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Sample records for vasectomy

  1. Vasectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not recommended as a short-term form of birth control. The procedure to reverse a vasectomy is a ... to use, or cannot use, other forms of birth control. Is in a relationship and a pregnancy would ...

  2. Vasectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... takes no more than 30 minutes. Almost all men go home the same day. In most cases, ... against sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS. Men who have had vasectomy should still practice safe ...

  3. Vasectomy - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Vasectomy is the surgical division of the vas deferens. Vasectomy prevents sperm from being released into semen during ejaculation, thus preventing pregnancy. Vasectomy may be recommended for adult men who are ...

  4. Vasectomy reversal.

    PubMed

    Belker, A M

    1987-02-01

    A vasovasostomy may be performed on an outpatient basis with local anesthesia, but also may be performed on an outpatient basis with epidural or general anesthesia. Local anesthesia is preferred by most of my patients, the majority of whom choose this technique. With proper preoperative and intraoperative sedation, patients sleep lightly through most of the procedure. Because of the length of time often required for bilateral microsurgical vasoepididymostomy, epidural or general anesthesia and overnight hospitalization are usually necessary. Factors influencing the preoperative choice for vasovasostomy or vasoepididymostomy in patients undergoing vasectomy reversal are considered. The preoperative planned choice of vasovasostomy or vasoepididymostomy for patients having vasectomy reversal described herein does not have the support of all urologists who regularly perform these procedures. My present approach has evolved as the data reported in Tables 1 and 2 have become available, but it may change as new information is evaluated. However, it offers a logical method for planning choices of anesthesia and inpatient or outpatient status for patients undergoing vasectomy reversal procedures. PMID:3811050

  5. Vasectomy reversal in humans.

    PubMed

    Bernie, Aaron M; Osterberg, E Charles; Stahl, Peter J; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Goldstein, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Vasectomy is the most common urological procedure in the United States with 18% of men having a vasectomy before age 45. A significant proportion of vasectomized men ultimately request vasectomy reversal, usually due to divorce and/or remarriage. Vasectomy reversal is a commonly practiced but technically demanding microsurgical procedure that restores patency of the male excurrent ductal system in 80-99.5% of cases and enables unassisted pregnancy in 40-80% of couples. The discrepancy between the anastomotic patency rates and clinical pregnancy rates following vasectomy reversal suggests that some of the biological consequences of vasectomy may not be entirely reversible in all men. Herein we review what is known about the biological sequelae of vasectomy and vasectomy reversal in humans, and provide a succinct overview of the evaluation and surgical management of men desiring vasectomy reversal. PMID:23248768

  6. Vasectomy and vasectomy reversal the Thai way.

    PubMed

    Gojaseni, P

    1982-12-01

    In 1972 the ratio of female sterilization acceptors to vasectomy acceptors in Thailand was 24.5:1; in 1978 the ratio was 2.8:1. Several factors are responsible for this change. First, a national family planning program to support voluntary family planning started in 1970 and lowered the population growth rate from 3.2% in 1973 to 2.1% in 1982. Second, the desired family size in Thailand is 3 and it is generally agreed that the solution is voluntary sterilization as a more cost effective fertility control method. Thirdly, misunderstandings about vasectomy were cleared up through media campaigns which cleared the way for greater acceptance. Fourth, in 1975 special clinics at big hospitals and a mobile unit were set up to perform vasectomies. Lastly, a group of nongovernment organizations has been set up, such as the Thai Association for Voluntary Sterilization, to provide the infrastructure for vasectomy campaigns. Requests for vasectomy reversals have, expectedly, increased as well, usually caused by marriage, child's death, improved finances, and psychosexual health. In a recent study of 32 cases, positive sperm reappearance after vas reanastomosis was found in 71.4% and the pregnancy rate was 52.3%. PMID:12265673

  7. Counselling for vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, B; Robertson, D

    In the United Kingdom the provision of vasectomy service differs according to the geographical locations within the country. Regarding the interview that occurs prior to the vasectomy operation, 3 areas of concern must be covered: information regarding the nature of the operation and its effects must be conveyed to the client; the doctor must feel confident that he/she can recommend the couple to the surgeon performing the operation; and helping the couple to explore personel feelings and experiences about birth control and providing information on all possible choices. Although the latter aspect -- counseling -- is probably the most important, it is usually the least explored. The reason for this is inherent to the procedure through which a vasectomy is currently obtained. The couple regard the interview as a situation where the doctor will either allow or refuse the operation. Conflicts may arise if the family planning doctor simultaneously tries to play both medical and counseling roles. Further confusion arises between the screening and counseling aspects of the prevasectomy interview. Vasectomy clinics have less rigid criteria than individual surgeons. A step that must be taken if vasectomy counseling is to be improved is to increase general awareness and acknowledgment of the combined goals of the preoperative interview. PMID:10248150

  8. [Immunological aspects of vasectomy].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Schill WB

    1977-12-16

    A literature review of immunological effects of vasectomy is presented. Antibodies can be divided into sperm agglutinating, sperm immobilizing, and spermatotoxic types. Sperm agglutinating antibodies occur in ca 50% of vasectomy patients and are almost never found in unvasectomized men. Sperm immobilzing antibodies occur in ca 25% of vasectomized men and are seldom found in unvasectomized men. Spermatotoxins occur in ca 2% of vasectomized men, ca 1% of unvasectomized men, and ca 11% of men with gonadal disorders. Hemagglutination and immunofluorescence techniques can also be used to determine certain types of sperm antibodies. No studies on cellular immune reactions to sperm have been undertaken. No unequivocal evidence has been reported concerning possible immunological cross-reactions or organ specificity of sperm antibodies. Clinical-serological studies have shown a very slight increase of the serum levels of IgI and IgM after vasectomy.

  9. Noninvasive laser vasectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher Michael

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications (incision, bleeding, infection, and scrotal pain) and result in a more popular procedure. These studies build off previous studies that report the ability to thermally target tissue substructures with near infrared laser radiation while maintaining a healthy superficial layer of tissue through active surface cooling. Initial studies showed the ability to increase the working depth compared to that of common dermatological procedures and the translation into an ex vivo canine model targeting the vas deferens in a noninvasive laser vasectomy. Laser and cooling parameter optimization was required to determine the best possible wavelength for a safe transition to an in vivo canine model. Optical clearing agents were investigated as a mechanism to decrease tissue scattering during in vivo procedures to increase optical penetration depth and reduce the overall power required. Optical and thermal computer models were developed to determine the efficacy for a successful transition into a human model. Common clinical imaging modalities (ultrasound, high frequency ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography) were tested as possible candidates for real-time imaging feedback to determine surgical success. Finally, a noninvasive laser vasectomy prototype clamp incorporating laser, cooling, and control in a single package was designed and tested in vivo. Occlusion of the canine vas deferens able to withstand physiological burst pressures measured postoperative was shown during acute and chronic studies. This procedure is ready for azoospermia and recanalization studies in a clinical setting.

  10. Pulmonary Embolism Following Outpatient Vasectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Frank E.; Farooqi, Bilal; Moore, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic events have several known major risk factors such as prolonged immobilization or major surgery. Pulmonary embolism has rarely been reported after an outpatient vasectomy was completed. We present the rare case of a healthy 32-year-old Caucasian male with no known risk factors who presented with pleuritic chest pain 26 days after his outpatient vasectomy was performed. Subsequently, he was found to have a pulmonary embolism as per radiological imaging. We explore the association between outpatient vasectomies and venous thromboembolic events. A review of the literature is also included.

  11. Semen characteristics after vasectomy in the ram.

    PubMed

    Janett, F; Hüssy, D; Lischer, C; Hässig, M; Thun, R

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in semen characteristics in vasectomized rams and to determine if infertility was present 14 days after vasectomy. Experiments were performed using five cross-breed rams, aged between 18 and 30 months. Semen was collected weekly by artificial vagina from 2 months before to 5 months after vasectomy. After sexual rest for 10 days, vasectomy was performed by the cranial midscrotal approach. In all ejaculates the volume, concentration, total sperm number, motility and morphology (normal spermatozoa, loose heads) were determined and sperm viability (SYBR-14/PI) was evaluated in all semen samples collected after vasectomy. In the first ejaculate obtained 14 days post vasectomy all rams showed a significant (P < 0.05) drop in mean volume (from 1.2 to 0.5 mL), total sperm count (from 5176.8 to 51.1 x 10(6)) and morphologically normal sperm (from 84.1 to 15.7%), when compared to the last prevasectomy collection. We could also demonstrate a positive correlation (r = 0.89) between the individual cumulative total number of spermatozoa after vasectomy and the scrotal circumference measured before vasectomy. Sperm motility and viability could never be demonstrated after vasectomy and normal spermatozoa continuously decreased concomitant with an increase in loose heads. On post mortem examination 5 months after surgery, spermatocele formation and multiple sperm granulomas were present in all five rams. Our results show that in the first ejaculate collected by artificial vagina 14 days after vasectomy, no motile and viable spermatozoa could be detected. Despite weekly collections during a 5-month period after sterilization, azoospermia could never be achieved. PMID:11516127

  12. Vasectomy

    MedlinePLUS

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  13. Vasectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... career development opportunities Training at NICHD Intramural training, fellowships & career development opportunities Other Training, Education, & Career Development Programs Continuing education courses, training institutes & ...

  14. Vasectomy

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... in a man by preventing the transport of sperm out of the testes. A small incision is ... deferens is tied off and cut apart preventing sperm from being released within the ejaculate. The small ...

  15. What Are the Risks of Vasectomy?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... control/vasectomy-what-to-expect.html [top] « How effective is it? Will it affect my sex life? » Last Reviewed: 06/03/2013 Related A-Z Topics Contraception ... RSS NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health ® Printed from ...

  16. Prostatic cancer, coital rates, vasectomy and testosterone.

    PubMed

    James, W H

    1994-04-01

    It is usually supposed that androgens play a major role in the aetiology of prostatic cancer. This note suggests that the association of the disease with low (as well as high) coital rates and its apparent association with vasectomy can both be reconciled with the hypothesised androgenic involvement. PMID:8014182

  17. Computer simulation of vasectomy for wolf control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haight, R.G.; Mech, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    Recovering gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations in the Lake Superior region of the United States are prompting state management agencies to consider strategies to control population growth. In addition to wolf removal, vasectomy has been proposed. To predict the population effects of different sterilization and removal strategies, we developed a simulation model of wolf dynamics using simple rules for demography and dispersal. Simulations suggested that the effects of vasectomy and removal in a disjunct population depend largely on the degree of annual immigration. With low immigration, periodic sterilization reduced pup production and resulted in lower rates of territory recolonization. Consequently, average pack size, number of packs, and population size were significantly less than those for an untreated population. Periodically removing a proportion of the population produced roughly the same trends as did sterilization; however, more than twice as many wolves had to be removed than sterilized. With high immigration, periodic sterilization reduced pup production but not territory recolonization and produced only moderate reductions in population size relative to an untreated population. Similar reductions in population size were obtained by periodically removing large numbers of wolves. Our analysis does not address the possible effects of vasectomy on larger wolf populations, but it suggests that the subject should be considered through modeling or field testing.

  18. Vasectomies performed by private physicians, United States, 1980 to 1984.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, J S; Rubin, G L

    1986-09-01

    This study used data from the National Disease and Therapeutic Index to estimate the number of vasectomies performed by private physicians in the US in 1980-84. This survey collects data from about 1500 physicians per quarter on patients seen during 12,000 practice days/year. From 55-103 sampled physicians each year reported performing vasectomies. An estimated 1.9 x 10,000,000 vasectomies were performed in this 5-year period. 48% of the procedures were performed by urologists, 35% by general surgeons, and 15% by general or family practitioners. 29% were performed in the West, 27% in the North Central US, 26% in the South, and 18% in the Northeast. Age-specific vasectomy rates were consistently highest among men 30-39 years of age and lowest among men over age 50 years. White men were significantly more likely than black men to undergo vasectomy. Most procedures were performed in private offices. The number of vasectomies declined from 1980-82 and then rose again in 1983. The estimates obtained from this analysis are considerably lower than those reported by the Associated for Voluntary Surgical Contraception, perhaps because the latter estimates include procedures performed in military facilities and clinics. It is recommended that future cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth should include data on male partners when female respondents reports use of vasectomy as the couple's contraceptive method. PMID:12340956

  19. Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth: Vasectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . National Survey of Family Growth NCHS Home Surveys and Data ... Systems Share Compartir Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth V Listing Vasectomy Prevalence Main ...

  20. Chinese give new vasectomy methods a hard look.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Chinese scientists have reported on new chemical and reversible vasectomy methods. Although data is difficult to confirm because of the secrecy surrounding these projects, China has been credited with advancing the no-scalpel vasectomy. According to Chinese officials, 30 million vasectomies have been performed nationwide in the last 2 decades. In some areas, the vasectomy prevalence equals 31%, and the ratio of vasectomy to female sterilization is 5 to 1. In the rest of China, the ratio is 1 to 3. Based on a 1990 survey, 12% of Chinese couples use vasectomy. Because of China's burgeoning population, new research on male sterilization is being emphasized. This includes vas ligation (via the no-scalpel method) and vas occlusion (via chemicals, electricity, or a reversible device). In these methods, a tiny puncture or injection is substituted for an incision. Electrocoagulation has been used clinically in China since the 1980s. This method requires insertion of a needle electrode into the vas lumen. A current is run for 2 seconds, and then the electrode is removed. 1 cm of the vas becomes rigid and yellowish brown. Based on the results of 2 studies, the efficacy rate of this method was 99.2%-100% in 7439 cases over 10 years. The rate of azoospermia was 0%, while the rate of complications was 0.53% in 1088 vasectomies. A blunt wire cautery unit has also been used, but it causes more tissue damage and is more difficult to use. In chemical vasectomies, the agent is injected through the skin into the lumen. The vas is not pulled out of the scrotum. An adhesive blocking agent (CABCM) containing carbolic acid is injected into both sides of the vas lumen, solidifies in 20 seconds, and blocks 2 cm of the vas. The effectiveness rate is 95.6% in 456 cases over 10 years. A plastic tube has replaced the puncture needle recently and seems less difficult and dangerous to use. Vas blocking forceps have been developed to shorten the amount of vas to be occluded. Reversible vasectomies require implantation of removable devices. Although plugs, beads, wires, threads, or filterable devices have been used, clips have met with the greatest success, according to the Chinese. However, silver, or silicon with silver and rubber, clips that are under study are difficult to remove because of tissue adhesions. They also slip, which may cause irreversible damage to the vas. A tantulum ring clip causes less damage and has greater reversibility. These had a 99% effectiveness rate in 28,537 cases. PMID:12318853

  1. Post-Vasectomy Depression: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Subahani

    2014-01-01

    Vasectomy is a commonly performed and relatively safe procedure, with low reported rates of psychological morbidity, though there is some variability across studies. Depression following a vasectomy is relatively infrequent. A married man aged 30 developed a chronic depressive episode, lasting four years and resistant to an adequate trial of fluoxetine, following a vasectomy. His depression was heralded by a post-operative panic attack, and was accompanied by medically unexplained symptoms and the attribution of all his symptoms to the procedure – a belief that was shared by his family. Psychological complications of vasectomy have generally been studied under four heads: sexual dysfunction, effects on marital relationships, chronic post-operative pain, and other complications including anxiety and depression. These complications have generally been reported at higher rates in developing countries, and are linked to poor knowledge about the procedure and inadequate pre-operative counseling. The implications of the existing literature for the patient’s current complaints, and the mechanisms and risk factors involved, are discussed in the light of existing research. Suggestions for the prevention and treatment of post-vasectomy depression are also outlined. PMID:25553234

  2. Post-vasectomy depression: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Subahani; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-09-01

    Vasectomy is a commonly performed and relatively safe procedure, with low reported rates of psychological morbidity, though there is some variability across studies. Depression following a vasectomy is relatively infrequent. A married man aged 30 developed a chronic depressive episode, lasting four years and resistant to an adequate trial of fluoxetine, following a vasectomy. His depression was heralded by a post-operative panic attack, and was accompanied by medically unexplained symptoms and the attribution of all his symptoms to the procedure - a belief that was shared by his family. Psychological complications of vasectomy have generally been studied under four heads: sexual dysfunction, effects on marital relationships, chronic post-operative pain, and other complications including anxiety and depression. These complications have generally been reported at higher rates in developing countries, and are linked to poor knowledge about the procedure and inadequate pre-operative counseling. The implications of the existing literature for the patient's current complaints, and the mechanisms and risk factors involved, are discussed in the light of existing research. Suggestions for the prevention and treatment of post-vasectomy depression are also outlined. PMID:25553234

  3. Vasectomies: Motivations and Attitude of Physicians-as-Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, Philip M.

    1988-01-01

    Vasectomies have not been as widely favoured as have techniques of sterilization in Canada for some years, in spite of having a better morbidity and mortality record than tubal sterilizations. Physicians or others who themselves have had the procedure seem to be in an especially favourable position to describe accurately the advantages and risks of this surgery, as well as its alternatives. Questionnaires inquiring about reasons for choosing vasectomy were sent to 42 medical doctors who had undergone the procedure. Counsellors can usefully proffer to inquiring patients the same advantages that reportedly motivated the medical doctors: convenience, economy, and safety. PMID:21253074

  4. If you do vasectomy and come back here weak, I will divorce you: a qualitative study of community perceptions about vasectomy in Southern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Male involvement in contraceptive use is increasingly becoming a global reproductive health issue. Vasectomy is one of the two male modern contraceptive methods espoused by the National Family Planning Policy in Ghana. Despite these advocacies, there are reports of low patronage of this method in Ghana. This study adhering to RATS guidelines on qualitative research therefore explored the social and cultural factors that may be affecting the low vasectomy uptake in Southern Ghana. Methods The study was conducted in Sefwi Bibiani-Ahwiaso Bekwai (SBAB) District and Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem (KEEA) Municipal area in the Western and Central regions of Ghana respectively. Twelve Focus Group Discussions were held with both male and female community members. In-depth interviews were also carried out with Community Health Officers (CHOs), Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) and health managers at both the district and regional levels. The discussions and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Nvivo 10. Results The study revealed that vasectomy was perceived as an act against God, which was punishable either by death or answerable on judgement day. Vasectomy was also perceived to be a form of castration, which can make men weak and incapable, thereby unable to satisfy their wives sexually, leading to marital conflicts. Women were more concerned about the negative effects of vasectomy on men. Cafalgin and panacin which are locally manufactured analgesics were perceived to have contraceptive abilities and therefore used by men as an alternative to modern contraceptive methods. Conclusions Stigma and the misconceptions in the community may be accounting for the low vasectomy uptake in Ghana despite several advocacy strategies. Women were highly influential in a man's decision on vasectomy. This calls for the need to increase health education to demystify the misconceptions about vasectomy. Vasectomy-related campaign messages should target both men and women. PMID:24885663

  5. Acute effect of vasectomy on the function of the rat epididymal epithelium and vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Ann E; Swanlund, David J; Hunter, Brian A; Tran, Michael L; Pryor, Jon L; Roberts, Kenneth P

    2006-01-01

    Persistent infertility after apparently successful vasectomy reversal is common. One possible etiology is epididymal epithelial dysfunction resulting in improper sperm maturation after vasectomy reversal. The epididymal epithelium secretes a number of proteins that are thought to be required for the maturation of sperm. Ligation of the vas deferens during vasectomy may affect the synthesis of some of these proteins. In the present study, the function of the epididymal epithelium was assessed at early times after vasectomy (1, 4, and 7 days) by measuring the level of mRNA of 4 secreted proteins: Crisp-1, clusterin, osteopontin, and transferrin. In addition, the site of synthesis of these proteins was determined by immunocytochemistry. The results demonstrated that the expression of Crisp-1 and clusterin, representative epididymal secretory proteins, was largely unaffected by vasectomy. However, osteopontin mRNA increased in the vas deferens in response to vasectomy. Immunocytochemical localization of osteopontin suggested that both infiltrating immune cells and deferential luminal epithelium were responsible for this up-regulation. Transferrin expression was viewed as a marker for immune cells at the site of injury. However, both the caput epididymis and deferential epithelia were found to express transferrin, in addition to immune cells. In conclusion, there appear to be only minor changes in expression of genes encoding epididymal secretory proteins acutely after vasectomy, but, not surprisingly, there was evidence of an inflammatory response after vasectomy. PMID:16837732

  6. He's a real man: a qualitative study of the social context of couples' vasectomy decisions among a racially diverse population.

