Science.gov

Sample records for vcsel polarization control

  1. VCSEL polarization control for chip-scale atomic clocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Geib, Kent Martin; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Wendt, Joel Robert; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Keeler, Gordon Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Mytek, LLC have collaborated to develop a monolithically-integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) assembly with controllable polarization states suitable for use in chip-scale atomic clocks. During the course of this work, a robust technique to provide polarization control was modeled and demonstrated. The technique uses deeply-etched surface gratings oriented at several different rotational angles to provide VCSEL polarization stability. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) model was used to optimize the design for high polarization selectivity and fabrication tolerance. The new approach to VCSEL polarization control may be useful in a number of defense and commercial applications, including chip-scale atomic clocks and other low-power atomic sensors.

  2. Volume production of polarization controlled single-mode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin; King, Roger; Jäger, Roland; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Gerlach, Philipp; Duckeck, Denise; Wimmer, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Over the past 3 years laser based tracking systems for optical PC mice have outnumbered the traditional VCSEL market datacom by far. Whereas VCSEL for datacom in the 850 nm regime emit in multipe transverse modes, all laser based tracking systems demand for single-mode operation which require advanced manufacturing technology. Next generation tracking systems even require single-polarization characteristics in order to avoid unwanted movement of the pointer due to polarization flips. High volume manufacturing and optimized production methods are crucial for achieving the addressed technical and commercial targets of this consumer market. The resulting ideal laser source which emits single-mode and single-polarization at low cost is also a promising platform for further applications like tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) or miniature atomic clocks when adapted to the according wavelengths.

  3. Spin-controlled switching of lasing circular polarizations in (110)-oriented VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Nobuhide; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Koh, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

    2011-02-01

    We discuss high speed switching of lasing circular polarizations in VCSELs by optical spin injection. We conducted polarization- and time-resolved measurements of two consecutive lasing outputs from a (110)-InGaAs/GaAs VCSEL at 77 K with different time delays between the two optical excitations for alternately up- and down-spin electrons. 1-GHz switching of lasing circular polarizations has been demonstrated with taking advantage of the long electron spin relaxation time τs in (110)-QWs. Rate equation analysis closely reproduced the measured results and showed that shortening the carrier lifetime τc while preserving the long τs is a straightforward solution for faster switching since the residual unpolarized electrons limit the switching speed. Thus, we dry-etched the (110)-QWs into micro-posts to introduce the surface non-radiative recombination using ECR-RIE, and investigated the τc and τs. Spin-polarized carriers were optically excited in square posts with different sizes from 0.5 μm to 30 μm, and the time evolutions of two orthogonal circular polarization components of photoluminescence were measured by a streak camera. The long τ s (~1.3 ns) in the (110)-QW wafer is found to be preserved even when the sidewall boundaries with fast surface recombination are introduced and the τc is drastically shortened. The same rate equation analysis indicated that spin-controlled VCSELs with such (110)-QW micro-posts will exhibit faster switching thanks to the shortened τc and preserved long τs. In particular, 20-GHz switching is expected with 0.5-μm posts, although the threshold pulse energy per unit area becomes 2.9 times larger than that for 1-GHz switching without post structure.

  4. Controllable optoelectric composite logic gates based on the polarization switching in an optically injected VCSEL.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Dongzhou; Ji, Yongqiang; Luo, Wei

    2015-11-16

    Based on the polarization switching mechanism in an optically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), and the new electro-optic modulation theory, we propose a novel approach to implement optoelectric logic gates. Here, the two linearly polarized lights from the output of the laser are considered as two logic outputs. Under the electro-optic modulation, one of the logic outputs is the NOT operation with the other one. With the same logic input signal, we perform various digital signal processing (AND, OR, XNOR, NAND, NOR and XOR) in the optical domain, controlling the logic operation of the applied electric field between the two logic input signals. On this basis, the logic operation of half-adder is further implemented. PMID:26698465

  5. Polarization properties and instabilities of QD VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejniczak, Lukasz; Sciamanna, Marc; Thienpont, Hugo; Panajotov, Krassimir; Mutig, Alex; Hopfer, Friedhelm; Bimberg, Dieter

    2010-04-01

    Quantum well (QW) VCSELs have a tendency to switch their polarization from one linearly polarized (LP) mode to the orthogonal one when changing the operation conditions. As polarization properties of VCSELs are governed by anisotropies, namely stress-induced birefringence and dichroism, the inherent anisotropy of quantum dots (QDs) is expected to influence the polarization properties of QD VCSELs. In this paper we summarize our experimental results on polarization properties of QD VCSELs with the main focus on polarization switching phenomena. Close to threshold the laser emits linearly polarized light which changes to elliptically polarized (EP) at some current. The main axes of these states are not aligned and the angle between them increases with current. As the current is still increased polarization switching accompanied by polarization mode hopping occurs. Distinctive feature of the observed switching is that the two EP states between which switching occurs are nonorthogonal. The angle between their major exes is 40 deg. Polarization mode hopping has been characterized in terms of the dwell time and the current-dependence of this factor examined. Apparently, the dwell time decreases when the pump current is increased which differs from what has been published for QW VCSELs. The average dwell time is 20 ns. Similarly to QW VCSELs the distribution of the dwell time is exponential. The statistics is the same for the two EP states and such symmetric switching is maintained in the whole range of currents at which the light is elliptically polarized. Large-signal modulation experiments show that the frequency at which polarization switching disappears is about 100 MHz. This indicates that the switching is of thermal origin.

  6. Polarization dynamics of VCSELs in external cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, M.; Javaloyes, J.; Barland, S.; Balle, S.; Giudici, M.

    2014-05-01

    We review the dynamics of VCSELs that experience both Polarization-Selective Feedback (PSF) and Crossed- Polarization Reinjection (XPR). Different regimes of regular pulsation were found. For strong enough XPR levels, the VCSEL emission in each of its linearly-polarized components displays a square-wave modulation which regularity is greatly enhanced by small levels of PSF. Such a square-wave is in antiphase for the two polarizations, and it turns out to be stable and robust over broad intervals of current. The frequency of the square-wave is determined by the length of the XPR arm. For weak levels of PSF and XPR, the VCSEL emits a regular train of short optical pulses arising from the locking of the modes in the PSF cavity. The frequency of the pulse train is stable on short time scales, but it wanders with a characteristic time scale of hundreds of roundtrips in the PSF cavity. The experimental results are successfully explained by an extension of the Spin-Flip Model that incorporates gain saturation and the effects of PSF and XPR.

  7. Frequency response of current modulation induced polarization switching in VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Albert, Jan; Panajotov, Krassimir P.; Nagler, Bob; Peeters, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo; Veretennicoff, Irina P.; Danckaert, Jan; Barbay, Sylvain; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Marin, Francesco

    2002-06-01

    We present an experimental and rate-equation based theoretical study of the current-driven polarization modulation properties of VCSELs. In such lasers a high-contrast polarization flip is often observed at a particular value of the pump current. When modulating the current around the polarization switching value, we measure the critical modulation amplitude necessary to force synchronized back-and-forward polarization flips, as a function of the modulation frequency. This yields the polarization modulation frequency response. For a proton-implanted VCSEL the shape of the measured response curve is characterized by time constants that are very long compared with the usual time scales of laser dynamics (such as photon and carrier lifetimes), and compatible with the measured thermal relaxation time. Indeed, both the polarization modulation and the thermal frequency response curves show a cut-off frequency of about 90kHz, independent of the particular value of the switching current. In the frequency response curve of an air-post VCSEL one clearly sees remnants of the thermal influence on the switching. However, one cannot say that a thermal cut-off inhibits polarization switching above a certain modulation frequency. Notwithstanding the difference in impact of thermal effects depending on the type of device under study, our results indicate that it is necessary to incorporate a temperature-dependent variable in realistic models describing the dynamical polarization properties of VCSELs.

  8. Photonic heterostructure High Contrast Grating as a novel polarization control and light confinement system in HCG VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebski, M.; Dems, M.; Chen, J.; Qijie, W.; Dao Hua, Z.; Czyszanowski, T.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we present results of computer optical simulations of VCSEL with modified high refractive index contrast grating (HCG) as a top mirror. We consider the HCG of two different designs which determine the lateral aperture. Such HCG mirror provides selective guiding effect. We show that proper design of aperture of HCG results in almost sixfold increase in cavity Q-factor for zero order mode and a discrimination of higher order modes.

  9. Polarization-stable single-mode VCSELs for Cs-based MEMS atomic clock applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Samaneh, Ahmed; Renz, Simeon; Strodl, Andreas; Schwarz, Wolfgang; Wahl, Dietmar; Michalzik, Rainer

    2010-04-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting at 894.6 nm wavelength have been fabricated for Cs-based atomic clock applications. For polarization control, a previously developed technique relying on the integration of a semiconducting surface grating in the top Bragg mirror of the VCSEL structure is employed. More specifically, we use a so-called inverted grating. The VCSELs are polarized orthogonal to the grating lines with no far-field diffraction side-lobes for sub-wavelength grating periods. Orthogonal polarization suppression ratios exceed 20 dB. The polarization stability has been investigated at different elevated substrate temperatures up to 80 C, where the VCSEL remains polarization-stable even well above thermal roll-over. For the purpose of integration with the atomic clock microsystem, flip-chip-bondable VCSEL chips have been realized. Sub-mA threshold currents and sufficient output powers in the milliwatt range are achieved. The required modulation bandwidth of more than 5 GHz is reached at only 0.5mA bias. Maximum bandwidths above 10 GHz have been measured even at elevated temperatures up to 80 C. Modulation current efficiency factors larger than 12 GHz/?mA are achieved at room temperature. Moreover, the intrinsic modulation characteristics of the VCSELs are investigated by precise curve fitting of measured small-signal modulation response curves and relative intensity noise spectra. A K-factor of less than 0.4 ns and a maximum 3 dB bandwidth exceeding 22 GHz are obtained.

  10. 10-Gb/s Optical Buffer Memory Using a Polarization Bistable VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takashi; Sato, Yuuki; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

    Optical buffer memory for 10-Gb/s data signal is demonstrated experimentally using a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The optical buffer memory is based on an optical AND gate function and the polarization bistability of the VCSEL. Fast AND gate operation responsive to 50-ps-width optical pulses is achieved experimentally by increasing the detuning frequency between an injection light into the VCSEL and a lasing light from the VCSEL. A specified bit is extracted from the 10-Gb/s data signal by the fast AND gate operation and is stored as the polarization state of the VCSEL by the polarization bistability. The corresponding numerical simulations are also performed using two-mode rate equations taking into account the detuning frequency. The simulation results confirm the fast AND gate operation by increasing the detuning frequency as well as the experimental results.

  11. VCSEL arrays with low threshold currents and stable linear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Markus; Boehm, Gerhard; Arzberger, Marcus; Weimann, Guenter; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    1998-04-01

    8 X 8 arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with lateral current injection via the doped GaAs cladding layers have been fabricated. To obtain low series resistances ohmic p-contacts were made to a p-doped GaAs cladding layer above the active MQW-region of the double mesa VCSEL-diodes. Lateral current confinement is made by introducing a 50 nm thick n-type GaAs current blocking layer into the p-doped cladding. The laser diodes are structured by selective removal of this layer in the cavity and subsequent growth of the top Bragg mirror in a second MBE sequence. The epitaxial overgrowth resulted in layers with unchanged structural and optical quality, when compared with layers grown in a single epitaxial run on planar growth surfaces. The overgrowth of the 50 nm steps leads to about 1 micrometers wide facets in the (011) direction. These VCSELs have threshold currents of 470 (mu) A and a maximum output power of 5 mW for diodes with blocking layer diameters of 6 micrometers and 14 micrometers , respectively. The external differential quantum and power conversion efficiencies amount to 46 percent and 16 percent, respectively. The external differential quantum and power conversion in single mode emission at all current levels, and show a stable linear polarization along the (011) crystal axis, due to the facetting mentioned above. The on-off ratio between the orthogonal directions is better than 20 dB. Internal losses and quantum efficiencies have been determined varying the device diameter and number of top DBR pairs. Device characteristics are very homogeneous not only within one array but also over almost the whole two-inch wafer, e.g. threshold currents differ by less than 10 percent.

  12. Investigation of polarization switching of VCSEL subject to intensity modulated and optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazhan, Salam; Ghassemlooy, Z.; Busawon, K.; Gholami, A.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the results of an experimental investigation of the polarization switching (PS) of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using the so-called polarization-rotated optical feedback mechanism. In particular, the experiments is performed by changing the laser driving current, optical feedback (OF) level, modulation signal parameters, such as frequency, modulation-depth in order to assess their influences on the PS of VCSEL. We show that a smaller polarization angle ?p is required to realize PS with increasing the level of OF. Moreover, for a fixed OF level and increased bias current a smaller ?p is required to ensure PS. However, for a fixed OF and variable modulation parameters, both the frequency and modulation-depth lead to the elimination of PS over the entire range of measurement.

  13. Controlled switching of ultrafast circular polarization oscillations in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Höpfner, Henning Lindemann, Markus; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate a scheme for controlled switching of polarization oscillations in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSEL). Under hybrid electrical and optical pumping conditions, our VCSEL devices show polarization oscillations with frequencies far above the VCSEL's electrical modulation bandwidth. Using multiple optical pulses, we are able to excite and amplify these polarization oscillations. When specific phase and amplitude conditions for the optical excitation pulses are met, destructive interference leads to switch-off of the polarization oscillation, enabling the generation of controlled short polarization bursts.

  14. Controlled switching of ultrafast circular polarization oscillations in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höpfner, Henning; Lindemann, Markus; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a scheme for controlled switching of polarization oscillations in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSEL). Under hybrid electrical and optical pumping conditions, our VCSEL devices show polarization oscillations with frequencies far above the VCSEL's electrical modulation bandwidth. Using multiple optical pulses, we are able to excite and amplify these polarization oscillations. When specific phase and amplitude conditions for the optical excitation pulses are met, destructive interference leads to switch-off of the polarization oscillation, enabling the generation of controlled short polarization bursts.

  15. Experimental and numerical analysis on temporal dynamics of polarization switching in an injection-locked 1.55-μm wavelength VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar Deshmukh, Vijay; Lee, Seoung Hun; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Kyong Hon; Lee, Min Hee

    2011-08-01

    We present experimental and numerical study of temporal characteristics of injection-locked polarization switching of a conventional-type 1.55-μm wavelength single-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Delayed recovery response of the main-mode of the VCSEL was observed when short and strong optical injection pulses of an orthogonal polarization to the VCSEL's main polarization-mode were applied. Numerical analysis based on a spin-flip model describes that the relatively long upper level lifetimes compared to a short injection-pulse width and long cavity photon lifetimes cause delayed recovery response of the main-mode of the VCSEL. An optimum bias current of the VCSEL was also observed for the shortest recovery time of its free-running polarization mode after the orthogonal polarization beam pulse injection.

  16. Polarization control of 1.6 ?m vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, J. M.; Paranthoen, C.; Levallois, C.; Nakkar, A.; Folliot, H.; Gauthier, J. P.; Dehaese, O.; Le Corre, A.; Loualiche, S.

    2009-07-01

    The authors report the demonstration of a polarization-controlled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), emitting at the telecommunication wavelength. VCSELs are based on an active medium constituted of well elongated InAs quantum dashes (QDHs) nanostructures grown on conventional (001) oriented InP substrate. QDHs present important optical polarization anisotropies according to the [110] crystallographic orientation. Inserted into a VCSEL microcavity, QDH VCSELs show a continuous wave laser operation at 1.6 ?m, at room temperature, with a reduced 13 kW/cm2 optical excitation density threshold. The QDH VCSEL output laser polarization is fixed along the same [110] direction. Power and temperature dependant measurements do not show any polarization instabilities and switching on all QDH VCSELs. A polarization extinction ratio as high as 30 dB is deduced from experiments.

  17. Long-haul dual-channel bidirectional chaos communication based on polarization-resolved chaos synchronization between twin 1550 nM VCSELs subject to variable-polarization optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Wu, Jia-Gui; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Based on the polarization-resolved chaos synchronization between twin 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), a novel long-haul dual-channel bidirectional chaos communication system is proposed. In this system, a time delay signature (TDS)-suppressed chaotic signal, generated by a driving VCSEL (D-VCSEL) under double external cavity feedbacks (DECFs), simultaneously injects into twin VCSELs by variable-polarization optical injection (VPOI) to synchronize them and enhance the chaos output bandwidth of the two VCSELs. The simulated results show that, under proper injection parameters, high-quality polarization-resolved chaos synchronization between the twin VCSELs can be achieved; meanwhile the bandwidths of chaotic signals output from the twin VCSELs have been enhanced in comparison with that of the driven chaotic signal. Based on the high-quality polarization-resolved chaos synchronization, after adopting polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) and chaos masking (CM) techniques, four 10 Gb/s messages hidden respectively in four chaotic carriers can be decrypted effectively after propagating 15 km in single-mode fiber (SMF) links. After adopting dispersion-shifted fibers (DSFs) as fiber links, the dual-channel bidirectional chaos communication distance can be extended to 140 km.

  18. Ultrafast polarization dynamics with controlled polarization oscillations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, Markus; Höpfner, Henning; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.; Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer

    2015-03-01

    Spintronic lasers offer promising perspectives for new concepts superior to options of purely charge-based devices. Especially spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) exhibit ultrafast spin and polarization dynamics. Using pulsed spin-injection, oscillations in the circular polarization degree can be generated, which have the potential to exceed frequencies of 100 GHz. The oscillations evolve due to coupling of the carrier-spin-photon system for linear modes via birefringence in the VCSEL's cavity. They are independent of the conventional relaxation oscillations and thus their usage can be the cornerstone for ultrafast directly modulated spin-VCSELs in the near future. After giving a short overview of the state of scientific and technical knowledge we will outline a method to control the polarization oscillations by multiple spin-injection pulses. It is possible to switch these oscillations on and off, depending on phase and amplitude conditions of two consecutive excitation pulses. Even half-cycles can be generated, which is the basis for short polarization pulses, only limited by the polarization oscillation resonance frequency. We investigate influences of the birefringence, which directly determines the oscillation frequency, by means of calculations with the spin-flip-model and experimental verification using 850 nm VCSELs. Furthermore we discuss experimental possibilities of increasing the birefringence and therefore the oscillation frequency, such that ultrashort pulses come into reach.

  19. Recent Advances of VCSEL Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2006-12-01

    A vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was invented 30 years ago. A lot of unique features can be expected, such as low-power consumption, wafer-level testing, small packaging capability, and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly in recent years, and they are now key devices in local area networks using multimode optical fibers. Also, long wavelength VCSELs are currently attracting much interest for use in single-mode fiber metropolitan area and wide area network applications. In addition, a VCSEL-based disruptive technology enables various consumer applications such as a laser mouse and laser printers. In this paper, the recent advance of VCSEL photonics will be reviewed, which include the wavelength extension of single-mode VCSELs and their wavelength integration/control. Also, this paper explores the potential and challenges for new functions of VCSELs toward optical signal processing.

  20. Control of emitted light polarization in a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to circularly polarized optical injection

    SciTech Connect

    Alharthi, S. S. Hurtado, A.; Al Seyab, R. K.; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J.; Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M.

    2014-11-03

    We experimentally demonstrate the control of the light polarization emitted by a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) at room temperature. This is achieved by means of a combination of polarized optical pumping and polarized optical injection. Without external injection, the polarization of the optical pump controls that of the spin-VCSEL. However, the addition of the externally injected signal polarized with either left- (LCP) or right-circular polarization (RCP) is able to control the polarization of the spin-VCSEL switching it at will to left- or right-circular polarization. A numerical model has been developed showing a very high degree of agreement with the experimental findings.

  1. Design of Automotive VCSEL Transmitter with On-Chip Feedforward Optical Power Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xin; Bauwelinck, Johan; Ridder, Tine De; Ossieur, Peter; Qiu, Xing-Zhi; Vandewege, Jan; Chasles, Olivier; Devos, Arnaud; Pauw, Piet De

    We propose a novel 50Mb/s optical transmitter fabricated in a 0.6?m BiCMOS technology for automotive applications. The proposed VCSEL driver chip was designed to operate with a single supply voltage ranging from 3.0V to 5.25V. A fully integrated feedforward current control circuit is presented to stabilize the optical output power without any external components. The experimental results show that the optical output power can be stable within a 1.1dB range and the extinction ratio greater than 14dB over the automotive environmental temperature range of -40C to 105C.

  2. Evolution of VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatum, Jim A.

    2014-02-01

    Over the last 20 years, nearly 1 billion VCSELs have been shipped, the vast majority of them emitting at 850nm using GaAs active regions, and primarily used in data communications and optical tracking applications. Looking to the future, the ever increasing speed of data communications is driving the VCSEL to evolve with more complex active regions, optical mode control, and alternate wavelengths to meet the more stringent requirements. We will discuss the current state of VCSELs for 28Gbps, and higher speeds, focusing on evolution to more complex active regions and alternate wavelength approaches, particularly as the market evolves to more active optical cables. Other high volume applications for VCSELs are driving improvements in single mode and optical power characteristics. We will present several evolving market trends and applications, and the specific VCSEL requirements that are imposed. The ubiquitous 850nm, GaAs active region VCSEL is evolving in multiple ways, and will continue to be a viable optical source well in to the future.

  3. Nonpolar Gallium Nitride-based VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, Casey Oliver

    GaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are of increasing interest as sources of high-quality coherent light in the visible spectrum, particularly in blue wavelengths. These devices so far suffer from many problems, including low output power, low yield, and high costs. Nonpolar GaN offers many advantages for VCSELs. Anisotropic electric fields in the plane of the emitting quantum wells results in higher gain and crystallographically-oriented polarization of emitted light. This should result in the unique property of polarization locking, whereby the polarization direction of each device is identical, and determined by the crystal structure of the material in the device. Prior demonstrations of GaN VCSELs have relied on epitaxially-grown n-DBR mirrors, or mechanical polishing to remove the substrate to allow for deposition of dielectric DBR mirrors. Epitaxially-grown DBRs give epitaxial control of cavity length, but are very difficult and costly to grow. Mechanical polishing and deposition of dielectric DBRs simplifies fabrication, but gives no control of cavity length. This thesis reports on a novel fabrication method using photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching that gives epitaxial control of cavity length, while still allowing for the use of dielectric DBR mirrors. Using this novel fabrication method, the first nonpolar GaN-based VCSELs are demonstrated. These devices exhibit polarization locking, where each device is highly polarized parallel to the crystallographic a-direction of the wurtzite crystal structure. Electrically-injected lasing under pulsed operation at room temperature is reported, with an output power of approximately 20 uW at a wavelength of 411.9 nm.

  4. Control of cavity lifetime of 1.5 µm wafer-fused VCSELs by digital mirror trimming.

    PubMed

    Ellafi, Dalila; Iakovlev, Valdimir; Sirbu, Alexei; Suruceanu, Grigore; Mickovic, Zlatco; Caliman, Andrei; Mereuta, Alexandru; Kapon, Elyahou

    2014-12-29

    Digital chemical etching is used to trim the output mirror thickness of wafer-fused VCSELs emitting at a wavelength near 1.5µm. The fine control of the photon cavity lifetime thus achieved is employed to extract important device parameters and optimize the combination of the threshold current, output power, and direct current modulation characteristics. The fabrication process is compatible with industrial production and should help in improving device yield and in reducing manufacturing costs. PMID:25607182

  5. VCSEL Swept Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Jiang, James; Potsaid, Benjamin; Robertson, Martin; Heim, Peter J. S.; Burgner, Christopher; John, Demis; Cole, Garrett D.; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Fujimoto, James G.; Davis, Anjul M.; Cable, Alex E.

    Wavelength-swept light sources are widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). In recent years, amplified micro-electromechanical systems tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (MEMS-VCSELs) have emerged as a high performance swept source, providing a unique combination of of wide tuning range, high maximum sweep rate, variable sweep rate, long dynamic coherence length enabled by dynamic mode-hop-free single mode operation, high optical power, and excellent imaging quality. Other important parameters provided by these devices include operation in a stable polarization state, low output power ripple, and linearized wavelength sweeping. This work describes MEMS-VCSEL device design, fabrication, and performance for devices in the 1050nm band relevant to ophthalmic imaging, and the 1310nm band relevant to vascular, skin, and anatomic imaging. Tuning ranges achieved include 100 nm at 1050nm and 150nm at 1310, with the latter result representing the widest tuning range of any MEMS-VCSEL at any wavelength. Both 1050 and 1310nm devices have enabled record imaging speed, record imaging range, and enhanced SS-OCT imaging.

  6. An ultra-stable VCSEL light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, John; Babić, Dubravko; Hibbs-Brenner, Mary

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a miniature VCSEL-based light source with optical power output that varies by less than 50 ppm/°C over a 40°C temperature range. This represents a ten-fold improvement in control accuracy over what is achieved by the best available light sources with semiconductor emitters. A single-mode, polarization-locked, 670-nm VCSEL (Vixar, Inc.) is used to demonstrate the feasibility of the light source. The critical component of our control system is a beamsplitter formed by a wedge of fused silica with a weakly-polarizing, interference coating. A wedge shape eliminates fluctuations in optical power caused by interference fringes and the normal incidence of the exit beam removes polarization dependency as well as the need for an anti-reflective coating. The beamsplitter is in a closed control loop that enables compensation for control errors caused by changes in photodetector responsivity, emission wavelength, and beam divergence with temperature. We also show that careful attention to optical and mechanical alignment is essential to realize the performance enhancements reported herein. Angular tolerances of +/-0.05°are required and most coating houses lack the metrology capabilities to characterize the TCB coating with such high tolerances. A discrete-wavelength reflectometer was developed for this purpose.

  7. High-power VCSEL systems and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Holger; Conrads, Ralf; Deppe, Carsten; Derra, Guenther; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gu, Xi; Heusler, Gero; Kolb, Johanna; Miller, Michael; Pekarski, Pavel; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Pruijmboom, Armand; Weichmann, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    Easy system design, compactness and a uniform power distribution define the basic advantages of high power VCSEL systems. Full addressability in space and time add new dimensions for optimization and enable "digital photonic production". Many thermal processes benefit from the improved control i.e. heat is applied exactly where and when it is needed. The compact VCSEL systems can be integrated into most manufacturing equipment, replacing batch processes using large furnaces and reducing energy consumption. This paper will present how recent technological development of high power VCSEL systems will extend efficiency and flexibility of thermal processes and replace not only laser systems, lamps and furnaces but enable new ways of production. High power VCSEL systems are made from many VCSEL chips, each comprising thousands of low power VCSELs. Systems scalable in power from watts to multiple ten kilowatts and with various form factors utilize a common modular building block concept. Designs for reliable high power VCSEL arrays and systems can be developed and tested on each building block level and benefit from the low power density and excellent reliability of the VCSELs. Furthermore advanced assembly concepts aim to reduce the number of individual processes and components and make the whole system even more simple and reliable.

  8. High power VCSEL devices for atomic clock applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, L. S.; Ghosh, C.; Seurin, J.-F.; Zhou, D.; Xu, G.; Xu, B.; Miglo, A.

    2015-09-01

    We are developing VCSEL technology producing >100mW in single frequency at wavelengths 780nm, 795nm and 850nm. Small aperture VCSELs with few mW output have found major applications in atomic clock experiments. Using an external cavity three-mirror configuration we have been able to operate larger aperture VCSELs and obtain >70mW power in single frequency operation. The VCSEL has been mounted in a fiber pigtailed package with the external mirror mounted on a shear piezo. The package incorporates a miniature Rb cell locker to lock the VCSEL wavelength. This VCSEL operates in single frequency and is tuned by a combination of piezo actuator, temperature and current. Mode-hop free tuning over >30GHz frequency span is obtained. The VCSEL has been locked to the Rb D2 line and feedback control used to obtain line-widths of <100kHz.

  9. VCSEL Applications and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson; Goorjian, Peter; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Li, Jian-Zhong

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) simulation and its applications. Details are given on the optical interconnection in information technology of VCSEL, the formulation of the simulation, its numeric algorithm, and the computational results.

  10. Long-wavelength VCSELs for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortsiefer, M.; Rosskopf, J.; Neumeyr, C.; Gründl, T.; Grasse, C.; Chen, J.; Hangauer, A.; Strzoda, R.; Gierl, C.; Meissner, P.; Küppers, F.; Amann, M.-C.

    2012-03-01

    Long-wavelength VCSELs with emission wavelengths beyond 1.3 μm have seen a remarkable progress over the last decade. This success has been accomplished by using highly advanced device concepts which effectively overcome the fundamental technological drawbacks related with long-wavelength VCSELs such as inferior thermal properties and allow for the realization of lasers with striking device performance. In this presentation, we will give an overview on the state of the technology for long-wavelength VCSELs in conjunction with their opportunities in applications for optical sensing. While VCSELs based on InP are limited to maximum emission wavelengths around 2.3 μm, even longer wavelengths up to the mid-infrared range beyond 3 μm can be achieved with VCSELs based on GaSb. For near-infrared InP-based VCSELs, the output characteristics include sub-mA threshold currents, up to several milliwatts of singlemode output power and ultralow power consumption. New concepts for widely tunable VCSELs with tuning ranges up to 100 nm independent from the material system for the active region are also presented. Today, optical sensing by Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy is a fast emerging market. Gas sensing systems are used for a wide range of applications such as industrial process control, environmental monitoring and safety applications. With their inherent and compared to other laser types superior properties including enhanced current tuning rates, wavelength tuning ranges, modulation frequencies and power consumption, long-wavelength VCSELs are regarded as key components for TDLS applications.

  11. Phase-Controlled Polarization Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Wollack, E. J.; Novak, G.; Moseley, S. H.; Pisano, G.; Krejny, M.; U-Yen, K.

    2012-01-01

    We report technology development of millimeter/submillimeter polarization modulators that operate by introducing a a variable, controlled phase delay between two orthogonal polarization states. The variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) operates via the introduction of a variable phase delay between two linear orthogonal polarization states, resulting in a variable mapping of a single linear polarization into a combination of that Stokes parameter and circular (Stokes V) polarization. Characterization of a prototype VPM is presented at 350 and 3000 microns. We also describe a modulator in which a variable phase delay is introduced between right- and left- circular polarization states. In this architecture, linear polarization is fully modulated. Each of these devices consists of a polarization diplexer parallel to and in front of a movable mirror. Modulation involves sub-wavelength translations of the mirror that change the magnitude of the phase delay.

  12. Coherent switching of polarization oscillations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höpfner, Henning; Lindemann, Markus; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2014-02-01

    Spin polarized lasers, especially spin polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) provide improved performance when compared to conventional, purely charge-based lasers. Advantages of these spin-enhanced devices lie in their reduced laser threshold, increased emission intensity, amplification of spin information, chirp control and possibilities for ultrafast modulation due to their faster dynamics. Utilizing a commercially available conventional VCSEL and additional spin polarized optical pumping we are able to enhance the modulation dynamics of a conventional VCSEL with new spin effects. Our experiments show polarization oscillations in the spin-photon system that result in oscillations of the circular polarization of the VCSEL emission. The resulting polarization oscillations are of significantly higher frequency than the direct modulation bandwidth of the VCSEL and persist for durations longer than the spin lifetime in the active region. Simulations based on a rate-equation model show that with an improved VCSEL layout it should be possible to reach oscillation frequencies well above 100 GHz. Here, we show that with multiple optical spin polarized pulses these oscillations can be coherently excited, amplified and also stopped. Using this excitation scheme, polarization oscillations faster than the purely charge-based dynamics can be achieved with half-cycle to multi-cycle duration. Various influences of unpolarized electrical bias, optical excitation power and delay between pulses will be discussed both theoretically and experimentally. Additionally, we analyze the qualification of this new concept for ultrafast optical communication.

  13. Frequency tuning of polarization oscillations: Toward high-speed spin-lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, Markus; Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Spin-controlled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) offer a high potential to overcome several limitations of conventional purely charged-based laser devices. Presumably, the highest potential of spin-VCSELs lies in their ultrafast spin and polarization dynamics, which can be significantly faster than the intensity dynamics in conventional devices. Here, we experimentally demonstrate polarization oscillations in spin-VCSELs with frequencies up to 44 GHz. The results show that the oscillation frequency mainly depends on the cavity birefringence, which can be tuned by applying mechanical strain to the VCSEL structure. A tuning range of about 34 GHz is demonstrated. By measuring the polarization oscillation frequency and the birefringence governed mode splitting as a function of the applied strain simultaneously, we are able to investigate the correlation between birefringence and polarization oscillations in detail. The experimental findings are compared to numerical calculations based on the spin-flip model.

  14. Controlled switching and frequency tuning of polarization oscillations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, Markus; Höpfner, Henning; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.; Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Spintronic lasers offer promising perspectives for novel concepts and characteristics superior to conventional purely charge-based devices. This applies in particular to spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs), which exhibit ultrafast spin and polarization dynamics. Using pulsed spin-injection, oscillations in the circular polarization degree can be generated, which have the potential to be much faster than conventional relaxation oscillations and may exceed frequencies of 100 GHz. The oscillations originate from the coupled carrier-spin-photon system in birefringent VCSEL cavities. The polarization oscillations are independent from conventional relaxation oscillations and thus can be the cornerstone for ultrafast directly modulated spin-VCSELs in the near future. It is possible to switch the oscillations on and off, depending on phase and amplitude conditions of two consecutive excitation pulses. Even half-cycles can be generated, which is the basis for short polarization pulses, only limited by the polarization oscillation resonance frequency. Experimental results of oscillation switching are given using an 850 nm oxide-confined single-mode VCSEL. In order to increase the polarization oscillation frequency, the birefringence has to be tuned to higher values. We demonstrate a method to manipulate the birefringence by adding mechanical strain to the substrate in vicinity of the VCSEL. With this method the polarization oscillation frequency can be tuned over a wide range. The results are compared to the theory with simulations using the spin-flip-model.

  15. Interferometric Polarization Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T. (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); Moseley, Samuel H. (Inventor); Novak, Giles A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A signal conditioning module provides a polarimeter capability in a photometric system. The module may include multiple variable delay polarization modulators. Each modulator may include an input port, and a first arm formed to include a first reflector and first rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The first reflector may direct an input radiation signal to the first rooftop mirror. Each modulator also may include an output port and a second arm formed to include a second reflector and second rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The second reflector can guide a signal from the second rooftop mirror towards the output port to provide an output radiation signal. A beamsplitting grid may be placed between the first reflector and the first rooftop mirror, and also between the second reflector and the second rooftop mirror. A translation apparatus can provide adjustment relative to optical path length vis-a-vis the first arm, the second arm and the grid.

  16. Interferometric polarization control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); Moseley, Samuel H. (Inventor); Novak, Giles A. (Inventor); Chuss, David T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A signal conditioning module provides a polarimeter capability in a photometric system. The module may include multiple variable delay polarization modulators. Each modulator may include an input port, and a first arm formed to include a first reflector and first rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The first reflector may direct an input radiation signal to the first rooftop mirror. Each modulator also may include an output port and a second arm formed to include a second reflector and second rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The second reflector can guide a signal from the second rooftop mirror towards the output port to provide an output radiation signal. A beamsplitting grid may be placed between the first reflector and the first rooftop mirror, and also between the second reflector and the second rooftop mirror. A translation apparatus can provide adjustment relative to optical path length vis-a-vis the first arm, the second arm and the grid.

  17. Red vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for consumer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan, Geoffrey; Barrow, David A.; Calvert, Tim; Maute, Markus; Hung, Vincent; McGarvey, Brian; Lambkin, John D.; Wipiejewski, Torsten

    2008-02-01

    There are many potential applications of visible, red (650nm - 690nm) vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) including high speed (Gb) communications using plastic optical fiber (POF), laser mouse sensors, metrology, position sensing. Uncertainty regarding the reliability of red VCSELs has long been perceived as the most significant roadblock to their commercialization. In this paper we will present data on red VCSELs optimized for performance and reliability that will allow exploitation of this class of VCSEL in a wide range of high volume consumer, communication and medical applications. VCSELs operating at ~665nm have been fabricated on 4" GaAs substrates using MOCVD as the growth process and using standard VCSEL processing technology. The active region is AlGaInP-based and the DBR mirrors are made from AlGaAs. Threshold currents are typically less than 2mA, the devices operate up to >60C and the light output is polarized in a stable, linear characteristic over all normal operating conditions. The 3dB modulation bandwidth of the devices is in excess of 3GHz and we have demonstrated the operation of a transceiver module operating at 1.25Gb/s over both SI-POF and GI-POF. Ageing experiments carried out using a matrix of current and temperature stress conditions allows us to estimate that the time to failure of 1% of devices (TT1%F) is over 200,000h for reasonable use conditions - making these red VCSELs ready for commercial exploitation in a variety of consumer-type applications. Experiments using appropriate pulsed driving conditions have resulted in operation of 665nm VCSELs at a temperature of 85°C whilst still offering powers useable for eye-safe free space and POF communications.

  18. Emerging VCSEL technologies at Finisar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazula, D.; Guenter, J. K.; Johnson, R. H.; Landry, G. D.; MacInnes, A. N.; Park, G.; Wade, J. K.; Biard, J. R.; Tatum, J. A.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we will discuss recent results on high speed VCSELs targeted for the emerging 16GFC (Fibre Channel) standard as well as the now forming 25Gbps PCI express standard. Significant challenges in designing for reliability and speed have been overcome to demonstrate VCSELs with bandwidth in excess of 20Gbps.

  19. Circular polarization switching and bistability in an optically injected 1300 nm spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    SciTech Connect

    Alharthi, S. S. Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J.; Hurtado, A.; Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M.

    2015-01-12

    We report the experimental observation of circular polarization switching (PS) and polarization bistability (PB) in a 1300 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). We demonstrate that the circularly polarized optical signal at 1300 nm can gradually or abruptly switch the polarization ellipticity of the spin-VCSEL from right-to-left circular polarization and vice versa. Moreover, different forms of PS and PB between right- and left-circular polarizations are observed by controlling the injection strength and the initial wavelength detuning. These results obtained at the telecom wavelength of 1300 nm open the door for novel uses of spin-VCSELs in polarization sensitive applications in future optical systems.

  20. Electrically controlling the polarizing direction of a graphene polarizer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z. H. Qin, S. Q.; Guo, C. C.; Liu, K.; Zhang, J. F.; Ye, W. M.; Yuan, X. D.

    2014-09-14

    We theoretically demonstrate a polarizer with an electrically controllable polarizing direction in the far infrared range using two orthogonal periodic arrays of graphene ribbons, which have different widths and are supported on a dielectric film placed on a thick piece of metal. The operation mechanism originates from the polarization-dependent resonant absorption of the two orthogonal graphene ribbons, which can be respectively controlled with different external bias voltages. The operation wavelength can be expanded to terahertz (THz) radiation.

  1. Dynamic Self-Locking of an OEO Containing a VCSEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Yu, Nan; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-01

    A method of dynamic self-locking has been demonstrated to be effective as a means of stabilizing the wavelength of light emitted by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) that is an active element in the frequency-control loop of an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) designed to implement an atomic clock based on an electromagnetically- induced-transparency (EIT) resonance. This scheme can be considered an alternative to the one described in Optical Injection Locking of a VCSEL in an OEO (NPO-43454), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 7 (July 2009), page 33. Both schemes are expected to enable the development of small, low-power, high-stability atomic clocks that would be suitable for use in applications involving precise navigation and/or communication. To recapitulate from the cited prior article: In one essential aspect of operation of an OEO of the type described above, a microwave modulation signal is coupled into the VCSEL. Heretofore, it has been well known that the wavelength of light emitted by a VCSEL depends on its temperature and drive current, necessitating thorough stabilization of these operational parameters. Recently, it was discovered that the wavelength also depends on the microwave power coupled into the VCSEL. This concludes the background information. From the perspective that led to the conception of the optical injection-locking scheme described in the cited prior article, the variation of the VCSEL wavelength with the microwave power circulating in the frequency-control loop is regarded as a disadvantage and optical injection locking is a solution of the problem of stabilizing the wavelength in the presence of uncontrolled fluctuations in the microwave power. The present scheme for dynamic self-locking emerges from a different perspective, in which the dependence of VCSEL wavelength on microwave power is regarded as an advantageous phenomenon that can be exploited as a means of controlling the wavelength. The figure schematically depicts an atomic-clock OEO of the type in question, wherein (1) the light from the VCSEL is used to excite an EIT resonance in selected atoms in a gas cell (e.g., 87Rb atoms in a low-pressure mixture of Ar and Ne) and (2) the power supplied to the VCSEL is modulated by a microwave signal that includes components at beat frequencies among the VCSEL wavelength and modulation sidebands. As the VCSEL wavelength changes, it moves closer to or farther from a nearby absorption spectral line, and the optical power transmitted through the cell (and thus the loop gain) changes accordingly. A change in the loop gain causes a change in the microwave power and, thus, in the VCSEL wavelength. It is possible to choose a set of design and operational parameters (most importantly, the electronic part of the loop gain) such that the OEO stabilizes itself in the sense that an increase in circulating microwave power causes the VCSEL wavelength to change in a direction that results in an increase in optical absorption and thus a decrease in circulating microwave power. Typically, such an appropriate choice of operational parameters involves setting the nominal VCSEL wavelength to a point on the shorter-wavelength wing of an absorption spectral line.

  2. Magnetic control of ferroelectric polarization.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Goto, T; Shintani, H; Ishizaka, K; Arima, T; Tokura, Y

    2003-11-01

    The magnetoelectric effect--the induction of magnetization by means of an electric field and induction of polarization by means of a magnetic field--was first presumed to exist by Pierre Curie, and subsequently attracted a great deal of interest in the 1960s and 1970s (refs 2-4). More recently, related studies on magnetic ferroelectrics have signalled a revival of interest in this phenomenon. From a technological point of view, the mutual control of electric and magnetic properties is an attractive possibility, but the number of candidate materials is limited and the effects are typically too small to be useful in applications. Here we report the discovery of ferroelectricity in a perovskite manganite, TbMnO3, where the effect of spin frustration causes sinusoidal antiferromagnetic ordering. The modulated magnetic structure is accompanied by a magnetoelastically induced lattice modulation, and with the emergence of a spontaneous polarization. In the magnetic ferroelectric TbMnO3, we found gigantic magnetoelectric and magnetocapacitance effects, which can be attributed to switching of the electric polarization induced by magnetic fields. Frustrated spin systems therefore provide a new area to search for magnetoelectric media. PMID:14603314

  3. Red VCSEL for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossbach, Robert; Ballmann, Tabitha; Butendeich, Rainer; Scholz, Ferdinand; Schweizer, Heinz; Jetter, Michael

    2005-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the problems of the AlGaInP material system and its consequences for the laser applications in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL). The epitaxial and technological solutions to overcome at least parts of the inherent problems were presented. Measured power-current curves of 660nm AlGaInP-based oxide-confined VCSEL are compared with calculated data by a cylindrical heat dissipation model to improve heat removal out of the device. Pulsed lasing operation of a 670nm VCSEL at +120°C heat sink temperature is demonstrated, where we exceeded 0.5mW and at +160°C still 25μW output power were achieved. We also studied the modulation bandwidth of our devices and achieved 4GHz and calculations lead to a maximum possible intrinsic -3dB frequency of 25GHz.

  4. Optical Injection Locking of a VCSEL in an OEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-01

    Optical injection locking has been demonstrated to be effective as a means of stabilizing the wavelength of light emitted by a vertical-cavity surface- emitting laser (VCSEL) that is an active element in the frequency-control loop of an opto-electronic oscillator (OEO) designed to implement an atomic clock based on an electromagnetically- induced-transparency resonance. This particular optical-injection- locking scheme is expected to enable the development of small, low-power, high-stability atomic clocks that would be suitable for use in applications involving precise navigation and/or communication. In one essential aspect of operation of an OEO of the type described above, a microwave modulation signal is coupled into the VCSEL. Heretofore, it has been well known that the wavelength of light emitted by a VCSEL depends on its temperature and drive current, necessitating thorough stabilization of these operational parameters. Recently, it was discovered that the wavelength also depends on the microwave power coupled into the VCSEL. Inasmuch as the microwave power circulating in the frequency-control loop is a dynamic frequency-control variable (and, hence, cannot be stabilized), there arises a need for another means of stabilizing the wavelength. The present optical-injection-locking scheme satisfies the need for a means to stabilize the wavelength against microwave- power fluctuations. It is also expected to afford stabilization against temperature and current fluctuations. In an experiment performed to demonstrate this scheme, wavelength locking was observed when about 200 W of the output power of a commercial tunable diode laser was injected into a commercial VCSEL, designed to operate in the wavelength range of 795+/-3 nm, that was generating about 200 microW of optical power. (The use of relatively high injection power levels is a usual practice in injection locking of VCSELs.)

  5. Polarization dynamics in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hpfner, Henning; Lindemann, Markus; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2014-08-01

    Spin-polarized lasers and especially spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) are at- tractive novel spintronic devices providing functionalities and characteristics superior to their conventional purely charge-based counterparts. This applies in particular to ultrafast dynamics, modulation capability and chirp control of directly modulated lasers. Here we demonstrate that ultrafast oscillations of the circular polarization degree can be generated in VCSELs by pulsed spin injection which have the potential to reach frequencies beyond 100 GHz. These oscillations are due to the coupling of the carrier-spin-photon system via the optical birefringence for the linearly polarized laser modes in the micro-cavity and are principally decoupled from conventional relaxation oscillations of the carrier-photon system. Utilizing these polarization oscillations is a very promising path to ultrafast directly modulated spin-VCSELs in the near future as long as an effective concept can be developed to modulate or switch these polarization oscillations. After briefly reviewing the state of research in the emerging field of spin-VCSELs, we present a novel concept for controlled switching of polarization oscillations by use of multiple optical spin injection pulses. Depending on the amplitude and phase conditions of the excitation pulses, constructive or destructive interference of polarization oscillations leads to an excitation, stabilization or switch-off of these oscillations. Furthermore even short single polarization bursts can be generated with pulse widths only limited by the resonance frequency of the polarization oscillation. Consequently, this concept is an important building block for using spin controlled polarization oscillations for future communication applications.

  6. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neturons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  7. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neutrons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  8. Experimental and theoretical analysis of limit cycle bistability in a free-running VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virte, Martin; Sciamanna, Marc; Mercier, Emeric; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2014-05-01

    Laser diodes typically behave like damped oscillators: they are generally expected to only show damped relaxation oscillations toward a stable fixed point. In vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), the picture appears to be quite different as polarization dynamics can be experimentally observed including bifurcations to self- pulsation and even chaos. Physically, the circular geometry of VCSELs makes the polarization selection very weak and, thus, the additional degree of freedom can enable complex dynamical behavior in the laser diode. Here we report on a new dynamical behavior in a free-running VCSEL: we observe a bistability between two limit cycles oscillating around two distinct elliptical polarization states whose main axes are symmetrical with respect to the polarization at threshold. Although the existence of two symmetric elliptical polarizations and the associated limit cycles are predicted by the San Miguel, Feng and Moloney (SFM) model, the hysteresis cycle observed experimentally highlights the importance of asymmetry in the dynamics from the elliptically polarized states. We demonstrate that this behavior can be accurately reproduced in theory within the SFM framework when taking into account a small misalignment between the phase and amplitude anisotropies of the laser cavity. Our results bring new light into VCSEL polarization dynamics and provide a very good qualitative agreement with the bifurcation scenario predicted by the SFM model.

  9. Double high refractive-index contrast grating VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Wasiak, Micha?; Sarza?a, Robert P.; Lott, J. A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) are typically used as the highly reflecting mirrors of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). In order to provide optical field confinement, oxide apertures are often incorporated in the process of the selective wet oxidation of high aluminum-content DBR layers. This technology has some potential drawbacks such as difficulty in controlling the uniformity of the oxide aperture diameters across a large-diameter (? 6 inch) production wafers, high DBR series resistance especially for small diameters below about 5 ?m despite elaborate grading and doping schemes, free carrier absorption at longer emission wavelengths in the p-doped DBRs, reduced reliability for oxide apertures placed close to the quantum wells, and low thermal conductivity for transporting heat away from the active region. A prospective alternative mirror is a high refractive index contrast grating (HCG) monolithically integrated with the VCSEL cavity. Two HCG mirrors potentially offer a very compact and simplified VCSEL design although the problems of resistance, heat dissipation, and reliability are not completely solved. We present an analysis of a double HCG 980 nm GaAs-based ultra-thin VCSEL. We analyze the optical confinement of such a structure with a total optical thickness is ~1.0? including the optical cavity and the two opposing and parallel HCG mirrors.

