Sample records for vasectomy

  1. Vasectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    Wilson CL. Vasectomy. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowlder GC, eds. In: Pfenninger & Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap 126. Kavoussi PK, Costabile RA. Surgery of ...

  2. Vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Singh, H

    1984-07-01

    Standard vasectomy techniques used in India are reviewed, including indications, history, male reproductive anatomy, preoperative assessment, exam and preparation, anesthesia, surgical procedure, closure of suture, postoperative treatment and advice, and resumption of coitus. Vasectomy is the safest and most popular method of fertility control, used since the 1930s. Male genital anatomy is presented in detail with diagrams, emphasizing innervation of the vas. Vasectomy clients should be assessed to rule out diabetes, bleeding, skin disease, infection, drug sensitivity, genital tuberculosis, hernia, and anatomical defects. The author recommends local anesthesia with lidocaine or xylocaine, without the use of adrenaline. Variations in techniques of immobilizing the vas, making scrotal incisions, treating the cut ends of the vas and removing the cut segment are presented. The author recommends immobilizing the vas with Allis forceps, making a single incision and removing a 1 cm section of vas. To prevent spontaneous recanalization, it is best to fold the distal end back, and suture, clamp or cauterize the proximal end, burying it in fascia to make a barrier. Although interposing fascia between the cut ends is best, for any operator, experience improves results significantly, no matter what method is used. Of the available methods of closing the suture, nonabsorbable sutures are best if the man can return for their removal, or even better, a small incision closed only with tincture of benzoin is most practical. Generally the man is given penicillin or tetracycline. Some type of vas irrigation, such as 0.125% nitrofurazone preferred by the author, will shorten the time to azoospermic semen. 12 to 24 ejaculations are required otherwise. There is no evidence that coitus as soon as the man feels well will encourage sperm granuloma formation. Recanalization is rare. The most common reasons for failure of vasectomy are section of some other structure, or less often, recanalization. Rarely, there is an accessory vas or a viable inguinal testis. An appendix lists equipment used in the procedure. PMID:6545828

  3. Making vasectomy attractive.

    PubMed

    Herndon, N

    1992-08-01

    In 1989, Pro-Pater, a private, nonprofit family planning organization in Brazil, used attractive ads with the message Vasectomy, An Act of Love to promote vasectomy. The number of vasectomies performed/day at Pro-Pater clinics increased from 11 to 20 during the publicity campaign and fell after the ads stopped but continued at higher levels. Word of mouth communication among friends, neighbors, and relatives who had vasectomies maintained these high levels. This type of communication reduced the fear that often involves vasectomies because men hear from men they know and trust that vasectomies are harmless and do not deprive them of potency. In Sao Paulo, the percentage of men familiar with vasectomies and how they are performed increased after the campaign, but in Salvador, knowledge did not increase even though the number of vasectomies in Pro-Pater clinics increased. Organizations in Colombia and Guatemala have also been effective in educating men about vasectomies. These successes were especially relevant in Latin American where machismo has been an obstacle of family planning programs. The no-scalpel technique 1st introduced in China in 1974 reduces the fear of vasectomy and has fewer complications than the conventional technique. Further trained physicians can perform the no-scalpel technique in about 10 minutes compared with 15 minutes for the conventional technique. In 1987 during a 1-day festival in Thailand, physicians averaged 57 no-scalpel vasectomies/day compared with only 33 for conventional vasectomies. This technique has not spread to Guatemala, Brazil, Colombia, the US, and some countries in Asia and Africa. Extensive research does not indicate that vasectomy has an increased risk of testicular cancer, prostate cancer, and myocardial infarction. Physicians are working on ways to improve vasectomy. PMID:12317726

  4. Techniques of vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Art, Kevin S; Nangia, Ajay K

    2009-08-01

    Vasectomy remains a safe and effective method of contraception for men. Many variations in surgical technique currently are used by surgeons in the United States, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Regardless of the surgical method used, the most important factor for successful vasectomy remains the experience and skill of the surgeon. The amount of evidence-based literature on the rationale for the different techniques for vasectomy remains limited. Careful study and innovation of vasectomy techniques will ensure that the most commonly performed urologic surgical procedure remain an excellent form of contraception in the future. PMID:19643233

  5. Attitudes to vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Howard, G

    1981-08-01

    4 surveys were conducted in the United Kingdom in an attempt to determine the personal and social factors influencing the decision to have a vasectomy. The surveys differed from other vasectomy studies in that they represented couples requesting a vasectomy and not only those who obtained a vasectomy. They include, therefore, individuals who were refused and those who changed their minds, as well as those individuals on whom the operation was performed. The surveys showed that by 1978 the majority of requests came from couples who had 2 children or less (70%), who came from social class 3 (64%), and where the wife was under age 35. There was a relative absence of high-parity couples, of the least skilled, and of those of African or Asian origin. The husbands viewed vasectomy as a final act of male contraceptive responsibility. The reasons for choosing vasectomy were to prevent further pregnancies and to protect the wife from the health risks of the oral contraceptive or the IUD and from the dangers of childbearing or the fear of pregnancy. The findings of the first 3 surveys were similar. All surveys suggested that men of low parity preferred vasectomy and that men of high parity and those of African or Asian origin were often reluctant to undergo a vasectomy. All the marriages described as successful remained so after vasectomy. Minor degrees of impotence, frigidity or lack of libido appeared to improve. 11% of the couples withdrew from the operation following the counseling session. The 476 couples requesting vasectomy in the first 3 surveys produced a wide range of anxieties over health, life problems, sexual enjoyment, contraception, children, marriage, and the change of life. There appeared to be marked differences between couples who undergo vasectomy and those choosing tubal ligation. PMID:12310974

  6. Spontaneous recanalization after vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Lucon, Antônio Marmo; Pasqualotto, Fábio Firmbach; Schneider-Monteiro, Edison Daniel; Saldanha, Luis Balthazar; Danilovic, Alexandre; Danilovic, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    Vasectomy is the method most commonly used in men for voluntary sterilization purposes. We report two cases of early recanalization following vasectomies performed in 1085 men for sterilization purposes at a tertiary public institution between January 2000 and November 2003. Thus, the risk of 0.2% of failure due to early recanalization should be explained and the fertility implications stressed. Written documentation recording the clarification presented at consultation is essential. PMID:17619703

  7. The evolution of vasectomy reversal.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Ryan M; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Hakky, Tariq S; Chandrashekar, Aravind; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-06-01

    In the USA, about 500,000 vasectomies are performed each year, with up to 6 % of men requesting reversal. The technique of vasectomy reversal has evolved from macrosurgical to the implementation of both microscopic and robotic technologies. The very earliest attempts at vasectomy reversal, the vasoepididymostomy and vasovasostomy, have remained central in the treatment of male infertility and will continue to be so for years to come. As seen throughout its history, urological microsurgery has consistently implemented advanced techniques and state-of-the art technology in its craft, and its continued refinement will allow for even more favorable outcomes in the lives of patients seeking restoration of fertility following vasectomy. Here, we review the evolution of vasectomy reversal and its current techniques. PMID:25980804

  8. The safety of vasectomy: recent concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Farley, T. M.; Meirik, O.; Mehta, S.; Waites, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Vasectomy has been accepted for family planning by approximately 42 million couples worldwide, the majority of whom live in developing countries. It is a highly reliable and safe contraceptive method, which has been extensively studied. Recently, however, renewed concerns have been raised about a possible effect between vasectomy and cancer of the prostate many years after the procedure has been performed. These concerns are based on research conducted in the USA, where there is a high and rising incidence of prostate cancer. This review discusses the evidence for this association and its potential impact in developing countries. The factors influencing the development and growth of prostate cancer are poorly understood and complicate any research into risk factors for the disease. Overall incidences of prostate cancer in some developed countries, such as the USA, are fifty times higher than in some developing countries, such as China. The majority of epidemiological studies on the relationship between vasectomy and prostate cancer have been based in the USA, but the findings are inconsistent and the reported associations weak. On the basis of currently available data, no changes in family planning policies with regard to vasectomy are warranted, but the concerns raised by these studies require that research into any possible association be undertaken in developing countries where vasectomy is widely practised. PMID:8324861

  9. Vasectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in both print and download format. View Products Urology Care Foundation 1000 Corporate Boulevard Linthicum, MD 21090 ... Conditions Financials & Annual Report Leadership Privacy Statement © 2015 Urology Care Foundation | All Rights Reserved.

  10. Vasectomy surgical techniques: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Labrecque; Caroline Dufresne; Mark A Barone; Karine St-Hilaire

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A wide variety of surgical techniques are used to perform vasectomy. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess if any surgical techniques to isolate or occlude the vas are associated with better outcomes in terms of occlusive and contraceptive effectiveness, and complications. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (1966-June 2003), EMBASE (1980-June 2003), reference lists of retrieved articles, urology

  11. A study on postoperative vasectomy cases.

    PubMed

    Mridha, S N; Ganguly, M M; Jana, B R

    1979-12-16

    A followup study of a sample of 160 of the 2500 men, who had vasectomies at the R.G. Kar Medical College and Hospital in Calcutta from 1972-1975, was conducted in order to assess the characteristics of acceptors, the frequency of postoperative complications, and the impact of vasectomy on sexual feelings. 53.1% of the men were between the ages of 35-44. Average marriage duration was 13.1 years and the men had an average of 3.75 children. 96.8% of the men were literate. 60.6% had incomes below Rs.200, 35.6% had incomes between Rs.201-500, and 3.8% had incomes above Rs.501. 159 of the men were Hindu. 50% of the men reported that they experience contraceptive failure prior to vasectomy. Post operative complications were experienced by 70.62% of the men. 32.5% of the 160 men experienced early complications within 10 days after the operation and 83.1% experienced late complications, 10 or more days following the procedure. In reference to early complications, out of the total 160 patients, 11.2% had local pain or swelling; 14.4% had stitch abscess, 4.4% had bleeding or hematoma, 1.9% had fever, and 0.6% had hemorrhagic diathesis. In reference to late complications, out of the total 160 patients, 13.1% had cord related problems, 10.6% had swelling of the epididymis, 10.6% had swelling of the testis, and 3.8% experienced a general deterioration in health. Sexual feelings after the vasectomy remained the same for 62.5% of the patients, decreased for 31.25%, and improved for 6.25%. Among those patients who had decreased sexual feeling, 55.6% were between the ages of 45-54, 31.8% were between the ages of 35-40, and 25.5% were between the ages of 25-34. A decrease in sexual feeling was significantly related to post operative late complications. Among the 123 men who had a semen analysis 90 days following vasectomy, 18 had positive readings and 105 had negative readings. 6 of the 123 men reported that their wives conceived after vasectomy and of these 6, only 4 had positive readings. The study findings were presented in tabular form. PMID:546987

  12. [Contraceptive vasectomy: does it have a future in France?].

    PubMed

    Arvis, G

    1986-03-01

    Despite its simplicity and freedom from complications, vasectomy in France faces significant legal, bureaucratic, political, ideologic, psychological, and medical obstacles. Legal obstacles are the most important inasmuch as a principal of French law holds that the individual does not have free disposition of his body. The sole existing French jurisprudence on the question equated male sterilization with premeditated assault and battery. Although no physician has been prosecuted for performing vasectomy since this 1936 Court of Appeals decision, physicians performing vasectomies remain somewhat at the mercy of the caprices of the magistrate. Social security refuses to pay for sterilization performed for contraceptive reasons, which may discourage low income candidates. The Council of the Order of Physicians opposes vasectomy because of its legal status and because article 22 of the Medical Code states that sterilization can only be performed for very serious medical indications. In 1983 the Council changed its recommendation to "very serious indications", dropping the word "medical", but it does not vigorously support vasectomy because of the legal question. Malpractice insurance coverage of vasectomy practitioners is based on whether the results of criminal trials indicate that the operator violated the penal code; the hazy legal status of vasectomy therefore makes insurance coverage unlikely. Political obstacles to vasectomy are far from resolved. No party has openly supported voluntary sterilization, less because of ideological or demagogic considerations than because of the fertility decline in France. Public opinion might question a law authorizing definitive contraception at a time when the replacement of generations is not even assured. Religious objections to contraception in general and sterilization in particular remain strong. A 1978 survey of 1273 French doctors showed that 35% of practicing Catholics but 61% of nonbelievers among them had favorable attitudes toward contraceptive sterilization. Psychological obstacles stem from the danger that vasectomy will be equated to castration. Careful preoperative screening is needed to exclude men likely to suffer impotence or other side effects. The major medical obstacle to vasectomy is its uncertain reversibility. For legal and other reasons, the vasectomy operator should carefully screen each couple, require a 2-3 month waiting period, obtain informed consent, provide a specimen for a sperm bank, limit the operation to men aged at least 35-40 years with 2 or 3 children, and obtain a psychiatric evaluation of the motivation and stability of the couple. PMID:12268062

  13. Sterile water irrigation of the distal vas deferens at vasectomy: does it accelerate clearance of sperm? a prospective randomized trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Mason; Lachlan Dodds; Satchi K. Swami

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effect of irrigation of the distal vas deferens with sterile water at the time of vasectomy on sperm clearance. Is it possible to accelerate clearance and avoid the problem of lingering sperm?Methods. Two hundred men undergoing vasectomy were randomized to receive either a standard vasectomy or vasectomy plus irrigation of each vas deferens with sterile water.