    PubMed

    Shih, Grace; Dub, Kate; Sheinbein, Miriam; Borrero, Sonya; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2013-05-01

    Vasectomy has advantages with respect to safety and cost when compared with female sterilization. The reasons underlying the overall low use of vasectomy, particularly among Black and Latinos, have not been adequately explored. The goals of this study were to (a) explore the social context of vasectomy decisions and (b) generate hypotheses about the social factors contributing to differences in vasectomy use by race/ethnicity. Fourteen group and nine couples interviews were conducted. Participants were 37 heterosexual couples aged 25 to 55 years who had reached their desired family size and self-identified as Black, Latino, or White. Participants discussed reasons that men and women would or would not select male sterilization. Reasons to select vasectomy included a desire to care for their current family, sharing contraceptive responsibility, and infidelity. Reasons not to select vasectomy included negative associations with the term sterilization, loss of manhood, and permanence. Misconceptions about vasectomy included misunderstandings about the vasectomy procedure and adverse postvasectomy sexual function. In addition, Black and Latino participants cited perceived ease of reversibility of female sterilization and lack of support around vasectomy as reasons not to choose it. Improving communication and social support for vasectomy, particularly among Black and Latino communities, may improve vasectomy utilization. Misconceptions regarding female and male sterilization should be targeted in counseling sessions to ensure men, women, and couples are making informed contraceptive decisions. PMID:23144022

  7. Human sperm antigens and antisperm antibodies I. Studies on vasectomy patients.

    PubMed Central

    Tung, K S

    1975-01-01

    This study documents the types and incidence of antisperm antibody, detectable by indirect immunofluorescence, in 114 patients before vasectomy, 112 at 2 months and 71 patients at 6-9 months after vasectomy. Indirect immunofluorescence techniques revealed antibodies to seven distinct sperm antigens. Five of these antigens were readily accessible to antibody in vitro, and the remaining two were accessible only after treatment of spermatozoa with dithiothreitol and trypsin. Antisperm antibodies were detected in 61% of patients before vasectomy. The incidence rose to 77% at 2 months and 90% at 6-9 months after vasectomy. These antibodies were distinguishable into two groups based on their incidence before vasectomy. The first group included antibodies to antigens in the acrosome with a diffuse distribution, the equatorial region, the postacrosomal region and the midpiece of the tail. Its incidence was 61% before vasectomy; increased to 73% at 2 months and 80% at 6-9 months after vasectomy. The second group included antibodies to the sperm nucleus, the tail and to discrete antigens over the acrosome. They were found rarely (3%) in patients before vasectomy; increased in incidence to 25% at 2 months and 55% at 6-9 months after vasectomy. Antisperm antibodies of both groups existed as IgG and IgM classes; an exception being antibodies to sperm nucleus which were almost exclusively IgG. Of the antibodies, 14% were found to fix complement in vitro. Other autoantibodies, including antinuclear, antimitochondrial and antismooth muscle antibodies, did not develop following vasectomy. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1106922

  8. [Vasectomy: legal recognition in Italy, opposition to change in France].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1988-03-01

    Voluntary sterilization exclusively for contraceptive purposes is now legal in many countries of Asia, North America, and Europe. Since 1972 most European countries have taken action through statutes, codes of medical ethics, decrees, or court decisions to establish the legality of contraceptive sterilization. France and Italy, neighboring countries with Catholic majorities and a tradition of Roman law, have had great difficulties in recognizing the legality of vasectomy. Italy was 1 of the few countries of the world with a law specifically prohibiting voluntary sterilization. The 1930 law was abrogated by Parliament in 1978, but in 1982 a physician was prosecuted for performing 50 vasectomies on men who had sought the procedure and consented to it. Prosecution argued that sterilization was not decriminalized despite abrogation of the 1930 law, and that voluntary sterilization was prohibited by the article of the penal code dealing with voluntary assault and battery. The interpretation surprised experts in population law, since the physician had received permission from the regional government of Tuscany to perform the vasectomies. The physician won the case, lost it in the Court of Appeals in Florence, and was finally acquitted in the Court of Cassation after a 5-year legal struggle. The court declared explicitly that voluntary sterilization did not constitute a penal infraction, but it recommended legislation to establish a minimum age, assure informed consent, and protect the interests of the spouse. In France, the legality of sterilization for purely contraceptive purposes has not always been explicitly recognized by the courts. Some recent verdicts have held that sterilization without therapeutic motivations is illicit, and some local committees of medical ethics continue to argue that vasectomy is an illicit practice that should only be considered in the presence of precise medical indications. The position is contrary to a resolution of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe which France voted for in 1975, and a resolution of the National Council of the Order of Physicians in 1983. The resolution of the Order relaxed its earlier opposition to sterilization on the grounds that operative techniques had improved and that the chances for successful reversal had improved. It argued that sterilization should only be performed for very serious nonmedical reasons and required informed consent, spousal notification, and a waiting period of 2 months. The resolution has however been largely ignored. Although vasectomies are performed in numerous hospitals in France, their legal status remains ambiguous. PMID:12282190

  9. Demographics of Men Receiving Vasectomies in the US Military 20002009

    PubMed Central

    Santomauro, Michael; Masterson, James; Marguet, Charles; Crain, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Background We hypothesize that there is a higher incidence of vasectomy within the military at a younger age based on this equal access health care system. Materials and Methods A review of the CHAMPS military database was conducted for men receiving vasectomies from 2000 to 2009. Age at vasectomy, number of children, race, religion, and marital status were recorded and incidence was computed. Results Total of 82,945 vasectomies was performed. The overall incidence to have a vasectomy was approximately 7.10 per 1000 men. The highest rate of occurrence was 14.4 per 1000 men in men 3034 years old. Whites had a higher rate than blacks at 10.03 per 1000 men compared to 6.27 per 1000 men. Protestants had the highest rate at 8.44 per 1000 men, and Jewish people had the lowest at 1.86 per 1000 men. Married men had a rate of 12.3 per 1000 men, whereas single men were 1.03 per 1000 men. Conclusions The incidence to have a vasectomy in the military was 7.10 per 1000 men, with an age adjusted rate at 8.66 per 1000 men. This information may assist primary care providers in discussing vasectomies as a permanent form of contraception. PMID:24917704

  10. [Vasectomy and tubal ligation: medicopsychological aspects of voluntary sterilization].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, M

    1982-06-01

    Various psychological aspects of voluntary surgical sterilization are examined. Women's own bodies are protected through sterilization from all the risks of pregnancy, but there is an altruistic element of vasectomy which may be perceived by men either positively or as a sacrifice or mutilition. The greater prevalence of female sterilization thus seems logical. Some psychologists view vasectomy as representing the realization of castration fantasies, but despite occurrence of cases which might seem to legitimate this view, most vasectomized men are married adults who have fathered several children and have otherwise proven their maturity. The status of voluntary sterilization appears to differ in the Third World, where rapid population growth threatens collective survival, and in developed countries whose growth rates are low or negative. Requests for reversal are increasingly frequent as women undergo sterilization at younger ages. Remarriage, a change of mind by the couple, or death of a child are the most frequently cited reasons for reversal requests. Reports of the psychological consequences of sterilization tend to vary in different studies, largely because of differences in the socioeconomic and cultural status of the populations studied and also perhaps because some studies are more superficial than others. In numerous questionnaire surveys mostly done in Anglo-Saxon countries, typically 90-99% of subjects have reported themselves satisfied with the results. The great majority report no regrets, an unchanged or improved marital relationship, and an increase in sexual pleasure. Less heterogeneous samples of persons undergoing sterilization for reasons other than simple contraceptive convenience have sometimes given less positive results. Age, economic status, number of children, marital relationship, educational level, religious and moral convictions, and history of medical or psychological problems can all affect satisfaction with sterilization. Men in developing countries who consent to vasectomy in return for some inducement such as a transistor radio may be less satisfied with the outcome. Indepth individual clinical psychological studies appear to indicate that the immediate aftermath of sterilization brings a minor emotional crisis, usually silent, in which grief is worked through at a not fully conscious level. The crisis is normal and resolves spontaneously. Following vasectomy, some men are reported to become obsessed with avoiding "feminine" activities such as washing dishes. More serious sexual and psychiatric complaints including functional somatic manifestations have also been observed, but it is not always possible to determine from case descriptions whether the patient was poorly selected for sterilization, whether the indication was inappropriate, or wheather there was a preexisting psychological disturbance. It has been suggested that on a deeper level, sterilization reactivates castration anxiety, represents self-punishment, or is imposed by castrating women, but in fact ignorance and superstition have probably influenced reactions to sterilization in some individuals. Routine psychological evaluations before vasectomy are unlikely to be done in sufficient depth to uncover latent problems or examine motivation in detail. Simple sociological criteria may be the most helpful in weeding out inappropriate candidates. PMID:12268238

  11. Scrotal haematoma following vasectomy: an unusual surgical emergency

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Bobby

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old man who underwent a vasectomy at his general practitioner presented to the emergency department at a regional hospital with a 6?h history of scrotal swelling and skin discolouration. He was haemodynamically stable on admission, with a large, dark red swelling in his scrotum. The patient was admitted to an acute surgical unit for exploration of his scrotum. Bilateral transverse incisions were made in the patient's groin, and approximately 600?mL of blood was drained from the patient's scrotum. Postoperatively, the patient performed well, and was discharged home on oral antibiotics and analgesia. The patient's scrotum healed well, and after 2?months of follow-up, he was discharged. PMID:24395881

  12. Vasectomy and the risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Long; Yan, Jia-Jun; Pan, Shou-Hua; Pan, Jian-Gang; Ying, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Guan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship of vasectomy to prostate cancer has great public health significance. However, the results of observational studies were conflicting. To determine whether vasectomy is associated with the risk of prostate cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Methods: A literature search was carried out using Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Libraryl, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) between January 1966 and July 2013. Before meta-analysis, between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using adequate statistical tests. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results: A total of nine cohort studies contributed to the analysis. There was heterogeneity among the studies but no publication bias. Pooled results indicated that vasectomy was not associated with a significant increase of total prostate cancer risk (RR = 1.07, 95% CI [0.79, 1.46]). When stratified the various studies by geographic location, we found a significant association between vasectomy and increased PCa risk among studies conducted in the USA (RR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.23, 1.93]), however, there was no significant association between vasectomy and PCa risk among studies conducted in non-USA countries (RR = 0.74, 95% CI [0.50, 1.09]). Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of the results. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present meta-analysis of cohort studies suggested that vasectomy was not associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. More in-depth studies are warranted to report more detailed results, including stratified results by age at vasectomy, tumor grade, and tumor stage. PMID:26770392

  13. Vasectomy effect on canine seminal plasma biochemical components and their correlation with seminal parameters.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fabiana Ferreira; Martins, Maria Isabel Mello; Lopes, Maria Denise

    2006-10-01

    Three semen samples were collected at 48 h intervals from 20 mature research dogs previously conditioned to manual semen collection. Vasectomy was performed in all dogs, and 15 days after surgery, another three ejaculates were similarly collected. The semen was evaluated, and centrifuged to obtain seminal plasma for measurement of pH, and concentrations of total proteins (TP), total chlorides (Cl), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). The seminal plasma protein profile was evaluated by SDS-PAGE; molecular weights and the integrated optical density (IOD) of each band were estimated. There was a negative correlation between K concentration and progressive motility (r = -0.49, P = 0.027), sperm vigor (r = -0.60, P = 0.0053), and plasma integrity, evaluated by both the hypo-osmotic swelling test (r = -0.50, P = 0.026) and a fluorescent stain (r = -0.45, P = 0.046). Positive correlations between Na and K pre- and post-vasectomy (r = 0.88, P < 0.001; r = 0.56, P < 0.01, respectively) were verified. There were a total of 37 bands pre-vasectomy and 35 post-vasectomy (range, 100.6-3.6 kDa). Bands B9 and B13 (42.6 and 29.2 kDa) were not present post-vasectomy. The IOD of band B3 (73.5 kDa) was higher (P = 0.03) pre-vasectomy, compared to post-vasectomy; conversely, the IODs of bands B29 and B37 (7.8 and 3.6 kDa) increased (P = 0.026 and 0.047). Pre-vasectomy, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.49, P = 0.029) between band B37 band (3.6 kDa) and the Na:K ratio. In conclusion, K appeared to be involved in sperm motility in dogs and could be a tool to evaluate sperm function. The prostate contributed several elements to canine seminal plasma. Vasectomy changed Ca concentrations and the protein profile of the seminal plasma. Further studies must be performed to clarify the function of these elements on the in vivo fertility of dogs. PMID:16644001

  14. Quantitative (stereological) study of the effects of vasectomy on spermatogenesis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Shu; Huang, An-Pei; Deng, Xian-Zhong; Yang, Zheng-Wei

    2004-08-01

    Using stereological methods, especially the optical disector for unbiased estimation of nuclear number, our recent study demonstrated that long-term (6 or 12 months) vasectomy in the rhesus monkey had no significant effects on spermatogenesis (Peng et al. Reproduction 2002, 124, 847-856). This study aimed to determine the scenario in the rabbit using the same morphometric methodology. Three groups of normal male Japanese white rabbits (aged 4-5 months) were subjected to unilateral vasectomy; 10 days, 6 months and 12 months later both testes and epididymides were removed. Testicular and epididymal methacrylate-embedded sections were obtained for stereology. Vasectomy-induced damage to spermatogenesis was observed, primarily sloughing of spermatogenic cells with a greater reduction in the number of advanced (adluminal) cells. The damage was most severe at 10 days, occurring in all the testes on the vasectomized side and involving sloughing of even type A spermatogonia, the number of which returned to normal at 6 and 12 months. Damage was less severe at 6 and 12 months, being found in half of the testes of the vasectomy side, in which the total numbers of later germ cell types were 24.0-59.1% (spermatocytes) and 0.3-11.6% (spermatids) of control at 6 months, and 20.1-22.1% (spermatocytes) and 0.4-12.0% (spermatids) of control at 12 months. By contrast, Sertoli cell number per testis was unchanged following vasectomy in any group. Epididymis on the vasectomy side, especially at 10 days and 6 months, appeared larger than on the contralateral side, but this difference was not statistically significant, and no sperm granuloma was seen in the epididymis. PMID:15291797

  15. Embolic Stroke Caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis Endocarditis Complicating Vasectomy in a 36-Year-Old Man.

    PubMed

    David, Manova; Loftsgaarden, Megan; Chukwudelunzu, Felix

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is part of the native flora in the inguinal region of the body. Inguinal surgeries, such as vasectomy, place carriers of this aggressive pathogen at risk for contamination. Native-valve endocarditis caused by coagulase-negative S. lugdunensis has a rapid and complicated clinical course. The pathogenicity of this organism is not limited to cardiac valvular destruction. We report the case of a 36-year-old man who presented with S. lugdunensis endocarditis, dysarthria, and hemiparesis 5 weeks after a vasectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of embolic stroke caused by S. lugdunensis endocarditis. In addition, we discuss the relevant medical literature. PMID:26664319

  16. Does vasectomy have long-term effects on somatic and psychological health status?

    PubMed

    Thonneau, P; D'Isle, B

    1990-12-01

    All the major international articles on the somatic and psychological consequences of vasectomy published over the last 10 years have been reviewed and analysed. Although some experiments on animals have revealed harmful effects, none of the large-scale epidemiological studies has pointed to any increase in health risks (cardiovascular, hypertensive, psychiatric) in vasectomized men. The contradictions which arise between the clinical and large-scale epidemiological studies may be the result of methodological or experimental conditions. As our knowledge stands at present it can therefore be considered that vasectomy has no major effects on the physical or mental health of men. PMID:2096110

  17. Embolic Stroke Caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis Endocarditis Complicating Vasectomy in a 36-Year-Old Man

    PubMed Central

    Loftsgaarden, Megan; Chukwudelunzu, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is part of the native flora in the inguinal region of the body. Inguinal surgeries, such as vasectomy, place carriers of this aggressive pathogen at risk for contamination. Native-valve endocarditis caused by coagulase-negative S. lugdunensis has a rapid and complicated clinical course. The pathogenicity of this organism is not limited to cardiac valvular destruction. We report the case of a 36-year-old man who presented with S. lugdunensis endocarditis, dysarthria, and hemiparesis 5 weeks after a vasectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of embolic stroke caused by S. lugdunensis endocarditis. In addition, we discuss the relevant medical literature. PMID:26664319

  18. Treatment of failed vasectomy reversal using a microsurgical two-layer anastomosis technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoling; Wang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of a microsurgical two-layer anastomosis technique in the treatment of failed vasectomy reversal. Methods A microsurgical two-layer anastomosis was used in a series of 24 patients with confirmed anastomotic obstruction after previous vasectomy reversal. The patients were followed up for 9 months to 6 years, and the efficacy of the procedure was evaluated by regular seminal analysis and pregnancy records. The results were compared with those obtained from 34 patients who had received primary microsurgical vasovasostomy in our hospital using the same microsurgical technique. Results In the treatment group for failed vasectomy reversal patients, the postoperative patency rate was 87.5% (21/24), resulting in a pregnancy rate of 54.2% (13/24). In primary reversal group, the postoperative patency rate was 94.1% (32/34), resulting in a pregnancy rate of 67.6% (23/34). Both the patency and pregnancy rate were not significantly different between these two groups. Conclusions The microsurgical vasovasostomy and vasoepididymostomy provided satisfactory patency rate and natural pregnancy rate for patients with a previous failed vasectomy reversal, which is comparable with the results of patients who had undergone primary procedure.

  19. Regulatory T cells control tolerogenic versus autoimmune response to sperm in vasectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Karen; Tardif, Steve; Rival, Claudia; Luu, Brian; Bui, Elise; del Rio, Roxana; Teuscher, Cory; Sparwasser, Tim; Hardy, Daniel; Tung, Kenneth S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Vasectomy is a well accepted global contraceptive approach frequently associated with epididymal granuloma and sperm autoantibody formation. To understand the long-term sequelae of vasectomy, we investigated the early immune response in vasectomized mice. Vasectomy leads to rapid epithelial cell apoptosis and necrosis, persistent inflammation, and sperm granuloma formation in the epididymis. Vasectomized B6AF1 mice did not mount autoimmune response but instead developed sperm antigen-specific tolerance, documented as resistance to immunization-induced experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) but not experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Strikingly, tolerance switches over to pathologic autoimmune state following concomitant CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell (Treg) depletion: unilaterally vasectomized mice produce dominant autoantibodies to an orchitogenic antigen (zonadhesin), and develop CD4 T-cell and antibody-dependent bilateral autoimmune orchitis. Therefore, (i) Treg normally prevents spontaneous organ-specific autoimmunity induction by persistent endogenous danger signal, and (ii) autoantigenic stimulation with sterile autoinflammation can lead to tolerance. Finally, postvasectomy tolerance occurs in B6AF1, C57BL/6, and A/J strains. However, C57BL/6 mice resisted EAO after 60% Treg depletion, but developed EAO after 97% Treg reduction. Therefore, variance in intrinsic Treg functiona possible genetic traitcan influence the divergent tolerogenic versus autoimmune response to vasectomy. PMID:21502500

  20. Fate of superfluous sperm products after vasectomy and in the normal male tract of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Barratt, C L; Cohen, J

    1986-09-01

    The progression of 3H-labelled spermatozoa (thymidine or arginine) was followed through the tracts of unilaterally vasectomized, bilaterally vasectomized, oligozoospermic (t6/tw5) and normal mice; the regional lymph nodes were also investigated. The same rate of sperm production and transport was found in normal and in vasectomized tracts, down to the corpus epididymidis; there was some delay in spermatozoa entering the cauda in the vasectomized tracts. In the mouse, therefore, vasectomy does not affect the rates of sperm production or transport until just before the blockage in the swollen cauda epididymidis. Radioactivity appeared in the caudal and 'para-aortic' lymph nodes as the radioactive spermatozoa passed from the corpus, showing that this is one route of disposal of spermatozoa, or of sperm products, after vasectomy. Naturally oligozoospermic and normal mice gave similar results; again the caudal, iliac and renal lymph nodes received radioactive spermatozoa/sperm products. Some loss of (by definition) superfluous spermatozoa in the normal male tract therefore occurs naturally by this route, and we suggest that vasectomy further exploits this physiological pathway. This would account for the finding that many males do not make antisperm antibodies after vasectomy, just as normal males do not, even though their lymph nodes normally receive spermatozoa/sperm products. PMID:3761259

  1. Cutting out the scalpel: a unique approach to vasectomies. Interview with Dr. Li Shunqiang, the originator of no-scalpel vasectomy.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    In this interview, Dr. Li Shunqiang, who developed the no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) technique, discusses his life and work. As a youth, Dr. Li, who was born into a farming family, noted that farm wives had large families to care for in addition to their other chores. He always felt that it was unfair for women to have to assume the entire responsibility for family planning. Thus, in the early 1960s, Dr. Li began his research on male contraception. By this time, concern had arisen in China about rapid population growth. Dr. Li performed his first traditional vasectomy in 1963. He soon found that the use of a knife in vasectomy was associated in the minds of his clients with castration. Therefore, Dr. Li began to try to develop a means of chemical vasocclusion. In 1973, this work led to the development of the NSV, in which the anesthetized scrotum is punctured (rather than cut) with a special instrument in order to allow access to the vas deferens. Dr. Li believes that the NSV should be promoted beyond Sichuan Province, and he intends to continue his efforts to improve the procedure. In order to expand the NSV throughout China, Dr. Li recommends that couples who wish to end child-bearing should be fully informed about male and female sterilization. Quality follow-up services should be available to acceptors. In addition, a pilot project should proceed large-scale promotion of NSV. High quality training must be given to the surgeons, and information, education, and communication activities should be used to create a social environment in which NSV will be accepted. Dr. Li is continuing his research in the areas of basic androgyny and pathology, biochemistry, and the male hormone system as well as in sterilization reversal. He is involved in NSV workshops and continues to refine the procedure. PMID:12346906

  2. Scoring men: vasectomies and the totemic illusion of male sexuality in Oaxaca.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Matthew C

    2005-03-01

    This paper discusses research on men's reproductive health and sexuality in Oaxaca, Mexico, and specifically why some men there choose to be sterilized. Men who opt for vasectomies do so after considering numerous cultural, historical, physiological, commercial, and other concerns. Men and women in Oaxaca negotiate certain cultural folk beliefs about supposed male sexual desires and practices before arriving at the decision to get the operation. Vasectomy as a method of birth control is chosen despite folk beliefs that take the form of a totemic illusion which treats male sexuality as naturalized, something fixed, and as entirely distinct from female sexuality. Among its many consequences, this totemic illusion serves to conceal inequalities in the sphere of reproductive health and sexuality in relation to contraception. PMID:16108204

  3. "Suddenly, bang, one day there's commitment with a woman..." men, vasectomy and the life course.

    PubMed

    Terry, Gareth

    2014-09-01

    Research that investigates and theorises the male reproductive life course is extremely limited, and often reduced to examining problems, such as infertility. As a consequence, what we know about men's reproductive decision making is often extrapolated from theorisation of the female reproductive life course, or simplistic assumptions about masculine identity. This article analyses interview data from 34 men talking about their vasectomy decision-making processes in order to provide a lens through which to understand men making sense of their reproductive life course. Men who had children spoke of their vasectomy as resolving their lay understandings of the 'normal' life course, men who did not want their children to speak of resisting the normal life course, and men who had experienced or considered relationship dissolution spoke of resetting the life course. PMID:25116431

  4. Morphometric study of the testis and reproductive tract (including sperm granuloma) after vasectomy in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Guo, Yang; Yuan, Yong; Li, Yu-Gen; Deng, Xian-Zhong; Yang, Zheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    By utilizing the rabbit model, previous studies have found good evidence indicating that vasectomy-induced spermatogenic damage is pressure-mediated: the damage occurs when the occluded reproductive tract is unable to accommodate additional spermatozoa produced by the testis. More studies with the more commonly used rat model have shown, however, controversial results on whether and why the damage occurs. In this study, 12 mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral vasectomy: double ligation (without severing) of the vas deferens exposed via a small inguinal incision; 37 days after the operation, the testes, epididymides, vasa deferentia (juxta-epididymal segments), and sperm granulomas (at the vasectomy site) were removed to obtain methacrylate resin-embedded sections and morphometric studies carried out with light microscopy. Marked spermatogenic damage with spermatids and spermatocytes depleted in the seminiferous epithelium in 43% of the seminiferous tubule profiles was demonstrated in 5 of the 12 testes on the vasectomized side, and the damage was associated with smaller or absent sperm granulomas; in the other 7 testes with essentially normal spermatogenesis, there was an increase (by 111% on average) in the volume of the tubule lumen, associated with larger granulomas or granulomas containing more spermatozoa. There was an overall increase (by 66%) in the thickness of the rete testis in the 12 testes; the epididymis or vas deferens showed no distension. It seems therefore that the spermatogenic damage induced by vasectomy in rats is pressure-mediated as well, and that variation in the damage depends mainly on the postoperative development of the sperm granuloma. PMID:25791731

  5. Morphometric study of the testis and reproductive tract (including sperm granuloma) after vasectomy in mature rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Guo, Yang; Yuan, Yong; Li, Yu-Gen; Deng, Xian-Zhong; Yang, Zheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    By utilizing the rabbit model, previous studies have found good evidence indicating that vasectomy-induced spermatogenic damage is pressure-mediated: the damage occurs when the occluded reproductive tract is unable to accommodate additional spermatozoa produced by the testis. More studies with the more commonly used rat model have shown, however, controversial results on whether and why the damage occurs. In this study, 12 mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral vasectomy: double ligation (without severing) of the vas deferens exposed via a small inguinal incision; 37 days after the operation, the testes, epididymides, vasa deferentia (juxta-epididymal segments), and sperm granulomas (at the vasectomy site) were removed to obtain methacrylate resin-embedded sections and morphometric studies carried out with light microscopy. Marked spermatogenic damage with spermatids and spermatocytes depleted in the seminiferous epithelium in 43% of the seminiferous tubule profiles was demonstrated in 5 of the 12 testes on the vasectomized side, and the damage was associated with smaller or absent sperm granulomas; in the other 7 testes with essentially normal spermatogenesis, there was an increase (by 111% on average) in the volume of the tubule lumen, associated with larger granulomas or granulomas containing more spermatozoa. There was an overall increase (by 66%) in the thickness of the rete testis in the 12 testes; the epididymis or vas deferens showed no distension. It seems therefore that the spermatogenic damage induced by vasectomy in rats is pressure-mediated as well, and that variation in the damage depends mainly on the postoperative development of the sperm granuloma. PMID:25791731

  6. A survey on the knowledge and attitudes of men in Machakos town towards vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Z P; Solomon, M M

    1995-01-01

    In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. PMID:12290732

  7. Laparoscopic vasectomy in African savannah elephant (Loxodonta africana); surgical technique and results.

    PubMed

    Marais, Hendrik J; Hendrickson, Dean A; Stetter, Mark; Zuba, Jeffery R; Penning, Mark; Siegal-Willott, Jess; Hardy, Christine

    2013-12-01

    Several small, enclosed reserves in southern Africa are experiencing significant elephant population growth, which has resulted in associated environmental damage and changes in biodiversity. Although several techniques exist to control elephant populations, e.g., culling, relocation, and immunocontraception, the technique of laparoscopic vasectomy of free-ranging bull elephants was investigated. Bilateral vasectomies were performed in 45 elephants. Of these elephants, one died within 24 hr of recovery and two had complications during surgery but recovered uneventfully. Histologic examination confirmed the resected tissue as ductus deferens in all the bulls. Most animals recovered uneventfully and showed no abnormal behavior after surgery. Complications recorded included incisional dehiscence, 1 full-thickness and 2 partial-thickness lacerations of the large intestine, and initial sling-associated complications, for example, deep radial nerve paresis. One bull was found dead 6 weeks after surgery without showing any prior abnormal signs. Vasectomy in free-ranging African bull elephants may be effectively performed in their normal environment. The surgical procedure can be used as a realistic population management tool in free-ranging elephants without major anesthetic, surgical, or postoperative complications. PMID:24437080

  8. COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL AND SURGICAL VASECTOMY ON TESTICULAR ACTIVITY IN FREE-ROAMING HORSES (EQUUS CABALLUS).

