q, t) identities and vertex operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Amer; Qureshi, Babar A.; Shabbir, Khurram

    2016-03-01

    Using vertex operators acting on fermionic Fock space we prove certain identities, which depend on a number of parameters, generalizing and refining the Nekrasov-Okounkov identity. These identities provide exact product representation for the instanton partition function of certain five-dimensional quiver gauge theories. This product representation also clearly displays the modular transformation properties of the gauge theory partition function.

  14. Interpersonal Identity Formation during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Barbara N.; Schultz, Jerelyn B.

    2001-01-01

    Explored the interpersonal identity development during early adolescence. Findings revealed that 55% of the sample fell into one of the four discrete identity status categories, with 62% of this group classified as either diffused or foreclosed. Findings reflect the emergent and/or transitional nature of interpersonal identity development during…

  15. Ego Identity, Egocentrism, and Formal Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protinsky, Howard; Wilkerson, Jackie

    1986-01-01

    Examined the relationship between ego identity, formal operations, and egocentrism in adolescents. Results indicated significant positive correlations between ego identity and formal operations and between ego identity and grade in school. Grade in school explained 21 percent of the variance while formal operational thinking, egocentrism, and sex…

  16. The Development of Ethnic Identity during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Seidman, Edward; Allen, LaRue; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    The development of ethnic identity is a critical facet of adolescence, particularly for adolescents of color. In order to examine the developmental trajectory of ethnic identity, African American, Latino American, and European American early and middle adolescents (N=420) were assessed over 3 years. Two components of ethnic identity were

  17. Career Identity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Kate J.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Career identity development is salient in adolescence and young adulthood, but little research has assessed career identity in populations other than four-year college students. Context should be considered when examining career identity, and to address this gap in the literature, the current study examined the extent to which parental support for

  18. Identity Verification, Control, and Aggression in Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stets, Jan E.; Burke, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    In this research we study the identity verification process and its effects in marriage. Drawing on identity control theory, we hypothesize that a lack of verification in the spouse identity (1) threatens stable self-meanings and interaction patterns between spouses, and (2) challenges a (nonverified) spouse's perception of control over the…

  19. Ego Identity in Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Shiff, Rachel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Ego identity was assessed for 30 mildly retarded adolescents, 30 nonretarded peers, and 30 nonretarded preadolescents. Results suggest that subjects' identity did not reflect a simple developmental lag but rather a unique profile. Subjects' ego identity was related to social adjustment and level of functioning, even after controlling for…

  20. Vocational Identity: It's about Working at Becoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armishaw, David D.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on how a worker's relationship with either a place of work or employer--or with what the skilled worker does very well--contributes to very different forms of work identity. Work identity that reflects a determination on the employee's part to commit to the values of the work group is vocational identity, which is important

  1. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will

  2. Career Identity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Kate J.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Career identity development is salient in adolescence and young adulthood, but little research has assessed career identity in populations other than four-year college students. Context should be considered when examining career identity, and to address this gap in the literature, the current study examined the extent to which parental support for…

  3. The Impact of Stuttering on Identity Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Derek E.; Gabel, Rodney M.

    2004-01-01

    Identity is an important concept to consider when describing human development. To date, relatively few articles have addressed file application of identity theory, especially that concerned with the social construction, to stuttering. This article examines why the construction of a positive identity may be difficult due to the negative effect of…

  4. Identities, Social Representations and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Facal, Ramon; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar

    2009-01-01

    This comment on L. Simonneaux and J. Simonneaux paper focuses on the role of "identities" in dealing with socio-scientific issues. We argue that there are two types of identities (social representations) influencing the students' positions: On the one hand their social representations of the bears' and wolves' identities as belonging to particular…

  5. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  6. Gender, Legitimation, and Identity Verification in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Peter J.; Stets, Jan E.; Cerven, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Drawing upon identity theory, expectation states theory, and legitimation theory, we examine how the task leader identity in task-oriented groups is more likely to be verified for persons with high status characteristics. We hypothesize that identity verification will be accomplished more readily for male group members and legitimated task leaders

  7. Developing a Leadership Identity: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komives, Susan R.; Owen, Julie E; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Osteen, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity revealed a 6-stage developmental process. The thirteen diverse students in this study described their leadership identity as moving from a leader-centric view to one that embraced leadership as a collaborative, relational process. Developing a leadership identity was connected to the…

  8. Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasr, Raja T., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of works on the role of cultural identity in second language learning and teaching includes: "Linguas estrangeiras e ideologia" (Roberto Ballalai); "Cultural Identity and Bilinguality" (Josiane F. Hamers, Michel Blanc); "Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity" (Lakshmie K. Cumaranatunge); "Ensino de linguas estrangeiras e

  9. Racial and Ethnic Identities in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The investigation of race relations, of social problems related to race and ethnicity, and of different racial and social groups, all presume prior information about the definition of racial or ethnic group identity, about the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of such identities, and about the importance of such identities in American…

  10. Perceptual limits in a simulated "Cocktail party".

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Takayuki; Sato, Takao

    2015-08-01

    Numerosity judgments of simultaneous talkers were examined. Listeners were required to report the number of talkers heard when this number varied (1 to 13). Spatial location of talkers (1 or 6 locations), duration of talker voices (0.8 s, 5.0 s, and 15.0 s), and gender arrangement of talkers also were manipulated in four experiments. In all experiments, the proportion of correct numerosity judgments monotonically decreased as talker numbers increased. Perceptual limits, defined as talker numbers with proportion correct scores of 0.5, varied between 3 to 5 talkers, on average, depending on listening conditions, and were significantly higher for spatially separated talkers, for the longer voices, and for the mixed gender voices (Experiments 1, 2, and 3). In addition, Experiment 4 found that average numerosity response times increased monotonically over a range of one to four talkers. These results support the idea that, before counting talkers, listeners perceptually segregate talkers to render numerosity judgments. They also suggest that our functional auditory world for simultaneous voices may consist of, at most, three to five talkers depending on listening situations. In light of these results, possible causes for such perceptual limits are discussed. PMID:25962457

  11. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  12. Varying potential silicon carbide gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrocarbon gas detection device operates by dissociating or electro-chemically oxidizing hydrocarbons adsorbed to a silicon carbide detection layer. Dissociation or oxidation are driven by a varying potential applied to the detection layer. Different hydrocarbon species undergo reaction at different applied potentials so that the device is able to discriminate among various hydrocarbon species. The device can operate at temperatures between 100.degree. C. and at least 650.degree. C., allowing hydrocarbon detection in hot exhaust gases. The dissociation reaction is detected either as a change in a capacitor or, preferably, as a change of current flow through an FET which incorporates the silicon carbide detection layers. The silicon carbide detection layer can be augmented with a pad of catalytic material which provides a signal without an applied potential. Comparisons between the catalytically produced signal and the varying potential produced signal may further help identify the hydrocarbon present.

  13. Force Measurements of a varying camber hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najdzin, Derek; Bardet, Philippe M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2013-11-01

    The swimming motion of cetaceans (dolphins, whales) is capable of producing large amounts of thrust as observed in nature. This project aims to determine the propulsive efficiency of this swimming motion through force and power measurements. A mechanism was constructed to replicate this motion by applying a combination of pitching and heaving motions to a varying camber hydrofoil. A novel force balance allows the measurement of three direction force and moments as the fin oscillates. A range of Reynolds and Strouhal numbers were tested to identify the most efficient conditions. Allowing the camber of the hydrofoil to vary has shown to increase lift generated, while generating similar thrust forces when compared to a constant camber hydrofoil.