  14. Post-Vasectomy Depression: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Subahani

    2014-01-01

    Vasectomy is a commonly performed and relatively safe procedure, with low reported rates of psychological morbidity, though there is some variability across studies. Depression following a vasectomy is relatively infrequent. A married man aged 30 developed a chronic depressive episode, lasting four years and resistant to an adequate trial of fluoxetine, following a vasectomy. His depression was heralded by a post-operative panic attack, and was accompanied by medically unexplained symptoms and the attribution of all his symptoms to the procedure – a belief that was shared by his family. Psychological complications of vasectomy have generally been studied under four heads: sexual dysfunction, effects on marital relationships, chronic post-operative pain, and other complications including anxiety and depression. These complications have generally been reported at higher rates in developing countries, and are linked to poor knowledge about the procedure and inadequate pre-operative counseling. The implications of the existing literature for the patient’s current complaints, and the mechanisms and risk factors involved, are discussed in the light of existing research. Suggestions for the prevention and treatment of post-vasectomy depression are also outlined. PMID:25553234

  15. Prooxidant-antioxidant balance and malondialdehyde over time in adult rats after tubal sterilization and vasectomy

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Azita; Seifi, Behjat; Shabanzadeh, Alireza; Ebrahimpoor, Mitra

    2012-01-01

    Objective Sterilization (tubal sterilization and vasectomy) is a widely applied contraceptive method worldwide. Although most studies have described sterilization as a safe method, there are reports of tubal ligation (TL) and vasectomy complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of TL and vasectomy on the serum oxidative stress, specifically prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, over time. Methods Male and female rats were classified into vasectomy, sham-vasectomy, TL, and sham-TL groups, respectively. The PAB and MDA levels were measured on days 15 and 45 and months 3 and 6 after the intervention. For female rats, blood sampling was performed during the diestrous phase and estradiol and progesterone were also measured. Results Serum PAB and MDA increased after TL (p<0.05). Vasectomy increased serum MDA remarkably after 45 days, 3 months, and 6 months (p<0.05). After vasectomy, serum PAB also increased although not significantly. Serum estradiol and progesterone decreased remarkably in the TL group compared to the sham group (p<0.05). Conclusion Bilateral TL and vasectomy both increase the serum oxidative stress; however the imbalance after TL was very noticeable. As for the TL, the reduction of serum estrogen levels can be involved in this imbalance. Complications followed by TL or vasectomy could be due to increased levels of oxidants. Thus, prescribing antioxidants during and or after surgery may be a solution. PMID:22816074

  16. He's a real man: a qualitative study of the social context of couples' vasectomy decisions among a racially diverse population.

    PubMed

    Shih, Grace; Dubé, Kate; Sheinbein, Miriam; Borrero, Sonya; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2013-05-01

    Vasectomy has advantages with respect to safety and cost when compared with female sterilization. The reasons underlying the overall low use of vasectomy, particularly among Black and Latinos, have not been adequately explored. The goals of this study were to (a) explore the social context of vasectomy decisions and (b) generate hypotheses about the social factors contributing to differences in vasectomy use by race/ethnicity. Fourteen group and nine couples interviews were conducted. Participants were 37 heterosexual couples aged 25 to 55 years who had reached their desired family size and self-identified as Black, Latino, or White. Participants discussed reasons that men and women would or would not select male sterilization. Reasons to select vasectomy included a desire to care for their current family, sharing contraceptive responsibility, and infidelity. Reasons not to select vasectomy included negative associations with the term sterilization, loss of manhood, and permanence. Misconceptions about vasectomy included misunderstandings about the vasectomy procedure and adverse postvasectomy sexual function. In addition, Black and Latino participants cited perceived ease of reversibility of female sterilization and lack of support around vasectomy as reasons not to choose it. Improving communication and social support for vasectomy, particularly among Black and Latino communities, may improve vasectomy utilization. Misconceptions regarding female and male sterilization should be targeted in counseling sessions to ensure men, women, and couples are making informed contraceptive decisions. PMID:23144022

  17. Post-vasectomy impairment of transepithelial water reabsorption in the initial segment of the epididymis.

    PubMed

    Hohlbrugger, G; Pfaller, K

    1983-12-01

    Using a modified split-droplet micropuncture technique there was an impairment of water reabsorption in the initial segment of the epididymis 2 weeks post vasectomy. This was supported by light-microscopy. The cause and a possible reversal of this impairment are not apparent. However, in men, low sperm counts post vasectomy reversal and eventually otherwise could be attributed not only to suppression of spermatogenesis in the testis but also to impairment of sperm concentration in the epididymis. PMID:6660976

  18. Vas deferens occlusion during no-scalpel vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R D

    1994-12-01

    The increasing popularity of the no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) technique in the United States is driven by patient demand for surgical procedures presumed to be less invasive and by the somewhat lower complication rate of the NSV technique. The NSV technique addresses vasal delivery but not vasal occlusion. Intraluminal red-hot wire cautery with sheath closure over the inguinal end of the cut vas (Schmidt's method) has the lowest failure rate of all reasonable vas occlusion methods. The anatomical relationships of scrotal layers can be unclear during the NSV technique. Accurate identification of the sheath layer is critical to sheath interruption if this method of occlusion is to be used. Placement of an absorbable purse-string suture for sheath interruption during the NSV procedure is described. Special attention must be given to placement of one suture bite in the deep (posterior) sheath wall. The vasal occlusion technique described in this paper blends a refined method of vasal delivery (NSV) with the most effective method of vasal occlusion (cautery with sheath interruption). PMID:7798862

  19. Two thousand voluntary vasectomies performed in California: background factors and comments.

    PubMed

    Poffenberger, T

    1963-11-01

    Opposing points of view which have a bearing on individual action relative to voluntary male sterilization are discussed, and data from the files of a California surgeon which provide some indication of interest in voluntary vasectomy in a limited area of the state are presented. The medical associations tend to place emphasis on the legal aspects of such surgery while the Human Betterment Association of America (HBAA) is more concerned with the humanitarian aspects. Data on 2007 patients who underwent vasectomy operations are given. In each instance, the patient's wife was asked to sign a release indicating agreement that surgery be performed; there were no other requirements or complications. The surgeon reported that there have been no cases of serious complications following the operation, nor has he encountered a single court action or been threatened by court action. The number of cases increased from 1956 to 1961. The mean age of the men at the time they had the vasectomy was 31.8 years. 66.2% of the sample reported having 3 or fewer children. Not only were men pleased with the result of the operation but they talked about its advantages freely and attempted, often with success, to convince others to have it done. The men came several hundred miles to have the operation in some cases. In 85.6% of the cases, there was no medical problem stated as a reason for requesting vasectomy. PMID:12275536

  20. Vasectomy project launched in Turkey. Turkey's first VSC clinic.

    PubMed

    1992-03-01

    One third of young married couples are currently using modern methods of contraception. Recent studies indicate that more than 30% of Turkey's married couples use withdrawal as their means of fertility control and only slightly more than 1% of Turkish families have opted for female sterilization. There is certainly an higher proportion of reproductive age married couples in Turkey which have completed their family size and could enjoy the advantages of permanent contraceptive methods. There has been little effort, however, on the part of the Turkish government to provide men with information and education on male voluntary surgical contraception (VSC), and the appropriate counseling and surgical services. As in many Asian, Islamic societies, the idea of males learning about and practicing family planning has long been culturally unacceptable. The Human Resource Development Foundation, with the assistance of Pathfinder International, opened the first VSC clinic for men in May 1989 in Ankara. This initiative makes Pathfinder the first private voluntary organization to establish a project offering VSC methods to Turkey's male population through hospital clinics. The urology department of the Ankara Social Security Hospital serves as the site for the project's counseling and training network. From that department, the project director and supervisor coordinate the development and establishment of male family planning clinics in surrounding hospitals. In just over two years, 19 urologists have been trained in VSC procedures and counseling, and more than 700 men have had vasectomies using the no-scalpel technique. An additional 6000 clients, both men and women, have received counseling on VSC procedures and the project's popularity continues to grow. The project expanded in 1991 into Istanbul and Izmir in response to growing demand for services. It is possible that even more expansion of VSC services is on the horizon in Turkey. PMID:12179681

  1. Scoring men: vasectomies and the totemic illusion of male sexuality in Oaxaca.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Matthew C

    2005-03-01

    This paper discusses research on men's reproductive health and sexuality in Oaxaca, Mexico, and specifically why some men there choose to be sterilized. Men who opt for vasectomies do so after considering numerous cultural, historical, physiological, commercial, and other concerns. Men and women in Oaxaca negotiate certain cultural folk beliefs about supposed male sexual desires and practices before arriving at the decision to get the operation. Vasectomy as a method of birth control is chosen despite folk beliefs that take the form of a totemic illusion which treats male sexuality as naturalized, something fixed, and as entirely distinct from female sexuality. Among its many consequences, this totemic illusion serves to conceal inequalities in the sphere of reproductive health and sexuality in relation to contraception. PMID:16108204

  2. Changes in the contractile activity of the male genital tract as a consequence of vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Hib, J

    1988-01-01

    The contractile activity of the cauda epididymidis and vas deferens was registered in the rat under a video camera at intervals up to 180 days after vasectomy. A rhythmic peristaltic activity was detected as early as 24 hours after operation, specially in the distal cauda epididymidis. The contractions increased progressively during the first 30 days after vasectomies. Thereafter, the activity remained stabilized as far as 180 days following the surgery. The contractions were more frequent in the genital tracts without granulomas than in those with this complication. When the ductus exhibited an excessive distention their muscle walls did not show any contractility, which was not recovered even when a partial incision was made in the vas deferens to diminish the tube dilatation. Since a normal pattern of sperm transport would be necessary to achieve sperm maturation, it could be speculated that persistence of infertility after vasovasostomies in human could be related with a loss of an adequate ductal activity. PMID:3188959

  3. [Ischemic testicular necrosis following vasectomy: rare and typical complications of an outpatient procedure].