    PubMed

    Scully, Clare M; Lee, Rebecca L; Pielstick, Leon; Medlock, Jan; Patton, Kristin M; Collins, Gail H; Kutzler, Michelle A

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming horse (Equus caballus) management is a complex issue incorporating social, economic, emotional, political, and environmental factors. Currently, few proven field techniques exist for managing free-roaming horse population growth, which can reach 20-25% annually. Although there are several strategies available for sterilizing mares when managing free-roaming horse populations, surgical vasectomy is the only method used in the field for stallions. Some managers believe that surgically vasectomizing dominant stallions would have significant effects on reducing horse populations. However, sterilizing only dominant harem stallions results in a relatively modest reduction in population growth as substantial reproduction may occur even when 100% of the dominant harem stallions are sterilized if other males perform as little as 10% of the breeding. The overall goal of the current project was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel nonsurgical method for sterilizing free-roaming horses (chemical vasectomy). In September of 2013, stallions that had been previously surgically vasectomized (SURG, n = 25), previously chemically vasectomized (CHEM, n = 16), or untreated (CONT, n = 32) were captured and surgically castrated in preparation for adoption. When comparing both sterilization methods to CONT, serum testosterone and estrone sulfate concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05), suggesting that these methods for sterilizing free-roaming stallions would not disrupt herd social hierarchy. However, similar to the CONT, all CHEM stallions had sperm present within the vas deferens seminal fluid samples. CHEM stallions had more morphologically abnormal sperm than did CONT stallions but it is not known if this affected the actual fertility. Additional research is needed using alternative sclerosing agents for chemical vasectomy in free-roaming horse populations. PMID:26667538

  9. Application of optical coherence tomography and high-frequency ultrasound imaging during noninvasive laser vasectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-04-01

    A noninvasive approach to vasectomy may eliminate male fear of complications related to surgery and increase its acceptance. Noninvasive laser thermal occlusion of the canine vas deferens has recently been reported. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) are compared for monitoring laser thermal coagulation of the vas in an acute canine model. Bilateral noninvasive laser coagulation of the vas was performed in six dogs (n=12 vasa) using a Ytterbium fiber laser wavelength of 1075 nm, incident power of 9.0 W, pulse duration of 500 ms, pulse rate of 1 Hz, and 3-mm-diameter spot. Cryogen spray cooling was used to prevent skin burns during the procedure. An OCT system with endoscopic probe and a HFUS system with 20-MHz transducer were used to image the vas immediately before and after the procedure. Vasa were then excised and processed for gross and histologic analysis for comparison with OCT and HFUS images. OCT provided high-resolution, superficial imaging of the compressed vas within the vas ring clamp, while HFUS provided deeper imaging of the vas held manually in the scrotal fold. Both OCT and high HFUS are promising imaging modalities for real-time confirmation of vas occlusion during noninvasive laser vasectomy.

  10. Application of optical coherence tomography and high-frequency ultrasound imaging during noninvasive laser vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Cilip, Christopher M; Allaf, Mohamad E; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2012-04-01

    A noninvasive approach to vasectomy may eliminate male fear of complications related to surgery and increase its acceptance. Noninvasive laser thermal occlusion of the canine vas deferens has recently been reported. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) are compared for monitoring laser thermal coagulation of the vas in an acute canine model. Bilateral noninvasive laser coagulation of the vas was performed in six dogs (n=12 vasa) using a Ytterbium fiber laser wavelength of 1075 nm, incident power of 9.0 W, pulse duration of 500 ms, pulse rate of 1 Hz, and 3-mm-diameter spot. Cryogen spray cooling was used to prevent skin burns during the procedure. An OCT system with endoscopic probe and a HFUS system with 20-MHz transducer were used to image the vas immediately before and after the procedure. Vasa were then excised and processed for gross and histologic analysis for comparison with OCT and HFUS images. OCT provided high-resolution, superficial imaging of the compressed vas within the vas ring clamp, while HFUS provided deeper imaging of the vas held manually in the scrotal fold. Both OCT and high HFUS are promising imaging modalities for real-time confirmation of vas occlusion during noninvasive laser vasectomy. PMID:22559684

  11. A four year study of vasectomy on plasma levels of pituitary and sex hormones in normal males in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Piyasena, R D; Weerasekera, D A; Reginald, G J; Wikramanayake, T W

    1982-03-01

    Blood levels of pituitary gonadotropins, prolactin, testosterone, and estrogens were measured at regular intervals in Sri Lankan males of proven fertility for a period of 4 years after vasectomy. All assays were done by standard radioimmunoassay procedures using materials supplied by the World Health Organization, Geneva, under their Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction (Matched Assay Reagent Program), which also provides for internal and external quality control of results. No significant alteration from basal values of any of the hormonal levels measured was observed over the 4-year period. The results may increase confidence in vasectomy as a means of contraception. The effects of vasectomy on the plasma levels of the abovementioned hormones were investigated over a 4-year period from February 1975. Blood samples were obtained prior to surgery and at regular intervals thereafter for 4 years so that each subject served as his own control. Serum was stored deep frozen and the relevant hormonal measurements made in batches by radioimmunoassay techniques with suitable precautions for both internal and external quality control. PMID:7151239

  12. Apoptosis in testicular tissue of rats after vasectomy: evaluation of eNOS, iNOS immunoreactivities and the effects of ozone therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alpcan, Serhan; Ba?ar, Halil; Aydos, Tolga Re?at; Kul, O?uz; K?sa, ler; Ba?ar, Murad Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and apoptotic index in rat testicular tissue, as well as serum and seminal plasma sex hormone levels after vasectomy, and the effect of ozone therapy (OT). Material and methods: Adult male Wistar rats were used (n=6 per group). Control (G1), sham for 4 weeks (G2) or 6 weeks (G3), orchiectomy at the 4th (G4) or 6th (G5) week after left vasectomy, orchiectomy at the 4th (G6) or 6th (G7) week after bilateral vasectomy, orchiectomy after 6 weeks OT following left (G8) or bilateral (G9) vasectomy, orchiectomy after 6 weeks OT (G10). Results: In the left testes, while there were increases in eNOS and iNOS immunoreactivity and apoptotic indexes in G4 and G5, no changes were observed in contralateral testis. These values increased in G6 and G7, while OT inhibited these parameters in the left testis of G8 and both testes of G9. Sex hormone levels did not show any changes after vasectomy and ozone therapy. Conclusion: While OT was found to be protective against some parameters mentioned above under stress conditions, it seemed to cause some harmful effects when used in healthy conditions. PMID:26328178

  13. Vasectomy Reversal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fund Annual Fund Alliances & Partner Organizations Cause-Related Marketing Planned Giving Charitable Gift Planning is a powerful ... CareBlog Make a Difference Planned Giving Cause-Related Marketing Research Quick Links Urologic Conditions Financials & Annual Report ...

  14. Vasectomy Reversal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vas. So this is a marker to prevent torsion of the vas. We're making sure that ... important that they're aligned appropriately to prevent torsion or undue tension on the anastomosis. and also ...

  15. Utero-tubal Embryo Transfer and Vasectomy in the Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo-Alvarez, Pablo; Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu P.

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of preimplantation embryos to a surrogate female is a required step for the production of genetically modified mice or to study the effects of epigenetic alterations originated during preimplantation development on subsequent fetal development and adult health. The use of an effective and consistent embryo transfer technique is crucial to enhance the generation of genetically modified animals and to determine the effect of different treatments on implantation rates and survival to term. Embryos at the blastocyst stage are usually transferred by uterine transfer, performing a puncture in the uterine wall to introduce the embryo manipulation pipette. The orifice performed in the uterus does not close after the pipette has been withdrawn, and the embryos can outflow to the abdominal cavity due to the positive pressure of the uterus. The puncture can also produce a hemorrhage that impairs implantation, blocks the transfer pipette and may affect embryo development, especially when embryos without zona are transferred. Consequently, this technique often results in very variable and overall low embryo survival rates. Avoiding these negative effects, utero-tubal embryo transfer take advantage of the utero-tubal junction as a natural barrier that impedes embryo outflow and avoid the puncture of the uterine wall. Vasectomized males are required for obtaining pseudopregnant recipients. A technique to perform vasectomy is described as a complement to the utero-tubal embryo transfer. PMID:24637845

  16. Long-term study of vasectomy in Macaca radiata--histological and ultrasonographic analysis of testis and duct system.

    PubMed

    Seppan, Prakash; Krishnaswamy, Kamakshi

    2014-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the long-term effect of vasectomy using the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) as a primate animal model. Animals weighing around 6 to 8 kg were randomly chosen for bilateral, unilateral vasectomy and sham-control. The postoperative periods of six months and two years were considered as short and long-term, respectively. Sperm were collected and subjected to analysis before euthanasia. The testes and epididymides were excised from euthanized animals then embedded in paraffin. Normal histological changes were observed in sham-operated animals and short-term contralateral testes. In contrast, marked alterations were observed in the testes and epididymides of both short and long-term groups. Seminiferous epithelium was thinned out showing marked depletion of germ cells in long-term; only a thin layer of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and fewer spermatocytes were seen. Exfoliation of germ cells and the occurrence of multinucleated giant cells were common features in these tubules. The epididymal tubular lumens were greatly dilated with accumulated spermatozoa in short and long-term animals; significant defects were observed in the epithelium of the long-term animals. Microscopic spermatic granulomas were noticed in epididymides and the vas deferens. Large granulomas were seen in long-term vasectomized monkeys, frequently compressing the surrounding structures. These granulomas could be visualized in ultrasound, however, only at the late stage of its occurrence. Sperm collected from the unilateral vasectomized animals showed a poor motility score in the capillary mucus penetration test (CMPT). Results indicate that the changes observed after vasectomy might be due to pressure initially, whereas in the long-term the damage was supplemented by autoimmune attack. With immunoglobulin (IgG) deposition in contra-lateral unoperated testis of unilateral vasectomized animals it also showed degenerative changes and a concomitant drop in sperm quality. Although, granulomatous reactions were observed in the epididymis and vas deferens but testes were spared from such reactions even in the long-term. PMID:24593799

  17. No-scalpel vasectomy: review of the first 1,000 cases in a family medicine unit.

    PubMed

    Arellano Lara, S; Gonzalez Barrera, J L; Hernandez Ono, A; Moreno Alcazar, O; Espinosa Perez, J

    1997-01-01

    In Mexico, the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) had adopted the no-scalpel vasectomy technique by the end of 1989. The technique was described by Dr. Li Shunquiang in 1974, and more than 60 million no-scalpel vasectomies have been performed in 26 countries. Among the advantages with no-scalpel vasectomy is that it has fewer complications (0.4%) compared to the traditional technique (3.1%). We studied 1,000 clinical charts of the subjects operated on between January, 1990 and January, 1993, with the objective of reporting our experiences as well as analyzing whether there existed a correlation between the subject's social and demographic characteristics and the number of control spermatic counts he attended postoperatively. In 97.9% of the cases, subjects had no postoperative hemorrhage or hematoma. None of the subjects had a surgical wound infection. In addition, 54.4% of the subjects came to the first control spermatic count, 39.7% came to the second, and only 18.4% came to all three controls. In an attempt to find a characteristic which defined the subject who attends his postoperative control spermatic counts, we found an association using chi2 between the attendance at two controls with the subjects who had been married from 6 - 10 years (p = 0.059), and with the subjects who had an income of three minimum wages. Regarding the attendance at all three controls, we found an association with subjects who had an income of two minimum wages (p = 0.037). We also found a weak correlation between the attendance at all three controls and the reason reported for not having more children (the couple did not want more children) (r = 0.07; p = 0.025) and with the manner in which the subjects were referred to the clinic (came on their own initiative) (r = 0.09; p = 0.006). Finally, we consider that no-scalpel vasectomy can be implemented as an adequate family planning method in Mexico's primary care centers. The lack of adequate attendance at postoperative control spermatic counts does not seem to have an important association with the subject's demographic characteristics, so it appears warranted that this issue be studied from a psychological point of view. PMID:9428576

  18. The Assessment of Post-Vasectomy Pain in Mice Using Behaviour and the Mouse Grimace Scale

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Matthew C.; Klaus, Kristel; Miller, Amy L.; Scotto di Perrotolo, Maud; Sotocinal, Susana G.; Flecknell, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Current behaviour-based pain assessments for laboratory rodents have significant limitations. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may overcome some of these limitations. The Mouse Grimace Scale appears to offer a means of assessing post-operative pain in mice that is as effective as manual behavioural-based scoring, without the limitations of such schemes. Effective assessment of post-operative pain is not only critical for animal welfare, but also the validity of science using animal models. Methodology/Principal Findings This study compared changes in behaviour assessed using both an automated system (“HomeCageScan”) and using manual analysis with changes in facial expressions assessed using the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS). Mice (n = 6/group) were assessed before and after surgery (scrotal approach vasectomy) and either received saline, meloxicam or bupivacaine. Both the MGS and manual scoring of pain behaviours identified clear differences between the pre and post surgery periods and between those animals receiving analgesia (20 mg/kg meloxicam or 5 mg/kg bupivacaine) or saline post-operatively. Both of these assessments were highly correlated with those showing high MGS scores also exhibiting high frequencies of pain behaviours. Automated behavioural analysis in contrast was only able to detect differences between the pre and post surgery periods. Conclusions In conclusion, both the Mouse Grimace Scale and manual scoring of pain behaviours are assessing the presence of post-surgical pain, whereas automated behavioural analysis could be detecting surgical stress and/or post-surgical pain. This study suggests that the Mouse Grimace Scale could prove to be a quick and easy means of assessing post-surgical pain, and the efficacy of analgesic treatment in mice that overcomes some of the limitations of behaviour-based assessment schemes. PMID:22558191

  19. Intraluminal occlusion of the seminal duct by laser and Histoacryl: Two non-invasive alternatives for vasectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, B.; Sroka, R.; Koelle, S.; Becker, A. J.; Khoder, W.; Pongratz, T.; Stief, C. G.; Trottmann, M.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction and objective: Vasectomy is a well-established method in family control. Even though it is a safe and low risk operation, this surgery is invasive and difficult to reverse. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate new non-invasive methods for occlusion of the seminal duct. Material and Methods: Seminal duct tissue was obtained from patients (n=30) suffering from prostate cancer and therefore undergoing prostatectomy. In a first set of experiments, the seminal duct was occluded by intraluminal application of Histoacryl (Braun Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany). In a 2nd set of experiments, endoluminal laser induced occlusion was performed. Four different laser wavelengths (1940nm, 1470nm, 1064nm, 940nm) and different sets of laser parameters (e.g. power, exposure duration, fibre diameter, energy applied) were compared. Effectiveness of occlusion of the seminal duct was proven by post-treatment irrigation flow measurement, as well as by morphological analyses. To evaluate a potential damage of the surrounding tissue, external temperature was measured using a thermometer during laser application. Results: Intraluminal application of Histoacryl induced an immediate and complete occlusion of the seminal duct. The underlying connective tissue maintained its functional integrity after this treatment. By laser light application to a Histoacryl block, a hole could be created into the block thus indicating the possibility of recanalization. Treatment with laser energy resulted in shrinkage of the ductal lumen. The laser application generally caused necrosis in the epithelium and induced formation of vacuoles in the underlying connective tissue. As described for endoluminal varicose treatment, this distinct local reaction might result in an intense inflammation leading to a functional occlusion of the vas deferens. Conclusions: Both laser-induced occlusion and application of Histoacryl are fast and simple techniques which may be able to achieve a functional occlusion of the seminal duct. The application of Histoacryl additionally may be easily reversible by laser treatment.

  20. How Is a Vasectomy Done?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ency/article/002995.htm [top] « Condition Information How effective is it? » Last Reviewed: 06/03/2013 Related A-Z Topics Contraception and Birth ... RSS NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health ® Printed from ...

  1. Unintended Pregnancy Prevention: Contraception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The risk of pregnancy after vasectomy. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2004 ;103:848–850. A comparison of women’s regret following vasectomy versus tubal sterilization. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2002 ;99:1073–1079. Contraceptive sterilization among married ...

  2. A Retrospective Review of Factors Associated with Vasovasostomies in United States Military Members

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, J.; Avalos, E.; Santomauro, M.; Walters, R.; Marguet, C.; L'Esperance, J.; Drain, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Men seeking a vasectomy should receive counseling prior to the procedure that includes discussion of later seeking a reversal. We sought to determine demographic factors that may predispose patients to possibly later seek a vasectomy reversal. Methods All U.S. Military electronic health records were searched between 2000 and 2009 for either a vasectomy or vasovasostomy procedure code. Aggregate demographic information was collected and statistical analysis performed. Result A total of 82,945 patients had a vasectomy of which 4,485 had a vasovasostomy resulting in a vasovasostomy-to-vasectomy rate of 5.04%. The average age at vasovasostomy was 34.95.0, with an average interval of 4.12.2 years. Men undergoing a vasectomy at a younger age were more likely to have a vasovasostomy. Various religions did have statistically significant differences. Within ethnic groups, only Native Americans [OR=1.39 (95% CI 1.198-1.614)] and Asians [OR=0.501 (95% CI 0.364-0.690)] had statistically significant differences when compared to Caucasians. Men with more children at the time of vasectomy were more likely to have a vasovasostomy. Conclusion Younger men, Native Americans, and men with more children at vasectomy were more likely to undergo a vasovasostomy. The reason for these differences is unknown, but this information may assist during pre-vasectomy counseling. PMID:24917734

  3. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 3, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    "Kerala's Pioneering Experiment in Massive Vasectomy Camps," the principal article in this monthly publication of the Population Council, is a detailed research report on the success of a massive vasectomy camp conducted at Cochin, the capital city of the Ernakulam District of Kerala State, India. The second article, "The Gujarat State Massive

  4. The choice of sterilization procedure among married couples.

    PubMed

    Markman, L M; Frankel, H A

    1982-01-01

    Surgical sterilization is playing a growing role in contraception among married couples. Both vasectomy and tubal ligation can be done as outpatient procedures. Neither procedure has overwhelming advantages over the other. This study sought to determine why one member of a couple, rather than the other, decided to undergo the sterilization procedure. There do not seem to be any significant demographic differences between those couples who choose vasectomy and those who select tubal ligation. Men may undergo vasectomy because they feel it is the easier procedure. A significant number of women also feel that vasectomy is easier, yet for various reasons they are motivated to undergo tubal ligation. In many couples, the choice is made because one partner will not consider becoming sterilized, and this is twice as likely to be the husband. Family physicians can play an important role in assisting couples to choose the best alternative. PMID:7054368

  5. Man and woman: a shared responsibility. A report from rural Emei, Sichuan province.

    PubMed

    Yu, X

    1995-12-01

    In 1993, 89.66% of Chinese couples were practicing family planning (FP) but only 15% of men assumed responsibility for the use of a FP method. While the ratio of females to males sterilized in China as a whole is 3.5:1, the ratio in Sichuan province is 1:3.7. The author visited a village in Sichuan to discern why this sharp deviation from the national average has occurred. The experiences of three men illustrate some of the motivation at work. In the early 1970s, a father of three children heeded the call of the Chinese government to adopt FP and took advantage of a business trip to the city to undergo a vasectomy. When he returned home, he found that his wife had been sterilized the day before he had his operation. He was pleased that they had double insurance against an unplanned pregnancy. A father of two daughters was under pressure from his family to have a son but suffered severe financial constraints and underwent a secret vasectomy. Three years after his operation, his family finally acceded to his pleas to "allow" him to have a vasectomy. The third father accepted the idea that males should share in the responsibility of FP. Because his wife was in poor health and female sterilization is more complicated than a vasectomy, he underwent a vasectomy. In Sichuan, emphasis has been placed on vasectomy since the beginning of the FP program. Sichuan is the most populous province in China, and the resulting population pressure is a constant reminder and incentive to couples to practice FP. In addition, husbands who have been sterilized are offered a series of economic benefits. Instead of having to motivate men to undergo vasectomy, men now have to pass strict examinations before they are allowed to undergo the operation. PMID:12346907

  6. PubMed Central

    Labrecque, Michel

    1987-01-01

    Vasectomy is done by a family physician at the family planning clinic of le Centre Hospitalier de l'Universit Laval. The technique used combines an occlusion with metal clips and an excision of one to two centimetres of the vas deferens. The post-operative complications encountered with 304 vasectomies were hematomas (4%), infections of the scotal skin (1%), orchi-epididymitis (1%) and granulomas (1%). All these problems were treated on an out-patient basis, and no consultation with specialists was required. Of 151 patients who came back for a post-vasectomy semen examination, one had a test result showing motile spermatozoa. These figures are comparable to other results published. The family physician can easily incorporate this simple and safe procedure into his practice. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263976

  7. [On the development of desire for refertilization among vasectomized men].

    PubMed

    Goebel, P

    1988-11-01

    All men undergoing reversal after vasectomy between 1984 and 1986 at the Steglitz clinic at the Free University of Berlin were given a deep psychological examination consisting of a history and interview and administration of the Giessen self image and partner image tests and the Giessen worry questionnaire. In 30 of the 40 cases 1 or more of the following factors was present at the time of vasectomy: status as a student, no relationship or a bad one, current or planned psychotherapy of one partner, a generalized rejection of children on ideological grounds or subjection to vasectomy in order to deliberately alienate parents. Of the 40 men treated, 25 had been married and living with their wives at the time of vasectomy, of which 22 had natural children, 2 adopted children and 1 with neither natural nor adopted children. 7 of the men were in a fixed relationship, all without either natural or adopted children. 8 of the men were not partners in a relationship; of these, 5 had natural children and 3 had neither natural nor adopted children. At the time of reversal the 29 new relationships averaged 13 months old, of which 15 were 24 months and 4 6 years. Of the 10 men living in an unchanged relationship, 3 were reacting to the death of a natural child, 3 experienced a wish for more children when their youngest child entered school and with 4 couples, previously childless, which resulted from psychotherapy of either the man or the wife. PMID:12283881

  8. The Censorship of "Maude": A Case Study in the Social Construction of Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihevc, Nancy T.; And Others

    The concept of reality held by individuals and societies can be explored by examining reactions to the censorship of the two-part television show in the "Maude" series that dealt with abortion and vasectomy. The station managements of WMBD in Peoria, Illinois, and of WCIA in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, chose not to broadcast the two "Maude"

  9. Presterilization Interviewing: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Raymond G.

    1976-01-01

    The role of interviewing in diffusing possible harmful side effects of sterilization operations was evaluated in an acute general hospital. Two simultaneous field experiments were conducted with 50 vasectomy couples and 50 tubal-ligation couples. There were no significant differences between the interview and control groups. (Author)

  10. DCTD Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP)

    Cancer.gov

    DTPs Biological Testing Branch oversees animal-production facilities that produce inbred, outbred, and hybrid strains of rats and mice. This program provides researchers nationwide with genetically defined, pathogen-free laboratory animals, as well as animal-related services such as jugular vein cannulations, vasectomies, ovariectomies, and castrations.