  10. 1060nm 28-Gbps VCSEL developed at Furukawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshihito; Funabashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Hitoshi; Nagashima, Kazuya; Kamiya, Shinichi; Kasukawa, Akihiko

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents recent development results of our 28-Gbps VCSELs featured with double intra-cavity structure and a lasing wavelength of 1060 nm. The double intra-cavity realizes very low cavity loss due to undoped semiconductor bottom DBR and dielectric top DBR layers. Compressively strained InGaAs MQW provides high differential gain that contributes to low power consumption and high reliability. Based on our 10-Gbps VCSEL structure, we carefully optimized MQW, selective oxide structure, cavity length, and doping profile in order to achieve high speed operation while maintaining high reliability and other laser performances. The developed VCSELs exhibit modulation 3 dB-bandwidth exceeding 20 GHz and D-factor of 10 GHz/(mA)1/2. Typical threshold current and slope efficiency are 0.5 mA and 0.5 W/A, respectively. The paper also discusses static and dynamic characteristics of VCSELs with various oxide aperture sizes simultaneously fabricated on the same wafer. For a longer transmission distance and better optical coupling to a multimode fiber, optical lateral confinement is precisely controlled to reduce spectral width as well as far-field pattern. Clearly opened eye diagrams are obtained at a bit rate of 28 Gbps. Bit error rate tests are also performed and 28 Gbps error free transmission has been confirmed over 300 meters of multimode-fiber optimized for 1060 nm with a PRBS pattern length of 231-1.

  11. High-speed VCSELs and VCSEL arrays for single- and multi-core fiber interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Anders; Westbergh, Petter; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Haglund, Erik; Haglund, Emanuel P.

    2015-03-01

    Our recent work on high speed 850 nm VCSELs and VCSEL arrays is reviewed. With a modulation bandwidth approaching 30 GHz, our VCSELs have enabled transmitters and links operating at data rates in excess of 70 Gbps (at IBM) and transmission over onboard polymer waveguides at 40 Gbps (at University of Cambridge). VCSELs with an integrated mode filter for single mode emission have enabled transmission at 25 Gbps over >1 km of multimode fiber and a speed-distance product of 40 Gbpskm. Dense VCSEL arrays for multicore fiber interconnects have demonstrated 240 Gbps aggregate capacity with excellent uniformity and low crosstalk between the 40 Gbps channels.

  12. VCSELs for exascale computing, computer farms, and green photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Werner; Moser, Philip; Wolf, Philip; Larisch, Gunter; Li, Hui; Li, Wei; Lott, James; Bimberg, Dieter

    2012-11-01

    The bandwidth-induced communication bottleneck due to the intrinsic limitations of metal interconnects is inhibiting the performance and environmental friendliness of todas supercomputers, data centers, and in fact all other modern electrically interconnected and interoperable networks such as data farms and "cloud" fabrics. The same is true for systems of optical interconnects (OIs), where even when the metal interconnects are replaced with OIs the systems remain limited by bandwidth, physical size, and most critically the power consumption and lifecycle operating costs. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are ideally suited to solve this dilemma. Global communication providers like Google Inc., Intel Inc., HP Inc., and IBM Inc. are now producing optical interconnects based on VCSELs. The optimal bandwidth per link may be analyzed by by using Amdah?s Law and depends on the architecture of the data center and the performance of the servers within the data center. According to Google Inc., a bandwidth of 40 Gb/s has to be accommodated in the future. IBM Inc. demands 80 Tbps interconnects between solitary server chips in 2020. We recently realized ultrahigh bit rate VCSELs up to 49 Gb/s suited for such optical interconnects emitting at 980 nm. These devices show error-free transmission at temperatures up to 155C and operate beyond 200C. Single channel data-rates of 40 Gb/s were achieved up to 75C. Record high energy efficiencies close to 50 fJ/bit were demonstrated for VCSELs emitting at 850 nm. Our devices are fabricated using a full three-inch wafer process, and the apertures were formed by in-situ controlled selective wet oxidation using stainless steel-based vacuum equipment of our own design. assembly, and operation. All device data are measured, recorded, and evaluated by our proprietary fully automated wafer mapping probe station. The bandwidth density of our present devices is expected to be scalable from about 100 Gbps/mm to a physical limit of roughly 15 Tbps/mm based on the current 12.5 Gb/s VCSEL technology. Still more energy-efficient and smaller volume laser diode devices dissipating less heat are mandatory for further up scaling of the bandwidth. Novel metal-clad VCSELs enable a reduction of the device's footprint for potentially ultrashort range interconnects by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared to conventional VCSELs thus enabling a similar increase of device density and bandwidth.

  13. SASE FEL Polarization Control Using Crossed Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuantao; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2008-09-30

    There is a growing interest in producing intense, coherent x-ray radiation with an adjustable and arbitrary polarization state. In this paper, we study the crossed undulator scheme for rapid polarization control in a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free electron laser (FEL). Because a SASE source is a temporally chaotic light, we perform a statistical analysis on the state of polarization using FEL theory and simulations. We show that by adding a small phase shifter and a short (about 1.3 times the FEL power gain length), 90{sup o} rotated planar undulator after the main SASE planar undulator, one can obtain circularly polarized light--with over 80% polarization--near the FEL saturation.

  14. VCSEL technology for medical diagnostics and therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbs-Brenner, M. K.; Johnson, K. L.; Bendett, M.

    2009-02-01

    In the 1990's a new laser technology, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers, or VCSELs, emerged and transformed the data communication industry. The combination of performance characteristics, reliability and performance/cost ratio allowed high data rate communication to occur over short distances at a commercially viable price. VCSELs have not been widely used outside of this application space, but with the development of new attributes, such as a wider range of available wavelengths, the demonstration of arrays of VCSELs on a single chip, and a variety of package form factors, VCSELs can have a significant impact on medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. One area of potential application is neurostimulation. Researchers have previously demonstrated the feasibility of using 1850nm light for nerve stimulation. The ability to create an array of VCSELs emitting at this wavelength would allow significantly improved spatial resolution, and multiple parallel channels of stimulation. For instance, 2D arrays of 100 lasers or more can be integrated on a single chip less than 2mm on a side. A second area of interest is non-invasive sensing. Performance attributes such as the narrow spectral width, low power consumption, and packaging flexibility open up new possibilities in non-invasive and/or continuous sensing. This paper will suggest ways in which VCSELs can be implemented within these application areas, and the advantages provided by the unique performance characteristics of the VCSEL. The status of VCSEL technology as a function of available wavelength and array size and form factors will be summarized.

  15. Analysis of waveguiding properties of VCSEL structures

    SciTech Connect

    Erteza, I.A.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the feasibility of using the distributed Bragg reflector, grown on the substrate for a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser), to provide waveguiding within the substrate. This waveguiding could serve as an interconnection among VCSELs in an array. Before determining the feasibility of waveguide interconnected VCSELs, two analysis methods are presented and evaluated for their applicability to this problem. The implementations in Mathematica of both these methods are included. Results of the analysis show that waveguiding in VCSEL structures is feasible. Some of the many possible uses of waveguide interconnected VCSELs are also briefly discussed. The tools and analysis presented in this report can be used to evaluate such system concepts and to do detailed design calculations.

  16. Fabrication issues of oxide-confined VCSELs

    SciTech Connect

    Geib, K.M.; Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.

    1997-04-01

    To insert high-performance oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface- emitting lasers (VCSELs) into the manufacturing arena, we have examined the critical parameters that must be controlled to establish a repeatable and uniform wet thermal oxidation process for AlGaAs. These parameters include the AlAs mole fraction, sample temperature, carrier gas flow, and bubbler water temperature. Knowledge of these parameters has enable the compilation of oxidation rate data for AlGaAs which exhibits an Arrhenius rate dependence. The compositionally dependent activation energies for Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As layers of x=1.00, 0.98, and 0.92 are found to be 1.24, 1.75, and 1.88 eV, respectively. 7 figs, 1 tab, 14 refs.

  17. Communication using VCSEL laser array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Ultrafast directional beam switching, using coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is combined with a light modulator to provide information transfer at bit rates of tens of GHz. This approach is demonstrated to achieve beam switching frequencies of 32-50 GHz in some embodiments and directional beam switching with angular differences of about eight degrees. This switching scheme is likely to be useful for ultrafast optical networks at frequencies much higher than achievable with other approaches. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a Fabry-Perot etalon, or a semiconductor-based electro-absorption transmission channel, among others, can be used as a light modulator.

  18. Spin-controlled vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hövel, Stephan; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Brenner, Carsten; Hofmann, Martin R.; Lo, Fang-Yuh; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.; Schuster, Ellen; Keune, Werner

    2006-04-01

    The output polarization of an optically pumped InGaAs/GaAs vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is analyzed at room temperature as a function of the circular input polarization degree. The emission of the VCSEL is unambiguously controlled by the exciting polarization and only 30% of spin-polarized electrons are needed in the active region to generate an output polarization degree of up to 100% at short-pulsed pumping. This testifies that a VCSEL can be used as an effective amplifier for spin information even at room temperature. Measurements with a continuous wave excitation were executed to demonstrate the possibility of spin-amplification by electrical spin-injection in a VCSEL. All measurements were confirmed by a phenomenological spin flip model. Our paper is completed with the introduction of Fe/Tb-Multilayers used for spin injection. These contacts enable spin injection without external magnetic fields, i.e. in remanence. Finally, we suggest a combination of these multilayers with a VCSEL-structure to create the first spin-optoelectronic device working both at room temperature and without external fields.

  19. Automatic polarization control in optical sampling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhao; Yang, Aiying; Feng, Lihui

    2015-08-01

    In an optical sampling system for high-speed optical communications, polarization controlling is one of the most important parts of the system, regardless of nonlinear optical sampling or linear optical sampling. A simple method based on variance calculation of sampled data is proposed in this paper to tune the wave plates in a motor-driven polarization controller. In the experiment, an optical sampling system base on SFG in PPLN is carried for a 10Gbit/s or beyond optical data signal. The results demonstrate that, with the proposed method, the error of estimated Q factor from the sampled data is least, and the tuning time of optimized polarization state is less than 30 seconds with the accuracy of +/-1.

  20. Fast beam steering with full polarization control using a galvanometric optical scanner and polarization controller.

    PubMed

    Jofre, M; Anzolin, G; Steinlechner, F; Oliverio, N; Torres, J P; Pruneri, V; Mitchell, M W

    2012-05-21

    Optical beam steering is a key element in many industrial and scientific applications like in material processing, information technologies, medical imaging and laser display. Even though galvanometer-based scanners offer flexibility, speed and accuracy at a relatively low cost, they still lack the necessary control over the polarization required for certain applications. We report on the development of a polarization steerable system assembled with a fiber polarization controller and a galvanometric scanner, both controlled by a digital signal processor board. The system implements control of the polarization decoupled from the pointing direction through a feed-forward control scheme. This enables to direct optical beams to a desired direction without affecting its initial polarization state. When considering the full working field of view, we are able to compensate polarization angle errors larger than 0.2 rad, in a temporal window of less than ? 20 ms. Given the unification of components to fully control any polarization state while steering an optical beam, the proposed system is potentially integrable and robust. PMID:22714214

  1. VCSELs for Optical Mice and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin; Moench, Holger; Pruijmboom, Armand

    A real mass application for VCSELs is their use in optical mice and sensing. As illumination source for sensing applications VCSELs offer a better performance than LEDs. The even more advanced approach of laser self-mixing interference sensors allows a next step in integration, accuracy and new application fields. This chapter summarizes the major requirements towards VCSELs in illumination for sensing applications and gives typical specifications. A detailed description of the production process and the achieved reproducibility makes clear that these VCSELs are ideally suited for production in large quantities. In the second half of the chapter the self-mixing interference method is described in more detail and a highly integrated two axes laser Doppler interferometer is shown. This product is designed for a laser mouse but offers a number of other sensing applications.

  2. Interface control of bulk ferroelectric polarization

    PubMed Central

    Yu, P.; Luo, W.; Yi, D.; Zhang, J. X.; Rossell, M. D.; Yang, C.-H.; You, L.; Singh-Bhalla, G.; Yang, S. Y.; He, Q.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Erni, R.; Martin, L. W.; Chu, Y. H.; Pantelides, S. T.; Pennycook, S. J.; Ramesh, R.

    2012-01-01

    The control of material interfaces at the atomic level has led to novel interfacial properties and functionalities. In particular, the study of polar discontinuities at interfaces between complex oxides lies at the frontier of modern condensed matter research. Here we employ a combination of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations to demonstrate the control of a bulk property, namely ferroelectric polarization, of a heteroepitaxial bilayer by precise atomic-scale interface engineering. More specifically, the control is achieved by exploiting the interfacial valence mismatch to influence the electrostatic potential step across the interface, which manifests itself as the biased-voltage in ferroelectric hysteresis loops and determines the ferroelectric state. A broad study of diverse systems comprising different ferroelectrics and conducting perovskite underlayers extends the generality of this phenomenon. PMID:22647612

  3. VCSEL-Based Laser Printing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, Nobuaki; Mukoyama, Naotaka

    There is an endless demand for improved image quality and higher speed in printer applications. To meet market requirements, in 2003 we launched DocuColor 1256 GA, the world's first VCSEL-based electrophotographic printer utilizing a 780 nm single-mode 8{}{}4 VCSEL array. The printer features 2,400 dots per inch (dpi ) resolution, which is still the highest level in the industry, and a speed of 12.5 pages per minute (ppm ). A two-dimensional VCSEL array makes it much easier to increase the pixel density and printing speed by simultaneously scanning the 32 beams on the photoconductor in the light exposure system . Adopting VCSELs as a light source also contributes to reduced power consumption, because the operating current of VCSELs is extremely small and the wall-plug efficiency is very high. In this chapter, we explain the key technologies of VCSELs in light exposure system of laser printer, as well as their required characteristics to assure high image quality.

  4. Control of polarization in integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koonath, Prakash Vijayan

    Integrated optical devices have attracted considerable attention in recent years with the rapid progress in optical communications, and the emergence of dense wavelength division multiplexing systems. The control over the state of polarization of the optical signal is an important issue that needs to be addressed due to the structure-induced anisotropy in these devices. In this thesis, two different types of integrated optical devices, with distinct approaches to address their polarization sensitivity, have been explored. The first device investigated was a semiconductor optical amplifier based on multi-quantum wells, where the gain depends on the state of polarization of the optical signal. To realize amplifiers with polarization insensitive gain, tensile-strained quantum wells structures were utilized as active regions in these devices. Optical gain calculations were performed using k.p method to calculate the tensile stress that needs to be introduced for gain equalization. These devices were then fabricated and tested to demonstrate the concept of gain equalization in InGaAsP/InP based material system at 1300 nm wavelength window and in AlInGaAs/InP based material system at both 1300 nm and 1550 run wavelength windows. In the second device, polarization sensitivity of integrated optical devices, combined with the linear electro-optic effect in III-V semiconductor materials, is exploited to manipulate the state of polarization of the optical signal. A phase modulator, combined with a TE <--> TM converter, may be used to obtain a device that converts the arbitrary elliptical input state of polarization to either the TE or the TM mode of the structure. Finite element methods have been developed to model the propagation and loss characteristics, and calculate the switching voltages of these devices based on AlGaAs/GaAs material system. The fabricated devices were then investigated for their I-V characteristics and propagations losses with and without the metal electrodes. These measurements reveal high losses for the optical signal in the presence of the metal electrodes with a higher attenuation for the TM mode as compared to the TE mode. A complete measurement of the polarization characteristics of these devices requires modified waveguide/electrode structure to minimize the excess losses encountered by the optical signal.

  5. Fiber polarization control based on a fast locating algorithm.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhimeng; Liu, Cangli; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Dayong; Cheng, Heping; Luo, Yongquan; Hu, Qiqi; Han, Mei

    2013-09-20

    In this article, currently used feedback control algorithms used in the polarization controller, including a simulated annealing algorithm and a gradient algorithm, are analyzed. On this basis, a new method of polarization control feedback algorithm based on a fast locating algorithm is proposed to solve the defects of the original algorithm, such as poor convergence and an extensive time consuming search. It can reduce convergence time and improve the response speed of the polarization controllers. This new endless polarization control algorithm utilizing a four-plate polarization controller is proposed and demonstrated. The results have shown that the response time of the polarization controller is less than 1ms. The control of polarization is achieved and the output polarization state is stable, while the light intensity fluctuated less than 2%, which can run endless resets freely. PMID:24085164

  6. Polarity control and growth of lateral polarity structures in AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirste, Ronny; Mita, Seiji; Hussey, Lindsay; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Guo, Wei; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Tweedie, James; Xie, Jinqiao; Gerhold, Michael; Collazo, Ramn; Sitar, Zlatko

    2013-05-01

    The control of the polarity of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown AlN on sapphire is demonstrated. Al-polar and N-polar AlN is grown side-by-side yielding a lateral polarity structure. Scanning electron microscopy measurements reveal a smooth surface for the Al-polar and a relatively rough surface for the N-polar AlN domains. Transmission electron microscopy shows mixed edge-screw type dislocations with polarity-dependent dislocation bending. Raman spectroscopy reveals compressively strained Al-polar and relaxed N-polar domains. The near band edge luminescence consists of free and bound excitons which are broadened for the Al-polar AlN. Relaxation, better optical quality, and dislocation bending in the N-polar domains are explained by the columnar growth mode.

  7. RSFQ electronics for controlling superconducting polarity switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandel, O.; Wetzstein, O.; May, T.; Toepfer, H.; Ortlepp, T.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2012-12-01

    Superconducting radiation sensors are of particular interest for imaging applications in the sub-mm wavelength band because of their extraordinary sensitivity. The rising number of sensors integrated in one array entails the requirement of multiplexing techniques in order to reduce the number of wires leading into the cryogenic stage and thus reduce the thermal losses. One kind of promising code division multiplexing technique is based on a current steering switch (CSS), which is composed of two identical superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) in parallel current paths. One of them is switched from the superconducting into the normal state controlled by the applied magnetic flux. In this way the signal path can be altered and they can act as a polarity switch for analogue signals. We pursue this concept to use rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics for controlling these switches. As a first step, the SQUIDs of the CSS are inductively coupled to the storing loops of two delay flip flops (DFFs). Thus, one is able to toggle the polarity of the analogue switch by controlling the state of the DFF by RSFQ control signals. The results of simulations and measurements and also margin analyses are discussed.

  8. Advances and new functions of VCSEL photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2014-11-01

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was born in Japan. The 37 years' research and developments opened up various applications including datacom, sensors, optical interconnects, spectroscopy, optical storages, printers, laser displays, laser radar, atomic clock and high power sources. A lot of unique features have been already proven, such as low power consumption, a wafer level testing and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly and they are now key devices in local area networks based on multi-mode optical fibers. Optical interconnections in data centers and supercomputers are attracting much interest. In this paper, the advances on VCSEL photonics will be reviewed. We present the high-speed modulation of VCSELs based on a coupled cavity structure. For further increase in transmission capacity per fiber, the wavelength engineering of VCSEL arrays is discussed, which includes the wavelength stabilization and wavelength tuning based on a micro-machined cantilever structure. We also address a lateral integration platform and new functions, including high-resolution beam scanner, vortex beam creation and large-port free space wavelength selective switch with a Bragg reflector waveguide.

  9. VCSEL with intracavity modulator: fast modulation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, M.; Tokranov, V.; Sergeev, A.; Oktyabrsky, S.

    2009-02-01

    An integrated optoelectronic device, comprising VCSEL and intracavity electro-absorption modulator within the same epitaxial structure, has been previously developed by several research groups. Such a combination device, despite having relatively weak DC modulation, exhibits strong optical feedback, resulting in strong optoelectronic resonance feature in small-signal modulation response characteristic . At large modulation amplitude, device demonstrates pulsed response. Similar to Q-switching operation, energy accumulated in the gain medium over full modulation cycle is released in a single short pulse once cavity Q-factor is increased. As a result, traditional NRZ amplitude modulation becomes ineffective. We are proposing a phase-pulse modulation approach to drive this device, when strong optical feedback is used for obtaining very fast rise and fall times of short pulses. Such transient times can be on the order of few photon lifetimes, e.g. few picoseconds. Gain medium depletion can be avoided by variation of Q-factor both above and below steady-state value and keeping total emitted energy per cycle at a constant level. Data showing modulation properties (pulse energy >100 fJ, FWHM 40 ps non-controlled pulse length at 4 GHz,) and device characteristics, along with numerical analysis of such device for different modulation waveforms is presented.

  10. High-power VCSELs for smart munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geske, Jon; MacDougal, Michael; Cole, Garrett; Snyder, Donald

    2006-08-01

    The next generation of low-cost smart munitions will be capable of autonomously detecting and identifying targets aided partly by the ability to image targets with compact and robust scanning rangefinder and LADAR capabilities. These imaging systems will utilize arrays of high performance, low-cost semiconductor diode lasers capable of achieving high peak powers in pulses ranging from 5 to 25 nanoseconds in duration. Aerius Photonics is developing high-power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) to meet the needs of these smart munitions applications. The authors will report the results of Aerius' development program in which peak pulsed powers exceeding 60 Watts were demonstrated from single VCSEL emitters. These compact packaged emitters achieved pulse energies in excess of 1.5 micro-joules with multi kilo-hertz pulse repetition frequencies. The progress of the ongoing effort toward extending this performance to arrays of VCSEL emitters and toward further improving laser slope efficiency will be reported.

  11. VCSEL based, wearable, continuously monitoring pulse oximeter.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Daniel; Hogan, William K; Steidl, Charles; Hibbs-Brenner, Mary K; Hedin, Daniel S; Lichter, Patrick A

    2013-01-01

    We present the development of a novel pulse oximeter based on low power, low cost, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) technology. This new design will help address a need to perform regular measurements of pulse oximetry for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. VCSELs with wavelengths suitable for pulse oximetry were developed and packaged in a PLCC package for a low cost solution that is easy to integrate into a pulse oximeter design. The VCSELs were integrated into a prototype pulse oximeter that is unobtrusive and suitable for long term wearable use. The prototype achieved good performance compared the Nonin Onyx II pulse oximeter at less than one fifth the weight in a design that can be worn behind the ear like a hearing aid. PMID:24110647

  12. Red VCSEL for high-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossbach, R.; Ballmann, T.; Butendeich, R.; Schweizer, H.; Scholz, F.; Jetter, M.

    2004-12-01

    Measured power-current curves of 660 nm AlGaInP-based oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) are compared with calculated data by a cylindrical heat dissipation model to improve heat removal out of the device. Pulsed lasing operation of a 670 nm VCSEL at high temperatures is demonstrated. At +120 °C heat sink temperature we exceeded 0.5 mW and at +160 °C still 25 μW output power were achieved.

  13. Coherence of VCSEL's for holographic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilla, J. L. A.; Benware, B.; Watson, M. E.; Stanko, P.; Rocca, J. J.; Wilmsen, C.; Feld, S.; Leibenguth, R.

    1995-05-01

    Temporal and spatial coherence measurements were conducted on the emission from AlGaAs-GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's). Results of both CW and pulsed conditions from devices of 8- and 15- micron diameter are reported. Coherence length of 0.6 mm for multi-mode and approximately 75 cm for single-mode were obtained. Thermal chirp reduces the single-mode coherence to 16 mm for 5 ns pulses. For holograms smaller than 0.6 mm in size the density of information that can be read by the VCSEL's is diffraction-limited by the size of the holographic element.

  14. Polarization control in GaN nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huiwen; Hurtado, Antonio; Wright, Jeremy B; Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Figiel, Jeffrey J; Luk, Ting-Shan; Brueck, Steven R J; Brener, Igal; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrate polarization control in optically-pumped single GaN nanowire lasers fabricated by a top-down method. By placing the GaN nanowires onto gold substrates, the naturally occurring randomly orientated elliptical polarization of nanowire lasers is converted to a linear polarization that is oriented parallel to the substrate surface. Confirmed by simulation results, this polarization control is attributed to a polarization-dependent loss induced by the gold substrate, which breaks the mode degeneracy of the nanowire and forms two orthogonally polarized modes with largely different cavity losses. PMID:25321005

  15. Development of polarization-mode controllable CARS microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Takagi, Tatsuro; Minamikawa, Takeo; Niioka, Hirohiko; Araki, Tsutomu

    2011-03-01

    We developed a polarization-mode controllable coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope. The polarizationmode of excitations beams such as linear, radial, or azimuth polarization were switched with compact polarization mode converters made of eight-segmented liquid-crystal spatial-light-modulators. The polarization-mode of the excitation beams is electrically controllable without any mechanical operation. We demonstrated the detection of the molecular orientation of liquid crystals with the developed microscope.

  16. Spin-controlled ultrafast vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hpfner, Henning; Lindemann, Markus; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2014-05-01

    Spin-controlled semiconductor lasers are highly attractive spintronic devices providing characteristics superior to their conventional purely charge-based counterparts. In particular, spin-controlled vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) promise to offer lower thresholds, enhanced emission intensity, spin amplification, full polarization control, chirp control and ultrafast dynamics. Most important, the ability to control and modulate the polarization state of the laser emission with extraordinarily high frequencies is very attractive for many applications like broadband optical communication and ultrafast optical switches. We present a novel concept for ultrafast spin-VCSELs which has the potential to overcome the conventional speed limitation for directly modulated lasers by the relaxation oscillation frequency and to reach modulation frequencies significantly above 100 GHz. The concept is based on the coupled spin-photon dynamics in birefringent micro-cavity lasers. By injecting spin-polarized carriers in the VCSEL, oscillations of the coupled spin-photon system can by induced which lead to oscillations of the polarization state of the laser emission. These oscillations are decoupled from conventional relaxation oscillations of the carrier-photon system and can be much faster than these. Utilizing these polarization oscillations is thus a very promising approach to develop ultrafast spin-VCSELs for high speed optical data communication in the near future. Different aspects of the spin and polarization dynamics, its connection to birefringence and bistability in the cavity, controlled switching of the oscillations, and the limitations of this novel approach will be analysed theoretically and experimentally for spin-polarized VCSELs at room temperature.

  17. Comparison of modelling techniques for multimode fibers and its application to VCSEL source coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Huiying; Zhang, Site; Shi, Rui; Hellmann, Christian; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Ray tracing and split-step method are the most efficient techniques to model multi-mode ?ber. In this work, we also propose a geometrical optics based approach, which is beyond ray tracing. This approach, which is mathematically based on Runge-Kutta methods, handles not only ray information but light ?eld information, e.g. amplitude and polarization. Then we discuss and compare the different techniques by the example of coupling of a VCSEL source into a multi-mode ?ber.

  18. VCSEL-based parallel optical transmission module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Rongxuan; Chen, Hongda; Zuo, Chao; Pei, Weihua; Zhou, Yi; Tang, Jun

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes the design process and performance of the optimized parallel optical transmission module. Based on 1×12 VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array, we designed and fabricated the high speed parallel optical modules. Our parallel optical module contains a 1×12 VCSEL array, a 12 channel CMOS laser driver circuit, a high speed PCB (Printed Circuit Board), a MT fiber connector and a packaging housing. The L-I-V characteristics of the 850nm VCSEL was measured at the operating current 8mA, 3dB frequency bandwidth more than 3GHz and the optical output 1mW. The transmission rate of all 12 channels is 30Gbit/s, with a single channel 2.5Gbit/s. By adopting the integration of the 1×12 VCSEL array and the driver array, we make a high speed PCB (Printed Circuit Board) to provide the optoelectronic chip with the operating voltage and high speed signals current. The LVDS (Low-Voltage Differential Signals) was set as the input signal to achieve better high frequency performance. The active coupling was adopted with a MT connector (8° slant fiber array). We used the Small Form Factor Pluggable (SFP) packaging. With the edge connector, the module could be inserted into the system dispense with bonding process.

  19. A semiconductor laser with monolithically integrated dynamic polarization control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, B M; Naeem, M A; Hutchings, D C; Marsh, J H; Kelly, A E

    2012-08-27

    We report the first demonstration of a semiconductor laser monolithically integrated with an active polarization controller, which consists of a polarization mode converter followed by an active, differential phase shifter. High speed modulation of the device output polarization is demonstrated via current injection to the phase shifter section. PMID:23037101

  20. Optical power of VCSELs stabilized to 35 ppm/°C without a TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, John

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports a method and system comprising a light source, an electronic method, and a calibration procedure for stabilizing the optical power of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and laser diodes (LDs) without the use thermoelectric coolers (TECs). The system eliminates the needs for custom interference coatings, polarization adjustments, and the exact alignment required by the optical method reported in 2013 [1]. It can precisely compensate for the effects of temperature and wavelength drift on photodiode responsivity as well as changes in VCSEL beam quality and polarization angle over a 50°C temperature range. Data obtained from light sources built with single-mode polarization-locked VCSELs demonstrate that 30 ppm/°C stability can be readily obtained. The system has advantages over TECstabilized laser modules that include: 1) 90% lower relative RMS optical power and temperature sensitivity, 2) a five-fold enhancement of wall-plug efficiency, 3) less component testing and sorting, 4) lower manufacturing costs, and 5) automated calibration in batches at time of manufacture is practical. The system is ideally suited for battery-powered environmental and in-home medical monitoring applications.

  1. Progress in extended wavelength VCSEL technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Klein; Dummer, Matthew; Hibbs-Brenner, Mary; Hogan, William; Steidl, Charles

    2013-03-01

    Vixar has been developing VCSELs at both shorter (680nm) and longer (1850nm) wavelengths. This paper reports on advances in technology at both of these wavelengths. 680nm VCSELs based upon the AlGaAs/AlGaInP materials system were designed and fabricated for high speed operation for plastic optical fiber (POF) based links for industrial, automotive and consumer applications. High speed testing was performed in a "back-to-back" configuration over short lengths of glass fiber, over 42 meters of POF, with and without I.C. drivers and preamps, and over temperature. Performance to 90°C, 10 Gbps and over 40 meters of plastic optical fiber has been demonstrated. Reliability testing has been performed over a range of temperatures and currents. Preliminary results predict a TT1% failure of at least 240,000 hours at 40°C and an average current modulation of 4mA. In addition, the VCSELs survive 1000 hours at 85% humidity 85°C in a non-hermetic package. 1850nm InP based VCSELs are being developed for optical neurostimulation. The goals are to optimize the output power and power conversion efficiency. 7mW of DC output power has been demonstrated at room temperature, as well as a power conversion efficiency of 12%. Devices operate to 85°C. Over 70mW of pulsed power has been achieved from a 35 VCSEL array, with a pulse width of 10μsec.

  2. Broadband laser polarization control with aligned carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, He; Fu, Bo; Li, Diao; Tian, Ying; Chen, Ya; Mattila, Marco; Yong, Zhenzhong; Li, Ru; Hassanien, Abdou; Yang, Changxi; Tittonen, Ilkka; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jintao; Li, Qingwen; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Lipsanen, Harri; Sun, Zhipei

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a simple approach to fabricate an aligned carbon nanotube (ACNT) device for broadband polarization control in fiber laser systems. The ACNT device was fabricated by pulling from as-fabricated vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. Their anisotropic properties are confirmed with various microscopy techniques. The device was then integrated into fiber laser systems (at two technologically important wavelengths of 1 and 1.5 μm) for polarization control. We obtained a linearly-polarized light output with the maximum extinction ratio of ~12 dB. The output polarization direction could be fully controlled by the ACNT alignment direction in both lasers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the ACNT device is applied to polarization control in laser systems. Our results exhibit that the ACNT device is a simple, low-cost, and broadband polarizer to control laser polarization dynamics, for various photonic applications (such as material processing, polarization diversity detection in communications etc.), where linear polarization control is necessary.We introduce a simple approach to fabricate an aligned carbon nanotube (ACNT) device for broadband polarization control in fiber laser systems. The ACNT device was fabricated by pulling from as-fabricated vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. Their anisotropic properties are confirmed with various microscopy techniques. The device was then integrated into fiber laser systems (at two technologically important wavelengths of 1 and 1.5 μm) for polarization control. We obtained a linearly-polarized light output with the maximum extinction ratio of ~12 dB. The output polarization direction could be fully controlled by the ACNT alignment direction in both lasers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the ACNT device is applied to polarization control in laser systems. Our results exhibit that the ACNT device is a simple, low-cost, and broadband polarizer to control laser polarization dynamics, for various photonic applications (such as material processing, polarization diversity detection in communications etc.), where linear polarization control is necessary. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01904d

  3. Electric field control of ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, John

    2003-05-01

    Recent work in ultracold collisions has emphasized new opportunities for artificially controlling the interactions between atoms and molecules. The most familiar example of this is a class of magnetic-field Feshbach resonances, present in certain alkali atoms, that enable experimenters to manipulate the sign and magnitude of mean-field interactions, as well as to create molecular states. In this talk I will examine instead the impact of electric fields on the interactions between ground-state polar molecules at ultralow temperatures. Electric fields have a decisive influence, and are in fact capable of changing the qualitative nature of the effective intermolecular potential. Moreover, the competition between the forces the molecules apply to each other, and the forces applied by an electric field, generates a new class of weakly-bound molecular states (avd). These ``field-linked'' states may be of great importance in interpreting and controlling cold molecular collisions, including, perhaps, chemical reactions. A. V. Avdeenkov and J. L. Bohn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 043006 (2003).

  4. Furnace control apparatus using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-03-28

    A system for nondestructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figures.

  5. Process control system using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1994-02-15

    A system for nondestructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figures.

  6. Process control system using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J. (Maumee, OH); Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

    1994-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  7. Furnace control apparatus using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J. (Maumee, OH); Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  8. Controllable spiking patterns in long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for neuromorphic photonics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, Antonio; Javaloyes, Julien

    2015-12-01

    Multiple controllable spiking patterns are achieved in a 1310 nm Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in response to induced perturbations and for two different cases of polarized optical injection, namely, parallel and orthogonal. Furthermore, reproducible spiking responses are demonstrated experimentally at sub-nanosecond speed resolution and with a controlled number of spikes fired. This work opens therefore exciting research avenues for the use of VCSELs in ultrafast neuromorphic photonic systems for non-traditional computing applications, such as all-optical binary-to-spiking format conversion and spiking information encoding.

  9. All-optical polarization control and noise cleaning based on a nonlinear lossless polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barozzi, Matteo; Vannucci, Armando; Picchi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    We propose an all-optical fiber-based device able to accomplish both polarization control and OSNR enhancement of an amplitude modulated optical signal, affected by unpolarized additive white Gaussian noise, at the same time. The proposed noise cleaning device is made of a nonlinear lossless polarizer (NLP), that performs polarization control, followed by an ideal polarizing filter that removes the orthogonally polarized half of additive noise. The NLP transforms every input signal polarization into a unique, well defined output polarization (without any loss of signal energy) and its task is to impose a signal polarization aligned with the transparent eigenstate of the polarizing filter. In order to effectively control the polarization of the modulated signal, we show that two different NLP configurations (with counter- or co-propagating pump laser) are needed, as a function of the signal polarization coherence time. The NLP is designed so that polarization attraction is effective only on the "noiseless" (i.e., information-bearing) component of the signal and not on noise, that remains unpolarized at the NLP output. Hence, the proposed device is able to discriminate signal power (that is preserved) from in-band noise power (that is partly suppressed). Since signal repolarization is detrimental if applied to polarization-multiplexed formats, the noise cleaner application is limited here to "legacy" links, with 10 Gb/s OOK modulation, still representing the most common format in deployed networks. By employing the appropriate NLP configurations, we obtain an OSNR gain close to 3dB. Furthermore, we show how the achievable OSNR gain can be estimated theoretically.

  10. Nonlinear mode coupling in optical fibers and VCSELs and some applications to communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, Kunal

    2000-11-01

    Nonlinear phenomena are relatively easy to observe in optical fibers and semiconductor laser cavities. In optical fibers, nonlinear effects can be seen even at low power due to the high intensities in the small fiber cores and long propagation distances possible in low loss fibers. Semiconductor lasers, in particular, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), have cavities with very high Q-factors, which result in high intra cavity intensities even at low facet powers. In this thesis we will examine how these nonlinear effects are responsible for coupling between the different modes present in the medium and some applications to optical communication systems. In optical fibers, the nonlinear processes that dominate are self-phase matched processes that automatically satisfy the phase matching condition. These processes include self phase modulation (SPM) and cross phase modulation (XPM). SPM is responsible for the stability and interaction between propagating pulses known as solitons. XPM is responsible for coupling signals with different polarizations or wavelengths propagating in a fiber. In this thesis we have investigated the possibility of controlling the non-linear interaction between solitons, using XPM from another pulse and using this mechanism for pattern recognition in an optical data stream. We demonstrate high-speed (63Gb/s) recognition of 8-bit header words which is a useful function at an add- drop node in an optical network. Both SPM and XPM can be explained in terms of a nonlinear refractive index-a simplification that is made possible by the extremely fast relaxation times in silica (~40fs). In semiconductors the carriers exhibit both fast intra band (~50fs) and spin-flip relaxation (~2ps), and slow inter band dipole relaxation (~Ins). Due to this hierarchy of relaxation times, the interaction of light with the semiconductor medium cannot be described by a single effective refractive index and the carrier dynamics have to be accounted for explicitly. Using this detailed description, we have compared the contribution of spin-flip relaxation to the non-linear coupling between the polarization modes near threshold. We show that the detailed structure of the mode spectrum observed when the VCSEL cavity is probed with an injected optical field is accounted for by the slow dipole relaxation times.

  11. Broadband laser polarization control with aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yang, He; Fu, Bo; Li, Diao; Tian, Ying; Chen, Ya; Mattila, Marco; Yong, Zhenzhong; Li, Ru; Hassanien, Abdou; Yang, Changxi; Tittonen, Ilkka; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jintao; Li, Qingwen; Kauppinen, Esko I; Lipsanen, Harri; Sun, Zhipei

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a simple approach to fabricate an aligned carbon nanotube (ACNT) device for broadband polarization control in fiber laser systems. The ACNT device was fabricated by pulling from as-fabricated vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. Their anisotropic properties are confirmed with various microscopy techniques. The device was then integrated into fiber laser systems (at two technologically important wavelengths of 1 and 1.5 μm) for polarization control. We obtained a linearly-polarized light output with the maximum extinction ratio of ∼12 dB. The output polarization direction could be fully controlled by the ACNT alignment direction in both lasers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the ACNT device is applied to polarization control in laser systems. Our results exhibit that the ACNT device is a simple, low-cost, and broadband polarizer to control laser polarization dynamics, for various photonic applications (such as material processing, polarization diversity detection in communications etc.), where linear polarization control is necessary. PMID:26060940

  12. Comparison of Techniques for Bonding VCSELs Directly to Ics

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hayes, E.M. Wilmsen, C.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Pu, R.

    1999-03-26

    This paper reports the successful bonding of 8 x 8 and 4 x 4 VCSEL arrays to Si CMOS and GaAs MESFET integrated circuits and to GaAs substrates. Three different bonding techniques are demonstrated and their electrical, optical and mechanical characteristics are compared. All three techniques remove the substrate from the VCSEL wafer, leaving individual VCSELs bonded directly to locations within the integrated circuit.

  13. Single frequency stable VCSEL as a compact source for interferometry and vibrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dudzik, Grzegorz; Rzepka, Janusz

    2010-05-28

    Developing an innovative PS-DAVLL (Polarization Switching DAVLL) method of frequency stabilization, which used a ferroelectric liquid crystal cell as quarter wave plate, rubidium cell and developed ultra-stable current source, allowed to obtain a frequency stability of 10{sup -9}(frequency reproducibility of 1,2centre dot10{sup -8}) and reductions in external dimensions of laser source. The total power consumption is only 1,5 Watt. Because stabilization method used in the frequency standard is insensitive to vibration, the semiconductor laser interferometer was built for measuring range over one meter, which can also be used in industry for the accurate measurement of displacements with an accuracy of 1[mum/m]. Measurements of the VCSEL laser parameters are important from the standpoint of its use in laser interferometry or vibrometry, like narrow emission line DELTAnu{sub FWHM} = 70[MHz] equivalent of this laser type and stability of linear polarization of VCSEL laser. The undoubted advantage of the constructed laser source is the lack of mode-hopping effect during continuous work of VCSEL.

  14. VCSEL fault location apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Keeler, Gordon A.; Serkland, Darwin K.

    2007-05-15

    An apparatus for locating a fault within an optical fiber is disclosed. The apparatus, which can be formed as a part of a fiber-optic transmitter or as a stand-alone instrument, utilizes a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) to generate a test pulse of light which is coupled into an optical fiber under test. The VCSEL is subsequently reconfigured by changing a bias voltage thereto and is used as a resonant-cavity photodetector (RCPD) to detect a portion of the test light pulse which is reflected or scattered from any fault within the optical fiber. A time interval .DELTA.t between an instant in time when the test light pulse is generated and the time the reflected or scattered portion is detected can then be used to determine the location of the fault within the optical fiber.

  15. High-power low-noise VCSEL seed laser for fiber laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Baiming; Wang, Qing; Xu, Bing; van Leeuwen, Robert; Seurin, Jean Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Ghosh, Chuni

    2010-02-01

    The properties of high-power and low-noise seed lasers are key for high performance master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) fiber-lasers. We have successfully demonstrated high-power and low-noise seed lasers using our VCSEL technology. We used an external-cavity configuration with optimum cavity design for single-mode control, and the mode-beating problem can be fully avoided compared to the edge-emitter seed lasers. The external-cavity VCSEL achieved high-power single-mode pulsed operation with good mode quality that allowed it to be efficiently coupled into a single-mode PM or non-PM fiber. Using high-speed driving electronics, optical pulse widths of 12ns and shorter were obtained with repetition rates of up to 1 MHz. The optical output peak power obtained is over 10 W. We have also demonstrated a CW version of this high-power VCSEL seed laser achieving single transverse and longitudinal mode with an output power of greater than 0.5 W. The high-power external cavity VCSELs were operated in single longitudinal mode demonstrating narrow spectral line-width of 200kHz, and having very low RIN of -155 dBc/Hz at 1MHz, which was even lower at higher frequencies.

  16. Advanced characterization techniques for high power VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Holger; Baier, Johannes; Gronenborn, Stephan; Kolb, Johanna; Miller, Michael; Pekarski, Pavel; Schemmann, Marcel; Valster, Adriaan

    2010-02-01

    The performance of high power VCSELs in a specific application depends on the geometrical and thermal design as well as on the quality of the epitaxially grown material. Due to the relatively high heat load in densely packed high power arrays the temperature in the active zone and the DBR mirrors changes significantly with the applied current and the traditional characterization methods become less meaningful than for low power devices. This paper presents a method to measure temperature independent power curves with the help of short pulse techniques and data mapping at different heat sink temperatures. In addition the internal quantum efficiency, the transparency current and the gain coefficient are measured by a novel method which operates the VCSEL material as an edge emitter and applies a cut-back technique. The optical losses in the DBR mirrors are determined using external feedback. In summary all relevant parameters which determine the quality of an epitaxial design are measured independently and can be directly compared with modeling and help to optimize the high power VCSEL performance.

  17. GaAs/AlOx high-contrast grating mirrors for mid-infrared VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuneau, G.; Laaroussi, Y.; Chevallier, C.; Genty, F.; Fressengeas, N. s.; Cerutti, L.; Gauthier-Lafaye, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Mid-infrared Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (MIR-VCSEL) are very attractive compact sources for spectroscopic measurements above 2?m, relevant for molecules sensing in various application domains. A long-standing issue for long wavelength VCSEL is the large structure thickness affecting the laser properties, added for the MIR to the tricky technological implementation of the antimonide alloys system. In this paper, we propose a new geometry for MIR-VCSEL including both a lateral confinement by an oxide aperture, and a high-contrast sub-wavelength grating mirror (HCG mirror) formed by the high contrast combination AIOx/GaAs in place of GaSb/A|AsSb top Bragg reflector. In addition to drastically simplifying the vertical stack, HCG mirror allows to control through its design the beam properties. The robust design of the HCG has been ensured by an original method of optimization based on particle swarm optimization algorithm combined with an anti-optimization one, thus allowing large error tolerance for the nano-fabrication. Oxide-based electro-optical confinement has been adapted to mid-infrared lasers, byusing a metamorphic approach with (Al) GaAs layer directly epitaxially grown on the GaSb-based VCSEL bottom structure. This approach combines the advantages of the will-controlled oxidation of AlAs layer and the efficient gain media of Sb-based for mid-infrared emission. We finally present the results obtained on electrically pumped mid-IR-VCSELs structures, for which we included oxide aperturing for lateral confinement and HCG as high reflectivity output mirrors, both based on AlxOy/GaAs heterostructures.

  18. Analysis of Multi-Polarization Switching in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Using Multi-peak gain model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chuan; Chen, Yu-Fong; Chin, Pei-Hou; Quadir, Shaham; Li, Yueh-Chen; Wu, Yu-Heng; Yen, Tsu-Chiang

    2013-03-01

    This research investigated the mulit-polarization switching (MPS) in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) at constant temperature by simple multi-peak gain model.In experimental results, the phenomenon of the polarization switching (PS) in the VCSEL were arduous to definite quantitative analysis. A simple multi-peak gain model which included the temperature effect and current effect was established to match the MPS in the VCSEL. Simulation results match the experimental results well and shoe that the variation of temperature is a affecting factor of MPS. Therefore, the simple multi-peak gain model contributed a good understanding of multi-polarization switching in VCSELs.

  19. A Quasioptical Vector Interferometer for Polarization Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, Harvey S.; Novak, Giles

    2005-01-01

    We present a mathematical description of a Quasioptical Vector Interferometer (QVI), a device that maps an input polarization state to an output polarization state by introducing a phase delay between two linear orthogonal components of the input polarization. The advantages of such a device over a spinning wave-plate modulator for measuring astronomical polarization in the far-infrared through millimeter are: 1. The use of small, linear motions eliminates the need for cryogenic rotational bearings, 2. The phase flexibility allows measurement of Stokes V as well as Q and U, and 3. The QVI allows for both multi-wavelength and broadband modulation. We suggest two implementations of this device as an astronomical polarization modulator. The first involves two such modulators placed in series. By adjusting the two phase delays, it is possible to use such a modulator to measure Stokes Q, U, and V for passbands that are not too large. Conversely, a single QVI may be used to measure Q and V independent of frequency. In this implementation, Stokes U must be measured by rotating the instrument. We conclude this paper by presenting initial laboratory results.

  20. 980-nm VCSELs for optical interconnects at bandwidths beyond 40 Gb/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W. H.; Moser, P.; Wolf, P.; Larisch, G.; Unrau, W.; Bimberg, D.

    2012-03-01

    The copper-induced communication bottleneck is inhibiting performance and environmental acceptance of today's supercomputers. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are ideally suited to solve this dilemma. Indeed global players like Google, Intel, HP or IBM are now going for optical interconnects based on VCSELs. The required bandwidth per link, however, is fixed by the architecture of the data center. According to Google, a bandwidth of 40 Gb/s has to be accommodated. We recently realized ultra-high speed VCSELs suited for optical interconnects in data centers with record-high performance. The 980-nm wavelength was chosen to be able to realize densely-packed, bottom-emitting devices particularly advantageous for interconnects. These devices show error-free transmission at temperatures up to 155C. Serial data-rates of 40 Gb/s were achieved up to 75 C. Peltier-cooled devices were modulated up to 50 Gb/s. These results were achieved from the sender side by a VCSEL structure with important improvements and from the receiver side by a receiver module supplied by u2t with some 30 GHz bandwidth. The novel VCSELs feature a new active region, a very short laser cavity, and a drastically improved thermal resistance by the incorporation of a binary bottom mirror. As these devices might be of industrial interest we had the epi-growth done by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition at IQE Europe. Consequently, the devices were fabricated using a three-inch wafer process, and the apertures were formed by proprietary in-situ controlled selective wet oxidation. All device data were measured, mapped and evaluated by our fully automated probe station. Furthermore, these devices enable record-efficient data-transmission beyond 30 Gb/s, which is crucial for green photonics.