    PubMed

    Rolfes, N; Lümmen, G

    2011-10-01

    Taking the clinical case of a patient who developed unilateral testicular necrosis following vasectomy as a starting point, the early and late complications of this procedure are described based on a literature review.In the USA 7% of all men undergo vasectomy, as compared to 2% in Germany. Early postoperative complications include bleeding/hematoma (0.5-18%), infection (0.3-32.9%), epididymitis (0.4-6.1%), granuloma (0.07-90%), and rare complications such as vas deferens abscess, vesicular gland abscess, vasovenous fistula, testicular necrosis, arteriovenous fistula, pulmonary embolism, endocarditis, scrotal skin necrosis and Fournier's disease which mostly have been reported in the form of case reports. Late complications are chronic pain (0.5-18%), pain during sex (2.9%), hydrocele (0-4%) as well as spermatocele (1.6%). There is a failure rate of 4.3-16% as concluded from the number of patients with nonmotile sperm in the post-vasectomy semen analysis. The postoperative paternity rate is 0-4%.Bilateral vasectomy is a secure way of contraception; perioperative and late complications are on an average rare, however, with a range up to 90%. In individual cases severe complications occur, which should be detected at an early stage. Therefore a close follow-up should be maintained after this outpatient procedure. One should ask for risk factors of endocarditis or thrombosis preoperatively. The patient should be informed of the possible loss of a testicle because of the severity of this complication. Postoperative semen analysis is obligatory. PMID:21845426

  4. Adrenergic innervation of the male reproductive ducts in some mammals. II. Effects of vasectomy and castration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-A. Norberg; Paul L. Risley; U. Ungerstedt

    1967-01-01

    Résumé Après vasectomie complète, pratiquée sur des rats, la fluorescence des terminaisons nervcuses, ainsi que la substance transmettrice, disparaît le long du canal déférent et de l'extrémité de l'épididyme en deçà de la lésion. Chez les chats, les terminaisons nerveuses dans les canalicules efférents et la tête de l'épididyme ne disparaissent pas après l'opération. Dans la direction de la glande

  5. Application of optical coherence tomography and high-frequency ultrasound imaging during noninvasive laser vasectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A noninvasive approach to vasectomy may eliminate male fear of complications related to surgery and increase its acceptance. Noninvasive laser thermal occlusion of the canine vas deferens has recently been reported. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) are compared for monitoring laser thermal coagulation of the vas in an acute canine model. Bilateral noninvasive laser coagulation of the vas was performed in six dogs (n=12 vasa) using a Ytterbium fiber laser wavelength of 1075 nm, incident power of 9.0 W, pulse duration of 500 ms, pulse rate of 1 Hz, and 3-mm-diameter spot. Cryogen spray cooling was used to prevent skin burns during the procedure. An OCT system with endoscopic probe and a HFUS system with 20-MHz transducer were used to image the vas immediately before and after the procedure. Vasa were then excised and processed for gross and histologic analysis for comparison with OCT and HFUS images. OCT provided high-resolution, superficial imaging of the compressed vas within the vas ring clamp, while HFUS provided deeper imaging of the vas held manually in the scrotal fold. Both OCT and high HFUS are promising imaging modalities for real-time confirmation of vas occlusion during noninvasive laser vasectomy. PMID:22559684

  6. The best infertility treatment for vasectomized men: assisted reproduction or vasectomy reversal?

    PubMed

    Pasqualotto, Fábio Firmbach; Lucon, Antônio Marmo; Sobreiro, Bernardo Passos; Pasqualotto, Eleonora Bedin; Arap, Sami

    2004-10-01

    In men with prior vasectomy, microsurgical reconstruction of the reproductive tract is more cost-effective than sperm retrieval with in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection if the obstructive interval is less than 15 years and no female fertility risk factors are present. If epididymal obstruction is detected or advanced female age is present, the decision to use either microsurgical reconstruction or sperm retrieval with in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection should be individualized. Sperm retrieval with in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection is preferred to surgical treatment when female factors requiring in vitro fertilization are present or when the chance for success with sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection exceeds the chance for success with surgical treatment. PMID:15543406

  7. Vasectomy Reversal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vas. So this is a marker to prevent torsion of the vas. We're making sure that ... important that they're aligned appropriately to prevent torsion or undue tension on the anastomosis. and also ...

  8. Vasectomy Reversal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in both print and download format. View Products Urology Care Foundation 1000 Corporate Boulevard Linthicum, MD 21090 ... Conditions Financials & Annual Report Leadership Privacy Statement © 2015 Urology Care Foundation | All Rights Reserved.

  9. Utero-tubal embryo transfer and vasectomy in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Alvarez, Pablo; Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of preimplantation embryos to a surrogate female is a required step for the production of genetically modified mice or to study the effects of epigenetic alterations originated during preimplantation development on subsequent fetal development and adult health. The use of an effective and consistent embryo transfer technique is crucial to enhance the generation of genetically modified animals and to determine the effect of different treatments on implantation rates and survival to term. Embryos at the blastocyst stage are usually transferred by uterine transfer, performing a puncture in the uterine wall to introduce the embryo manipulation pipette. The orifice performed in the uterus does not close after the pipette has been withdrawn, and the embryos can outflow to the abdominal cavity due to the positive pressure of the uterus. The puncture can also produce a hemorrhage that impairs implantation, blocks the transfer pipette and may affect embryo development, especially when embryos without zona are transferred. Consequently, this technique often results in very variable and overall low embryo survival rates. Avoiding these negative effects, utero-tubal embryo transfer take advantage of the utero-tubal junction as a natural barrier that impedes embryo outflow and avoid the puncture of the uterine wall. Vasectomized males are required for obtaining pseudopregnant recipients. A technique to perform vasectomy is described as a complement to the utero-tubal embryo transfer. PMID:24637845

  10. Nonscalpel vasectomy as family planning method: a battle yet to be conquered.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Choudhary, Deepti; Chaurasia, Ashish; Pandey, Satya Deo

    2013-01-01

    Though nonscalpel vasectomy (NSV) technique was introduced in India in 1992 to increase male participation in family planning, it has failed to get adequate momentum and to achieve its goal. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey to get insight into apathy of men towards NSV. The study included 428 respondents. Most of the respondents (97.4%) were aware of NSV as a method for permanent male sterilization. The majority of them (97.2%) knew that NSV is done without any charge and cash incentive is given to the NSV client after the procedure. Though 68.0% respondents agreed that permanent sterilization is a possible option for them, only 34.1% respondents were willing to adopt NSV as a method of family planning. Fear of surgical procedure (40.7%), permanent nature of procedure (22.2%), and religious belief (19.0%) were the common reasons for unwillingness to adopt NSV. We conclude that there is a need to design and develop need-based information, education and communication (IEC) strategy to bridge the existing information gap among the eligible couples regarding NSV to improve its adoption. Involvement of community leaders and satisfied clients and utilization of television and radio would enhance the effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:23691369

  11. Nonscalpel Vasectomy as Family Planning Method: A Battle Yet to Be Conquered

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Choudhary, Deepti; Chaurasia, Ashish; Pandey, Satya Deo

    2013-01-01

    Though nonscalpel vasectomy (NSV) technique was introduced in India in 1992 to increase male participation in family planning, it has failed to get adequate momentum and to achieve its goal. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey to get insight into apathy of men towards NSV. The study included 428 respondents. Most of the respondents (97.4%) were aware of NSV as a method for permanent male sterilization. The majority of them (97.2%) knew that NSV is done without any charge and cash incentive is given to the NSV client after the procedure. Though 68.0% respondents agreed that permanent sterilization is a possible option for them, only 34.1% respondents were willing to adopt NSV as a method of family planning. Fear of surgical procedure (40.7%), permanent nature of procedure (22.2%), and religious belief (19.0%) were the common reasons for unwillingness to adopt NSV. We conclude that there is a need to design and develop need-based information, education and communication (IEC) strategy to bridge the existing information gap among the eligible couples regarding NSV to improve its adoption. Involvement of community leaders and satisfied clients and utilization of television and radio would enhance the effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:23691369

  12. The Assessment of Post-Vasectomy Pain in Mice Using Behaviour and the Mouse Grimace Scale

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Matthew C.; Klaus, Kristel; Miller, Amy L.; Scotto di Perrotolo, Maud; Sotocinal, Susana G.; Flecknell, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Current behaviour-based pain assessments for laboratory rodents have significant limitations. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may overcome some of these limitations. The Mouse Grimace Scale appears to offer a means of assessing post-operative pain in mice that is as effective as manual behavioural-based scoring, without the limitations of such schemes. Effective assessment of post-operative pain is not only critical for animal welfare, but also the validity of science using animal models. Methodology/Principal Findings This study compared changes in behaviour assessed using both an automated system (“HomeCageScan”) and using manual analysis with changes in facial expressions assessed using the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS). Mice (n?=?6/group) were assessed before and after surgery (scrotal approach vasectomy) and either received saline, meloxicam or bupivacaine. Both the MGS and manual scoring of pain behaviours identified clear differences between the pre and post surgery periods and between those animals receiving analgesia (20 mg/kg meloxicam or 5 mg/kg bupivacaine) or saline post-operatively. Both of these assessments were highly correlated with those showing high MGS scores also exhibiting high frequencies of pain behaviours. Automated behavioural analysis in contrast was only able to detect differences between the pre and post surgery periods. Conclusions In conclusion, both the Mouse Grimace Scale and manual scoring of pain behaviours are assessing the presence of post-surgical pain, whereas automated behavioural analysis could be detecting surgical stress and/or post-surgical pain. This study suggests that the Mouse Grimace Scale could prove to be a quick and easy means of assessing post-surgical pain, and the efficacy of analgesic treatment in mice that overcomes some of the limitations of behaviour-based assessment schemes. PMID:22558191

  13. The use of vasectomy in stray cat population control 

    E-print Network

    Mahlow, Jane Caryl

    1995-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts by animal control agencies and animal welfare advocates, stray cats continue to present ethical and public health dilemmas. Modern methods of control include capture followed by adoption or euthanasia and, more recently...

  14. Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth: Vasectomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NCHS Home Surveys and Data Collection Systems Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth V ... Survey of Family Growth Staff Division of Vital Statistics National Center for Health Statistics 3311 Toledo Road ...

  15. Staphylococcus lugdunensis endocarditis following vasectomy - report of a case history and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schandiz, Hossein; Olav Hermansen, Nils; Jørgensen, Trond; Roald, Borghild

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS), and part of the normal skin flora. The bacterium is an emerging pathogen that, unlike other CoNS, resembles coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus infections in virulence, tissue destruction, and clinical course. We report a fatal case following minor surgery. The frequency of S. lugdunensis infections has probably been underestimated and under-reported in the past as few clinical laboratories routinely identify coagulase-negative Staphylococci. PMID:26058423

  16. A Retrospective Review of Factors Associated with Vasovasostomies in United States Military Members

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, J.; Avalos, E.; Santomauro, M.; Walters, R.; Marguet, C.; L'Esperance, J.; Drain, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Men seeking a vasectomy should receive counseling prior to the procedure that includes discussion of later seeking a reversal. We sought to determine demographic factors that may predispose patients to possibly later seek a vasectomy reversal. Methods All U.S. Military electronic health records were searched between 2000 and 2009 for either a vasectomy or vasovasostomy procedure code. Aggregate demographic information was collected and statistical analysis performed. Result A total of 82,945 patients had a vasectomy of which 4,485 had a vasovasostomy resulting in a vasovasostomy-to-vasectomy rate of 5.04%. The average age at vasovasostomy was 34.9±5.0, with an average interval of 4.1±2.2 years. Men undergoing a vasectomy at a younger age were more likely to have a vasovasostomy. Various religions did have statistically significant differences. Within ethnic groups, only Native Americans [OR=1.39 (95% CI 1.198-1.614)] and Asians [OR=0.501 (95% CI 0.364-0.690)] had statistically significant differences when compared to Caucasians. Men with more children at the time of vasectomy were more likely to have a vasovasostomy. Conclusion Younger men, Native Americans, and men with more children at vasectomy were more likely to undergo a vasovasostomy. The reason for these differences is unknown, but this information may assist during pre-vasectomy counseling. PMID:24917734

  17. 42 CFR 9.3 - Sanctuary policies and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...established policy; (7 ) Establish procedures to prevent any reproduction in the colony through appropriate permanent birth control, preferably by vasectomy of all sexually mature male chimpanzees in the sanctuary; and (8 ) Develop...

  18. 42 CFR 9.3 - Sanctuary policies and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...established policy; (7 ) Establish procedures to prevent any reproduction in the colony through appropriate permanent birth control, preferably by vasectomy of all sexually mature male chimpanzees in the sanctuary; and (8 ) Develop...

  19. 42 CFR 9.3 - Sanctuary policies and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...established policy; (7 ) Establish procedures to prevent any reproduction in the colony through appropriate permanent birth control, preferably by vasectomy of all sexually mature male chimpanzees in the sanctuary; and (8 ) Develop...

  20. 42 CFR 9.3 - Sanctuary policies and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...established policy; (7 ) Establish procedures to prevent any reproduction in the colony through appropriate permanent birth control, preferably by vasectomy of all sexually mature male chimpanzees in the sanctuary; and (8 ) Develop...

  1. 42 CFR 9.3 - Sanctuary policies and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...established policy; (7 ) Establish procedures to prevent any reproduction in the colony through appropriate permanent birth control, preferably by vasectomy of all sexually mature male chimpanzees in the sanctuary; and (8 ) Develop...