  11. Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond

  12. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    PubMed

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception option in zoo animals, even in endangered species. Ongoing use of gamete and embryo freezing may salvage vanishing species. PMID:24437091

  13. Changing trends in conception control.

    PubMed

    El-tonsi, H; Gable, H; Arias, E; Behr, H Z

    1989-01-01

    Individual methods of conception control lend themselves to further description and detailed breakdown regarding their unique possibilities. Surgical contraception branches into tubal ligation and vasectomy. Tubal ligation methods involve a variety of means such as electro-coagulation, rings, or clips to terminate the oviducts. Vasectomy has various possibilities for its desired effects. Contraceptive barrier devices include such commonly known items as the cervical cap/diaphragm, and IUD. Consent from the user of these devices should be designed with the patient in mind, including detailed medical history and information regarding the possible hazards of the device itself. Various areas of conception control and population control have been explored and are continuing to be explored not only in the large hemispheres of the world, but in those smaller countries where population control has previously been ignored and has gotten out of control. PMID:12315699

  14. Petrunic and Anor. v. Barnes, 1 February 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    The defendant physician was charged with negligence and breach of contract in the performance of a tubal ligation on the plaintiff. After the plaintiff became pregnant and gave birth to twins, she and her husband sought damages for pecuniary losses resulting from the birth of twins, claiming that the defendant should have warned them of the risk of failure of the operation or mentioned the alternative of performance of a vasectomy on the husband. The Supreme Court of Victoria, Australia, held that the defendant had no duty to inform the plaintiffs of the risk of failure or the alternative of a vasectomy since his actions accorded with accepted practice within the profession. It also concluded that, even if he had warned the plaintiffs, they would not have withheld their consent to the operation. PMID:12289437

  15. Application of an optical clearing agent during noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Jarow, Jonathan P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-07-01

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications and result in a more popular procedure. This study explores application of an optical clearing agent (OCA) to scrotal skin to reduce laser power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy and eliminate scrotal skin burns. A mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol was noninvasively delivered into scrotal skin using a pneumatic jet device. Near-infrared laser radiation was delivered in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling to the skin surface in a canine model, ex vivo and in vivo. Burst pressure (BP) measurements were conducted to quantify strength of vas closure. A 30-min application of OCA improved skin transparency by 26+/-3%, reducing average power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy from 9.2 W without OCA (BP=291+/-31 mmHg) to 7.0 W with OCA (BP=292+/-19 mmHg). Control studies without OCA at 7.0 W failed to coagulate the vas with burst pressures (82+/-28 mmHg) significantly below typical ejaculation pressures (136+/-29 mmHg). Application of an OCA reduced the laser power necessary for successful noninvasive thermal coagulation of the vas by ~25%. This technique may result in use of a less expensive laser and eliminate the formation of scrotal skin burns during the procedure.

  16. Use of an optical clearing agent during noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, ex vivo and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Jarow, Jonathan P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-02-01

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications and result in a more popular procedure. This study explores application of an optical clearing agent (OCA) to the scrotal skin to reduce both the laser power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy and the probability of scrotal skin burns. A mixture of DMSO/glycerol was noninvasively delivered into the scrotal skin using a Madajet. Near-infrared laser radiation with a range of average powers (7.0-11.7 W) was delivered in conjunction with a range of cryogen spray cooling rates (0.20-0.33 Hz) to the skin surface in a canine model, ex vivo and in vivo. Burst pressure (BP) measurements were conducted to quantify the strength of vas closure. A 30-min application of the OCA improved skin transparency by 26 +/- 5 %, reducing the average power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy from 9.2 W without OCA (BP = 291 +/- 31 mmHg) to 7.0 W with OCA (BP = 292 +/- 19 mmHg). Control studies without OCA at 7.0 W failed to coagulate the vas with burst pressures (82 +/- 28 mmHg) significantly below typical ejaculation pressures (136 +/- 29 mmHg). Application of an optical clearing agent reduced the laser power necessary for successful noninvasive thermal coagulation of the vas by approximately 25%. This technique may result in the use of a less expensive laser system and eliminate the formation of scrotal skin burns during the procedure.

  17. Noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Jarow, Jonathan P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2009-02-01

    Male sterilization (vasectomy) is more successful, safer, less expensive, and easier to perform than female sterilization (tubal ligation). However, female sterilization is more popular, due to male fear of vasectomy complications (e.g. incision, bleeding, infection, and scrotal pain). The development of a completely noninvasive vasectomy technique may allay some of these concerns. Ytterbium fiber laser radiation with a wavelength of 1075 nm, average power of 11.7 W, 1-s pulse duration, 0.5 Hz pulse rate, and 3-mm-diameter spot was synchronized with cryogen cooling of the scrotal skin surface in canine tissue for a treatment time of 60 s. Vas thermal lesion dimensions measured 2.0 +/- 0.3 mm diameter by 3.0 +/- 0.9 mm length, without skin damage. The coagulated vas bursting pressure measured 295 +/- 72 mm Hg, significantly higher than typical vas ejaculation pressures of 136 + 29 mm Hg. Noninvasive thermal coagulation and occlusion of the vas is feasible.

  18. Application of an optical clearing agent during noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Cilip, Christopher M; Ross, Ashley E; Jarow, Jonathan P; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2010-01-01

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications and result in a more popular procedure. This study explores application of an optical clearing agent (OCA) to scrotal skin to reduce laser power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy and eliminate scrotal skin burns. A mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol was noninvasively delivered into scrotal skin using a pneumatic jet device. Near-infrared laser radiation was delivered in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling to the skin surface in a canine model, ex vivo and in vivo. Burst pressure (BP) measurements were conducted to quantify strength of vas closure. A 30-min application of OCA improved skin transparency by 26+/-3%, reducing average power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy from 9.2 W without OCA (BP=291+/-31 mmHg) to 7.0 W with OCA (BP=292+/-19 mmHg). Control studies without OCA at 7.0 W failed to coagulate the vas with burst pressures (82+/-28 mmHg) significantly below typical ejaculation pressures (136+/-29 mmHg). Application of an OCA reduced the laser power necessary for successful noninvasive thermal coagulation of the vas by approximately 25%. This technique may result in use of a less expensive laser and eliminate the formation of scrotal skin burns during the procedure. PMID:20799844

  19. Reconsidering racial/ethnic differences in sterilization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    White, Kari; Potter, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies have found that low-income and racial/ethnic minority women are more likely to use female sterilization and less likely to rely on a partners vasectomy than women with higher incomes and whites. However, studies of pregnant and postpartum women report that racial/ethnic minorities, particularly low-income minority women, face greater barriers in obtaining a sterilization than do whites and those with higher incomes. In this paper, we address this apparent contradiction by examining the likelihood a woman gets a sterilization following each delivery, which removes from the comparison any difference in the number of births she has experienced. Study Design Using the 20062010 National Survey of Family Growth, we fit multivariable-adjusted logistic and Cox regression models to estimate odds ratios and hazard ratios for getting a postpartum or interval sterilization, respectively, according to race/ethnicity and insurance status. Results Womens chances of obtaining a sterilization varied by both race/ethnicity and insurance. Among women with Medicaid, whites were more likely to use female sterilization than African Americans and Latinas. Privately insured whites were more likely to rely on vasectomy than African Americans and Latinas, but among women with Medicaid-paid deliveries reliance on vasectomy was low for all racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Low-income racial/ethnic minority women are less likely to undergo sterilization following delivery compared to low-income whites and privately insured women of similar parities. This could result from unique barriers to obtaining permanent contraception and could expose women to the risk of future unintended pregnancies. PMID:24439673

  20. PubMed Central

    Labrecque, M.; Bdard, L.; Laperrire, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of, and complications associated with, vasectomies performed in two medical clinics. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A private medical clinic and a family planning clinic at a teaching hospital in the Quebec City region, where one doctor performs all surgery. PARTICIPANTS: The 1223 men who underwent a first vasectomy between January 1994 and February 1996. INTERVENTIONS: Isolations of the vas deferens through the scrotum was performed using the no-scalpel technique in both clinics. At the private clinic (n = 775), vasectomy was performed by ligature with tantalum clips. At the family planning clinic (n = 448), a combination of cauterisation of the abdominal end of the vas deferens, leaving the testicular end open, and fascial interposition with a clip was used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of postoperative complications (painful granuloma; noninfectious inflammation of the vas deferens, epididymis, and testes; hematoma; infection; undiagnosed pain) and rate of recanalization (early and late). RESULTS: At the private clinic, 39 patients (5.0%) consulted for postoperative complications, compared with 55 patients (12.3%) at the family planning clinic (chi (2)1 = 21.0; P < 0.001). Of the patients who underwent semen analysis, 15 (2.8%) at the private clinic and 4 (1.2%) at the family planning clinic experienced early or late recanalization (chi (2)1 = 2.2; P < .14). CONCLUSION: The rate of consultation for postoperative complications was lower at the private clinic than at the family planning clinic, but the efficacy of the procedure appeared to be higher at the family planning clinic. The surgical techniques used at the two clinics might partially explain these differences. PMID:9789666

  1. Avian Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2016-01-01

    Basic surgical instrumentation for avian soft tissue surgery includes soft tissue retractors, microsurgical instrumentation, surgical loupes, and head-mounted lights. Hemostasis is fundamental during the surgical procedures. The indications, approach, and complications associated with soft tissue surgeries of the integumentary (digit constriction repair, feather cyst excision, cranial wound repair, sternal wound repair, uropygial gland excision), gastrointestinal (ingluviotomy, crop biopsy, crop burn repair, celiotomy, coelomic hernia and pseudohernia repair, proventriculotomy, ventriculotomy, enterotomy, intestinal resection and anastomosis, cloacoplasty, cloacopexy), respiratory (rhinolith removal, sinusotomy, tracheotomy, tracheal resection and anastomosis, tracheostomy, pneumonectomy) and reproductive (ovocentesis, ovariectomy, salpingohysterectomy, cesarean section, orchidectomy, vasectomy, phallectomy) systems are reviewed. PMID:26611927

  2. The contraceptive effect of a novel filtering-type nano-copper complex/polymer composites intra-vas device on male animals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z-L; Huang, X-B; Suo, J-P; Li, J; Sun, L

    2010-12-01

    Contraceptive techniques which target vas deferens have been paid great attention for their good efficacy, safety and reversibility. We have made a filtering-type intra-vas device (IVD) using nano-copper complex/polymer composites. Twenty male adult Beagle dogs and 40 male rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operation, IVD, reversal and vasectomy groups). Dogs' semen parameters, concentration of ?-glucosidase, copper and zinc ions were tested pre-operation and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-operation. The pregnancy rates of the rabbits were evaluated by mating trials after the IVDs were implanted. The histology of testis, epididymides and vas deferens of the animals was examined using an electron microscope. Apoptosis of the cells in the testes, epididymides and vas deferens was detected by TUNEL method. There was no sperm in the semen of dogs, which had been inserted IVD and vasectomized at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-operation. The concentration of ?-glucosidase in the IVD group, reversal group and sham-operation group was not significantly different between pre- and post-operation. The pregnancy rates of the female rabbits in the vasectomy, IVD and reversal groups were all zero, but the pregnancy rate in the reversal group, after taking out IVD, and that of the sham-operation group was 60% and 80%, respectively. The ultrastructures of the testes, epididymides and vas deferens of the male animals in the IVD group and sham-operation group were in normal ranges compared with the vasectomy group. The apoptosis of the cells in the testes, epididymides and vas deferens in the vasectomy group of both dogs and rabbits was obvious compared with the other groups. No significant changes in the quantities of copper and zinc ions were found in semen of the male dogs both pre- and post-operation. Our studies demonstrated that the filtering-type nano-copper complex/polymer composites intra-vas device may be an efficacious, safe and reversible male contraceptive device. PMID:20236368

  3. Robot-assisted microsurgery in male infertility and andrology.

    PubMed

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2014-11-01

    Use of the operative microscope marked a new era for microsurgery in male infertility and andrology in the 1970s. More than a decade has passed since the initial description of the first robotic-assisted microsurgical vasovasostomy. Large single-center series have recently been published on robotic-assisted microsurgery for vasectomy reversal, especially in the past few years. Multicenter studies are also beginning to be reported, and the potential for this new platform for microsurgery is starting to become more apparent. This article describes the basic technical details of robotic-assisted microsurgery in male infertility and andrology, and reviews the latest literature. PMID:25306167

  4. Sterilization: A Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Moss, Chailee; Isley, Michelle M

    2015-12-01

    Sterilization is a frequently used method of contraception. Female sterilization is performed 3 times more frequently than male sterilization, and it can be performed immediately postpartum or as an interval procedure. Methods include mechanical occlusion, coagulation, or tubal excision. Female sterilization can be performed using an abdominal approach, or via laparoscopy or hysteroscopy. When an abdominal approach or laparoscopy is used, sterilization occurs immediately. When hysteroscopy is used, tubal occlusion occurs over time, and additional testing is needed to confirm tubal occlusion. Comprehensive counseling about sterilization should include discussion about male sterilization (vasectomy) and long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. PMID:26598311

  5. Congenital disabilities and the law.

    PubMed

    Roth, Robert

    2007-06-01

    This article describes the evolution and stutter steps in the legal developments surrounding the controversial claims for "wrongful conception," "wrongful birth," and "wrongful life." These claims arise from negligence in a failed vasectomy/tubal ligation resulting in an unwanted pregnancy and from negligence in failing to perform or properly interpret genetic testing resulting in the inability of parents to make an informed decision whether to terminate a pregnancy where a child would be, and ultimately is, born with serious genetic defects. PMID:17572233

  6. Postpartum Care and Contraception in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Courtney C; Thompson, Ivana S

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum obese women have an increased risk of breastfeeding difficulties and depression. Retaining the pregnancy weight at 6 months postpartum predicts long-term obesity. Risks for weight retention include excessive gestational weight gain, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, depression, and duration of breastfeeding. Exercise and reducing total caloric intake promote postpartum weight loss. Intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants are the most effective contraceptives for obese women. Contraceptive pills, patches, and vaginal rings are effective options; however, obese women should be made aware of a potential increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Vasectomy and hysteroscopic sterilization carry the least surgical risk for obese women. PMID:26694498

  7. Human robotic assisted bilateral vasoepididymostomy and vasovasostomy procedures: initial safety and efficacy trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekattil, Sijo J.; Cohen, Marc S.; Vieweg, Johannes W.

    2009-02-01

    Our goal was to develop a robotic approach for vasoepididymostomy (RAVE) and vasovasostomy (RAVV) using a 4 arm High Definition Platform (Intuitive Surgical, CA) and present our human in-vivo results. All 3 RAVV procedures were successful and one patient had 102 million motile sperm/ml of ejaculate at 1 month post-op. The RAVE procedure patient only had a few non-motile sperm at 6 month follow up in his ejaculate. The use of robotics seems to offer advantages in terms of ergonomics and suture control. Further evaluation is needed to assess the clinical potential of robotics in vasectomy reversal.

  8. Family planning goes to the people.

    PubMed

    Prucell, C

    1972-01-01

    A brief profile is presented of D. Pai, director of Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health for Greater Bombay. Pai attributes the lower birthrate in Bombay (22 per 1000, compared to 28 per 1000 for all India) to his sterilization program. 3 old buses, equipped with the best medical equipment and manned by trained physicians, tour Bombay. Each has been the site of 10,000 vasectomies. In addition, free condom distribution centers and vasectomy clinics have been set up in Bombay railroad stations. Fear and ignorance are the chief factors deterring people from sterilization--fear of personal injury and reduced sex drive and of group eradication. Pai and his doctors also approach women who have just delivered their second child. Nearly 30% accept tubectomy. Pai works closely with local business organizations in promoting family planning and makes it a point to enlist the help of young interns when conducting family planning surveys in the slums. Some are so shocked by what they see that they later return and volunteer their services to ghetto clinics. PMID:12229784

  9. A feasible ambulatory mini-incision microsurgical vasovasostomy under local anaesthesia using a specially designed double-ringed clamp that simplifies surgery

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyun Joon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In line with the effort to evaluate feasible surgical options for vasectomy reversal and to increase patients willingness to undergo the procedure, this study reported on a technique for ambulatory mini-incision microsurgical vasovasostomy using a double-ringed clamp (i.e. Moons clamp). This technique does not require the use of dilators, approximators and other accessory devices. METHODS Ambulatory mini-incision microsurgical vasovasostomy was conducted on 263 patients who satisfied the surgical eligibility requirements for vasovasostomy and the safety criteria for local anaesthesia. The operation time, details on postoperative recovery and results of the postoperative semen analysis were recorded and retrospectively analysed. RESULTS The mean time used to isolate the bilateral vas deferens was 25.5 minutes. All patients were discharged on the day of surgery and all patients returned to their normal activities within 2448 hours after surgery. No haematoma or infection occurred except in one patient. Postoperative semen analysis showed that the surgery was successful in 182 (96.8%) of the 188 patients who complied with the postoperative patient instructions. CONCLUSION Ambulatory mini-incision microsurgical vasectomy reversal using Moons clamp and under local anaesthesia is a surgically feasible option that offers the advantages of a low-risk operation. It also achieves successful vasovasostomy without other accessory devices and allows patients to return to their daily activities quickly with minimal complications. PMID:25502335

  10. Optical coherence tomography vs. high-frequency ultrasound during noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-02-01

    A noninvasive approach to vasectomy may eliminate male fear of complications related to surgery and increase its acceptance. Noninvasive laser thermal occlusion of the canine vas deferens has recently been reported. In this study, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) are compared for monitoring laser thermal coagulation of the vas in an acute canine model. Bilateral noninvasive laser coagulation of the vas was performed in 6 dogs (n=12 vasa) using a Ytterbium fiber laser wavelength of 1075 nm, incident power of 9.0 W, pulse duration of 500 ms, pulse rate of 1 Hz, and 3-mm-diameter spot. Cryogen spray cooling was used to prevent skin burns during the procedure. An OCT system with endoscopic probe and a HFUS system with 20-MHz transducer were used to image the vas immediately before and after the procedure. Vasa were then excised and processed for gross and histologic analysis for comparison with OCT and HFUS images. OCT provided high-resolution, superficial imaging of the compressed vas within the vas ring clamp, while HFUS provided deeper imaging of the vas held manually in the scrotal fold. Both OCT and high HFUS are promising imaging modalities for real-time confirmation of vas occlusion during noninvasive laser vasectomy.

  11. Women's contraceptive attitudes and use in 1992.

    PubMed

    Forrest, J D; Fordyce, R R

    1993-01-01

    Women aged 15-44 rate the pill, the condom, vasectomy and female sterilization most highly, according to 1992 data from an annual survey by Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation of contraceptive attitudes and method use. The 6,955 survey respondents underrepresent women who are black or who have household annual incomes greater than $50,000, but they are similar to all American women in age, marital status and region of the country. About 74-84% of women giving an opinion view these methods favorably and 64% rate the hormonal implant favorably. The proportion of unmarried women who had had intercourse increased from 76% in 1987 to 86% in 1992. As a result, proportions of women at risk of unintended pregnancy rose from 72% to 77%. Contraceptive use also rose, from 92% to 94%. The most commonly used method is the pill (39%), followed by the condom (25%), female sterilization (19%) and vasectomy (12%). Married women exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy are more likely to use sterilization (48%), while unmarried women are more likely to use the pill (52%) and the condom (33%). Pill use has increased since 1987, especially among married women, and condom use has increased among all women. Among unmarried women at risk of unintended pregnancy, condom use rose from 18% in 1987 to 33% in 1992. Among condom users, 40% of unmarried users and 13% of married users also use another method. PMID:8405344

  12. Microsurgical denervation of the rat spermatic cord and its connection to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic orchialgia: a bench to bedside experience

    PubMed Central

    Jamzadeh, Asha E.; Laudano, Melissa A.; Osterberg, E. Charles; Goldstein, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Chronic orchialgia is a common urologic problem, however, determination of the etiology is often difficult and the pathophysiology is poorly understood. As a result, there is no clear algorithm for surgical treatment for men who have failed conservative medical treatment. This review aims to describe microsurgical denervation of the rat spermatic cord (SC) and summarize several surgical techniques that have been described in the literature ranging from orchiectomy to epididymectomy to vasectomy reversal for post-vasectomy orchialgia. More recent studies advocate for microsurgical denervation of the spermatic cord (MDSC), which can be performed with a standard operating microscope or laparoscopic/robotic techniques providing optical magnification. Data regarding efficacy and complications for all surgical treatments is outlined. Experimental modalities, such as the use of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to identify and ablate nerves surrounding the vas deferens are also described. Finally, given the fact that chronic orchialgia often affects young men, we summarize safety data generated from an animal model regarding the effect of microsurgical denervation on the structure and function of the testis and vas deferens.

  13. [Microsurgical vasovasostomy in the age of modern reproduction medicine. A cost-benefit analysis].