  1. Guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammad Jalal; Khaleque, Tanzina; Magnusson, Robert

    2014-05-19

    We demonstrate efficient guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters. The devices consist of subwavelength gratings that are partially etched into a thin silicon-nitride film deposited on a glass substrate. Two color filters with grating periods of 300 nm and 370 nm are designed and fabricated. The 300-nm device exhibits green and blue colors and the 370-nm device generates red and yellow colors for TE and TM polarization, respectively. The pixels have a spectral bandwidth of ~12 nm with efficiencies exceeding 90% for TE polarization and 80% for TM polarization. The devices may find application in displays, image sensors, and biomedical imaging technologies. PMID:24921349

  2. Cavity soliton laser based on a VCSEL with saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissoni, Giovanna; Aghdami, Keivan M.; Prati, Franco; Brambilla, Massimo; Lugiato, Luigi A.

    In this Chapter we intend to make a review on our work on cavity solitons in semiconductor lasers with saturable absorbers, with a special attention to the most recent results.We study theoretically a broad-area vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with a saturable absorber, and show numerically the existence of cavity solitons in the system: they exist as solitary structures superposed on a background with zero intensity. Therefore, this system can work as a cavity soliton laser, ensuring maximum contrast and compactness of the device, in comparison with other systems supporting cavity solitons. In particular, in absence of a holding beam, these solitons do not rely on a proper phase of the addressing pulses to be either created or deleted.We also show that the properties of the system are deeply influenced by the radiative recombination of carriers. Taking into account this process, the existence of solitons is shown numerically for a choice of parameters suitable to describe real devices, where the same material is used for the active and the passive parts. Furthermore, we compare three different switching techniques for the control of cavity solitons in a VCSEL based cavity soliton laser, one incoherent and the other two semicoherent with different injection frequencies. We show that the switching dynamics and energies can be very different depending on the type of injection. Finally, we show that in a cavity soliton laser based on a VCSEL with a saturable absorber the solitons can spontaneously move if the ratio of the carrier lifetimes in the amplifier and in the absorber takes appropriate values. The direction of the motion is arbitrary, while its velocity is determined by the parameters of the system. In devices with a finite cross section the CS describes different trajectories depending on the shape of the boundary of the pumped region. For a circular pump the CS moves on circular trajectories along the boundary. This dynamical regime can be exploited to create controllable trains of pulses, together with frequency and amplitude modulation.

  3. Polarization control optimization of the Gemini South beam transfer optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Constanza; Moreno, Cristian; Fesquet, Vincent; Garrel, Vincent; Marchant, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    The Beam Transfer Optics (BTO) is a sub-system of the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS). The main purpose of the BTO is to relay the laser light from the laser service enclosure up to the Laser Launch Telescope (LLT), located behind the telescope secondary mirror, where the five laser beams are propagated to the sky. Other functionalities besides relaying the laser light from the laser to the LLT, is the laser polarization control, which is crucial to any AO related system. The polarization state of the laser output beam influences the photon return flux. It is proven that the backscattering efficiency is higher when exciting the sodium layer with a circular polarized beam than one with linear polarization. For this reason circular polarization of our five laser beams that exit the LLT is desired for any telescope position. The paper reviews the current status of the Gemini South Beam Transfer Optics polarization and its control scheme. It reports on the improvements already done on the polarization control and measurement data of the polarization state at different BTO sections. In addition we discuss further optimization and upgrade ideas of the system.

  4. Cavity structures for low loss oxide-confined VCSELs

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hadley, G.R.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Mathes, D.; Hull, R.

    1997-05-01

    The authors examine the threshold characteristics of selectively oxidized VCSELs as a function of the number, thickness, and placement of the buried oxide apertures. The threshold current density for small area VCSELs is shown to increase with the number of oxide apertures in the cavity due to increased optical loss, while the threshold current density for broad area VCSELs decreases with increasing number of apertures due to more uniform current injection. Reductions of the threshold gain and optical loss are achieved for small area VCSELs using thin oxide apertures which are displaced longitudinally away from te optical cavity. They show that the optical loss can be sufficiently reduced to allow lasing in VCSELs with aperture area as small as 0.25 {micro}m{sup 2}.

  5. VCSELs with two-sided beam emission for pressure sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Balthasar; Strodl, Andreas; Hein, Alexander; Wintner, Ernst; Michalzik, Rainer

    2012-06-01

    A novel type of all-optical pressure sensor has been developed. In this context, a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) has been modified in its design to provide simultaneous light emission from both facets. One beam serves as measuring signal while the other establishes a reference; and both paths lie on the same optical axis. The VCSELs are based on active InGaAs quantum wells for laser output close to 960 nm wavelength where the GaAs substrate is transparent. From both top and bottom facet, single-polarization and single-mode beams are observed, having a power ratio of 1:2 to 1:4. In this paper we give insight into this new sensing application for VCSELs, describe the laser fabrication and the static operation characteristics as well as the noise properties which have paramount importance for high performance of the sensor. With regard to the sensor application in acoustics, the focus of the noise measurements is put on the low-frequency, i.e. kHz, regime. While laser diode noise performance is readily available for the MHz to GHz frequency range, only very limited data exists in the Hz to kHz domain. The relative intensity noise of both beams is measured and compared and the mutual correlation properties are investigated. The frequency noise is quantified.

  6. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization

    PubMed Central

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P.; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by “fishbone” gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12°-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6°. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed. PMID:25512515

  7. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A; Linfield, Edmund H; Capasso, Federico

    2014-12-30

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by "fishbone" gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed. PMID:25512515

  8. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S. R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2016-02-10

    In this study, we demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444kW/cm2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control overmore » the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.« less

  9. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting. S.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S. R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444 kW cm-2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control over the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.

  10. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S; Figiel, Jeffrey J; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S R J; Wang, George T

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444 kW cm(-2) and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control over the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates. PMID:26899502

  11. Polar auxin transport: controlling where and how much

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; DeLong, A.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin is transported through plant tissues, moving from cell to cell in a unique polar manner. Polar auxin transport controls important growth and developmental processes in higher plants. Recent studies have identified several proteins that mediate polar auxin transport and have shown that some of these proteins are asymmetrically localized, paving the way for studies of the mechanisms that regulate auxin transport. New data indicate that reversible protein phosphorylation can control the amount of auxin transport, whereas protein secretion through Golgi-derived vesicles and interactions with the actin cytoskeleton might regulate the localization of auxin efflux complexes.

  12. Control of cell polarity and asymmetric division in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    During development of Caenorhabditis elegans, most somatic cells divide asymmetrically to produce daughter cells with distinct fates. A Wnt signaling pathway called Wnt/?-catenin asymmetry pathway controls both polarity of mother cells and distinct fates of daughter cells. Unlike the PCP pathway that regulates cell polarity in other organisms, this Wnt pathway in C. elegans requires ?-catenin. However, similar to the PCP pathway, signaling components including Dishevelled proteins are asymmetrically localized to the cell cortex. I will review current knowledge about the mechanism of this regulation and how the orientation of cell polarity is controlled by Wnt proteins. PMID:23140625

  13. Multiplexed gas spectroscopy using tunable VCSELs

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, T; Bond, S; McCarrick, J; Zumstein, J; Chang, A; Moran, B; Benett, W J

    2012-04-10

    Detection and identification of gas species using tunable laser diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been performed using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL). Two detection methods are compared: direct absorbance and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). In the first, the output of a DC-based laser is directly monitored to detect for any quench at the targeted specie wavelength. In the latter, the emission wavelength of the laser is modulated by applying a sinusoidal component on the drive current of frequency {omega}, and measuring the harmonics component (2{omega}) of the photo-detected current. This method shows a better sensitivity measured as signal to noise ratio, and is less susceptible to interference effects such as scattering or fouling. Gas detection was initially performed at room temperature and atmospheric conditions using VCSELs of emission wavelength 763 nm for oxygen and 1392 nm for water, scanning over a range of approximately 10 nm, sufficient to cover 5-10 gas specific absorption lines that enable identification and quantization of gas composition. The amplitude and frequency modulation parameters were optimized for each detected gas species, by performing two dimensional sweeps for both tuning current and either amplitude or frequency, respectively. We found that the highest detected signal is observed for a wavelength modulation amplitude equal to the width of the gas absorbance lines, in good agreement with theoretical calculations, and for modulation frequencies below the time response of the lasers (<50KHz). In conclusion, we will discuss limit of detection studies and further implementation and packaging of VCSELs in diode arrays for continuous and simultaneous monitoring of multiple species in gaseous mixtures.

  14. 22-Gb/s Long Wavelength VCSELs.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Werner; Müller, Michael; Nadtochiy, Alexey; Meltzer, Christian; Mutig, Alex; Böhm, Gerhard; Rosskopf, Jürgen; Bimberg, Dieter; Amann, Markus-Christian; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2009-09-28

    1.55-microm vertical cavity surface-emitting low-parasitic lasers show open eyes up to 22-Gb/s modulation speed. Uncooled error-free operation over a wide temperature range up to 85 degrees C under constant bias conditions is demonstrated at 12.5-Gb/s data rate. At these fixed bias conditions the laser characteristics are practically invariant with temperature. These are the highest data-rates reported from a long-wavelength VCSEL structure to date. PMID:19907538

  15. Multifocal array with controllable polarization in each focal spot.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linwei; Sun, Meiyu; Zhang, Dawei; Yu, Junjie; Wen, Jing; Chen, Jiannong

    2015-09-21

    We propose a method for producing multifocal spot arrays (MSAs) capable of controlling the position and polarization orientation of each focal spot with radially polarized Bessel-Gaussian beam. Based on a simple analytical equation that can be used to manipulate the position of the focal spot, we design a type of multi-zone plate (MZP) composed of many fan-shaped subareas which accordingly generate lateral position-controllable multifocal spots. By adding a ?-phase difference between a division line passing through the center of the back aperture with different orientations to corresponding subareas of the MZP, we realize MSAs in which orientations of the linear polarization in each focal spot can be arbitrarily manipulated. Such position and polarization controllable MSAs may potentially have applications in many fields. PMID:26406670

  16. Generation of polarization-resolved wideband unpredictability-enhanced chaotic signals based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to chaotic optical injection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Tang, Xi; Deng, Tao; Fan, Li; Zhong, Zhu-Qiang; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2015-03-23

    A system framework is proposed and analyzed for generating polarization-resolved wideband unpredictability-enhanced chaotic signals based on a slave vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (S-VCSEL) driven by an injected optical chaos signal from a master VCSEL (M-VCSEL) under optical feedback. After calculating the time series outputs from the M-VCSEL under optical feedback and the S-VCSEL under chaotic optical injection by using the spin-flip model (SFM), the unpredictability degree (UD) is evaluated by permutation entropy (PE), and the bandwidth of the polarization-resolved outputs from the M-VCSEL and S-VCSEL are numerically investigated. The results show that, under suitable parameters, both the bandwidth and UD of two polarization components (PCs) outputs from the S-VCSEL can be enhanced significantly compared with that of the driving chaotic signals output from the M-VCSEL. By simulating the influences of the feedback and injection parameters on the bandwidth and UD of the polarization-resolved outputs from S-VCSEL, related operating parameters can be optimized. PMID:25837062

  17. Full control of polarization state with a pair of electro-optic modulators for polarization-resolved optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Junichi; Watanabe, Tomonobu M; Fujita, Hideaki; Ichimura, Taro

    2016-02-10

    Full and arbitrary control of polarization states of light using two independent electro-optic modulators is presented. The mechanism of the controllability is theoretically described using the Jones vector and matrix, and the polarization state change with control parameters is geometrically illustrated in the Stokes parameter space. Our theoretical framework involves possible distortions of the polarization state due to optical elements between the polarization controller and measurement point and presents a mechanism for pre-compensating the polarization distortion. The theory's validity and controllability of the polarization state are experimentally demonstrated with a test optical setup using a dichroic mirror as a polarization distorter. The inevitable intensity variation during polarization sweeps and a strategy for pre- and post-compensation of the variations are discussed. The technique's applicability to bioimaging is also discussed. PMID:26906380

  18. Polarization and spectral properties of ion-implanted and oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, M. Yasin A.; Cao, Yang; Cooper, Guthrie H.; Aldwayyan, Abdullah; Wang, Charlie X.

    2002-03-01

    We conduct a comparative study of polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface- emitting lasers (VCSELs) from various sources, fabricated either by ion implantation or by the oxide-confinement method. An integrated test bench (ITB) for photonic devices is used to characterize the VCSELs. The ITB setup enabled simultaneous monitoring of the polarization state, transverse modes, wavelength spectrum, and optical power of the VCSELs under test. VCSELs commonly exhibit polarization noise, switching, and instability. The polarization behavior and related modal properties of various VCSELs are investigated based on aperture size, geometry, and fabrication processes. From the cw and pulsed pumping data, a general trend and inherent behavior is identified and polarization-related limitations are discussed.

  19. Multilevel Data Storage Memory Using Deterministic Polarization Control

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Daesu; Yang, Sang Mo; Kim, T. H.; Jeon, B. C.; Kim, Yong su; Yoon, J. -G.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Baek, Seung Hyup; Eom, Chang-Beom; Noh, Tae Won

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel non-volatile memory for high-density date storage is achieved by using the deterministic control of ferroelectric polarization. In a real ferroelectric thin-film system, eight stable and reproducible polarization states are realized (i.e., 3-bit data storage) by adjusting the displacement current. This approach can be used to triple or quadruple the memory density, even at existing feature scales.

  20. Widely tunable telecom MEMS-VCSEL for terahertz photomixing.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Mohammad Tanvir; Preu, Sascha; Paul, Sujoy; Gierl, Christian; Cesar, Julijan; Emsia, Ali; Kppers, Franko

    2015-10-01

    We report frequency-tunable terahertz (THz) generation with a photomixer driven by an ultra-broadband tunable micro-electro-mechanical system vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (MEMS-VCSEL) and a fixed-wavelength VCSEL, as well as a tunable MEMS-VCSEL mixed with a distributed feedback (DFB) diode. A total frequency span of 3.4THz is covered in direct detection mode and 3.23THz in the homodyne mode. The tuning range is solely limited by the dynamic range of the photomixers and the Schottky diode/photoconductor used in the experiment. PMID:26421548

  1. Athermal and widely tunable VCSEL with bimorph micromachined mirror.

    PubMed

    Nakahama, Masanori; Sakaguchi, Takahiro; Matustani, Akihiro; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate an athermal and electrostatically-tunable 850 nm-band MEMS VCSEL for the first time. The thermal wavelength drift is compensated by the thermal actuation of a cantilever-suspended mirror with a bimorph effect. At the same time, the resonant wavelength can be continuously tuned by electro-static force as a voltage is applied in the cantilever structure. A continuous wavelength tuning of 10 nm is obtained with a low thermal wavelength drift, which is 10 times smaller than that of conventional VCSELs. Our athermal and tunable VCSELs enable us to reduce the channel spacing in course wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects even under uncooled operations. PMID:25321525

  2. Ultrafast polarization modulation in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with frequency dependent current injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barve, A. V.; Zheng, Y.; Johansson, L.; Mehta, A.; Husain, A.; Coldren, L.

    2012-12-01

    We report on a polarization modulation in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL), based on RF electrical injection. Complex polarization dynamics in the single mode regime is studied as a function of RF frequency and power at different bias currents. It has been observed that the polarization state of the VCSEL can be altered by changing the frequency of RF current modulation. Time resolved measurements show that by injecting periodic bursts of RF modulation in the VCSEL, it is possible to change the dominant polarization between the two orthogonal modes at gigahertz rates.

  3. Automated control of optical polarization for nonlinear microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brideau, Craig; Stys, Peter K.

    2012-03-01

    Laser-scanning non-linear optical techniques such as multi-photon fluorescence excitation microscopy (MPM), Second/ Third Harmonic Generation (SHG/THG), and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) are being utilized in research laboratories worldwide. The efficiencies of these non-linear effects are dependent on the polarization state of the excitation light relative to the orientation of the sample being imaged. In highly ordered anisotropic biological samples this effect can become pronounced and the excitation polarization can have a dramatic impact on imaging experiments. Therefore, controlling the polarization state of the exciting light is important; however this is challenging when the excitation light passes through a complex optical system. In a typical laser-scanning microscope, components such as the dichroic filters, lenses, and even mirrors can alter the polarization state of a laser beam before it reaches the sample. We present an opto-mechanical solution to compensate for the polarization effects of an optical path, and to precisely program the polarization state of the exciting laser light. The device and accompanying procedures allow the delivery of precise laser polarization states at constant average power levels to a sample during an imaging experiment.

  4. New applications boost VCSEL quantities: recent developments at Philips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Besides the mature and steadily growing datacom market for which VCSELs are key components in Transceivers, Active Optical Cables (AOC), Mid Board Optical Modules (MBOM) or Embedded Optical Modules (EOM), VCSELs have proven to be key components also for other volume applications. Laser mice emerged 2004, just after the burst of the dotcom bubble and the related downturn in the Datacom industry, and dominated the shipped quantities for some years, accompanied by various smaller applications like atomic clock, oxygen sensing, encoders, and many more. Over the past years, two other major applications came into focus: optical interconnects in high performance computers or datacenters and smart sensors for mobile devices. In addition, VCSELs are penetrating into more and more power applications, primarily for illumination or IR heating. We present recent developments in technology, products, and addressed market segments that will have a major impact on the VCSEL industry.

  5. Polarization-controlled multistage switch based on polarization-selective computer-generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V.; Xu, Fang; Ford, Joseph E.; Fainman, Yeshayahu

    1997-02-01

    We describe a polarization-controlled free-space optical multistage interconnection network based on polarization-selective computer-generated holograms: optical elements that are capable of imposing arbitrary, independent phase functions on horizontally and vertically polarized monochromatic light. We investigate the design of a novel nonblocking space-division photonic switch architecture. The multistage-switch architecture uses a fan-out stage, a single stage of 2 2 switching elements, and a fan-in stage. The architecture is compatible with several control strategies that use 1 2 and 2 2 polarization-controlled switches to route the input light beams. One application of the switch is in a passive optical network in which data is optically transmitted through the switch with a time-of-flight delay but without optical-to-electrical conversions at each stage. We have built and characterized a proof-of-principle 4 4 free-space switching network using three cascaded stages of arrayed birefringent computer-generated holographic elements. Data modulated at 20 MHz channel were transmitted through the network to demonstrate transparent operation.

  6. Spectrally resolved imaging of the transverse modes in multimode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misak, Stephen M.; Dugmore, Dan G.; Middleton, Kirsten A.; Hale, Evan R.; Farner, Kelly R.; Choquette, Kent D.; Leisher, Paul O.

    2015-03-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) enable a range of applications such as data transmission, trace sensing, atomic clocks, and optical mice. For many of these applications, the output power and beam quality are both critical (i.e. high output power with good beam quality is desired). Multi-mode VCSELs offer much higher power than single-mode devices, but this comes at the expense of lower beam quality. Directly observing the resolved mode structure of multi-mode VCSELs would enable engineers to better understand the underlying physics and help them to develop multi-mode devices with improved beam quality. In this work, a low-cost, high-resolution (<3 pm) Echelle grating spectrometer system is used to map the two-dimensional VCSEL near-field emission profile. The system spectrally disperses the VCSEL beam and images it with high magnification onto a CMOS camera. The narrow spectral content of each LP mode allows direct observation of the modal content of the VCSEL.

  7. Polarization Control of Electron Tunneling into Ferroelectric Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maksymovych, Petro; Jesse, Stephen; Yu, Pu; Ramesh, R.; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a highly reproducible control of local electron transport through a ferroelectric oxide via its spontaneous polarization. Electrons are injected from the tip of an atomic force microscope into a thin film of lead-zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3, in the regime of electron tunneling assisted by a high electric field (Fowler-Nordheim tunneling). The tunneling current exhibits a pronounced hysteresis with abrupt switching events that coincide, within experimental resolution, with the local switching of ferroelectric polarization. The large spontaneous polarization of the PZT film results in up to 500-fold amplification of the tunneling current upon ferroelectric switching. The magnitude of the effect is subject to electrostatic control via ferroelectric switching, suggesting possible applications in ultrahigh-density data storage and spintronics.

  8. Chirp and polarization control of femtosecond molecular fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, T; Das, D K; Kumar, S K Karthick; Goswami, D

    2013-01-01

    We explore the simultaneous effect of chirp and polarization as the two control parameters for non-resonant photo-dissociation of n-propyl benzene. Experiments performed over a wide range of laser intensities show that these two control knobs behave mutually exclusively. Specifically, for the coherently enhanced fragments (C3H3+, C5H5+) with negatively chirped pulses and C6H5+ with positively chirped pulses, polarization effect is the same as compared to that in the case of transform-limited pulses. Though a change in polarization affects the overall fragmentation efficiency, the fragmentation pattern of n-propyl benzene molecule remains unaffected in contrast to the chirp case. PMID:24115807

  9. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ?2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale. PMID:23944468

  10. Enabling quantum communications through accurate photons polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Álvaro J.; Muga, Nelson J.; Silva, Nuno A.; Stojanovic, Aleksandar D.; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.; Mora, José; Capmany, José

    2013-11-01

    The rapid increase on the information sharing around the world, leads to an utmost requirement for capacity and bandwidth. However, the need for security in the transmission and storage of information is also of major importance. The use of quantum technologies provides a practical solution for secure communications systems. Quantum key distribution (QKD) was the first practical application of quantum mechanics, and nowadays it is the most developed one. In order to share secret keys between two parties can be used several methods of encoding. Due to its simplicity, the encoding into polarization is one of the most used. However, when we use optical fibers as transmission channels, the polarization suffers random rotations that may change the state of polarization (SOP) of the light initially sent to the fiber to a new one at the output. Thus, in order to enable real-time communication using this encoding method it is required the use of a dynamic control system. We describe a scheme of transmission of quantum information, which is based in the polarization encoding, and that allows to share secret keys through optical fibers without interruption. The dynamic polarization control system used in such scheme is described, both theoretically and experimentally. Their advantages and limitations for the use in quantum communications are presented and discussed.

  11. Polarization characteristics, control, and modulation of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Lear, K.L.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.; Figiel, J.J.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Hagerott-Crawford, M.; Zolper, J.C.; Leibenguth, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers and methods for polarization control and modulation are discussed. The partitioning of power between the two orthogonal eigen polarizations is shown to depend upon the relative spectral alignment of the nondegenerate polarization cavity resonances with the laser gain spectrum. A dominant polarization can thus be maintained by employing a blue-shifted offset of the peak laser gain relative to the cavity resonance wavelength. Alternatively, the polarization can be controlled through use of anisotropic transverse cavity geometries. The orthogonal eigen polarizations are also shown to enable polarization modulation. By exploiting polarization switching transitions in cruciform lasers, polarization modulation of the fundamental mode up to 50 MHz is demonstrated. At lower modulation frequencies, complementary digital polarized output or frequency doubling of the polarized output is obtained. Control and manipulation of vertical-cavity laser polarization may prove valuable for present and future applications.

  12. Temperature stable mid-infrared GaInAsSb/GaSb Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs).

    PubMed

    Ikyo, A B; Marko, I P; Hild, K; Adams, A R; Arafin, S; Amann, M-C; Sweeney, S J

    2016-01-01

    GaInAsSb/GaSb based quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared spectral range between 2 and 3 micrometres are of great importance for low cost gas monitoring applications. This paper discusses the efficiency and temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs emitting at 2.6??m and the processes that must be controlled to provide temperature stable operation. We show that non-radiative Auger recombination dominates the threshold current and limits the device performance at room temperature. Critically, we demonstrate that the combined influence of non-radiative recombination and gain peak - cavity mode de-tuning determines the overall temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs. The results show that improved temperature stable operation around room temperature can only be achieved with a larger gain peak - cavity mode de-tuning, offsetting the significant effect of increasing non-radiative recombination with increasing temperature, a physical effect which must be accounted for in mid-infrared VCSEL design. PMID:26781492

  13. Temperature stable mid-infrared GaInAsSb/GaSb Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Hild, K.; Adams, A. R.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C.; Sweeney, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    GaInAsSb/GaSb based quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared spectral range between 2 and 3 micrometres are of great importance for low cost gas monitoring applications. This paper discusses the efficiency and temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs emitting at 2.6 μm and the processes that must be controlled to provide temperature stable operation. We show that non-radiative Auger recombination dominates the threshold current and limits the device performance at room temperature. Critically, we demonstrate that the combined influence of non-radiative recombination and gain peak – cavity mode de-tuning determines the overall temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs. The results show that improved temperature stable operation around room temperature can only be achieved with a larger gain peak – cavity mode de-tuning, offsetting the significant effect of increasing non-radiative recombination with increasing temperature, a physical effect which must be accounted for in mid-infrared VCSEL design.

  14. Temperature stable mid-infrared GaInAsSb/GaSb Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs)

    PubMed Central

    Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Hild, K.; Adams, A. R.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C.; Sweeney, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    GaInAsSb/GaSb based quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared spectral range between 2 and 3 micrometres are of great importance for low cost gas monitoring applications. This paper discusses the efficiency and temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs emitting at 2.6 μm and the processes that must be controlled to provide temperature stable operation. We show that non-radiative Auger recombination dominates the threshold current and limits the device performance at room temperature. Critically, we demonstrate that the combined influence of non-radiative recombination and gain peak – cavity mode de-tuning determines the overall temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs. The results show that improved temperature stable operation around room temperature can only be achieved with a larger gain peak – cavity mode de-tuning, offsetting the significant effect of increasing non-radiative recombination with increasing temperature, a physical effect which must be accounted for in mid-infrared VCSEL design. PMID:26781492

  15. Genetic control of polar cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, J.; Ford, S. ); Somerville, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Certain plant cells, like root hairs and pollen tubes, exhibit polar cell growth, with expansion limited to the tip of the growing cell. In order to understand the mechanisms regulating polar cell expansion, we are studying the process of root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. By visually screening roots from 12,000 mutagenized Arabidopsis seedlings on Petri dishes, more than 40 root hair mutants have been identified. We have focused our attention on mutants that possess nuclear recessive mutations in three genes (RHD2, RHD3, and RDH4) that appear to be involved in controlling polar cell growth in root hairs. We are currently using cellular, genetic, and molecular approaches to understand these genes' normal roles in root hair elongation.

  16. Coherent control of optical polarization effects in metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyedmohammad A.; Plum, Eric; Shi, Jinhui; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-01-01

    Processing of photonic information usually relies on electronics. Aiming to avoid the conversion between photonic and electronic signals, modulation of light with light based on optical nonlinearity has become a major research field and coherent optical effects on the nanoscale are emerging as new means of handling and distributing signals. Here we demonstrate that in slabs of linear material of sub-wavelength thickness optical manifestations of birefringence and optical activity (linear and circular birefringence and dichroism) can be controlled by a wave coherent with the wave probing the polarization effect. We demonstrate this in proof-of-principle experiments for chiral and anisotropic microwave metamaterials, where we show that the large parameter space of polarization characteristics may be accessed at will by coherent control. Such control can be exerted at arbitrarily low intensities, thus arguably allowing for fast handling of electromagnetic signals without facing thermal management and energy challenges. PMID:25755071

  17. Stable polarization self-modulation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Hohl, A.; Gavrielides, A.; Hou, H.; Choquette, K.D.

    1998-05-01

    The characteristics of polarization self-modulation in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) were studied for frequencies up to {approx}9 GHz both experimentally and theoretically. Polarization self-modulation was obtained by rotating the linearly polarized output of the VCSEL by 90{degree} and reinjecting it into the laser. Experimentally we simultaneously recorded time traces, optical and radio-frequency spectra. We found for increasing modulation frequencies that the output characteristics changed from square-wave to sinusoidal and the VCSEL system assumed new polarization eigenstates that are different from the free-running VCSEL eigenstates. We modeled polarization self-modulation as an interband process and found a good qualitative agreement between our experimental and numerical results. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Polarization Control by a New Arrangement of Undulator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Shigeru; Tsuchiya, Kimichika; Shioya, Tatsuro

    2004-05-12

    We have devised a new arrangement of undulator magnets which enables a polarization control from right-handed circular to left-handed through linear. A test-stand employing this magnet arrangement with 5periods x 6-cm period length has been built recently. We present the details of the magnet structure and the results of the magnetic measurements of the test-stand The switching rate of 1Hz has been achieved so far.

  19. Quantum phase gate and controlled entanglement with polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Eric; Keller, Arne; Atabek, Osman; Milman, Perola

    2007-03-15

    We propose an alternative scenario for the generation of entanglement between rotational quantum states of two polar molecules. This entanglement arises from dipole-dipole interaction, and is controlled by a sequence of laser pulses simultaneously exciting both molecules. We study the efficiency of the process, and discuss possible experimental implementations with cold molecules trapped in optical lattices or in solid matrices. Finally, various entanglement detection procedures are presented, and their suitability for these two physical situations is analyzed.

  20. Silicon-integrated short-wavelength hybrid-cavity VCSEL.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Emanuel P; Kumari, Sulakshna; Westbergh, Petter; Gustavsson, Johan S; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel; Larsson, Anders

    2015-12-28

    We demonstrate a short-wavelength hybrid-cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) heterogeneously integrated on silicon. A GaAs-based "half-VCSEL" has been attached to a dielectric distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on a silicon wafer using ultra-thin divinylsiloxane-bis-benzocyclobutene (DVS-BCB) adhesive bonding, thereby creating a cavity with the standing-wave optical field extending over the silicon- and GaAs-based parts of the cavity. A 9 m oxide aperture diameter VCSEL with a threshold current of 1.2 mA produces 1.6 mW optical output power at 6.0 mA bias current with a wavelength of ~845 nm. PMID:26832027

  1. Red light VCSEL for high-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Michael; Rossbach, Robert; Butendeich, Rainer; Scholz, Ferdinand; Ballmann, Tabitha; Schweizer, Heinz C.

    2004-12-01

    This contribution drafts the problems of the AlGaInP material system and its consequences for the laser applications in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL). The epitaxial and technological solutions to overcome at least parts of the inherent problems were discussed. Calculated data by a cylindrical heat dissipation model were compared with measured power-current curves of 660nm oxide-confined VCSEL to improve the heat removal out of the device. At high temperatures pulsed operation of a 670nm VCSEL is demonstrated, where we could exceeded 0.5mW at +120°C and at +160°C still 25µW optical output power were achieved.

  2. Temperature characteristic of 808nm VCSELs with large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yuan; Feng, Dawei; Hao, Yongqin; Wang, Yong; Yan, Changling; Lu, Peng; Li, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In order to study the output characteristics of 808nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser(VCSEL) with large aperture at different temperature, 808nm VCSEL with 500?m emitting diameter are fabricated with Reticular Electrode Structure(RES). Lasing wavelength, optical power and the threshold current are measured by changing the temperature of heat sink. And an output power of 0.42W is achieved at 1.3A at room temperature under continuous wave operation. The central wavelength is 803.32nm, and the full width at half maximum is 0.16nm, the temperature shift is 0.06nm/, the thermal resistance is 0.098/mW. The testing results show that 808nm VCSEL with large aperture is good temperature characteristic.

  3. Matrix approach for modeling of emission from multilayer spin-polarized light-emitting diodes and lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frds, Tibor; Postava, Kamil; Jaffrs, Henri; Pitora, Jaromr

    2014-06-01

    Spin-polarized light sources such as the spin-polarized light-emitting diodes (spin-LEDs) and spin-polarized lasers (spin-lasers) are prospective devices in which the radiative recombination of spin-polarized carriers results in emission of circularly polarized photons. The main goal of this article is to model emitted radiation and its polarization properties from spin-LED and spin-controlled vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (spin-VCSEL) solid-state structures. A novel approach based on 4 4 transfer matrix formalism is derived for modeling of the interaction of light with matter in active media of resonant multilayer anisotropic structure and enables magneto-optical effects. Quantum transitions, which result in photon emission, are described using general Jones source vectors.

  4. VCSEL's frequency stabilization of an external cavity diode laser: countermeasures against atmospheric temperature variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motojima, Mutsuki; Doi, Kohei; Sato, Takashi; Ohkawa, Masashi; Suzuki, Takamasa

    2010-02-01

    We introduced the vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) as the laser diode in tour external cavity system. Because VCSELs are now commercially available, and the External cavity diode laser (ECDL) systems using them are expected to improve their frequency stability, we have replaced a Fabry-Perot type laser diode with a VCSEL, and examined its oscillation-frequency stability. Therefore we were able to expect that the VCSELs with our double optical feedback system have good oscillation frequency stability. The obtained VCSEL's oscillation-frequency stability, i.e., the square root of Allan variance ? was 410-10, at an averaging time of ?=1 sec.

  5. Piezotronic Effect in Polarity-Controlled GaN Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenfu; Pu, Xiong; Han, Changbao; Du, Chunhua; Li, Linxuan; Jiang, Chunyan; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-25

    Using high-quality and polarity-controlled GaN nanowires (NWs), we studied the piezotronic effect in crystal orientation defined wurtzite structures. By applying a normal compressive force on c-plane GaN NWs with an atomic force microscopy tip, the Schottky barrier between the Pt tip and GaN can be effectively tuned by the piezotronic effect. In contrast, the normal compressive force cannot change the electron transport characteristics in m-plane GaN NWs whose piezoelectric polarization axis is turned in the transverse direction. This observation provided solid evidence for clarifying the difference between the piezotronic effect and the piezoresistive effect. We further demonstrated a high sensitivity of the m-plane GaN piezotronic transistor to collect the transverse force. The integration of c-plane GaN and m-plane GaN indicates an overall response to an external force in any direction. PMID:26256533

  6. Size dependence of selectively oxidized VCSEL transverse mode structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hegarty, S.P.; Huyet, G.; McInerney, J.G. |; Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.

    1998-05-01

    The performance of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) has improved greatly in recent years. Much of this improvement can be attributed to the use of native oxide layers within the laser structure, providing both electrical and optical transverse confinement. Understanding this optical confinement will be vital for the future realization of yet smaller lasers with ultralow threshold currents. Here the authors report the spectral and modal properties of small (0.5 {micro}m to 5 {micro}m current aperture) VCSELs and identify Joule heating as a dominant effect in the resonator properties of the smallest lasers.

  7. High-power VCSEL arrays for consumer electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Luke A.; Chen, Hao; Cruel, Jonathan; Guenter, James; Hawkins, Bobby; Hawthorne, Bobby; Kelly, David Q.; Melgar, Alirio; Martinez, Mario; Shaw, Edward; Tatum, Jim A.

    2015-03-01

    Finisar has developed a line of high power, high efficiency VCSEL arrays. They are fabricated at 860nm as traditional P side up top emitting devices, leveraging Finisar's existing VCSEL fab and test processes for low cost, high volume capability. A thermal camera is used to accurately measure temperature profiles across the arrays at a variety of operating conditions and further allowing development of a full reliability model. The arrays are shown to demonstrate wear out reliability suitable for a wide range of applications. Typical 1/e^2 beam divergence is near 16 degrees under CW operating conditions at peak wall plug efficiency, narrowing further under pulsed drive conditions.

  8. Full-field interferometric confocal microscopy using a VCSEL array

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Brandon; Bromberg, Yaron; Choma, Michael A.; Cao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We present an interferometric confocal microscope using an array of 1200 VCSELs coupled to a multimode fiber. Spatial coherence gating provides ~18,000 continuous virtual pinholes allowing an entire en face plane to be imaged in a snapshot. This approach maintains the same optical sectioning as a scanning confocal microscope without moving parts, while the high power of the VCSEL array (~5 mW per laser) enables high-speed image acquisition with integration times as short as 100 µs. Interferometric detection also recovers the phase of the image, enabling quantitative phase measurements and improving the contrast when imaging phase objects. PMID:25078199

  9. Thermal resistance of VCSEL's bonded to integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, R.; Wilmsen, C.W.; Geib, K.M.; Choquette, K.D.

    1999-12-01

    The thermal resistance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's) flip chip bonded to GaAs substrates and CMOS integrated circuits has been measured. The measurements on GaAs show that if the bonding is done properly, the bonding does not add significantly to the thermal resistance. However, the SiO{sub 2} under the CMOS bonding pad can double the thermal resistance unless measures are taken to improve the thermal conductance of these layers. Finite element simulations indicate that the thermal resistance of bonded VCSEL's increases rapidly as the solder bond size and the aperture size decrease below {approximately}10 {micro}m.

  10. Modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eisden, J.; Yakimov, M.; Tokranov, V.; Varanasi, M.; Mohammed, E. M.; Young, I. A.; Oktyabrsky, S.

    2007-02-01

    We have studied the modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity multiple quantum well (MQW) electroabsorption modulator integrated into the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) [1]. Small signal analysis of rate equations for loss modulation shows an intrinsic high-frequency roll-off slope of 1/ω instead of 1/ω2 in directly modulated laser diodes, and consequently bandwidths in excess of 40 GHz are obtainable with this configuration [2]. Possible limiting factors to high bandwidth were examined by fitting high frequency characteristics to a multi-pole transfer function, and include RC delay and carrier drift-limited time of flight (TOF) in the modulator intrinsic region. Intracavity loss modulation shows a strong (+20dB) relaxation oscillation resonant feature in both theory and experiment. As demonstrated, this feature can be significantly reduced in amplitude using parasitics. We have extracted relative contribution of TOF and parasitic capacitance by varying the modulator intrinsic region width (105 and 210 nm) and lateral size of the modulator (18 and 12μm). It was estimated that the small size modulator exhibits parasitics f -3dB at 8GHz. To estimate the carrier TOF contribution to bandwidth limits, low temperature growth of a 210 nm absorber i-region and MQW was employed to reduce photogenerated carrier lifetime. Bandwidth limitations were found to be mostly due to diode and metallization capacitances, in addition to one pole set by the optoelectronic resonance frequency. We have used p-modulation doping of the gain region to increase the relaxation frequency. Pronounced active Q-switching was observed, yielding pulse widths of 40 ps at a 4 GHz rate.

  11. Controlling cold collisions of polar molecules with external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticknor, Christopher Carl

    2005-11-01

    In this thesis we explore how external fields can be used to control collisions of ultracold polar molecules. First we review the Stark and Zeeman effects for polar molecules and two body multi-channel scattering theory. A general treatment of the Stark effect and dipolar interactions is also presented. We consider cold collisions of OH molecules in the 2pi 3/2 ground state under the influence of a magnetic field. We find that modest fields of several thousand Gauss can act to suppress inelastic collisions of weak-field-seeking states by two orders of magnitude. We attribute this suppression to two factors: (i) an indirect coupling of the entrance and the exit channel, in contrast to the effect of an applied electric field and (ii) the relative shift of the entrance and exit scattering thresholds. In view of these results, magnetic trapping of OH may prove experimentally feasible. We also present first steps toward understanding the ultracold scattering properties of polar molecules in strong electric field-seeking states. We have found that the elastic cross section displays a quasi-regular set of potential resonances as a function of the electric field, which potentially offers intimate details about the intermolecular interaction. We illustrate these resonances using a "toy" model composed of pure dipoles and a more physically realistic system. To analyze these resonances, we use a simple WKB approximation to the eigenphase, which proves both reasonably accurate and meaningful.

  12. Automated system to control the polarization voltage of silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, S.; Fossati, F.; Lanza, A.; Pinelli, T.

    1995-04-01

    A remote controlled system to maintain polarization voltage across a silicon detector within a user defined window is described. The system regulates silicon bias voltage, caused by increased leakage current due to radiation damage, by switching external resistors to maintain a constant voltage drop across the bias load resistor, independent of leakage current. This Z80 microprocessor based system links with the host computer by a RS-232 serial port. The voltage resolution of the system is less than 0.2 V in the worst case.

  13. Control of polarized assembly of actin filaments in cell motility.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Marie-France; Pernier, Julien; Montaville, Pierre; Shekhar, Shashank; Kühn, Sonja

    2015-08-01

    Actin cytoskeleton remodeling, which drives changes in cell shape and motility, is orchestrated by a coordinated control of polarized assembly of actin filaments. Signal responsive, membrane-bound protein machineries initiate and regulate polarized growth of actin filaments by mediating transient links with their barbed ends, which elongate from polymerizable actin monomers. The barbed end of an actin filament thus stands out as a hotspot of regulation of filament assembly. It is the target of both soluble and membrane-bound agonists as well as antagonists of filament assembly. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms by which various regulators of actin dynamics bind, synergize or compete at filament barbed ends. Two proteins can compete for the barbed end via a mutually exclusive binding scheme. Alternatively, two regulators acting individually at barbed ends may be bound together transiently to terminal actin subunits at barbed ends, leading to the displacement of one by the other. The kinetics of these reactions is a key in understanding how filament length and membrane-filament linkage are controlled. It is also essential for understanding how force is produced to shape membranes by mechano-sensitive, processive barbed end tracking machineries like formins and by WASP-Arp2/3 branched filament arrays. A combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches, including bulk solution assembly measurements using pyrenyl-actin fluorescence, single filament dynamics, single molecule fluorescence imaging and reconstituted self-organized filament assemblies, have provided mechanistic insight into the role of actin polymerization in motile processes. PMID:25948416

  14. Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reduzzi, Maurizio; Hummert, Johan; Dubrouil, Antoine; Calegari, Francesca; Nisoli, Mauro; Frassetto, Fabio; Poletto, Luca; Chen, Shaohao; Wu, Mengxi; Gaarde, Mette B.; Schafer, Kenneth; Sansone, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The extreme ultraviolet absorption spectrum of an atom is strongly modified in the presence of a synchronized intense infrared field. In this work we demonstrate control of the absorption properties of helium atoms dressed by an infrared pulse by changing the relative polarization of the infrared and extreme ultraviolet fields. Light-induced features associated with the dressed 1 s 2 s , 1 s 3 s , and 1 s 3 d states, referred to as 2 s+ , 3 s , and 3 d light-induced states, are shown to be strongly modified or even eliminated when the relative polarization is rotated. The experimental results agree well with calculations based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrdinger equation using a restricted excitation model that allows efficient treatment of the three-dimensional problem. We also present an analysis of the light-induced states based on Floquet theory, which allows for a simple explanation of their properties. Our results open a new route to creating controllable superpositions of dipole allowed and nondipole allowed states in atoms and molecules.

  15. Orientation detection of a single molecule using pupil filter with electrically controllable polarization pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Yoshiki, Keisuke; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a system for measuring the orientation of single molecules using a conventional wide-field fluorescence microscope with a polarization filter consisting of a polarizer and a compact polarization mode converter. The polarization filter electrically controls the pattern of polarization filtering. Since the polarization of the fluorescence from a single molecule highly depends on the angle between the observation direction and the molecular direction, polarization pattern filtering at the pupil plane of the objective lens allows the orientation of a single molecule to be visualized. Using this system, we demonstrated the orientation detection of single molecules.

  16. Polarization-Independent Silicon Metadevices for Efficient Optical Wavefront Control.

    PubMed

    Chong, Katie E; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony; Dominguez, Jason; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Luk, Ting S; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2015-08-12

    We experimentally demonstrate a functional silicon metadevice at telecom wavelengths that can efficiently control the wavefront of optical beams by imprinting a spatially varying transmittance phase independent of the polarization of the incident beam. Near-unity transmittance efficiency and close to 0-2? phase coverage are enabled by utilizing the localized electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances of low-loss silicon nanoparticles tailored to behave as electromagnetically dual-symmetric scatterers. We apply this concept to realize a metadevice that converts a Gaussian beam into a vortex beam. The required spatial distribution of transmittance phases is achieved by a variation of the lattice spacing as a single geometric control parameter. PMID:26192100

  17. Wink-controlled polarization-switched telescopic contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Glenn M; Arianpour, Ashkan; Cookson, Scott; Zhang, Arthur; Hendrik, Lee; O'Brien, Tyrone; Alvarez, Agusto; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-11-10

    We describe a wink-controlled hands-free switching system for eye-borne telescopic vision, based on a previously tested fixed-magnification telescope embedded within scleral contact lenses. Here we integrate orthogonal polarizers into the contact lens covering the F/9.1 refractive 1× and F/9.6 catadioptric 2.8× vision paths, to allow switching via external liquid crystal shutters. We provide hands-free control by an infrared wink/blink monitor, using passive retroreflectors embedded within the contact lenses. We demonstrate system operation of the self-contained switching eyewear and the modified contact lenses with a life-size human eye model with mechanical "eyelids." PMID:26560792

  18. Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chong, Katie E.; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony Randolph; Dominguez, Jason James; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore; Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian; Luk, Ting S.; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N.; et al

    2015-07-20

    In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a functional silicon metadevice at telecom wavelengths that can efficiently control the wavefront of optical beams by imprinting a spatially varying transmittance phase independent of the polarization of the incident beam. Near-unity transmittance efficiency and close to 0–2π phase coverage are enabled by utilizing the localized electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances of low-loss silicon nanoparticles tailored to behave as electromagnetically dual-symmetric scatterers. We apply this concept to realize a metadevice that converts a Gaussian beam into a vortex beam. The required spatial distribution of transmittance phases is achieved by a variation of the latticemore » spacing as a single geometric control parameter.« less

  19. Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Katie E.; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony Randolph; Dominguez, Jason James; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore; Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian; Luk, Ting S.; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-07-20

    In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a functional silicon metadevice at telecom wavelengths that can efficiently control the wavefront of optical beams by imprinting a spatially varying transmittance phase independent of the polarization of the incident beam. Near-unity transmittance efficiency and close to 0–2π phase coverage are enabled by utilizing the localized electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances of low-loss silicon nanoparticles tailored to behave as electromagnetically dual-symmetric scatterers. We apply this concept to realize a metadevice that converts a Gaussian beam into a vortex beam. The required spatial distribution of transmittance phases is achieved by a variation of the lattice spacing as a single geometric control parameter.

  20. attitude control design for the solar polar orbit radio telesope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, D.; Zheng, J.

    This paper studies the attitude dynamics and control of the Solar Polar Orbit Radio Telescope SPORT The SPORT which consists of one parent satellite and eight tethered satellites runs around the Sun in a polar orbit The parent satellite locates at the mass center of the constellation and tethered satellites which are tied with the parent satellite through a non-electric rope rotate around the parent satellite It is also supposed that the parent satellite and all tethered satellites are in a plane when the constellation works begin figure htbp centerline includegraphics width 3 85in height 2 38in 75271331 6a6eb71057 doc1 eps label fig1 end figure Fig 1 the SPORT constellation Firstly this paper gives the dynamic equations of the tethered satellite and the parent satellite From the dynamic characteristic of the tethered satellite we then find that the roll axis is coupled with the yaw axis The control torque of the roll axis can control the yaw angle But the control torque of the roll axis and pitch axis provided by the tether is very small it can not meet the accuracy requirement of the yaw angle In order to improve the attitude pointing accuracy of the tethered satellite a gradient pole is set in the negative orientation of the yaw axis The gradient pole can improve not only the attitude accuracy of roll angle and pitch angle but also that of the yaw angle indirectly As to the dynamic characteristic of the parent satellite the roll axis is coupled with the pitch axis due to the spinning angular velocity At the same

  1. VCSEL-based miniature laser-Doppler interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruijmboom, Armand; Schemmann, Marcel; Hellmig, Jochen; Schutte, Jeroen; Moench, Holger; Pankert, Joseph

    2008-02-01

    There are many applications for non-contact measurement of the displacement and velocity of moving objects, especially when achieved at low cost. An optical displacement sensor has been developed that can be compared to expensive laser-interferometry sensors, however at a cost compatible with requirements for consumer products. This miniature Laser-Doppler Interferometer works on all light scattering surfaces. The first large-scale application is in PC-mice. The measurement principle employs so-called "Laser Self Mixing", which occurs when laser light scattered on a surface, within the coherence length, is coupled back into the laser cavity. When the object is moving, the back-scattered light is continuously shifting in phase relative to the laser light at the laser mirror. This results in a periodic perturbation of the feedback into the laser cavity, which causes modulations of the light intensity in the cavity. The frequency of these modulations is proportional the speed of the object. A VCSEL, optimized for this application, is used as light source, a photo-diode in the sensor measures the intensity fluctuations and, finally, an integrated circuit transfers the photo-diode signal into velocity or displacement information. To determine the direction of the movement, a triangle modulation of the laser-current is used, which modulates the laser-temperature and hence the laser frequency. Next to the applications in PC-mice a much wider range of applications as input device in consumer products can be envisaged. For instance menu navigation by finger movement over a sensor in remote controls, mobile phones and lap tops. Furthermore a wide field of applications is envisaged in the manufacturing of industrial equipment, which requires non-contact measurement of the movement of materials. The small form factor of less than 0.2 cubic centimeters allows applications previously considered impossible.