  2. PubMed Central

    Labrecque, Michel

    1987-01-01

    Vasectomy is done by a family physician at the family planning clinic of le Centre Hospitalier de l'Université Laval. The technique used combines an occlusion with metal clips and an excision of one to two centimetres of the vas deferens. The post-operative complications encountered with 304 vasectomies were hematomas (4%), infections of the scotal skin (1%), orchi-epididymitis (1%) and granulomas (1%). All these problems were treated on an out-patient basis, and no consultation with specialists was required. Of 151 patients who came back for a post-vasectomy semen examination, one had a test result showing motile spermatozoa. These figures are comparable to other results published. The family physician can easily incorporate this simple and safe procedure into his practice. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263976

  3. Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…

  4. Time course of changes in sperm morphometry and semen variables during testosterone-induced suppression of human spermatogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Garrett; D. Y. Liu; R. I. McLachlan; H. W. G. Baker

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantification of changes in semen may give insight into the testosterone (T)-induced disruption of spermatogenesis in man. METHODS: A model analogous to flushing of sperm from the genital tract after vasectomy was used to quantify the time course of semen changes in subjects participating in male contraceptive trials using 800 mg T-implant (n = 25) or 200 mg weekly

  5. Title: Effect of seminal plasma fractions from entire and vasectomised rams on the motility characteristics, membrane status and in vitro fertility of ram spermatozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Racha El-Hajj Ghaoui; Lindsay Gillian; Peter C. Thomson; Gareth Evans; W. M. Chis Maxwell

    Whole seminal plasma from ram semen collected before and after vasectomy was separated into 2 fractions, supernatant and pellet of vesicles, and their protein profiles characterized by one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis. The effects of autologous whole seminal plasma and these fractions on motility characteristics (assessed subjectively and by computer- assisted sperm analysis), membrane status (assessed by chlortetra- cycline staining patterns),

  6. Vas deferens A model used to establish sympathetic cotransmission

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    neuromodulation. It has also been used to study sympathetic reinnervation following vasectomy and castration]. Subpopulations of sym- pathetic nerve fibres in the human vas deferens contain somatostatin and galanin as well in subpopulations of both sympathetic and non-sympathetic nerves in the human vas deferens [12]. Histamine

  7. The Censorship of "Maude": A Case Study in the Social Construction of Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihevc, Nancy T.; And Others

    The concept of reality held by individuals and societies can be explored by examining reactions to the censorship of the two-part television show in the "Maude" series that dealt with abortion and vasectomy. The station managements of WMBD in Peoria, Illinois, and of WCIA in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, chose not to broadcast the two "Maude"…

  8. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    PubMed

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception option in zoo animals, even in endangered species. Ongoing use of gamete and embryo freezing may salvage vanishing species. PMID:24437091

  9. Chromosomes of human sperm: Variability among normal individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Brandriff; L. Gordon; L. Ashworth; G. Watchmaker; D. Moore; A. J. Wyrobek; A. V. Carrano

    1985-01-01

    The chromosomal constitution of 2468 human sperm cells been investigated by fusion of human sperm with hamster eggs. The overall frequency of cells with structural aberrations was 7.7%, ranging from 1.9% to 15.8%, and varying significantly among individuals. The highest frequency occurred in sperm from the oldest donor (49 years), who also had had a vasectomy reversal three years prior

  10. Antioxidant activity in the semen of fertile and infertile men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armand Zini; Kristina Garrels; Donna Phang

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate catalase- and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activities in the seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men.Methods. Semen samples were obtained from consecutive men presenting for vasectomy (n = 12) and infertility evaluation (n = 105) at our institution. Catalase-like activity was measured by the decrease in hydrogen peroxide after incubation with seminal plasma. SOD-like activity was measured as

  11. Polychlorobiphenyl congeners, p,p? DDE, and sperm function in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Bush; Alan H. Bennett; John T. Snow

    1986-01-01

    170 seminal samples from fertile men, men with idiopathic oligospermia or azoospermia and men status post vasectomy were analyzed for 74 polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners,p,p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene using the technique of glass capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Low concentrations of 32 PCB congeners were measured (mean total PCB residue of 5.8 ng\\/g wet weight). The application of multiple

  12. Noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Jarow, Jonathan P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2009-02-01

    Male sterilization (vasectomy) is more successful, safer, less expensive, and easier to perform than female sterilization (tubal ligation). However, female sterilization is more popular, due to male fear of vasectomy complications (e.g. incision, bleeding, infection, and scrotal pain). The development of a completely noninvasive vasectomy technique may allay some of these concerns. Ytterbium fiber laser radiation with a wavelength of 1075 nm, average power of 11.7 W, 1-s pulse duration, 0.5 Hz pulse rate, and 3-mm-diameter spot was synchronized with cryogen cooling of the scrotal skin surface in canine tissue for a treatment time of 60 s. Vas thermal lesion dimensions measured 2.0 +/- 0.3 mm diameter by 3.0 +/- 0.9 mm length, without skin damage. The coagulated vas bursting pressure measured 295 +/- 72 mm Hg, significantly higher than typical vas ejaculation pressures of 136 + 29 mm Hg. Noninvasive thermal coagulation and occlusion of the vas is feasible.

  13. Application of an optical clearing agent during noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Jarow, Jonathan P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-07-01

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications and result in a more popular procedure. This study explores application of an optical clearing agent (OCA) to scrotal skin to reduce laser power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy and eliminate scrotal skin burns. A mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol was noninvasively delivered into scrotal skin using a pneumatic jet device. Near-infrared laser radiation was delivered in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling to the skin surface in a canine model, ex vivo and in vivo. Burst pressure (BP) measurements were conducted to quantify strength of vas closure. A 30-min application of OCA improved skin transparency by 26+/-3%, reducing average power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy from 9.2 W without OCA (BP=291+/-31 mmHg) to 7.0 W with OCA (BP=292+/-19 mmHg). Control studies without OCA at 7.0 W failed to coagulate the vas with burst pressures (82+/-28 mmHg) significantly below typical ejaculation pressures (136+/-29 mmHg). Application of an OCA reduced the laser power necessary for successful noninvasive thermal coagulation of the vas by ~25%. This technique may result in use of a less expensive laser and eliminate the formation of scrotal skin burns during the procedure.

  14. Use of an optical clearing agent during noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, ex vivo and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Jarow, Jonathan P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-02-01

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications and result in a more popular procedure. This study explores application of an optical clearing agent (OCA) to the scrotal skin to reduce both the laser power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy and the probability of scrotal skin burns. A mixture of DMSO/glycerol was noninvasively delivered into the scrotal skin using a Madajet. Near-infrared laser radiation with a range of average powers (7.0-11.7 W) was delivered in conjunction with a range of cryogen spray cooling rates (0.20-0.33 Hz) to the skin surface in a canine model, ex vivo and in vivo. Burst pressure (BP) measurements were conducted to quantify the strength of vas closure. A 30-min application of the OCA improved skin transparency by 26 +/- 5 %, reducing the average power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy from 9.2 W without OCA (BP = 291 +/- 31 mmHg) to 7.0 W with OCA (BP = 292 +/- 19 mmHg). Control studies without OCA at 7.0 W failed to coagulate the vas with burst pressures (82 +/- 28 mmHg) significantly below typical ejaculation pressures (136 +/- 29 mmHg). Application of an optical clearing agent reduced the laser power necessary for successful noninvasive thermal coagulation of the vas by approximately 25%. This technique may result in the use of a less expensive laser system and eliminate the formation of scrotal skin burns during the procedure.

  15. Application of an optical clearing agent during noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens

    PubMed Central

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Jarow, Jonathan P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications and result in a more popular procedure. This study explores application of an optical clearing agent (OCA) to scrotal skin to reduce laser power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy and eliminate scrotal skin burns. A mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol was noninvasively delivered into scrotal skin using a pneumatic jet device. Near-infrared laser radiation was delivered in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling to the skin surface in a canine model, ex vivo and in vivo. Burst pressure (BP) measurements were conducted to quantify strength of vas closure. A 30-min application of OCA improved skin transparency by 26±3%, reducing average power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy from 9.2 W without OCA (BP=291±31 mmHg) to 7.0 W with OCA (BP=292±19 mmHg). Control studies without OCA at 7.0 W failed to coagulate the vas with burst pressures (82±28 mmHg) significantly below typical ejaculation pressures (136±29 mmHg). Application of an OCA reduced the laser power necessary for successful noninvasive thermal coagulation of the vas by ?25%. This technique may result in use of a less expensive laser and eliminate the formation of scrotal skin burns during the procedure. PMID:20799844

  16. Surveying outpatient services in the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Rich, M

    1989-04-01

    In the fall 1988, a survey of the availability of voluntary sterilization services was conducted in 5 southwestern states -- Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah. In each state, information was gathered on outpatient sterilization services in both the public and private sectors. Brief questionnaires were mailed to family planning clinics, private physicians, freestanding surgery centers, health maintenance organizations (HMO's), and other health care providers. This mail survey was followed with over 50 telephone interviews with outpatient sterilization providers. The were several trends in common in all 5 states. In general, vasectomies in the Southwest, as in other parts of the US, were most commonly performed in either hospital clinics or freestanding surgery centers. Several clinic administrators and private physicians reported that they provide counseling for female procedures at their offices but that the surgery is performed elsewhere. The costs for female sterilization were very high throughout the region, constituting a significant barrier to services for women without medical insurance. Only 1 provider in the 5 states reported performing tubal occlusion for less than $1000. 2 other clinics referred patients to providers who charged under $1000 -- 1 to a clinic in California and the other to a private physician in Arizona. Vasectomies were much more reasonably priced in the Southwest than in other regions of the US, tending to cost between $100-$400, depending on the provider and location. In general, vasectomies performed in clinics were less expensive than those done in private physicians' offices. Clinics often offered sliding scale fees based on the client's ability to pay. Male and female sterilization services were most widely available in urban areas. Some information is presented on the availability of abortion services in each of the 5 individual states. In Arizona, 2 Planned Parenthood clinics were successfully providing vasectomies. Arizona also was unique in the assistance it provided to low-income persons. In Colorado, low-income persons had difficulty obtaining sterilization services. The costs for female sterilization were high. Sterilizations provided by the private sector in New Mexico were expensive. Far more female than male sterilizations were performed with public funds. Services in Nevada were scarce because of high costs and a limited number of providers. Compared to the 4 other states, costs for voluntary sterilization were relatively low in Utah. PMID:12315715

  17. Serum agglutinating and immobilising sperm antibodies in men attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic.

    PubMed

    Hargreave, T B; Harvey, J; Elton, R A; McMillan, A

    1984-01-01

    The tray slide agglutination test (TAT) and micro immobilisation test (MIT) to detect antisperm antibodies were carried out on serum samples from 217 men attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), 151 fertile men requesting vasectomy and 645 men with a marriage with primary infertility. There was no difference in results between the fertile men and the men attending the clinic for sexually transmitted diseases although both sets of results differ from those of the infertile men. These results make it unlikely that venereal disease will trigger antisperm antibody production. PMID:6547577

  18. Robot-assisted microsurgery in male infertility and andrology.

    PubMed

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2014-11-01

    Use of the operative microscope marked a new era for microsurgery in male infertility and andrology in the 1970s. More than a decade has passed since the initial description of the first robotic-assisted microsurgical vasovasostomy. Large single-center series have recently been published on robotic-assisted microsurgery for vasectomy reversal, especially in the past few years. Multicenter studies are also beginning to be reported, and the potential for this new platform for microsurgery is starting to become more apparent. This article describes the basic technical details of robotic-assisted microsurgery in male infertility and andrology, and reviews the latest literature. PMID:25306167

  19. Human robotic assisted bilateral vasoepididymostomy and vasovasostomy procedures: initial safety and efficacy trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekattil, Sijo J.; Cohen, Marc S.; Vieweg, Johannes W.

    2009-02-01

    Our goal was to develop a robotic approach for vasoepididymostomy (RAVE) and vasovasostomy (RAVV) using a 4 arm High Definition Platform (Intuitive Surgical, CA) and present our human in-vivo results. All 3 RAVV procedures were successful and one patient had 102 million motile sperm/ml of ejaculate at 1 month post-op. The RAVE procedure patient only had a few non-motile sperm at 6 month follow up in his ejaculate. The use of robotics seems to offer advantages in terms of ergonomics and suture control. Further evaluation is needed to assess the clinical potential of robotics in vasectomy reversal.