  14. Learning Time-Varying Coverage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nan; Liang, Yingyu; Balcan, Maria-Florina; Song, Le

    2015-01-01

    Coverage functions are an important class of discrete functions that capture the law of diminishing returns arising naturally from applications in social network analysis, machine learning, and algorithmic game theory. In this paper, we propose a new problem of learning time-varying coverage functions, and develop a novel parametrization of these functions using random features. Based on the connection between time-varying coverage functions and counting processes, we also propose an efficient parameter learning algorithm based on likelihood maximization, and provide a sample complexity analysis. We applied our algorithm to the influence function estimation problem in information diffusion in social networks, and show that with few assumptions about the diffusion processes, our algorithm is able to estimate influence significantly more accurately than existing approaches on both synthetic and real world data. PMID:25960624

  15. Ectodermal dysplasia in identical twins

    PubMed Central

    Puttaraju, Gurkar Haraswarupa; Visveswariah, Paranjyothi Magadi

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is typically inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, characterized by deformity of at least two or more of the ectodermal structures - hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. Two cases of hereditary HED involving identical male twins, is being documented for the rarity of its occurrence with special attention given to genetics, pathophysiology, clinical, intraoral manifestations and to the methods to improve the masticatory function, the facial esthetics and psychology of patients affected by this disease. PMID:23956595

  16. Classroom dialogues and deaf identities.

    PubMed

    Mudgett-DeCaro, P; Hurwitz, T A

    1997-04-01

    Despite increasing diversity in the classroom, many teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students are unprepared to teach in a way that benefits all their students. Our course for future teachers focuses on understanding these multiple identities, and on practical approaches to using diversity as an opportunity for class growth. Proceeding from the assumption that everyone in the classroom has something to teach and to learn, we describes our approach to teaching teachers in which we make use of the teachers' own diversity and expertise in a continuous dialogue across various methods. Samples of classroom dialogues are included. PMID:9154687

  17. Identical twins with lumbosacral lipomyelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Hanaei, Sara; Nejat, Farideh; Mortazavi, Abolghasem; Habibi, Zohreh; Esmaeili, Arash; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Lipomyelomeningocele, a congenital spine defect, is presented as skin-covered lipomatous tissue that attaches to the cord in different ways according to its subtypes. Unlike other types of neural tube defects, the exact cause of this birth defect has not been confirmed yet, but it is proposed to be a multifactorial disease with involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. The authors describe identical twins with lipomyelomeningocele of the same subtype and location without any familial history of similar abnormality. Therefore, the same genetic and/or environmental risk factors could have played a part in their condition. PMID:25396701

  18. Synchronization in time-varying networks.

    PubMed

    Kohar, Vivek; Ji, Peng; Choudhary, Anshul; Sinha, Sudeshna; Kurths, Jergen

    2014-08-01

    We study the stability of the synchronized state in time-varying complex networks using the concept of basin stability, which is a nonlocal and nonlinear measure of stability that can be easily applied to high-dimensional systems [P. J. Menck, J. Heitzig, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Nature Phys. 9, 89 (2013)]. The time-varying character is included by stochastically rewiring each link with the average frequency f. We find that the time taken to reach synchronization is lowered and the stability range of the synchronized state increases considerably in dynamic networks. Further we uncover that small-world networks are much more sensitive to link changes than random ones, with the time-varying character of the network having a significant effect at much lower rewiring frequencies. At very high rewiring frequencies, random networks perform better than small-world networks and the synchronized state is stable over a much wider window of coupling strengths. Lastly we show that the stability range of the synchronized state may be quite different for small and large perturbations, and so the linear stability analysis and the basin stability criterion provide complementary indicators of stability. PMID:25215786

  19. Elliptical varied line-space (EVLS) gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Roger J.

    2004-10-01

    Imaging spectroscopy at wavelengths below 2000 Å offers an especially powerful method for studying many extended high-temperature astronomical objects, like the Sun and its outer layers. But the technology to make such measurements is also especially challenging, because of the poor reflectance of all standard materials at these wavelengths, and because the observation must be made from above the absorbing effects of the Earth's atmosphere. To solve these problems, single-reflection stigmatic spectrographs for XUV wavelengths have bee flown on several space missions based on designs with toroidal uniform line-space (TULS) or spherical varied line-space (SVLS) gratings that operate at near normal-incidence. More recently, three solar EUV/UV instruments have been selected that use toroidal varied line-space (TVLS) gratings; these are SUMI and RAISE, both sounding rocket payloads, and NEXUS, a SMEX satellite-mission. The next logical extension to such designs is the use of elliptical surfaces for varied line-space (EVLS) rulings. In fact, EVLS designs are found to provide superior imaging even at very large spectrograph magnifications and beam-speeds, permitting extremely high-quality performance in remarkably compact instrument packages. In some cases, such designs may be optimized even further by using a hyperbolic surface for the feeding telescope. The optical characteristics of two solar EUV spectrometers based on these concepts are described: EUS and EUI, both being developed as possible instruments for ESA's Solar Orbiter mission by consortia led by RAL and by MSSL, respectively.

  20. Phenotypic Bias and Ethnic Identity in Filipino Americans*

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Links between phenotypes (skin tone, physical features) and a range of outcomes (income, physical health, psychological distress) were examined. Ethnic identity was examined as a protective moderator of phenotypic bias. Method Data were from a community sample of 2,092 Filipino adults in San Francisco and Honolulu. Results After controlling for age, nativity, marital status, and education, darker skin was associated with lower income and lower physical health for females and males. For females, more ethnic features were associated with lower income. For males, darker skin was related to lower psychological distress. One interaction was found such that females with more ethnic features exhibited lower distress; however, ethnic identity moderated distress levels of those with less ethnic features. Conclusions Phenotypic bias appears prevalent in Filipino Americans though specific effects vary by gender and skin color versus physical features. Discussion centers on the social importance of appearance and potential strengths gained from ethnic identification. PMID:20107617

  1. The insignificance of personal identity for bioethics.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, David

    2010-11-01

    It has long been thought that certain key bioethical views depend heavily on work in personal identity theory, regarding questions of either our essence or the conditions of our numerical identity across time. In this paper I argue to the contrary, that personal identity is actually not significant at all in this arena. Specifically, I explore three topics where considerations of identity are thought to be essential - abortion, definition of death, and advance directives - and I show in each case that the significant work is being done by a relation other than identity. PMID:19438443

  2. Corporate visual identity: a case in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Alkibay, Sanem; Ozdogan, F Bahar; Ermec, Aysegul

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to present a perspective to better understand corporate identity through examining the perceptions of Turkish patients and develop a corporate visual identity scale. While there is no study related to corporate identity research on hospitals in Turkey as a developing country, understanding consumer's perceptions about corporate identity efforts of hospitals could provide different perspectives for recruiters. When the hospitals are considered in two different groups as university and state hospitals, the priority of the characteristics of corporate visual identity may change, whereas the top five characteristics remain the same for all the hospitals. PMID:19042532

  3. Ambivalent Urban, Immigrant Identities: The Incompleteness of Lao American Student Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Bic

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author elucidates the identity work of Lao American urban, immigrant students, highlighting ambivalent identities that do not fit into notions of bicultural or binary identities. It examines the various discourses and practices that inform and shape the experiences and identities of urban, Lao American high school students. It…

  4. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  5. Identities in Harmony: Gender-Work Identity Integration Moderates Frame Switching in Cognitive Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacharin, Vera; Lee, Fiona; Gonzalez, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Professional women's identity integration--the perceived compatibility between work and gender identities--plays a role in how task or relationship information is processed. Seventy female business school students were primed with either their professional or their gender identity. Business women with higher identity integration showed an…

  6. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that

  7. Identity salience model: A paradigm for integrating multiple identities in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Yakushko, Oksana; Davidson, Meghan M; Williams, Elizabeth Nutt

    2009-06-01

    The manuscript presents an identity salience model for clinical practice and psychotherapy research. The model seeks to incorporate contemporary social identity theory and ecological theory, as well as an appreciation of individuals' multiple identities without necessitating a hierarchy of oppression. A clinical case example utilizing the identity salience model is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122617

  8. Cultural Mistrust, Ethnic Identity, Racial Identity, and Self-Esteem among Ethnically Diverse Black University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Rosemary E.; Taylor, Janice D.; Gerard, Phyllis A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines cultural mistrust, ethnic identity, racial identity, and self-esteem among Black university students (N=160). African American students' scores were statistically different from those of African and West Indian/Caribbean students on cultural mistrust, racial identity, and ethnic identity measures. There were no statistically significant…

  9. Identities in Harmony: Gender-Work Identity Integration Moderates Frame Switching in Cognitive Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacharin, Vera; Lee, Fiona; Gonzalez, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Professional women's identity integration--the perceived compatibility between work and gender identities--plays a role in how task or relationship information is processed. Seventy female business school students were primed with either their professional or their gender identity. Business women with higher identity integration showed an

  10. The relationships among caregiver and adolescent identity status, identity distress and psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Rachel E; Berman, Steven L

    2012-10-01

    The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent children (21.7%) met DSM-IV criteria for Identity Problem. Caregiver identity commitment, significantly predicted adolescent identity distress over and above the adolescents' identity variables, while caregiver identity exploration significantly predicted adolescent psychological symptom severity. These findings and implications are discussed in further detail. PMID:22572557

  11. Identities, social representations and critical thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Facal, Ramón; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar

    2009-09-01

    This comment on L. Simonneaux and J. Simonneaux paper focuses on the role of identities in dealing with socio-scientific issues. We argue that there are two types of identities (social representations) influencing the students' positions: On the one hand their social representations of the bears' and wolves' identities as belonging to particular countries (Slovenia versus France for bears, France and Italy for wolves), in other words, as having national identities; on the other hand representations of their own identities as belonging to the field of agricultural practitioners, and so sharing this socio-professional identity with shepherds and breeders, as opposed to ecologists. We discuss how these representations of identities influenced students' reasoning and argumentation, blocking in some cases the evaluation of evidence. Implications for developing critical thinking and for dealing with SSI in the classrooms are outlined.