  2. Doubling direct-detection data rate by polarization multiplexing of 16-QAM without active polarization control.

    PubMed

    Nazarathy, Moshe; Agmon, Amos

    2013-12-30

    We introduce and simulate a technique enabling to utilize the polarization dimension in direct-detection optical transmission, supporting polarization multiplexing (POL-MUX) over direct-detection (DD) methods previously demonstrated for a single polarization such as direct-detection OFDM. POL-MUX is currently precluded in self-coherent DD with remotely transmitted pilot, as signal x pilot components may randomly fade out. We propose POL-MUX transmission of advanced modulation formats, such as 16-QAM and higher, by means of a novel low-complexity photonic integrated optical front-end and adaptive 3x2 MIMO DSP. The principle of operation is as follows: an additional X x Y cross-polarizations signal is generated, providing three projections onto an over-complete frame of three dependent vectors. This enables to resiliently reconstruct the received state of polarization even when the remotely transmitted pilot fades along one of the received polarization axes. PMID:24514795

  3. Towards the transverse mode-locking of oxide-confined VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Botao; Snoke, David W.; Heberle, Albert P.

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated the lasing modes of oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). The individual Laguerre-Gaussian modes have been spectrally and spatially resolved with scanning confocal microscope with time resolution of 4 ps. Subject to the injection of ultrafast laser pulses, the VCSEL showed irregular pulsed emission which indicates the potential for transverse mode-locking of the VCSEL.

  4. Interference of Coherent Polariton Beams in Microcavities: Polarization-Controlled Optical Gates

    SciTech Connect

    Leyder, C.; Romanelli, M.; Giacobino, E.; Bramati, A.; Liew, T. C. H.; Kavokin, A. V.; Shelykh, I. A.; Karr, J. Ph.

    2007-11-09

    We demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, a polarization-controlled optical gate based on a degenerate polariton-polariton scattering process occurring in semiconductor microcavities. Because of the interference between coherent polaritons, this process is observed in the case of polaritons generated from two collinearly polarized coherent pump beams. On the contrary, if the beams are cross polarized, the scattering is suppressed.

  5. Self-mixing interference effect of VCSEL and the application on microdisplacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Hui; Wang, Ming; Guo, Dongmei; Xia, Wei

    2010-11-01

    The Self-Mixing Interference (SMI) effect of a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) is studied in this paper. The analysis and experiment are presented to verify the dynamics of the VCSEL. The phenomenon is observed and contrasted with traditional interference phenomenon. The output property of VCSEL is modulated by the change of cavity length and feedback intensity. An interferometer using VCSEL self-mixing based on temporal carrier phase shifting technique is studied. Theoretical analysis and simulation calculations are presented and some errors of this method are discussed.

  6. Optimization of electrically tunable VCSEL with intracavity nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Carlos; Frasunkiewicz, Leszek; Czyszanowski, Tomasz; Thienpont, Hugo; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2015-06-15

    We optimize the wavelength tuning range of a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser with an intracavity layer of nematic Liquid Crystal (LC-VCSEL) lasing around 1.3 ?m. The tunability is obtained by applying voltage to the liquid crystal layer, which esentially is to vary the refractive index from the extraordinary to the ordinary. We achieve 71.6 nm continuous tuning (without mode hopping) with liquid crystal thickness of about 3.2 ?m. We investigate the impact of ambient temperature on the LC-VCSEL tuning range and show that mode-hop tuning can be achieved in the temperature range from -10C to 50C where the LC is in nematic phase. PMID:26193549

  7. Free-Space Optical Interconnect Employing VCSEL Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Savich, Gregory R.; Torres, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Sensor signal processing is widely used on aircraft and spacecraft. The scheme employs multiple input/output nodes for data acquisition and CPU (central processing unit) nodes for data processing. To connect 110 nodes and CPU nodes, scalable interconnections such as backplanes are desired because the number of nodes depends on requirements of each mission. An optical backplane consisting of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), VCSEL drivers, photodetectors, and transimpedance amplifiers is the preferred approach since it can handle several hundred megabits per second data throughput.The next generation of satellite-borne systems will require transceivers and processors that can handle several Gb/s of data. Optical interconnects have been praised for both their speed and functionality with hopes that light can relieve the electrical bottleneck predicted for the near future. Optoelectronic interconnects provide a factor of ten improvement over electrical interconnects.

  8. Compact VCSEL pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Brian; Hays, Alan; McIntosh, Chris; Nettleton, John; Goldberg, Lew

    2012-03-01

    We have explored using 808nm Vertical Cavity Surface emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays for end-pumping of Nd:YAG lasers. A variety of laser designs were explored including a compact passively Q-switched lasers that produced a 22mJ pulse having a pulse width of <1.5ns, and an actively Q-switched laser that produced a 40mJ pulse having a 7 ns pulse width. The VCSEL pumped actively Q-switched laser was used as a source for sum frequency generation. Using a 2mm type II KTP and 3mm type I LBO, we generated greater than 5mJ at 355nm with a 21% THG conversion efficiency.

  9. Polarization Control of Microwave Ionization of H Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, P. M.; Bellermann, M. R. W.; Richards, D.

    1996-05-01

    At scaled frequencies ?_0= n_0^3? << 1, extreme sensitivity to elliptical polarization (EStoEP) occurs (P. Koch et al., BAPS 40), 1282 (1995); M.R.W. Bellermann, P.M. Koch, and D. Richards, subm. to Phys. Rev. Lett. (9.904 GHz, half-sine pulse, 154 field osc.) for certain ranges of n_0, the principal quantum number: n_0=43,42,41 (?_0=0.1197 to 0.1038), show EStoEP close to circular polarization (CP), while n_0=33,32,31 (?_0=0.0541 to 0.0449) show it farther from CP. Coherent control schemes usually exploit interference of quantal amplitudes, but here 3d classical Monte Carlo calculations (3dCL) are quantitatively accurate. Approximate classical theory reveals underlying resonance physics. In the co-rotating frame (CRF), a low-?0 CP field of amplitude F induces (Stark) motion at ?_S=1.5n_0F. For ?0 << 1, classical ionization requires F_0=n_0^4F >= F_cl=0.13. In CRF, EP near CP gives driving terms at 2? ; EStoEP at n_0=43--41 occurs when this resonates with the ?S motion and F0 >= F_cl^*. EStoEP at n_0=33--31 occurs when 4? is close to ?_S. At even larger F_0, n_0=31 data show yet more EStoEP reproduced by 3dCL. This is likely the 6? resonance.

  10. Optimal control theory applied to rotational control in dissipative media and torsional control with polarization shaped pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelzer, Adam William

    Quantum optimal control calculations were performed that determined the optimal laser pulse shapes for control over quantum mechanical rotation dynamics. This formalism was applied to control over the timing and magnitude of molecular alignment as well as the width of the alignment peak at the target time. The optimizations were then extended to the density matrix formalism where the effects of temperature and a dissipative bath were examined at the multi-level Bloch level of theory. Limits to the timescales of control in both the isolated molecule case and the dissipative case were found. Control for arbitrary rotational state superpositions was then calculated in thermal and dissipative environments and decay timescales for these states were compared to ideal cases. Further quantum optimal control calculations were done to induce uni-directional rotation of one ring relative to the other in a surface affixed bicyclic molecule with the aim of making a molecular motor driven by coherent light. This was done for the cases of linear polarization only and with a polarization shaping method that allowed for an arbitrarily polarized optimal field. It was found that optimal pulses can induce unidirectional rotation with a great deal of angular momentum by switching the direction of polarizations during the pulse from elliptically polarized in one a single direction to another multiple times.

  11. Some aspects of designing an efficient nitride VCSEL resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowiak, P.; Nakwaski, W.

    2001-03-01

    The optical model of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on the effective frequency method is applied to formulate some guidelines useful for designers of nitride VCSEL resonators. Various materials for resonator distributed Bragg reflectors mirrors are investigated, namely SiO2, TiO2, HfO2, MgO, Y2O3, ZrO2, GaN, AlN, and AlGaN. For pulse-operating nitride VCSELs, both dielectric resonator mirrors (preferably SiO2/TiO2 stacks) are recommended, whereas in the case of continuous-wave operation, the bottom dielectric mirror should be replaced by a semiconducting one (e.g. GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N stack) to enhance heat extraction. It is shown that the active region radius in the analysed lasers should not be less than 5 µm. The simulation also revealed that the barrier width has a strong influence on the threshold gain. Some thermoelectrical aspects of design have also been addressed.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of 1.3-μm InAs quantum-dot VCSELs and monolithic VCSEL arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y.; Fan, W. J.; Xu, D. W.; Zhao, L. J.; Liu, Y.; Zhu, N. H.

    2009-11-01

    We present fabrication and characterization of 1.3-μm InAs quantum dot (QD) vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and QD-VCSEL arrays. The continuous-wave (CW) output power of single QD-VCSEL of 1.2 mW with lasing wavelength of 1.28 μm is obtained at room temperature (RT) at a bias current of 15 mA without power saturation. The low threshold current of 1.1 mA can be achieved for the single mode device. We investigate the 3-dB modulation bandwidth of QD-VCSELs with oxide aperture size of 5-μm, 10-μm and 15-μm in the small signal frequency response measurements. Modulation bandwidth of 2.65 GHz is achieved for single-mode QD-VCSEL with oxide aperture size of 5 μm at a bias current of 4.5 mA. The maximum modulation bandwidth of 2.5 GHz can be obtained for multimode QD-VCSEL with oxide aperture size of 10 μm at a bias current of 7 mA. The 61 QD-VCSELs array is also investigated at RT without optimization. Maximum CW output power of 28 mW and pulsed output power of 18 mW are demonstrated for 2-D QD-VCSEL array with threshold current of 50 mA. The far field pattern beam angle of QD-VCSEL arrays at two perpendicular directions are about 18 degree.

  13. Actin nucleation at the centrosome controls lymphocyte polarity

    PubMed Central

    Obino, Dorian; Farina, Francesca; Malbec, Odile; Sáez, Pablo J.; Maurin, Mathieu; Gaillard, Jérémie; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Gautreau, Alexis; Yuseff, Maria-Isabel; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cell polarity is required for the functional specialization of many cell types including lymphocytes. A hallmark of cell polarity is the reorientation of the centrosome that allows repositioning of organelles and vesicles in an asymmetric fashion. The mechanisms underlying centrosome polarization are not fully understood. Here we found that in resting lymphocytes, centrosome-associated Arp2/3 locally nucleates F-actin, which is needed for centrosome tethering to the nucleus via the LINC complex. Upon lymphocyte activation, Arp2/3 is partially depleted from the centrosome as a result of its recruitment to the immune synapse. This leads to a reduction in F-actin nucleation at the centrosome and thereby allows its detachment from the nucleus and polarization to the synapse. Therefore, F-actin nucleation at the centrosome—regulated by the availability of the Arp2/3 complex—determines its capacity to polarize in response to external stimuli. PMID:26987298

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of the polarization of multitransverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers under current modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, A.; Sciamanna, M.; Panajotov, K.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we report on a theoretical investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of the polarization of multitransverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) under current modulation. Special attention is given to the comparison with a previously studied case of single-transverse mode VCSEL emitting in two orthogonal polarizations. The consideration of spatial effects in VCSEL modifies the polarization dynamics that accompanies the period doubling route to chaos for large modulation amplitudes. Depending on the modulation parameters, the excitation of a higher order transverse mode may either induce chaotic pulsing in an otherwise regularly pulsating VCSEL, or induce a time-periodic pulsing dynamics in an otherwise chaotic VCSEL. Bifurcation diagrams obtained for different modulation frequencies, several values of the dichroism, and different transverse mode characteristics allow us to identify the different scenarios of polarization dynamics in a directly modulated VCSEL. Temporal analysis of carrier number radial profile reveals considerable changes for the multitransverse mode case only constituting the physical origin of the reported changes in the temporal and polarization dynamics.

  15. Metrological characterization of custom-designed 894.6 nm VCSELs for miniature atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Gruet, F; Al-Samaneh, A; Kroemer, E; Bimboes, L; Miletic, D; Affolderbach, C; Wahl, D; Boudot, R; Mileti, G; Michalzik, R

    2013-03-11

    We report on the characterization and validation of custom-designed 894.6 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), for use in miniature Cs atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). The laser relative intensity noise (RIN) is measured to be 1 10(-11) Hz(-1) at 10 Hz Fourier frequency, for a laser power of 700 ?W. The VCSEL frequency noise is 10(13) f(-1) Hz(2)/Hz in the 10 Hz < f < 10(5) Hz range, which is in good agreement with the VCSELs measured fractional frequency instability (Allan deviation) of ? 1 10(-8) at 1 s, and also is consistent with the VCSELs typical optical linewidth of 20-25 MHz. The VCSEL bias current can be directly modulated at 4.596 GHz with a microwave power of -6 to +6 dBm to generate optical sidebands for CPT excitation. With such a VCSEL, a 1.04 kHz linewidth CPT clock resonance signal is detected in a microfabricated Cs cell filled with Ne buffer gas. These results are compatible with state-of-the-art CPT-based miniature atomic clocks exhibiting a short-term frequency instability of 2-3 10(-11) at ? = 1 s and few 10(-12) at ? = 10(4) s integration time.. PMID:23482148

  16. Stable and high-efficiency optical transmitter using a VCSEL-direct-bonded connection block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Won; Lee, Tae-Woo; Cho, Mu Hee; Park, Hyo-Hoon

    2008-02-01

    A stable and high-efficiency optical transmitter module was fabricated for optical printed circuit board (OPCB) based interconnections. A bottom-emitting VCSEL was directly bonded on a 90-bent fiber connection block. Since this transmitter module does not have free space between the VCSEL and the connection block, it reduces the optical losses due to the scattering and beam divergence at the interface between the VCSEL and the connection block. A ray trace simulation for the optical loss supports the conclusion that closer contact of VCSEL to the connection block can provide higher coupling efficiency by eliminating the optical losses induced by the Fresnel reflection and the beam divergence. The index matching fluid treatment between the VCSEL and the connection block improves the coupling efficiency especially in the longitudinal direction. This trend was experimentally identified. Effective heat discharge through the contacted connector in this module improves significantly the power characteristics of the VCSEL. The L-I-V curves demonstrate that the fabricated VCSEL module shows higher optical powers than the bare VCSEL improving from +0.3 dB to +3.3 dB. Successful eye diagram at the speed of 5 Gb/s/ch with 850 nm was obtained. The bit error rate was 10 -9 at the speed of 5 Gb/s/ch, and it became lower than 10 -12 at the speed below 3 Gb/s/ch.

  17. VCSELs in the visible to IR as a light source for low light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Klein; Dummer, Matthew; Hogan, William; Steidl, Charles; Hibbs-Brenner, Mary

    2014-02-01

    VCSELs (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers ) provide a very versatile optical source for Low Light Therapy applications. This talk will discuss performance characteristics and packaging demonstrations for VCSELs primarily operating in the 680nm and 850nm regimes. At 680nm individual VCSELs produce >10mW, while >0.35W can be provided from a 0.4mm2 emission area. Spectral width is typically 1-2nm even for a multi-mode or array device. At 850nm these numbers increase to >30mW and >0.8W. Even higher powers can be achieved under pulsed modulation, i.e. 0.55W for a 680nm VCSEL or 1.2W for an 850nm VCSEL. While we report on results achieved at 680nm and 850nm, extension to wavelengths ranging from 660nm to 1000nm is easily achieved. The packaging flexibility of VCSELs also makes them of significant interest to the Low Light Therapy community. We will report on the incorporation of VCSELs into surface mount packages, including typical LED packages such as the PLCC, or ceramic chip carriers. VCSELs in PLCC packages have been attached to flexible circuits to provide a broad area illumination. We will also report on a unique chip on board package which easily allows for the addition of optical elements such as diffusers, diffraction gratings or lenses. This package is 2mm on a side, sufficiently small for incorporation into catheters or implantation.

  18. Modeling and simulation of VCSELs noise and its influence on noise performance of RF fiber links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Moustafa; Mahmoud, Safwat W. Z.; Hassan, Ahmed M. A.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present numerical simulations of the dynamics and noise of directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as primary light sources in RF links. Contribution of the VCSEL noise to the noise performance of the RF link is evaluated in terms of the noise figure. The VCSEL characteristics are investigated under a variety of conditions, including CW operation and sinusoidal modulation. Both single and two transverse-mode oscillations of VCSELs are studied. The obtained results show that the frequency spectra of the relative intensity noise exhibit peaks at the mode-competition frequency, the modulation frequency and the higher harmonics. The low-frequency level of relative intensity noise is minimum when the modulated VCSEL signal is continuous and uniform, but is pronounced when the signal is pulsing and non-uniform. The noise level of the two-mode VCSELs is almost 20 dB/Hz higher than that of the single-mode VCSEL. The noise factor of the fiber link decreases with the increase of both the modulation frequency and the depth. The contribution of the VCSEL noise to the noise factor of the fiber link is much greater than that of the photodiode.

  19. Solar illumination control of ionospheric outflow above polar cap arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, L.; Maggiolo, R.; De Keyser, J.; Dandouras, I.; Fear, R. C.; Fontaine, D.; Haaland, S.

    2015-03-01

    We measure the flux density, composition, and energy of outflowing ions above the polar cap, accelerated by quasi-static electric fields parallel to the magnetic field and associated with polar cap arcs, using Cluster. Mapping the spacecraft position to its ionospheric foot point, we analyze the dependence of these parameters on the solar zenith angle (SZA). We find a clear transition at SZA between 94 and 107, with the O+ flux higher above the sunlit ionosphere. This dependence on the illumination of the local ionosphere indicates that significant O+ upflow occurs locally above the polar ionosphere. The same is found for H+, but to a lesser extent. This effect can result in a seasonal variation of the total ion upflow from the polar ionosphere. Furthermore, we show that low-magnitude field-aligned potential drops are preferentially observed above the sunlit ionosphere, suggesting a feedback effect of ionospheric conductivity.

  20. Kif26b controls endothelial cell polarity through the Dishevelled/Daam1-dependent planar cell polarity-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Guillabert-Gourgues, Aude; Jaspard-Vinassa, Beatrice; Bats, Marie-Lise; Sewduth, Raj N; Franzl, Nathalie; Peghaire, Claire; Jeanningros, Sylvie; Moreau, Catherine; Roux, Etienne; Larrieu-Lahargue, Frederic; Dufourcq, Pascale; Couffinhal, Thierry; Duplàa, Cecile

    2016-03-15

    Angiogenesis involves the coordinated growth and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) toward a proangiogenic signal. The Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, through the recruitment of Dishevelled (Dvl) and Dvl-associated activator of morphogenesis (Daam1), has been proposed to regulate cell actin cytoskeleton and microtubule (MT) reorganization for oriented cell migration. Here we report that Kif26b-a kinesin-and Daam1 cooperatively regulate initiation of EC sprouting and directional migration via MT reorganization. First, we find that Kif26b is recruited within the Dvl3/Daam1 complex. Using a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay, we show that Kif26b and Daam1 depletion impairs tip cell polarization and destabilizes extended vascular processes. Kif26b depletion specifically alters EC directional migration and mislocalized MT organizing center (MTOC)/Golgi and myosin IIB cell rear enrichment. Therefore the cell fails to establish a proper front-rear polarity. Of interest, Kif26b ectopic expression rescues the siDaam1 polarization defect phenotype. Finally, we show that Kif26b functions in MT stabilization, which is indispensable for asymmetrical cell structure reorganization. These data demonstrate that Kif26b, together with Dvl3/Daam1, initiates cell polarity through the control of PCP signaling pathway-dependent activation. PMID:26792835

  1. Laser polarization and phase control of up-conversion fluorescence in rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yunhua; Zhang, Shian; Zhang, Hui; Ding, Jingxin; Jia, Tianqing; Qiu, Jianrong; Sun, Zhenrong

    2014-12-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the up-conversion fluorescence control via resonance-mediated two-photon absorption in rare-earth ions by varying both the laser polarization and phase. We show that both the laser polarization and phase can control the up-conversion fluorescence, and the up-conversion fluorescence intensity is decreased when the laser polarization changes from linear through elliptical to circular. We also show that the laser polarization will affect the control efficiency of the up-conversion fluorescence by varying the laser phase, and the circular polarization will reduce the control efficiency. Furthermore, we suggest that the control efficiency by varying the laser polarization and the effect of the laser polarization on the control efficiency by varying the laser phase can be artificially manipulated by controlling the laser spectral bandwidth. This optical control method opens a new opportunity to control the up-conversion fluorescence of rare-earth ions, which may have significant impact on the related applications of rare-earth ions.

  2. Laser polarization and phase control of up-conversion fluorescence in rare-earth ions

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yunhua; Zhang, Shian; Zhang, Hui; Ding, Jingxin; Jia, Tianqing; Qiu, Jianrong; Sun, Zhenrong

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the up-conversion fluorescence control via resonance-mediated two-photon absorption in rare-earth ions by varying both the laser polarization and phase. We show that both the laser polarization and phase can control the up-conversion fluorescence, and the up-conversion fluorescence intensity is decreased when the laser polarization changes from linear through elliptical to circular. We also show that the laser polarization will affect the control efficiency of the up-conversion fluorescence by varying the laser phase, and the circular polarization will reduce the control efficiency. Furthermore, we suggest that the control efficiency by varying the laser polarization and the effect of the laser polarization on the control efficiency by varying the laser phase can be artificially manipulated by controlling the laser spectral bandwidth. This optical control method opens a new opportunity to control the up-conversion fluorescence of rare-earth ions, which may have significant impact on the related applications of rare-earth ions. PMID:25465401

  3. Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Metasurfaces are planar structures that locally modify the polarization, phase and amplitude of light in reflection or transmission, thus enabling lithographically patterned flat optical components with functionalities controlled by design. Transmissive metasurfaces are especially important, as most optical systems used in practice operate in transmission. Several types of transmissive metasurface have been realized, but with either low transmission efficiencies or limited control over polarization and phase. Here, we show a metasurface platform based on high-contrast dielectric elliptical nanoposts that provides complete control of polarization and phase with subwavelength spatial resolution and an experimentally measured efficiency ranging from 72% to 97%, depending on the exact design. Such complete control enables the realization of most free-space transmissive optical elements such as lenses, phase plates, wave plates, polarizers, beamsplitters, as well as polarization-switchable phase holograms and arbitrary vector beam generators using the same metamaterial platform.

  4. Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Metasurfaces are planar structures that locally modify the polarization, phase and amplitude of light in reflection or transmission, thus enabling lithographically patterned flat optical components with functionalities controlled by design. Transmissive metasurfaces are especially important, as most optical systems used in practice operate in transmission. Several types of transmissive metasurface have been realized, but with either low transmission efficiencies or limited control over polarization and phase. Here, we show a metasurface platform based on high-contrast dielectric elliptical nanoposts that provides complete control of polarization and phase with subwavelength spatial resolution and an experimentally measured efficiency ranging from 72% to 97%, depending on the exact design. Such complete control enables the realization of most free-space transmissive optical elements such as lenses, phase plates, wave plates, polarizers, beamsplitters, as well as polarization-switchable phase holograms and arbitrary vector beam generators using the same metamaterial platform. PMID:26322944

  5. Capture and sorting of multiple cells by polarization-controlled three-beam interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yu; Wang, Zuobin; Hu, Yaowei; Li, Dayou; Qiu, Renxi

    2016-03-01

    For the capture and sorting of multiple cells, a sensitive and highly efficient polarization-controlled three-beam interference set-up has been developed. With the theory of superposition of three beams, simulations on the influence of polarization angle upon the intensity distribution and the laser gradient force change with different polarization angles have been carried out. By controlling the polarization angle of the beams, various intensity distributions and different sizes of dots are obtained. We have experimentally observed multiple optical tweezers and the sorting of cells with different polarization angles, which are in accordance with the theoretical analysis. The experimental results have shown that the polarization angle affects the shapes and feature sizes of the interference patterns and the trapping force.

  6. Improved efficiency of GaAs-based VCSEL by utilizing fan-pad metallization and trench patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, M. S.; Shaari, S.; Choudhury, P. K.; Mitani, S. M.

    2009-11-01

    Emphasizing the Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) device packaging, fan-pad metallization and trench patterning are demonstrated for VCSEL operating at 850 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. The fabricated devices are observed to exhibit low threshold current and series resistance, contributing thereby to higher VCSEL efficiency. It is also observed that the output spectral characteristics of the fabricated device show stable multimode operation. The results indicate that the proposed VCSEL packaging exhibits superior device performance as compared to the VCSEL device packaged with square-pad metal.

  7. Electron-beam-pumped VCSEL light source for projection display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberi, Michael D.; Kozlovsky, Vladimir I.

    2005-04-01

    An electron beam pumped vertical cavity laser, or an "eVCSEL", has been developed as a low-cost light source for LCOS and DLP based consumer television. 1000 lumens directed towards the spatial light modulator requires a total power of 144 watts for lasers in the three primary colors. This power surplus allows for high screen brightness for rear projection televisions of diagonals greater than 50 inches and eliminates the need for high gain screens with the benefit of larger viewing angles. Because of the high saturation of laser light, a color gamut approaching that of the human visual system is possible, creating superior image reproduction.

  8. Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Lee, ByungKun; Choi, WooJhon; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Kraus, Martin F; Liang, Kaicheng; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G

    2014-09-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of conventional OCT and can assess depth-resolved tissue birefringence in addition to intensity. Most existing PS-OCT systems are relatively complex and their clinical translation remains difficult. We present a simple and robust all-fiber PS-OCT system based on swept source technology and polarization depth-encoding. Polarization multiplexing was achieved using a polarization maintaining fiber. Polarization sensitive signals were detected using fiber based polarization beam splitters and polarization controllers were used to remove the polarization ambiguity. A simplified post-processing algorithm was proposed for speckle noise reduction relaxing the demand for phase stability. We demonstrated systems design for both ophthalmic and catheter-based PS-OCT. For ophthalmic imaging, we used an optical clock frequency doubling method to extend the imaging range of a commercially available short cavity light source to improve polarization depth-encoding. For catheter based imaging, we demonstrated 200 kHz PS-OCT imaging using a MEMS-tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and a high speed micromotor imaging catheter. The system was demonstrated in human retina, finger and lip imaging, as well as ex vivo swine esophagus and cardiovascular imaging. The all-fiber PS-OCT is easier to implement and maintain compared to previous PS-OCT systems and can be more easily translated to clinical applications due to its robust design. PMID:25401008

  9. Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Lee, ByungKun; Choi, WooJhon; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Kraus, Martin F.; Liang, Kaicheng; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of conventional OCT and can assess depth-resolved tissue birefringence in addition to intensity. Most existing PS-OCT systems are relatively complex and their clinical translation remains difficult. We present a simple and robust all-fiber PS-OCT system based on swept source technology and polarization depth-encoding. Polarization multiplexing was achieved using a polarization maintaining fiber. Polarization sensitive signals were detected using fiber based polarization beam splitters and polarization controllers were used to remove the polarization ambiguity. A simplified post-processing algorithm was proposed for speckle noise reduction relaxing the demand for phase stability. We demonstrated systems design for both ophthalmic and catheter-based PS-OCT. For ophthalmic imaging, we used an optical clock frequency doubling method to extend the imaging range of a commercially available short cavity light source to improve polarization depth-encoding. For catheter based imaging, we demonstrated 200 kHz PS-OCT imaging using a MEMS-tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and a high speed micromotor imaging catheter. The system was demonstrated in human retina, finger and lip imaging, as well as ex vivo swine esophagus and cardiovascular imaging. The all-fiber PS-OCT is easier to implement and maintain compared to previous PS-OCT systems and can be more easily translated to clinical applications due to its robust design. PMID:25401008

  10. Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hui Feng; Wang, Gui Zhen; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a kind of anisotropic gradient-index (GRIN) metamaterials, which can be used to control differently-polarized waves independently. We show that two three- dimensional (3D) planar lenses made of such anisotropic GRIN metamaterials are able to make arbitrary beam deflections for the vertical (or horizontal) polarization but have no response to the horizontal (or vertical) polarization. Then the vertically- and horizontally-polarized waves are separated and controlled independently to deflect to arbitrarily different directions by designing the anisotropic GRIN planar lenses. We make experimental verifications of the lenses using such a special metamaterial, which has both electric and magnetic responses simultaneously to reach approximately equal permittivity and permeability. Hence excellent impedance matching is obtained between the GRIN planar lenses and the air. The measurement results demonstrate good performance on the independent controls of differently-polarized waves, as observed in the numerical simulations. PMID:25231412

  11. Baseline scheme for polarization preservation and control in the MEIC ion complex

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong; Kondratenko, Anatoliy; Kondratenko, M A; Filatov, Yury

    2015-09-01

    The scheme for preservation and control of the ion polarization in the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) has been under active development in recent years. The figure-8 configuration of the ion rings provides a unique capability to control the polarization of any ion species including deuterons by means of "weak" solenoids rotating the particle spins by small angles. Insertion of "weak" solenoids into the magnetic lattices of the booster and collider rings solves the problem of polarization preservation during acceleration of the ion beam. Universal 3D spin rotators designed on the basis of "weak" solenoids allow one to obtain any polarization orientation at an interaction point of MEIC. This paper presents the baseline scheme for polarization preservation and control in the MEIC ion complex.

  12. Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui Feng; Wang, Gui Zhen; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a kind of anisotropic gradient-index (GRIN) metamaterials, which can be used to control differently-polarized waves independently. We show that two three- dimensional (3D) planar lenses made of such anisotropic GRIN metamaterials are able to make arbitrary beam deflections for the vertical (or horizontal) polarization but have no response to the horizontal (or vertical) polarization. Then the vertically- and horizontally-polarized waves are separated and controlled independently to deflect to arbitrarily different directions by designing the anisotropic GRIN planar lenses. We make experimental verifications of the lenses using such a special metamaterial, which has both electric and magnetic responses simultaneously to reach approximately equal permittivity and permeability. Hence excellent impedance matching is obtained between the GRIN planar lenses and the air. The measurement results demonstrate good performance on the independent controls of differently-polarized waves, as observed in the numerical simulations. PMID:25231412

  13. Optical implementation of polarization-independent, bidirectional, nonblocking Clos network using polarization control technique in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junbo; Yang, Jiankun; Li, Xiujian; Chang, Shengli; Su, Xianyu; Ping, Xu

    2011-04-01

    The clos network is one of the earliest multistage interconnection networks. Recently, it has been widely studied in parallel optical information processing systems, and there have been many efforts to develop this network. In this paper, a smart and compact Clos network, including Clos(2,3,2) and Clos(2,4,2), is proposed by using polarizing beam-splitters (PBS), phase spatial light modulators (PSLM), and mirrors. PBS features that are s-component (perpendicular to the incident plane) of the incident light beam is reflected, and the p-component (parallel to the incident plane) passes through it. According to switching logic, under control of external electrical signals, PSLM functions to control routing paths of the signal beams, i.e., the polarization of each optical signal is rotated or not rotated 90 by a programmable PSLM. This new type of configuration grants the features of less optical components, compact in structure, efficient in performance, and insensitive to polarization of signal beam. In addition, the straight, the exchange, and the broadcast functions of the basic switch element are implemented bidirectionally in free-space. Furthermore, the new optical experimental module of 23 and 24 optical switch is also presented by a cascading polarization-independent bidirectional 22 optical switch. Simultaneously, the routing state-table of 23 and 24 optical switch to perform all permutation output and nonblocking switch for the input signal beam, is achieved. Since the proposed optical setup consists of only optical polarization elements, it is compact in structure, and possesses a low energy loss, a high signal-to-ratio, and an available large number of optical channels. Finally, the discussions and the experimental results show that the Clos network proposed here should be helpful in the design of large-scale network matrix, and may be used in optical communication and optical information processing.

  14. Spontaneous and electric field–controlled front–rear polarization of human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Saltukoglu, Deniz; Grünewald, Julian; Strohmeyer, Nico; Bensch, Robert; Ulbrich, Maximilian H.; Ronneberger, Olaf; Simons, Matias

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that electrical fields (EFs) are able to influence the direction of migrating cells, a process commonly referred to as electrotaxis or galvanotaxis. Most studies have focused on migrating cells equipped with an existing polarity before EF application, making it difficult to delineate EF-specific pathways. Here we study the initial events in front–rear organization of spreading keratinocytes to dissect the molecular requirements for random and EF-controlled polarization. We find that Arp2/3-dependent protrusive forces and Rac1/Cdc42 activity were generally required for both forms of polarization but were dispensable for controlling the direction of EF-controlled polarization. By contrast, we found a crucial role for extracellular pH as well as G protein coupled–receptor (GPCR) or purinergic signaling in the control of directionality. The normal direction of polarization toward the cathode was reverted by lowering extracellular pH. Polarization toward the anode was also seen at neutral pH when GPCR or purinergic signaling was inhibited. However, the stepwise increase of extracellular pH in this scenario led to restoration of cathodal polarization. Overall our work puts forward a model in which the EF uses distinct polarization pathways. The cathodal pathway involves GPCR/purinergic signaling and is dominant over the anodal pathway at neutral pH. PMID:26424799

  15. Spontaneous and electric field-controlled front-rear polarization of human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Saltukoglu, Deniz; Grnewald, Julian; Strohmeyer, Nico; Bensch, Robert; Ulbrich, Maximilian H; Ronneberger, Olaf; Simons, Matias

    2015-12-01

    It has long been known that electrical fields (EFs) are able to influence the direction of migrating cells, a process commonly referred to as electrotaxis or galvanotaxis. Most studies have focused on migrating cells equipped with an existing polarity before EF application, making it difficult to delineate EF-specific pathways. Here we study the initial events in front-rear organization of spreading keratinocytes to dissect the molecular requirements for random and EF-controlled polarization. We find that Arp2/3-dependent protrusive forces and Rac1/Cdc42 activity were generally required for both forms of polarization but were dispensable for controlling the direction of EF-controlled polarization. By contrast, we found a crucial role for extracellular pH as well as G protein coupled-receptor (GPCR) or purinergic signaling in the control of directionality. The normal direction of polarization toward the cathode was reverted by lowering extracellular pH. Polarization toward the anode was also seen at neutral pH when GPCR or purinergic signaling was inhibited. However, the stepwise increase of extracellular pH in this scenario led to restoration of cathodal polarization. Overall our work puts forward a model in which the EF uses distinct polarization pathways. The cathodal pathway involves GPCR/purinergic signaling and is dominant over the anodal pathway at neutral pH. PMID:26424799

  16. Demonstration of open-quantum-system optimal control in dynamic nuclear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, S.; Cory, D. G.

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is used in nuclear magnetic resonance to transfer polarization from electron spins to nuclear spins. The resulting nuclear polarization enhancement can, in theory, be two or three orders of magnitude depending on the sample. In solid-state systems, however, there are competing mechanisms of DNP, which, when occurring simultaneously, reduce the net polarization enhancement of the nuclear spin. We present a simple quantum description of DNP and apply optimal control theory (OCT) with an open-quantum-system framework to design pulses that select one DNP process and suppress the others. We demonstrate experimentally an order of magnitude improvement in the DNP enhancement using OCT pulses.

  17. New markets for VCSELS: pulsed operation of high-power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin; Miller, Michael; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Jäger, Roland; King, Roger

    2007-02-01

    Driving basic VCSEL technology in the '90, datacom has been the first volume market for various VCSEL products. The downturn in 2001 can be regarded as a point in time, when engineers both from VCSEL manufacturers and nondatacom users started to identify VCSEL technology as a very promising laser source platform for many other applications. Dedicated spectroscopy laser sources based on VCSEL technology, e.g. for oxygen sensing [1], have proven their competitiveness in industrial applications. The most prosepective consumer market of human-machineinterfaces like laser mice has shown the huge potential of the VCSEL technology in low costs, high volume applications, even given extreme technical performance specifications [2]. Just as a consequence, VCSELs are now penetrating into the next potential volume markets, where unique properties of this technology is requested: High power pulsed laser applications, where low cost is a key factor for market entry. In this paper we discuss a suitable semiconductor technology platform, assembly solutions, selected applications and their market potential as well as performance and reliability data. From small footprint of 0.3 mm2 and 0.11 mm2 peak output powers of 0.7 W and more than 6 W at 850 nm wavelength are shown at 30 μs and 30 ns pulse widths, respectively.

  18. Final report on LDRD project : narrow-linewidth VCSELs for atomic microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Weng Wah; Geib, Kent Martin; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Serkland, Darwin Keith

    2011-09-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are well suited for emerging photonic microsystems due to their low power consumption, ease of integration with other optical components, and single frequency operation. However, the typical VCSEL linewidth of 100 MHz is approximately ten times wider than the natural linewidth of atoms used in atomic beam clocks and trapped atom research, which degrades or completely destroys performance in those systems. This report documents our efforts to reduce VCSEL linewidths below 10 MHz to meet the needs of advanced sub-Doppler atomic microsystems, such as cold-atom traps. We have investigated two complementary approaches to reduce VCSEL linewidth: (A) increasing the laser-cavity quality factor, and (B) decreasing the linewidth enhancement factor (alpha) of the optical gain medium. We have developed two new VCSEL devices that achieved increased cavity quality factors: (1) all-semiconductor extended-cavity VCSELs, and (2) micro-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (MECSELs). These new VCSEL devices have demonstrated linewidths below 10 MHz, and linewidths below 1 MHz seem feasible with further optimization.

  19. Final report on LDRD project :leaky-mode VCSELs for photonic logic circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, Terry W.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Blansett, Ethan L.; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Bauer, Thomas; Ongstand, Andrea; Medrano, Melissa R.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Montano, Victoria A.

    2005-11-01

    This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project ''Leaky-mode VCSELs for photonic logic circuits''. Leaky-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) offer new possibilities for integration of microcavity lasers to create optical microsystems. A leaky-mode VCSEL output-couples light laterally, in the plane of the semiconductor wafer, which allows the light to interact with adjacent lasers, modulators, and detectors on the same wafer. The fabrication of leaky-mode VCSELs based on effective index modification was proposed and demonstrated at Sandia in 1999 but was not adequately developed for use in applications. The aim of this LDRD has been to advance the design and fabrication of leaky-mode VCSELs to the point where initial applications can be attempted. In the first and second years of this LDRD we concentrated on overcoming previous difficulties in the epitaxial growth and fabrication of these advanced VCSELs. In the third year, we focused on applications of leaky-mode VCSELs, such as all-optical processing circuits based on gain quenching.

  20. Plasmonic circular polarization analyzer formed by unidirectionally controlling surface plasmon propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jiaming; Wang, Jiajian; Tang, Peng; Liu, Wei; Huang, Tao; Wang, Yanqi; Lin, Feng; Fang, Zheyu; Zhu, Xing

    2015-04-20

    Analyzing the polarization of a circularly polarized light is a critical issue. We have fabricated a spiral nano-structure on the Au film by using focused ion beam etching technique. The fabricated structure can be used as a plasmonic circular polarization analyzer. By designing the relative orientation of two nano-apertures in the spiral structural unit, the propagation direction of the surface plasmon polaritons excited by circularly polarized light of opposite handedness can be controlled. Therefore, the spiral structure could be used to accurately determine the helicity of the excited circularly polarized light. Based on the results of scanning near-field optical microscopy, the obtained circular polarization extinction ratio of this structure was above 500. This structure can be used for a flexible detecting size and a very wide spectrum.

  1. Independent Controls of Differently-Polarized Reflected Waves by Anisotropic Metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hui Feng; Wang, Gui Zhen; Kong, Gu Sheng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a kind of anisotropic planar metasurface, which has capacity to manipulate the orthogonally-polarized electromagnetic waves independently in the reflection mode. The metasurface is composed of orthogonally I-shaped structures and a metal-grounded plane spaced by a dielectric isolator, with the thickness of about 1/15 wavelength. The normally incident linear-polarized waves will be totally reflected by the metal plane, but the reflected phases of x- and y-polarized waves can be controlled independently by the orthogonally I-shaped structures. Based on this principle, we design four functional devices using the anisotropic metasurfaces to realize polarization beam splitting, beam deflection, and linear-to-circular polarization conversion with a deflection angle, respectively. Good performances have been observed from both simulation and measurement results, which show good capacity of the anisotropic metasurfaces to manipulate the x- and y-polarized reflected waves independently. PMID:25873323

  2. Transverse Mode Dynamics of VCSELs Undergoing Current Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Ning, C. Z.; Agrawal, Govind

    2000-01-01

    Transverse mode dynamics of a 20-micron-diameter vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) undergoing gain switching by deep current modulation is studied numerically. The direct current (dc) level is set slightly below threshold and is modulated by a large alternating current (ac). The resulting optical pulse train and transverse-mode patterns are obtained numerically. The ac frequency is varied from 2.5 GHz to 10 GHz, and the ac amplitude is varied from one-half to four times that of the dc level. At high modulation frequencies, a regular pulse train is not generated unless the ac amplitude is large enough. At all modulation frequencies, the transverse spatial profile switches from single-mode to multiple-mode pattern as the ac pumping level is increased. Optical pulse widths vary in the range 5-30 ps. with the pulse width decreasing when either the frequency is increased or the ac amplitude is decreased. The numerical modeling uses an approximation form of the semiconductor Maxwell-Bloch equations. Temporal evolution of the spatial profiles of the laser (and of carrier density) is determined without any assumptions about the type or number of modes. Keywords: VCSELs, current modulation, gain switching, transverse mode dynamics, computational modeling

  3. 1060nm VCSEL for inter-chip optical interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Keishi; Imai, Suguru; Kamiya, Shinichi; Shimizu, Hitoshi; Kawakita, Yasumasa; Hiraiwa, Koji; Takagi, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Junji; Ishikawa, Takuya; Tsukiji, Naoki; Kasukawa, Akihiko

    2011-03-01

    The demand for the on board intra-chip optical interconnection as the "Green interconnect" have been growing so rapidly in order to catch up the speed of the performance development of high performance computing systems. In this report, our continuous study results expanding to intra-chip application in terms with power consumption and reliability are shown for the "Green" 1060nm VCSEL arrays developed by Furukawa Electric1. As the basic performance level, the clear eye opening up to 20Gbps was achieved with low power dissipation level of 160fJ/bit with voltage swing level of 130mVpp. This value would be considered as the same level of the 140fJ/bit in 10Gbps operation with 75mVpp. In the reliability test, our large scale FIT rate test had been reached up to 7.8E7 device hours and the estimated FIT rate of 30FIT/ch was obtained from no failure sample and confidence level of 90%. Our wear-out study was performed with high stress test of 170C ambient temperature and estimated failure rate for 10years service time was 0.3FIT/ch for this mode. Our 1060nm VCSEL with low power consumption level of 140fJ/bit and high reliability of 30FIT/ch would be projected to a light source for intra-chip application.

  4. Quantum dot photonics: edge emitter, amplifier and VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfer, F.; Kuntz, M.; Lämmlin, M.; Fiol, G.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Kovsh, A. R.; Mikrin, S. S.; Kaiander, I.; Haisler, V.; Lochmann, A.; Mutig, A.; Schubert, C.; Umbach, A.; Ustinov, V. M.; Pohl, U. W.; Bimberg, D.

    2008-03-01

    Low transparency current density and improved temperature stability with a large characteristic temperature T0 > 650 K up to 80 °C are demonstrated for 1.3 μm MBE grown InGaAs quantum dot (QD) edge emitting lasers. Digital modulation with an open eye pattern up to 12 Gb/s at room temperature and bit error rate below 10-12 for 10 Gb/s modulation was realized for this wavelength. Semiconductor optical amplifiers based on InGaAs QD gain media achieved a chip gain of 26 dB. A conventionally doped semiconductor DBR QD-VCSEL containing 17 p-modulation doped QD layers demonstrated a cw output power of 1.8 mW and a differential efficiency of 20 % at 20 °C. The maximum -3dB modulation bandwidth at 25 °C was 3 GHz. First MOCVD-grown QD-VCSELs with selectively oxidized DBRs and 9 QD-layers were realized, emitting at 1.1 μm. A cw multimode output power of 1.5 mW, 6 mW in pulsed operation, and an cw external efficiency of 45 % were achieved at 20 °C. The minimum threshold current of a device with 2 μm aperture was 85 μA.

  5. Enhanced inline conversion of fiber Bragg grating spectra based on increased polarization controllability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Wook; Sung Koo, Ja; Wan Lee, Yong; Oh, Junghwan; Wook Lee, Yong

    2013-04-01

    We have demonstrated enhanced spectral conversion of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) incorporating a polarization-diversity loop configuration (PDLC) with increased degree of freedom (DOF) in polarization control through the addition of wave plates. The proposed apparatus for spectral conversion consists of a four-port polarization beam splitter for constructing the PDLC, an FBG, and three wave plates including one half-wave and two quarter-wave plates. In the previous study using only two wave plates, slight birefringence of single-mode fibers connecting optical elements within the polarization-diversity loop induced random changes of states of polarization (SOPs), resulting in the spectral degradation. In this approach, the increased number of wave plates could complement it by providing a higher DOF in controlling SOPs and significantly improve spectral performances of the fabricated filter such as an insertion loss, side-mode suppression ratio, and band-rejection ratio.

  6. Generation of a controllable multifocal array from a modulated azimuthally polarized beam.

    PubMed

    Mu, Tingkui; Chen, Zeyu; Pacheco, Shaun; Wu, Rengmao; Zhang, Chunmin; Liang, Rongguang

    2016-01-15

    In this Letter, the focal spot areas of an azimuthally polarized beam modulated with a vortex-0-2?-phase plate or a ?-phase-step plate are numerically found to be smaller than a radially polarized beam for three pupil functions with uniform, Gaussian, and Bessel-Gauss profiles. Several types of multizone phase plates are theoretically designed and numerically simulated for generating tight multifocal arrays from the azimuthally polarized beams for what we believe is the first time. The positions and polarization states of the multifocal arrays can be controlled simply by varying the pattern of the multizone plates. The produced multifocal array with controllable position and polarization is beneficial to parallel optical recording and parallel optical imaging. PMID:26766689

  7. Controlling Aggregation in Non-Polar Asphaltene Suspensions Through Electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, Sara; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Asphaltenes, the most aromatic and largest molecular weight components of petroleum fluids, can undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition in conditions including highly non-polar environments. Phase separation begins with molecular association and proceeds to and through the colloidal length-scale until complete sedimentation or deposition. Non-ionic polymeric dispersants can stabilize asphaltenes at the colloidal scale in non-polar suspensions. We perform a variety of experiments which suggest that stabilization occurs by adsorption of dispersant onto the asphaltenes, truncating the progress of precipitation. In particular, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and phase-analysis light scattering (PALS) measurements indicate that electrostatic repulsion is responsible for stabilizing asphaltene colloids against further aggregation. Aggregation time increases exponentially with dispersant concentration, as expected for particles interacting through a combination of attractive dispersion forces and repulsive electrostatics. However, contrary to current understandings of electrostatic stabilization in non-polar systems, the charges in colloidal asphaltene suspensions seem to arise from the asphaltene colloids themselves rather than from dispersant micelles.

  8. Compliant heterogeneous assemblies of micro-VCSELs as a new materials platform for integrated optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongseok; Lee, Sung-Min; Kwong, Anthony; Yoon, Jongseung

    2015-03-01

    Despite many unique advantages, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) have been available mostly on rigid, planar wafers over restricted areas, thereby limiting their usage for applications that can benefit from large-scale, programmable assemblies, hybrid integration with dissimilar materials and devices, or mechanically flexible constructions. Here, materials design and fabrication strategies that address these limitations of conventional VCSELs are presented. Specialized design of epitaxial materials and etching processes, together with printing-based deterministic assemblies and substrate thermal engineering, enabled defect-free release of microscale VCSELs and their device- and circuit-level implementation on non-native, flexible substrates with performance comparable to devices on the growth substrate.