  20. Effect of seminal plasma fractions from entire and vasectomized rams on the motility characteristics, membrane status, and in vitro fertility of ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ghaoui, Racha El-Hajj; Gillan, Lindsay; Thomson, Peter C; Evans, Gareth; Maxwell, W M Chis

    2007-01-01

    Whole seminal plasma from ram semen collected before and after vasectomy was separated into 2 fractions, supernatant and pellet of vesicles, and their protein profiles characterized by one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis. The effects of autologous whole seminal plasma and these fractions on motility characteristics (assessed subjectively and by computer-assisted sperm analysis), membrane status (assessed by chlortetracycline staining patterns), and in vitro fertility (assessed by fertilization success and timing of fertilization events) of washed frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa were studied. Regardless of vasectomy, whole seminal plasma and supernatant displayed similar protein patterns. These fractions, when included in the postthaw buffer, improved the motility characteristics (59.6% +/- 6.21% and 39.6% +/- 6.21% vs 31.7% +/- 6.46% and 15.5% +/- 6.46% total motility) and membrane integrity (36.6% +/- 8.52% and 31.2% +/- 8.19% vs 30.3% +/- 11.49% and 21.6% +/- 10.28% B staining pattern [characteristic of capacitated acrosome-intact cells] for whole seminal plasma and supernatant vs control at 3 and 6 hours of postthaw incubation, respectively) of frozen-thawed spermatozoa and improved their ability to fertilize in vitro-matured oocytes compared with control buffer without seminal plasma fractions (25.3%, 47.4%, and 37.4% vs 12.3%, 20.2%, and 20.5% oocytes fertilized for spermatozoa incubated with supernatant vs control at 2, 6, and 18 hours after insemination, respectively). Vesicles were absent from semen collected after vasectomy. Pellets of vesicles collected before vasectomy had no effect on spermatozoa at their normal protein concentration but marginally improved both motility characteristics and in vitro fertility, possibly due to contamination from supernatant proteins, when their concentration in the postthaw medium was increased by threefold. It was concluded that the vesicle-free supernatant fraction of seminal plasma, but not the seminal plasma membrane vesicles, improved the function and fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa when added to the postthaw medium. PMID:16928891

  1. Male contraception: history and development.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Paul; Wald, Moshe

    2014-02-01

    Although the twentieth century has seen great strides in the development of female contraception, not a single new agent has been introduced as an approved method for common use for male contraception. Condoms (considered uncomfortable by some) and vasectomy (a permanent invasive procedure) are the only options provided to men, leaving an undue burden on women to bear contraceptive responsibility. Significant developments have, however, been made with regard to hormonal and nonhormonal contraception, and minor, reversible, procedural contraception. This article reviews the currently available, soon to be available, and theoretically possible methods of male contraception. PMID:24286773

  2. A comparison of ABAcard(®) p30 and RSID™-Semen test kits for forensic semen identification.

    PubMed

    Boward, Emily S; Wilson, Stacey L

    2013-11-01

    The screening and confirmatory tests available to a forensic laboratory allow evidence to be examined for the presence of bodily fluids. With the majority of evidence being submitted involving sexual assaults, it is important to have confirmatory tests for the identification of semen that are straightforward, quick, and reliable. The purpose of this study was to compare two commonly used semen identification kits utilized by forensic laboratories: ABAcard(®) p30 and Rapid Stain Identification of Human Semen (RSID™-Semen). These kits were assessed with aged semen stains, fresh and frozen post-vasectomy semen, post-coital samples collected on different substrates, post-vasectomy semen mixed with blood, saliva, and urine, a series of swabs collected at increasing time intervals after sexual intercourse, and multiple non-semen samples. The test kits were compared on the basis of sensitivity, specificity, and the cost and time effectiveness of each protocol. Overall, both semen identification tests performed well in the studies. Both kits proved specificity for identifying semen, however the ABAcard(®) p30 test surpassed the RSID™-Semen test in sensitivity, cost per test, and simplified test protocol. PMID:24237835

  3. Analysis of the autoimmune epitopes on human testicular NASP using recombinant and synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Batova, I N; Richardson, R T; Widgren, E E; O'Rand, M G

    2000-08-01

    The human nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein, NASP, is a testicular histone-binding protein of 787 amino acids to which most vasectomized men develop autoantibodies. In this study to define the boundaries of antigenic regions and epitope recognition pattern, recombinant deletion mutants spanning the entire protein coding sequence and a human NASP cDNA sublibrary were screened with vasectomy patients' sera. Employing panel sera from 21 vasectomy patients with anti-sperm antibodies, a heterogeneous pattern of autoantibody binding to the recombinant polypeptides was detected in ELISA and immunoblotting. The majority of sera (20/21) had antibodies to one or more of the NASP fusion proteins. Antigenic sites preferentially recognized by the individual patients' sera were located within aa 32-352 and aa 572-787. Using a patient's serum selected for its reactivity to the whole recombinant protein in Western blots, cDNA clones positive for the C-terminal domain of the molecule were identified. The number and location of linear epitopes in this region were determined by synthetic peptide mapping and inhibition studies. The epitope-containing segment was delimited to the sequence aa 619-692 and analysis of a series of 74 concurrent overlapping 9mer synthetic peptides encompassing this region revealed four linear epitopes: amino acid residues IREKIEDAK (aa 648-656), KESQRSGNV (aa 656-664), AELALKATL (aa 665-673) and GFTPGGGGS (aa 680-688). All individual patients' sera reacted with epitopes within the sequence IREellipsis.GGS (aa 648-688). The strongest reactivity was displayed by peptides corresponding to the sequence AELALKATL (aa 665-673). Thus, multiple continuous autoimmune epitopes in NASP involving sequences in the conserved C-terminal domain as well as in the less conserved testis-specific N-terminal region comprising the histone-binding sites, as predicted for an antigen-driven immune response, may be a target of autoantibodies in vasectomized men and may provide a relevant laboratory variable to describe more accurately the spectrum of autoantibody specificities associated with the clinical manifestation of vasectomy. PMID:10931132

  4. Trends in male contraception.

    PubMed

    Pasqualotto, Fábio Firmbach; Lucon, Antônio Marmo; Pasqualotto, Eleonora Bedin; Arap, Sami

    2003-01-01

    Methods that are available for male contraception, namely coitus interruptus, condoms, and vasectomy, have been used since the 19th century. With the exceptions of a few improvements of these methods, no major progress has been made with respect to introducing new male contraceptives since then. It is extremely urgent to develop new, safe, effective, and reversible male contraceptive methods. Among all male contraceptive methods that are being investigated, the hormonal approach is the closest to clinical application. Hormonal contraception provides pregnancy protection by means of spermatogenic suppression. Androgen-progestin regimens currently represent the best available hormonal combination for induction of a profound suppression of spermatogenesis. Further development of new steroids is mandatory for increasing the choices of available contraceptive formulations and to optimize long-term safety of these regimens. PMID:14666325

  5. The means of contraception: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Kome, P

    1977-05-26

    For each of the following methods, a description, means of application, and effectiveness expressed in theoretical and in use/failure rate is given: 1) douching, 2) breast-feeding, 3) withdrawal, 4) condoms, 5) diaphragm, 6) spermicidal foams and jellies, 7) IUD, 8) rhythm, 9) sterilization, and 10) interception (''morning-after'' remedies). The methods which will probably be available within 5 years are described: 1) C-film, 2) vaginal ring, 3) reversible tubal ligation, 4) reversible vasectomy, 5) 20-year copper IUD, 6) silastic capsules of progestin implanted under the skin, 7) prostaglandin use in delayed menstruation, and 8) vaccine to prevent implantation. Failure rates are taken from Contraceptive Technology 1976-1977. PMID:12229613

  6. [Urological diseases most frequently involved in medical professional liability claims].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Blasco, César; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Arimany-Manso, Josep; Pera-Bajo, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Clinical safety and medical professional liability are international major concerns, especially in surgical specialties such as urology. This article analyzes the claims filed at the Council of Medical Colleges of Catalonia between 1990 and 2012, exploring urology procedures. The review of the 173 cases identified in the database highlighted the importance of surgical procedures (74%). Higher frequencies related to scrotal-testicular pathology (34%), especially testicular torsion (7.5%) and vasectomy (19.6%), and prostate pathology (26 %), more specifically the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (17.9%). Although urology is not among the specialties with the higher frequency of claims, there are special areas of litigation in which it is advisable to implement improvements in clinical safety. PMID:24913755

  7. Health on wheels: public service of a private hospital.

    PubMed

    Soriano, M B

    1977-06-01

    This article describes the history and activities of the mobile clinic field by the Lorma Medical Center in Carlatan, San Fernando, in the province of La Union. The clinic is free and offers integrated medical services to 4-5 baranguays (villages) per day, averaging 861 cases including an average of 86 family planning cases. The clinic is part of Lorma's Outreach Program which includes a daily radio program answering questions on "Better Health for You and Your Family," a seminar program for local, voluntary health assistants and an "Adopt a Family" program in which nursing students visit and care for an indigent family throughout their training. In September 1977, a mobile vasectomy clinic will begin daily rounds. The mobile clinic program has little access to remote areas because the van cannot navigate the narrow, bumpy roads. However, funding is the program's only real limitation and its possibilities for improved health and family planning services are very great. PMID:12278133

  8. First reported deliveries in Ireland using surgically retrieved sperm for non-obstructive azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A P H; Yokota, T T; Walsh, D J; Jones, B J; Coull, G D; Sills, E S

    2011-03-01

    Couples presenting with male factor infertility comprise an important proportion of clinical reproductive endocrinology consultations. Indeed, a problem with the male is the only cause, or a contributing cause, of infertility in ~40% of infertility evaluations. Here we present the first published deliveries obtained from IVF utilising surgically retrieved sperm in Ireland; pregnancy and delivery are also described following transfer of cryopreserved/thawed embryos derived from such sperm. Finding no sperm from a semen analysis in a man without a vasectomy can be a devastating event, and substantially influences the scope of the reproductive endocrinology consultation. Successful treatment of non-obstructive azoospermia is possible without reliance on anonymous donor sperm. PMID:20963511

  9. Attitudes of urban Sudanese men toward family planning.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, M A

    1988-01-01

    Using data from the Male Attitude Survey of 1985, this paper shows that Sudanese men play a major role in family planning decision-making. Attitudes regarding family planning issues are presented for 1,500 men aged 18 years and over, living in urban areas of Khartoum, the capital of Sudan. The decision not to practice family planning is found to be male-dominated, and husbands are responsible for providing contraceptives when family planning is practiced. Widespread misconceptions about vasectomy, along with a very low acceptance rate, exist among the men in the sample. It is concluded that the involvement of men in family planning programs will give these programs a better chance of success in the future. PMID:3176096

  10. Clinical guidelines on contraception and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S

    1997-09-01

    Diabetic women present an interesting challenge to the reproductive health-care physician and gynecologist. Good preconceptual counselling reduces the risk of adverse consequences of the pregnancy to the mother and the fetus and should be encouraged. Poor metabolic control has been linked with an increased risk of congenital malformations. The low-dose combined pill (COC) does not appear to increase the risk of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes. Young healthy diabetic women under 25 years old may be prescribed the low-dose COC with careful metabolic monitoring. The copper intrauterine contraceptive device is a useful choice in diabetic women with vascular disease, proliferative retinopathy and nephropathy. The progestogen-only pill and barrier methods may sometimes have unacceptable failure rates in diabetic women who may require to avoid a pregnancy at any cost. When a couple's family is complete, sterilization and vasectomy should be encouraged. PMID:9678088

  11. Robotic instrumentation: Evolution and microsurgical applications

    PubMed Central

    Parekattil, Sijo J.; Moran, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of the history and evolution of robotic instrumentation and its applications in urology. A timeline for the evolution of robotic instrumentation is presented to better facilitate an understanding of our current-day applications. Some new directions including robotic microsurgical applications (robotic assisted denervation of the spermatic cord for chronic orchialgia and robotic assisted vasectomy reversal) are presented. There is a paucity of prospective comparative effectiveness studies for a number of robotic applications. However, right or wrong, human nature has always led to our infatuation with the concept of using tools to meet our needs. This chapter is a brief tribute to where we have come from and where we may be potentially heading in the field of robotic assisted urologic surgery. PMID:21116362

  12. A Case of Duplicated Vas Deferens Found Incidentally during Varicocelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Nyung; Kim, Hyun Tae; Chung, Sung Kwang

    2013-01-01

    Duplication of the vas deferens is a very rare congenital anomaly in which two vasa deferentia coexist within the spermatic cord. Duplication of the vas deferens can be found during herniorrhaphy, vasectomy, and varicocelectomy performed on the spermatic cord or around the spermatic cord. However, it is estimated that the incidence of duplication of the vas deferens is under-reported and under-recognized. Unless anomalies of the vas deferens such as duplication of the vas deferens are recognized by surgeons, it will be difficult to reduce vas deferens injuries and achieve a satisfactory surgical outcome. In addition, care should be taken in cases of duplication of the vas deferens because it can be complicated by non-testicular genitourinary anomalies. We report a case of duplication of the vas deferens discovered during routine varicocelectomy. PMID:24459663

  13. Evaluation of Canada goose sterilization for population control.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Kathryn A.; Kennelly, James J.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the vasectomy of 72 male Canada geese as a method to control growing populations of nuisance geese in Westchester County, New York. Thirty-three of the vasectomized males paired with a female and were located during ?1 breeding seasons; 7 treated males were not seen following surgery. The remaining 32 males were never observed paired with a female during the breeding season. Of 56 nesting attempts by the 33 pairs in ?1 breeding seasons, 84% of the nests were unsuccessful. Fidelity to nest sites during the second and third breeding seasons occurred for 17 of the 18 vasectomized males and their females that were observed for ?2 seasons. The results suggest that male sterilization may reduce productivity of nuisance Canada geese providing one carefully selects areas and flocks suitable for this type of control.