  12. Identity: recent findings and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, Otto F

    2006-10-01

    After a review of foundational contributions to the concept of identity, including Erikson's, the author discusses the research methods and findings of the Personality Disorders Institute of the Joan and Sanford I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University regarding the concepts of normal identity and identity diffusion, toward an elucidation of the psychopathology of personality disorders--their etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. The application of an object relations theory model to analyze the development of identity clarifies the relationship of individual identity with the social and cultural frame that influences identity formation and may amplify the effects of pathological identity development. Detailed excerpts are presented from a diagnostic structural interview at the Personality Disorders Institute. PMID:17094369

  13. Effect of varying light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 1-d-old Ross 308 ...

  14. 21 CFR 130.17 - Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-822), 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the requirements of definitions and standards of identity....

  15. 21 CFR 130.17 - Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-822), 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the requirements of definitions and standards of identity....

  16. 21 CFR 130.17 - Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-822), 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the requirements of definitions and standards of identity....

  17. 21 CFR 130.17 - Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-822), 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary permits for interstate shipment of experimental packs of food varying from the requirements of definitions and standards of identity....

  18. Categorizing identity from facial motion.

    PubMed

    Girges, Christine; Spencer, Janine; O'Brien, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Advances in marker-less motion capture technology now allow the accurate replication of facial motion and deformation in computer-generated imagery (CGI). A forced-choice discrimination paradigm using such CGI facial animations showed that human observers can categorize identity solely from facial motion cues. Animations were generated from motion captures acquired during natural speech, thus eliciting both rigid (head rotations and translations) and nonrigid (expressional changes) motion. To limit interferences from individual differences in facial form, all animations shared the same appearance. Observers were required to discriminate between different videos of facial motion and between the facial motions of different people. Performance was compared to the control condition of orientation-inverted facial motion. The results show that observers are able to make accurate discriminations of identity in the absence of all cues except facial motion. A clear inversion effect in both tasks provided consistency with previous studies, supporting the configural view of human face perception. The accuracy of this motion capture technology thus allowed stimuli to be generated that closely resembled real moving faces. Future studies may wish to implement such methodology when studying human face perception. PMID:25687732

  19. Identical twinning and oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Emery, A E

    1986-03-01

    Twinning rates for like-sexed and unlike-sexed twins for each year from 1952 to 1983--obtained from the Registrar General's Birth Statistics for England and Wales and the Annual Reports for Scotland--refer to the number of live and still births per 1000 maternities. Non-identical, fraternal or dizygous (DZ) twins are derived from the independent release and subsequent fertilization of 2 separate ova; identical or monozygous (MZ) twins are derived from the splitting of a single fertilized ovum at an early stage in development. Since the 1950s, there has been a definite decline in the incidence of DZ twins; the MZ twinning rate may have started to increase in the 1960s but certainly by the early 1970s, and it is still continuing. Changes in MZ twinning rates may be related to the use of oral contraceptives (OC). A recent study involving 1000 multiple Australian births shows that significantly more MZ twins occur in pregnancies which take place shortly after ceasing OCs compared with pregnancies in non-users. In conceptions which follow soon after the cessation of OCs, or by the unintentional use of OCs in early pregnancy, the resultant changes in the fallopian tubes or endometrium may delay implantation of the fertilized ovum so that early division occurs, resulting in 2 embryos. PMID:12280444

  20. Do different types of social identity moderate the association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among college students?

    PubMed

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-09-01

    Perceived descriptive norms are one of the strongest predictors of college drinking. Social Identity Theory posits that much of our identity is based on groups with which we affiliate. Prior research suggests that there is an association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among those who identify more strongly with the normative referent group. However, no studies to date have examined how different facets of social identity affect the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and drinking. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the interaction between perceived descriptive norms and social identity on drinking varied as a function of different dimensions of social identity among college students. Participants were 1095 college students from a large, public, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week was examined as a function of norms, the Importance, Commitment, Deference, and Superiority subscales of the Measure of Identification with Groups, as well as the two-way interactions between each dimension of social identity and norms. Results indicated that norms were associated with drinking, but that this relationship varied as a function of identity dimension. The association between norms and drinking was stronger among those who viewed the university's student body as part of their own identity and were more committed to their fellow students, but weaker among those who reported greater deference to student leaders. This research suggests the importance of examining multiple dimensions of social identity in considering social influences on drinking. PMID:24836160

  1. Do Different Types of Social Identity Moderate the Association between Perceived Descriptive Norms and Drinking Among College Students?

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    Perceived descriptive norms are one of the strongest predictors of college drinking. Social Identity Theory posits that much of our identity is based on groups with which we affiliate. Prior research suggests that there is an association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among those who identify more strongly with the normative referent group. However, no studies to date have examined how different facets of social identity affect the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and drinking. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the interaction between perceived descriptive norms and social identity on drinking varied as a function of different dimensions of social identity among college students. Participants were 1,095 college students from a large, public, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week was examined as a function of norms, the Importance, Commitment, Deference, and Superiority subscales of the Measure of Identification with Groups, as well as the two-way interactions between each dimension of social identity and norms. Results indicated that norms were associated with drinking, but that this relationship varied as a function of identity dimension. The association between norms and drinking was stronger among those who viewed the university’s student body as part of their own identity and were more committed to their fellow students, but weaker among those who reported greater deference to student leaders. This research suggests the importance of examining multiple dimensions of social identity in considering social influences on drinking. PMID:24836160

  2. Covert medication - Multiple situations, varied options.

    PubMed

    Murthy, R Srinivasa

    2012-07-01

    Mental health interventions in low and middle income countries, with limited resources of human and other resources, requires that they be viewed from multiple viewpoints. This applies to the issue of covert medication, which on the face should not be practiced at all, in an ideal care situation. In India, it would be better to consider the use of covert medication, in differing situations and with the varying levels of involvement of patients and their families in a planned manner and with an open approach. Such an approach could meet the care needs of patients as well as protect the rights of the patients. PMID:23226853

  3. Linear Parameter Varying Control for Actuator Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Wu, N. Eva; Belcastro, Christine; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A robust linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis is carried out for an HiMAT vehicle subject to loss of control effectiveness. The scheduling parameter is selected to be a function of the estimates of the control effectiveness factors. The estimates are provided on-line by a two-stage Kalman estimator. The inherent conservatism of the LPV design is reducing through the use of a scaling factor on the uncertainty block that represents the estimation errors of the effectiveness factors. Simulations of the controlled system with the on-line estimator show that a superior fault-tolerance can be achieved.

  4. Control of nonlinear time-varying systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. R.; Su, R.

    1981-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a time-varying nonlinear system of specific form to be transformed into a time-invariant controllable linear system. Since the present work will be in a neighborhood of the origin, it is unnecessary to name specific sets and it is assumed that all assumptions, conditions and results hold in an open set in the appropriate Euclidean space that contains the origin. This theory can be combined with the global inverse function theorems to produce global results.