  9. Heterogeneously-integrated VCSEL using high-contrast grating on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, James; Zhu, Li; Yang, Weijian; Qiao, Pengfei; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2015-02-01

    We present a unique heterogeneous integration approach for VCSELs on silicon using eutectic bonding. An electrically pumped III-V - silicon heterogeneous VCSEL is demonstrated using a high-contrast grating (HCG) reflector on silicon. CW output power >1.5 mW, thermal resistance of 1.46 K/mW, and 5 Gb/s direct modulation is demonstrated. We also explore the possibility of an all-HCG VCSEL structure that would benefit from stronger thermal performance, larger tuning efficiency, and higher direct modulation speeds.

  10. Developing an array of site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots emitting polarization-entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Juska, G.; Dimastrodonato, V.; Mereni, L. O.; Gocalinska, A.; Pelucchi, E.

    2013-12-04

    We present a site-controlled, highly symmetric quantum dot system with a density of at least 15 % of polarization-entangled photon emitters. Fidelity values of the entangled state as high as 0.7210.043 were found.

  11. New scheme for finite-retardation limitations of linear retarders with fixed axes in polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Li, Mo; Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Dong; He, De-Yong; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Finite retardation ranges of linear retarders with fixed axes limit their applications in polarization control. In this work, we present a simple and efficient constraint scheme for this finite-retardation limitation. Its theoretical basis is given geometrically and mathematically. The new polarization control algorithm combines the constraint scheme and a widely-used maximum-search algorithm. Both simulations and experiments confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed scheme and control algorithm. In experiments, the control system uses four cascaded linear retarders with fast axes alternately oriented at 0° and 45°. Each retarder (fiber squeezer) has a finite retardation range of 4π. For a 15-min test, the mean (maximum) polarization error angle is 0.09 (0.28) rad while stabilizing a polarization fluctuation at an average speed of 26 rad/s. Furthermore, no events of hitting retardation limits occur.

  12. An optically controlled phased array antenna based on single sideband polarization modulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yamei; Wu, Huan; Zhu, Dan; Pan, Shilong

    2014-02-24

    A novel optically controlled phased array antenna consisting a simple optical beamforming network and an N element linear patch antenna array is proposed and demonstrated. The optical beamforming network is realized by N independent phase shifters using a shared optical single sideband (OSSB) polarization modulator together with N polarization controllers (PCs), N polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and N photodetectors (PDs). An experiment is carried out. A 4-element linear patch antenna array operating at 14 GHz and a 1 4 optical beamforming network (OBFN) is employed to realize the phased array antenna. The radiation patterns of the phased array antenna at -30, 0 and 30 are achieved. PMID:24663694

  13. Optical metasurfaces for polarization-controlled beam shaping.

    PubMed

    Avayu, Ori; Eisenbach, Omri; Ditcovski, Ran; Ellenbogen, Tal

    2014-07-01

    We have developed multifunctional optical beam shapers based on plasmonic metasurfaces. The metasurfaces are composed of subwavelength-spaced polarization- and wavelength-selective optical nanoantennas that allow encoding several beam shapers on a single element. We demonstrate numerically and experimentally beam shapers that can be used to switch between arbitrary beam shapes. We specifically demonstrate switching between one-dimensional Airy and Gaussian beams, Hermite-Gaussian beams of different orders, and two-dimensional Airy and Bessel beams. These beam shapers can be used as integrated optical elements in applications that require more than one laser beam shape. PMID:24978764

  14. Control of Fibrinogen Assembly by Changing a Polarity of Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Jaseung; Liu, Ying; Snow, Sara; Rambhia, Pooja; Koga, Tadanori; Rafailovich, Miriam; Galanakis, Dennis

    2009-03-01

    Thrombogenesis causes various problems associated with an interruption in the blood flow (e.g., myocardial and cerebral infarction), and a hindrance to use of blood-contact vascular biomaterials (e.g., hemodialysis and cardiopulmonary bypass) with long-term patency since undesired adsorption of blood components occurs on vessels or biomaterials, such as surface-induced thrombosis. we showed that this clotting procedure can be occurred on hydrophobic polymeric surfaces without thrombin cleavage. However, the fibrinogen fibers were not formed on the polar surface such as spun-cast polymer film with pyridine and phenol groups. We also found that αC domains play an important role in initiation of polymerization on surface. Therefore, molecular association was inhibited on the polar surfaces due to confinement of αC chains on the surfaces. These findings were directly applied to stent surface modification. The commercial stent consist of Co-Cr alloy forms undesired fiber formation. However, PS-r-PVPh (13% phenol) coated stent surfaces completely prevent fiber formation.

  15. A passively aligned VCSEL transmitter operating at fixed current over a wide temperature range.

    PubMed

    Park, Jonghyun; Kim, Taeyong; Kim, Sung-Han; Kim, Sang-Bae

    2009-03-30

    We have investigated low-current operation characteristics of a passively aligned VCSEL transmitter driven at fixed "on" and "off" current over a wide temperature range. GaAs/AlGaAs-based 850-nm oxide VCSELs with the minimum threshold current of 0.79 mA at 50 masculineC and small temperature dependence of the threshold current, d(2)I(th)/dT(2), as low as 0.114 muA/ masculineC(2) have been fabricated and used for the transmitter module. The superior temperature characteristics enable fixed-current operation of the VCSEL transmitter that complies with Gigabit Ethernet standard over a wide temperature range from -20 to 120 masculineC. This result paves the way to a VCSEL transmitter featured by low-power consumption, low-cost with a simple driving circuit and passive alignment, and a wide operation temperature range. PMID:19333278

  16. High power VCSEL array pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yihan; Van Leeuwen, Robert; Watkins, Laurence S.; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Miglo, Alexander; Wang, Qing; Ghosh, Chuni

    2012-03-01

    Solid-state lasers pumped by high-power two-dimensional arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) were investigated. Both end-pumping and side-pumping schemes of Nd:YAG lasers with high power kW-class 808 nm VCSEL pump modules were implemented. For one application 10 mJ blue laser pulses were obtained from a frequencydoubled actively Q-switched VCSEL-array dual side-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 946 nm. For another application 10 mJ green laser pulses were obtained from a frequency-doubled passively Q-switched VCSEL-array endpumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. Both QCW and CW pumping schemes were investigated to achieve high average Q-switched power.

  17. Statistical Analysis of Crossed Undulator for Polarization Control in a SASE FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuantao; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    There is a growing interest in producing intense, coherent x-ray radiation with an adjustable and arbitrary polarization state. In this paper, we study the crossed undulator scheme (K.-J. Kim, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 445, 329 (2000)) for rapid polarization control in a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free electron laser (FEL). Because a SASE source is a temporally chaotic light, we perform a statistical analysis on the state of polarization using FEL theory and simulations. We show that by adding a small phase shifter and a short (about 1.3 times the FEL power gain length), 90{sup o} rotated planar undulator after the main SASE planar undulator, one can obtain circularly polarized light--with over 80% polarization--near the FEL saturation.

  18. The BASL polarity protein controls a MAPK signaling feedback loop in asymmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Pengcheng; Shao, Wanchen; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Dong, Juan

    2015-04-20

    Cell polarization is linked to fate determination during asymmetric division of plant stem cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In Arabidopsis, BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE (BASL) is polarized to control stomatal asymmetric division. A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade determines terminal stomatal fate by promoting the degradation of the lineage determinant SPEECHLESS (SPCH). Here, we demonstrate that a positive-feedback loop between BASL and the MAPK pathway constitutes a polarity module at the cortex. Cortical localization of BASL requires phosphorylation mediated by MPK3/6. Phosphorylated BASL functions as a scaffold and recruits the MAPKKK YODA and MPK3/6 to spatially concentrate signaling at the cortex. Activated MPK3/6 reinforces the feedback loop by phosphorylating BASL and inhibits stomatal fate by phosphorylating SPCH. Polarization of the BASL-MAPK signaling feedback module represents a mechanism connecting cell polarity to fate differentiation during asymmetric stem cell division in plants. PMID:25843888

  19. Polarization control of an X-ray free-electron laser with a diamond phase retarder.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motohiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2014-05-01

    A diamond phase retarder was applied to control the polarization states of a hard X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) in the photon energy range 5-20 keV. The horizontal polarization of the XFEL beam generated from the planar undulators of the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser (SACLA) was converted into vertical or circular polarization of either helicity by adjusting the angular offset of the diamond crystal from the exact Bragg condition. Using a 1.5 mm-thick crystal, a high degree of circular polarization, 97%, was obtained for 11.56 keV monochromatic X-rays, whereas the degree of vertical polarization was 67%, both of which agreed with the estimations including the energy bandwidth of the Si 111 beamline monochromator. PMID:24763633

  20. Interplanetary magnetic field control of Saturn's polar cusp aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Milan, S. E.

    2005-06-01

    Dayside UV emissions in Saturn's polar ionosphere have been suggested to be the first observational evidence of the kronian "cusp" (Gérard et al., 2004). The emission has two distinct states. The first is a bright arc-like feature located in the pre-noon sector, and the second is a more diffuse "spot" of aurora which lies poleward of the general location of the main auroral oval, which may be related to different upstream interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations. Here we take up the suggestion that these emissions correspond to the cusp. However, direct precipitation of electrons in the cusp regions is not capable of producing significant UV aurora. We have therefore investigated the possibility that the observed UV emissions are associated with reconnection occurring at the dayside magnetopause, possibly pulsed, akin to flux transfer events seen at the Earth. We devise a conceptual model of pulsed reconnection at the low-latitude dayside magnetopause for the case of northwards IMF which will give rise to pulsed twin-vortical flows in the magnetosphere and ionosphere in the vicinity of the open-closed field-line boundary, and hence to bi-polar field-aligned currents centred in the vortical flows. During intervals of high-latitude lobe reconnection for southward IMF, we also expect to have pulsed twin-vortical flows and corresponding bi-polar field-aligned currents. The vortical flows in this case, however, are displaced poleward of the open-closed field line boundary, and are reversed in sense, such that the field-aligned currents are also reversed. For both cases of northward and southward IMF we have also for the first time included the effects associated with the IMF By effect. We also include the modulation introduced by the structured nature of the solar wind and IMF at Saturn's orbit by developing "slow" and "fast" flow models corresponding to intermediate and high strength IMF respectively. We then consider the conditions under which the plasma populations appropriate to either sub-solar reconnection or high-latitude lobe reconnection can carry the currents indicated. We have estimated the field-aligned voltages required, the resulting precipitating particle energy fluxes, and the consequent auroral output. Overall our model of pulsed reconnection under conditions of northwards and southwards IMF, and for varying orientations of IMF By, is found to produce a range of UV emission intensities and geometries which is in good agreement with the data presented by Gérard et al. (2004). The recent HST-Cassini solar wind campaign provides a unique opportunity to test the theoretical ideas presented here.

  1. Photonic crystals for long-wavelength single-mode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romstad, F.; Bischoff, S.; Juhl, M.; Jacobsen, S.; Birkedal, D.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present the design and manufacturing of photonic-crystal long-wavelength VCSELs. They were developed to provide a high-performance low-cost alternative to Fabry-Perot and DFB lasers for 2.5 Gbps applications within the intermediate range access network. The paper covers photonic-crystal long-wavelength device design, manufacturing process, DC and AC characteristics, as well as reliability studies. The addition of photonic-crystal structures to the long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers allows us to increase the oxide diameter. This reduces the series resistance as well as the thermal resistance resulting in increased single-mode output-power and an enhanced high-temperature performance of our devices.

  2. Tissue Polarity-Dependent Control of Mammary Epithelial Homeostasis and Cancer Development: an Epigenetic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lelivre, Sophie A.

    2010-01-01

    The basoapical organization of monolayered epithelia is defined by the presence of hemidesmosomes at the basal cellular pole, where the cell makes contacts with the basement membrane, and tight junctions at the opposite apical pole. In the mammary gland, tight junctions seal cellcell contacts against the lumen and separate the apical and basolateral cell membranes. This separation is critical to organize intracellular signaling pathways and the cytoskeleton. The study of the impact of the highly organized apical pole, and notably apical polarity regulators (Crb complex, Par complex, and Scrib, Dlg, Lgl proteins) and tight junction proteins on cell phenotype and gene expression has revealed an intricate relationship between apical polarity and the cell nucleus. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of the apical pole of the tissue polarity axis in the epigenetic control of tissue phenotype. The organization of the apical pole and its importance in mammary homeostasis and tumorigenesis will be emphasized before presenting how apical polarity proteins impact gene expression indirectly, by influencing signal transduction and the location of transcription regulators, and directly, by participating in chromatin-associated complexes. The relationship between apical polarity and cell nucleus organizations might explain how apical polarity proteins could switch from nuclear repressors to nuclear promoters of cancerous behavior following alterations in the apical pole. The impact of apical polarity proteins on epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression will be discussed in light of increased evidence supporting a role for apical polarity in the fate of breast neoplasms. PMID:20101444

  3. Control the polarization state of light with symmetry-broken metallic metastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Xiang Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Hu, Yu-Hui; Wang, Zheng-Han; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2015-07-15

    Controlling the polarization state, the transmission direction, the amplitude and the phase of light in a very limited space is essential for the development of on-chip photonics. Over the past decades, numerous sub-wavelength metallic microstructures have been proposed and fabricated to fulfill these demands. In this article, we review our efforts in achieving negative refractive index, controlling the polarization state, and tuning the amplitude of light with two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. We designed an assembly of stacked metallic U-shaped resonators that allow achieving negative refraction for pure magnetic and electric responses respectively at the same frequency by selecting the polarization of incident light. Based on this, we tune the permittivity and permeability of the structure, and achieve negative refractive index. Further, by control the excitation and radiation of surface electric current on a number of 2D and 3D asymmetric metallic metastructures, we are able to control the polarization state of light. It is also demonstrated that with a stereostructured metal film, the whole metal surfaces can be used to construct either polarization-sensitive or polarization-insensitive prefect absorbers, with the advantage of efficient heat dissipation and electric conductivity. Our practice shows that metamaterials, including metasurface, indeed help to master light in nanoscale, and are promising in the development of new generation of photonics.

  4. Quantum dot insertions in VCSELs from 840 to 1300 nm: growth, characterization, and device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledentsov, N. N.; Lott, J. A.; Shchukin, V. A.; Quast, H.; Hopfer, F.; Fiol, G.; Mutig, A.; Moser, P.; Germann, T.; Strittmatter, A.; Karachinsky, L. Y.; Blokhin, S. A.; Novikov, I. I.; Nadtochi, A. M.; Zakharov, N. D.; Werner, P.; Bimberg, D.

    2009-02-01

    Presently VCSELs covering a significant spectral range (840-1300 nm) can be produced based on quantum dot (QD) active elements. Herein we report progress on selected QD based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) suitable for high-speed operation. An open eye diagram at 20 Gb/s with error-free transmission (a bit-error-rate < 10-15) is achieved at 850 nm. The 850 nm QD VCSELs also achieve error-free 20 Gb/s single mode transmission operation through multimode fiber without the use of optical isolation. Our 980 nm-range QD VCSELs achieve error free transmission at 25 Gb/s at up to 150C. These 980 nm devices operate in a temperature range of 25-85C without current or modulation voltage adjustment. We anticipate that the primary application areas of QD VCSELs are those that require degradation-robust operation under extremely high current densities. Temperature stability at ultrahigh current densities, a forte of QDs, is needed for ultrahigh-speed (> 40 Gb/s) current-modulated VCSELs for a new generation of local and storage area networks. Finally we discuss aspects of QD vertical extended-cavity surface emitting lasers with ultra high power density per emitting surface for high power (material processing) and frequency conversion (display) applications.

  5. Semi-automatic characterization and simulation of VCSEL devices for high speed VSR communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellevrault, S.; Toffano, Z.; Destrez, A.; Pez, M.; Quentel, F.

    2006-04-01

    Very short range (VSR) high bit rate optical fiber communications are an emerging market dedicated to local area networks, digital displays or board to board interconnects within real time calculators. In this technology, a very fast way to exchange data with high noise immunity and low-cost is needed. Optical multimode graded index fibers are used here because they have electrical noise immunity and are easier to handle than monomode fibers. 850 nm VCSEL are used in VSR communications because of their low cost, direct on-wafer tests, and the possibility of manufacturing VCSEL arrays very easily compared to classical optical transceivers using edge-emitting laser diodes. Although much research has been carried out in temperature modeling on VCSEL emitters, few studies have been devoted to characterizations over a very broad range of temperatures. Nowadays, VCSEL VSR communications tend to be used in severe environments such as space, avionics and military equipments. Therefore, a simple way to characterize VCSEL emitters over a broad range of temperature is required. In this paper, we propose a complete characterization of the emitter part of 2.5 Gb/s opto-electrical transceiver modules operating from -40C to +120C using 850 nm VCSELs. Our method uses simple and semi-automatic measurements of a given set of chosen device parameters in order to make fast and efficient simulations.

  6. Full control of magnetism in a manganite bilayer by ferroelectric polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shuai; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2013-01-01

    An oxide heterostructure made of manganite bilayers and ferroelectric perovskites is predicted to lead to the full control of magnetism when switching the ferroelectric polarizations. By using asymmetric polar interfaces in the superlattices, more electrons occupy the Mn layer at the n-type interface side than at the p-type side. This charge disproportionation can be enhanced or suppressed by the ferroelectric polarization. Quantum model and density functional theory calculations reach the same conclusion: a ferromagnetic-ferrimagnetic phase transition with maximal change >90% of the total magnetization can be achieved by switching the polarization s direction. This function is robust and provides full control of the magnetization s magnitude, not only its direction, via electrical methods.

  7. Propagation of light in serially coupled plasmonic nanowire dimer: Geometry dependence and polarization control

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Danveer; Raghuwanshi, Mohit; Pavan Kumar, G. V.

    2012-09-10

    We experimentally studied plasmon-polariton-assisted light propagation in serially coupled silver nanowire (Ag-NW) dimers and probed their dependence on bending-angle between the nanowires and polarization of incident light. From the angle-dependence study, we observed that obtuse angles between the nanowires resulted in better transmission than acute angles. From the polarization studies, we inferred that light emission from junction and distal ends of Ag-NW dimers can be systematically controlled. Further, we applied this property to show light routing and polarization beam splitting in obtuse-angled Ag-NW dimer. The studied geometry can be an excellent test-bed for plasmonic circuitry.

  8. Magnetic control of transverse electric polarization in BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, M.; Akaki, M.; Ito, T.; Miyahara, S.; Miyake, A.; Kuwahara, H.; Furukawa, N.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to realize crossed coupling between ferroelectricity and magnetism in multiferroic materials at room temperature. BiFeO3 is the most extensively studied multiferroic material that shows multiferroicity at temperatures significantly above room temperature. Here we present high-field experiments on high-quality mono-domain BiFeO3 crystals reveal substantial electric polarization orthogonal to the widely recognized one along the trigonal c axis. This novel polarization appears to couple with the domains of the cycloidal spin order and, hence, can be controlled using magnetic fields. The transverse polarization shows the non-volatile memory effect at least up to 300?K.

  9. Control of polarized iodine atom branching ratio in NaI photodissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, Babak H.; Sadeghpour, H.R.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2005-02-01

    We report branching ratios between the ground and excited states of iodine atoms in the photodissociation of sodium iodide. We employ wave packet propagation techniques to study the optimal production of polarized iodine atoms and find experimentally realizable laser parameters to control the outcome. Application of a learning algorithm shows that the product branching can be controlled by suitably varying the time delay, the chirp, and the relative phase of the pump and control laser pulses. Periodic modulation of the polarized iodine atom branching ratio as a function of the delay between the firing of the two ultrashort laser pulses provides interesting insights into the photodissociation process.

  10. High Efficacy Green LEDs by Polarization Controlled MOVPE

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Christian

    2013-03-31

    Amazing performance in GaInN/GaN based LEDs has become possible by advanced epitaxial growth on a wide variety of substrates over the last decade. An immediate push towards product development and worldwide competition for market share have effectively reduced production cost and generated substantial primary energy savings on a worldwide scale. At all times of the development, this economic pressure forced very fundamental decisions that would shape huge industrial investment. One of those major aspects is the choice of epitaxial growth substrate. The natural questions are to what extend a decision for a certain substrate will limit the ultimate performance and to what extent, the choice of a currently more expensive substrate such as native GaN could overcome any of the remaining performance limitations. Therefore, this project has set out to explore what performance characteristic could be achieved under the utilization of bulk GaN substrate. Our work was guided by the hypotheses that line defects such as threading dislocations in the active region should be avoided and the huge piezoelectric polarization needs to be attenuated – if not turned off – for higher performing LEDs, particularly in the longer wavelength green and deep green portions of the visible spectrum. At their relatively lower performance level, deep green LEDs are a stronger indicator of relative performance improvements and seem particular sensitive to the challenges at hand.

  11. Requirement of Phosphoinositides Containing Stearic Acid To Control Cell Polarity.

    PubMed

    Doignon, François; Laquel, Patricia; Testet, Eric; Tuphile, Karine; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIPs) are present in very small amounts but are essential for cell signaling, morphogenesis, and polarity. By mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that some PIPs with stearic acyl chains were strongly disturbed in a psi1Δ Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain deficient in the specific incorporation of a stearoyl chain at the sn-1 position of phosphatidylinositol. The absence of PIPs containing stearic acid induced disturbances in intracellular trafficking, although the total amount of PIPs was not diminished. Changes in PIPs also induced alterations in the budding pattern and defects in actin cytoskeleton organization (cables and patches). Moreover, when the PSI1 gene was impaired, a high proportion of cells with bipolar cortical actin patches that occurred concomitantly with the bipolar localization of Cdc42p was specifically found among diploid cells. This bipolar cortical actin phenotype, never previously described, was also detected in a bud9Δ/bud9Δ strain. Very interestingly, overexpression of PSI1 reversed this phenotype. PMID:26711260

  12. Polarization Control in Three-Dimensional Resonant Coherent Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Y.; Azuma, T.; Kondo, C.; Hatakeyama, A.; Nakai, Y.; Komaki, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Takada, E.; Murakami, T.

    2009-02-27

    We present an experimental demonstration of an ingenious technique to control the alignment of the atomic internal state in the x-ray region using a periodic crystal field. The alignment directions of Ar{sup 16+} and Fe{sup 24+} ions were readily controlled by selecting the array of atomic planes using three-dimensional resonant coherent excitation, and were probed via the anisotropy of the deexcitation x-ray emission. We applied this method to a double resonance experiment, and succeeded in controlling the population of the specific magnetic substate in a {lambda}-type three-level configuration.

  13. Up-conversion luminescence polarization control in Er3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhang; Yun-Hua, Yao; Shi-An, Zhang; Chen-Hui, Lu; Zhen-Rong, Sun

    2016-02-01

    We propose a femtosecond laser polarization modulation scheme to control the up-conversion (UC) luminescence in Er3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals dispersed in the silicate glass. We show that the UC luminescence can be suppressed when the laser polarization is changed from linear through elliptical to circular, and the higher repetition rate will yield the lower control efficiency. We theoretically analyze the physical control mechanism of the UC luminescence polarization modulation by considering on- and near-resonant two-photon absorption, energy transfer up-conversion, and excited state absorption, and show that the polarization control mainly comes from the contribution of near-resonant two-photon absorption. Furthermore, we propose a method to improve the polarization control efficiency of UC luminescence in rare-earth ions by applying a two-color femtosecond laser field. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304396), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474096 and 51132004), and the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. 14JC1401500).

  14. High-speed operation of bow-tie-shaped oxide aperture VCSELs with photon-photon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents experimental and modeling results for extending the 3-dB modulation bandwidth of a 980-nm quasi-single-mode (QSM) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a passive transverse-coupled cavity (TCC). While the bandwidth of a conventional VCSEL is 9 GHz, the 3-dB modulation bandwidth of a QSM TCC VCSEL with the same epi-wafer structure can reach 27 GHz, which is three times larger than the conventional VCSEL without optical feedback. A clear eye opening is obtained for large-signal modulations at 36 Gbps. A numerical simulation for further enhancement of the bandwidth is also conducted.

  15. Update on High-Resolution Geodetically Controlled LROC Polar Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B.; Lee, E.; Weller, L.; Richie, J.; Edmundson, K.; Laura, J.; Robinson, M.; Speyerer, E.; Boyd, A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Wagner, R.; Nefian, A.

    2015-10-01

    We describe progress on high-resolution (1 m/pixel) geodetically controlled LROC mosaics of the lunar poles, which can be used for locating illumination resources (for solar power or cold traps) or landing site and surface operations planning.

  16. The control system of the polarized internal target of ANKE at COSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleines, H.; Sarkadi, J.; Zwoll, K.; Engels, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Rathmann, F.; Seyfarth, H.; Kravtsov, P.; Vasilyev, A.

    2006-05-01

    The polarized internal target for the ANKE experiment at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Jlich utilizes a polarized atomic beam source to feed a storage cell with polarized hydrogen or deuterium atoms. The nuclear polarization is measured with a Lamb-shift polarimeter. For common control of the two systems, industrial equipment was selected providing reliable, long-term support and remote control of the target as well as measurement and optimization of its operating parameters. The interlock system has been implemented on the basis of SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-300 family of programmable logic controllers. In order to unify the interfacing to the control computer, all front-end equipment is connected via the PROFIBUS DP fieldbus. The process control software was implemented using the Windows-based WinCC toolkit from SIEMENS. The variety of components, to be controlled, and the logical structure of the control and interlock system are described. Finally, a number of applications derived from the present development to other, new installations are briefly mentioned.

  17. Real-time feedback control of millimeter-wave polarization for LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Felici, F.; Goodman, T.; Sauter, O.; Shimozuma, T.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Kubo, S.; Mutoh, T.

    2009-01-15

    Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is widely used in magnetic fusion devices, and the polarization of the injected millimeter-wave beams plays a crucial role in the propagation and absorption of the beam energy by the plasma. This polarization can be adjusted by grating mirror polarizers placed in the transmission lines which carry the microwaves from the power source to the plasma. In long-pulse devices such as the Large Helical Device (LHD) and ITER, it is desirable to track changes in the plasma and adjust the polarization of the ECH in real time such as to keep the absorption as high as possible and avoid shine-through which may lead to overheating of vessel components. For this purpose a real-time feedback control scheme is envisioned in which a measure of the absorption efficiency can be used to adjust the orientation of the polarizing mirrors toward an optimum. Such a setup has been tested in a low-power test stand as preparation for future implementation in the LHD ECH system. It is shown that a simple search algorithm is efficient and can in principle be used to control either the absorption efficiency or the linear polarization angle.

  18. Enhancing polarization by electrode-controlled strain relaxation in PbTiO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perntie, J.; Stratulat, M. S.; Hannu, J.; Jantunen, H.; Tyunina, M.

    2016-01-01

    A large remanent polarization close to theoretical value 80 ?C/cm2 of bulk PbTiO3 is achieved in epitaxial heterostructures of (120-600)-nm-thick PbTiO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition on (001) SrTiO3 substrate using a 100-nm-thick SrRuO3 bottom electrode layer. The heterostructures employing a 50-nm-thick electrode exhibit a significantly smaller polarization of ?60 ?C/cm2. A detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of the crystal structure allows for relating this large polarization to electrode-controlled relaxation of epitaxial strain in PbTiO3. Based on the observed results, we anticipate that the electrode-promoted strain relaxation can be used to enhance polarization in other epitaxial ferroelectric films.

  19. Complete wavefront and polarization control for ultrashort-pulse laser microprocessing.

    PubMed

    Allegre, O J; Jin, Y; Perrie, W; Ouyang, J; Fearon, E; Edwardson, S P; Dearden, G

    2013-09-01

    We report on new developments in wavefront and polarization control for ultrashort-pulse laser microprocessing. We use two Spatial Light Modulators in combination to structure the optical fields of a picosecond-pulse laser beam, producing vortex wavefronts and radial or azimuthal polarization states. We also carry out the first demonstration of multiple first-order beams with vortex wavefronts and radial or azimuthal polarization states, produced using Computer Generated Holograms. The beams produced are used to nano-structure a highly polished metal surface. Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures are observed and used to directly verify the state of polarization in the focal plane and help to characterize the optical properties of the setup. PMID:24103993

  20. High-speed endless optical polarization stabilization using calibrated waveplates and field-programmable gate array-based digital controller.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, Ariya; Koch, Benjamin; Zhang, Hongbin; Mirvoda, Vitali; Lichtinger, Manfred; Sandel, David; No, Reinhold

    2008-11-10

    A truly endless polarization stabilization experiment with a tracking speed of 15 krad/s is presented. The high-speed polarization tracking is realized by using calibrated lithium niobate linear retardation waveplates as the polarization transformers combined with a very fast digital controller running on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). PMID:19581991

  1. CANMET residuum hydrocracking: Advances through the control of polar aromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Benham, N.K.; Pruden, B.B.

    1996-12-01

    The beginnings of the CANMET hydrocracking process took root in the mid 1970`s. An ongoing program of development has broadened this novel hydrocracking process for upgrading Canadian oil sands bitumen to successfully process a wide range of refinery residues from conventional crudes as well as residues from refinery conversion units. FCCU slurry, visbreaker vacuum tower bottoms, deasphalter bottoms residue, and poor quality gas oils from cokers and visbreakers are all upgradable in the CANMET process. This paper gives an overview of the process, describes its demonstrated performance, and outlines recent technology improvements. The CANMET slurry hydrocracking process utilizes a solid additive to inhibit coke formation and is capable of 975+ F conversion levels in excess of 90%. Typical hydrogen partial pressures are in the range of 1,500 psi. Demonstration in a 5,000 BPD unit over a seven-year period has shown that operation is easier to control than a conventional gas oil hydrocracker. The absence of an active catalyst combined with the auto-cooling effect of the well back mixed upflow reactor leads to an extremely stable reactor operation. The reactor is stable even if reactor quenches are not used for control.

  2. Dual-channel near-field control by polarizations using isotropic and inhomogeneous metasurface.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiang; Cai, Ben Geng; Li, Yun Bo; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for dual-channel near-field manipulations by designing isotropic but inhomogeneous metasurfaces. As example, we present a dual-channel near-field focusing metasurface device. When the device is driven by surface waves from different channels on the metasurface, the near fields will be focused at the same spatial point with different polarizations. Conversely, if a linearly polarized source is radiated at the spatial focal point, different channels will be evoked on the metasurface controlled by polarization. We fabricated and measured the metasurface device in the microwave frequency. Well agreements between the simulation and measurement results are observed. The proposed method exhibits great flexibility in controlling the surface waves and spatial waves simultaneously. It is expected that the proposed method and dual-channel device will facilitate the manipulation of near electromagnetic or optical waves in different frequency regimes. PMID:26527420

  3. Dual-channel near-field control by polarizations using isotropic and inhomogeneous metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiang; Cai, Ben Geng; Li, Yun Bo; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for dual-channel near-field manipulations by designing isotropic but inhomogeneous metasurfaces. As example, we present a dual-channel near-field focusing metasurface device. When the device is driven by surface waves from different channels on the metasurface, the near fields will be focused at the same spatial point with different polarizations. Conversely, if a linearly polarized source is radiated at the spatial focal point, different channels will be evoked on the metasurface controlled by polarization. We fabricated and measured the metasurface device in the microwave frequency. Well agreements between the simulation and measurement results are observed. The proposed method exhibits great flexibility in controlling the surface waves and spatial waves simultaneously. It is expected that the proposed method and dual-channel device will facilitate the manipulation of near electromagnetic or optical waves in different frequency regimes. PMID:26527420

  4. Design of broadband transmission quarter-wave plates for polarization control of isolated attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujing; Lin, Chengyou; Gao, Hua

    2015-07-01

    Using a standard Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, broadband quarter-wave plates (QWPs) with bandwidth from 3 to 18 eV in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region were designed using aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers. By analyzing the design results of the Mo/Si multiayers with different bilayer numbers, we found that a Mo/Si multilayer with more bilayers can achieve broader phase control, but suffers from lower total throughput and a degree of circular polarization. In addition, the pulse broadenings caused by the group delay dispersions of the designed broadband QWPs were studied, and their layer distributions were investigated. The oscillating distribution of bilayer thickness in optimized multilayers was observed, which is considered to be the reason for forming the broadband phase control. Such broadband QWPs can be applied to generate a circularly polarized broadband EUV source, such as isolated attosecond pulse, directly from a linearly polarized source.

  5. Dual-channel near-field control by polarizations using isotropic and inhomogeneous metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiang; Cai, Ben Geng; Li, Yun Bo; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-11-01

    We propose a method for dual-channel near-field manipulations by designing isotropic but inhomogeneous metasurfaces. As example, we present a dual-channel near-field focusing metasurface device. When the device is driven by surface waves from different channels on the metasurface, the near fields will be focused at the same spatial point with different polarizations. Conversely, if a linearly polarized source is radiated at the spatial focal point, different channels will be evoked on the metasurface controlled by polarization. We fabricated and measured the metasurface device in the microwave frequency. Well agreements between the simulation and measurement results are observed. The proposed method exhibits great flexibility in controlling the surface waves and spatial waves simultaneously. It is expected that the proposed method and dual-channel device will facilitate the manipulation of near electromagnetic or optical waves in different frequency regimes.

  6. Rapid Energy Transfer Enabling Control of Emission Polarization in Perylene Bisimide Donor-Acceptor Triads.

    PubMed

    Menelaou, Christopher; ter Schiphorst, Jeroen; Kendhale, Amol M; Parkinson, Patrick; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Herz, Laura M

    2015-04-01

    Materials showing rapid intramolecular energy transfer and polarization switching are of interest for both their fundamental photophysics and potential for use in real-world applications. Here, we report two donor-acceptor-donor triad dyes based on perylene-bisimide subunits, with the long axis of the donors arranged either parallel or perpendicular to that of the central acceptor. We observe rapid energy transfer (<2 ps) and effective polarization control in both dye molecules in solution. A distributed-dipole Frster model predicts the excitation energy transfer rate for the linearly arranged triad but severely underestimates it for the orthogonal case. We show that the rapid energy transfer arises from a combination of through-bond coupling and through-space transfer between donor and acceptor units. As they allow energy cascading to an excited state with controllable polarization, these triad dyes show high potential for use in luminescent solar concentrator devices. PMID:26262968

  7. Electric field controlled spin- and valley-polarized edge states in silicene with extrinsic Rashba effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhiming; Pan, Hui; Yao, Yugui

    2015-10-01

    In the presence of extrinsic Rashba spin-orbit coupling, we find that silicene can host a quantum anomalous Hall state with spin- and valley-polarized edge states, which can be effectively controlled by the exchange field and electric field. In this state, a pair of nontrivial edge states reside in one specific valley and have a strong but opposite spin polarization. A distinctive feature of this state is that both of the spin and valley indexes of the edge states can be switched by reversing the electric field. We also present a microscopic mechanism for the origin of this state. Our findings provide an efficient way to control the topologically protected spin- and valley-polarized edge states, which is crucial for spintronics and valleytronics.

  8. Circular polarized electronically-controlled antenna array based on CRLH-TL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiahui; Chen, Wan; Zhou, Changfei; Zhu, Lei; Wu, Qun

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a circular polarized electronically-controlled scanning microstrip antenna array is designed, which is based on composite right left-handed transmission line (CRLH TL) and is realized by varactor diodes. Proposed electronically-controlled antenna arrays till now are always linear-polarized as the axial ratio (AR) may be spoiled by the DC feed line, especially in the CRLH TL based case. A more separated CRLH TL integrated with active lumped elements is utilized to solve the problem. The antenna array is composed of the CRLH microstrip transmission line structure and circular polarized microstrip antenna. The direction of the main lobe varies from -1 to -20 by continuously modifying the varactor diodes bias voltages from 0 to 20 V with 5 V as a step. The AR remains below 3 dB in the scanning range. The simulation and experimental results show a good consistence.

  9. Analysis of broadcasting satellite service feeder link power control and polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical analyses of carrier to interference power ratios (C/Is) were performed in assessing 17.5 GHz feeder links using (1) fixed power and power control, and (2) orthogonal linear and orthogonal circular polarizations. The analysis methods and attenuation/depolarization data base were based on CCIR findings to the greatest possible extent. Feeder links using adaptive power control were found to neither cause or suffer significant C/I degradation relative to that for fixed power feeder links having similar or less stringent availability objectives. The C/Is for sharing between orthogonal linearly polarized feeder links were found to be significantly higher than those for circular polarization only in links to nominally colocated satellites from nominally colocated Earth stations in high attenuation environments.

  10. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, E. C.; Bencok, P.; Dobrynin, A.; Rial, E. C. M.; Rose, A.; Steadman, P.; Thompson, C.; Thomson, A.; Wang, H.

    2013-03-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  11. Fibroblast polarization is a matrix-rigidity-dependent process controlled by focal adhesion mechanosensing.

    PubMed

    Prager-Khoutorsky, Masha; Lichtenstein, Alexandra; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Rajendran, Kavitha; Mayo, Avi; Kam, Zvi; Geiger, Benjamin; Bershadsky, Alexander D

    2011-12-01

    Cell elongation and polarization are basic morphogenetic responses to extracellular matrix adhesion. We demonstrate here that human cultured fibroblasts readily polarize when plated on rigid, but not on compliant, substrates. On rigid surfaces, large and uniformly oriented focal adhesions are formed, whereas cells plated on compliant substrates form numerous small and radially oriented adhesions. Live-cell monitoring showed that focal adhesion alignment precedes the overall elongation of the cell, indicating that focal adhesion orientation may direct cell polarization. siRNA-mediated knockdown of 85 human protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) induced distinct alterations in the cell polarization response, as well as diverse changes in cell traction force generation and focal adhesion formation. Remarkably, changes in rigidity-dependent traction force development, or focal adhesion mechanosensing, were consistently accompanied by abnormalities in the cell polarization response. We propose that the different stages of cell polarization are regulated by multiple, PTK-dependent molecular checkpoints that jointly control cell contractility and focal-adhesion-mediated mechanosensing. PMID:22081092

  12. Phase-polarization control as a route to plasmonic nano-devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, Maxim; Seideman, Tamar

    2006-02-01

    Several concepts of coherent control are extended to manipulate light propagating along metal nano-particle arrays. A phase-polarization control strategy is proposed and applied to control the electromagnetic energy transport via nano-array constructs with multiple branching intersections, leading to an optical switch or inverter far below the diffraction limit. An optimal control approach, based on the genetic algorithm optimization procedure, is next generalized to suggest a systematic design tool for plasmonic nano-devices, where both material properties of nano-arrays and incident field parameters are optimized in order to make devices with desired functionality. The proposed schemes are also used to better understand the physics underlying the phenomenon of electromagnetic energy transport via metal nano-constructs. Several applications of the phase-polarization and optimal control strategies are considered.

  13. Oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs for high-speed datacom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Philip; Mutig, Alex; Lott, James A.; Blokhin, Sergey; Fiol, Gerrit; Nadtochiy, Alexey M.; Ledentsov, Nikolai N.; Bimberg, Dieter

    2010-04-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are low cost and reliable light sources for high-speed local area and storage area network (LAN/SAN) optical fiber data communication systems and all other short-reach high-speed data transfer applications. The intrinsic limitations of copper-based electrical links at data rates exceeding 10 Gbit/s leads to a progressive movement wherein optical communication links replace traditional short-reach (300 m or shorter) copper interconnects. The wavelength of 850 nm is the standard for LAN/SAN applications as well as for several other evolving short-reach application areas including Fibre Channel, InfiniBand, Universal Serial Bus (optical USB), and active optical cables. Here we present our recent results on 850 nm oxide-confined VCSELs operating at data bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s at low current densities of ~10 kA/cm2 ensuring device reliability and long-term stability based on conventional industry certification specifications. The relaxation resonance frequencies, damping factors, and parasitic cut-off frequencies are determined for VCSELs with oxide-confined apertures of various diameters. At the highest optical modulation rates the VCSELs' high speed operation is limited by parasitic cut-off frequencies of 24-28 GHz. We believe that by further reducing device parasitics we will produce current modulated VCSELs with optical modulation bandwidths larger than 30 GHz and data bit rates beyond 40 Gbit/s.

  14. Simultaneous optical manipulation of multiple particles inside microfluidic channels using one rectangular-shaped VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou Sanayeh, Marwan; Bergmann, Anna; Michalzik, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Optical trapping for isolation and sorting of cells and particles inside microfluidic channels is an efficient non-destructive manipulation technique in the field of biophotonics. In recent years, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have been proven to be excellent light sources for particle manipulation inside microfluidic channels. The small dimension and low power consumption of these devices enable direct integration with the channels. With such integration, however, the simultaneous manipulation or trapping of multiple particles require the usage of densely packed VCSEL arrays with very small device pitch, which makes the fabrication process more expensive and more complicated. We present an innovative technique for simultaneous optical multi-particle manipulation using one rectangular-shaped top-emitting AlGaAsGaAs VCSEL resonator having an active aperture area of around 100 × 14 μm2. The VCSEL emission wavelength is about 850 nm, which is suitable for usage in biophotonics, as biological materials present very little absorption in the near-infrared spectral range. Furthermore, this oblong VCSEL can potentially be integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels to form miniaturized optofluidic chips for ultra-compact particle handling and manipulation. We show efficient single as well as multiple polystyrene particle trapping and sorting inside PDMS microfluidic channels.

  15. Temperature-dependent remote control of polarization and coherence intensity with sender's pure initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fel'dman, E. B.; Kuznetsova, E. I.; Zenchuk, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    We study the remote creation of the polarization and intensity of the first-order coherence (or coherence intensity) in long spin-1/2 chains with one-qubit sender and receiver. Therewith we use a physically motivated initial condition with the pure state of the sender and the thermodynamical equilibrium state of the other nodes. The main part of the creatable region is a one-to-one map of the initial state (control) parameters, except the small subregion twice covered by the control parameters, which appears owing to the chosen initial state. The polarization and coherence intensity behave differently in the state creation process. In particular, the coherence intensity cannot reach any significant value unless the polarization is large in long chains (unlike the short ones), but the opposite is not true. The coherence intensity vanishes with an increase in the chain length, while the polarization (by absolute value) is not sensitive to this parameter. We represent several characteristics of the creatable polarization and coherence intensity and describe their relation to the parameters of the initial state. The link to the eigenvalue-eigenvector parametrization of the receiver's state space is given.

  16. Color controllable polarization entanglement generation in optical fiber at telecommunication wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Sanjit; Meyers, Ronald E

    2015-08-10

    This article proposes a polarized entangled photon source in optical fiber with low Raman noise that features the controllable generation of specific signal and idler wavelengths (colors) by varying the pump power. The novel two color source can provide needed telecom entangled photon wavelengths for applications in quantum communications, quantum computing, and quantum imaging. PMID:26367913

  17. Modal characteristics of 2D antiguided VCSEL arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Delai; Napartovich, Anatoly P.; Elkin, Nickolai N.; Vysotsky, Dmitri V.; Mawst, Luke J.

    2002-06-01

    Cold-cavity modal behavior of a 2-D (4x4 square lattice geometry) antiguided vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array is studied by the means of an effective-index model and fiber-mode approximation. The calculations show that the 2-D array can operate under a resonant condition, provided that a resonance in both of the 1-D directions is satisfied. Although out-of-phase and adjacent modes will compete with the in-phase mode around its resonant position, our simulation shows that, with the introduction of inter-element loss, the in-phase mode can be favored to lase for a wide range of inter-element width, s, around its resonant position. The effective-index model is shown to be in qualitative agreement with a more comprehensive (exact) 3-D beam-propagation-based simulation, which takes into account the actual layered structure. The 2-D antiguides are constructed from shifting the cavity resonance between the element and inter-element regions and fabricated by chemically selective etching and two-step MOCVD growth. While both diffraction-limited resonant in-phase and out-of-phase modes are observed from top-emitting arrays, a 2-D bottom-emitting structure is adopted to improve heat removal. Preliminary results of 40 mW pulsed and 10 mW CW powers have been obtained from the junction up and down arrays respectively.

  18. Polarization aberration control for hyper-NA lithographic projection optics at design stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Yanqiu; Liu, Ke

    2015-08-01

    For hyper numerical aperture (NA) lithographic projection optics, not only scalar aberration but also polarization aberration (PA) should be controlled. Optical interfaces, coatings and intrinsic birefringence of lens materials can induce polarization aberration, so they cannot be ignored at design phase. There are few comprehensive and systematic studies on PA control at design phase for lithographic optics. In this paper, a lithographic projection lens with 1.2 of NA is designed, the root-mean-square of scalar aberration reach 1nm. For PA control of this system, firstly the influence of different subsets of polarization aberration on imaging performance is analyzed. The results indicate that the scalar transmission and diattenuation mainly cause critical dimension error (CDE), and the scalar phase and retardance mainly cause pattern placement error (PE). The results also show the diattenuation is the main controlled object in the process of PA control. Furthermore, a cooperative design strategy for PA control is proposed, which is to cooperate between custom coating design and the optimization of crystal orientation based on optical structure design. Through the cooperative design, the PA can be greatly reduced, especially diattenuation. The simulation results of the final system reveal that the dynamic range of CDE is suppressed from -12.7nm ~ +4.3nm to -0.1nm ~ +0.9nm after PA control, while keeping PE at an acceptable level.

  19. VCSEL based transmitter module for automotive temperature range between -55 C and +125 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poferl, Stefan G.; Krieg, Marcel; Hocky, Oliver; Zeeb, Eberhard

    2003-04-01

    Robust, high speed optical data bus systems are increasingly required in automobiles, not only for entertainment applications within the passenger compartment but also for engine management systems and safety sensor networks. Optoelectronic components and modules intended to be used in cars have to withstand harsh environmental conditions, e.g. they have to be operational within a wide temperature range of up to - 55 C to +1 25 C for several thousand hours and at the same time they have to be of very low-cost. In this paper we describe a 500 MBit/s transmitter module based on a commercial available 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a bias-T driving circuit. The optical output power of the module varies only by -0.5 dBm +/- 1dB in the required temperature range without active temperature control. In addition we describe a packaging solution for the VCSEL transmitters allowing the operation of the module even in an extreme engine compartment environment, where short term temperature peaks above 125 C appear.

  20. Control of antiferromagnetic domain distribution via polarization-dependent optical annealing.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takuya; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The absence of net magnetization inside antiferromagnetic domains has made the control of their spatial distribution quite challenging. Here we experimentally demonstrate an optical method for controlling antiferromagnetic domain distributions in MnF2. Reduced crystalline symmetry can couple an order parameter with non-conjugate external stimuli. In the case of MnF2, time-reversal symmetry is macroscopically broken reflecting the different orientations of the two magnetic sublattices. Thus, it exhibits different absorption coefficients between two orthogonal linear polarizations below its antiferromagnetic transition temperature under an external magnetic field. Illumination with linearly polarized laser light under this condition selectively destructs the formation of a particular antiferromagnetic order via heating. As a result, the other antiferromagnetic order is favoured inside the laser spot, achieving spatially localized selection of an antiferromagnetic order. Applications to control of interface states at antiferromagnetic domain boundaries, exchange bias and control of spin currents are expected. PMID:26911337

  1. Control of antiferromagnetic domain distribution via polarization-dependent optical annealing

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takuya; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The absence of net magnetization inside antiferromagnetic domains has made the control of their spatial distribution quite challenging. Here we experimentally demonstrate an optical method for controlling antiferromagnetic domain distributions in MnF2. Reduced crystalline symmetry can couple an order parameter with non-conjugate external stimuli. In the case of MnF2, time-reversal symmetry is macroscopically broken reflecting the different orientations of the two magnetic sublattices. Thus, it exhibits different absorption coefficients between two orthogonal linear polarizations below its antiferromagnetic transition temperature under an external magnetic field. Illumination with linearly polarized laser light under this condition selectively destructs the formation of a particular antiferromagnetic order via heating. As a result, the other antiferromagnetic order is favoured inside the laser spot, achieving spatially localized selection of an antiferromagnetic order. Applications to control of interface states at antiferromagnetic domain boundaries, exchange bias and control of spin currents are expected. PMID:26911337

  2. Photonic generation of polarization-resolved wideband chaos with time-delay concealment in three-cascaded vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijie; Li, Nianqiang; Zhao, Qingchun

    2015-05-10

    Optical chaos generated by chaotic lasers has been widely used in several important applications, such as chaos-based communications and high-speed random-number generators. However, these applications are susceptible to degradation by the presence of time-delay (TD) signature identified from the chaotic output. Here we propose to achieve the concealment of TD signature, along with the enhancement of chaos bandwidth, in three-cascaded vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The cascaded system is composed of an external-cavity master VCSEL, a solitary intermediate VCSEL, and a solitary slave VCSEL. Through mapping the evolutions of TD signature and chaos bandwidth in the parameter space of the injection strength and frequency detuning, photonic generation of polarization-resolved wideband chaos with TD concealment is numerically demonstrated for wide regions of the injection parameters. PMID:25967492

  3. Ultrafast direct modulation of transverse-mode coupled-cavity VCSELs far beyond the relaxation oscillation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    A novel approach for bandwidth augmentation for direct modulation of VCSELs using transverse-coupled-cavity (TCC) scheme is raised, which enables us to tailor the modulation-transfer function. The base structure is similar to that of 3QW VCSELs with 980 nm wavelength operation. While the bandwidth of conventional VCSELs was limited by 9-10 GHz, the 3-dB bandwidth of TCC VCSEL with aperture diameters of 8.58.5?m2 and 33?m2 are increased by a factor of 3 far beyond the relaxation-oscillation frequency. Our current bandwidth achievement on the larger aperture size is 29 GHz which is limited by the used photo-detector. To the best of our knowledge this is the fastest 980 nm VCSEL.