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, A; Altmann, P; Neubauer, S; Engelmann, U H

    2000-05-01

    WS represents the standard procedure of choice for the treatment of obstructive azoospermia following vasectomy. However, recently, ICSI has been suggested by some to represent the solution for all cases of male factor infertility regardless of its etiology based on its success rates. Therefore, we compared VVS to MESA/TESE and ICSI in terms of pregnancy, complications, and costs. Between 1/93 and 6/98 157 VVS was performed microsurgically using the 2-layer technique in 157 patients following prior vasectomy. Between 9/94 and 9/97 69 couples underwent MESA/ICSI for epididymal obstruction not amenable to micro-surgical reconstruction such as post-inflammatory obstruction and congenital absence of the vas deferens; in the same time period 42 couples underwent TESE/ICSI for azoospermia of testicular origin due to cryptorchidism, testicular atrophy, obstruction of the rete testis. In most cases MESA or TESE and ICSI were performed metachronously. Mean intervall of vasal obstruction was 7.6 (0.5-18) years; patency after VVS was 77%, pregnancy rate was 52%. Local complication rate was 4.7%, no major complications were observed. Costs per life birth after VVS were as high as 5,447,-DM or 2,800 Euro. Pregnancy rates after MESA/TESE and ICSI were 22.5% and 19.5%, respectively with 16 singletons, 3 twins and 3 abortions; local complications occurred in 3.9% of the men. Multiple birth were noticed in 15.8% following ICSI, but only in 0.7% following VVS. 5.7% and 1.4% of the female partners experienced serious complications as a mild or severe ovarian hyperstimulation-syndrome, respectively. Costs per life birth after MESA/TESE cycle were as high as 28,804,-DM or 14,100 Euro. Even in the era of ICSI microsurgical vasovasostomy represents the standard approach for obstructive azoospermia following vasectomy. Based on a cost-benefit analysis VVS is more successful in terms of pregnancy rates (52% vs. 22.5%). We conclude that MESA/ICSI should be reserved for patients not amenable for microsurgical reconstruction. PMID:10872249

  14. Exploratory rigid laparoscopy in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Julia; Hendrickson, Dean A; Stetter, Mark; Neiffer, Donald L

    2014-12-01

    In March 2009, a 25-yr-old captive female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) underwent an exploratory laparoscopy after several weeks of diarrhea, submandibular and ventral edema, and swelling on medial and lateral aspects of all feet. Although there have been recent advances in laparoscopic vasectomies in free-ranging African elephants in South Africa utilizing specially designed rigid laparoscopes and insufflation devices, this was the first attempt at using these same techniques for an exploratory purpose. The elephant was sedated in a static restraint chute and remained standing for the duration of the procedure. Laparoscopy provided visibility of the dorsal abdomen, enabled collection of reproductive tract biopsies and peritoneal fluid samples, and allowed for instillation of antibiotics and crystalloid fluids directly into the abdominal cavity. Abdominal exploration, collection of tissue samples, and local therapy is possible via standing laparoscopy in megavertebrates. PMID:25632688

  15. Robotic instrumentation: Evolution and microsurgical applications

    PubMed Central

    Parekattil, Sijo J.; Moran, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of the history and evolution of robotic instrumentation and its applications in urology. A timeline for the evolution of robotic instrumentation is presented to better facilitate an understanding of our current-day applications. Some new directions including robotic microsurgical applications (robotic assisted denervation of the spermatic cord for chronic orchialgia and robotic assisted vasectomy reversal) are presented. There is a paucity of prospective comparative effectiveness studies for a number of robotic applications. However, right or wrong, human nature has always led to our infatuation with the concept of using tools to meet our needs. This chapter is a brief tribute to where we have come from and where we may be potentially heading in the field of robotic assisted urologic surgery. PMID:21116362

  16. Evaluation of Canada goose sterilization for population control.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Kathryn A.; Kennelly, James J.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the vasectomy of 72 male Canada geese as a method to control growing populations of nuisance geese in Westchester County, New York. Thirty-three of the vasectomized males paired with a female and were located during ?1 breeding seasons; 7 treated males were not seen following surgery. The remaining 32 males were never observed paired with a female during the breeding season. Of 56 nesting attempts by the 33 pairs in ?1 breeding seasons, 84% of the nests were unsuccessful. Fidelity to nest sites during the second and third breeding seasons occurred for 17 of the 18 vasectomized males and their females that were observed for ?2 seasons. The results suggest that male sterilization may reduce productivity of nuisance Canada geese providing one carefully selects areas and flocks suitable for this type of control.

  17. Voluntary and involuntary sterilization: medical, ethical, legal and religious aspects.

    PubMed

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    1999-08-01

    Surgical voluntary sterilization has become one of the most widely used methods of contraception, with vasectomy and tubal sterilization being the most commonly employed techniques, associated with a low failure, morbidity, mortality, and long-term sequelae rate. As sterilization is related with the elimination of the possibility for procreation, a number of ethical, legal and religious issues have arisen, leading often to personal misjudgements, legal disputes, and failures in applying family planning. Involuntary sterilization is currently not practiced, except in cases of severely mentally retarded people, who are unable to appreciate the consequences of their acts or care for their children and who may have a high likelihood of propagating hereditary disease. PMID:10534935

  18. [Urological diseases most frequently involved in medical professional liability claims].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Blasco, Csar; Gmez-Durn, Esperanza L; Arimany-Manso, Josep; Pera-Bajo, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Clinical safety and medical professional liability are international major concerns, especially in surgical specialties such as urology. This article analyzes the claims filed at the Council of Medical Colleges of Catalonia between 1990 and 2012, exploring urology procedures. The review of the 173 cases identified in the database highlighted the importance of surgical procedures (74%). Higher frequencies related to scrotal-testicular pathology (34%), especially testicular torsion (7.5%) and vasectomy (19.6%), and prostate pathology (26 %), more specifically the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (17.9%). Although urology is not among the specialties with the higher frequency of claims, there are special areas of litigation in which it is advisable to implement improvements in clinical safety. PMID:24913755

  19. Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006.

    PubMed

    Simbar, M

    2012-03-01

    Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation. PMID:22574484

  20. Mass media and behavior change: hand in hand.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, Johns Hopkins University's Population communication Services has conducted evaluations of mass media campaigns in developing countries which communications personnel have designed to change health and sex behavior. The mass media campaigns involved relaying health and family planning information via radio, television, and pamphlets. The evaluations showed that these campaigns were an effective technique to promote behavior change, e.g. they have boosted demand for contraceptives, condom sales, clinic visits, and inquiries to hotlines. A 6-part television drama incorporating health and family planning into its storyline stimulated behavior change in Pakistan in 1991. 36% of people surveyed after the drama series said they would limit the number of children they would have. 44% planned to improve communication with their spouse. An amusing television promotion in Brazil which ran for 6 months in the late 1980s prompted 58% of new clinic patients in 1 town to seek a vasectomy. 1 clinic experienced an 81% increase in vasectomies. A 6-month campaign to promote condom use in Colombia in 1988-89 resulted in a 75% rise in condom sales. In the mid 1980, a 6-9 month mass media popular music campaign (2 songs and videos disseminated via television, radio, and print materials) in Mexico and Latin America strove to encourage youth to be responsible for their sexual behavior. During the campaign, an adult counseling center received an 800% increase in letters (50-450 letters/month). 4 radio and 5 television spots promoting health and family planning in Kwara State, Nigeria in 1984-87 increased family planning acceptors 500% from 258 to 1526 in the 7 existing clinics. Other successful campaigns took place in the Philippines, Zimbabwe, Indonesia, Turkey, Bolivia and Honduras. PMID:12285445

  1. Julia Henderson: in spite of opposition more and more people are practicing.

    PubMed

    1972-01-01

    In this interview Julia Henderson responds that since the 2nd half of the 1950s the international community has become aware that the increasing world population has decreased world resources. She reports that of the developing continents of Asia, Latin America and Africa, the crisis in Asia is the most severe because there the ratios of population to arable land are the worst. Henderson indicates that even where there is no national policy concerning family planning, as in most countries of Latin America, people are practicing birth control regardless. 30 countries now have official policies supporting family planning in their development plans. Another 30 countries have asked their ministers of health and voluntary agencies to deal with the problem. However, numerous other countries are simply avoiding the issue and tolerating the efforts of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. In over 100 countries with either official or unofficial programs, political leaders have recognized that a large population no longer means power. The quality of the population and the strength of the economy have become more important than numbers. The status of women in developing countries affects their use of family planning; most will not practice birth control without their husband's consent. The willingness of men to have vasectomies varies according to the culture. Vasectomy has become acceptable among a number of groups in India, Pakistan, England, and the U.S. The International Planned Parenthood Federation recognizes that abortion is still the major birth control method in developing countries. The objective is to decrease the number of abortions and the number of maternal deaths resulting from illegal abortions by offering safe, efficient and reliable methods of contraception. Regarding abortion procedures, evidence indicates that the vacuum aspiration method of abortion is a safer and more humane procedure. PMID:12333111

  2. A dynamic family planning and health campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach. PMID:12314464

  3. Survey of recent medical graduates' status in sterilization operation experience.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    The Institute for Population and Social Research of Thailand's Mahidol University and the Thai Association for Voluntary Sterilization (TAVS) conducted a survey among "recent" Medical graduates to determine the achievement of training programs on sterilization operations among reent medical graduates, who graduated from the 7 medical schools in Thailand during 1978-81; to assess whether the skills attained from the training sessions during the undergraduate years are sufficient or whether additional training programs are required; to determine the willingness of the recent medical graduates to have more training in various techniques of sterilization operations; and to estimate the rate of vasectomy and tubal ligation performed by recent medical graduates. The questionnaire was mailed to all medical graduates listed as the population under study. The response was 1358 or 64.6%. Analysis was based on 972 completed questionnaires. The following were among the major survey findings: experiences gained during the medical undergraduate training did not seem to be sufficient for only 41% of respondents had performed tubal ligation; 52% of the respondents indicated that they did not have enough training during their undergraduate training, and 72% stated that they needed additional training; 89% of the respondents who stated that they did not have sufficient skill in performing sterilization operations expressed willingness to participate ina training session if it would be organized; and regarding the rate of vasectomy and tubal sterilization performed by intership trainees, these were on the average 3 and 25 cases per year. On the basis of the findings that recent medical graudates still have insufficient skills in performing the sterilization procedure, it is recommended that an attempt be made to improve the medical undergraduate training. Training should be improved either through training method or increase in number of cases to be performed before graduation. PMID:12266146

  4. Stiff upper lips.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J D

    1991-01-01

    In an interview with Family Planning World, Helen Axby of the Marie Stopes Clinics explains that the organization's growth at a time when the number of abortions in Great Britain has begun to decline is due to successful management and marketing. Although the British government provides from abortion services, the Marie Stopes Clinics performs over 25,000 abortions a year. According to Axby, the main reason for this is that government restrictions have created a cumbersome process where women often wait 3-4 weeks to receive an abortion. At the Stopes clinics, women receive prompt treatment in a comfortable setting. A consultation is scheduled within a day or two following the initial phone call, and the operation is scheduled at the woman's convenience. Axby explains that the organization conducts extensive advertisement in the Yellow Pages, local newspapers, and women's magazines. Though the clinic operates for profit, its services are far less expensive than what it would cost to obtain them at other private offices. In 1990, the organization grossed about 6.2 million pounds (profits were around 1 million pounds). The profits are used to fund overseas projects. Because of the decline in the number of abortions in Britain, Axby expects the organization to earn less this year. However, Marie Stopes clinics plans to fight to increase its market share of family planning services. Its fastest growing service is vasectomy. Relying on the noninvasive bipolar diathermy technique, the Stopes Clinics have made vasectomy a more simple and comfortable experience for men. Other services include employee screening (for pap smears, breast checks, etc.). Finally, Axby says that the organization might also increase its market share by acquiring its competitors. PMID:12284512

  5. Analysis of the Pathogenetic Basis for Shedding and Transmission of Ovine Gamma Herpesvirus 2

    PubMed Central

    Hüssy, Daniela; Janett, Fredi; Albini, Sarah; Stäuber, Norbert; Thun, Rico; Ackermann, Mathias

    2002-01-01

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a member of the viral subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, shares numerous similarities with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Both viruses are apathogenic in their healthy original host, may cause lymphoprolipherative diseases, cannot routinely be propagated in cell culture, and may be sexually transmitted. However, the pathways of sexual transmission of these viruses, as well as the underlying pathogenetic dynamics, are not well understood. Organs from naturally OvHV-2-infected, as well as OvHV-2-free, sheep were quantitatively analyzed for OvHV-2 by the DNA amplification techniques. The dynamics of OvHV-2 multiplication and excretion were monitored after experimental infections and, most importantly, subsequent to vasectomy. The OvHV-2 DNA load in various tissues and internal organs was not merely reflecting the viral DNA load in the bloodstream, which suggested compartmentalization of OvHV-2. Moreover, OvHV-2 DNA was detected at several portals for virus shedding, i.e., the respiratory, alimentary, and urogenital tracts. Transient OvHV-2 excretion was detected in ejaculates of experimentally infected rams. Upon vasectomy, OvHV-2 DNA reappeared in the ejaculatory plasma, but the titers did not decline after reaching a peak. Spiking and fractionation experiments revealed an inhibitory activity, associated with the spermatozoa, which was able to suppress detection of viral DNA but which was no longer present in samples from vasectomized animals. Therefore, epidemiological studies on viruses that may be transmitted by the ejaculatory pathway and for whose tracing nucleic acid amplification methods are used, i.e., OvHV-2, HHV-8, and the human immunodeficiency virus, should include vasectomized males. PMID:12454175

  6. Analysis of the pathogenetic basis for shedding and transmission of ovine gamma herpesvirus 2.

    PubMed

    Hüssy, Daniela; Janett, Fredi; Albini, Sarah; Stäuber, Norbert; Thun, Rico; Ackermann, Mathias

    2002-12-01

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a member of the viral subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, shares numerous similarities with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Both viruses are apathogenic in their healthy original host, may cause lymphoprolipherative diseases, cannot routinely be propagated in cell culture, and may be sexually transmitted. However, the pathways of sexual transmission of these viruses, as well as the underlying pathogenetic dynamics, are not well understood. Organs from naturally OvHV-2-infected, as well as OvHV-2-free, sheep were quantitatively analyzed for OvHV-2 by the DNA amplification techniques. The dynamics of OvHV-2 multiplication and excretion were monitored after experimental infections and, most importantly, subsequent to vasectomy. The OvHV-2 DNA load in various tissues and internal organs was not merely reflecting the viral DNA load in the bloodstream, which suggested compartmentalization of OvHV-2. Moreover, OvHV-2 DNA was detected at several portals for virus shedding, i.e., the respiratory, alimentary, and urogenital tracts. Transient OvHV-2 excretion was detected in ejaculates of experimentally infected rams. Upon vasectomy, OvHV-2 DNA reappeared in the ejaculatory plasma, but the titers did not decline after reaching a peak. Spiking and fractionation experiments revealed an inhibitory activity, associated with the spermatozoa, which was able to suppress detection of viral DNA but which was no longer present in samples from vasectomized animals. Therefore, epidemiological studies on viruses that may be transmitted by the ejaculatory pathway and for whose tracing nucleic acid amplification methods are used, i.e., OvHV-2, HHV-8, and the human immunodeficiency virus, should include vasectomized males. PMID:12454175

  7. Iran rebuilds family planning services.

    PubMed

    Butta, P

    1993-07-01

    After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289

  8. [The problem of overpopulation in Asia].

    PubMed

    Knaus, J P

    1981-06-01

    The relation between medicine and overpopulation is seen in the following: 1) achievements in medicine have decreased mortality leading to population explosion, 2) lack of food supply leads to deficiency diseases, and 3) starvation and overpopulation leads to the social diseases of unemployment and poverty. Population control can be achieved by medical methods of contraception. Japan's overpopulation is contrasted with that of India. In Japan the standard of living is high and food supply adequate because Japan's technological products are exported and food imported. The mostly rural areas of India promote families with many children. The available farmland is not sufficient for all family members. Growing children seek occupations in the cities leading to slum conditions and great poverty and misery as exemplified by Calcutta. In Europe there is a mostly balanced population because industrialization counteracts population growth. Too many children are a financial burden to the parents and the getting of children is prevented by contraception and/or abortion. In developing countries this balance is not yet achieved; industrialization lags behind the application of medical technology which promotes population explosion. To counteract this, medical methods of contraception must be used. In India with an annual population growth of 2.1% (this would lead to a population of 1.17 billion by the year 2008) this control would be best achieved through tubal ligation and/or vasectomy. There is little motivation for other methods in family planning because of the attitude toward poverty and hardship. To achieve a shrinking of their population, vasectomy (easier and less hazardous than tubal ligation) should be performed after the 2nd child. This, obviously, would need a national well-organized, program and a change in attitude of India's inhabitants. If not, the future might lead to rebellion by the poor and starving masses; civil war might break out and thus decimate the population. PMID:7281040

  9. Men and family planning: toward a policy of male involvement.

    PubMed

    Pillai, V K; Kelley, A C

    1994-01-01

    The stated aim of this discussion is to examine the extent of male use of family planning and the nature of men's role in family planning in developing countries. Case studies are presented which are successful examples of strategies for involving men in family planning. Policies that aim to increase male involvement must be sensitive to cultural values, apply to a decentralized government approach toward information and supplies, include adequate political will, and consider the costs and benefits of changing values. A male family planning policy would not always be compatible with all fertility values in developing countries or traditional values of the older population. A policy should stress the value of male individuals contributing as much as possible for their own and others' welfare. Community participation is considered important in order to create a feeling of mutual support. A sizeable investment will be required for mass distribution of contraceptive information. Schools are viewed as an ideal place for educating youth about the problems of high fertility and about use of family planning methods, such as the condom. Religious organizations should be used to educate people about responsible parenthood and to minimize barriers to use of modern contraception. Comic books on how to use condoms are suggested as a good source. Local authorities who are trusted are useful in influencing acceptance among local populations. Local personnel may be trained as information disseminators. Adequate contraceptive information needs to be supplied to a wide audience. Lack of supply and inadequate information are given as two key reasons for insufficient use of male contraception. Condoms should be priced to be affordable to the average person and free to those with no income. Program strategies that proved successful are cited for Thailand's Mechai Viravaidya program and Bali's grass-roots program. The vasectomy program in Bangladesh is also noted for its success. Low levels of condom use are attributed to factors such as price, education, availability, accessibility, culture, religion, and economic conditions. Male sterilization levels can be enhanced with wider availability of clinics and provision of correct information for challenging beliefs that vasectomy is a form of castration. PMID:12290097

  10. Sperm Recovery and IVF after Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE): Effect of Male Diagnosis and Use of Off-Site Surgical Centers on Sperm Recovery and IVF

    PubMed Central

    Omurtag, Kenan; Cooper, Amber; Bullock, Arnold; Naughton, Cathy; Ratts, Valerie; Odem, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine whether testicular sperm extractions and pregnancy outcomes are influenced by male and female infertility diagnoses, location of surgical center and time to cryopreservation. Patients One hundred and thirty men undergoing testicular sperm extraction and 76 couples undergoing 123 in vitro fertilization cycles with testicular sperm. Outcome Measures Successful sperm recovery defined as 12 sperm/0.5 mL by diagnosis including obstructive azoospermia (n?=?60), non-obstructive azoospermia (n?=?39), cancer (n?=?14), paralysis (n?=?7) and other (n?=?10). Obstructive azoospermia was analyzed as congenital absence of the vas deferens (n?=?22), vasectomy or failed vasectomy reversal (n?=?37) and other(n?=?1). Sperm recovery was also evaluated by surgical site including infertility clinic (n?=?54), hospital operating room (n?=?67) and physicians office (n?=?11). Treatment cycles were evaluated for number of oocytes, fertilization, embryo quality, implantation rate and clinical/ongoing pregnancies as related to male diagnosis, female diagnosis, and use of fresh or cryopreserved testicular sperm. Results Testicular sperm recovery from azoospermic males with all diagnoses was high (70 to 100%) except non-obstructive azoospermia (31%) and was not influenced by distance from surgical center to laboratory. Following in vitro fertilization, rate of fertilization was significantly lower with non-obstructive azoospermia (43%, p?=?<0.0001) compared to other male diagnoses (66%, p?=?<0.0001, 59% p?=?0.015). No differences were noted in clinical pregnancy rate by male diagnosis; however, the delivery rate per cycle was significantly higher with obstructive azoospermia (38% p?=?0.0371) compared to diagnoses of cancer, paralysis or other (16.7%). Women diagnosed with diminished ovarian reserve had a reduced clinical pregnancy rate (7.4% p?=?0.007) compared to those with other diagnoses (44%). Conclusion Testicular sperm extraction is a safe and effective option regardless of the etiology of the azoospermia. The type of surgical center and/or its distance from the laboratory was not related to success. Men with non-obstructive azoospermia have a lower chance of successful sperm retrieval and fertilization. PMID:23922817

  11. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus)

    PubMed Central

    Tribe, Andrew; Hanger, Jon; McDonald, Ian J.; Loader, Jo; Nottidge, Ben J.; McKee, Jeff J.; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary We designed a programme to control free-ranging kangaroos on a Queensland golf course, using contraceptive implants in females and vasectomisation or testicle removal in males. This reduced the numbers of pouch young to about one half of pre-intervention levels and controlled the population over a 24 year period. However, the necessary darting caused a mortality rate of 510% of captured animals, mainly due to complications before and after anaesthesia. It is concluded that population control is possible but careful management of kangaroos around the time of anaesthesia induction and recovery is important in such programmes to minimise losses. Abstract Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of humananimal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelinsurgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control. PMID:26480325

  12. Relative suitability of DMSO and NaHCO3 for reversal of RISUG(®) induced long-term contraception.

    PubMed

    Ansari, A S; Hussain, M; Khan, S R; Lohiya, N K

    2016-03-01

    Among the vas-based methods on trial, reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance (RISUG(®) ), a co-polymer of styrene and maleic anhydride is being projected as an effective alternative to No Scalpel Vasectomy. RISUG offers long-term contraception with safety, efficacy in human trials and can be delivered by no-scalpel injection. Currently, the procedure is under phase-III clinical trial. However, reversal of this vas-based drug-induced contraception needs to be established in animal models prior to clinical trials to ensure its claim as an effective alternative for vasectomy. In the present investigation, the relative suitability of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and NaHCO3 for RISUG induced long-term vas occlusion reversal was carried out in albino rats. Animals were allocated into four groups (n = 10), viz., sham-operated control (group-I), vas occlusion with RISUG for 360 days (group-II), vas occlusion with RISUG for 360 days and reversal with DMSO (group-III) and vas occlusion with RISUG for 360 days and reversal with NaHCO3 (group-IV). A variable response in fertility was observed in different groups. Absolute sterility in group III at all mating intervals, while, zero percent fertility in groups II and IV following 90 days of occlusion was observed. Following reversal restoration of fertility with DMSO at 45 days, whereas, reversal by NaHCO3 at 30 days was noticed. Ejaculated spermatozoa of RISUG injected and initial intervals of reversed animals exhibited various degrees of abnormalities. The testes exhibited focal degeneration in vas occluded animals. The occluded lumen of the vas deferens contained an eosinated polymer with exfoliated epithelium. Following vas occlusion reversal, a complete regeneration in the vas epithelium was seen. All other parameters remained unaltered. The reversal with NaHCO3 resulted into an early resumption of fertility when compared with DMSO and the procedure found to be successful, feasible and safe up to F1 generation. Thus, RISUG provides a hope for reversible male contraceptives. PMID:26748683

  13. Leaving machismo behind.

    PubMed

    Eschen, A; Castano, F

    1999-01-01

    A study, which was conducted in Colombia's five largest cities, determined men's, women's, and health care provider's knowledge, attitudes, and needs regarding sexual and reproductive health services for men. Data were collected through 60 focus groups, 720 surveys of service users and nonusers, 45 interviews with health care staff, and 5 couple's life histories. The study found that, due to the inadequate service facilities offered to men, it was difficult for men to achieve the goal of being responsible about their own and their partner's sexual and reproductive health. Only 9 of the 14 health care facilities surveyed rendered services such as vasectomy, health care promotion or prevention, and educational programs aimed at men. According to providers, one reason for lack of services is the low utilization rate even if such services are available. In addition, existing services focus on disease management rather than preventive protocols. The AVSC will work with health care facilities, the Ministry of Health, and health insurance companies in establishing sexual and reproductive health services for men in Bogota, Cali, and Medellin. PMID:12295275

  14. [Children born to Hansen's disease patients in Amami-Oshima, Kagoshima, Japan].