  5. The Wildcat Corpus of Native- and Foreign-Accented English: Communicative Efficiency across Conversational Dyads with Varying Language Alignment Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Van Engen, Kristin J.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Baker, Rachel E.; Choi, Arim; Kim, Midam; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Wildcat Corpus of native- and foreign-accented English, a corpus containing scripted and spontaneous speech recordings from 24 native speakers of American English and 52 non-native speakers of English. The core element of this corpus is a set of spontaneous speech recordings, for which a new method of eliciting dialogue-based, laboratory-quality speech recordings was developed (the Diapix task). Dialogues between two native speakers of English, between two non-native speakers of English (with either shared or different L1s), and between one native and one non-native speaker of English are included and analyzed in terms of general measures of communicative efficiency. The overall finding was that pairs of native talkers were most efficient, followed by mixed native/non-native pairs and non-native pairs with shared L1. Non-native pairs with different L1s were least efficient. These results support the hypothesis that successful speech communication depends both on the alignment of talkers to the target language and on the alignment of talkers to one another in terms of native language background. PMID:21313992

  6. Transient, spatially varied groundwater recharge modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Kibreab Amare; Woodbury, Allan D.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to integrate field data and modeling tools in producing temporally and spatially varying groundwater recharge in a pilot watershed in North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using the Richards equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D), ArcGIS™, ROSETTA, in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture, and a long-term gridded climate data. The public version of HYDUS-1D and another version with detailed freezing and thawing module are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack, and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGIS™ to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8 mm/year. Previous studies in the Okanagan Basin used Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance without any attempt of model performance evaluation, notwithstanding its inherent limitations. Thus, climate change impact results from this previous study and similar others, such as Jyrkama and Sykes (2007), need to be interpreted with caution.

  7. Stereoscopic depth perception varies with hues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zaiqing; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghang; Yun, Lijun

    2012-09-01

    The contribution of color information to stereopsis is controversial, and whether the stereoscopic depth perception varies with chromaticity is ambiguous. This study examined the changes in depth perception caused by hue variations. Based on the fact that a greater disparity range indicates more efficient stereoscopic perception, the effect of hue variations on depth perception was evaluated through the disparity range with random-dot stereogram stimuli. The disparity range was obtained by constant-stimulus method for eight chromaticity points sampled from the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. Eight sample points include four main color hues: red, yellow, green, and blue at two levels of chroma. The results show that the disparity range for the yellow hue is greater than the red hue, the latter being greater than the blue hue and the disparity range for green hue is smallest. We conclude that the perceived depth is not the same for different hues for a given size of disparity. We suggest that the stereoscopic depth perception can vary with chromaticity.

  8. Varying execution discipline to increase performance

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.L.; Maccabe, A.B.

    1993-12-22

    This research investigates the relationship between execution discipline and performance. The hypothesis has two parts: 1. Different execution disciplines exhibit different performance for different computations, and 2. These differences can be effectively predicted by heuristics. A machine model is developed that can vary its execution discipline. That is, the model can execute a given program using either the control-driven, data-driven or demand-driven execution discipline. This model is referred to as a ``variable-execution-discipline`` machine. The instruction set for the model is the Program Dependence Web (PDW). The first part of the hypothesis will be tested by simulating the execution of the machine model on a suite of computations, based on the Livermore Fortran Kernel (LFK) Test (a.k.a. the Livermore Loops), using all three execution disciplines. Heuristics are developed to predict relative performance. These heuristics predict (a) the execution time under each discipline for one iteration of each loop and (b) the number of iterations taken by that loop; then the heuristics use those predictions to develop a prediction for the execution of the entire loop. Similar calculations are performed for branch statements. The second part of the hypothesis will be tested by comparing the results of the simulated execution with the predictions produced by the heuristics. If the hypothesis is supported, then the door is open for the development of machines that can vary execution discipline to increase performance.

  9. Detecting skin colors under varying illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Leyuan; Huang, Rui; Yang, Saiyong; Sang, Nong

    2011-11-01

    Skin color has been used as an important cue for various human related computer vision applications. However, detecting skin colors under varying illumination is a challenging task, as the appearance of skin in an image highly depends on the illumination under which the image was taken. To this end, a method for detecting skin colors under varying illumination is proposed in this paper. First, spatial illumination variation is identified and the images are segmented into different regions with different illumination. Each illumination region of color images are corrected base on the illuminant estimated by a local edge-based color constancy algorithm. Then, the corrected images are transformed into a color-space, where statistical results on a skin dataset show that the skin color cluster and non-skin color clusters are separated. Finally, the skin colors are modeled under Bayesian decision framework and classified from non-skin colors. The experimental results show that the proposed method is robust to illumination variations.

  10. Toroidal Varied-Line Space (TVLS) Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Roger J.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is a particular challenge to develop a stigmatic spectrograph for XUV wavelengths since the very low normal-incidence reflectance of standard materials most often requires that the design be restricted to a single optical element which must simultaneously provide both re-imaging and spectral dispersion. This problem has been solved in the past by the use of toroidal gratings with uniform line-spaced rulings (TULS). A number of solar EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) spectrometers have been based on such designs, including SOHO/CDS, Solar-B/EIS, and the sounding rockets SERTS and EUNIS. More recently, Kita, Harada, and collaborators have developed the theory of spherical gratings with varied line-space rulings (SVLS) operated at unity magnification, which have been flown on several astronomical satellite missions. We now combine these ideas into a spectrometer concept that puts varied-line space rulings onto toroidal gratings. Such TVLS designs are found to provide excellent imaging even at very large spectrograph magnifications and beam-speeds, permitting extremely high-quality performance in remarkably compact instrument packages. Optical characteristics of two solar spectrometers based on this concept are described: SUMI, proposed as a sounding rocket experiment, and NEXUS, proposed for the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission.

  11. Quantum teleportation with identical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzolino, Ugo; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    We study teleportation with identical massive particles. Indistinguishability imposes that the relevant degrees of freedom to be teleported are not particles, but rather addressable orthogonal modes. We discuss the performances of teleportation under the constraint of conservation of the total number of particles. The latter inevitably decreases the teleportation fidelity. Moreover, even though a phase reference, given by the coupling to a reservoir, circumvents the constraint, it does not restore perfect deterministic teleportation. The latter is only achievable with some special resource entangled states and when the number of particles tends to infinity. Interestingly, some of such states are the many-particle atomic coherent states and the ground state of cold atoms loaded into a double well potential, which are routinely prepared in experiments.

  12. Historic Cosmology Identity and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebergall, K.

    The role of the soul and spirit in the composition of human endeavour generally takes the form of motivational poster catch phrases or third-hand quotes. If the spirit equals the life of a creature, and one of the signs of life is locomotion, are humans not obliged by something even deeper than our humanity to explore the universe? This paper examines the roots and perspectives of our worldviews on identity, exploration, and the limitations and capacities of humanity. It will equip the reader to discuss the nature of exploration with audiences across a wide range of worldviews. Current cultures, regardless of religion or politics, are looped into a series of nihilistic patterns that must be broken by rediscovering our nature as living beings, and our obligations as human beings.

  13. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics And Identity

    PubMed Central

    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  14. Identity transformation in medical students.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mitchell J M; Kay, Abigail; Youakim, James M; Balaicuis, John M; Balacius, John M

    2009-03-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the impact of medical school on personal development and consolidation of core identity. The limited literature relies on reports from medical students' journaling exercises, discussion groups, post-graduation surveys, and repeated personality testing. We review forces acting on medical students, with potential transforming effects. These forces include high external expectations and internal fear of superficial knowledge and skills, entry into the culture of medicine with its insider jargon and hierarchy, high academic workload, and the emotional burdens of confronting cadavers and death as well as bearing witness to patients' suffering. Potential developmental delay, emergence of substance abuse and hedonic acting out, cynicism, and loss of individual core values are possible consequences. Protections against these adverse outcomes include identification of strong mentors and role models, developing post-conventional morality and relativistic thinking, finding healthy coping strategies such as peer support, and remaining intellectually creative and personally reflective. PMID:19295620

  15. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  16. Social identity framing: Leader communication for social change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyranian, Viviane