  4. Control of light polarization using optically spin-injected vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frougier, J.; Baili, G.; Alouini, M.; Sagnes, I.; Jaffrs, H.; Garnache, A.; Deranlot, C.; Dolfi, D.; George, J.-M.

    2013-12-01

    We fabricated and characterized an optically pumped (100)-oriented InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum well Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL). The structure is designed to allow the integration of a Metal-Tunnel-Junction ferromagnetic spin-injector for future electrical injection. We report here the control at room temperature of the electromagnetic field polarization using optical spin injection in the active medium of the VECSEL. The switching between two highly circular polarization states had been demonstrated using an M-shaped extended cavity in multi-modes lasing. This result witnesses an efficient spin-injection in the active medium of the LASER.

  5. Domain stability and polar-vortex transformations controlled by mechanical loads in soft ferromagnetic nanodots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Qiang; Liu, X. L.; Chen, W. J.; Xiong, W. M.; Jiang, G. L.; Zheng, Yue

    2016-03-01

    Phase field simulations are performed to investigate the domain structures of soft ferromagnetic nanodots. It is found that the stability of the domain state is sensitive to its lateral dimensions. As the lateral dimensions increase, the stable domain state gradually changes from polar to vortex, with a transitional region where both the two ordered states are stable. Interestingly, the phase diagram is also a strong function of mechanical loads. By appropriately choosing the lateral dimensions, transformations between polar and vortex states can be induced or controlled by mechanical loads. The study provides instructive information for the applications of ferromagnetic nanostructures.

  6. Control of light polarization using optically spin-injected vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Frougier, J. Jaffrès, H.; Deranlot, C.; George, J.-M.; Baili, G.; Dolfi, D.; Alouini, M.; Sagnes, I.; Garnache, A.

    2013-12-16

    We fabricated and characterized an optically pumped (100)-oriented InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum well Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL). The structure is designed to allow the integration of a Metal-Tunnel-Junction ferromagnetic spin-injector for future electrical injection. We report here the control at room temperature of the electromagnetic field polarization using optical spin injection in the active medium of the VECSEL. The switching between two highly circular polarization states had been demonstrated using an M-shaped extended cavity in multi-modes lasing. This result witnesses an efficient spin-injection in the active medium of the LASER.

  7. Controlling enhancement and suppression of four-wave mixing via polarized light

    SciTech Connect

    Li Changbiao; Zhang Yanpeng; Nie Zhiqiang; Du Yigang; Wang Ruimin; Song Jianping; Xiao Min

    2010-03-15

    We show that the four-wave mixing (FWM) processes in a multi-Zeeman level atomic system can be enhanced and suppressed by changing the polarization of one of the pump beams. Different polarization states of the pump beams will act on different transition pathways among the multi-Zeeman levels with different transition strengths, which affect the FWM efficiencies. An additional dress field applied to the adjacent transition can cause energy level splitting and therefore control the enhancement and suppression of the FWM processes in the system. The experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical calculations.

  8. Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection

    SciTech Connect

    Gatare, I.; Panajotov, K.; Sciamanna, M.

    2007-02-15

    We report theoretically on a pure frequency-induced polarization bistability in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection, i.e., the master laser light polarization is orthogonal to that of the slave VCSEL. As the frequency detuning is scanned from negative to positive values and for a fixed injected power, the VCSEL exhibits two successive and possibly bistable polarization switchings. The first switching (from the slave laser polarization to the injected light polarization) exhibits a bistable region whose width is maximum for a given value of the injected power. Such a dependency of hysteresis width on the injected power is similar to that recently found experimentally by Hong et al.[Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000)]. The bistability accompanying the second switching (from the injected light polarization back to the slave laser free-running polarization) exhibits, however, significantly different features related to the occurrence of optical chaos. Interestingly, the width of the bistable region can be tuned over a large range not only by modifying the injection parameters but also by modifying the device parameters, in particular the VCSEL linewidth enhancement factor.

  9. Flip-chip assembly of VCSELs to silicon grating couplers via laser fabricated SU8 prisms.

    PubMed

    Kaur, K S; Subramanian, A Z; Cardile, P; Verplancke, R; Van Kerrebrouck, J; Spiga, S; Meyer, R; Bauwelinck, J; Baets, R; Van Steenberge, G

    2015-11-01

    This article presents the flip-chip bonding of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) to silicon grating couplers (GCs) via SU8 prisms. The SU8 prisms are defined on top of the GCs using non-uniform laser ablation process. The prisms enable perfectly vertical coupling from the bonded VCSELs to the GCs. The VCSELs are flip-chip bonded on top of the silicon GCs employing the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT)-assisted thermocompression technique. An excess loss of < 1 dB at 1.55 µm measured from the bonded assemblies is reported in this paper. The results of high speed transmission experiments performed on the bonded assemblies with clear eye openings up to 20 Gb/s are also presented. PMID:26561097

  10. Spontaneous cell polarization: Feedback control of Cdc42 GTPase breaks cellular symmetry.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sophie G

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous polarization without spatial cues, or symmetry breaking, is a fundamental problem of spatial organization in biological systems. This question has been extensively studied using yeast models, which revealed the central role of the small GTPase switch Cdc42. Active Cdc42-GTP forms a coherent patch at the cell cortex, thought to result from amplification of a small initial stochastic inhomogeneity through positive feedback mechanisms, which induces cell polarization. Here, I review and discuss the mechanisms of Cdc42 activity self-amplification and dynamic turnover. A robust Cdc42 patch is formed through the combined effects of Cdc42 activity promoting its own activation and active Cdc42-GTP displaying reduced membrane detachment and lateral diffusion compared to inactive Cdc42-GDP. I argue the role of the actin cytoskeleton in symmetry breaking is not primarily to transport Cdc42 to the active site. Finally, negative feedback and competition mechanisms serve to control the number of polarization sites. PMID:26338468

  11. Magnetic control of transverse electric polarization in BiFeO₃.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, M; Akaki, M; Ito, T; Miyahara, S; Miyake, A; Kuwahara, H; Furukawa, N

    2015-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to realize crossed coupling between ferroelectricity and magnetism in multiferroic materials at room temperature. BiFeO3 is the most extensively studied multiferroic material that shows multiferroicity at temperatures significantly above room temperature. Here we present high-field experiments on high-quality mono-domain BiFeO3 crystals reveal substantial electric polarization orthogonal to the widely recognized one along the trigonal c axis. This novel polarization appears to couple with the domains of the cycloidal spin order and, hence, can be controlled using magnetic fields. The transverse polarization shows the non-volatile memory effect at least up to 300 K. PMID:25575377

  12. Polarization control by ellipse-shaped photonic crystal pattern with higher absorption in VO2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Hong, Wei; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a photonic crystal (PC) pattern, using ellipse rods as the lattice point, is proposed to improve the absorption properties of the VO2 film. We set up a numerical model for the 2D PC patterned film and simulated the transmission property with Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The optical absorption is achieved in near infrared by exacting Bloch mode at photonic band edge coupling the incident light from the free space to the large area resonant photonic band edge modes. The numerical simulation shows an obvious enhancement and the overall absorption is 26%. Moreover, we give a further study of the PC patterned film. Different polarization angle of light source and structure parameters are applied to study the polarization property of the film. The film shows discrepant absorption, thus the polarization control using this film can be realized further.

  13. Spin Control of the topological surface states in 3D topological insulators using polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gura, Anna; Secor, Jeff; Begliarbekov, Milan; Zhao, Lukas; Deng, Haiming; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2013-03-01

    The topological surface states of 3D topological insulators (TIs)been shown to interact non trivially with circularly polarized light. Here we report on the study of spin-polarized currents in several 2nd generation TIs, such as Sb2Te3, Be2Te3, and Bi2Se3. In particular, to probe the robustness of the helical current surface states we will contrast the polarization dependence of the photocurrent in as grown crystals and crystals with controlled disorder introduced by magnetic and non-magnetic impurities. These result in the development of a gap in the energy spectrum of surface Dirac fermions (DFs), that is DFs acquire mass. The photo-response contrast between massless and massive Dirac fermions studied under electric field gating conditions will be presented. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-1122594

  14. High-speed 850 nm oxide-confined VCSELs for DATACOM applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutig, Alex; Blokhin, Sergey; Nadtochiy, Alexey M.; Fiol, Gerrit; Lott, James A.; Shchukin, Vitaly A.; Ledenstov, Nikolai N.; Bimberg, Dieter

    2010-02-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are low cost and reliable light sources for high-speed local area and storage area network (LAN/SAN) optical fiber data communication systems and short-reach computer interconnects. The continuing rapid increase of serial transmission data rates driven by multi-core microprocessor's bandwidth upgrades cannot be sustained via conventional copper-based links as bit rates move beyond 10 Gbit/s and distances greater than 1 m. The intrinsic limitation of copper at high single-channel data rates facilitates the need to transition to optical fiberbased links at ever shorter distances. For LAN/SAN applications the 850 nm wavelength is standard. This same wavelength is also the standard for several other evolving short-reach application areas including Fibre Channel, CEI, USB, InfiniBand, and HDMI optical link systems. Herein we present our recent results on 850 nm oxide-confined VCSELs operating at data bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s. The low operational current density in the range of ~10 kA/cm2 ensures viable device reliability and long-term stability based on well-known industry certification specifications. Key VCSEL device parameters including the relaxation resonance frequency, damping, and parasitic cut-off frequency are determined for VCSELs with oxide-confined apertures of various diameters. We find that a parasitic cut-off frequency of 24-28 GHz limits the VCSEL's high speed operation at the highest optical modulation rates. We believe that with some effort the device parasitics can be further reduced such that current modulated VCSELs can be realized with larger than 30 GHz optical modulation bandwidth and reliable and practical operation beyond 40 Gbit/s.

  15. A Tunable Dispersion-Free Terahertz Metadevice with Pancharatnam-Berry-Phase-Enabled Modulation and Polarization Control.

    PubMed

    Cong, Longqing; Xu, Ningning; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan

    2015-11-01

    It is extremely challenging to control the phase of light at will in free space. Here, Pancharatnam-Berry-phase-enabled, tunable phase control of free-space light is experimentally demonstrated in an ultrathin flexible dispersion-free metadevice. This metadevice enables the broadband conversion of linearly polarized light into any desired output polarization. PMID:26421902

  16. Ultrathin planar chiral metasurface for controlling gradient phase discontinuities of circularly polarized waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yahong; Zhou, Xin; Song, Kun; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2015-09-01

    We develop a gradient phase discontinuities ultrathin planar metasurface based on chiral branched gammadion structure (CBGS) that provides extreme control of electromagnetic wavefronts across single-sheet design. The introduction of the branch can provide antiparallel magnetic moment, which tunes the chirality of the CBGS. In the CBGS metasurface, the transmission phase of a circularly polarized wave can be varied from  -180° to +180°. We experimentally demonstrate a beam-refracting CBGS metasurface with refracting a normally incident plane wave to an angle of 17°. The performances of the proposed metasurface at oblique incidence are also presented. The CBGS metasurface can find a wide range of applications over the entire electromagnetic spectrum including single-surface lenses, fully controlling light in direction, and polarization controlling devices.

  17. Control of cell polarity by noncanonical Wnt signaling in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Herman, Michael A

    2002-06-01

    The three Caenorhabditis elegans beta-catenin each function in distinct processes: BAR-1 in canonical Wnt signaling that controls cell fates and cell migrations, HMP-2 in cell adhesion and WRM-1 in Wnt signaling pathways that function in conjunction with a mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) pathway to control the orientations, or cell polarities, of cells that undergo asymmetric cell divisions. In addition, WRM-1 does not interact with the canonical beta-catenin binding site in POP-1/Tcf. Thus, Wnt signaling through WRM-1 is noncanonical and, except for one division that might not include any of the three C. elegans beta-catenin, controls cell polarity in C. elegans. PMID:12137732

  18. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) sources for frequency domain photon migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; No, Keun-Sik; Matlock, Alex; Hill, Brian; Cerussi, Albert E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2015-03-01

    Frequency domain photon migration (FDPM) uses modulated laser light to measure the bulk optical properties of turbid media and is increasingly being applied for noninvasive functional medical imaging. Though semiconductor edge emitting laser diodes (EELs) have been traditionally used for this application, we show that VCSELs exhibit performance characteristics suitable for FDPM measurements of tissue optical properties. Their output power and modulation characteristics are more than sufficient for optical property recovery. In addition, their small size, high efficiency, low cost, and simple packaging make them an attractive choice as components in clinical FDPM systems. We demonstrate a unique, compact optical probe that was enabled by VCSEL technology.

  19. GBLD10+: a compact low-power 10 Gb/s VCSEL driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Kulis, S.; Gui, P.; Tavernier, F.; Moreira, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report the design and implementation of the GBLD10+, a low-power 10 Gb/s VCSEL driver for High Energy Physics (HEP) applications. With new circuit techniques, the driver consumes only 31 mW and occupies a small area of 400 ?m 1750 ?m including the IO PADs and sealrings. These characteristics allow for multiple GBLD10+ ICs to be assembled side by side in a compact module, with each one directly wire bonded to one VCSEL diode. This makes the GBLD10+ a suitable candidate for the Versatile Link PLUS (VL+) project, offering flexibility in configuring multiple transmitters and receivers.

  20. Electrically pumped fluidic cavity (EPFC) VCSEL for the detection of biologic agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tao; Ao, Tao; Hartinger, Klaus; Shao, Hua; Wilmsen, Carl W.; Lear, Kevin L.; Geib, Kent M.; Feld, Stewart A.

    2003-06-01

    A fluidic cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is presented for the detection of biological agents via introducing the analytic biofluid into the high finesse laser cavity. The optical properties of the fluid as modified by the biological cells they contain are sensed by monitoring the output optical intensity and wavelength of the laser. As a preliminary study, our first generation electrically pumped GaAs/AlGaAs based fluidic cavity VCSEL is described, with emphasis on the system design and techniques for the system construction. The device shows a strong spontaneous emission and a considerable wavelength shift when DI water is capillarily fed into the fluidic cavity.

  1. Electrical characterization and application of very high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs)

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Lear, K.L.; Armendariz, M.G.

    1997-04-01

    Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) offer many benefits over conventional edge-emitting lasers including economical microelectronic batch processing, easy extension to 2-D arrays, and of interest here, very large intrinsic bandwidths due to reduced cavity volume. Results of electrical characterization of a 19 GHz bandwidth 850 nm VCSEL are presented. Small-signal characterization and modeling of the frequency response and device impedance is presented. Large signal performance is studied using two-tone RF and high-speed digital measurements. Appropriate drive conditions for high-speed digital applications are demonstrated.

  2. Coherent laser control in attosecond sum-frequency polarization beats using twin noisy driving fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanpeng; Gan, Chenli; Song, Jianping; Yu, Xiaojun; Ma, Ruiqiong; Ge, Hao; Li, Chuangshe; Lu, Keqing

    2005-02-01

    Based on the phase-conjugate polarization interference between two-pathway excitations, we obtained an analytic closed form for the second-order or fourth-order Markovian stochastic correlation of the V three-level sum-frequency polarization beat (SFPB) in attosecond scale. Novel interferometric oscillatory behavior is exposed in terms of radiation-radiation, radiation-matter, and matter-matter polarization beats. The phase-coherent control of the light beams in the SFPB is subtle. When the laser has broadband linewidth, the homodyne detected SFPB signal shows resonant-nonresonant cross correlation, a drastic difference for three Markovian stochastic fields, and the autocorrelation of the SFPB exhibits hybrid radiation-matter detuning terahertz damping oscillation. As an attosecond ultrafast modulation process, it can be extended intrinsically to any sum frequency of energy levels. It has been also found that the asymmetric behaviors of the polarization beat signals due to the unbalanced controllable dispersion effects between the two arms of interferometer do not affect the overall accuracy in case using the SFPB to measure the Doppler-free energy-level sum of two excited states.

  3. Improved PHIP polarization using a precision, low noise, voltage controlled current source.

    PubMed

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Cunningham, Karl; Li, Debiao; Wagner, Shawn

    2013-10-01

    Existing para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) instrumentation relies on magnetic fields to hyperpolarize substances. These hyperpolarized substances have enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for MRI at the molecular level. Required magnetic fields are generated by energizing a solenoid coil with current produced by a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS), also known as a power supply. A VCVS lacks the current regulation necessary to keep magnetic field fluctuations to a minimum, which results in low PHIP polarization. A voltage controlled current source (VCCS) is an electric circuit that generates a steady flow of electrons proportional to an input voltage. A low noise VCCS provides the solenoid current flow regulation necessary to generate a stable static magnetic field (Bo). We discuss the design and implementation of a low noise, high stability, VCCS for magnetic field generation with minimum variations. We show that a precision, low noise, voltage reference driving a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) based current sink, results in the current flow control necessary for generating a low noise and high stability Bo. In addition, this work: (1) compares current stability for ideal VCVS and VCCS models using transfer functions (TF), (2) develops our VCCS design's TF, (3) measures our VCCS design's thermal & 1/f noise, and (4) measures and compares hydroxyethyl-propionate (HEP) polarization obtained using a VCVS and our VCCS. The hyperpolarization of HEP was done using a PHIP instrument developed in our lab. Using our VCCS design, HEP polarization magnitude data show a statistically significant increase in polarization over using a VCVS. Circuit schematic, bill of materials, board layout, TF derivation, and Matlab simulations code are included as supplemental files. PMID:23988431

  4. Improved PHIP polarization using a precision, low noise, voltage controlled current source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Cunningham, Karl; Li, Debiao; Wagner, Shawn

    2013-10-01

    Existing para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) instrumentation relies on magnetic fields to hyperpolarize substances. These hyperpolarized substances have enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for MRI at the molecular level. Required magnetic fields are generated by energizing a solenoid coil with current produced by a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS), also known as a power supply. A VCVS lacks the current regulation necessary to keep magnetic field fluctuations to a minimum, which results in low PHIP polarization. A voltage controlled current source (VCCS) is an electric circuit that generates a steady flow of electrons proportional to an input voltage. A low noise VCCS provides the solenoid current flow regulation necessary to generate a stable static magnetic field (Bo). We discuss the design and implementation of a low noise, high stability, VCCS for magnetic field generation with minimum variations. We show that a precision, low noise, voltage reference driving a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) based current sink, results in the current flow control necessary for generating a low noise and high stability Bo. In addition, this work: (1) compares current stability for ideal VCVS and VCCS models using transfer functions (TF), (2) develops our VCCS design's TF, (3) measures our VCCS design's thermal & 1/f noise, and (4) measures and compares hydroxyethyl-propionate (HEP) polarization obtained using a VCVS and our VCCS. The hyperpolarization of HEP was done using a PHIP instrument developed in our lab. Using our VCCS design, HEP polarization magnitude data show a statistically significant increase in polarization over using a VCVS. Circuit schematic, bill of materials, board layout, TF derivation, and Matlab simulations code are included as supplemental files.

  5. Second-Harmonic-Generation Microscopy Using Excitation Beam with Controlled Polarization Pattern to Determine Three-Dimensional Molecular Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiki, Keisuke; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Araki, Tsutomu

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscope using an excitation beam with a controlled polarization pattern in order to detect three-dimensional molecular orientation. The electric field at the focus is controlled three-dimensionally by modifying the polarization distribution with a parallel-aligned nematic-liquid-crystal spatial-light-modulator without any mechanical moving parts. We demonstrated that the SHG signal from an Achilles tendon, sliced so that collagen fibers were aligned parallel to the optical axis, excited by a radially polarized beam was higher than those excited by linearly polarized beams. The possibility of determinating three-dimensional molecular orientation was thus shown.

  6. Twisted optical-fiber-based acousto-optic tunable filter controlled by the flexural acoustic polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyun Chul; Lee, Kwang Jo

    2015-08-01

    The spectral characteristics of twisted fiber-based acousto-optic filters are theoretically investigated. The influences of three types of flexural acoustic polarization states linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations on filter spectra are studied under realistic experimental conditions: a fiber length of 5 - 20 cm and a circumferential fiber twist angle of < 12 ?. We will analytically show that either a single- or a dual-resonance filter spectrum is achievable depending on the input polarization state of applied acoustic waves and that the spectral position of each resonance peak can be scanned continuously and linearly in the wavelength domain by using the fiber twist. The feasible spectral tuning range of the resonances is calculated to > 80 nm for a twist angle of 12 ?. We will describe how the transmission of each resonance peak can also be selectively tuned by adjusting the ellipticity of the input acoustic polarization from linear to circular. The results illustrate that our approach exploiting a combination of the fiber twist and acoustic polarization management offers an excellent route to the spectral shaping of all-fiber acousto-optic devices in that the transmission of multiple resonances, as well as their spectral positions, are readily and individually controllable in a single device configuration. In addition, we also propose a novel cosine apodization method to suppress the undesirable sidelobe spectra occurring between the dual resonance peaks. The technique is based on a cosine modulation of the AO coupling strength along the fiber, which is achieved by using a combination of the fiber's circumferential twist and the linear acoustic polarization. The proposed scheme is useful to minimize the crosstalk occurring between adjacent resonance peaks. We highlight that our approach is directly applicable to matched filtering as robust, adaptable, stable, and versatile optical filters.

  7. Towards high-frequency operation of polarization oscillations in spin vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, Markus; Höpfner, Henning; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.; Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Compared to purely charge based devices, spintronic lasers offer promising perspectives for new superior device concepts. Especially vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with spin-polarization (spin-VCSELs) feature ultrafast spin and polarization dynamics. Oscillations in the circular polarization degree can be generated using pulsed spin-injection. The oscillations evolve due to the carrier-spin-photon system that is coupled for the linear modes in the VCSEL's cavity via the birefringence. The polarization oscillations are independent of the conventional relaxation oscillations and have the potential to exceed frequencies of 100 GHz. The oscillations are switchable and can be the basis for ultrafast directly modulated spin-VCSELs for, e.g., communication purposes. The polarization oscillation frequency is mainly determined by the birefringence. We show a method to tune the birefringence and thus the polarization oscillation frequency by adding mechanical strain to the substrate in the vicinity of the laser. We achieved first experimental results for high-frequency operation using 850 nm oxide-confined single-mode VCSELs. The results are compared with simulations using the spin-flip-model for high birefringence values.

  8. Chaos synchronization in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based on rotated polarization-preserved optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazhan, Salam; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Busawon, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of the rotating polarization-preserved optical feedback on the chaos synchronization of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is investigated experimentally. Two VCSELs' polarization modes (XP) and (YP) are gradually rotated and re-injected back into the VCSEL. The anti-phase dynamics synchronization of the two polarization modes is evaluated using the cross-correlation function. For a fixed optical feedback, a clear relationship is found between the cross-correlation coefficient and the polarization angle θp. It is shown that high-quality anti-phase polarization-resolved chaos synchronization is achieved at higher values of θp. The maximum value of the cross-correlation coefficient achieved is -0.99 with a zero time delay over a wide range of θp beyond 65° with a poor synchronization dynamic at θp less than 65°. Furthermore, it is observed that the antiphase irregular oscillation of the XP and YP modes changes with θp. VCSEL under the rotating polarization optical feedback can be a good candidate as a chaotic synchronization source for a secure communication system.

  9. Coupled dynamics of magnetic spin and the Stokes parameters. Control of magnetization by polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuratsuji, Hiroshi; Tsudagawa, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    A simple theoretical model is presented for the motion of a magnetic spin induced by polarized light. The model is analyzed by considering a coupled equation for two kinds of spin; the magnetic spin and optical spin (the Stokes parameters). The coupling between two spins is called Faraday coupling. The motion of magnetic spin shows inversion as a result of the structural change, which can be controlled by the ellipticity of the polarized light (the third component of the Stokes parameters). The motion of the Stokes parameters is also described as a reaction from the magnetic spin, by which the motion of magnetic spin could be monitored by ellipsometory. The present model may provide a basis for optical control of a magnetic micro-particle.

  10. Phase-controllable spin wave generation in iron garnet by linearly polarized light pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimine, Isao; Iida, Ryugo; Shimura, Tsutomu; Satoh, Takuya; Stupakiewicz, Andrzej; Maziewski, Andrzej

    2014-07-28

    A phase-controlled spin wave was non-thermally generated in bismuth-doped rare-earth iron garnet by linearly polarized light pulses. We controlled the initial phase of the spin wave continuously within a range of 180° by changing the polarization azimuth of the excitation light. The azimuth dependences of the initial phase and amplitude of the spin wave were attributed to a combination of the inverse Cotton-Mouton effect and photoinduced magnetic anisotropy. Temporally and spatially resolved spin wave propagation was observed with a CCD camera, and the waveform was in good agreement with calculations. A nonlinear effect of the spin excitation was observed for excitation fluences higher than 100 mJ/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Controlling inelastic cotunneling through an interacting quantum dot by a circularly polarized field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bing; Lei, X. L.

    2007-02-01

    We study inelastic cotunneling through a strong Coulomb-blockaded quantum dot subject to a static magnetic field and a perpendicular circularly polarized magnetic field using a quantum Langevin equation approach. Our calculation predicts an interesting controllable cotunneling current characteristic, namely splitting-zero-anomaly-splitting transition of the differential conductance with increasing driving frequency, ascribed to the role of photon-assisted spin-flip cotunneling processes.

  12. LKB1/AMPK and PKA control ABCB11 trafficking and polarization in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Homolya, László; Fu, Dong; Sengupta, Prabuddha; Jarnik, Michal; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Vitale-Cross, Lynn; Gutkind, J Silvio; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Arias, Irwin M

    2014-01-01

    Polarization of hepatocytes is manifested by bile canalicular network formation and activation of LKB1 and AMPK, which control cellular energy metabolism. The bile acid, taurocholate, also regulates development of the canalicular network through activation of AMPK. In the present study, we used collagen sandwich hepatocyte cultures from control and liver-specific LKB1 knockout mice to examine the role of LKB1 in trafficking of ABCB11, the canalicular bile acid transporter. In polarized hepatocytes, ABCB11 traffics from Golgi to the apical plasma membrane and endogenously cycles through the rab 11a-myosin Vb recycling endosomal system. LKB1 knockout mice were jaundiced, lost weight and manifested impaired bile canalicular formation and intracellular trafficking of ABCB11, and died within three weeks. Using live cell imaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), particle tracking, and biochemistry, we found that LKB1 activity is required for microtubule-dependent trafficking of ABCB11 to the canalicular membrane. In control hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking was accelerated by taurocholate and cAMP; however, in LKB1 knockout hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking to the apical membrane was greatly reduced and restored only by cAMP, but not taurocholate. cAMP acted through a PKA-mediated pathway which did not activate AMPK. Our studies establish a regulatory role for LKB1 in ABCB11 trafficking to the canalicular membrane, hepatocyte polarization, and canalicular network formation. PMID:24643070

  13. Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bing-Yan; Chen, Peng; Hu, Wei; Ji, Wei; Zheng, Li-Yang; Ge, Shi-Jun; Ming, Yang; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Researches on Airy beams have grown explosively since the first demonstration in 2007 due to the distinguishing properties of nondiffraction, transverse acceleration and self-healing. To date, a simple and compact approach for generating Airy beams in high quality and efficiency has remained challenging. Here, we propose and demonstrate a liquid crystal (LC) polarization Airy mask (PAM) featured by spatially variant LC azimuthal director. The PAM is fabricated through photoaligning LC via a polarization-sensitive alignment agent suophonic azo dye SD1. Thanks to the special design, a novel feature of polarization-controllable switch between dual Airy beams of orthogonal circular polarization is presented. The molecular-level continuity of LC director significantly improves the quality and efficiency of resultant Airy beams. Besides, the PAM can handle intense light due to the absence of absorptive electrodes. Additional merits of compact size, low cost and broad wavelength tolerance are also exhibited. This work settles a fundamental requirement for Airy beam applications of optical manipulations, biology science and even some uncharted territories.

  14. Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bing-Yan; Chen, Peng; Hu, Wei; Ji, Wei; Zheng, Li-Yang; Ge, Shi-Jun; Ming, Yang; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Researches on Airy beams have grown explosively since the first demonstration in 2007 due to the distinguishing properties of nondiffraction, transverse acceleration and self-healing. To date, a simple and compact approach for generating Airy beams in high quality and efficiency has remained challenging. Here, we propose and demonstrate a liquid crystal (LC) polarization Airy mask (PAM) featured by spatially variant LC azimuthal director. The PAM is fabricated through photoaligning LC via a polarization-sensitive alignment agent suophonic azo dye SD1. Thanks to the special design, a novel feature of polarization-controllable switch between dual Airy beams of orthogonal circular polarization is presented. The molecular-level continuity of LC director significantly improves the quality and efficiency of resultant Airy beams. Besides, the PAM can handle intense light due to the absence of absorptive electrodes. Additional merits of compact size, low cost and broad wavelength tolerance are also exhibited. This work settles a fundamental requirement for Airy beam applications of optical manipulations, biology science and even some uncharted territories. PMID:26626737

  15. Dynamic control of polarization-inverted modes in three-dimensionally trapped multiple nanogaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Mamoru; Iida, Takuya

    2015-12-01

    We propose a guiding principle for the dynamic control of polarization-inverted modes in multiple nanogaps for unconventional optical transitions of molecules at arbitrary three-dimensional spatial positions. Based on our developed self-consistent theory for the optical assembly of nanoparticles (NPs), we clarified that spherical silver NPs can be optically trapped and aligned in the light-propagating direction via longitudinally polarized light; they form a rod-like nano-composite with multiple nanogaps. During trapping, there is a possibility that an additional irradiation of linearly polarized far-field light may excite the bonding and anti-bonding dark plasmon modes with low radiative decay rate of several meV via cancellation of inverted polarization. Our finding reveals that not only the steep change in the enhanced intensity of light field but also the phase inversion of light field between the dynamically formed nanogaps will pave the way to the highly sensitive sensors for molecules, the unconventional chemical reactions, and so on.

  16. Gate-controlled spin and valley polarization transport in a ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic silicene junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajati, Y.; Rashidian, Z.

    2016-04-01

    We study spin and valley transport through a ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic (FNF) monolayer silicene junction in the presence of an electrostatic gate potential U and on-site potential difference Δz in the nonmagnetic region. We theoretically demonstrate that away from the band gap (no spin and valley conductances), the spin and valley polarizations of the junction show an oscillatory behaviour with U but near to it, they almost show a linear dependence with U. These oscillations are due to the phase difference of the electron wavefunctions of the spin and valley-resolved conductances that lead to chiral nature of the quasi-bound states in silicene. In particular, we find that the amplitude and frequency of the spin and valley polarizations oscillations of the junction can be tuned by varying the electrostatic gate potential U and on-site potential difference Δz. Furthermore, it is shown that by increasing the exchange energy h the amplitudes of the spin and valley polarizations oscillations suppress. Enhanced spin (valley) polarization and its control by means of the electrostatic gate potential U makes the nonmagnetic tunneling junction a suitable candidate for utilizing in valleytronics and spintronics applications.

  17. 'Downward control' of the mean meridional circulation and temperature distribution of the polar winter stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Rolando R.; Boville, Byron A.

    1994-01-01

    According to the 'downward control' principle, the extratropical mean vertical velocity on a given pressure level is approximately proportional to the meridional gradient of the vertically integrated zonal force per unit mass exerted by waves above that level. In this paper, a simple numerical model that includes parameterizations of both planetary and gravity wave breaking is used to explore the influence of gravity wave breaking in the mesosphere on the mean meridional circulation and temperature distribution at lower levels in the polar winter stratosphere. The results of these calculations suggest that gravity wave drag in the mesosphere can affect the state of the polar winter stratosphere down to altitudes below 30 km. The effect is most important when planetary wave driving is relatively weak: that is, during southern winter and in early northern winter. In southern winter, downwelling weakens by a factor of 2 near the stratospause and by 20% at 30 km when gravity wave drag is not included in the calculations. As a consequence, temperatures decrease considerably throughout the polar winter stratosphere (over 20 K above 40 km and as much as 8 K at 30 km, where the effect is enhanced by the long radiative relaxation timescale). The polar winter states obtained when gravity wave drag is omitted in this simple model resemble the results of simulations with some general circulation models and suggest that some of the shortcomings of the latter may be due to a deficit in mesospheric momentum deposition by small-scale gravity waves.

  18. Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bing-Yan; Chen, Peng; Hu, Wei; Ji, Wei; Zheng, Li-Yang; Ge, Shi-Jun; Ming, Yang; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Researches on Airy beams have grown explosively since the first demonstration in 2007 due to the distinguishing properties of nondiffraction, transverse acceleration and self-healing. To date, a simple and compact approach for generating Airy beams in high quality and efficiency has remained challenging. Here, we propose and demonstrate a liquid crystal (LC) polarization Airy mask (PAM) featured by spatially variant LC azimuthal director. The PAM is fabricated through photoaligning LC via a polarization-sensitive alignment agent suophonic azo dye SD1. Thanks to the special design, a novel feature of polarization-controllable switch between dual Airy beams of orthogonal circular polarization is presented. The molecular-level continuity of LC director significantly improves the quality and efficiency of resultant Airy beams. Besides, the PAM can handle intense light due to the absence of absorptive electrodes. Additional merits of compact size, low cost and broad wavelength tolerance are also exhibited. This work settles a fundamental requirement for Airy beam applications of optical manipulations, biology science and even some uncharted territories. PMID:26626737

  19. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  20. Development of high-speed VCSELs beyond 10 Gb/s at Emcore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Neinyi; Xie, Chuan; Lei, Chun; Luo, Wenlin; Sun, Xinyu; Kuchta, Daniel; Schow, Clint; Doany, Fuad

    2010-02-01

    We report developments at Emcore on serial 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) operated up to 25 Gb/s. They have been designed to provide a solution not only to meet stringent 10 Gb/s IEEE and Fiber Channel specifications but also for emerging demands of 17 Gb/s Fiber Channel serial and 100 Gb/s (4x25 Gb/s or 5x20 Gb/s) parallel applications in local and storage area networks. This paper covers 10 Gb/s GenX production distributions and improved GenX VCSEL device design to meet low-power requirements at 20 Gb/s. We have successfully demonstrated low threshold current of 0.65 mA at 25C using nominal 7.3 ?m oxide-aperture GenX VCSELs. They can be directly modulated up to 25 Gb/s with open eyes at 6 mA bias. With the same design, open eyes of 20 Gb/s is achieved at bias current as low as 4 mA (9 KA/cm2) at 25C and 8 mA (18 KA/cm2) at 70C. These operation conditions are comparable to current 10 Gb/s GenX VCSELs in production which have been shown a great field history.

  1. Far-field emission characteristics and linewidth measurements of surface micro-machined MEMS tunable VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sujoy; Gierl, Christian; Gründl, Tobias; Zogal, Karolina; Meissner, Peter; Amann, Markus-Christian; Küppers, Franko

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the far-field experimental results and the linewidth characteris- tics for widely tunable surface-micromachined micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) vertical-cavity surface- emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating at 1550 nm. The fundamental Gaussian mode emission is confirmed by optimizing the radius of curvature of top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) membrane and by choosing an ap- propriate diameter of circular buried tunnel junctions (BTJs) so that only the fundamental Gaussian mode can sustain. For these VCSELs, a mode-hop free continuous tuning over 100 nm has already been demonstrated, which is achieved by electro-thermal tuning of the MEMS mirror. The fiber-coupled optical power of 2mW over the entire tuning range has been reported. The singlemode laser emission has more than 40 dB of side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). The smallest linewidth achieved with these of MEMS tunable VCSELs is 98MHz which is one order of magnitude higher than that of fixed-wavelength VCSELs.

  2. Optical injection locking of transverse modes in 1.3-m wavelength coupled-VCSEL arrays.

    PubMed

    Long, C M; Mutter, L; Dwir, B; Mereuta, A; Caliman, A; Sirbu, A; Iakovlev, V; Kapon, E

    2014-09-01

    Optical injection locking of 1.3-m phase-locked VCSEL arrays defined by patterned tunnel junctions and wafer fusion is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The impact of the overlap between the master laser injection beam and the injected modes is demonstrated and explained with a rate equation model that incorporates the spatial variations. PMID:25321494

  3. Fabrication of an integrated 670nm VCSEL-based sensor for miniaturized fluorescence sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Munro, Elizabeth; Harris, James S.; Levi, Ofer

    2010-02-01

    Integrated optical semiconductor sensors are a promising technology for both lab-on-a-chip and molecular imaging applications due to their low cost, small size, high sensitivity, and flexible designs. We present the design and fabrication of a GaAs-based monolithically integrated fluorescence sensor incorporating 670nm VCSELs and PIN photodetectors. This is the first integrated, VCSEL-based fluorescence sensor with excitation at a far-red wavelength and is specifically designed for in vivo sensing applications. In addition, we discuss considerations to simultaneously achieve high power VCSELs and low dark current PIN photodetectors required for sensitive fluorescence detection. These fabricated sensors incorporate 670nm VCSELs emitting 2.0mW at room temperature (RT) with adjacent detectors exhibiting RT dark less than 2pA/mm2 (100mV reverse bias). Fluorescence emission filters suitable for transmitting Cy5.5 fluorescent dye emission were integrated with the photodetectors. The sensor detects Cy5.5 molecules in vitro at 5nM concentration with linear response for concentrations up to 25?M. These miniature sensors are suitable for portable diagnostic assays and in vivo rodent studies.

  4. Tunable and rotatable polarization controller using photonic crystal fiber filled with liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders

    2010-06-01

    We design and fabricate a compact tunable and rotatable polarization controller using liquid crystal photonic band gap fibers. The electrically and thermally induced phase shift in the Poincar sphere and corresponding birefringence change are measured. The direction of the electric field is managed by connecting four electrodes in different electrode configurations, and the thermal tunability is controlled by on-chip heaters. According to the results, a quarter-wave plate and a half-wave plate working in the wavelength range of 1520-1600 nm are experimentally demonstrated.

  5. FGF signaling regulates Wnt ligand expression to control vulval cell lineage polarity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Paul J.; He, Ting-Fang; Sohn, Chang Ho; Asthagiri, Anand R.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of extracellular cues leading to the polarization of intracellular components and asymmetric cell divisions is a fundamental part of metazoan organogenesis. The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva, with its invariant cell lineage and interaction of multiple cell signaling pathways, provides an excellent model for the study of cell polarity within an organized epithelial tissue. Here, we show that the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway acts in concert with the Frizzled homolog LIN-17 to influence the localization of SYS-1, a component of the Wnt/?-catenin asymmetry pathway, indirectly through the regulation of cwn-1. The source of the FGF ligand is the primary vulval precursor cell (VPC) P6.p, which controls the orientation of the neighboring secondary VPC P7.p by signaling through the sex myoblasts (SMs), activating the FGF pathway. The Wnt CWN-1 is expressed in the posterior body wall muscle of the worm as well as in the SMs, making it the only Wnt expressed on the posterior and anterior sides of P7.p at the time of the polarity decision. Both sources of cwn-1 act instructively to influence P7.p polarity in the direction of the highest Wnt signal. Using single molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization, we show that the FGF pathway regulates the expression of cwn-1 in the SMs. These results demonstrate an interaction between FGF and Wnt in C. elegans development and vulval cell lineage polarity, and highlight the promiscuous nature of Wnts and the importance of Wnt gradient directionality within C. elegans. PMID:23946444

  6. Monolithic 2D high-power arrays of long-wavelength VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.; Grblich, M.; Ortsiefer, M.; Bhm, G.; Amann, M.-C.

    2008-02-01

    InP-based, long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LW-VCSELs) with buried tunnel junction are presented for high-power applications. Various studies of single-devices with large apertures and monolithically integrated two-dimensional VCSEL arrays are shown. The influence of aperture and array size on laser power, efficiency and divergence angle is investigated in detail. Unlike GaAs-based devices, large apertures are not favorable due to thermal issues. Accordingly, we focused on VCSEL arrays and derived scaling rules for optimum performance. This allows manufacturing high-power devices achieving continuous-wave (CW) optical powers in excess of 3 W at -11C heat-sink temperature, circular far-field, low divergence angles around 20 and power densities of 130 W/cm2 at 1.55 ?m. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power ever reported for a monolithic VCSEL array. At room temperature, more than 2 W is still available and high-temperature operation up to 70C is applicable. The driving voltages around 1.2 V are significantly low, enabling single battery mobile operation. The wall-plug efficiency at room temperature exceeds 20% in a wide range. Addressing the array in sectors, we found that the array is very homogenous in performance with a standard deviation of less than 2.8%. Therefore, high-power applications can also be accomplished by VCSEL technology. As these novel devices with emission wavelengths beyond 1400 nm are less restrictive with respect to eye-safety, they are also favorable for free-space applications. Additionally, the devices may be used as concealed infra-red headlights that are invisible for all silicon-based detectors.

  7. In situ optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) for VCSEL-based communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, Gordon A.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Geib, Kent M.; Klem, John F.; Peake, Gregory M.

    2006-02-01

    Optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) is an effective technique for locating faults in fiber communication links. The fact that most OTDR measurements are performed manually is a significant drawback, because it makes them too costly for use in many short-distance networks and too slow for use in military avionic platforms. Here we describe and demonstrate an automated, low-cost, real-time approach to fault monitoring that can be achieved by integrating OTDR functionality directly into VCSEL-based transceivers. This built-in test capability is straightforward to implement and relevant to both multimode and single mode networks. In-situ OTDR uses the transmitter VCSEL already present in data transceivers. Fault monitoring is performed by emitting a brief optical pulse into the fiber and then turning the VCSEL off. If a fault exists, a portion of the optical pulse returns to the transceiver after a time equal to the round-trip delay through the fiber. In multimode OTDR, the signal is detected by an integrated photodetector, while in single mode OTDR the VCSEL itself can be used as a detector. Modified driver electronics perform the measurement and analysis. We demonstrate that VCSEL-based OTDR has sufficient sensitivity to determine the location of most faults commonly seen in short-haul networks (i.e., the Fresnel reflections from improperly terminated fibers and scattering from raggedly-broken fibers). Results are described for single mode and multimode experiments, at both 850 nm and 1.3 μm. We discuss the resolution and sensitivity that have been achieved, as well as expected limitations for this novel approach to network monitoring.

  8. Optically controlled microwave phase shifter based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly nonlinear fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wen Ting; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-06-01

    This Letter reports an optically controlled microwave phase shifter with an ultra-wideband working bandwidth and a full 360° phase shifting range based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). A continuous wave probe light is modulated by a polarization modulator (PolM) that is driven by a microwave signal to be phase shifted. The optical carrier and the first-order sidebands of the probe light experience different phase shifts due to the NPR induced by the control light in the HNLF. An optical bandpass filter is used to realize single-sideband modulation of the probe light by removing one of the first-order sidebands, as well as to reject the control light. After detecting by a photodetector, the phase of the recovered microwave signal is continuously tunable by adjusting the power of the control light. The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. A full 360° tunable phase shift is realized over an ultra-wideband frequency range from 8 to 38 GHz when the power of the control light is tuned from 0 to 570 mW. PMID:24876035

  9. Long-range Neural and Gap Junction Protein-mediated Cues Control Polarity During Planarian Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo, Néstor J.; Morokuma, Junji; Walentek, Peter; Kema, Ido P.; Gu, Man Bock; Ahn, Joo-Myung; Hwang, Jung Shan; Gojobori, Takashi; Levin, Michael

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Having the ability to coordinate the behavior of stem cells to induce regeneration of specific large-scale structures would have far reaching consequences in the treatment of degenerative diseases, acute injury, and aging. Thus, identifying and learning to manipulate the sequential steps that determine the fate of new tissue within the overall morphogenetic program of the organism is fundamental. We identified novel early signals, mediated by the central nervous system and 3 innexin proteins, which determine the fate and axial polarity of regenerated tissue in planarians. Modulation of gap junction-dependent and neural signals specifically induces ectopic anterior regeneration blastemas in posterior and lateral wounds. These ectopic anterior blastemas differentiate new brains that establish permanent primary axes re-established during subsequent rounds of unperturbed regeneration. These data reveal powerful novel controls of pattern formation and suggest a constructive model linking nervous inputs and polarity determination in early stages of regeneration. PMID:20026026

  10. Tissue-Specific Signals Control Reversible Program of Localization and Functional Polarization of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Yasutaka; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Tissue-resident macrophages are highly heterogeneous in terms of their functions and phenotypes as a consequence of adaptation to different tissue environments. Local tissue-derived signals are thought to control functional polarization of resident macrophages; however, the identity of these signals remains largely unknown. It is also unknown whether functional heterogeneity is a result of irreversible lineage-specific differentiation or a consequence of continuous but reversible induction of diverse functional programs. Here, we identified retinoic acid as a signal that induces tissue-specific localization and functional polarization of peritoneal macrophages through the reversible induction of transcription factor GATA6. We further found that GATA6 in macrophages regulates gut IgA production through peritoneal B-1 cells. These results provide insight into the regulation of tissue-resident macrophage functional specialization by tissue-derived signals. PMID:24792964

  11. Theoretical study of mutual control mechanism between magnetization and polarization in multiferroic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Zhai, Liang-Jun; Wang, Huai-Yu

    2015-03-01

    The mutual control mechanism between magnetization and polarization in multiferroic materials is studied. The system contains a ferromagnetic sublattice and a ferroelectric sublattice. To describe the magneto-electric coupling, we propose a linear coupling Hamiltonian between ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity without microscopic derivation. This coupling enables one to retrieve the hysteresis loops measured experimentally. The thermodynamic properties of the system are calculated, such as the temperature dependences of the magnetization, polarization, internal energy and free energy. The ferromagnetic and ferroelectric hysteresis loops driven by either a magnetic or an electric field are calculated, and the magnetic spin and pseudo-spin are always flipped synchronously under the external magnetic and electric field. Our theoretical results are in agreement with the experiments. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB927402) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61275028 and 11074145).

  12. Controllable vector bottle-shaped fields generated by focused spatial-variant linearly polarized vector beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Bing; Wu, Jia-Lu; Pan, Yang; Cui, Yiping

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate that the optical bottle-shaped fields can be controllably generated by the focused spatial-variant linearly polarized vector beams. Based on the vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld formulas under the paraxial approximation, we present theoretically the analytical expression for the focused field of the vector beam and predict the evolution of the sate of polarization (SoP) in the focal region. Experimentally, we observe the vector bottle-shaped field that is in agreement with the numerical simulations. In particular, we validate that both the SoP and the size of the optical bottle field are manipulated easily by varying the azimuthal topological charge and the radial mode index.