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Kazutaka; Kikuch, Ichiro; Ishii, Norihisa

    2009-09-01

    In the Japanese leprosaria, it was very difficult or almost impossible for leprosy patients to give birth to their children. There were various reasons for this situation. Leprosy in the women mostly worsened in pregnancy and some of the children developed leprosy. Because of the chronic nature of the disease, marriage was encouraged in Japanese leprosaria, so that vasectomy was usually enforced in men who were wed, while artificial abortion was enforced in pregnant women. The only one exception was the situation of the Amami Wako-en Leprosarium. The Wako-en Leprosarium was started in 1943, and between 1946 and 1953, it was under American rule. Later it was transferred to Japanese rule. Religions such as Buddhism, Christianity and other religions greatly helped with leprosy patients, and in the Wakoen, it was Catholicism which prevailed. Catholic believer Joan Matsubara (later the secretary of Wako-en), Father Patrick Finn, Kaoru Ohira (director) outlined how children born to Hansen's disease patients would be grown up and made the internal rules of the couples' dormitory, while this was impossible in other leprosaria. Between 1953 and 1954, children were brought up by Matsubara's family or nurses. And since November 1954, children were brought up at nurseries (firstly named "Children's House" and later at "Naze Engel House" and children between 2 and 3 years went to "White Lily House". The children could meet their parents at times and now they are full-fledged grown-up citizens. PMID:19803374

  15. The etiology of prostate cancer: what does the epidemiology suggest

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.K.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Henderson, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    The two most important demographic characteristics of prostate cancer in Los Angeles are the high rates among blacks, which are two times those among whites and four times those among Asians, and the rapid increase in rates with age after age 40. Despite the high rates among blacks, a birth cohort analysis indicates that mortality rates among black men born after 1900 have decreased. In this report, epidemiologic and experimental evidence supporting each of three etiologic hypotheses--industrial exposure to cadmium, sexual transmission by an infectious agent, and endocrine factors--are reviewed. Evidence from descriptive data in Los Angeles suggests that only a small portion of cases might be attributable to industrial exposures. In a cohort study of Catholic priests, we found no deficit of prostate cancer mortality, strong evidence against sexual transmission of the disease. Experimental evidence and a limited amount of human data support an endocrine hypothesis. Preliminary results of a case-control study of prostate cancer are presented, but these results are unable to distinguish among these hypotheses further. This study finds a substantial protective effect of vasectomy, an event that is accompanied by reduced prostatic function and size, but this result is thus far statistically insignificant.

  16. Wolf management in the 21st century: From public input to sterilization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Fritts, S.H.; Nelson, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Human-population increase and land development portend increasing conflict with large predators. Concurrently, changes and diversification of human attitudes are bringing increased disagreement about wildlife management. Animal-rights advocacy resulting from urbanization of human populations conflicts with traditional wildlife management. These forces focus more on wolves than on other wildlife because of strong public and media interest in wolves. Thus wolf management in the future will come under even greater public scrutiny, involve more public input, and may have greater restrictions imposed on it. This will lead to increased complexity in wolf management including more zoning, more experimentation with lethal and non-lethal capture techniques and alternate methods of alleviating damage to pets, livestock, and large ungulate herds, and greater public and private subsidy of wolf damage. One form of non-lethal control of wolf populations that may hold some promise is direct sterilization of males to reduce the biotic potential of the wolf population. Experimental vasectomy of five wild male wolves from four packs in Minnesota indicates that sterile males will continue to hold mates and territories, which would be necessary if sterilization is to be a viable technique for assisting with population control. If sterile males held territories but failed to produce pups, such territories might contain only about a third the number of wolves as fertile pack territories. Because wolves are long-lived in unexploited populations and their territories are large, direct sterilization of relatively few animals each year might significantly reduce populations.

  17. Adolescents and sex.

    PubMed

    Castro, C; Palomar Castro, Y

    1992-01-01

    Adolescent health problems in the Philippines are identified as follows: adolescent unwanted pregnancy, early marriage, abortion and sometimes death, sexually transmitted disease (STD), AIDS, inadequate knowledge about sex and reproduction (population education), taboos, inadequate resources directed to youth, and personnel insufficiently trained for gender sensitive and adolescent sensitive counseling. A recent University of the Philippines Population Institute survey reported that only 10% of urban respondents and 8.1% of rural respondents considered virginity to be unimportant. 33% in urban and 29% in rural areas consent to premarital sex if the couple were "in love" and there was a promise of marriage. Premarital sex is increasing, but was lower among those who grew up with their parents. Population education is compulsory but teachers are ill equipped, unknowledgeable about the latest technology, and biased. Human reproduction is taught but family planning methods are frequently ignored. The topic is taboo between parents and children. Acquisition of knowledge is haphazard at best. Government resources are directed to adult reproductive women. Emphasis needs to be placed on the importance and proper use of pills, condoms, IUDs, and diaphragms. Vasectomy and tubal ligation should be readily available. Youth should be taught rhythm, basal body temperature, and Billings ovulation methods. Misconceptions should be debunked. Sex education, STD prevention, and counseling for adolescents are available in only 5 centers in the Philippines, as reported by the International Center on Adolescent Fertility; this is adequate to serve the almost 50% of the population 18 years. PMID:12285922

  18. Control of fertility amongst travellers.

    PubMed

    Moreton, J

    1988-08-01

    The special family planning requirements of the "Travellers," a term including the Romanies, Gypsies and Irish Tinkers of the United Kingdom, are explained. These groups share a nomadic life style, but have racial make-up and cultural traditions that easily distinguish them from other non-house dwellers. They rarely marry non-travellers, but frequently do marry cousins. While the Irish are strict Catholics, and the Romanies are not religious, these groups have taboos about sexuality that affect practice of contraception. They do not permit discussion of sexual topics between the sexes or to children, consider the woman's body unclean, will not breast-feed or touch the genitals even to use tampons, and only women practice any type of fertility regulation. Most are uneducated and illiterate. Because of television, many women are now aware of family planning, and some go to great lengths to attend clinics. Some women resort to sterilization, injectables, or IUDs. The most popular method among those who do use contraception is the pill. Abortion, vasectomy, barrier methods of any kind including condoms, withdrawal and natural family planning are never used, either because of religious beliefs, taboo about handling the body, about discussing sexuality, or about any form of male limitation. Family planning workers should make special efforts to understand the difficulties that a nomadic existence and illiteracy cause for traveller clients. PMID:3419351

  19. Effects of Mass Media and Cultural Drift in a Model for Social Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzitello, Karina I.; Candia, Julin; Dossetti, Vctor

    In the context of an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, we study the interplay and competition between the cultural drift, represented as random perturbations, and mass media, introduced by means of an external homogeneous field. Unlike previous studies [J. C. Gonzlez-Avella et al., Phys. Rev. E 72, 065102(R) (2005)], the mass media coupling proposed here is capable of affecting the cultural traits of any individual in the society, including those who do not share any features with the external message. A noise-driven transition is found: for large noise rates, both the ordered (culturally polarized) phase and the disordered (culturally fragmented) phase are observed, while, for lower noise rates, the ordered phase prevails. In the former case, the external field is found to induce cultural ordering, a behavior opposite to that reported in previous studies using a different prescription for the mass media interaction. We compare the predictions of this model to statistical data measuring the impact of a mass media vasectomy promotion campaign in Brazil.

  20. India: orientation camps boost new motivational strategy; group discussion on the social aspects of the family welfare program.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    About 40,000 orientation camps for influential village leaders were planned to reactivate India's family welfare programme. Each camp averaged 40 participants, and total participation was estimated to be 1.6 million. Emphasis is placed on interpersonal communication and group communication. Special informative and motivational materials; film shows and folk-art programs were provided at the camps. This endeavor has resulted in improving the climate in relation to family planning. Approximately 100,000 community health volunteers are involved in these efforts. A group discussion organized on the family welfare program in September 22, 1979 brought out the following issues: 1) the use of incentives/disincentives in persuading people to accept family planning; 2) predominant factors in the rural areas such as malnutrition which undermine population programs; 3) need for involving voluntary organization in the family welfare program, in addition to creating an awareness of the demographic situation through educational channels; 4) introduction of some insurance schemes for old-age security; 5) approaching family planning programs at the macro level to improve the economic situation, and at micro level to intensify motivational aspects of the program; and 6) more competent handling of the vasectomy program by trained experts. PMID:12262029

  1. Men's Perspectives on Their Role in Family Planning in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari L; Onono, Maricianah; Oyier, Beryl; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Newmann, Sara J

    2015-06-01

    Research has indicated that gender dynamics-and in particular men's disapproval of family planning-have had an influence on the low levels of contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa. Limited evidence exists, however, on effective strategies to increase male approval. We conducted 12 focus group discussions with married men aged 20-66 (N = 106) in Kenya to explore FP perceptions. Men's disapproval of FP was associated with anxieties regarding male identity and gender roles. Men often distrusted FP information provided by their wives because they suspected infidelity or feared being viewed as "herded." Men also feared that providers might pressure them into vasectomies or into disclosing extramarital sexual activity or HIV diagnoses to their wives. Suggested strategies include programs targeting couples jointly and FP education for men provided by male outreach workers. To encourage men's acceptance, community-based programs directly targeting men are needed to reduce stigma and misconceptions and to increase awareness of the benefits of FP. PMID:26059990

  2. Comparison of four lasers (λ = 650, 808, 980, and 1075 nm) for noninvasive creation of deep subsurface lesions in tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Wilson, Christopher R.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-07-01

    Lasers have been used in combination with applied cooling methods to preserve superficial skin layers (100's μm's) during cosmetic surgery. Preservation of a thicker tissue surface layer (millimeters) may also allow development of other noninvasive laser procedures. We are exploring noninvasive therapeutic laser applications in urology (e.g. laser vasectomy and laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence), which require surface tissue preservation on the millimeter scale. In this preliminary study, four lasers were compared for noninvasive creation of deep subsurface thermal lesions. Laser energy from three diode lasers (650, 808, and 980 nm) and a Ytterbium fiber laser (1075 nm) was delivered through a custom built, side-firing, laser probe with integrated cooling. An alcohol-based solution at -5 °C was circulated through a flow cell, cooling a sapphire window, which in turn cooled the tissue surface. The probe was placed in contact with porcine liver tissue, ex vivo, kept hydrated in saline and maintained at ~ 35 °C. Incident laser power was 4.2 W, spot diameter was 5.3 mm, and treatment time was 60 s. The optimal laser wavelength tested for creation of deep subsurface thermal lesions during contact cooling of tissues was 1075 nm, which preserved a surface layer of ~ 2 mm. The Ytterbium fiber laser provides a compact, low maintenance, and high power alternative laser source to the Neodymium:YAG laser for noninvasive thermal therapy.

  3. Hot issues in female and male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Gava, Giulia; Lantadilla, Claudia; Martelli, Valentina; Fattorini, Anna; Seracchioli, Renato; Meriggiola, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    In recent years a number of significant developments in the field of female hormonal contraception have been made which have produced new formulations and delivery systems providing high efficacy, safety and important non-contraceptive benefits. In particular long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) formulations have been demonstrated to ensure extremely high efficacy in typical use, minimal contraindications, optimal safety in all women thereby representing the best option for most women of all ages. Their effectiveness is not reliant upon user adherence and their ability to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortions has been proven. Unfortunately the same considerations cannot be made for male hormonal contraception. Although a large number of men are interested and would welcome the opportunity to use male contraceptive methods, no safe, effective and reversible methods are available on the market. Current methods available for men are limited to condoms and vasectomy. Highly effective prototype regimens have been developed but the pharmaceutical industry is unwilling to pursue further development and market these products. Of all new approaches to male contraception, hormonal methods are the closest to clinical application. These are based on the reversible suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone with subsequent reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis and consequent replacement to maintain androgen dependent physiological functions. Most approaches tested combination regimens such as testosterone and a progestin or testosterone and a GnRH analog. PMID:26633041

  4. Neodymium:YAG laser ablation of the prostate gland--acute perioperative morbidity and short-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Egawa, S; Uchida, T; Kawakami, T; Yokoyama, E; Koshiba, K

    1994-09-01

    Twenty-three patients with symptomatic bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia were successfully treated with laser prostatectomy using the Urolase right-angle firing neodymium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet laser fiber. Most of the patients had health problems of moderate severity. Their conditions were compared preoperatively and 3 mo postoperatively. Symptom scores decreased from an average of 23.9 to 7.0. Symptomatic relief was achieved in 95.7% of patients. Peak urinary flow rates increased from an average of 6.4 to 17.0 ml/s. The residual urine decreased from an average of 45.2 to 22.9 ml. The volume of the prostate gland measured by sonography decreased from an average of 32.8 to 25.7 ml. Virtually no blood loss was noted intraoperatively. Acute urinary retention occurred immediately following removal of the catheter in 3 out of 17 (17.6%) patients without a percutaneous cystostomy tube. Acute epididymitis developed in 5 out of 20 (25.0%) patients without bilateral vasectomy. Based on these results, laser prostatectomy may be concluded to be a safe and effective alternative to standard transurethral resection of the prostate gland, particularly in the case of high-risk patients. PMID:7542155

  5. Use of a domestic Korean black goat (Capra hircus coreanae) with its chest crayon-harnessed in detecting estrus of Himalayan tahrs (Hemitragus jemlahicus)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hwanyul

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of a Korean black goat (Capra hircus coreanae) to detect estrus in Himalayan tahrs (Hemitragus jemlahicus) for an artificial breeding program was investigated. Estrus in six female Himalayan tahrs was synchronized using fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges. Thirteen days later, 200 IU of PMSG and 100 IU of hCG were injected before removing the sponges and simultaneously injecting 5 mg of PGF2? the next day. Penetration of the cervical canal and the thickness and location of red crayon marks were examined 40~43 h later. Two females treated with sponges containing 60 or 45 mg of FGA had estrogen levels of 8.7 and 11.1 pg/mL, respectively. No red marks were found on the backs of these two tahrs. The remaining females had higher levels of estradiol, and the red crayon marks were clearly shown. The cervical folds of these tahrs were readily penetrated and the insemination gun was smoothly inserted into the uterine body. In conclusion, a Korean domestic goat with its chest crayon-harnessed was successfully used to detect estrus of Himalayan tahrs. This technique might be utilized as a part of breeding programs for wild goats and avoid the need for a vasectomy of conspecific males. PMID:24690603

  6. AB070. The current status of sperm bank in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nam Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Sperm banking is an important option to maintain or induce the male fertilization even though under the era of in vitro fertilization. The medical indications for sperm banking are generally consisted of three categories. There are cases on planning the permanent contraception like vasectomy or cancer patients to be scheduled the chemotherapy or radiotherapy as first category, male infertile patients with severe oligozoospermia or artificially harvested sperm i.e., from MESA or TESE etc. for the artificial insemination with husband sperm as second category, and the therapeutic artificial insemination with donated sperm as third category. Of these three categories, the sperm donation programme accompanies various complicated practical, ethical and legal issues. Therefore, highly regulated statements are mandatory in order to secure safety and perfect practice for voluntary sperm donors and infertile couples both. In aspect of administrative structure of sperm bank, there are two types that are public based in the most of European countries and China, and commercially available in the USA. Additionally, each country has different standard guideline, regulation statement, act and law to control the sperm donation programmes. Nevertheless, we need a consensus document to operate the sperm bank with the standard guidelines to be well revised according to each countrys ethical perspectives as well as contemporary scientific evolution. This lecture will present the Korean experience in the sperm bank in comparison with different situation in various countries.

  7. Proteins of human semen. I. Two-dimensional mapping of human seminal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.J.; Tollaksen, S.L.; Anderson, N.G.

    1981-08-01

    The proteins in human seminal plasma were mapped by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (ISO-DALT and BASO-DALT systems). When analyzed under dissociating conditions, samples from normal fertile males revealed a pattern of over 200 proteins, ranging in mass from 10,000 to 100,000 daltons. Comparison of the mapped proteins from these males and those who had undergone vasectomy allowed us to identify one series of glycoproteins as missing from the semen from vasectomized individuals. Glycoproteins isolated by affinity chromatography with use of concanavalin A were also mapped. Some of the protein spots were identified either by coelectrophoresis with purified proteins or by the electrophoretic transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets and subsequent detection by immunological procedures. The proteins identified include a number of serum proteins as well as prostatic acid phosphatase and creatine kinase. Proteolytic events shown to occur during the liquefaction of semen that occurs early after collection indicate the importance of carefully controlled collection and preparation methods for clinical evaluation of seminal plasma. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibit this proteolysis.

  8. Aspirin use is associated with lower prostate cancer risk in male carriers of BRCA mutations.

    PubMed

    Cossack, Matthew; Ghaffary, Cameron; Watson, Patrice; Snyder, Carrie; Lynch, Henry

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that male BRCA mutation carriers stand at increased risk of developing prostate cancer and have concerns about developing cancer. Genetic counseling practitioners often discuss strategies for reducing the risk of cancer for patients at high risk due to their genetic background. Addressing modifiable health habits is one such strategy. Unfortunately, modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer have only been documented in the general population and have not yet been studied in the BRCA carrier subpopulation. Therefore, this study aimed to identify modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer in BRCA carriers. We examined prostate cancer risk factors in 74 men who were part of families with a BRCA mutation. This study examined nine dichotomous variables including: exercise, history of vasectomy, smoking history, alcohol use, finasteride use, statin use, aspirin use, coffee use, and vitamin use. The survey was sent to all cases of prostate cancer in the Hereditary Cancer Center Database at Creighton University with a known BRCA status. This study confirmed the protective benefits of daily aspirin use, which have been observed in previous studies of the general population, and suggests its benefit in BRCA carriers. Protective benefits from regular vigorous exercise and daily coffee use trended towards significance, but neither factor withstood the Bonferroni Correction for multiple comparisons. PMID:23881471

  9. Early sexual maturity in male hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) and its reproductive implications.

    PubMed

    Zinner, Dietmar; Krebs, Ellen; Schrod, Annette; Kaumanns, Werner

    2006-04-01

    We present data on sexual maturity in young hamadryas baboon males (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) and its reproductive consequences in a large captive baboon colony. Hamadryas baboons live in a multilevel social system, with one-male units (OMUs) as the smallest social entity. Male leaders of OMUs are believed to monopolize matings within their OMUs; hence mating is believed to be polygynous and monandrous. In a captive colony of hamadryas baboons, we found evidence that young males less than 4 years old fathered at least 2.5% of 121 offspring born subsequent to vasectomy of all adult males, and males aged 4-5 years fathered at least 16.5% of the offspring. Additional evidence that these young males are able to sire offspring came from a morphological comparison of sperm from hamadryas males of different ages. The sperm of a 48-month-old hamadryas baboon were morphologically indistinguishable from viable sperm from adult males, whereas sperm from a 45-month-old male showed some aberrations. If successful copulations by adolescent males constitute a regular pattern even in free-ranging hamadryas baboons, a hamadryas male's chances to reproduce would not be limited to his role as an OMU leader as previously assumed, and a male's reproductive career would consist of two phases: the adolescent phase, and the OMU leader male phase. PMID:16331661

  10. Family planning methods: new guidance.

    PubMed

    1996-10-01

    Presented in this report are the recommendations of two expert groups, the Technical Guidance/Competence Working Group of the US Agency for International Development's Maximizing Access and Quality Initiative and the World Health Organization's Family Planning and Population Unit, regarding currently available family planning methods. The former group addressed key biomedical questions and formulated recommendations about 11 groups of family planning methods: combined oral contraceptives, progestin-only pills during breast feeding, progestin-only injectables, combined injectable contraceptives, Norplant implants, copper-bearing IUDs, tubal occlusion, vasectomy, lactational amenorrhea method, natural family planning, and barrier methods. A table presents the relative importance, by method, of procedures such as pelvic exam, blood pressure reading, breast exam, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer. The medical eligibility recommendations for each method are also presented in tabular form, with four categories for temporary methods: 1) no restrictions on use, 2) advantages generally outweigh theoretical or proven risks, 3) theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh the advantages, and 4) unacceptable health risks. Included among the 41 conditions for which eligibility criteria are specified are age, smoking, thromboembolic disorder, headaches, irregular vaginal bleeding, family history of breast cancer, obesity, drug interactions, parity, breast feeding, postpartum, and postabortion. The new guidance presented in this report enables providers to give family planning clients expanded contraceptive choices while ensuring method safety and effectiveness. PMID:9342775

  11. The economic value of contraception: a comparison of 15 methods.

    PubMed Central

    Trussell, J; Leveque, J A; Koenig, J D; London, R; Borden, S; Henneberry, J; LaGuardia, K D; Stewart, F; Wilson, T G; Wysocki, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to determine the clinical and economic impact of alternative contraceptive methods. METHODS. Direct medical costs (method use, side effects, and unintended pregnancies) associated with 15 contraceptive methods were modeled from the perspectives of a private payer and a publicly funded program. Cost data were drawn from a national claims database and MediCal. The main outcome measures included 1-year and 5-year costs and number of pregnancies avoided compared with use of no contraceptive method. RESULTS. All 15 contraceptives were more effective and less costly than no method. Over 5 years, the copper-T IUD, vasectomy, the contraceptive implant, and the injectable contraceptive were the most cost-effective, saving $14,122, $13,899, $13,813, and $13,373, respectively, and preventing approximately the same number of pregnancies (4.2) per person. Because of their high failure rates, barrier methods, spermicides, withdrawal, and periodic abstinence were costly but still saved from $8933 to $12,239 over 5 years. Oral contraceptives fell between these groups, costing $1784 over 5 years, saving $12,879, and preventing 4.1 pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS. Contraceptives save health care resources by preventing unintended pregnancies. Up-front acquisition costs are inaccurate predictors of the total economic costs of competing contraceptive methods. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:7702112

  12. Genome-wide promoter methylation profile of human testis and epididymis: identified from cell-free seminal DNA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA methylation analysis is useful for investigation of male fertility in mammals, whereas the reliance on tissues limits the research on human. We have previously found the presence of high concentration of cell-free seminal DNA (cfsDNA) in human semen. We proposed that some testis and epididymis-specific methylated promoters could be detected in human cfsDNA, and thus hold promise as noninvasive epigenetic biomarkers for male infertility, of which most cases are caused by defects in testicular sperm production or epididymal sperm maturation. Results The ejaculate of successfully vasectomized men does not contain any secretion from testis and epididymis. Here we compared genome-wide promoter methylation profiles in cfsDNA between health donors and post-vasectomy men. Promoters of 367 testis and epididymis-specific hypomethylated genes and 134 hypermethylated genes were identified. Subsequent validation by Methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation and MethyLight analysis confirmed the result of promoter microarray. Gene Ontology analysis revealed many genes involved in male reproduction. Conclusion We detected the testis and epididymis-specific methylated promoters in human cfsDNA, which may be used for noninvasive epigenetic biomarkers for the study and diagnosis of male infertility. PMID:23622456

  13. IMA to conduct training courses in family planning.

    PubMed

    1993-11-15

    For the last six and a half decades, the Indian Medical Association (IMA) has been actively engaged in Public Health issues, ranging from immunization, ORT, maternal and child health care, and has been cooperating with the Government of India in various National Health Programs. Recently, IMA organized a new and exciting program on India's most significantly health issue--family planning. The training is to be competency based and participatory, with the main emphasis on knowledge, attitude and skills required to provide comprehensive child spacing. IMA has developed this multilevel program to train personnel in all methods of family planning, like: participation in basic oral contraceptive training; supplementary training in other methods; clinical practice for providing information on how to select and manage non-clinical family planning services; simulated practice in IUCD; and clinical practice in IUCD training. Training can also be arranged for vasectomy practicum and minilaparotomy. The main purpose of the training program is to realize the Government's goal of 60% contraceptive prevalence usage by the year 2000. In India, less than 2% of the 132.5 million reproductives, couples use oral contraceptives, because of widespread misconceptions regarding the pill among the general populace and the medical community. This program has been designed to counter these misgivings and thus encourage the "use of modern family planning methods" to take on the menace of the population explosion. PMID:12179169