    Social identity framing (SIF) delineates a process of intergroup communication that leaders may engage in to promote a vision of social change. As a step towards social change, social identity may need to be altered to accommodate a new view of the group, its collective goals, and its place alongside other groups. Thus, social identity content may be deconstructed and reconstructed by the leader en route to change. SIF suggests that this may be achieved through a series of 16 communication tactics, which are largely derived from previous research (Seyranian & Bligh, 2008). This research used an experimental design to test the effectiveness of three SIF communication tactics - inclusion, similarity to followers, and positive social identity - on a number of follower outcomes. Students ( N=246) were randomly assigned to read one of eight possible speeches promoting renewable energy on campus that was ostensibly from a student leader. The speeches were varied to include or exclude the three communication tactics. Following the speech, participants completed a dependent measures questionnaire. Results indicated that similarity to followers and positive social identity did not affect follower outcomes. However, students exposed to inclusion were more likely to indicate that renewable energy was ingroup normative; intend to engage in collective action to bring renewable energy to campus; experience positive emotional reactions towards change; feel more confident about the possibility of change; and to view the leader more positively. The combination of inclusion and positive social identity increased perceptions of charismatic leadership. Perceived leader prototypicality and cognitive elaboration of the leader's message resulted in more favorable attitudes towards renewable energy. Perceived leader prototypicality was also directly related to social identification, environmental values, ingroup injunctive norms, and self-stereotypes. Overall, these results support SIF theory by providing evidence that communication that implicates social identity (i.e., inclusion) is an important aspect of the leader-follower influence process and that it can be used to bring about changes such as promoting environmental conservation policies. Avenues of future research on SIF are discussed.

  17. “Am I my genes?”: Questions of identity among individuals confronting genetic disease

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To explore many questions raised by genetics concerning personal identities that have not been fully investigated. Methods We interviewed in depth, for 2 hours each, 64 individuals who had or were at risk for Huntington disease, breast cancer, or alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Results These individuals struggled with several difficult issues of identity. They drew on a range of genotypes and phenotypes (e.g., family history alone; mutations, but no symptoms; or symptoms). They often felt that their predicament did not fit preexisting categories well (e.g., “sick,” “healthy,” “disabled,” “predisposed”), due in part to uncertainties involved (e.g., unclear prognoses, since mutations may not produce symptoms). Hence, individuals varied in how much genetics affected their identity, in what ways, and how negatively. Factors emerged related to disease, family history, and other sources of identity. These identities may, in turn, shape disclosure, coping, and other health decisions. Conclusions Individuals struggle to construct a genetic identity. They view genetic information in highly subjective ways, varying widely in what aspects of genetic information they focus on and how. These data have important implications for education of providers (to assist patients with these issues), patients, and family members; and for research, to understand these issues more fully. PMID:20010365

  18. An ETAS model with varying productivity rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, D. S.

    2014-07-01

    We present an epidemic type aftershock sequenc (ETAS) model where the offspring rates vary both spatially and temporally. This is achieved by distinguishing between those space-time volumes where the interpoint space and time distances are small, and those where they are considerably larger. We also question the nature of the background component in the ETAS model. Is it simply a temporal boundary correction (t = 0) or does it represent an additional tectonic process not described by the aftershock component? The form of these stochastic models should not be considered to be fixed. As we accumulate larger and better earthquake catalogues, GPS data, strain rates, etc., we have the ability to ask more complex questions about the nature of the process. By fitting modified models consistent with such questions, we should gain a better insight into the earthquake process. Hence, we consider a sequence of incrementally modified ETAS type models rather than `the' ETAS model.

  19. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Amit; Kumar, Manish; Senthilkumaran, P.; Joseph, Joby

    2016-04-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  20. Varying ghost dark energy and particle creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, M.

    2016-02-01

    One of the models of dark energy is the ghost dark energy, which has a geometrical origin. Recently, a certain type of phenomenological modification of ghost dark energy has been suggested which motivated us for this work. The goal of this paper is twofold. First, we would like to study the cosmological scenario involving interacting varying ghost dark energy. A cosmographic analysis of a non-interacting model is also performed. Then, we study the particle creation following the straight analogy between quantization in Minkowski background and canonical quantization of a scalar field in curved dynamical backgrounds. Particular attention will be paid to massless-particle production from a radiation-dominated universe (according to our toy model) which evolves to our large-scale universe. Constraints on the parameters of the models obtained during the cosmographic analysis did allow to demonstrate the possibility of a massless-particle creation in a radiation-dominated universe.

  1. Varied Clinical Manifestations of Amebic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Chad J; Fleming, Rhonda; Boman, Darius A; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    Invasive amebiasis is common worldwide, but infrequently observed in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We review the clinical and endoscopic manifestations of amebic colitis to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations of this potentially life-threatening disease. Copyright ©Most patients present with watery or bloody diarrhea. Less common presentations of amebic colitis include abdominal pain, overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, or the incidental association with colon cancer. Amebic liver abscesses are the most frequent complication. Rectosigmoid involvement may be found on colonoscopy; however, most case series have reported that the cecum is the most commonly involved site, followed by the ascending colon. Endoscopic evaluation should be used to assist in the diagnosis, with attention to the observation of colonic inflammation, ulceration, and amebic trophozoites on histopathological examination. PMID:26539949

  2. Random walk with an exponentially varying step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, A. C.; Maltz, A.; Mártin, H. O.; Catuogno, P.; García-Mata, I.

    2000-12-01

    A random walk with exponentially varying step, modeling damped or amplified diffusion, is studied. Each step is equal to the previous one multiplied by a step factor s (01/s relating different processes. For s<1/2 and s>2, the process is retrodictive (i.e., every final position can be reached by a unique path) and the set of all possible final points after infinite steps is fractal. For step factors in the interval [1/2,2], some cases result in smooth density distributions, other cases present overlapping self-similarity and there are values of the step factor for which the distribution is singular without a density function.

  3. Visual sensitivity to color-varying stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajala, Sarah A.; Trussell, H. Joel; Krishnakumar, B.

    1992-08-01

    We present the results of a study of the sensitivity of the human visual system (HVS) to spatially varying color stimuli. Sinusoidal grating patterns of different spatial frequencies were presented to six observers and the contrast required to just distinguish the pattern from the surrounding uniform field was determined. Tables and curves of contrast (measured in ΔELab) as a function of frequency were generated at different values of; the orientation (horizontal, vertical and diagonal) of the pattern, the average luminance, the x and y chromaticity co-ordinates, and the direction of the variation of the stimulus in color space (luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow). The results show that the HVS is more sensitive to sinusoidal gratings oriented horizontally and vertically regardless of the type of variation. Furthermore, the HVS is more sensitive to luminance variations than it is to chromatic variations. Tables and curves of the data are presented.

  4. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Dubey, Manvendra K; Lesins, Glen; Wang, Muyin

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  5. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the advantage of offering smooth animations, while spatial compression can handle volumes of larger dimensions.

  6. Fundamental Investigation of Circumferentially Varying Stator Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, John A. N.

    2011-12-01

    The fundamentals of circumferentially varying stator cascades and their interactions with a downstream fixed pitch propeller were investigated experimentally utilizing multiple measurement techniques. The flow physics associated with the isolated circumferentially varying, or cyclic, stator cascade was studied in a wind tunnel environment through string tuft flow visualization, 2-D PIV, Stereoscopic PIV, and static surface pressure measurements. The coupled wake physics of the cyclic stator cascade with propeller were then investigated in a water tunnel using Stereo PIV. Finally, the global performance of components and the coupled system were quantified through force and moment measurements on the model in the water tunnel. A cyclic distribution of the stators' deflections resulted in non-axisymmetric distributions of the surface pressure and the flow field downstream of the stator array. In the model near wake the flow field is associated with secondary flow patterns in the form of coherent streamwise vortical structures that can be described by potential flow mechanisms. The collective pitch distribution of the stators produces a flow field that resembles a potential Rankine vortex, whereas the cyclic pitch distribution generates a flow pattern that can be described by a potential vortex pair in a cross flow. The stator distribution alone produces a significant side force that increases linearly with stator pitch amplitude. When a propeller is incorporated downstream from the cyclic cascade the side force from the stator cascade is reduced, but a small vertical force and pitching moment are created. The generation of these secondary forces and moments can be related to the redistribution of the tangential flow from the cyclic cascade into the axial direction by the retreating and advancing blade states of the fixed pitch propeller.