  13. Dynein Regulator NDEL1 Controls Polarized Cargo Transport at the Axon Initial Segment.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Marijn; van de Willige, Dieudonne; Freal, Amlie; Chazeau, Anal; Franker, Mariella A; Hofenk, Jasper; Rodrigues, Ricardo J Cordeiro; Kapitein, Lukas C; Akhmanova, Anna; Jaarsma, Dick; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2016-02-01

    The development and homeostasis of neurons relies heavily on the selective targeting of vesicles into axon and dendrites. Microtubule-based motor proteins play an important role in polarized transport; however, the sorting mechanism to exclude dendritic cargo from the axon is unclear. We show that the dynein regulator NDEL1 controls somatodendritic cargo transport at the axon initial segment (AIS). NDEL1 localizes to the AIS via an interaction with the scaffold protein Ankyrin-G. Depletion of NDEL1 or its binding partner LIS1 results in both cell-wide and local defects, including the non-polarized trafficking of dendritic cargo through the AIS. We propose a model in which LIS1 is a critical mediator of local NDEL1-based dynein activation at the AIS. By localizing to the AIS, NDEL1 facilitates the reversal of somatodendritic cargos in the proximal axon. PMID:26844830

  14. Dynamic control of spin wave spectra using spin-polarized currents

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Huaiwu Tang, Xiaoli; Bai, Feiming; Zhong, Zhiyong; Fangohr, Hans

    2014-09-15

    We describe a method of controlling the spin wave spectra dynamically in a uniform nanostripe waveguide through spin-polarized currents. A stable periodic magnetization structure is observed when the current flows vertically through the center of nanostripe waveguide. After being excited, the spin wave is transmitted at the sides of the waveguide. Numerical simulations of spin-wave transmission and dispersion curves reveal a single, pronounced band gap. Moreover, the periodic magnetization structure can be turned on and off by the spin-polarized current. The switching process from full rejection to full transmission takes place within less than 3?ns. Thus, this type magnonic waveguide can be utilized for low-dissipation spin wave based filters.

  15. Linearly polarized single photon antibunching from a site-controlled InGaN quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Jemsson, Tomas; Machhadani, Houssaine; Karlsson, K. Fredrik; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Holtz, Per-Olof

    2014-08-25

    We report on the observation of linearly polarized single photon antibunching in the excitonic emission from a site-controlled InGaN quantum dot. The measured second order coherence function exhibits a significant dip at zero time difference, corresponding to g{sub m}{sup 2}(0)=0.90 under continuous laser excitation. This relatively high value of g{sub m}{sup 2}(0) is well understood by a model as the combination of short exciton life time (320 ps), limited experimental timing resolution and the presence of an uncorrelated broadband background emission from the sample. Our result provides the first rigorous evidence of InGaN quantum dot formation on hexagonal GaN pyramids, and it highlights a great potential in these dots as fast polarized single photon emitters if the background emission can be eliminated.

  16. Significant electrical control of amorphous oxide thin film transistors by an ultrathin Ti surface polarity modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Byungsu; Choi, Yonghyuk; Shin, Seokyoon; Jeon, Heeyoung; Seo, Hyungtak; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate an enhanced electrical stability through a Ti oxide (TiO{sub x}) layer on the amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) back-channel; this layer acts as a surface polarity modifier. Ultrathin Ti deposited on the a-IGZO existed as a TiO{sub x} thin film, resulting in oxygen cross-binding with a-IGZO surface. The electrical properties of a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs) with TiO{sub x} depend on the surface polarity change and electronic band structure evolution. This result indicates that TiO{sub x} on the back-channel serves as not only a passivation layer protecting the channel from ambient molecules or process variables but also a control layer of TFT device parameters.

  17. Precise, motion-free polarization control in Second Harmonic Generation microscopy using a liquid crystal modulator in the infinity space

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Chi-Hsiang; Tilbury, Karissa; Chen, Shean-Jen; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy coupled with polarization analysis has great potential for use in tissue characterization, as molecular and supramolecular structural details can be extracted. Such measurements are difficult to perform quickly and accurately. Here we present a new method that uses a liquid crystal modulator (LCM) located in the infinity space of a SHG laser scanning microscope that allows the generation of any desired linear or circular polarization state. As the device contains no moving parts, polarization can be rotated accurately and faster than by manual or motorized control. The performance in terms of polarization purity was validated using Stokes vector polarimetry, and found to have minimal residual polarization ellipticity. SHG polarization imaging characteristics were validated against well-characterized specimens having cylindrical and/or linear symmetries. The LCM has a small footprint and can be implemented easily in any standard microscope and is cost effective relative to other technologies. PMID:24156059

  18. Noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways in C. elegans converge on POP-1/TCF and control cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Herman, Michael A; Wu, Mingfu

    2004-05-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway controls a cell migration whereas noncanonical Wnt pathways control the polarities of individual cells. Despite the differences in the identities and interactions among canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathway components, as well as the processes they regulate, almost all C. elegans Wnt pathways involve the sole Tcf homolog, POP-1. Intriguingly, POP-1 is asymmetrically distributed between the daughters of an asymmetric cell division, with the anterior sister cell usually having a higher level of nuclear POP-1 than its posterior sister. At some divisions, asymmetric distribution of POP-1 is controlled by noncanonical Wnt signaling, but at others the asymmetry is generated independently. Recent experiments suggest that despite this elaborate anterior-posterior POP-1 asymmetry, the quantity of POP-1 protein may have less to do with the subsequent determination of fate than does the quality of the POP-1 protein in the cell. In this review, we will embark on a quest to understand Quality (1), at least from the standpoint of the effect POP/Tcf quality has on the control of cell polarity in C. elegans. PMID:14977564

  19. Routing of surface plasmons in silver nanowire networks controlled by polarization and coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hong; Pan, Deng; Xu, Hongxing

    2015-11-01

    Controllable propagation of electromagnetic energy in plasmonic nanowaveguides is of great importance for building nanophotonic circuits. Here, we studied the routing of surface plasmons in silver nanowire structures by combining experiments and electromagnetic simulations. The superposition of different plasmon modes results in the tunable near field patterns of surface plasmons on the nanowire. Using the quantum dot fluorescence imaging technique, we experimentally demonstrate that the near field distribution on the nanowire controls the surface plasmon transmission in the nanowire networks. By controlling the polarization of the input light or by controlling the dielectric coating on the nanowire to modulate the plasmon field distribution and guarantee the strong local field intensity at the connecting junction, the surface plasmons can be efficiently routed to the connected nanowires. Depositing a thin layer of Al2O3 film onto the nanowires can reverse the polarization dependence of the output intensity at the nanowire terminals. These results are instructive for designing functional plasmonic nanowire networks and metal-nanowire-based nanophotonic devices.

  20. Laser trapping in anisotropic fluids and polarization-controlled particle dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Smalyukh, Ivan I.; Kachynski, Aliaksandr V.; Kuzmin, Andrey N.; Prasad, Paras N.

    2006-01-01

    Anisotropic fluids are widespread, ranging from liquid crystals used in displays to ordered states of a biological cell interior. Optical trapping is potentially a powerful technique in the fundamental studies and applications of anisotropic fluids. We demonstrate that laser beams in these fluids can generate anisotropic optical trapping forces, even for particles larger than the trapping beam wavelength. Immersed colloidal particles modify the fluid's ordered molecular structures and locally distort its optic axis. This distortion produces a refractive index corona around the particles that depends on their surface characteristics. The laser beam can trap such particles not only at their center but also at the high-index corona. Trapping forces in the beam's lateral plane mimic the corona and are polarization-controlled. This control allows the optical forces to be reversed and cause the particle to follow a prescribed trajectory. Anisotropic particle dynamics in the trap varies with laser power because of the anisotropy of both viscous drag and trapping forces. Using thermotropic liquid crystals and biological materials, we show that these phenomena are quite general for all anisotropic fluids and impinge broadly on their quantitative studies using laser tweezers. Potential applications include modeling thermodynamic systems with anisotropic polarization-controlled potential wells, producing optically tunable photonic crystals, and fabricating light-controlled nano- and micropumps. PMID:17114287

  1. Routing of surface plasmons in silver nanowire networks controlled by polarization and coating.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong; Pan, Deng; Xu, Hongxing

    2015-12-01

    Controllable propagation of electromagnetic energy in plasmonic nanowaveguides is of great importance for building nanophotonic circuits. Here, we studied the routing of surface plasmons in silver nanowire structures by combining experiments and electromagnetic simulations. The superposition of different plasmon modes results in the tunable near field patterns of surface plasmons on the nanowire. Using the quantum dot fluorescence imaging technique, we experimentally demonstrate that the near field distribution on the nanowire controls the surface plasmon transmission in the nanowire networks. By controlling the polarization of the input light or by controlling the dielectric coating on the nanowire to modulate the plasmon field distribution and guarantee the strong local field intensity at the connecting junction, the surface plasmons can be efficiently routed to the connected nanowires. Depositing a thin layer of Al2O3 film onto the nanowires can reverse the polarization dependence of the output intensity at the nanowire terminals. These results are instructive for designing functional plasmonic nanowire networks and metal-nanowire-based nanophotonic devices. PMID:26514593

  2. All-VCSEL based digital coherent detection link for multi Gbit/s WDM passive optical networks.

    PubMed

    Rodes, Roberto; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Zibar, Darko; Neumeyr, Christian; Roenneberg, Enno; Rosskopf, Juergen; Ortsiefer, Markus; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2010-11-22

    We report on experimental demonstration of a digital coherent detection link fully based on vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for the transmitter as well as for the local oscillator light source at the receiver side. We demonstrate operation at 5 Gbps at a 1550 nm wavelength with record receiver sensitivity of -36 dBm after transmission over 40 km standard single mode fiber. Digital signal processing compensates for frequency offset between the transmitter and the local oscillator VCSELs, and for chromatic dispersion. This system allows for uncooled VCSEL operation and fully passive fiber transmission with no use of optical amplification or optical dispersion compensation. The proposed system demonstrates the potential of multi-gigabit coherent passive optical networks with extended reach and increased capacity. Moreover, this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of coherent optical transmission systems using a low-cost VCSEL as the local oscillator as well as for the transmitter. PMID:21164841

  3. Servo Control of High Degree of Linear Polarization Output from Polarization-Maintaining Fiber and its Application in Fiber-Component Based Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiguang; Li, Zhixin; Tan, Wei; Zhao, Gang; Fu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang

    2013-11-01

    A novel servo control method has been developed to output a highly linear state of polarization (SOP) from a polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber. The correction signal is obtained using an SOP detection setup invented by Hänsch and Couillaud. This servo control method was then applied to fiber-component based frequency modulation spectroscopy experimentally to reduce the residual amplitude modulation (RAM) induced by nonlinear SOP incident to an electro-optic modulator. With active servo control, stable linear SOP output of PM fiber and pure frequency modulation lineshapes are obtained. Finally, long-term measurements of the dispersion background signal with feedback loop on and off are performed to evaluate the stability of RAM reduction.

  4. In Situ Detection of PHIP at 48 mT: Demonstration Using a Centrally Controlled Polarizer

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Kevin W.; Coffey, Aaron M.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2011-01-01

    Presented here is a centrally controlled, automated parahydrogen-based polarizer with in situ detection capability. A 20% polarization, corresponding to a 5 000 000-fold signal enhancement at 48 mT, is demonstrated on 2-hydroxyethyl-1-13C-propionate-d2,3,3 using a double-tuned antenna and pulsed polarization transfer. In situ detection is a refinement of first-generation devices enabling fast calibration of rf pulses and B0, quality assurance of hyperpolarized contrast agents, and stand-alone operation without the necessity of high-field MR spectrometers. These features are essential for biomedical applications of parahydrogen-based hyperpolarization and for clinical translation. We demonstrate the flexibility of the device by recording 13C signal decay due to longitudinal relaxation of a hyperpolarized contrast agent at 48 mT corresponding to 2 MHz proton frequency. This appears to be the longest recorded T1 (101 7 s) for a 13C hyperpolarized contrast agent in water. PMID:21141960

  5. Controllable spin polarization and spin filtering in a zigzag silicene nanoribbon

    SciTech Connect

    Farokhnezhad, Mohsen Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi Pournaghavi, Nezhat; Ahmadi, Somaieh

    2015-05-07

    Using non-equilibrium Green's function, we study the spin-dependent electron transport properties in a zigzag silicene nanoribbon. To produce and control spin polarization, it is assumed that two ferromagnetic strips are deposited on the both edges of the silicene nanoribbon and an electric field is perpendicularly applied to the nanoribbon plane. The spin polarization is studied for both parallel and anti-parallel configurations of exchange magnetic fields induced by the ferromagnetic strips. We find that complete spin polarization can take place in the presence of perpendicular electric field for anti-parallel configuration and the nanoribbon can work as a perfect spin filter. The spin direction of transmitted electrons can be easily changed from up to down and vice versa by reversing the electric field direction. For parallel configuration, perfect spin filtering can occur even in the absence of electric field. In this case, the spin direction can be changed by changing the electron energy. Finally, we investigate the effects of nonmagnetic Anderson disorder on spin dependent conductance and find that the perfect spin filtering properties of nanoribbon are destroyed by strong disorder, but the nanoribbon retains these properties in the presence of weak disorder.

  6. Solar control of F region radar backscatter: Further insights from observations in the southern polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarche, Leslie J.; Makarevich, Roman A.

    2015-11-01

    The role of solar wind and illumination in production of small-scale F region plasma irregularities is investigated using a 4 year data set collected by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) facility at the McMurdo station, Antarctica (MCM). Statistical analysis of ionospheric echoes detected by MCM shows that radar backscatter from the polar F region occurs in wide and persistent bands in range that exhibit systematic changes with local time, season, and solar cycle. It is demonstrated that all variations considered together form a distinct pattern. A comparison with the F region model densities and ray tracing simulations shows that this pattern is largely controlled by the F region solar-produced ionization during the day. During the night, however, MCM observations reveal a significant additional source of plasma density in the polar cap as compared with the model. An example of conjugate radar observations is presented that supports the idea of polar patches being an additional source of ionization on the nightside. Echo occurrence exhibits a clear peak near the solar terminator, which suggests that small-scale irregularities form in turbulent cascade from large scales. Further, echo occurrence is enhanced for particular interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations during the night. Observations indicate that solar illumination control of irregularity production is strong and not restricted to the nightside. Indirect solar wind control is also exerted by the IMF-dependent convection pattern, since the gradient-drift instability favors certain orientations between the plasma density gradients and convection velocity.

  7. Universal polarization terahertz phase controllers using randomly aligned liquid crystal cells with graphene electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Noda, Kohei; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    We present a universal polarization terahertz (THz) phase controller using a randomly aligned liquid crystal (LC) cell with graphene electrodes. The LC cell was fabricated using a nematic LC and two quartz substrates that were coated with a monolayer of graphene as the transparent electrode. The LC in the cell was prepared without any alignment treatments and was randomly aligned. The size of the random domains and the width of the disclination lines in the LC layer were several tens of microns. These textures disappeared when an alternating voltage was applied to the LC through the graphene layers. Using a THz time domain spectroscopic technique, we investigated the complex transmittance of the LC cell. The LC cell was highly transparent in the THz frequency range, and there was little change in the transmittance with the applied voltage. This indicated that the scattering loss originating in the randomly aligned LC molecules was small for the THz waves. We also demonstrated that the THz phase shift could be controlled by the applied voltage. The amplitude of the phase shift was explained by the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of the LC. These LC cells with graphene electrodes can be used to realize universal polarization THz phase controllers because of the random alignment. PMID:25831380

  8. Reversible control of spin-polarized supercurrents in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, N; Robinson, J W A; Blamire, M G

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic inhomogeneity at a superconductor (S)-ferromagnet (F) interface converts spin-singlet Cooper pairs into spin-one triplet pairs. These pairs are immune to the pair-breaking exchange field in F and support a long-range proximity effect. Although recent experiments have confirmed the existence of spin-polarized triplet supercurrents in S-F-S Josephson junctions, reversible control of the supercurrent has been impossible because of the robust preconfigured nature of the inhomogeneity. Here, we use a barrier comprising three F layers whose relative magnetic orientation, and hence the interfacial inhomogeneity, can be controlled by small magnetic fields; we show that this enables full control of the triplet supercurrent and, by using finite element micromagnetic simulations, we can directly relate the experimental data to the theoretical models which provide a general framework to understand the role played by magnetic states in long-range supercurrent modulation. PMID:25154467

  9. Controllable binding of polar molecules and metastability of one-dimensional gases with attractive dipole forces.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Jason N; Montgomery, John A; Ct, Robin

    2012-08-24

    We explore one-dimensional samples of ultracold polar molecules with attractive dipole-dipole interactions and show the existence of a repulsive barrier caused by a strong quadrupole interaction between molecules. This barrier can stabilize a gas of ultracold KRb molecules and even lead to long-range wells supporting bound states between the molecules. The properties of these wells can be controlled by external electric fields, allowing the formation of long polymerlike chains of KRb and studies of quantum phase transitions by varying the effective interaction between molecules. We discuss the generalization of those results to other systems. PMID:23002744

  10. Controlled polarity of sputter-deposited aluminum nitride on metals observed by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Harumoto, T.; Sannomiya, T.; Matsukawa, Y.; Muraishi, S.; Shi, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Sawada, H.; Tanaka, T.; Tanishiro, Y.; Takayanagi, K.

    2013-02-28

    The polarity determination process of sputter-deposited aluminum nitride (AlN) on metals has been analyzed using aberration corrected atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscope. Direct growth of c-axis orientated AlN on face centered cubic metals (fcc) (111) with the local epitaxy has been observed, and the polarity was determined at the AlN/metal interface. We found that the AlN polarity can be controlled by the base metal layer: N-polarity AlN grows on Pt(111) while Al-polarity AlN forms on Al(111). Based on these results, the growth mechanism of AlN on metals is discussed.

  11. Optical control of hard X-ray polarization by electron injection in a laser wakefield accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Michael; Sävert, Alexander; Uschmann, Ingo; Reuter, Maria; Nicolai, Maria; Kämpfer, Tino; Landgraf, Björn; Jäckel, Oliver; Jansen, Oliver; Pukhov, Alexander; Kaluza, Malte Christoph; Spielmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Laser-plasma particle accelerators could provide more compact sources of high-energy radiation than conventional accelerators. Moreover, because they deliver radiation in femtosecond pulses, they could improve the time resolution of X-ray absorption techniques. Here we show that we can measure and control the polarization of ultra-short, broad-band keV photon pulses emitted from a laser-plasma-based betatron source. The electron trajectories and hence the polarization of the emitted X-rays are experimentally controlled by the pulse-front tilt of the driving laser pulses. Particle-in-cell simulations show that an asymmetric plasma wave can be driven by a tilted pulse front and a non-symmetric intensity distribution of the focal spot. Both lead to a notable off-axis electron injection followed by collective electron–betatron oscillations. We expect that our method for an all-optical steering is not only useful for plasma-based X-ray sources but also has significance for future laser-based particle accelerators. PMID:24026068

  12. Radial polar histogram: obstacle avoidance and path planning for robotic cognition and motion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Po-Jen; Keyawa, Nicholas R.; Euler, Craig

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve highly accurate motion control and path planning for a mobile robot, an obstacle avoidance algorithm that provided a desired instantaneous turning radius and velocity was generated. This type of obstacle avoidance algorithm, which has been implemented in California State University Northridge's Intelligent Ground Vehicle (IGV), is known as Radial Polar Histogram (RPH). The RPH algorithm utilizes raw data in the form of a polar histogram that is read from a Laser Range Finder (LRF) and a camera. A desired open block is determined from the raw data utilizing a navigational heading and an elliptical approximation. The left and right most radii are determined from the calculated edges of the open block and provide the range of possible radial paths the IGV can travel through. In addition, the calculated obstacle edge positions allow the IGV to recognize complex obstacle arrangements and to slow down accordingly. A radial path optimization function calculates the best radial path between the left and right most radii and is sent to motion control for speed determination. Overall, the RPH algorithm allows the IGV to autonomously travel at average speeds of 3mph while avoiding all obstacles, with a processing time of approximately 10ms.

  13. Photonic-plasmonic-coupled nanoantennas for polarization-controlled multispectral nanofocusing.

    PubMed

    Trevino, J; Walsh, G F; Pecora, E F; Boriskina, S V; Dal Negro, L

    2013-11-15

    We report on the design and experimental demonstration of array-enhanced nanoantennas for polarization-controlled multispectral nanofocusing in the near-IR spectral range. We design plasmonic double bow-tie nanoantennas-coupled to multiple-periodic nanoparticle arrays to harvest radiation of designed wavelengths from a large spatial area and to focus it into a targeted nanoscale region. Near-field calculations were performed on a gold nanoantenna array using three-dimensional finite difference time domain simulations. Cross-shaped optical nanoantennas were fabricated on glass substrates using electron beam lithography. The optical characterization of the fabricated nanoantennas was performed using second harmonic excitation spectroscopy that demonstrates multiwavelength photonic coupling in good agreement with the antenna modeling. The nanoantenna structures introduced in this Letter provide the ability to focus optical energy into deep subwavelength areas and to address multiple spectral regions with polarization control. Such attributes are highly desirable in optical biosensing, enhanced Raman scattering, and for nonlinear plasmonic applications. PMID:24322151

  14. Topological control of the Caulobacter cell cycle circuitry by a polarized single-domain PAS protein

    PubMed Central

    Sanselicio, Stefano; Berg, Matthieu; Thraulaz, Laurence; Radhakrishnan, Sunish Kumar; Viollier, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the myriad of different sensory domains encoded in bacteria, only a few types are known to control the cell cycle. Here we use a forward genetic screen for Caulobacter crescentus motility mutants to identify a conserved single-domain PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) protein (MopJ) with pleiotropic regulatory functions. MopJ promotes re-accumulation of the master cell cycle regulator CtrA after its proteolytic destruction is triggered by the DivJ kinase at the G1-S transition. MopJ and CtrA syntheses are coordinately induced in S-phase, followed by the sequestration of MopJ to cell poles in Caulobacter. Polarization requires Caulobacter DivJ and the PopZ polar organizer. MopJ interacts with DivJ and influences the localization and activity of downstream cell cycle effectors. Because MopJ abundance is upregulated in stationary phase and by the alarmone (p)ppGpp, conserved systemic signals acting on the cell cycle and growth phase control are genetically integrated through this conserved single PAS-domain protein. PMID:25952018

  15. Nonlinear spectroscopy with a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolderbach, C.; Nagel, A.; Knappe, S.; Jung, C.; Wiedenmann, D.; Wynands, R.

    We have evaluated the suitability of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode (VCSEL) for spectroscopic applications. Despite its low output power it is possible to observe narrow resonances in a saturated absorption spectroscopy experiment on the cesium D2 transition at 852 nm, limited in width by the laser linewidth of several tens of MHz. High modulation efficiency of the VCSEL allows us to create modulation sidebands at 9.2 GHz frequency via direct modulation of the laser injection current. Using the carrier and either one of the sidebands coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances in a buffered cesium vapor can be prepared with linewidths below 130 Hz. With this very compact setup we have studied the dependence of CPT resonance position and linewidth as a function of optical detuning and find evidence of the influence of the excited state hyperfine structure.

  16. Design and manufacturing of 10G GenX VCSELs at Emcore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nein-Yi; Collins, Doug; Jatar, Shashank; Lavrova, Olga; Helms, Chris; Luo, Wenlin; Liu, Linlin; Liu, Chiyu; Qiu, Mei; Roff, Kent; Wang, Charlie; Yang, Chia-Chun; Chiou, Hwann-Kaeo

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we present the design and manufacturing of next-generation 850 nm 10 Gb/s vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (GenX VCSELs). They were developed to provide a 10 Gb/s solution that meets Class-1 eye safety limits, IEEE 802.3ae standards, 10G Fiber Channel standards, and corresponding multisource agreement requirements for emerging low-cost, high-volume, and high-performance data communication applications in local and storage area networks (LANs and SANs). The paper covers GenX device designs, manufacturing processes, DC and AC characteristics, equivalent circuit models, recommended operating conditions, as well as reliability studies. As a simple drop-in replacement, we have successfully demonstrated that GenX VCSELs work well with all existing Emcore 10G transmitter optical sub-assembly (TOSA) products.

  17. Low chirp and high-speed operation of transverse coupled cavity VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shanting; Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed; Koyama, Fumio

    2015-09-01

    We present the modeling on the modulation bandwidth and frequency chirp of transverse-coupled-cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), which enable us to tailor the transfer function of intensity and frequency modulations thanks to an optical feedback effect. The simulation shows the 3-dB-modulation bandwidth can be doubled and the chirp can be reduced by a factor of more than three. These improvements could be explained by an increase in differential net gain in coupled cavities. The result shows a possibility of high-speed and low-chirp operations of transverse coupled cavity VCSELs for higher data rates and longer link lengths of single-mode fiber transmissions.

  18. Rapidly swept, ultra-widely-tunable 1060 nm MEMS-VCSELs

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, V.; Cole, G.D.; Robertson, M.; Burgner, C.; John, D.; Uddin, A.; Cable, A.

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrated are 1060 nm microelectromechanical-systems-based tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (MEMS-VCSELs) with a 100 nm continuous tuning range under repetitively scanned operation at rates beyond 500 kHz and a 90 nm continuous tuning range under static operation. These devices employ a thin strained InGaAs multiple quantum well active region integrated with a fully oxidised GaAs/AlxOy bottom mirror and a suspended dielectric top mirror. The devices are optically pumped via 850 nm light. These ultra-widely tunable lasers represent the first MEMS-VCSELs reported in this wavelength range, and are ideally suited for application in ophthalmic swept-source optical coherence tomography. PMID:23520409

  19. Fully integrated CMOS VCSEL driver with nonlinearity suppression for RF optical fiber links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fu-Chuan; Lalithambika, Vinod A.; Holburn, David M.; Mears, Robert J.; Hum, Chak H.; Walker, Stuart D.

    2004-06-01

    A CMOS optical fibre transmitter front-end with an analogue predistortion technique is proposed for reducing laser nonlinearity distortion to achieve broadband linearisation of radio frequency (RF) optical fibre communication systems. The technique uses a nonlinearity having the inverse transfer characteristic of the directly modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The analogue predistortion lineariser comprises a linear and a non-linear transconductance differential amplifier. The combined linear and non-linear transconductance differential amplifiers provide the transfer characteristic to counteract the characteristic of the VCSEL laser diode. The post-layout simulation of the linearity of RF optical fibre systems using the predistortion linearisation technique shows 12dBm improvement. The integrated CMOS optical fibre transmitter circuit with the predistortion lineariser is being implemented using the austriamicrosystems (AMS) 0.35?m CMOS technology.

  20. 1W frequency-doubled VCSEL-pumped blue laser with high pulse energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Leeuwen, Robert; Chen, Tong; Watkins, Laurence; Xu, Guoyang; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Wang, Qing; Zhou, Delai; Ghosh, Chuni

    2015-02-01

    We report on a Q-switched VCSEL side-pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser that produces high average power blue light with high pulse energy after frequency doubling in BBO. The gain medium was water cooled and symmetrically pumped by three 1 kW 808 nm VCSEL pump modules. More than 1 W blue output was achieved at 210 Hz with 4.9 mJ pulse energy and at 340 Hz with 3.2 mJ pulse energy, with 42% and 36% second harmonic conversion efficiency respectively. Higher pulse energy was obtained at lower repetition frequencies, up to 9.3 mJ at 70 Hz with 52% conversion efficiency.

  1. High power high repetition rate VCSEL array side-pumped pulsed blue laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Robert; Zhao, Pu; Chen, Tong; Xu, Bing; Watkins, Laurence; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Miglo, Alexander; Wang, Qing; Ghosh, Chuni

    2013-03-01

    High power, kW-class, 808 nm pump modules based on the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) technology were developed for side-pumping of solid-state lasers. Two 1.2 kW VCSEL pump modules were implemented in a dual side-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 946 nm. The laser output was frequency doubled in a BBO crystal to produce pulsed blue light. With 125 μs pump pulses at a 300 Hz repetition rate 6.1 W QCW 946 nm laser power was produced. The laser power was limited by thermal lensing in the Nd:YAG rod.

  2. Low-magnetic-field control of electric polarization vector in a helimagnet.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Shintaro; Taguchi, Yasujiro; Murakawa, Hiroshi; Onose, Yoshinori; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2008-03-21

    The mutual control of the electric and magnetic properties of a solid is currently of great interest because of the possible application for novel electronic devices. We report on the low-magnetic-field (for example, B values of +/-30 milliteslas) control of the polarization (P) vector in a hexaferrite, Ba2Mg2Fe12O22, which shows the helimagnetic spin structure with the propagation vector k0 parallel to [001]. The B-induced transverse conical spin structure carries the P vector directing perpendicular to both B and k0, in accord with the recently proposed spin-current model. Then, the oscillating or multidirectionally rotating B produces the cyclic displacement current via the flexible handling of the magnetic cone axis. PMID:18356519

  3. Control of exciton spin statistics through spin polarization in organic optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianpu; Chepelianskii, Alexei; Gao, Feng; Greenham, Neil C

    2012-01-01

    Spintronics based on organic semiconductor materials is attractive because of its rich fundamental physics and potential for device applications. Manipulating spins is obviously important for spintronics, and is usually achieved by using magnetic electrodes. Here we show a new approach where spin populations can be controlled primarily by energetics rather than kinetics. We find that exciton spin statistics can be substantially controlled by spin-polarizing carriers after injection using high magnetic fields and low temperatures, where the Zeeman energy is comparable with the thermal energy. By using this method, we demonstrate that singlet exciton formation can be suppressed by up to 53% in organic light-emitting diodes, and the dark conductance of organic photovoltaic devices can be increased by up to 45% due to enhanced formation of triplet charge-transfer states, leading to less recombination to the ground state. PMID:23149736

  4. Polarized optical injection in long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, A.; Schires, K.; Khan, N.; Al-Seyab, R.; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J.

    2011-05-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the effects of polarized optical injection in long-wavelength Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (LW-VCSELs) emitting at the telecom wavelength of 1550nm. We analyze the properties of the polarization switching and bistability that can be induced in a 1550nm-VCSEL under orthogonal and arbitrary polarized optical injection. Additionally, we study the injection locking bandwidth of these devices when subject to different polarized optical injection. Furthermore, we also analyze the relationship existing between the injection locking bandwidth and the polarization switching range when the device is subject to orthogonally-polarized optical injection. Finally, we have identified regions of different nonlinear dynamics outside the injection locking bandwidth, including regions of periodic dynamics (such as limit cycle and period doubling) and chaos when these devices are subject to parallel and to orthogonal optical injection. This rich variety of nonlinear effects observed at 1550nm offers exciting prospects for novel practical uses of VCSELs in optical switching/routing applications in optical networks.

  5. Proton Irradiation Effects in Oxide-Confined Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz, M.G.; Barnes, C.E.; Choquette, K.D.; Guertin, S.; Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Swift, G.M.

    1999-03-11

    Recent space experience has shown that the use of commercial optocouplers can be problematic in spacecraft, such as TOPEX/Poseidon, that must operate in significant radiation environments. Radiation--induced failures of these devices have been observed in space and have been further documented at similar radiation doses in the laboratory. The ubiquitous use of optocouplers in spacecraft systems for a variety of applications, such as electrical isolation, switching and power transfer, is indicative of the need for optocouplers that can withstand the space radiation environment. In addition, the distributed nature of their use implies that it is not particularly desirable to shield optocouplers for use in radiation environments. Thus, it will be important for the space community to have access to radiation hardened/tolerant optocouplers. For many microelectronic and photonic devices, it is difficult to achieve radiation hardness without sacrificing performance. However, in the case of optocouplers, one should be able to achieve both superior radiation hardness and performance for such characteristics as switching speed, current transfer ratio (CTR), minimum power usage and array power transfer, if standard light emitting diodes (LEDs), such as those in the commercial optocouplers mentioned above, are avoided, and VCSELs are employed as the emitter portion of the optocoupler. The physical configuration of VCSELs allows one to achieve parallel use of an array of devices and construct a multichannel optocoupler in the standard fashion with the emitters and detectors looking at each other. In addition, detectors similar in structure to the VCSELs can be fabricated which allows bidirectional functionality of the optocoupler. Recent discussions suggest that VCSELs will enjoy widespread applications in the telecommunications and data transfer fields.

  6. High-total-dose gamma and neutron radiation tolerance of VCSEL assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghmans, Francis; Van Uffelen, Marco; Decréton, Marc C.

    2002-09-01

    Optical fiber technology is seriously considered for communication and monitoring applications during the operation and maintenance of future thermonuclear fusion reactors. Their environment is characterized, in particular, by possibly high gamma dose-rates and total doses in excess of 10 MGy. In addition, the maintenance equipment might be stored in close vicinity of the reactor during its operation and therefore the communication devices might also be exposed to a substantial neutron fluence. The feasibility of applying photonic technology in these radiation fields therefore needs to be assessed. Whereas many reports deal with the radiation behavior of a variety of fiber-optic devices, only little information is available on the radiation tolerance at high total dose (e.g. > 1 MGy). We describe our recent results obtained on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) assemblies. We have conducted high total dose (up to 20 MGy) irradiation experiments on such devices, which confirmed their excellent gamma radiation hardness. The optical power loss at nominal forward current was less than 2 dB and the threshold current remained unaltered. We have also irradiated these devices with neutrons inside the BR1 reactor (SCK•CEN, Mol, Belgium) up to a total fluence on the order of 1015 n×cm-2. The response of VCSELs to neutrons is, as expected, different from that to gamma radiation. VCSELs previously exposed to gamma rays exhibited an accelerated degradation under neutron radiation compared to not pre-irradiated devices. The beneficial effect of applying a continuous forward bias to the VCSELs is also evidenced.

  7. Progress on high-power high-brightness VCSELs and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Delai; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Zhao, Pu; Xu, Bing; Chen, Tong; Van Leeuwen, Robert; Matheussen, Joseph; Wang, Qing; Ghosh, Chuni

    2015-03-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are attractive for many pumping and direct-diode applications due to combined advantages in low cost, high reliability, narrow and thermally stable spectrum, high power scalability, and easy system integration, etc. We report our progress on electrically pumped, GaAs-based, high- power high-brightness VCSELs and 2D arrays in the infrared wavelength range. At 976nm, over 5.5W peak CW output and 60% peak power conversion efficiency (PCE) were demonstrated with 225um oxide-confined device. For 5x5mm arrays, peak PCE of 54% and peak power of >450W at 976nm, peak PCE of 46% and peak power of >110W at 808nm were achieved respectively under QCW conditions. External cavity configuration was used to improve the VCSEL brightness. Single mode output of 280mW and 37% PCE were realized from 80um device. For large 325um device, we obtained single mode (M2=1.1) CW output of 2.1W, corresponding to a brightness of 160MW/cm2*sr. Three major areas of applications using such VCSELs are discussed: 1. High brightness fiber output; 2. High power, high efficiency green lasers from 2nd harmonic generation. 3.34W green output with 21.2% PCE were achieved; 3. Pumping solid state lasers for high energy pulse generation. We have demonstrated Q-switched pulses with 16.1mJ at 1064nm and 4.9mJ with 1W average power at 473nm.

  8. GaAs/AlOx high contrast gratings for 980nm VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebski, M.; Dems, M.; Chen, J.; Qijie, W.; Dao Hua, Z.; Czyszanowski, T.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we present results of computer optical simulations of VCSEL with modified high refractive index contrast grating (HCG) as a top mirror. We consider the HCG of two different designs which determine the lateral aperture. Such HCG mirror provides selective guiding effect. We show that proper design of aperture of HCG results in almost sixfold increase in cavity Q-factor for zero order mode and a discrimination of higher order modes.

  9. Increasing single mode power of 1.3-?m VCSELs by output coupling optimization.

    PubMed

    Mereuta, A; Caliman, A; Sirbu, A; Iakovlev, V; Mickovic, Z; Suruceanu, G; Kapon, E

    2015-05-01

    We report on the single mode emission power enhancement of 1.3-?m VCSELs by adjusting the reflectivity of the top GaAs-based DBR for output coupling optimization using selective removal of Bragg reflector layers. Devices with record single mode power of 6.8-mW at room temperature and 2.8-mW at 80C, with more than 30 dB single mode suppression ratio, have been obtained. PMID:25969185

  10. Do large impact basins in the southern hemisphere of Mars control the distribution of polar structures and deposits?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert; Reidy, Anne-Marie

    1993-01-01

    Among the outstanding problems in Martian geology are the cause of the off-axis and asymmetric distribution of the southern polar layered terrain and residual ice deposits and the cause of the orientation of scarps, valleys, and re-entrant canyons which occur there. A perhaps related problem region is the apparently small number of large (D greater than 500 km) impact basins seen in the relatively well-preserved cratered terrain of the south polar region. Previously only the 850 km wide South Polar Basin was easily recognized. The south polar region was mapped in detail, searching for evidence of ancient, highly degraded impact basins that may have escaped earlier notice, for two reasons: (1) to determine whether the apparent absence of large impact basins is due to incomplete mapping and recognition or a fundamental characteristic of the Martian crust related to the origin of the Martian crustal dichotomy, and (2) to determine whether ancient impact basins, if they exist, exert some control on the distribution of volcanic and polar deposits in the southern hemisphere and on the topography on which these deposits lie. Several promising candidates, including a large pre-Hellas basin in the Malea Planum region and an older but comparably sized basin overlapping South Polar, were previously described. Concentration is on the possible influence of the candidate basins in localizing the asymmetric distribution of polar deposits and in controlling the orientation of structures found within these deposits.

  11. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Controllable Spin Polarization of Charge Current by Rashba Spin Orbital Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Juan; Yang, Yong-Hong; Wang, Jun

    2009-11-01

    We report a theoretic study on modulating the spin polarization of charge current in a mesoscopic four-terminal device of cross structure by using the inverse spin hall effect. The scattering region of device is a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with Rashba spin orbital interaction (RSOI), one of lead is ferromagnetic metal and other three leads are spin-degenerate normal metals. By using Landauer-Bttiker formalism, we found that when a longitudinal charge current flows through 2DEG scattering region from FM lead by external bias, the transverse current can be either a pure spin current or full-polarized charge current due to the combined effect of spin hall effect and its inverse process, and the polarization of this transverse current can be easily controlled by several device parameters such as the Fermi energy, ferromagnetic magnetization, and the RSOI constant. Our method may pave a new way to control the spin polarization of a charge current.

  12. Wideband Electrically-Pumped 1050 nm MEMS-Tunable VCSEL for Ophthalmic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    John, Demis D.; Burgner, Christopher B.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Robertson, Martin E.; Lee, Byung Kun; Choi, Woo Jhon; Cable, Alex E.; Fujimoto, James G.; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a 1050 nm electrically-pumped micro-electro-mechanically-tunable vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-laser (MEMS-VCSEL) with a record dynamic tuning bandwidth of 63.8 nm, suitable for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) imaging. These devices provide reduced cost & complexity relative to previously demonstrated optically pumped devices by obviating the need for a pump laser and associated hardware. We demonstrate ophthalmic SS-OCT imaging with the electrically-pumped MEMS-VCSEL at a 400 kHz axial scan rate for wide field imaging of the in vivo human retina over a 12 mm × 12 mm field and for OCT angiography of the macula over 6 mm × 6 mm & 3 mm × 3 mm fields to show retinal vasculature and capillary structure near the fovea. These results demonstrate the feasibility of electrically pumped MEMS-VCSELs in ophthalmic instrumentation, the largest clinical application of OCT. In addition, we estimate that the 3 dB coherence length in air is 225 meters ± 51 meters, far greater than required for ophthalmic SS-OCT and suggestive of other distance ranging applications. PMID:26594089

  13. Development of a Compact Optical-MEMS Scanner with Integrated VCSEL Light Source and Diffractive Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Krygowski, Thomas W.; Reyes, David; Rodgers, M. Steven; Smith, James H.; Warren, Mial; Sweatt, William; Blum-Spahn, Olga; Wendt, Joel R.; Asbill, Randy

    1999-06-30

    In this work the design and initial fabrication results are reported for the components of a compact optical-MEMS laser scanning system. This system integrates a silicon MEMS laser scanner, a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) and passive optical components. The MEMS scanner and VCSEL are mounted onto a fused silica substrate which serves as an optical interconnect between the devices. Two Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) are etched into the fused silica substrate to focus the VCSEL beam and increase the scan range. The silicon MEMS scanner consists of an actuator that continuously scans the position of a large polysilicon gold-coated shuttle containing a third DOE. Interferometric measurements show that the residual stress in the 500 {micro}m x 1000 {micro}m shuttle is extremely low, with a maximum deflection of only 0.18{micro}m over an 800 {micro}m span for an unmetallized case and a deflection of 0.56{micro}m for the metallized case. A conservative estimate for the scan range is {approximately}{+-}4{degree}, with a spot size of about 0.5 mm, producing 50 resolvable spots. The basic system architecture, optical and MEMS design is reported in this paper, with an emphasis on the design and fabrication of the silicon MEMS scanner portion of the system.

  14. Long-wavelength VCSELs for optical networks and trace-gas monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.; Bhm, G.; Ortsiefer, M.; Grblich, M.; Lauer, C.; Zhu, N. H.; Amann, M.-C.

    2007-09-01

    Long-wavelength InGaAlAs-InP vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LW-VCSELs), designed for applications in gas sensing and for optical interconnects are presented. These lasers cover the wavelength-range from 1.3 to 2.3 ?m. With 2.3 ?m, this is the longest wavelength ever achieved with an InP-based interband laser. Fabricated with a novel highspeed design with reduced parasitics, bandwidths in excess of 11 GHz at 1.55 ?m have been achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best dynamic characteristic for a 1.55 ?m VCSEL ever presented. As a proof-of-concept one- and two-dimensional arrays have been fabricated with high yield. All devices use for current confinement a buried tunnel junction (BTJ). This concept, together with a dielectric backside reflector with integrated electroplated gold heat sink for thermal management enables continuous wave (CW) operation at room-temperature with typical single-mode output powers above 1 mW. The operation voltage is around 1 V and power consumption is as low as 10 - 20 mW. Error-free data-transmission at 10 Gbit/s over 20 km is demonstrated, which can be readily applied in uncooled Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplex Passive Optical Networks (CWDM PONs). The functionality of tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) systems is verified by presenting a laser hygrometer using a 1.84 ?m wavelength VCSEL.

  15. Fabrication, Packaging, and Performance of VCSELs and Photodetectors for Space Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz, M.G.; Briggs, R.D.; Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Serkland, D.K.

    1999-03-09

    Optocouplers are used for a variety of applications aboard spacecraft including electrical isolation, switching and power transfer. Commercially available light emitting diode (LED)-based optocouplers have experienced severe degradation of light output due to extensive displacement damage occurring in the semiconductor lattice caused by energetic proton bombardment. A new optocoupler has been designed and fabricated which utilizes vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and resonant cavity photodetector (RCPD) technologies for the optocoupler emitter and detector, respectively. Linear arrays of selectively oxidized GaAs/AlGaAs VCSELS and RCPDS, each designed to operate at a wavelength of 850nm, were fabricated using an airbridge contacting scheme. The airbridged contacts were designed to improve packaging yields and device reliability by eliminating the use of a polyimide planarizing layer which provided poor adhesion to the bond pad metallization. Details of the airbridged optocoupler fabrication process are reported. Discrete VCSEL and RCPD devices were characterized at temperatures between {minus}100 to 100 C. Devices were packaged in a face-to-face configuration to form a single channel optocoupler and its performance was evaluated under conditions of high-energy proton bombardment.

  16. Evolution from modal to spatially incoherent emission of a broad-area VCSEL.

    PubMed

    Mandre, Shyam K; Elsässer, Wolfgang; Fischer, Ingo; Peeters, Michael; Verschaffelt, Guy

    2008-03-31

    Broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (BA-VCSELs) can exhibit a state of spatially incoherent emission, as we recently reported in [M. Peeters et al., Opt. Express, 13, 9337 (2005)]. Here, we experimentally study the evolution of a BA-VCSEL under pulsed operation from well-defined modal emission with a multitude of transverse cavity modes to such spatially incoherent emission. The transition is studied using a high-speed intensified CCD camera and differential image analysis with which single-shot measurements of the imaged nearfield, farfield, spatial coherence, and spectral emission properties are acquired. This combination of experimental characterization tools allows for a detailed description of the BA-VCSEL's emission behavior, which is necessary for an in-depth understanding of the processes involved. We find the interplay between the thermal chirp and the build-up of a spatially distributed thermal lens to be decisive for the break-up of the global cavity modes. PMID:18542542

  17. 1.3-?m InGaAsN VCSELs for telecom and datacom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andrew W.; Naone, Ryan L.; Chirovsky, Leo M. F.; Feld, Stewart A.; Galt, David; Dalberth, Mark J.; Smith, Joseph M.; Thompson, Lance R.; Lange, Michael D.; Kisker, David W.

    2001-11-01

    VCSELs operating at 1.3 microns are the ideal laser source for meeting the exploding demand for bandwidth in local area and metro area networks. NCSELs will eventually replace the vast majority of 1.3 micron FP and DFB edge emitting lasers currently used in these applications, since they offer lower manufacturing cost, on wafer testability, extremely narrow linewidth, a circular output beam, high speed direct modulation, and the ability to be integrated into arrays. The primary challenge in 1.3 micron VCSELs has been to find an active region material that can be grown directly on high thermal conductivity and high reflectivity GaAs/AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflectors DBRs. In this work, we have developed MBE grown InGaAsN quantum wells that can be grown directly on GaAs substrates and integrated directly into high performance oxide VCSEL structures. We have demonstrated record room temperature CW single mode output powers in excess of 1 mW at an emission wavelength of 1287 nm. CW lasing has been observed as high as 125 degree(s)C, illustrating the excellent thermal performance of both the InGaAsN quantum wells and the GaAs/AlGaAs DBRs. Open eye diagrams were observed at 10 Gb/s, paving the way for OC-192 SONET and 10 Gb/s Ethernet applications.

  18. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Agraz, Jose Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; BIRI, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, West Hollywood, California 90048 ; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-15

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ({sup 13}C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B{sub o}), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of {sup 13}C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  19. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ((13)C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of (13)C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging. PMID:24784636

  20. Dynamic modulation of spatially structured polarization fields for real-time control of ultrafast laser-material interactions.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Allegre, O J; Perrie, W; Abrams, K; Ouyang, J; Fearon, E; Edwardson, S P; Dearden, G

    2013-10-21

    The polarization state of an ultrafast laser is dynamically controlled using two Spatial Light Modulators and additional waveplates. Consequently, four states of polarization, linear horizontal and vertical, radial and azimuthal, all with a ring intensity distribution, were dynamically switched at a frequency ν = 12.5 Hz while synchronized with a motion control system. This technique, demonstrated here for the first time, enables a remarkable level of real-time control of the properties of light waves and applied to real-time surface patterning, shows that highly controlled nanostructuring is possible. Laser ablation of Induced Periodic Surface Structures is used to directly verify the state of polarization at the focal plane. PMID:24150374

  1. Topographical control over seasonal sublimation of the Mars North polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimova, N. A.; Rodin, A. V.; Appere, T.

    2012-09-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of the Mars permanent North polar cap (NPC) by MEX/OMEGA and MRO/CRISM instruments reveal apparent seasonal changes in the ice morphology during the summer season, implying that ice surface becomes increasingly coarse during the progression of season. This general trend is non-uniform in space, being particularly strong near inner edges of the spiral terraces. The comparison of spectroscopic data with high-resolution images returned by MRO/HiRISE camera shows that the extent of NPC apparent seasonal change revealed by NIR spectroscopy correlates with the orientation of dunes on the ice surface. In the inner edges of the spiral terraces, dunes are aligned preferentially in zonal direction, implying their formation under control of the meridional winds. In turn at the outer edges, where seasonal changes are less evident, dunes are aligned mostly in the meridional direction, assuming impact of the zonal atmospheric flow. Indeed, zonally aligned dunes have better conditions in terms of sunlight exposure, and their surface is expected to reveal faster aging. However the question arises what processes are responsible for this alignment. We hypothesize that the dunes are formed under strong control of the local meteorology, dominated with competing mesoscale zonal circulation and local katabatic winds. In most cases the latter have meridional direction and maximize near the steepest relief, i.e. southward of the boundary between neighboring terraces. In some cases katabatic winds directions are in the strong interconnection with certain local and mesoscale topography features. Thus seasonal changes of the ice surface microstructure are connected with the relief on the scale of tens of meters, which in turn may be formed under influence of the local wind pattern controlled by large-scale relief of the North polar cap.