  14. A dynamic family planning and health campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach. PMID:12314464

  15. Acceptability of a transdermal gel-based male hormonal contraceptive in a randomized controlled trial?, ??, ?

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Mara Y.; Shih, Grace; Ilani, Niloufar; Wang, Christina; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Blithe, Diana L.; Amory, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fifty percent of pregnancies in the United States are unintended despite numerous contraceptive methods available to women. The only male contraceptive methods, vasectomy and condoms, are used by 10% and 16% of couples, respectively. Prior studies have shown efficacy of male hormonal contraceptives in development, but few have evaluated patient acceptability and potential use if commercially available. The objective of this study is to determine if a transdermal gel-based male hormonal contraceptive regimen, containing testosterone and Nestorone® gels, would be acceptable to study participants as a primary contraceptive method. Study Design As part of a three-arm, 6-month, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of testosterone and nestorone gels at two academic medical centers, subjects completed a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of the regimen. Of the 99 men randomized, 79 provided data for analysis. Results Overall, 56% (44/79) of men were satisfied or extremely satisfied with this gel-based method of contraception, and 51% (40/79) reported that they would recommend this method to others. One third of subjects (26/79) reported that they would use this as their primary method of contraception if it were commercially available today. However, men with concerns about sexually transmitted disease were significantly less satisfied than men without such concerns (p=0.03). Conclusions A majority of the men who volunteered to participate in this trial of an experimental male hormonal contraceptive were satisfied with this transdermal male hormonal contraceptive. If commercially available, a combination of topical nesterone and testosterone gels could provide a reversible, effective method of contraception that is appealing to men. Implications A substantial portion of men report they would use this transdermal male contraceptive regimen if commercially available. This method would provide a novel, reversible method of contraception for men, whose current choices are limited to condoms and vasectomy. PMID:24981149

  16. Sperm Recovery and IVF after Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE): Effect of Male Diagnosis and Use of Off-Site Surgical Centers on Sperm Recovery and IVF

    PubMed Central

    Omurtag, Kenan; Cooper, Amber; Bullock, Arnold; Naughton, Cathy; Ratts, Valerie; Odem, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine whether testicular sperm extractions and pregnancy outcomes are influenced by male and female infertility diagnoses, location of surgical center and time to cryopreservation. Patients One hundred and thirty men undergoing testicular sperm extraction and 76 couples undergoing 123 in vitro fertilization cycles with testicular sperm. Outcome Measures Successful sperm recovery defined as 1–2 sperm/0.5 mL by diagnosis including obstructive azoospermia (n?=?60), non-obstructive azoospermia (n?=?39), cancer (n?=?14), paralysis (n?=?7) and other (n?=?10). Obstructive azoospermia was analyzed as congenital absence of the vas deferens (n?=?22), vasectomy or failed vasectomy reversal (n?=?37) and “other”(n?=?1). Sperm recovery was also evaluated by surgical site including infertility clinic (n?=?54), hospital operating room (n?=?67) and physician’s office (n?=?11). Treatment cycles were evaluated for number of oocytes, fertilization, embryo quality, implantation rate and clinical/ongoing pregnancies as related to male diagnosis, female diagnosis, and use of fresh or cryopreserved testicular sperm. Results Testicular sperm recovery from azoospermic males with all diagnoses was high (70 to 100%) except non-obstructive azoospermia (31%) and was not influenced by distance from surgical center to laboratory. Following in vitro fertilization, rate of fertilization was significantly lower with non-obstructive azoospermia (43%, p?=?<0.0001) compared to other male diagnoses (66%, p?=?<0.0001, 59% p?=?0.015). No differences were noted in clinical pregnancy rate by male diagnosis; however, the delivery rate per cycle was significantly higher with obstructive azoospermia (38% p?=?0.0371) compared to diagnoses of cancer, paralysis or other (16.7%). Women diagnosed with diminished ovarian reserve had a reduced clinical pregnancy rate (7.4% p?=?0.007) compared to those with other diagnoses (44%). Conclusion Testicular sperm extraction is a safe and effective option regardless of the etiology of the azoospermia. The type of surgical center and/or its distance from the laboratory was not related to success. Men with non-obstructive azoospermia have a lower chance of successful sperm retrieval and fertilization. PMID:23922817

  17. Predictors of Unintended Pregnancy among Married Women in Hamadan, Western Iran: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    CHERAGHI, Parvin; POOROLAJAL, Jalal; MOEINI, Babak; CHERAGHI, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Literatures that focus on the risk factors of unintended pregnancy among married women are limited especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of unintended pregnancy in a west region of Iran. Methods: This case-control study was conducted from September to November 2011 in Hamadan City, western Iran. A stratified cluster random sampling method was used for data collection. All participants were enrolled voluntarily into the study including 181 cases and 391 controls. Cases were married women with unintended pregnancy. Controls were married women with planned pregnancy. Results: Of 572 participants, 31 (5.4%) women had not used any methods of contraception prior to the recent pregnancy. The proportion of using ineffective contraceptive methods such as withdrawal was higher in cases than in controls. The most effective predictor of unintended pregnancy was the number of previous alive children so that the risk of unplanned pregnancy increased 3.68 per one child (P<0.001). Conclusion: This study introduced several effective predictors for unintended pregnancy among married women which may be useful for family planning programs. The high-risk population should be strongly advised to use highly effective contraceptive methods such as tubal ligation, vasectomy or OCP provided that being used correctly.

  18. Use of a domestic Korean black goat (Capra hircus coreanae) with its chest crayon-harnessed in detecting estrus of Himalayan tahrs (Hemitragus jemlahicus)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hwanyul

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of a Korean black goat (Capra hircus coreanae) to detect estrus in Himalayan tahrs (Hemitragus jemlahicus) for an artificial breeding program was investigated. Estrus in six female Himalayan tahrs was synchronized using fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges. Thirteen days later, 200 IU of PMSG and 100 IU of hCG were injected before removing the sponges and simultaneously injecting 5 mg of PGF2? the next day. Penetration of the cervical canal and the thickness and location of red crayon marks were examined 40~43 h later. Two females treated with sponges containing 60 or 45 mg of FGA had estrogen levels of 8.7 and 11.1 pg/mL, respectively. No red marks were found on the backs of these two tahrs. The remaining females had higher levels of estradiol, and the red crayon marks were clearly shown. The cervical folds of these tahrs were readily penetrated and the insemination gun was smoothly inserted into the uterine body. In conclusion, a Korean domestic goat with its chest crayon-harnessed was successfully used to detect estrus of Himalayan tahrs. This technique might be utilized as a part of breeding programs for wild goats and avoid the need for a vasectomy of conspecific males. PMID:24690603

  19. Use of a domestic Korean black goat (Capra hircus coreanae) with its chest crayon-harnessed in detecting estrus of Himalayan tahrs (Hemitragus jemlahicus).

    PubMed

    Yong, Hwanyul; Lee, Eunsong

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of a Korean black goat (Capra hircus coreanae) to detect estrus in Himalayan tahrs (Hemitragus jemlahicus) for an artificial breeding program was investigated. Estrus in six female Himalayan tahrs was synchronized using fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges. Thirteen days later, 200 IU of PMSG and 100 IU of hCG were injected before removing the sponges and simultaneously injecting 5 mg of PGF2? the next day. Penetration of the cervical canal and the thickness and location of red crayon marks were examined 40 ˜ 43 h later. Two females treated with sponges containing 60 or 45 mg of FGA had estrogen levels of 8.7 and 11.1 pg/mL, respectively. No red marks were found on the backs of these two tahrs. The remaining females had higher levels of estradiol, and the red crayon marks were clearly shown. The cervical folds of these tahrs were readily penetrated and the insemination gun was smoothly inserted into the uterine body. In conclusion, a Korean domestic goat with its chest crayon-harnessed was successfully used to detect estrus of Himalayan tahrs. This technique might be utilized as a part of breeding programs for wild goats and avoid the need for a vasectomy of conspecific males. PMID:24690603

  20. Induction of Contraception by Intraepididymal Sclerotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyoung Keun; Paick, Sung Hyun; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Lho, Yong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a sclerosing solution for inducing epididymal occlusion in male rats. Materials and Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: an injection group (n=20) and control group (n=20). Before injecting the sclerosing agent, seminal vesiculectomy and sperm identification using electrostimulation were performed in all of the rats. In the injection group, 0.2 mL of 0.1% sodium tetradecyl sulfate solution was injected into the epididymis. In the sham group, only the identification of the epididymis was performed. At 4 and 12 weeks after the injection, semen was collected by electrostimulation and evaluated to assess the contraceptive effect. Epididymis was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Results After 4 and 12 weeks, semen collection was performed in the two groups. Sperms were not observed in the injection group, while there was no change in the sperms in the sham group. H&E staining showed the obstruction of epididymal tubules and an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the injection group. Conclusions This study showed that the sclerosing agent induced sterilization in male rats. This result suggests that the injection method can replace vasectomy as a contraceptive method. However, a further study of large animals and a clinical study are needed. Further, the long-term effectiveness of this method needs to be studied. PMID:25237657

  1. Human Sperm Cryopreservation: Update on Techniques, Effect on DNA Integrity, and Implications for ART

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Marlea; Tarozzi, Nicoletta; Nadalini, Marco; Borini, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa—introduced in the 1960's—has been recognized as an efficient procedure for management of male fertility before therapy for malignant diseases, vasectomy or surgical infertility treatments, to store donor and partner spermatozoa before assisted reproduction treatments and to ensure the recovery of a small number of spermatozoa in severe male factor infertility. Despite the usefulness of it, cryopreservation may lead to deleterious changes of sperm structure and function: while the effects of cryopreservation on cells are well documented, to date there is no agreement in the literature on whether or not cryopreservation affects sperm chromatin integrity or on the use of a unique and functional protocol for the freezing-thawing procedure. Therefore, sperm cryopreservation is an important component of fertility management and much of its successful application seems to affect the reproductive outcome of assisted reproduction technologies (ART): appropriate use of cryoprotectants before and sperm selection technologies after cryopreservation seem to have the greatest impact on preventing DNA fragmentation, thus improving sperm cryosurvival rates. PMID:22194740

  2. Surgery aboard ship: is it safe?

    PubMed

    Fontana, M; Lucha, P; Snyder, M; Liston, W

    1999-09-01

    A retrospective review was performed on 684 surgical procedures done aboard U.S. Atlantic Fleet ships during a 3-year period from 1994 to 1996. These procedures were compared with similar procedures performed at the Naval Medical Center in Portsmouth, Virginia. Morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and compared. A very low morbidity rate (0.43%) was reported for surgical procedures performed while deployed compared with 1.69% for procedures at the Naval Medical Center. One mortality was reported. These extremely low rates are felt to be attributable to multiple causes, including a highly selected, healthy patient population, performance of only low-risk procedures, early presentation of surgical problems, and early medical evacuation of patients with complex medical and surgical problems. We feel that elective surgical procedures such as vasectomy, circumcision, inguinal hernia repair, and hemorrhoidectomy can be performed safely aboard ship. This would increase the training opportunity for all members of the medical department and at the same time decrease the costs and risks associated with medical evacuation. PMID:10495629

  3. Men's Perspectives on Their Role in Family Planning in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari L; Onono, Maricianah; Oyier, Beryl; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Newmann, Sara J