  14. As the Third World turns.

    PubMed

    Hagerman, E

    1991-01-01

    Throughout the 3rd World, family planners have turned to television in order to spread their message. Combining education and entertainment in the form of advertisements and soap operas, television offers a way to provide clear and memorable information about an otherwise sensitive issue. In 1977, Mexico's Miguel Sabido developed the idea of using television as a means of social instruction. His initial soap opera dealt with adult literacy, and the success of that program led him to develop a show focusing on family planning called "Come Along with Me." Following the airing of this soap opera, attendance to family planning clinics increased by 32%. Since then, Mexico has produced a series of soap operas dealing with sex education, women's status, and the treatment of children. Soon, Mexican viewers will see a soap opera addressing the issue of AIDS. Family planners in other countries have also begun employing television. Conventional communication methods require trained counselors travelling villages, and most often, those most in need of family planning are the most difficult to reach. But over the last 10 years, the number of televisions in the Third World has doubled, and there is now approximately 1 television for every 12 people in the developing nations. In Turkey, advertisements have been used to promote modern methods of contraception. In Brazil, vasectomy has been one of the topics of ad campaigns. Mexico, the Philippines, and Nigeria have also experimented with the use of music videos. Nigeria has already had great success in integrating family planning themes to an already existing variety show. Family planning visits have increased by 47%. International agencies have recognized the value of television and have provided financial support. PMID:12343296

  15. A recipe for success: ingredients for a successful family planning program.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J

    1992-09-01

    The basic elements of a successful family planning (FP) program are variable between countries. Providing better access to modern contraceptives, access to general and reproductive health care, and increasing economic and educational opportunities contribute to reducing fertility rates. Effective distribution is constrained by rural, isolated populations and cultural attitudes. Indonesia has used floating clinics located on boats to reach inaccessible areas; Norplant and hormonal injection availability also contribute to the 53% contraceptive prevalence rate. The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning has shipped bicycles to developing countries. The result has been improved status among peers and greater program success. Contraceptive social marketing programs (CSM) have been successful in some countries to distribute contraceptives through local channels such as shops and stalls; people seem willing to pay also. CSM has been successful in Egypt in increasing condom sales. IUD use increased from 11% to 42% between 1975-88 with CSM. Multimedia promotion that is carefully researched and targeted is another way to increase contraceptive prevalence (CP) rates. A Brazilian multimedia vasectomy campaign led to an 80% monthly increase in Pro-Pater male health clinics. 240,000 women in Turkey were encouraged through multimedia efforts to switch to modern methods. In Zimbabwe, men have been the target of efforts to educate them about the advantages of small families. Women are recruited to implement FP services in INdia and in poor neighborhoods; an increase from 12% to 61% was achieved. Highly motivated workers with a respect for the community's values is essential to any successful FP program as is government support. China's policy has drawn criticism; China has welcomed a UN program which provides financial motivation. Thailand has been successful due to the commitment between public and private sectors; in 17 years CP rose from 10% to 68%. Family life education is prevalent; female literacy is high at 96%. PMID:12317713

  16. Brdt Bromodomains Inhibitors and Other Modern Means of Male Contraception.

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Konieczny, Radosław; Papier, Paulina; Szten, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Compared to efficient and secure female contraception, a vasectomy and condoms are the only options for men. The choice of male contraceptive methods is limited, so contraception mainly rests on the shoulders of women. Several concepts are considered: testosterone administration--inhibiting pituitary secretion of lutropin (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), progestogen--affecting the secretion of gonadotropin and gonadoliberin (GnRH) antagonists. New potential targets for non-hormonal male contraception were discovered: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDHS)--specific to male germ cells and voltage-gated cation channel (CatSper). Both are responsible for sperm motility. Drugs such as thioridazine used in schizophrenia treatment and phenoxybenzamine (antihypertensive activity) exhibit a contraceptive effect. Similar action exhibits an analogue of lonidamine--adjudin and an antagonist of retinoic acid receptors (BMS-189453). Researchers are working on a contraceptive vaccine, whose active ingredient is epididymal protease inhibitor (Eppin). Another promising method acts by blocking Bromodomain testis-specific proteins (Brdt) involved in the process of spermatogenesis. JQ1-the Brdt inhibitor causes reversible infertility without affecting the endocrine signaling pathways. A recent discovery of Juno as the binding partner for Izumo1 identifies these proteins as the cell-surface receptor pair, essential for gamete recognition and this interaction can be inhibited by an anti-Juno monoclonal antibody. Our review shows that the situation of men can change and investigators are close to the optimal solution. In the near future men will be able to choose the best contraceptive suited to their needs. PMID:26469117

  17. Case-control study of whether subfertility in men is familial.

    PubMed Central

    Lilford, R.; Jones, A. M.; Bishop, D. T.; Thornton, J.; Mueller, R.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that subfertility in men is familial and to examine the distribution of subfertility within families for consistency with a genetic cause. DESIGN--Case-control study and segregation analysis. SETTING--Two teaching hospitals in Leeds. SUBJECTS--Cases (probands) were men with an abnormal sperm count who attended a subfertility clinic and whose partners had no major factor contravening fertility. Controls were fathers of two or more children recruited through vasectomy clinics or a maternity department. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The incidence of involuntary childlessness among brothers with partners and among sisters and second and third degree male relatives. When possible clinical and laboratory details were obtained from involuntarily childless brothers. RESULTS--Seventeen of the 148 (11.5%) brothers of probands but none of the 169 brothers of controls had sought medical advice for childlessness (P < 0.0005). Four probands had more than one involuntarily childless brother. There were six further brothers whose childlessness was thought to be involuntary bringing the total prevalence of subfertility among brothers of probands to 16%. Segregation analysis was consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance accounting for 60% of subfertility in men. Seventeen of the 346 (4.9%) uncles of probands and 10 of 420 (2.8%) uncles of controls were reported to be involuntarily childless (P = 0.09), but there was no difference in childlessness among sisters. In three families sperm counts from "affected" brothers confirmed the diagnosis and showed considerable similarities within but not between families. CONCLUSION--Subfertility in men has a familial component, and the observations are consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance in over half the cases. Several different genes are probably involved. PMID:8086942

  18. Cryopreservation of testicular and epididymal sperm: techniques and clinical outcomes of assisted conception

    PubMed Central

    Gangrade, Bhushan K

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection to achieve fertilization, especially using surgically retrieved testicular or epididymal sperm from men with obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia, has revolutionized the field of assisted reproduction. The techniques for the retrieval of spermatozoa vary from relatively simple percutaneous sperm aspiration to open excision (testicular biopsy) and the more invasive Micro-TESE. The probability of retrieving spermatozoa can be as high as 100% in men with obstructive azoospermia (congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens, status post-vasectomy). However, in non-obstructive azoospermia, successful sperm retrieval has been reported in 10-100% of cases by various investigators. The surgical retrieval and cryopreservation of sperm, especially in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, to some extent ensures the availability of sperm at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. In addition, this strategy can avoid unnecessary ovarian stimulation in those patients intending to undergo in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection with freshly retrieved testicular sperm when an absolute absence of sperm in the testis is identified. Several different methods for the cryopreservation of testicular and epididymal sperm are available. The choice of the container or carrier may be an important consideration and should take into account the number or concentration of the sperm in the final preparation. When the number of sperm in a testicular biopsy sample is extremely low (e.g., 1-20 total sperm available), the use of an evacuated zona pellucida to store the cryopreserved sperm has been shown to be an effective approach. PMID:23503963

  19. Y-STRs in forensic medicine: DNA analysis in semen samples of azoospermic individuals.

    PubMed

    Soares-Vieira, Jos Arnaldo; Billerbeck, Ana Elisa Correia; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato; Zampieri, Ricardo Andrade; Gatts, Gilka Jorge Fgaro; Munoz, Daniel Romero; Hallak, Jorge; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Lucon, Antonio Marmo

    2007-05-01

    The incidence of rape has increased, especially in metropolitan areas, such as the city of So Paulo. In Brazil, studies about it have shown that the majority of this type of crime is committed by the relatives and persons close to the victim. This has made the crime more difficult to be denounced, as only 10% of the cases are reported to competent police authorities. Usually, cytological exams are carried out in sex crime investigations. The difficulty in showing the presence of spermatozoa is frequent, but it does not exclude the presence of male DNA. The absence of spermatozoa in material collected from rape victims can be due to several factors, including the fact that the agressor suffers from azoospermia. This condition can be the result of a successful vasectomy. As the majority of DNA in the ejaculation sample is from spermatozoa, there is much less DNA to be analyzed. This study presents the application of Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, and DYS393) in DNA analysis of sperm samples from 105 vasectomized men. The study demonstrated a great variation in DNA concentration. DNA extraction and amplification was possible in all sperm samples even in the absence of spermatozoa. The same profile was observed, for each individual, from DNA extracted from blood, pre- and postvasectomy semen samples. The use of markers specific for Y chromosome in sex crime cases, especially in the absence of spermatozoa, is very important, mainly because in most situations there is a small quantity of the agressor's DNA in the medium and a large quantity of the victim's DNA. PMID:17456093

  20. Thai family planner uses humor, good sense.

    PubMed

    Cantlay, C

    1984-01-01

    This article is a proflie of Khun Mechai, a leader in the Thai family planning field who was instrumental in creating the community-based contraceptive distribution program which began in 1973 with the 1st in a series of grants from the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The community-based distribution program is active in some 16,000 villages and neighborhoods throughout Thailand. The Community-Based Family Planning Service (CBFPS) was established in 1974 with Khun Mechai as secretary general to coordinate the efforts of the nationwide network. The CBFPS has been linked with a massive, humorous, and creative campaign of "desensitization": Khun Mechai passes out condoms at official dinners, and honors the king's birthday with an annual free vasectomy marathon. As a result of his efforts, family planning is no longer a taboo topic and no longer the exclusive province of government bureaucrats and medical professionals. Khun Mechai's basic concern is in improving access to family planning services by overcoming physical and sociocultural distance and by providing an acceptable method of service delivery. All family planning activities of the Population and Community Development Association, the CBFPS parent organization, are voluntary. Links have been created between family planning and personal and community betterment to help motivate acceptance. Khun Mechai became acquainted with the country' development needs as a young economist with the National Economic and Social Development Board. His family planning activities grew out of his conviction that rapid, unplanned population growth is Thailand's and the world's single most serious problem. An incremental approcah with insistence on individual and local responsibility for development is essential to his philosphy and personality. PMID:12266279

  1. Have you heard the rumour?

    PubMed

    Nakato, L

    1994-01-01

    Rumors and misinformation about the use of contraceptives can arise from general fears about contraception, fears about specific methods, and fears based on a poor understanding of human physiology. In Uganda, general fears about contraception include the notion that usage encourages promiscuity in women, that contraception causes sickness, and that the use of contraception is not socially acceptable. Specific fears about oral contraceptives include the notions that they burn all the women's eggs, that they cause changes in weight, that they cause high blood pressure, and that they are not effective. Specific fears about the IUD are that it can move within the body and that a woman can conceive with it in place (which is true). The condom is thought to be able to disappear in the uterus or to slip off inside a woman's body and require surgical removal. Vasectomy is believed to make men impotent or mentally disturbed. Tubal ligation is thought to stop menstruation or to "overturn" the tubes. Medical personnel can be the source of some of these rumors when they lack appropriate training. Uninformed users can also start rumors. In order to combat these misconceptions and increase the practice of family planning (FP) in Uganda, the FP delivery system must be standardized, FP personnel must be adequately trained, FP providers must counsel clients, satisfied users should disseminate FP information and motivation in their communities, and IEC (information, education, and communication) programs should be increased. In addition to misconceptions, nutritional and sexual taboos affect maternal and child health in Uganda. Some prohibit women from eating high protein foods; others prohibit pregnant women from eating salt. Other practices include 1) deciding whether an infant is really a member of the clan by the behavior of its dried umbilical cord when thrown in water and 2) allowing men instead of women to decide how many children a woman should have. PMID:12318958

  2. Advances in male contraception.

    PubMed

    Page, Stephanie T; Amory, John K; Bremner, William J

    2008-06-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90-95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  3. Review and follow-up of patients using a regional sperm cryopreservation service: ensuring that resources are targeted to those patients most in need.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, M; Meadows, J; Kohut, T; Haoula, Z; Naeem, A; Pooley, K; Deb, S

    2015-07-01

    Are all patients undergoing chemotherapy for long-term sperm banking at risk of permanent sterility? Male fertility is generally lower in men with cancer and all patient groups are at risk of azoospermia. Careful management is required to ensure that samples are not stored for excessively long periods should they not be required. A retrospective analysis of 1688 patient records and prospective recall of patients for semen testing were performed. Pre-therapy fertility was compared with a group of pre-vasectomy patients as a comparator. Those who fail to bank spermatozoa, rates of disposal of samples and the utilization in assisted reproduction were also examined. Sperm quality was poorest in testicular cancer (TC) patients followed by those with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) prior to treatment. Post-therapy data were available in 376 patients (42%). Sperm number was lowest (and azoospermia highest at 77%) in patients with HL treated with regimens other than adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD). Non-HL NHL and leukaemic patients had similarly high rates of azoospermia at 46 and 55%. HL patients treated with ABVD (11%) and TC patients (9.7%) had the lowest rates of azoospermia. Azoospermia was seen in every treatment group except for TC patients receiving carboplatin. Only 45 patients used their samples in ART (4.5%) in 10 years. Little is known about the fertility status of the patients not coming forward for follow-up testing, those conceiving naturally, those with no intention of conceiving and some which may have psychological reasons for not attending. In conclusion, virtually all patients undergoing chemotherapy are potentially at risk of temporary or permanent infertility. However, as uptake and utilization of stored material remain low, sperm banks should be carefully managed to ensure that resources are targeted to the patients most in need. PMID:26084986

  4. Advocacy in the Western Hemisphere Region: some FPA success stories.

    PubMed

    Andrews, D J

    1996-01-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation's Vision 2000 Strategic Plan has emphasized advocacy and the training of family planning associations (FPAs) in the Western Hemisphere region. During the summer of 1995 training programs in advocacy leadership management were sponsored for six FPAs in the Bahamas, Suriname, Belize, Colombia, Honduras, and Brazil. At the Western Hemisphere Regional Council Meeting in September 1995 awards were presented to FPAs for media outstanding projects. These FPAs used outreach to the community to promote the goals of Vision 2000. The Bahamas FPA won the Rosa Cisneros Award for articles published in a magazine that is distributed in primary and secondary schools and deals with the activities, achievements, and opinions of students. Issues include: love, relationships, responsibility, and teen pregnancy. A weekly television talk show also addresses the issues facing youth including education, music, community work, sexuality, pregnancy, and the relationship between teenagers and adults. The Family Planning Association of Honduras was also nominated for the award for a radio show on the health of mothers and children, the problems of adolescents, and FP. The newspaper Tiempo received the award for feature articles on social issues and FP. In 1994 the Association distributed thousands of booklets on contraceptives as well as fliers on vasectomy, female sterilization, oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms, responsible parenthood, high-risk pregnancy, vaginal cytology, and cervical cancer. Similar posters were placed in hospitals and health centers, in 1997 FP posts, and 400 commercial outlets. The Family Planning Association of Suriname also carried out an impressive advocacy program during the period of 1968-93 with the goals of establishing a balance between population growth and the available resources to achieve well-being with regard to education, health care, nutrition, and housing. PMID:12291093

  5. Cryopreservation of testicular and epididymal sperm: techniques and clinical outcomes of assisted conception.

    PubMed

    Gangrade, Bhushan K

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection to achieve fertilization, especially using surgically retrieved testicular or epididymal sperm from men with obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia, has revolutionized the field of assisted reproduction. The techniques for the retrieval of spermatozoa vary from relatively simple percutaneous sperm aspiration to open excision (testicular biopsy) and the more invasive Micro-TESE. The probability of retrieving spermatozoa can be as high as 100% in men with obstructive azoospermia (congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens, status post-vasectomy). However, in nonobstructive azoospermia, successful sperm retrieval has been reported in 10-100% of cases by various investigators. The surgical retrieval and cryopreservation of sperm, especially in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, to some extent ensures the availability of sperm at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. In addition, this strategy can avoid unnecessary ovarian stimulation in those patients intending to undergo in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection with freshly retrieved testicular sperm when an absolute absence of sperm in the testis is identified. Several different methods for the cryopreservation of testicular and epididymal sperm are available. The choice of the container or carrier may be an important consideration and should take into account the number or concentration of the sperm in the final preparation. When the number of sperm in a testicular biopsy sample is extremely low (e.g., 1-20 total sperm available), the use of an evacuated zona pellucida to store the cryopreserved sperm has been shown to be an effective approach. PMID:23503963

  6. Barriers to male involvement in contraceptive uptake and reproductive health services: a qualitative study of men and womens perceptions in two rural districts in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spousal communication can improve family planning use and continuation. Yet, in countries with high fertility rates and unmet need, men have often been regarded as unsupportive of their partners use of family planning methods. This study examines men and womens perceptions regarding obstacles to mens support and uptake of modern contraceptives. Methods A qualitative study using 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) with purposively selected men aged 1554 and women aged 1549 as well as eight key informant interviews (KIIs) with government and community leaders was conducted in 2012 in Bugiri and Mpigi Districts, Uganda. Open-ended question guides were used to explore men and womens perceptions regarding barriers to mens involvement in reproductive health. All FGDs and KIIs were recorded, translated, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti. Results Five themes were identified as rationale for mens limited involvement: (i) perceived side effects of female contraceptive methods which disrupt sexual activity, (ii) limited choices of available male contraceptives, including fear and concerns relating to vasectomy, (iii) perceptions that reproductive health was a womans domain due to gender norms and traditional family planning communication geared towards women, (iv) preference for large family sizes which are uninhibited by prolonged birth spacing; and (v) concerns that womens use of contraceptives will lead to extramarital sexual relations. In general, knowledge of effective contraceptive methods was high. However, lack of time and overall limited awareness regarding the specific role of men in reproductive health was also thought to deter mens meaningful involvement in issues related to fertility regulation. Conclusion Decision-making on contraceptive use is the shared responsibility of men and women. Effective development and implementation of male-involvement family planning initiatives should address barriers to mens supportive participation in reproductive health, including addressing men's negative beliefs regarding contraceptive services. PMID:24597502

  7. Some aspects of the sterilization program in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Arshat, H; Ali, J; Noor Laily Abu Bakar

    1984-06-01

    Sterilization is most often indicated when the desired family size is reached and no more children are desired. Because of technical advances and societal changes surgical sterilization is increasingly becoming the most utilized method of contraception. Since female sterilization is more common, several methods have been devised to make it safe and reliable. The traditional large abdominal incision (laparotomy) is now replaced by minilaparotomy, which is a small abdominal incision. Other techniques, such as transvaginal and trancervical approaches require no incision at all. These method permit occlusion of any part of the fallopian tube. Minilapatomy is the recommended method of female sterilization for 3rd world countries. Laparoscopic sterilization appears to be more psychologically acceptable to 3rd world women who have an inherent dread of surgery. A higher incidence of hematoma formation has been reported in puerperal laparoscopic sterilizations and the failure rate is also higher than in other methods. Other complications associated with laparoscopic sterilization include wound sepsis, surgical emphysema of the parieties and uterine perforation. Laparoscopic sterilizations can be performed under local, general, spinal or epidural anesthesia. Local and general anesthesia is the commonest. Both tubal ligations and vasectomies have been available in Malaysia since the 1960s. Laparoscopy was 1st introduced in Malaysia in the early 1970s. Several laparoscopy centers have been established in Malaysia to provide specialized family planning services. Outpatient laparoscopic sterilization is a feature of the Kuala Lumpur Specialist Center. Traditonally doctors and specialists in Malaysia received their practical training in sterilization techniques during their internship or residency. Since 1980, however, a formal training program was initiated. Because laparoscopy provides interval sterilization without major abdominal surgery, this procedure has played a major role in promoting acceptance of female sterilization. The use of mass media to promote sterilization has not been fully utilized because of religious and political sensitivities. PMID:12267515

  8. Of human rights and women's health.

    PubMed

    Shiva, M

    1991-06-01

    The deeply rooted gender bias in India can be easily seen in the field of health care, as the society condones many forms of violence against women. Discrimination against women begins at birth, when baby girls are general breastfed last and least. Conditioning women to feel inferior, society attacks women's psyche. In a subordinate position, women usually forgo medical treatment in times of illness, and even if they do seek treatment, it is often not available. As one study indicated, 92% of the women in one community suffered for some form of gynecologic disease, yet the country does not have adequate diagnostic facilities or the drugs used for gynecologic needs. Even childbirth facilities are not readily available, evident in that 70% of all births take place at home. Without a place to treat complications, the rate of maternal mortality is high. And while poor women often suffer from the lack of basic services, rich women suffer from needless surgeries, such as unnecessary caesarian sections and hysterectomies, which end up costing the lives of many women. Unsafe surgeries also take many women's lives; unsafe abortions account for 20% of India's maternal deaths. Women undergo most sterilizations, even though vasectomies are easier to perform and have less complications. Additionally, the use of long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives (Depo Provera, Net En, and NORPLANT) should be treated with apprehension. Their long-term consequences are not yet known, and one only need to remember cases of Thalidomide and Diethyl Stibaestrol to realize that the new hormones could have disastrous consequences for women. And with the use of Amniocentesis which is sometimes followed by female feticide), gender discrimination now begins even before birth. PMID:12343415

  9. Clinical aspects and perinatal outcomes after cryopreservation of embryos and gametes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, K A

    2015-04-01

    Cryopreservation techniques play today a central role in assisted reproduction, as they enhance the overall efficacy of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments by allowing the banking of supernumerary embryos obtained in these treatments, and their later use. The transfer of frozen/thawed embryos was established nearly 30 years ago, and although it has been clinical routine for a long time, the importance of freezing embryos has been newly emphasized. As recognized downsides of IVF treatment include the high prevalence of perinatal complications due to multiple births, the recommended practice of transferring fewer embryos in the fresh IVF treatment cycle, with the goal of performing single embryo transfer and the cryostorage of remaining embryos for their later use in frozen-thawed cycles, one at a time, is currently the trend. Also of great importance, cryopreservation techniques for spermatozoa and oocytes have additionally permitted gamete storage for long-term and the implementation of several new treatment modalities for assisted reproduction. Most of these methods are applied today in clinical programs of fertility preservation and third-part reproduction, such as sperm- and egg donor programs. Use of frozen thawed sperm has been in clinical use for over 50 years and banking sperm has been routinely offered to men, usually before gonadotoxic treatments, but also in many cases, practised as a "safety policy" previously to a vasectomy. Freezing methods for women's egg have required a much longer time to achieve a comparable effective clinical standard. Only recently, with the development of vitrification of oocytes, the clinical standard was recognized and since 2013 when the label "experimental" was removed, the freezing of oocytes could be regarded as an established method, and its use extended into clinical practice for fertility preservation but also performed after personal requirements, so called, "social freezing". PMID:25714875

  10. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel fertility techniques: cryopreservation of sperm and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:8535748

  11. Comparison of 808, 980, and 1075nm lasers for noninvasive thermal coagulation of the canine vas deferens, ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2011-03-01

    Successful noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, in vivo, has been previously reported. However, the therapeutic window for treatment is relatively narrow. This study determines the dependence of vas thermal coagulation on laser wavelength for development of a noninvasive laser vasectomy procedure. Noninvasive laser coagulation of canine vas tissue, ex vivo, was performed using three commonly available near-infrared laser wavelengths: 808, 980, and 1075 nm. Each laser delivered an average power of 9.2 W, 500-ms pulse duration, pulse rate of 1.0-Hz, and 3.2-mm diameter laser spot, synchronized with cryogen spray cooling of the scrotal skin surface for a total treatment time of 60 s. Vas burst pressures were measured to determine strength of vas closure and compared to previously reported ejaculation pressures. Gross inspection of vas and scrotal skin was also performed immediately after the procedure as an indicator of thermal coagulation and skin burns. The 1075 nm laser produced the highest vas burst pressures (288 +/- 28 mmHg), significantly greater than previously reported ejaculation pressures (136 +/- 29 mmHg). The 808 nm wavelength produced insufficient vas burst pressures of 141 +/- 61 mmHg, and minor scrotal skin burns were observed in at least one case. The 980 nm wavelength was unable to produce thermal coagulation of the vas, with low burst pressures (89 +/- 58 mmHg) and severe scrotal skin burns. The 1075 nm wavelength was the only near-IR wavelength that consistently thermally coagulated the vas with a strong degree of closure and without any scrotal skin burns.