  7. Preventing and responding to medical identity theft.

    PubMed

    Amori, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a crime with two victims: patients and providers. It is easy to commit and lucrative because healthcare record keeping and business interactions are complex and mainly electronic. Patients whose identity has been stolen are vulnerable to both medical error and financial loss. Providers may suffer both reputation loss and financial loss. There are steps to help prevent and to respond appropriately to medical identity theft. PMID:20200908

  8. Ethnic Identity in Everyday Life: The Influence of Identity Development Status

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    The current study explores the intersection of ethnic identity development and significance in a sample of 354 diverse adolescents (mean age 14). Adolescents completed surveys 5 times a day for 1 week. Cluster analyses revealed 4 identity clusters: diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, achieved. Achieved adolescents reported the highest levels of identity salience across situations, followed by moratorium adolescents. Achieved and moratorium adolescents also reported a positive association between identity salience and private regard. For foreclosed and achieved adolescents reporting low levels of centrality, identity salience was associated with lower private regard. For foreclosed and achieved adolescents reporting high levels of centrality, identity salience was associated with higher private regard. PMID:23581701

  9. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    PubMed

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics. PMID:17995458

  10. General Differential Contact Identities for Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, Jonathan; Pincus, P. A.; Jho, YongSeok

    2015-10-01

    We discuss general Maxwell identities relating a macromolecule's charge, the forces acting at its surface, and the osmotic pressure of the solution in which it sits. The identities are closely related to the contact value relations that hold for certain special geometries, but are more general. In particular, the Maxwell identities can be applied to any macromolecule geometry, and they hold both within and outside of mean-field theory. Examples illustrate that combining the identities with approximate treatments of screening can often return simple, accurate osmotic pressure estimates.

  11. Facial allograft transplantation, personal identity and subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Swindell, J S

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation is provided in this paper. The identity issues involved in organ transplantation in general, under both theoretical accounts of personal identity and subjective accounts provided by organ recipients, are examined. It is argued that the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation are similar to those involved in organ transplantation in general, but much stronger because the face is so closely linked with personal identity. Recipients of facial allograft transplantation have the potential to feel that their identity is a mix between their own and the donor's, and the donor's family is potentially likely to feel that their loved one “lives on”. It is also argued that facial allograft transplantation allows the recipients to regain an identity, because they can now be seen in the social world. Moreover, they may regain expressivity, allowing for them to be seen even more by others, and to regain an identity to an even greater extent. Informing both recipients and donors about the role that identity plays in facial allograft transplantation could enhance the consent process for facial allograft transplantation and donation. PMID:17664301

  12. Two barriers to realizing the benefits of biometrics: a chain perspective on biometrics and identity fraud as biometrics' real challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grijpink, Jan

    2004-06-01

    Along at least twelve dimensions biometric systems might vary. We need to exploit this variety to manoeuvre biometrics into place to be able to realise its social potential. Subsequently, two perspectives on biometrics are proposed revealing that biometrics will probably be ineffective in combating identity fraud, organised crime and terrorism: (1) the value chain perspective explains the first barrier: our strong preference for large scale biometric systems for general compulsory use. These biometric systems cause successful infringements to spread unnoticed. A biometric system will only function adequately if biometrics is indispensable for solving the dominant chain problem. Multi-chain use of biometrics takes it beyond the boundaries of good manageability. (2) the identity fraud perspective exposes the second barrier: our traditional approach to identity verification. We focus on identity documents, neglecting the person and the situation involved. Moreover, western legal cultures have made identity verification procedures known, transparent, uniform and predictable. Thus, we have developed a blind spot to identity fraud. Biometrics provides good potential to better checking persons, but will probably be used to enhance identity documents. Biometrics will only pay off if it confronts the identity fraudster with less predictable verification processes and more risks of his identity fraud being spotted. Standardised large scale applications of biometrics for general compulsory use without countervailing measures will probably produce the reverse. This contribution tentatively presents a few headlines for an overall biometrics strategy that could better resist identity fraud.

  13. Monoracial and Biracial Children: Effects of Racial Identity Saliency on Social Learning and Social Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaither, Sarah E.; Chen, Eva E.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Children prefer learning from, and affiliating with, their racial in-group but those preferences may vary for biracial children. Monoracial (White, Black, Asian) and biracial (Black/White, Asian/White) children (N = 246, 3-8 years) had their racial identity primed. In a learning preferences task, participants determined the function of a novel…

  14. Monoracial and Biracial Children: Effects of Racial Identity Saliency on Social Learning and Social Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaither, Sarah E.; Chen, Eva E.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Children prefer learning from, and affiliating with, their racial in-group but those preferences may vary for biracial children. Monoracial (White, Black, Asian) and biracial (Black/White, Asian/White) children (N=246, 3-8years) had their racial identity primed. In a learning preferences task, participants determined the function of a novel

  15. On Being Indigenous: An Essay on the Hermeneutics of "Cultural Identity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The range of cultural resources distributed along developmental pathways open to young persons as they frame the outlines of their own identities is not fixed, but inevitably varies across historical moments. The young lives most touched by such transitional circumstances arguably belong to those that find themselves growing up in times of…

  16. The Effect of Profile Elevation on the Relationship between Interest Differentiation and Vocational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Seongah

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the varying relationships between vocational identity and differentiation of vocational interests while taking into account levels of profile elevation as the moderator. The participants were 130 high school students who attended a vocational guidance programme at a youth counselling centre in Korea. The relationship between…

  17. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity among Urban Black and Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Kerstin; Way, Niobe

    2006-01-01

    The current study modeled developmental trajectories of ethnic identity exploration and affirmation and belonging from middle to late adolescence (ages 15-18) and examined how these trajectories varied according to ethnicity, gender, immigrant status, and perceived level of discrimination. The sample consisted of 135 urban low-income Black and…

  18. Multiple pathways to identification: exploring the multidimensionality of academic identity formation in ethnic minority males.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jamaal S

    2014-04-01

    Empirical trends denote the academic underachievement of ethnic minority males across various academic domains. Identity-based explanations for this persistent phenomenon describe ethnic minority males as disidentified with academics, alienated, and oppositional. The present work interrogates these theoretical explanations and empirically substantiates a multidimensional lens for discussing academic identity formation within 330 African American and Latino early-adolescent males. Both hierarchical and iterative person-centered methods were utilized and reveal 5 distinct profiles derived from 6 dimensions of academic identity. These profiles predict self-reported classroom grades, mastery orientation, and self-handicapping in meaningful and varied ways. The results demonstrate multiple pathways to motivation and achievement, challenging previous oversimplified stereotypes of marginalized males. This exploratory study triangulates unique interpersonal and intrapersonal attributes for promoting healthy identity development and academic achievement among ethnic minority adolescent males. PMID:24447039

  19. Light Scattering by Agglomerates with Varying Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Muinonen, K.; Shkuratov, Y.; Videen, G.

    2012-10-01

    We study light scattering by irregularly shaped agglomerate particles with packing densities of ρ=0.169, 0.236, and 0.336. At material densities of cometary refractory materials (i.e., 2-3 g/cm3), the bulk density of target particles is in the range 0.34-1 g/cm3, which is consistent with the Stardust samples [Hörz et al. 2006: Science 314, 1716]. We consider five different refractive indices m=1.313+0i, 1.5+0.1i, 1.855+0.45i, 2.43+0.59i, and 1.6+0.0005i, which represent water ice, organic materials, amorphous carbon, and Mg-rich silicates, i.e., the most abundant cometary species. At a wavelength of 0.684 μm, the radius of particles is varied from 0.1 μm to 3.9 μm (icy particles), 3.5 μm (carbonaceous particles), and 2.8 μm (silicate particles). Light-scattering properties are averaged over a minimum 500 particle shapes, and we also average light-scattering properties over particle size using the power-law size distribution r-a, and consider index a to range from 1 to 4. Our computations reveal quite weak impact of particle morphology on the light-scattering response. For instance, the phase dependence of the degree of linear polarization, geometric albedo, efficiencies for extinction and radiation pressure are nearly coincide for all three types of agglomerates having the same m and a. Varying refractive index or power index does alter the light-scattering properties considerably as compared to the morphology of agglomerates. Thus, one can attribute the spatial inhomogeneity of polarization in various comets [Hadamcik & Levasseur-Regourd 2003: J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Tr., 79-80, 661] to variations in either chemical composition or size distribution of cometary dust, rather than to its morphology. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (contract 127461), NASA programs for Outer Planets Research (grant NNX10AP93G) and Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research (grant NNX11AB25G).