    2015-06-01

    Research has indicated that gender dynamics-and in particular men's disapproval of family planning-have had an influence on the low levels of contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa. Limited evidence exists, however, on effective strategies to increase male approval. We conducted 12 focus group discussions with married men aged 20-66 (N = 106) in Kenya to explore FP perceptions. Men's disapproval of FP was associated with anxieties regarding male identity and gender roles. Men often distrusted FP information provided by their wives because they suspected infidelity or feared being viewed as "herded." Men also feared that providers might pressure them into vasectomies or into disclosing extramarital sexual activity or HIV diagnoses to their wives. Suggested strategies include programs targeting couples jointly and FP education for men provided by male outreach workers. To encourage men's acceptance, community-based programs directly targeting men are needed to reduce stigma and misconceptions and to increase awareness of the benefits of FP. PMID:26059990

  4. Evaluation of Impotence in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Susan Stanik; Viosca, Sharon P.; Guralnik, Mordechai; Windsor, Clara; Mehta, Arun J.; Korenman, Stanley G.; Buttiglieri, Matthew W.; Baker, J. Dennis

    1985-01-01

    Careful evaluation was carried out in 93 men older than 50 with erectile dysfunction. Their mean age was 61 years and the disorder had been present for a mean of 4.5 years. While 14 men (15%) had psychosocial factors that may have been pertinent, only 2 scored poorly on an Affect Balance Scale and 3 were receiving psychoactive medications. Results of nocturnal penile tumescence were abnormal in 91%. In 39% penile-brachial pressure indices were suggestive of pelvic vascular disease and in 9% were consistent with a pelvic “steal syndrome.” Pelvic or peripheral nerve conduction disorders were also commonly seen in 54%. Endocrinopathy may have contributed to the dysfunction in 35%. Twenty-one men had diabetes mellitus, two new cases of hypothyroidism were discovered and hypogonadism was diagnosed definitely in four and considered likely in five others. Coexisting medical conditions were found in more than 90% of the men, especially hypertension, use of antihypertensive medications and atherosclerotic disease. Previous prostatectomies (19%) and vasectomies (30%) were common in the surgical histories. Given the wide range of disorders uncovered in older men complaining of impotence, diagnostic study of potential causes may lead to a more rational approach for the evaluation and management of these men. PMID:4013264

  5. Immunocapture-Selected Reaction Monitoring Screening Facilitates the Development of ELISA for the Measurement of Native TEX101 in Biological Fluids.

    PubMed

    Korbakis, Dimitrios; Brinc, Davor; Schiza, Christina; Soosaipillai, Antoninus; Jarvi, Keith; Drabovich, Andrei P; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2015-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that bind the native conformation of proteins are indispensable reagents for the development of immunoassays, production of therapeutic antibodies and delineating protein interaction networks by affinity purification-mass spectrometry. Antibodies generated against short peptides, protein fragments, or even full length recombinant proteins may not bind the native protein form in biological fluids, thus limiting their utility. Here, we report the application of immunocapture coupled with selected reaction monitoring measurements (immunocapture-SRM), in the rapid screening of hybridoma culture supernatants for monoclonal antibodies that bind the native protein conformation. We produced mouse monoclonal antibodies, which detect in human serum or seminal plasma the native form of the human testis-expressed sequence 101 (TEX101) protein-a recently proposed biomarker of male infertility. Pairing of two monoclonal antibodies against unique TEX101 epitopes led to the development of an ELISA for the measurement of TEX101 in seminal plasma (limit of detection: 20 pg/ml) and serum (limit of detection: 40 pg/ml). Measurements of matched seminal plasma samples, obtained from men pre- and post-vasectomy, confirmed the absolute diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of TEX101 for noninvasive identification of physical obstructions in the male reproductive tract. Measurement of male and female serum samples revealed undetectable levels of TEX101 in the systemic circulation of healthy individuals. Immunocapture-SRM screening may facilitate development of monoclonal antibodies and immunoassays against native forms of challenging protein targets. PMID:25813379

  6. Family planning technical services in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shang-Chun

    2010-09-01

    Family planning is a basic state policy in China. Its aim is to control population growth and to enhance population quality. Technical services are the key measures for implementing the family planning policy. In order to ensure that people use safe, effective, and appropriate contraceptive methods based on the government's commitment, China has established countrywide family planning service networks down to the township level. The people can access various and convenient contraceptive services. In urban areas, all contraceptive services are free. The contraceptive prevalence rate in 2007 was 84.6%, the percentage of intrauterine device (IUD) was 52.3%, that of female sterilization was 32.3%, and that of vasectomy was 6.1%. This means that more than 90% of married childbearing couples were using long-term contraceptives. At the same time, the government gives priority to supporting research on contraceptive technology. Studies' results have provided scientific evidence for development, introduction, and expansion of contraceptive methods, and also for establishment and revision of the technical guidelines. Great efforts have been made in promoting "human-oriented and client-centered" services during the recent ten years. Remarkable success has been achieved in improving the quality of technical services. PMID:21191833

  7. Proteins of human semen. I. Two-dimensional mapping of human seminal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.J.; Tollaksen, S.L.; Anderson, N.G.

    1981-08-01

    The proteins in human seminal plasma were mapped by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (ISO-DALT and BASO-DALT systems). When analyzed under dissociating conditions, samples from normal fertile males revealed a pattern of over 200 proteins, ranging in mass from 10,000 to 100,000 daltons. Comparison of the mapped proteins from these males and those who had undergone vasectomy allowed us to identify one series of glycoproteins as missing from the semen from vasectomized individuals. Glycoproteins isolated by affinity chromatography with use of concanavalin A were also mapped. Some of the protein spots were identified either by coelectrophoresis with purified proteins or by the electrophoretic transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets and subsequent detection by immunological procedures. The proteins identified include a number of serum proteins as well as prostatic acid phosphatase and creatine kinase. Proteolytic events shown to occur during the liquefaction of semen that occurs early after collection indicate the importance of carefully controlled collection and preparation methods for clinical evaluation of seminal plasma. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibit this proteolysis.

  8. Reproductive choice for women and men living with HIV: contraception, abortion and fertility.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, Thérèse; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2007-05-01

    From a policy and programmatic point of view, this paper reviews the literature on the fertility-related needs of women and men living with HIV and how the entry points represented by family planning, sexually transmitted infection and HIV-related services can ensure access to contraception, abortion and fertility services for women and men living with HIV. Most contraceptive methods are safe and effective for HIV positive women and men. The existing range of contraceptive options should be available to people living with HIV, along with more information about and access to emergency contraception. Potential drug interaction must be considered between hormonal contraception and treatment for tuberculosis and certain antiretroviral drugs. Couples living with HIV who wish to use a permanent contraceptive method should have access to female sterilisation and vasectomy in an informed manner, free of coercion. How to promote condoms and dual protection and how to make them acceptable in long term-relationships remains a challenge. Both surgical and medical abortion are safe for women living with HIV. To reduce risk of vertical transmission of HIV and in cases of infertility, people with HIV should have access to sperm washing and other assisted conception methods, if these are available. Simple and cost-effective procedures to reduce risk of vertical transmission should be part of counselling for women and men living with HIV who intend to have children. Support for the reproductive rights of people with HIV is a priority. More operations research on best practices is needed. PMID:17531748

  9. Barriers to male involvement in contraceptive uptake and reproductive health services: a qualitative study of men and women’s perceptions in two rural districts in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spousal communication can improve family planning use and continuation. Yet, in countries with high fertility rates and unmet need, men have often been regarded as unsupportive of their partner’s use of family planning methods. This study examines men and women’s perceptions regarding obstacles to men’s support and uptake of modern contraceptives. Methods A qualitative study using 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) with purposively selected men aged 15–54 and women aged 15–49 as well as eight key informant interviews (KIIs) with government and community leaders was conducted in 2012 in Bugiri and Mpigi Districts, Uganda. Open-ended question guides were used to explore men and women’s perceptions regarding barriers to men’s involvement in reproductive health. All FGDs and KIIs were recorded, translated, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti. Results Five themes were identified as rationale for men’s limited involvement: (i) perceived side effects of female contraceptive methods which disrupt sexual activity, (ii) limited choices of available male contraceptives, including fear and concerns relating to vasectomy, (iii) perceptions that reproductive health was a woman’s domain due to gender norms and traditional family planning communication geared towards women, (iv) preference for large family sizes which are uninhibited by prolonged birth spacing; and (v) concerns that women’s use of contraceptives will lead to extramarital sexual relations. In general, knowledge of effective contraceptive methods was high. However, lack of time and overall limited awareness regarding the specific role of men in reproductive health was also thought to deter men’s meaningful involvement in issues related to fertility regulation. Conclusion Decision-making on contraceptive use is the shared responsibility of men and women. Effective development and implementation of male-involvement family planning initiatives should address barriers to men’s supportive participation in reproductive health, including addressing men's negative beliefs regarding contraceptive services. PMID:24597502

  10. Y-STRs in forensic medicine: DNA analysis in semen samples of azoospermic individuals.

    PubMed

    Soares-Vieira, José Arnaldo; Billerbeck, Ana Elisa Correia; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato; Zampieri, Ricardo Andrade; Gattás, Gilka Jorge Fígaro; Munoz, Daniel Romero; Hallak, Jorge; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Lucon, Antonio Marmo

    2007-05-01

    The incidence of rape has increased, especially in metropolitan areas, such as the city of São Paulo. In Brazil, studies about it have shown that the majority of this type of crime is committed by the relatives and persons close to the victim. This has made the crime more difficult to be denounced, as only 10% of the cases are reported to competent police authorities. Usually, cytological exams are carried out in sex crime investigations. The difficulty in showing the presence of spermatozoa is frequent, but it does not exclude the presence of male DNA. The absence of spermatozoa in material collected from rape victims can be due to several factors, including the fact that the agressor suffers from azoospermia. This condition can be the result of a successful vasectomy. As the majority of DNA in the ejaculation sample is from spermatozoa, there is much less DNA to be analyzed. This study presents the application of Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, and DYS393) in DNA analysis of sperm samples from 105 vasectomized men. The study demonstrated a great variation in DNA concentration. DNA extraction and amplification was possible in all sperm samples even in the absence of spermatozoa. The same profile was observed, for each individual, from DNA extracted from blood, pre- and postvasectomy semen samples. The use of markers specific for Y chromosome in sex crime cases, especially in the absence of spermatozoa, is very important, mainly because in most situations there is a small quantity of the agressor's DNA in the medium and a large quantity of the victim's DNA. PMID:17456093

  11. Meeting health and family planning needs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    The operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) project in The Population Council has concentrated on fertility and infant mortality issues in Latin American and the Caribbean for more than a decade through INOPAL. INOPAL is an acronym for Investigacion Operacional en Planificacion Familiar y Atencion Materno-Infantil para America Latina y el Caribe (Operations Research in Family Planning and Maternal-Child Health in Latin America and the Caribbean). In March 1995, the project entered its third phase, INOPAL III, with the renewal of its contract from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). To facilitate communication between INOPAL, collaborating agencies, and USAID, INOPAL Director James Foreit moved from Peru to a Council office in Washington, D.C. INOPAL has six objectives: 1) to test the integration of family planning and reproductive health services; 2) to increase access to family planning; 3) to develop strategies to reach special populations; 4) to improve the sustainability of family planning programs; 5) to improve service quality; and 6) to institutionalize operations research capability in the region. INOPAL II conducted 61 subprojects in 12 countries in collaboration with 24 USAID cooperating agencies and other international organizations. The project established new services for postpartum women, adolescents, and rural women; improved program quality and financial sustainability; increased vasectomy promotion and the range of available contraceptives; and developed new modes of service delivery. A key finding of INOPAL II operations research was the importance of increasing cost-effectiveness to ensure program sustainability. INOPAL III will work toward all six objectives, with an emphasis on integrating reproductive health and family planning services. Operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) subprojects will focus on the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, perinatal and postpartum care, and postabortion care. PMID:12319543