  12. Noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Jarow, Jonathan P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-02-01

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications (incision, bleeding, infection, and scrotal pain) and result in a more popular procedure. This study builds upon previously reported ex vivo tissue studies by exploring acute and short-term chronic in vivo canine studies. Isolation of the canine vas was achieved using a conventional vas ring clamp method. No perforation of the scrotal skin was necessary to occlude the vas. Laser radiation with a wavelength of 1075 nm, average power of 11.2 W, 500-ms pulse duration, 0.5 Hz pulse rate, and 3-mm-diameter spot was synchronized with cryogen spray cooling of the scrotal skin surface in a total of 8 dogs (n = 16 vasa) for a treatment time of 60 s. Burst pressure measurements were conducted at Days 0 and 21 (n = 8 vasa each day) to quantify the strength of vas closure. The vas was successfully thermally occluded in 15/16 (94%) procedures with 14/15 (93%) vas recording burst pressures above ejaculation pressure. One vas was not present, and another vas recorded a bursting pressure below ejaculation pressure. The coagulated vas bursting pressure averaged 283 +/- 34 mm Hg at Day 0 and 260 +/- 77 mm Hg at Day 21, significantly higher than reported vas ejaculation pressures of 136 +/- 29 mm Hg. Minor scrotal skin burns were observed during the recovery period. Noninvasive thermal occlusion of the vas is feasible in an in vivo canine model. Elimination of minor skin burns and longer term chronic in vivo canine studies are needed to confirm azospermia after vas occlusion without recanalization.

  13. Abnormal Accumulation of Collagen Type I Due to the Loss of Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (Ddr2) Promotes Testicular Interstitial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hu; Bu, Xin; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Jie; Gong, Wei-dong; Wu, Zhi-qun; Yao, Li-bo; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yuan-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of functional allele for discoidin domain receptor 2 (Ddr2) results in impaired Leydig cell response to luteinizing hormone (LH), low testosterone production and arrested spermatogenesis in older male Ddr2slie/slie mice. However, the underlying mechanism responsible for this phenotype remains unknown. Herein, we reported for the first time that the deregulated expression of Ddr2 cognate ligand, namely collagen type I (COL1), may account for the disruption of the testicular steroidogenesis in Ddr2slie/slie mutant testes. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression of Ddr2 increased gradually along postnatal development, whereas COL1 expression became negligible from adulthood onwards. In Ddr2slie/slie mutant testis, however, in contrast to the undetectable staining of Ddr2, COL1 expression was constantly detected, with the highest values detected during adulthood. In the experimental vasectomy model, Ddr2slie/slie mutant mice exhibited an early androgen deficiency than wild-type mice, along with the accumulation of fibrotic tissue in the interstitium. Functionally, ablation of endogenous Ddr2 resulted in a significant decrease of testosterone (T) level in TM3 cells in the presence of higher concentration of COL1 treatment. Conversely, overexpression of Ddr2 could help TM3 cells to maintain a normal testicular steroidogenesis even in the presence of high concentration of COL1. Additionally, attenuated expression of Ddr2 correlates to the deregulated level of serum T levels in human pathological testes. Conclusions Abnormal accumulation of interstitial COL1 may be responsible for the steroidogenic dysfunction in Ddr2slie/slie mutant testes. PMID:26158267

  14. A study of characteristics of women seeking induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Chia Sze Foong

    1982-12-01

    A study was conducted in Malaysia of 148 women seeking induced abortion from doctors. The influence of socioeconomic, ethnic, religious, and educational factors on the practice of induced abortion in Malaysia was examined along with the relationship of induced abortion to the use of contraceptives. 135 of the women were married; 13 were unmarried. 22.3% of the women did not complete primary education, 51.4% of the women completed primary education, and 26.3% completed secondary education. 30.4% of the women were from rural areas, and the remaining 103 women lived in towns and suburbs. 62.2% of the women were housewives, 29.7% were unskilled workers, and 8.1% were skilled workers. 107 women were Buddhist, 31 were Muslims, 4 were Hindus, 2 were Catholics, 2 were Protestants, and 2 were free thinkers. There were 111 Chinese respondents, 28 Malay respondents, and 9 Indian respondents. There were 31 cases with less than 6 weeks of amenorrhea, 93 cases with 6-8 weeks of amenorrhea, 15 cases with between 8-10 weeks of amenorrhea, 7 cases of between 10-12 weeks of amenorrhea, and 2 cases with more than 12 weeks of amenorrhea. Only 53 patients (35.8%) practiced contraception of 1 kind or another. Of this group, the partners of 26 women used condoms, 9 practiced coitus interruptus, 5 used oral contraceptives (OCs), 2 used parenteral contraception, 2 used the traditional method, and the husband of 1 woman had had a vasectomy. The remaining 95 cases (64.2%) who did not use contraception gave the following reasons: side effects of contraception; fear of ill effects of contraception; ignorance of effective contraceptive methods; inconvenience; and husband's refusal for no apparent reason. 83 patients were practicing effective contraception at the time of the interview. Of these, 42 were using OCs, the partners of 24 used condoms, 10 used the IUD, 5 were getting parenteral contraceptives, and 2 had had a tubal ligation. 27 patients indicated at the interview their intention to use contraception after the induced abortion, but they did not indicate the contraceptive method. The remaining 38 patients were not willing nor did they use any effective contraception. Deferring childbirth and limiting family size were 85.8% of the reasons for abortion. There was no significant difference between women deferring childbirth and women limiting family size when comparing the racial, religious characteristics, the period of amenorrhea, occupation, and marital status. PMID:7167082

  15. East Asia Review, 1973. To sum up.

    PubMed

    Keeny, S M

    1974-05-01

    Observations are made related to the review of family planning activities in East Asia in 1973. The number of new acceptors for the region increased from 2.7 million in 1972 to 3.4 million in 1973. The leaders were Indonesia, which almost doubled its achievement of calendar year 1972, the Philippines, and Korea. In Thailand, the number of new acceptors dropped by about 10%. South Vietnam is the only country in the region without an official policy. Most couples still think that the ideal number of children is 4, with at least 2 sons. Some religious opposition does exist, particularly with reference to sterlization and abortion. More attention is being paid to women in their 20s. Sterilization and condoms are becoming more popular. Korea reports a sharp increase in vasectomies. Better methods and continuation rates should be stressed. In Taiwan a couple who start with 1 method and continue to practice some method lower their reproduction rate by 80%. More responsibility is being delegated to nurses and midwives, but too slowly. In Indonesia, the number of field workers rose from 3774 in 1972 to 6275 in 1973. The Philippines and Thailand are experimenting to see what kind of workers get best results and under what kind of salary and incentive arrangements. In-service training tends to be neglected, but preservice training is improving. Costs, in general, have risen, though in Korea the cost per acceptor has dropped from US$8.00 to US$7.80. Korea and Taiwan have reduced their annual population growth rates by more than 1/3 in 10 years, from 30 to 19-20 per 1000 each. Singapore's rate is 17 and Hong Kong's 14 (exclusive of inmigration). The number of couples currently practicing contraception in Singapore is 71%. Target systems assigning quotas to clinics are generally used except in Thailand and Malaysia, where programs emphasize maternal and child health, rather than population planning. Most programs require about 10 years to get the annual growth rate down to 2% by voluntary family planning. To get it down to 1.5% will probably take another 10 years. PMID:4828075

  16. Voices of acceptors. How family planning has touched the lives of five Filipino couples.

    PubMed

    Santos, R P

    1993-03-01

    Five Filipino couples present their experience with family planning (FP). Tomasina Campuso relates that her first exposure to FP was in a high school health class. She then received advice from a health center on the rhythm method and became pregnant before her first wedding anniversary. Two months postpartum she returned to the clinic for oral pills, which caused side effects; she switched to an IUD, which had to be fitted twice before a proper fit was achieved. After the second child, she returned to IUD use. Both parents are happy to have spaced and planned their children. One is currently in preschool and the spacing will make it possible for them to send their first child to college; the second child can be helped through college by the first. Joel and Evelyn Gatdula married as teenagers. Evelyn feels that use of FP has made her look younger in spite of having produced 3 children. Their marriage became stronger because of mutual interest in using FP. Evelyn volunteered to use an IUD after her husband volunteered to use condoms. Evelyn, being a Catholic, expressed that greater guild would be felt if she had more children than she could provide or care for. She talks to friends and family about the advantages of contraception. Loida Bilaoen had a very difficult first pregnancy, was confined to her bed, and relied on intravenous fluids. She was happy to use rhythm, and condoms until the second child was born; thereafter she had a ligation, even though she had two boys. The boys attend a private school and she has returned to nursing school. Violeta was one of 13 children. Her first was born after 5 years of marriage and the second came 6 years later. Initially condoms and rhythm were used; currently she is taking oral pills, which are delivered every other month by an outreach worker. There were some initial side effects of weight loss and then a return of her original weight. She felt that without FP they could not have afforded the luxury of owning modern appliances. Gerry and Divine Cruz, after the birth of twins, chose first an IUD and then vasectomy. The decision meant following their conscience rather than Church doctrine. They hope that their girls will achieve their dreams. PMID:12286378

  17. Family planning in industrial units.

    PubMed

    1970-01-01

    The Family Planning Association of Pakistan conducted a survey of existing Family Planning Services in industrial units in cooperation with the Government of Pakistan, Family Planning Division. In East Pakistan the Association in cooperation with the Family Planning Council selected 3 areas for this survey, in Khulna a Jute Mill, in Sylhet a Tea Estate, and in Naryangnaj (a suburb of Dacca), a cotton mill. The purpose of the survey was to ascertain the extent of the knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning in an industrial sample in the context of the national family planning program. A further objective was to explore the possibilities of establishing family planning motivational centers in industrial units. This was the first study of its kind undertaken in Pakistan. Monogamy is the practice among the industrial laborers. 83.99% of the respondents married once only, and 97.4% have 1 wife currently with them. The mean number of years of married life is 12.88 years. The estimated mean age of all respondents is 37.2 years. At present the mean number of living children is 4.08, 2.13 boys and 1.95 girls. The desired number of children is 4.35, 1.76 girls and 2.59 boys. 69.98% of the respondents have knowledge of family planning, and level of education is closely associated. Vasectomy is the best known method followed by tubal ligation. Of the 1349 respondents, 735 or 55.97% were in favor of family planning. Only 54 persons or 4% are currently using family planning methods. It is clear from the survey that a great number of laborers are aware of the family planning program. They are also aware of the family planning methods, their uses, and their necessity. On the basis of the findings the establishment of motivational centers with full family planning services in 3 industrial units is recommended. Registration of the eligible couples for easy identification for giving family planning services and follow-ups is also recommended, and it is suggested that there be continual follow-up studies. PMID:12332197

  18. As it is in heaven? John Paul II listened to God and misunderstood the message.

    PubMed

    1993-10-27

    This articles focuses on John Paul II's 1993 Veritatis Splendor, an 1798 page encyclical letter to the Church's bishops on the crisis in the Catholic Church of family limitation and the implications for the laity and society. The communication states that a flexible interpretation of theology must be abandoned. Paul VI's 19963 Humanae Vitae is reportedly affirmed. John XXIII's spiritualism and concern with conscience is ignored. This encyclical is identified as not spoken "ex cathedra" or from the throne, which would have made the pronouncement true, unarguable forever, and subject to excommunication for those disobeying. Pope John Paul II is said to be preparing another encyclical on life issues and sexuality. Reference is made in this encyclical to devices that are acceptable to use to gauge a safe period for copulation without impregnation. The devices include the rectal thermometer and the calculator for determining the infertile days in the natural cycle. Veritatis Splendor's position on fertility is viewed as an issue of loyalty to the Church and not as an honest evaluation of the moral implications of artificial birth control. This encyclical comes closer to "ex cathedra" than the Humanae Vitae, which banned the birth control pill, IUD, spermicides, hormonal implants, vasectomies, and tubal ligation. Liberal Catholic theologians are reported to have interpreted Paul VI's statement that "God illuminates from within the hearts of the faithful and invites their assent," as a validation of dissent. Pope John Paul II closes the door to dissent in this proclamation. The Church also closes the door to free will for people to decide for themselves. The Jesuits, with different notions of divine will, are described as potentially concluding that the denial of free will and individual reason for the sake of Papal supremacy must be the work of the devil himself. For good Catholics this encyclical is interpreted as potentially forcing even stronger opposition to the Vatican's teachings and continued adherence to the dictates of their own conscience. A God who gave men and women the power of his reason would not allow the Pope, however infallible, to take this away. Among nonreligious thinkers the Catholic posture is viewed as very wrong on birth control. Divisions within the Church are expected to increase. PMID:12345270

  19. Constraints in the development of contraceptives for men.

    PubMed

    Puri, C P; Gopalkrishnan, K; Iyer, K S

    2000-09-01

    Considerable efforts have been made to develop a male contraceptive and the studies have provided very useful information in this field. At least five different strategies to develop a male contraceptive have been pursued, namely: inhibition of sperm production, interference with sperm function, interruption of sperm transport, prevention of sperm deposition, and prevention of sperm-egg interaction. Of all these approaches, inhibition of sperm production by using androgens either alone or in combination with progestins have given the most encouraging results. A number of clinical trials substantiate that it is indeed possible to have a reversible, effective and safe hormonal method of contraception. A postmeiotic and epididymal approach to interfere with sperm function or the secretory and metabolic processes of the epididymis is another attractive option of male contraceptive development. A number of chemical compounds have been identified which interfere with sperm function in the epididymis without affecting sperm production, however, the compounds evaluated so far were found to be toxic. Interruption of sperm transport through the vas either by vasectomy or percutaneous intravasal injection of liquids which form cure-in-place plugs is also an attractive option. However, reversibility of the methods is of concern in their wide scale use. The major constraint in developing a long-acting male contraceptive seems to be the need for greater investment for product development. The clinical trials for evaluating the efficacy and safety of the new products and formulations stretch over several years and require enormous financial commitment. Nevertheless, the long-term gain of having a long-acting reversible contraceptive for men is far greater than the financial commitments over few years. Male attitude towards using methods of family planning is much more favourable than originally believed. The pharmaceutical industry as well as the health care providers therefore have a greater responsibility. For early development of a contraceptive for men, it is essential to increase investment and simplify the drug regulatory procedures. The advent of newer technologies coupled with the convergent efforts of scientists will certainly make it possible to have an effective, safe and reversible male contraceptive in the near future. PMID:11225976

  20. Directions and potentials of contraceptive research.

    PubMed

    Djerassi, C

    1973-01-01

    The current status of birth control methods is reviewed. No fundamentally new practical birth control agent is in sight for the immediate future which would be more effective than presently employed procedures. The present climate of hypercaution and virulent consumerism penalizes the imaginative approach and encourages minor and safe modifications of existing methods. The scientific community does not lack theoretical leads, but those theories may not be put into practice. Special emphasis is given in this review to the reversible fertility control agents that will be needed during the next decade or 2, notably in developing countries. In the area of abortion, abortifacients, and related agents, the development of chemical abortifacients, preferably administered orally or intravaginally should get very high priority. Chemical agents for abortion fall into 2 classes: 1) those which interfere with embryonic development, and 2) those which lead to expulsion of the embryo or fetus, e.g. prostaglandins. Although there are many publications and books written about ovulation inhibitors, relatively little work has been devoted to developing new steroidal ovulation inhibitors. For fertility control in developing countries, IUDs offer the singular advantage of a 1-shot administration. The development of the copper T IUD is important. Preliminary clinical studies have indicated that the addition of copper results in much lower pregnancy rate and the T shape results in a lower bleeding and expulsion rate. The Food and Drug Administration may extend the time interval between clinical studies and eventual public use of the copper T because it carries a metal. It is not likely that a male pill will be developed in the near future. For males, major advances in vasectomy techniques which would quarantee reversibility upon demand would constitute a significant forward step. For females, recent clinical studies indicate that sterilization can be produced through occlusion of their fallopian tubes by the intrauterine installation of quinacrine. A variety of methods which could interfere with the viability or passage of sperm once it enters the vagina are unlikely to result in practical fertility control agents before the end of this decade. PMID:4788233

  1. [Children and bankers in Bangladesh].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, B

    1991-06-01

    This critique of the World Bank's role in developing country population programs begins with a description of a 1987 case in which an 80-year- old Bangladeshi man was persuaded to undergo vasectomy and then robbed of his incentive payment by the health agent. For over 20 years, the World Bank has pressured 3rd World governments to implement population control programs. Although there are divergent opinions within the World Bank, the most dominant is the neomalthusian view that the poor through their high fertility help perpetuate their own poverty. This view hides the real source of poverty in the Third World: the unequal distribution of resources within these countries and between the developed and developing countries. The World Bank has always been blind to the inequalities, and has associated with the elites of developing countries who monopolize the resources of their countries and thereby impede authentic development. Furthermore, the emphasis on population control distorts social policy and hinders the implementation of safe and voluntary family planning services. In many countries the World Bank has required governments to give greater priority to population control than to basic health services. It has pressured them to relax contraceptive prescription norms and has promoted the more effective methods without regard to proper use or side effects. In Bangladesh the World Bank has sponsored sterilization programs that rely on coercion and incentives. In that country of enormous inequities, 10% of landowners control over 50% of lands, while nearly half the population is landless and chronically underemployed. Political power is concentrated in the military government, which annually receives over 1.5 billion dollars in external aid. External aid primarily benefits the wealthy. 3/4 of the population are undernourished and less than 1/3 are literate or have access to basic health care. The poor of Bangladesh, as in many other countries, feel that their only source of security is to have many children, a significant proportion of whom will not survive. In rural Bangladesh, where chronic hunger and unemployment are rife, the incentives and the pressures of family planning and health workers were sufficient to persuade many persons to undergo sterilization. Payment of commissions to workers to promote sterilization has discouraged them from supplying adequate information about sterilization for fear of losing clients. Population from other donors and wide publicity about the abuses in the sterilization program and the high rates of regret among women undergoing sterilization only for the incentives have led to some modifications, but the World Bank has continued to exert pressure on the Bangladeshi government to develop fertility-control programs. The damaging effects of World Bank population programs can also be seen in Indonesia, Nepal, and other developing countries. PMID:12284143

  2. A brief introduction to China's family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Shen, G

    1984-08-01

    China's family planning program is described in reference to its goals, approaches, and achievements. Between 1949-83, China's population increased from 541 million to 1,024,950,000. The population has a young age structure, and the median age is 22.9 years. 80% of the population is rural, and 90% of the population lives in the southeastern region of the country. In view of this demographic situation, the government recognizes the need to control population growth. China's goals for the year 2000 are to increase industrial and agricultural input by 400% and to keep population size below 1.2 billion in order to ensure that per capita income increases. In accordance with these goals, the government, in 1979, began advocating a 1-child policy. To ensure the survival of single children, the government also launched a program to upgrade maternal and child health (MCH). In some rural areas and among certain minority groups, the 1-child restriction is not applied. Family size goals will vary with time. These variations will reflect the need to maintain a balance between economic growth and population growth. A variety of incentives are used to promote the 1-child family. For example, single children receive medical and educational benefits, and in some rural areas, the parents of single children can obtain additional land contracts. Economic disincentives are also used. The government seeks to obtain compliance with the policy primarily through educating the public about the consequences of uncontrolled population growth. All channels of the mass media are used to deliver the messages, and the publicity campaign is especially intensive in rural areas. A comprehensive plan to provided family planning and population education for middle school students is currently being implemented. Each local area develops its own fertility control plan. This plan is then incorporated into the nation's overall plan and the overall plan is implemented from above. Family planning workers bring free contraceptives directly to the people, and family planning motivators are found in almost all villages, neighborhood committees, factories, and military units. As a result of these efforts, China made great strides in controlling population growth and improving MCH during the last decade. The birth rate declined from 27.93 to 18.62, and the total fertility rate declined from 4.01 to 2.48. 124 million couples were practicing contraception by the end of 1983. 41% used IUDs, 37.4% relied on tubal ligation, 12.9% relied on vasectomy, 5.1% on oral contraceptives, and 1% on other methods. The quality of maternal and child care also improved. 92.7% of all deliveries are now performed by trained midwifes. Infant and maternal mortality rates declined considerablely in recent years. Currently the respective rates are 35.68/1000 live births and 0.5/1000 live births. In 1983 alone, the gross national agricultural and industrial output increased by 46.1%. Since 1979 per capita income increased annually by 18.3% among rural residents and by 10.7% among urban workers. China controls and operates its own population program, but in recent years, it increased its cooperation with UN Fund for Population Activities, other UN agencies, and nongovernment agencies. China recently completed its 3rd national census, and demographic research institutes have been established in 10 universities. PMID:12266994

  3. [Colombia. Prevalence, Demography and Health Survey 1990].

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    Colombia's 1990 Survey of Prevalence, Demography, and Health (EPDS) was intended to provide data on the total population and on the status of women's and children's health for use in planning and in formulating health and family planning policy. 7412 household interviews and 8647 individual interviews with women aged 15-49 years were completed. This document provides a brief description of the questionnaire, sample design, data processing, and survey results. More detailed works on each topic are expected to follow. After weighing, 74.8% of respondents were urban and 25.2% rural. 3.2% were illiterate, 36.6% had some primary education, 50.2% had secondary educations, and 9.9% had high higher educations. Among all respondents and respondents currently in union respectively, 98.2% and 997% knew some contraceptive method, 94.1% and 97.9% knew some source of family planning, 57.6% and 86.0% had ever used a method, and 39.9% and 66.1% were currently using a method. Among all respondents and respondents currently in union respectively, 52.2% and 78.9% had ever used a modern method and 33.0% and 54.6% were currently using a modern method. Among women in union, 14.1% currently used pills, 12.4% IUDs, 2.2% injectables, 1.7% vaginal methods, 2.9% condoms, 20.9% female sterilization, .5% vasectomy, 11.5% some tradition method, 6.1% periodic abstinence, 4.8% withdrawal, and .5% others. Equal proportions of rural and urban women were sterilized. The prevalence of female sterilization declined with education and increased with family size. Modern methods were used by 57.5% of urban and 47.7% of rural women, 44.0% of illiterate women, 51.8% of women with primary and 57.8% with secondary educations. Among women in union, 10.9% wanted a child soon, 19.7% wanted 1 eventually, 3.6% were undecided, 42.6% did not want 1, 21.4% were sterilized, and 1.2% were infertile. Among women giving birth in the past 5 years, the proportion having antitetanus vaccinations increased from 39% in 1986 to 55.5% in 1990; the proportion receiving prenatal care from a physician increased from 67 to 80%; and the proportion receiving medical assistance at delivery increased from 61 to 71%. Among children under 5, 66% of urban and 61% of rural residents were completely vaccinated. The proportion completely vaccinated ranged from 59% in the Atlantic province to 69% in the Eastern province. 48% of children of illiterate mothers and 68% of children whose mothers has higher educations were completely vaccinated. The proportion of children under 5 who suffered from diarrhea within the past 24 hours declined from 9.8 in 1986 to 4.6% in 1990 and the proportion with diarrhea in the preceding 2 weeks declined from 118.7 to 12.5%. 2/3 of the women knew about Pap tests and 46% had ever had 1. Almost all respondents knew about AIDS. 20% reported ever having been struck by their husbands. PMID:12284197