  20. Does the Newtonian Gravity "Constant" G Vary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noerdlinger, Peter D.

    2015-08-01

    A series of measurements of Newton's gravity constant, G, dating back as far as 1893, yielded widely varying values, the variation greatly exceeding the stated error estimates (Gillies, 1997; Quinn, 2000, Mohr et al 2008). The value of G is usually said to be unrelated to other physics, but we point out that the 8B Solar Neutrino Rate ought to be very sensitive. Improved pulsar timing could also help settle the issue as to whether G really varies. We claim that the variation in measured values over time (1893-2014 C.E.) is a more serious problem than the failure of the error bars to overlap; it appears that challenging or adjusting the error bars hardly masks the underlying disagreement in central values. We have assessed whether variations in the gravitational potential due to (for example) local dark matter (DM) could explain the variations. We find that the required potential fluctuations could transiently accelerate the Solar System and nearby stars to speeds in excess of the Galactic escape speed. Previous theories for the variation in G generally deal with supposed secular variation on a cosmological timescale, or very rapid oscillations whose envelope changes on that scale (Steinhardt and Will 1995). Therefore, these analyses fail to support variations on the timescale of years or spatial scales of order parsecs, which would be required by the data for G. We note that true variations in G would be associated with variations in clock rates (Derevianko and Pospelov 2014; Loeb and Maoz 2015), which could mask changes in orbital dynamics. Geringer-Sameth et al (2014) studied γ-ray emission from the nearby Reticulum dwarf galaxy, which is expected to be free of "ordinary" (stellar, black hole) γ-ray sources and found evidence for DM decay. Bernabei et al (2003) also found evidence for DM penetrating deep underground at Gran Sasso. If, indeed, variations in G can be tied to variations in gravitational potential, we have a new tool to assess the DM density.

  1. Fingerprint Recognition with Identical Twin Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar. PMID:22558204

  2. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xunqiang; Chen, Xinjian; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar. PMID:22558204

  3. Changing institutional identities of the student nurse.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Damien; Timmins, Fiona

    2012-10-01

    This paper emphasises the tensions between the ideal of the compliant within care settings and the ideal of the critical thinker within the university setting with reference to student nurse education and identity. Identity is an important part of who we are as people. While modernisation and increased professionalisation of nursing have impacted on staff and patients mostly in a positive way, changes in the management of nursing education in the past 20 years have also heralded a remarkable change in the student identity. Historically informed by association with a particular hospital or health service provider, student nurse identity was shaped by institutional rituals and routine, physically embodied in objects such as uniforms and hospital medals and informed by claims to honesty, virtue and personal integrity (Bradby, 1990). Once part of the structure and fabric of hospital life, nursing students functioned as part of the health care service. As such, their identity was synonymous with that of practicing nurses, whose learning needs were secondary to that of the organisational needs. While this social milieu provided the platform for the formation of institutional pride, belonging and identity, such forms of identity can result in institutional compliance; with the associated risk of ritualistic practice, poor levels of transparent accountability and barriers to whistle blowing should substandard practice arise. Increased student freedom and an emphasis on teaching and learning within the university setting may have benefitted students, patients and the profession, however, the potential impact on student identity is less certain. There is evidence to suggest that students are ill-equipped for their professional identity once qualified and thus require more support for this within universities. This paper explores the tensions between traditional hospital identity and contemporary university identity with reference to student nurse education. The ideal of the compliant versus the ideal of the critical thinker will be debated. PMID:22795742

  4. The effects of varying cosmological parameters on halo substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Ji, Alexander P.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Frebel, Anna; Zukin, Phillip; Hernquist, Lars E.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate how different cosmological parameters, such as those delivered by the WMAP and Planck missions, affect the nature and evolution of the dark matter halo substructure. We use a series of flat Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of structure formation, each with a different power spectrum but with the same initial white noise field. Our fiducial simulation is based on parameters from the WMAP seventh year cosmology. We then systematically vary the spectral index, n{sub s} ; matter density, Ω {sub M}; and normalization of the power spectrum, σ{sub 8}, for seven unique simulations. Across these, we study variations in the subhalo mass function, mass fraction, maximum circular velocity function, spatial distribution, concentration, formation times, accretion times, and peak mass. We eliminate dependence of subhalo properties on host halo mass and average the values over many hosts to reduce variance. While the 'same' subhalos from identical initial overdensity peaks in higher σ{sub 8}, n{sub s} , and Ω {sub m} simulations accrete earlier and end up less massive and closer to the halo center at z = 0, the process of continuous subhalo accretion and destruction leads to a steady state distribution of these properties across all subhalos in a given host. This steady state mechanism eliminates cosmological dependence on all of the properties listed above except for subhalo concentration and V {sub max}, which remain greater for higher σ{sub 8}, n{sub s} , and Ω {sub m} simulations, and subhalo formation time, which remains earlier. We also find that the numerical technique for computing the scale radius and the halo finder that were used can significantly affect the concentration-mass relationship as computed for a simulation.

  5. Meaning making in middle childhood: an exploration of the meaning of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Zosuls, Kristina M; Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane; Hughes, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Social identity, including identification with one's ethnic group, is an important aspect of social development. However, little is known about the subjective meaning associated with social group memberships, particularly during middle childhood. Using second- and fourth-graders responses to an open-ended question, we explored the meaning of ethnic identity with a sample of Chinese, Dominican, Russian, White, and Black American children. Analyses revealed that middle childhood is an active period for meaning making as children described the ethnic identity to include ideas such as language, physical appearance, pride, relative social position, and culture. While there were few differences in the ethnic identity meaning responses of second- and fourth-grade children, the meaning of ethnic identity varied considerably across the ethnic groups underscoring how the unique features and experiences of different ethnic groups shapes the subjective meaning of ethnic identity. These findings align with prior research on the meaning of ethnic identity among adults and adolescents and offer insight for future research regarding the conceptualization and measurement of the meaning of social group membership. PMID:22506814

  6. Voice similarity in identical twins.

    PubMed

    Van Gysel, W D; Vercammen, J; Debruyne, F

    2001-01-01

    If people are asked to discriminate visually the two individuals of a monozygotic twin (MT), they mostly get into trouble. Does this problem also exist when listening to twin voices? Twenty female and 10 male MT voices were randomly assembled with one "strange" voice to get voice trios. The listeners (10 female students in Speech and Language Pathology) were asked to label the twins (voices 1-2, 1-3 or 2-3) in two conditions: two standard sentences read aloud and a 2.5-second midsection of a sustained /a/. The proportion correctly labelled twins was for female voices 82% and 63% and for male voices 74% and 52% for the sentences and the sustained /a/ respectively, both being significantly greater than chance (33%). The acoustic analysis revealed a high intra-twin correlation for the speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) of the sentences and the fundamental frequency (F0) of the sustained /a/. So the voice pitch could have been a useful characteristic in the perceptual identification of the twins. We conclude that there is a greater perceptual resemblance between the voices of identical twins than between voices without genetic relationship. The identification however is not perfect. The voice pitch possibly contributes to the correct twin identifications. PMID:11256192

  7. Spatially varying detectability for optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Angel R.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Arridge, Simon R.

    2000-04-01

    We apply task-based assessment of image quality to optical tomography imaging systems. In particular, we studied the task of detecting a signal, specified as a change in scattering and absorption coefficients, when its shape and location were known. The detectability was quantified using the optimal linear (Hotelling) observer. The non-linearity of the problem was no impediment in computing the Hotelling observer using a hybrid approach that combines knowledge of the measurement statistics with sampling to account for anatomical variation. We compared the observer performance on the raw data in uniform and structured backgrounds for several data and signal types. Two of the data types studied were the total number of photons (total counts) collected for each source-detector pair and their respective mean time of arrival. Results show that the spatial variation of detectability was different for the total counts than for the mean time. The performance of the total counts and its relative performance to the mean time varied significantly with both signal type and background variations.

  8. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  9. Time-varying Dynamical Star Formation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-01

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t 2. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  10. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  11. Stability of mass varying particle lumps

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardini, A. E.; Bertolami, O.