  12. Abnormal Accumulation of Collagen Type I Due to the Loss of Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (Ddr2) Promotes Testicular Interstitial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hu; Bu, Xin; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Jie; Gong, Wei-dong; Wu, Zhi-qun; Yao, Li-bo; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yuan-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of functional allele for discoidin domain receptor 2 (Ddr2) results in impaired Leydig cell response to luteinizing hormone (LH), low testosterone production and arrested spermatogenesis in older male Ddr2slie/slie mice. However, the underlying mechanism responsible for this phenotype remains unknown. Herein, we reported for the first time that the deregulated expression of Ddr2 cognate ligand, namely collagen type I (COL1), may account for the disruption of the testicular steroidogenesis in Ddr2slie/slie mutant testes. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression of Ddr2 increased gradually along postnatal development, whereas COL1 expression became negligible from adulthood onwards. In Ddr2slie/slie mutant testis, however, in contrast to the undetectable staining of Ddr2, COL1 expression was constantly detected, with the highest values detected during adulthood. In the experimental vasectomy model, Ddr2slie/slie mutant mice exhibited an early androgen deficiency than wild-type mice, along with the accumulation of fibrotic tissue in the interstitium. Functionally, ablation of endogenous Ddr2 resulted in a significant decrease of testosterone (T) level in TM3 cells in the presence of higher concentration of COL1 treatment. Conversely, overexpression of Ddr2 could help TM3 cells to maintain a normal testicular steroidogenesis even in the presence of high concentration of COL1. Additionally, attenuated expression of Ddr2 correlates to the deregulated level of serum T levels in human pathological testes. Conclusions Abnormal accumulation of interstitial COL1 may be responsible for the steroidogenic dysfunction in Ddr2slie/slie mutant testes. PMID:26158267

  13. A study on the relationship of sexual satisfaction and common contraceptive methods employed by the couples

    PubMed Central

    Toorzani, Zahra Mehdizadeh; Zahraei, Roshanak Hasan; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Nasiri, Mahmood; Shahidi, Shahla; Soleimani, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual relationship is a basis for mental health and continuity of the healthy generation. Enjoying the healthy body and mind will cause the sexual relationships to run their normal course in life. One of the problems that couples are faced within their sexual relationships is the issue of employing family planning methods. Studies have revealed that contraceptive methods are in connection with the sexual function and health in different ways. This study was aimed to determine the mean and the relation of scores of sexual satisfaction of men and women with the common contraceptive methods. METHODS: This was a descriptive-correlative study. Samples included 280 individuals (140 couples) to use the common contraceptive methods including withdrawal method, tubal ligation in women, oral contraceptive method, condom, vasectomy, IUD and injection contraceptive method. Tools for gathering the data were Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the questionnaire provided by Dr. Abdo on sexual satisfaction in men in 2004. The validity and reliability of these questionnaires were approved by researches conducted in worldwide and Iran. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were applied in analyzing the data. RESULTS: The results suggested a significant statistic relation between scores of men’s sexual satisfaction and separate contraceptive methods (p = 0.001) whereas this relation was not observed between the women’s scores of sexual satisfaction and the contraceptive methods. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of the present study, training family planning counselors in relation to choose suitable contraceptive method, in view of its probable effects on the couple’s sexual satisfaction, seems essential. PMID:21589773

  14. Comparison of 808, 980, and 1075nm lasers for noninvasive thermal coagulation of the canine vas deferens, ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2011-03-01

    Successful noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, in vivo, has been previously reported. However, the therapeutic window for treatment is relatively narrow. This study determines the dependence of vas thermal coagulation on laser wavelength for development of a noninvasive laser vasectomy procedure. Noninvasive laser coagulation of canine vas tissue, ex vivo, was performed using three commonly available near-infrared laser wavelengths: 808, 980, and 1075 nm. Each laser delivered an average power of 9.2 W, 500-ms pulse duration, pulse rate of 1.0-Hz, and 3.2-mm diameter laser spot, synchronized with cryogen spray cooling of the scrotal skin surface for a total treatment time of 60 s. Vas burst pressures were measured to determine strength of vas closure and compared to previously reported ejaculation pressures. Gross inspection of vas and scrotal skin was also performed immediately after the procedure as an indicator of thermal coagulation and skin burns. The 1075 nm laser produced the highest vas burst pressures (288 +/- 28 mmHg), significantly greater than previously reported ejaculation pressures (136 +/- 29 mmHg). The 808 nm wavelength produced insufficient vas burst pressures of 141 +/- 61 mmHg, and minor scrotal skin burns were observed in at least one case. The 980 nm wavelength was unable to produce thermal coagulation of the vas, with low burst pressures (89 +/- 58 mmHg) and severe scrotal skin burns. The 1075 nm wavelength was the only near-IR wavelength that consistently thermally coagulated the vas with a strong degree of closure and without any scrotal skin burns.

  15. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome with a type 2B phenotype: diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Scepansky, Ellen; Othman, Maha; Smith, Hedy

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we provide evidence of an acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) with a type 2B phenotype rather than the expected type 1 or 2A. The patient was referred prior to surgical removal of a fibrous mass within the maxillary sinus. His first bleeding 7 years earlier following a retinal tear had been complicated by monocular blindness. Several mucocutanous bleedings followed. Hematological investigations revealed von Willebrand factor (VWF):Ag 91 IU/ml, factor VIII 86 IU/ml, VWF:RCo 34 IU/ml and profound thrombocytopenia with platelet clumping. VWF multimer analysis showed a loss of high-molecular-weight multimers and his plasma aggregated normal platelets under low ristocetin concentration, consistent with type 2B von Willebrand disease (VWD). Sequencing of VWF exon 28 and of the platelet GP1BA gene to investigate the possibility of platelet-type VWD failed to reveal mutations. Serum protein electrophoresis showed a monoclonal IgG protein and led to the diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), raising suspicion of an AVWS. Over 2 years, he experienced severe gingival bleedings and traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Following debridement of the sinus mass, the patient required 20 units of packed red blood cells, despite high-dose Humate-P, continuous Amicar and twice-daily platelet transfusions. Bleeding finally ceased following infusion of activated factor VIIa. A history of prior uncomplicated vasectomy and tendon laceration, no family history of bleeding, the inability to identify a causative mutation in either exon 28 VWF or platelet GP1BA and the MGUS led to diagnosis of AVWS with a type 2B phenotype. This case highlights the difficulties in assigning a diagnosis and the management of bleeding in a patient with an atypical presentation of AVWS. PMID:24296552

  16. Chinese experts reflect on women's reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Hextor, N

    1995-12-01

    During the NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum of the Fourth World Conference on Women, several prominent representatives of the Chinese government gave reports highlighting official areas of concern. A representative of the China Population Information and Research Center praised his country's commitment to population and family planning (FP) programs and cited a need to implement service-oriented approaches and to improve women's status. The link between women's economic and educational opportunities and a reduced birth rate was also acknowledged by a member of the China FP Association who described Women's Empowerment Projects jointly organized by local FP associations and the Ford Foundation. The need for education and research programs was cited by a representative of the National Research Institute for FP, who noted that the IUDs currently favored in China are associated with a higher failure rate than those used in other countries. Also, effective and acceptable methods for men must be developed and legitimized. Currently, the condom available in China is either of poor quality or is used improperly. Vasectomy has only been accepted in the Sichuan district where the "No Scalpel Technique" was developed. In many parts of China, abortion is used as a method of birth control, and thousands of women die each year from septic abortions. China's progress in improving the reproductive health of urban women was noted by a representative of the Institute of Population Research at Peking University, but the Chinese people still lack adequate contraceptive knowledge and reproductive health information. Thus, the provision of safe and effective reproductive health care and FP appears to be a priority for the Chinese government. The sheer size and diversity of the country will make this an overwhelming undertaking. PMID:12346902

  17. As the Third World turns.

    PubMed

    Hagerman, E

    1991-01-01

    Throughout the 3rd World, family planners have turned to television in order to spread their message. Combining education and entertainment in the form of advertisements and soap operas, television offers a way to provide clear and memorable information about an otherwise sensitive issue. In 1977, Mexico's Miguel Sabido developed the idea of using television as a means of social instruction. His initial soap opera dealt with adult literacy, and the success of that program led him to develop a show focusing on family planning called "Come Along with Me." Following the airing of this soap opera, attendance to family planning clinics increased by 32%. Since then, Mexico has produced a series of soap operas dealing with sex education, women's status, and the treatment of children. Soon, Mexican viewers will see a soap opera addressing the issue of AIDS. Family planners in other countries have also begun employing television. Conventional communication methods require trained counselors travelling villages, and most often, those most in need of family planning are the most difficult to reach. But over the last 10 years, the number of televisions in the Third World has doubled, and there is now approximately 1 television for every 12 people in the developing nations. In Turkey, advertisements have been used to promote modern methods of contraception. In Brazil, vasectomy has been one of the topics of ad campaigns. Mexico, the Philippines, and Nigeria have also experimented with the use of music videos. Nigeria has already had great success in integrating family planning themes to an already existing variety show. Family planning visits have increased by 47%. International agencies have recognized the value of television and have provided financial support. PMID:12343296

  18. High-Frequency Ultrasound Imaging of Noninvasive Laser Coagulation of the Canine Vas Deferens

    PubMed Central

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives A noninvasive approach to vasectomy may eliminate male fear of complications related to surgery (e.g. hematoma, infection, acute and chronic pain, sterilization failure) and increase its acceptance. Noninvasive laser thermal occlusion of the canine vas deferens has recently been reported. In this study, high-frequency ultrasound is used to confirm successful laser thermal coagulation and scarring of the vas in a short-term canine model. Materials and Methods Bilateral noninvasive laser coagulation of the vas was performed in a total of 9 dogs using a laser wavelength of 1075 nm, incident power of 9.0 W, pulse duration of 500 ms, pulse rate of 0.5 Hz, and 3-mm-diameter spot. Cryogen spray was used to cool the scrotal skin surface and prevent burns during the procedure. A clinical ultrasound system with a 13.2-MHz high-frequency transducer was used to image the vas before after the procedure. Burst pressure measurements were performed on excised vasa to confirm thermal occlusion. Results Day 0 and 28 burst pressures averaged 291 ± 31 mmHg and 297 ± 26 mmHg, respectively, significantly greater than ejaculation pressures of 136 ± 29 mmHg. Ultrasound showed a hyperechoic vas segment after thermal coagulation (Day 0) and scarring (Day 28). Doppler ultrasound showed normal blood flow through the testicular artery, indicating no collateral thermal damage to proximal structures. Conclusions High-frequency ultrasound may be used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool to assist in determining successful short-term laser thermal coagulation and scarring of the vas. PMID:21956632

  19. Development of normal reference values for seminal reactive oxygen species and their correlation with leukocytes and semen parameters in a fertile population.

    PubMed

    Athayde, Kelly S; Cocuzza, Marcello; Agarwal, Ashok; Krajcir, Natalie; Lucon, Antonio M; Srougi, Miguel; Hallak, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are clearly implicated in the pathogenesis of male infertility, few studies have attempted to define the basal levels of ROSs in fertile men. Levels of ROSs are highly influenced by the presence of leukocytes and are associated with decreased seminal parameters. The objective of our study was to determine the normal ROS reference values in neat and washed semen of a fertile population and to correlate the leukocyte concentrations with seminal parameters. We evaluated 114 fertile men seeking vasectomy and 47 subfertile patients as a positive control. All samples were subjected to semen analysis and Endtz testing; chemiluminescence assay was used to determine ROS levels. All seminal parameters were significantly higher in the fertile men than in the subfertile patients. In nonleukocytospermic samples, ROS levels were lower in the fertile men than in the subfertile patients in neat (0.29 [0.18, 0.54] vs 0.94 [0.38, 1.51]) (P = .001) and washed semen (5.73 [1.90, 14.71] vs 23.4 [9.46, 115.55]) (P = .001). Similarly, in samples with leukocytes (Entdz, less than 1 x 10(6)/mL), ROS levels were lower in the fertile men in neat (0.75 [0.27, 1.71] vs 2.0 [0.97, 27.41]) (P = .001) and washed semen (15.85 [4.18, 62.16] vs 239.83 [33.4, 1193.75]) (P < .0001). As expected, samples with leukocytes had significantly higher ROS values in washed and neat semen. In the fertile population, ROSs were positively correlated with leukocytes and negatively correlated with sperm count and motility. In semen samples without leukocytes, the normality cutoff of ROSs was 0.55 x 10(4) counted photons per minute with 76.4% area under the curve (AUC) in the neat samples and 10.0 x 10(4) counted photons per minute with 77% AUC in the washed samples. In semen samples with leukocytes, the cutoff for ROSs in neat samples was 1.25 with 72.7% AUC and 51.5 with 81% AUC in the washed samples. We defined the cutoff levels of ROSs in a fertile population. Seminal leukocyte levels below 1 x 10(6)/mL were associated with increased ROSs. ROS levels were positively correlated with leukocytes and negatively correlated with sperm motility and concentration. Patients with normal seminal parameters and lower seminal leukocyte levels may benefit from therapeutic interventions that improve semen quality. PMID:17409462