    2009-12-15

    The theoretical description of compact structures that share some features with mass varying particles allows for a simple analysis of the equilibrium and stability for massive stellar bodies. We investigate static, spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein equations for a system composed by nonbaryonic matter (neutrinos or dark matter) which forms stable structures through attractive forces mediated by a background scalar field (dark energy). Assuming that the dark matter, or massive neutrinos, consists of a gas of weakly interacting particles, the coupling with the scalar field is translated into an effective dependence of the mass of the compounding particle on the radial coordinate of the curved spacetime. The stability analysis reveals that these static solutions become dynamically unstable for different Buchdahl limits of the ratio between the total mass energy and the stellar radius, M/R. We also find regular solutions that for an external observer resemble Schwarzschild black holes. Our analysis leaves unanswered the question whether such solutions, which are both regular and stable, do exist.

  12. Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

  13. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  14. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  15. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  16. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  17. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in...) Such statement of identity shall be in terms of: (1) The common or usual name of the cosmetic; or...

  18. Towards Interconnecting the Nordic Identity Federations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tveter, Walter M.; Melve, Ingrid; Linden, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline considerations for trust management between established national identity federations in education and research. It also aims to discuss policy issues related to cross-federation and to compare existing academic identity federations. The paper seeks to investigate Nordic national federations and to introduce the

  19. Identity, Language Learning, and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen

    2011-01-01

    In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…

  20. Exploring Relationships between Teacher Identities and Disciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Julie; Grootenboer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between discipline specialization, teacher identity, and pedagogy can be seen as the crux of practice in the music classroom--impacting on all the actions of the teacher, both within and outside the classroom. Crucially, the impact of music teacher identity on the nature of music teaching and learning is one that has the…

  1. Profiling Teachers' Sense of Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canrinus, Esther T.; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Beijaard, Douwe; Buitink, Jaap; Hofman, Adriaan

    2011-01-01

    This study shows that professional identity should not be viewed as a composed variable with a uniform structure. Based on the literature and previous research, we view teachers' job satisfaction, self-efficacy, occupational commitment and change in the level of motivation as indicators of teachers' professional identity. Using two-step cluster…

  2. Iranian Validation of the Identity Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Shokri, Omid

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Iranian version of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI). Participants were 376 (42% males) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a clear three-factor structure of identity style and a mono-factor structure of commitment in the overall sample as well as in gender subgroups. Convergent

  3. Catholic Identity Remains a Public Relations Asset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    The massive sex scandal that rocked the Roman Catholic Church raises a question as to whether Catholic identity remains an asset that the nation's 8,000 Catholic schools should continue to promote. This case study found that continuing to promote Catholic identity has had no adverse effect on recruitment and enrollment at four Omaha, Nebraska,…

  4. Family Influences on College Students' Occupational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrios-Allison, Ana C.

    2005-01-01

    The occupational identity statuses of 232 college students were analyzed by examining their family emotional environment and the identity control processes that drive career decision making. Results of multivariate analysis showed that each family differentiation construct, family tolerance for connectedness, and separateness explained significant…

  5. Stress vs. Identity Among Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, DeVon Renard

    A recurrent theme in the literature on black identity is self-hate. Black people are portrayed as suffering from one of the following four conditions; (1) low self-esteem; (2) impaired identity formation; (3) pathological environmental adaptation; and/or (4) low intellectual functioning. However, research is emerging which questions many of these…

  6. Identity theft prevention in the healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Warren, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    How a healthcare security department has undertaken a program to prevent employees, patients, and visitors from becoming victims of Identity Theft as well as providing help for victims of this crime in mitigating their losses. An Identity Theft affidavit for ID theft victims is illustrated. PMID:16535940

  7. Stress vs. Identity Among Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, DeVon Renard

    A recurrent theme in the literature on black identity is self-hate. Black people are portrayed as suffering from one of the following four conditions; (1) low self-esteem; (2) impaired identity formation; (3) pathological environmental adaptation; and/or (4) low intellectual functioning. However, research is emerging which questions many of these

  8. Souls in Exile: Identities of Bilingual Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xuemei

    2007-01-01

    In this discussion, the author highlights the relationship between language and identity by discussing notions such as language as a symbolic resource (Heller, 1995) and language as a badge of identity (Buruma, 2003) in a society. The reasons why a number of bilingual writers have decided to write in their second languages are explored, and issues…

  9. Implicit and Explicit Exercise and Sedentary Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Strachan, Shaelyn M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between implicit and explicit "exerciser" and "sedentary" self-identity when activated by stereotypes. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) wrote essays about university students who either liked to exercise or engage in sedentary activities. This was followed by an implicit identity task and an explicit measure of…

  10. A New Transcendence Model of Identity Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Christopher L. Wilcox

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean for college men to be authentic? How can we support their efforts to transcend their own immediate needs? And what roles do trusted others play in one's construction of identity? This article describes a preliminary new theoretical model--a Transcendence Model of Identity Construction--based on original research studying…

  11. Lie algebras and classical partition identities

    PubMed Central

    Lepowsky, J.; Milne, S.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we interpret Macdonald's unspecialized identities as multivariable vector partition theorems and we relate the well-known Rogers—Ramanujan partition identities to the Weyl—Kac character formula for an infinite-dimensional Euclidean generalized Cartan matrix Lie algebra. PMID:16592491

  12. Identity Development in Adolescents Living with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Harper, Gary W.; Robinson, W. LaVome

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to qualitatively explore how identity formation may be affected by the presence of HIV disease. Eight HIV-infected adolescents (three males, five females), aged 17-21, participated in a semi-structured interview that combined measures of identity development with open-ended, qualitative questions aimed at eliciting…

  13. White Racial Identity Development and Religious Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciarra, Daniel T.; Gushue, George V.

    2003-01-01

    Study examined how the particular dimension of psychosocial development described by racial identity theory may be related to religious motivation (intrinsic versus extrinsic relation) and how religious beliefs are held (quest versus fundamentalism). Found three significant pairs suggesting that higher and more complex racial identity statuses may…

  14. The Ontogeny of Career Identities in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malanchuk, Oksana; Messersmith, Emily E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2010-01-01

    Exploration and identity formation are primary developmental tasks during adolescence and the transition to adulthood. Yet little is known about occupational identity formation and growth during this period of life. In this chapter, the authors describe their ongoing research on this topic. First, they present their findings on the ontogeny of the…

  15. Political Socialization, Tolerance, and Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Patricia G.

    2002-01-01

    Key concepts in political socialization, tolerance, groups, rights and responsibilities can be used to understand the way in which young people struggle with sexual identity issues. Educators may promote greater tolerance for homosexuality among heterosexuals by situating sexual identity issues within a broader discussion of democratic principles.…

  16. Music and Identity Formation in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabback, William M.

    2010-01-01

    For many individuals, engagement with the arts and music in later life plays a significant role in identity formation. Research indicates that music engagement facilitates successful aging. While participants may or may not establish identities as musicians, musical activities provide interactions and opportunities that facilitate their…

  17. Identity Development and Mentoring in Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leigh A.; Burns, Leslie D.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Leigh Hall and Leslie Burns use theories of identity to understand mentoring relationships between faculty members and doctoral students who are being prepared as educational researchers. They suggest that becoming a professional researcher requires students to negotiate new identities and reconceptualize themselves both as people…

  18. Improving Measurement of Workplace Sexual Identity Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Teresa S.; Anderson, Mary Z.; Croteau, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance measurement of sexual identity management for lesbian, gay, and bisexual workers. Psychometric properties of a revised version of the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure (WSIMM; Anderson, Croteau, Chung, & DiStefano, 2001) were examined on a sample of 64 predominantly White K-12 teachers.…

  19. Young Women Online: Collaboratively Constructing Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine how young women construct their identities with others in online communities. I argue that the proliferation of social networking and its popularity among young people means that performed identities are increasingly collaboratively constructed, with the individual having less control over their public image than was…

  20. Citizenship Education and National Identity: Teaching Ambivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljunggren, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The article is concerned with issues of national identity in a multicultural society (Sweden) and the role of citizenship education in creating a national identity. After having witnessed the terrorist attack and the traumas from Oslo and Utøya (22 July 2011), and the suicide bombing in Stockholm on 11 December 2010, certain words, such as…