  2. Polarization-Controlled Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells Using Synergistic Cues from the Patterns of Carbon Nanotube Monolayer Coating

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Young; Choi, Dong Shin; Jin, Hye Jun; Park, Juhun; Byun, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Ki-Bum; Hong, Seunghun

    2011-01-01

    We report a method for selective growth and structural-polarization-controlled neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) into neurons using carbon nanotube network patterns. The CNT patterns provide synergistic cues for the differentiation of hNSCs in physiological solution and an optimal nanotopography at the same time with good biocompatibility. We demonstrated a polarized-controlled neuronal differentiation at the level of individual NSCs. This result should provide a stable and versatile platform for controlling the hNSC growth because CNT patterns are known to be stable in time unlike commonly-used organic molecular patterns. PMID:21568294

  3. Development and characterization of controlled release polar lipid microparticles of candesartan cilexetil by solid dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakkannan, V; Puratchikody, A; Ramanathan, L

    2013-01-01

    Candesartan cilexetil (CC) is a newer class of angiotensin II receptor antagonist used for the treatment of hypertension. The solubility of the CC is very poor and its oral bioavailability is only 15%. The controlledrelease polar lipid microparticles of CC (formulations F1, F2, F3 and F4) were prepared using variable erodible lipophilic excipients like hydrogenated castor oil, stearic acid, cetostearyl alcohol and carnauba wax by fusion method. The particle sizes of polar lipid microparticles were less than 50 microns and they were irregular in shape. Drug content ranged between 98.96 ± 2.1 and 101.9 ± 1.6% were present in all the formulations. The formulation F3 showed better drug release throughout the study period in a controlled release manner. Moreover, the in vitro release showed that all the formulations were best fitted to Higuchi model. Accelerated stability studies indicated that there was no significant changes in the chemical and physical characteristics of the formulated drug product during initial and at the end of the study period. The FTIR and DSC studies showed that there was no interaction between the drug and lipophilic excipients and no polymorphic transitions in all formulations. The X-ray diffraction peak of solid dispersion indicated that the crystalline nature of CC disappeared and no new peaks could be observed, suggesting the absence of interaction between drug and excipients. PMID:24019822

  4. Development and characterization of controlled release polar lipid microparticles of candesartan cilexetil by solid dispersion.

    PubMed

    Kamalakkannan, V; Puratchikody, A; Ramanathan, L

    2013-04-01

    Candesartan cilexetil (CC) is a newer class of angiotensin II receptor antagonist used for the treatment of hypertension. The solubility of the CC is very poor and its oral bioavailability is only 15%. The controlledrelease polar lipid microparticles of CC (formulations F1, F2, F3 and F4) were prepared using variable erodible lipophilic excipients like hydrogenated castor oil, stearic acid, cetostearyl alcohol and carnauba wax by fusion method. The particle sizes of polar lipid microparticles were less than 50 microns and they were irregular in shape. Drug content ranged between 98.96 ± 2.1 and 101.9 ± 1.6% were present in all the formulations. The formulation F3 showed better drug release throughout the study period in a controlled release manner. Moreover, the in vitro release showed that all the formulations were best fitted to Higuchi model. Accelerated stability studies indicated that there was no significant changes in the chemical and physical characteristics of the formulated drug product during initial and at the end of the study period. The FTIR and DSC studies showed that there was no interaction between the drug and lipophilic excipients and no polymorphic transitions in all formulations. The X-ray diffraction peak of solid dispersion indicated that the crystalline nature of CC disappeared and no new peaks could be observed, suggesting the absence of interaction between drug and excipients. PMID:24019822

  5. Dual Color Plasmonic Pixels Create a Polarization Controlled Nano Color Palette.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhibo; Clark, Alasdair W; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2016-01-26

    Color filters based upon nanostructured metals have garnered significant interest in recent years, having been positioned as alternatives to the organic dye-based filters which provide color selectivity in image sensors, as nonfading "printing" technologies for producing images with nanometer pixel resolution, and as ultra-high-resolution, small foot-print optical storage and encoding solutions. Here, we demonstrate a plasmonic filter set with polarization-switchable color properties, based upon arrays of asymmetric cross-shaped nanoapertures in an aluminum thin-film. Acting as individual color-emitting nanopixels, the plasmonic cavity-apertures have dual-color selectivity, transmitting one of two visible colors, controlled by the polarization of the white light incident on the rear of the pixel and tuned by varying the critical dimensions of the geometry and periodicity of the array. This structural approach to switchable optical filtering enables a single nanoaperture to encode two information states within the same physical nanoaperture, an attribute we use here to create micro image displays containing duality in their optical information states. PMID:26631346

  6. Control of vertebrate core planar cell polarity protein localization and dynamics by Prickle 2.

    PubMed

    Butler, Mitchell T; Wallingford, John B

    2015-10-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a ubiquitous property of animal tissues and is essential for morphogenesis and homeostasis. In most cases, this fundamental property is governed by a deeply conserved set of 'core PCP' proteins, which includes the transmembrane proteins Van Gogh-like (Vangl) and Frizzled (Fzd), as well as the cytoplasmic effectors Prickle (Pk) and Dishevelled (Dvl). Asymmetric localization of these proteins is thought to be central to their function, and understanding the dynamics of these proteins is an important challenge in developmental biology. Among the processes that are organized by the core PCP proteins is the directional beating of cilia, such as those in the vertebrate node, airway and brain. Here, we exploit the live imaging capabilities of Xenopus to chart the progressive asymmetric localization of fluorescent reporters of Dvl1, Pk2 and Vangl1 in a planar polarized ciliated epithelium. Using this system, we also characterize the influence of Pk2 on the asymmetric dynamics of Vangl1 at the cell cortex, and we define regions of Pk2 that control its own localization and those impacting Vangl1. Finally, our data reveal a striking uncoupling of Vangl1 and Dvl1 asymmetry. This study advances our understanding of conserved PCP protein functions and also establishes a rapid, tractable platform to facilitate future in vivo studies of vertebrate PCP protein dynamics. PMID:26293301

  7. Polarization control in high power microwaves from a rectangular cross section gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Hochman, J.M.; Gilgenbach, R.M.; Jaynes, R.J.; Rintamaki, J.I.; Lau, Y.Y.; Spencer, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    The authors summarize the results of experiments on a gyrotron utilizing rectangular-cross-section (RCS) interaction cavities. Current issues under investigation include polarization control as a function of magnetic field, power versus pulselength of microwave emission, and mode competition. The electron beam driver producing an annular beam is the Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator (MELBA). The annular e-beam is spun up into an axis-encircling beam by passing it through a magnetic cusp prior to entering the RCS interaction cavity. Initial experimental results show a high degree of polarization [P(TE{sub 10})/P(TE{sub 01}) = 30 or 1/30] as a function of cavity fields. Megawatt microwave output shifts from the fundamental mode, which dominates the next order mode by an order of magnitude, to the next order mode as the field is raised from 1.4 to 1.7 kGauss. Frequency measurements using microstrip bandpass filters and a superheterodyne mixer support this result as well as MAGIC simulations. MAGIC code simulations using various magnetic fields will be presented as well as results utilizing the E-gun code.

  8. Targeting a Plk1-Controlled Polarity Checkpoint in Therapy-Resistant Glioblastoma-Propagating Cells.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Robin G; Grossauer, Stefan; Kadkhodaei, Banafsheh; Meyers, Ian; Sidorov, Maxim; Koeck, Katharina; Hashizume, Rintaro; Ozawa, Tomoko; Phillips, Joanna J; Berger, Mitchel S; Nicolaides, Theodore; James, C David; Petritsch, Claudia K

    2015-12-15

    The treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) remains challenging in part due to the presence of stem-like tumor-propagating cells that are resistant to standard therapies consisting of radiation and temozolomide. Among the novel and targeted agents under evaluation for the treatment of GBM are BRAF/MAPK inhibitors, but their effects on tumor-propagating cells are unclear. Here, we characterized the behaviors of CD133(+) tumor-propagating cells isolated from primary GBM cell lines. We show that CD133(+) cells exhibited decreased sensitivity to the antiproliferative effects of BRAF/MAPK inhibition compared to CD133(-) cells. Furthermore, CD133(+) cells exhibited an extended G2-M phase and increased polarized asymmetric cell divisions. At the molecular level, we observed that polo-like kinase (PLK) 1 activity was elevated in CD133(+) cells, prompting our investigation of BRAF/PLK1 combination treatment effects in an orthotopic GBM xenograft model. Combined inhibition of BRAF and PLK1 resulted in significantly greater antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects beyond those achieved by monotherapy (P < 0.05). We propose that PLK1 activity controls a polarity checkpoint and compensates for BRAF/MAPK inhibition in CD133(+) cells, suggesting the need for concurrent PLK1 inhibition to improve antitumor activity against a therapy-resistant cell compartment. Cancer Res; 75(24); 5355-66. 2015 AACR. PMID:26573800

  9. Optically controlled polarizer using a ladder transition for high speed Stokesmetric Imaging and Quantum Zeno Effect based optical logic.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Subramanian; Wang, Y; Tu, Y; Tseng, S; Shahriar, M S

    2013-10-21

    We demonstrate an optically controlled polarizer at ~1323 nm using a ladder transition in a Rb vapor cell. The lower leg of the 5S(1/2),F = 1->5P(1/2),F = 1,2->6S(1/2),F = 1,2 transitions is excited by a Ti:Sapphire laser locked to a saturated absorption signal, representing the control beam. A tunable fiber laser at ~1323 nm is used to excite the upper leg of the transitions, representing the signal beam. When the control beam is linearly polarized, it produces an excitation of the intermediate level with a particular orientation of the angular momentum. Under ideal conditions, this orientation is transparent to the signal beam if it has the same polarization as the control beam and is absorbed when it is polarized orthogonally. We also present numerical simulations of the system using a comprehensive model which incorporates all the relevant Zeeman sub-levels in the system, and identify means to improve the performance of the polarizer. A novel algorithm to compute the evolution of large scale quantum system enabled us to perform this computation, which may have been considered too cumbersome to carry out previously. We describe how such a polarizer may serve as a key component for high-speed Stokesmetric imaging. We also show how such a polarizer, combined with an optically controlled waveplate, recently demonstrated by us, can be used to realize a high speed optical logic gate by making use of the Quantum Zeno Effect. Finally, we describe how such a logic gate can be realized at an ultra-low power level using a tapered nanofiber embedded in a vapor cell. PMID:24150297

  10. Controlling the Hyperfine State of Rovibronic Ground-State Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ospelkaus, S.; Ni, K.-K.; Quemener, G.; Neyenhuis, B.; Wang, D.; Miranda, M. H. G. de; Bohn, J. L.; Ye, J.; Jin, D. S.

    2010-01-22

    We report the preparation of a rovibronic ground-state molecular quantum gas in a single hyperfine state and, in particular, the absolute lowest quantum state. This addresses the last internal degree of freedom remaining after the recent production of a near quantum degenerate gas of molecules in their rovibronic ground state, and provides a crucial step towards full control over molecular quantum gases. We demonstrate a scheme that is general for bialkali polar molecules and allows the preparation of molecules in a single hyperfine state or in an arbitrary coherent superposition of hyperfine states. The scheme relies on electric-dipole, two-photon microwave transitions through rotationally excited states and makes use of electric nuclear quadrupole interactions to transfer molecular population between different hyperfine states.

  11. DKIST controls model for synchronization of instrument cameras, polarization modulators, and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferayorni, Andrew; Beard, Andrew; Berst, Chris; Goodrich, Bret

    2014-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will include facility instruments that perform polarimetric observations of the sun. In order for an instrument to successfully perform these observations its Instrument Controller (IC) software must be able to tightly synchronize the activities of its sub-systems including polarization modulators, cameras, and mechanisms. In this paper we discuss the DKIST control model for synchronizing these sub-systems without the use of hardware trigger lines by using the DKIST Time Reference And Distribution System (TRADS) as a common time base and through sub-system control interfaces that support configuring the timing and cadence of their behavior. The DKIST Polarization Modulator Controller System (PMCS) provides an interface that allows the IC to characterize the rotation of the modulator in terms of a reference time (t0), rate, and start state. The DKIST Virtual Camera (VC) provides a complimentary interface that allows data acquisitions and accumulation sequences to be specified using a reference time (t0), rate, and execution block time slices, which are cumulative offsets from t0. Re-configuration of other instrument mechanisms such as filter, slits, or steering mirrors during the observation is the responsibility of the IC and must be carefully scheduled at known and pre-determined gaps in the VC data acquisition sequence. The DKIST TRADS provides an IEEE-1588-2008 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) service that is used to synchronize the activities of instrument sub-systems. The modulator, camera, and mechanism sub-systems subscribe to this service and can therefore perform their tasks according to a common time base. In this paper we discuss the design of the PMCS, VC, and mechanism control interfaces, and how the IC can use them to configure the behavior of these sub-systems during an observation. We also discuss the interface to TRADS and how it is used as a common time base in each of these sub-systems. We present our preliminary results of the system performance against known instrument use cases.

  12. Coherent electronic wave packet motion in C(60) controlled by the waveform and polarization of few-cycle laser fields.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Mignolet, B; Wachter, G; Skruszewicz, S; Zherebtsov, S; Sssmann, F; Kessel, A; Trushin, S A; Kling, Nora G; Kbel, M; Ahn, B; Kim, D; Ben-Itzhak, I; Cocke, C L; Fennel, T; Tiggesbumker, J; Meiwes-Broer, K-H; Lemell, C; Burgdrfer, J; Levine, R D; Remacle, F; Kling, M F

    2015-03-27

    Strong laser fields can be used to trigger an ultrafast molecular response that involves electronic excitation and ionization dynamics. Here, we report on the experimental control of the spatial localization of the electronic excitation in the C_{60} fullerene exerted by an intense few-cycle (4fs) pulse at 720nm. The control is achieved by tailoring the carrier-envelope phase and the polarization of the laser pulse. We find that the maxima and minima of the photoemission-asymmetry parameter along the laser-polarization axis are synchronized with the localization of the coherent electronic wave packet at around the time of ionization. PMID:25860740

  13. Polarization-controlled spin reorientation transition and resistive switching in ferromagnetic-ferroelectric nanostructures and tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertsev, N. A.; Viaud, G.; Dkhil, B.

    2014-07-01

    A spin reorientation transition (SRT) induced in a ferromagnetic nanolayer by the polarization switching in an adjoining ferroelectric film or bulk crystal is described theoretically. It is shown that such a polarization-controlled SRT can be realized in a narrow range of the nanolayer thicknesses only. Our calculations allowing for the polarization-dependent interfacial magnetic anisotropy predict that this "thickness window" is located between two threshold thicknesses, at which a size-induced SRT takes place in the ferromagnetic nanolayer at two different directions of the ferroelectric polarization. Importantly, the polarization-controlled SRT manifests itself in the resistance switching occurring in multiferroic tunnel junctions (MFTJs), where an ultrathin ferroelectric barrier is embedded between a ferromagnetic electrode with controllable magnetization and an electrode with a fixed magnetization. Using Fe/BaTiO3/Fe junctions as a representative example, we demonstrate that such MFTJs can be employed as electric-write nanoscale memory cells with reliable nondestructive readout and high thermal stability of information storage.

  14. Solar wind control of the open magnetosphere: Comparison of GGS/polar images and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, Andrew Lee

    This investigation explores the connection between the open polar cap magnetic flux ?PCF and interplanetary conditions. ? PCF is determined from GGS/Polar VIS Earth Camera far ultraviolet observations of the aurora borealis. Observations from the GGS/Wind SWE and MFI instruments are used to characterize the interplanetary conditions. Additional observations from the IMP-8 PLA and MAG instruments are used to evaluate solar wind propagation time delay estimation methods so that the GGS/Wind observations can be better associated with the GGS/Polar observations. This allows the GGS/Wind observations to be used to estimate the polar cap potential ?PCP values associated with the GGS/Polar ?PCF values. Statistical methods are applied to determine a proxy relationship between ?PCP and ?PCF. The Rice Field Model (RFM) is modified to accept ? PCF as a configuration parameter, and RFM polar caps are produced using ? PCF determined both directly from the GGS/Polar images and by the proxy relationship from the GGS/Wind data. The RFM is able to produce polar caps with the same areas and open magnetic fluxes as the GGS/Polar observations, but the agreement in the polar cap shapes and locations leaves opportunities for further improvements.

  15. Possible Composition of Martian Polar Caps and Controls on Ice-Cap Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    David Fisher asked "if martian polar caps flow." Are martian polar caps akin to Earth's polar glacial ice sheets, or are they immobile? Though certain dynamical differences are obvious, it is unknown whether similarities in ice tectonics may also exist. The question bears not only on modem martian polar processes, but perhaps on hypothesized glacial processes elsewhere on Mars in the geologic past. The rheological properties and tectonics of martian polar caps also pertain to the possibility that liquids may have existed beneath the polar caps in the past, or even now, and to prospects for life in possible lakes beneath the ice caps. The cold martian polar surface temperatures and the lower martian gravity suggest a reduced propensity of martian polar ice deposits to deform under their own weight. The greater accumulation timescales of the martian polar caps compared to Earth's also mean that more time has been available for accumulated deformation, possibly offsetting the effects of colder temperatures and lower gravity on Mars. Further complicating our understanding is that the martian polar caps may not be made purely of ordinary water ice - CO2 is another possible major constituent; the rheological and melting behavior may be very different from what we are accustomed to dealing with on Earth.

  16. Poldip2 controls vascular smooth muscle cell migration by regulating focal adhesion turnover and force polarization

    PubMed Central

    Datla, Srinivasa Raju; McGrail, Daniel J.; Vukelic, Sasa; Huff, Lauren P.; Lyle, Alicia N.; Pounkova, Lily; Lee, Minyoung; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie; Khalil, Mazen K.; Hilenski, Lula L.; Terada, Lance S.; Dawson, Michelle R.; Lassgue, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase-?-interacting protein 2 (Poldip2) interacts with NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) and regulates migration; however, the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated the role of Poldip2 in focal adhesion turnover, as well as traction force generation and polarization. Poldip2 overexpression (AdPoldip2) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) impairs PDGF-induced migration and induces a characteristic phenotype of long cytoplasmic extensions. AdPoldip2 also prevents the decrease in spreading and increased aspect ratio observed in response to PDGF and slightly impairs cell contraction. Moreover, AdPoldip2 blocks focal adhesion dissolution and sustains H2O2 levels in focal adhesions, whereas Poldip2 knockdown (siPoldip2) significantly decreases the number of focal adhesions. RhoA activity is unchanged when focal adhesion dissolution is stimulated in control cells but increases in AdPoldip2-treated cells. Inhibition of RhoA blocks Poldip2-mediated attenuation of focal adhesion dissolution, and overexpression of RhoA or focal adhesion kinase (FAK) reverses the loss of focal adhesions induced by siPoldip2, indicating that RhoA and FAK mediate the effect of Poldip2 on focal adhesions. Nox4 silencing prevents focal adhesion stabilization by AdPoldip2 and induces a phenotype similar to siPoldip2, suggesting a role for Nox4 in Poldip2-induced focal adhesion stability. As a consequence of impaired focal adhesion turnover, PDGF-treated AdPoldip2 cells are unable to reduce and polarize traction forces, a necessary first step in migration. These results implicate Poldip2 in VSMC migration via regulation of focal adhesion turnover and traction force generation in a Nox4/RhoA/FAK-dependent manner. PMID:25063792

  17. Non-equilibrium spin polarization via real-time control of spin fluctuations in a semiconductor nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddibhotla, Phani; Xue, Fei; Hauge, Ikaros; Bakkers, Erik; Poggio, Martino

    2013-03-01

    The implementation of electron spins as solid-state qubits suffers from decoherence due to its hyperfine interaction with the surrounding mesoscopic nuclear spin environment. Several methods such as complete polarization or narrowing of the nuclear spin ensemble have been proposed in order to address this issue. These proposals have been realized in quantum dots using an optical or electrical readout of the nuclear magnetic field. Here we demonstrate a similar control over a nanoscale ensemble of spins using the mechanical readout of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). We employ the exceptional sensitivity of MRFM to perform real-time measurement and control of an ensemble containing 105 nuclear spins in a semiconductor nanowire. We create hyperpolarized and narrowed nuclear spin states by harnessing the statistical fluctuations of the ensemble. Furthermore, we capture large nuclear polarization fluctuations, store them for many seconds, and read the polarization out.

  18. Control of electron localization in the dissociation of H2+ using orthogonally polarized two-color sequential laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Feng

    2012-12-01

    Orthogonally polarized two-color sequential laser pulses are used to control the electron localization in the dissociation of H2+. The first single attosecond pulse, whose polarization axis is perpendicular to the molecular axis, excites H2+ from 1sσg to 2pπu, and the time-delayed infrared pulse, whose polarization axis is parallel to the molecular axis, steers the electron between two nuclei. The simulation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation predicts the control degree of the electron localization can be up to 90% with the current laser technology. In this article, we reveal that the mechanism for this asymmetric localization is due to the mixture of 2pπg and 2pπu, instead of 1sσgand 2pσu in the previous studies.

  19. Topographic cell instructive patterns to control cell adhesion, polarization and migration

    PubMed Central

    Ventre, Maurizio; Natale, Carlo Fortunato; Rianna, Carmela; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Topographic patterns are known to affect cellular processes such as adhesion, migration and differentiation. However, the optimal way to deliver topographic signals to provide cells with precise instructions has not been defined yet. In this work, we hypothesize that topographic patterns may be able to control the sensing and adhesion machinery of cells when their interval features are tuned on the characteristic lengths of filopodial probing and focal adhesions (FAs). Features separated by distance beyond the length of filopodia cannot be readily perceived; therefore, the formation of new adhesions is discouraged. If, however, topographic features are separated by a distance within the reach of filopodia extension, cells can establish contact between adjacent topographic islands. In the latter case, cell adhesion and polarization rely upon the growth of FAs occurring on a specific length scale that depends on the chemical properties of the surface. Topographic patterns and chemical properties may interfere with the growth of FAs, thus making adhesions unstable. To test this hypothesis, we fabricated different micropatterned surfaces displaying feature dimensions and adhesive properties able to interfere with the filopodial sensing and the adhesion maturation, selectively. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to exert a potent control on cell adhesion, elongation and migration by tuning topographic features dimensions and surface chemistry. PMID:25253035

  20. Controllable valley and spin-polarized transport and negative magnetoresistance in a silicene junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhi Ping; Dong, Shihao

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the valley and spin-resolved transport through a ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic silicene junction. For the normal silicene junction with zero exchange field in the presence of photo-irradiation, we observe a 100% valley/spin polarization by modulating the energy E. By enhancing the strength of the photo-irradiation or the gate voltage in the middle layer V M , a 100% spin and large valley polarization can be found. If the staggered exchange field is considered instead of the photo-irradiation, by tuning E a fully polarized valley/spin transport is demonstrated. By tuning the staggered exchange field or V M , a 100% valley and large spin polarization can be seen. In the ferromagnetic/normal/ferromagnetic junction, depending on the polarized direction of the circularly polarized light, a large negative or positive magnetoresistance can be obtained. The results obtained here can be explained by the band structures of the device.

  1. Distinct Roles for Two G?G? Interfaces in Cell Polarity Control by a Yeast Heterotrimeric G Protein

    PubMed Central

    Strickfaden, Shelly C.

    2008-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating pheromones trigger dissociation of a heterotrimeric G protein (G???) into G?-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and G??. The G?? dimer regulates both mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade signaling and cell polarization. Here, by independently activating the MAP kinase pathway, we studied the polarity role of G?? in isolation from its signaling role. MAP kinase signaling alone could induce cell asymmetry but not directional growth. Surprisingly, active G??, either alone or with G?-GTP, could not organize a persistent polarization axis. Instead, following pheromone gradients (chemotropism) or directional growth without pheromone gradients (de novo polarization) required an intact receptorG??? module and GTP hydrolysis by G?. Our results indicate that chemoattractant-induced cell polarization requires continuous receptorG??? communication but not modulation of MAP kinase signaling. To explore regulation of G?? by G?, we mutated G? residues in two structurally distinct G?G? binding interfaces. Polarity control was disrupted only by mutations in the N-terminal interface, and not the Switch interface. Incorporation of these mutations into a G?G? fusion protein, which enforces subunit proximity, revealed that Switch interface dissociation regulates signaling, whereas the N-terminal interface may govern receptorG??? coupling. These findings raise the possibility that the G??? heterotrimer can function in a partially dissociated state, tethered by the N-terminal interface. PMID:17978098

  2. A 20 km/80 Gbps bidirectional PON employing three-stage injection-locked VCSELs/NDFs/OBPFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Lin, Che-Yu; Wan, Zhi-Wei; Cheng, Chun-Jen

    2015-12-01

    A 20 km/80 Gbps bidirectional passive optical network (PON) employing three-stage, injection-locked, 1.55 μm, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), negative dispersion fibers (NDFs), and optical band-pass filters (OBPFs) is proposed and demonstrated. The three-stage injection-locked technique, which can greatly increase the frequency response of VCSELs, is thereby expected to provide excellent transmission performance in a bi-directional PON. To be the first one of employing directly modulated, three-stage injection-locked, 1.55 μm, VCSELs; NDFs; and OBPFs results in excellent bit error rate (BER) performance, and clear eye diagrams are obtained for 20 km/80 Gbps, bidirectional PON applications. Such a novel bidirectional PON provides the advantage of a communication link for high data rates that could accelerate bidirectional PON deployment.

  3. Low-voltage, high-speed and compact electro-absorption modulator laterally integrated with 980-nm VCSEL.

    PubMed

    Dalir, Hamed; Takahashi, Yuta; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-10-20

    We present a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with a 980-nm VCSEL. We figured out the small signal modulation response for different modulator lengths. While the 3-dB small-signal modulation bandwidth of conventional directly modulated VCSELs on the same epi-wafer structure was limited below 10 GHz, we obtained a modulation bandwidth over 21 GHz for a 30 m long modulator. We also demonstrated large signal modulation up to 25 Gbps with a low driving voltage below 600 mV(pp) and an extinction ratio of 4 dB for the modulator length of 50 m. Prospects of much higher speed (> 40 Gbps) were examined with reducing the size of the modulator. Also, the tapered waveguide coupling structure enables "quasi-unidirectional coupling", which reduces the optical feedback in a VCSEL from the integrated modulator. PMID:25401608

  4. 0.9W compact UV pulsed lasers using high-power VCSEL array side-pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tong; Xu, Bing; Van Leeuwen, Robert; Zhao, Pu; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Miglo, Alexander; Wang, Qing; Ghosh, Chuni

    2013-02-01

    A compact UV pulsed laser pumped by high-power two-dimensional arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) was presented. A passively Q-switched 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser was side-pumped by kW-class 808-nm VCSEL pump modules and the output pulses were frequency quadrupled to 266-nm. 10-ns, 0.68-mJ UV pulsed output was obtained at 1.33k-Hz repetition rate. The average UV power is < 0.9-W. This VCSEL pumped high power UV laser source provides a reliable, low-cost and low-profile solution for military and commercial applications including remote sensing, laser processing and spectroscopy.

  5. Polarization Control of Morphological Pattern Orientation During Light-Mediated Synthesis of Nanostructured Se-Te Films.

    PubMed

    Carim, Azhar I; Batara, Nicolas A; Premkumar, Anjali; Atwater, Harry A; Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-26

    The template-free growth of well ordered, highly anisotropic lamellar structures has been demonstrated during the photoelectrodeposition of Se-Te films, wherein the orientation of the pattern can be directed by orienting the linear polarization of the incident light. This control mechanism was investigated further herein by examining the morphologies of films grown photoelectrochemically using light from two simultaneous sources that had mutually different linear polarizations. Photoelectrochemical growth with light from two nonorthogonally polarized same-wavelength sources generated lamellar morphologies in which the long axes of the lamellae were oriented parallel to the intensity-weighted average polarization orientation. Simulations of light scattering at the solution-film interface were consistent with this observation. Computer modeling of these growths using combined full-wave electromagnetic and Monte Carlo growth simulations successfully reproduced the experimental morphologies and quantitatively agreed with the pattern orientations observed experimentally by considering only the fundamental light-material interactions during growth. Deposition with light from two orthogonally polarized same-wavelength as well as different-wavelength sources produced structures that consisted of two intersecting sets of orthogonally oriented lamellae in which the relative heights of the two sets could be varied by adjusting the relative source intensities. Simulations of light absorption were performed in analogous, idealized intersecting lamellar structures and revealed that the lamellae preferentially absorbed light polarized with the electric field vector along their long axes. These data sets cumulatively indicate that anisotropic light scattering and light absorption generated by the light polarization produces the anisotropic morphology and that the resultant morphology is a function of all illumination inputs despite differing polarizations. PMID:26592096

  6. Electron ionization and spin polarization control of Fe atom adsorbed graphene irradiated by a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dong; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Feng; Li, Xin; Qu, Liangti; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the structural properties and ionized spin electrons of an Fe-graphene system, in which the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the generalized gradient approximation is used. The electron dynamics, including electron ionization and ionized electron spin polarization, is described for Fe atom adsorbed graphene under femtosecond laser irradiation. The theoretical results show that the electron ionization and ionized electron spin polarization are sensitive to the laser parameters, such as the incident angle and the peak intensity. The spin polarization presents the maximum value under certain laser parameters, which may be used as a source of spin-polarized electrons.

  7. Pulse width shaping of passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser via polarization control in carbon nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hwanseong; Choi, Sun Young; Rotermund, Fabian; Yeom, Dong-Il

    2013-11-01

    We report the continuous control of the pulse width of a passively mode-locked fiber laser via polarization state adjustment in a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA). The SWCNT, coated on the side-polished fiber, was fabricated with optimized conditions and used for stable mode-locking of the fiber laser without Q-switching instabilities for any polarization state of the laser intra-cavity. The 3-dB spectral bandwidth of the mode-locked pulses can be continuously tuned from 1.8 nm to 8.5 nm with the polarization control for a given laser cavity length and applied pump power. A pulse duration varying from 470 fs to 1.6 ps was also observed with a change in the spectral bandwidth. The linear and the nonlinear transmission properties of the SA were analyzed, and found to exhibit different modulation depths depending on the input polarization state in the SA. The largest modulation depth of the SA was observed at the polarization state of the transverse electric mode that delivers shortest pulses at the laser output. PMID:24216924

  8. Catalyst-site-controlled coordination polymerization of polar vinyl monomers to highly syndiotactic polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuetao; Ning, Yalan; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2010-03-01

    This contribution reports a combined synthetic, kinetic, mechanistic, and theoretical/computational study of the recently discovered catalyst-site-controlled coordination polymerization of polar vinyl monomers [such as methyl methacrylate (MMA) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA)] into highly syndiotactic polymers. Among the 12 C(s)-ligated ansa-cyclopentadienyl (Cp)-R(2)E(C,Si)-fluorenyl (Flu) group 4 metallocene catalyst systems examined-which varied in metal center, anion structure, bridging atom and substituents, and ligand substitution pattern-cationic ansa-metallocene ester enolate catalyst 6(+)[B(C(6)F(5))(4)](-), derived from the activation of the precatalyst [Ph(2)C(Cp)(2,7-(t)Bu(2)-Flu)]Zr[OC(O(i)Pr)=CMe(2)](2) with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)], stood out as the best catalyst in all aspects of the MMA polymerization at room temperature, including the highest activity (1554 h(-1) TOF), efficiency (98% I*), syndiotacticity (94% rr), and control (predicted number-average molecular weight and 1.14 molecular weight distribution). Kinetic and mechanistic results are consistent with a catalyst-site-controlled, monometallic coordination-addition mechanism, involving fast intramolecular addition within the catalyst-monomer complex leading to the resting eight-membered ester enolate chelate, followed by the rate-limiting ring-opening of the chelate to regenerate the active species. This work has also uncovered several unique features of this polymerization system that are in marked contrast to the propylene polymerization by analogous C(s)-ligated cationic alkyl catalysts: a constant syndiotacticity of PMMA produced over a wide polymerization temperature range (i.e., from 0 degrees C, 94% rr to 25 degrees C, 94% rr to 50 degrees C, 93% rr); insensitivity of its high activity, degree of control, and stereoselectivity to solvent polarity and structure of weakly coordinating anions; and deviation from a pure site-control mechanism at high [MMA]/[catalyst] ratios. Computational results provide theoretical support for the proposed monomer-assisted, catalyst-site epimerization, after an enantiofacial mistake, to a thermodynamically more stable resting state, which accounts for the observed higher than expected [mr] contents based on a pure site-controlled mechanism. DFT calculations rationalize why the Ph(2)C< bridged catalyst 6 exhibits higher stereoselectivity than other catalysts with the Me(2)C< or Me(2)Si< bridge: the bridge rigidity pushes the eta(3)-bound Flu ligand closer to the growing chain and the monomer, thereby increasing DeltaE(stereo) between the competing transition states for the addition of a monomer molecule to the opposite (correct and wrong) enantiofaces of the enolate growing chain. The relative polymerization activity of this catalyst series is shown to correlate with the relative energetics of the back-biting of the penultimate unit and ion-pair formation. PMID:20121281

  9. Calibration and Field Deployment of the NSF G-V VCSEL Hygrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGangi, J. P.; O'Brien, A.; Diao, M.; Hamm, C.; Zhang, Q.; Beaton, S. P.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cloud formation and dynamics have a significant influence on the Earth's radiative forcing budget, which illustrates the importance of clouds with respect to global climate. Therefore, an accurate understanding of the microscale processes dictating cloud formation is crucial for accurate computer modeling of global climate change. A critical tool for understanding these processes from an airborne platform is an instrument capable of measuring water vapor with both high accuracy and time, thus spatial, resolution. Our work focuses on an open-path, compact, vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) absorption-based hygrometer, capable of 25 Hz temporal resolution, deployed on the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream-V aircraft platform. The open path nature of our instrument also helps to minimize sampling artifacts. We will discuss our efforts toward achieving within 5% accuracy over 5 orders of magnitude of water vapor concentrations. This involves an intercomparison of five independent calibration methods: ice surface saturators using an oil temperature bath, solvent slush baths (e.g. chloroform/LN2, water/ice), a research-grade frost point hygrometer, static pressure experiments, and Pt catalyzed hydrogen gas. This wide variety of available tools allows us to accurately constrain the calibrant water vapor concentrations both before and after the VCSEL hygrometer sampling chamber. For example, the mixing ratio as measured by research-grade frost point hygrometer after the VCSEL hygrometer agreed within 2% of the mixing ration expected from the water/ice bubbler source before the VCSEL over the temperature range -50C to 20C. Finally, due to the compact nature of our instrument, we are able to perform these calibrations simultaneously at the same temperatures (-80C to 30C) and pressures (150 mbar to 760 mbar) as sampled ambient air during a flight. This higher accuracy can significantly influence the science utilizing this data, which we will illustrate using preliminary data from our most recent field deployment, the NSF Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment in May-June 2012

  10. In-plane integration of VCSEL with photo-detector by using laterally coupled cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    A novel concept to form a photo-detector integrated VCSELs using transverse-coupled-cavity (TCC) scheme is demonstrated. In our configuration one cavity suppressed by the reverse bias voltage at 1volt, while the other cavity used as a laser. Proton-implantation was used in order to prevent the current leakage. The formation aperture diameter of each cavity gives us multimode and quasi-single mode condition. Our preliminary results on L-I indicate the possibility of continues tracking of photocurrent in the range of 0.7- 10 mA, which is limited by the threshold and saturation level of the laser side cavity.

  11. Phase-sensitive swept source OCT imaging of the human retina with a VCSEL light source

    PubMed Central

    Choi, WooJhon; Potsaid, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Baumann, Bernhard; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Liu, Jonathan J.; Lu, Chen D.; Cable, Alex E.; Huang, David; Duker, Jay S.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the challenges in achieving high phase stability, Doppler swept source / Fourier domain OCT has advantages of less fringe washout and faster imaging speeds compared to spectral / Fourier domain detection. This manuscript demonstrates swept source OCT with a VCSEL light source at 400kHz sweep rate for phase-sensitive Doppler imaging, measuring pulsatile total retinal blood flow with high sensitivity and phase stability. A robust, simple, and computationally efficient phase stabilization approach for phase-sensitive swept source imaging is also presented. PMID:23381430

  12. Design and analysis of VCSEL-based two-dimension wavelength converter by using developed TLLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hairong; Shum, Ping; Kao, Ming-Seng

    2004-05-01

    We develop a complete two-dimension transmission line laser model (TLLM) to analyze the proposed twodimension vertical cavity surface emission laser (VCSEL) based wavelength converter. Modified connecting matrices are used to model the Bragg reflectors. The longitudinal variations of carrier density, photon density and the amplified spontaneous emission noise are taken into account. Therefore, extinction ratio, frequency chirping, optical pulse patterns and dynamic characteristics can be accurately estimated. In this paper, extinction ratio and frequency chirp of the output signal have been calculated for various parameters such as wavelength, input signal power, cavity diameter and facet reflectivity.

  13. Monolithic high-index contrast grating: a material independent high-reflectance VCSEL mirror.

    PubMed

    G?bski, M; Dems, M; Szerling, A; Motyka, M; Marona, L; Kruszka, R; Urba?czyk, D; Walczakowski, M; Pa?ka, N; Wjcik-Jedli?ska, A; Wang, Q J; Zhang, D H; Bugajski, M; Wasiak, M; Czyszanowski, T

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present an extensive theoretical and numerical analysis of monolithic high-index contrast grating, facilitating simple manufacture of compact mirrors for very broad spectrum of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting from ultraviolet to mid-infrared. We provide the theoretical background explaining the phenomenon of high reflectance in monolithic subwavelength gratings. In addition, by using a three-dimensional, fully vectorial optical model, verified by comparison with the experiment, we investigate the optimal parameters of high-index contrast grating enabling more than 99.99% reflectance in the diversity of photonic materials and in the broad range of wavelengths. PMID:25969259

  14. Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; Finetti, Paola; Mahieu, Benoît; Viefhaus, Jens; Zangrando, Marco; De Ninno, Giovanni; Lambert, Guillaume; Ferrari, Eugenio; et al

    2014-12-02

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independentmore » instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90% and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.« less

  15. Control of the Polarization of a Vacuum-Ultraviolet, High-Gain, Free-Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; Finetti, Paola; Mahieu, Benoît; Viefhaus, Jens; Zangrando, Marco; De Ninno, Giovanni; Lambert, Guillaume; Ferrari, Eugenio; Buck, Jens; Ilchen, Markus; Vodungbo, Boris; Mahne, Nicola; Svetina, Cristian; Spezzani, Carlo; Di Mitri, Simone; Penco, Giuseppe; Trovó, Mauro; Fawley, William M.; Rebernik, Primoz R.; Gauthier, David; Grazioli, Cesare; Coreno, Marcello; Ressel, Barbara; Kivimäki, Antti; Mazza, Tommaso; Glaser, Leif; Scholz, Frank; Seltmann, Joern; Gessler, Patrick; Grünert, Jan; De Fanis, Alberto; Meyer, Michael; Knie, André; Moeller, Stefan P.; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Capotondi, Flavio; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Plekan, Oksana; Danailov, Miltcho B.; Demidovich, Alexander; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Abrami, Alessandro; Gautier, Julien; Lüning, Jan; Zeitoun, Philippe; Giannessi, Luca

    2014-10-01

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independent instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90 % and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.

  16. Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; Finetti, Paola; Mahieu, Benoît; Viefhaus, Jens; Zangrando, Marco; De Ninno, Giovanni; Lambert, Guillaume; Ferrari, Eugenio; Buck, Jens; Ilchen, Markus; Vodungbo, Boris; Mahne, Nicola; Svetina, Cristian; Spezzani, Carlo; Di Mitri, Simone; Penco, Giuseppe; Trovó, Mauro; Fawley, William M.; Rebernik, Primoz R.; Gauthier, David; Grazioli, Cesare; Coreno, Marcello; Ressel, Barbara; Kivimäki, Antti; Mazza, Tommaso; Glaser, Leif; Scholz, Frank; Seltmann, Joern; Gessler, Patrick; Grünert, Jan; De Fanis, Alberto; Meyer, Michael; Knie, André; Moeller, Stefan P.; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Capotondi, Flavio; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Plekan, Oksana; Danailov, Miltcho B.; Demidovich, Alexander; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Abrami, Alessandro; Gautier, Julien; Lüning, Jan; Zeitoun, Philippe; Giannessi, Luca

    2014-12-02

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independent instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90% and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.

  17. Subwavelength polarization beam splitter with controllable splitting ratio based on surface plasmon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Song, Gang; Xiao, Jinghua; Yu, Li; Zhang, Jiasen

    2013-01-14

    We propose a novel V-shaped Ag nanowire structure as a subwavelength polarization beam splitter. When an incident light is focused onto the junction of the two branches, two surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are launched and propagate along the two branches. The polarizations of the emission light from the two ends are always parallel to the directions of the branches and the splitting ratio can be adjusted by changing the polarization of the incident light. The polarization characteristic originates from the fact that only single plasmonic waveguide mode exists in the thin nanowire and high order modes are cutoff. The near-field coupling between the two branches dominates the SPPs launching and the splitting ratio, which are very different with the single nanowire case. The V-shaped nanowire structure will have many potential applications in the integration of plasmonic devices, such as plasmonic router or polarizer. PMID:23388925

  18. Polarized linewidth-controllable double-trapping electromagnetically induced transparency spectra in a resonant plasmon nanocavity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luojia; Gu, Ying; Chen, Hongyi; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Cui, Yiping; Gerardot, Brian D.; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    Surface plasmons with ultrasmall optical mode volume and strong near field enhancement can be used to realize nanoscale light-matter interaction. Combining surface plasmons with the quantum system provides the possibility of nanoscale realization of important quantum optical phenomena, including the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), which has many applications in nonlinear quantum optics and quantum information processing. Here, using a custom-designed resonant plasmon nanocavity, we demonstrate polarized position-dependent linewidth-controllable EIT spectra at the nanoscale. We analytically obtain the double coherent population trapping conditions in a double-Λ quantum system with crossing damping, which give two transparent points in the EIT spectra. The linewidths of the three peaks are extremely sensitive to the level spacing of the excited states, the Rabi frequencies and detunings of pump fields, and the Purcell factors. In particular the linewidth of the central peak is exceptionally narrow. The hybrid system may have potential applications in ultra-compact plasmon-quantum devices. PMID:24096943

  19. The planar cell polarity effector protein Wdpcp (Fritz) controls epithelial cell cortex dynamics via septins and actomyosin

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae Joo; Kim, Su Kyoung; Wallingford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling controls polarized behaviors in diverse tissues, including the collective cell movements of gastrulation and the planar polarized beating of motile cilia. A major question in PCP signaling concerns the mechanisms linking this signaling cascade with more general cytoskeletal elements to drive polarized behavior. Previously, we reported that the PCP effector protein Wdpcp (formerly known as Fritz) interacts with septins and is critical for collective cell migration and cilia formation. Here, we report that Wdpcp is broadly involved in maintaining cortical tension in epithelial cells. In vivo 3D time-lapse imaging revealed that Wdpcp is necessary for basolateral plasma membrane stability in epithelial tissues, and we further show that Wdpcp controls cortical septin localization to maintain cortical rigidity in mucociliary epithelial cells. Finally, we show that Wdpcp acts via actomyosin to maintain balanced cortical tension in the epithelium. These data suggest that, in addition to its role in controlling plasma membrane dynamics in collective mesenchymal cell movements, Wdpcp is also essential for normal cell cortex stability during epithelial homeostasis. PMID:25436430

  20. Equilibrium polarization of ultrathin PbTiO{<_3} with surface compensation controlled by oxygen partial pressure.

    SciTech Connect

    Highland, M. J.; Fister, T. T.; Fong, D. D.; Fuoss, P. H.; Thompson, C.; Eastman, J. A.; Streiffer, S. K.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a synchrotron x-ray study of the equilibrium polarization structure of ultrathin PbTiO{sub 3} films on SrRuO{sub 3} electrodes epitaxially grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates, as a function of temperature and the external oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) controlling their surface charge compensation. We find that the ferroelectric Curie temperature (T{sub c}) varies with pO{sub 2} and has a minimum at the intermediate pO{sub 2}, where the polarization below T{sub c} changes sign. The experiments are in qualitative agreement with a model based on Landau theory that takes into account the interaction of the phase transition with the electrochemical equilibria for charged surface species. The paraelectric phase is stabilized at intermediate pO2 when the concentrations of surface species are insufficient to compensate either polar orientation.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of polarization switching of a 1550-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonal optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2014-11-01

    Nonlinear dynamics associated with polarization switching (PS) in a 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with orthogonal optical injection is investigated theoretically by scanning the injected power. The results show that, adjusting injected powers may induce complex variation of dynamical state of each polarization mode and PS. When the PS happens, its dynamical states can be located at an injection locking state or not, which depends on the frequency detuning between the injected field and the VCSEL. Detailed mappings of polarization-resolved nonlinear dynamical states are calculated to unveil a rich variety of dynamical scenarios for different scanning routes of injected power in the parameter space of injected power and frequency detuning, and show that the dynamical states and PS are critically dependent on the scanning routes of the injected power under the case of larger current.

  2. Using a Sharp Metal Tip to Control the Polarization and Direction of Emission from a Quantum Dot

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Anil; Shafran, Eyal; Gerton, Jordan M.

    2014-01-01

    Optical antennas can be used to manipulate the direction and polarization of radiation from an emitter. Usually, these metallic nanostructures utilize localized plasmon resonances to generate highly directional and strongly polarized emission, which is determined predominantly by the antenna geometry alone, and is thus not easily tuned. Here we show experimentally that the emission polarization can be manipulated using a simple, nonresonant scanning probe consisting of the sharp metallic tip of an atomic force microscope; finite element simulations reveal that the emission simultaneously becomes highly directional. Together, the measurements and simulations demonstrate that interference between light emitted directly into the far field with that elastically scattered from the tip apex in the near field is responsible for this control over polarization and directionality. Due to the relatively weak emitter-tip coupling, the tip must be positioned very precisely near the emitter, but this weak coupling also leads to highly tunable emission properties with a similar degree of polarization and directionality compared to resonant antennas. PMID:25248420

  3. Photoelectron emission control with polarized light in plasmonic metal random structures

    SciTech Connect

    Word, R. C.; Fitzgerald, J.; Koenenkamp, R.

    2011-07-25

    We report on the possibility of switching the emission rate of photoelectrons by polarization changes in the plasmon excitation light. Photoelectron emission is strongly enhanced in the near-field of localized surface plasmons and occurs from areas with typical diameters of 20-70 nm. The underlying physical process involves excitation of a localized surface plasmon polariton with a femtosecond laser pulse, and a subsequent multi-photon photoemission process. The non-linearity of this process leads to a sharp polarization dependence that allows efficient switching of the emission. We demonstrate that a 90 deg. polarization change can result in on/off ratios of {approx}100 for electron emission.

  4. A method for polarization control and analysis on Bonse-Hart double-crystal USANS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littrell, Kenneth C.; Lee, Wai Tung

    2004-03-01

    The use of polarized beams and polarization analysis is an area of increasing interest to the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) community. Since the angular acceptance of a DCD USANS instrument is very narrow, magnetic prisms can be exploited to select polarization. We compare two schemes by which this can be accomplished and describe how this method can be adapted for use on time-of-flight DCD USANS instruments. The wavelength dispersion of the prism can be used on steady-state instruments to select or suppress higher harmonics of the characteristic incident wavelength.

  5. Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Potsaid, Benjamin; Tao, Yuankai K.; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Jiang, James; Heim, Peter J. S.; Kraus, Martin F.; Zhou, Chao; Hornegger, Joachim; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Cable, Alex E.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a micromotor based miniature catheter with an outer diameter of 3.2 mm for ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) at a 1 MHz axial scan rate. The micromotor can rotate a micro-prism at several hundred frames per second with less than 5 V drive voltage to provide fast and stable scanning, which is not sensitive to the bending of the catheter. The side-viewing probe can be pulled back to acquire a three-dimensional (3D) data set covering a large area on the specimen. The VCSEL provides a high axial scan rate to support dense sampling under high frame rate operation. Using a high speed data acquisition system, in vivo 3D-OCT imaging in the rabbit GI tract and ex vivo imaging of a human colon specimen with 8 ?m axial resolution, 8 ?m lateral resolution and 1.2 mm depth range in tissue at a frame rate of 400 fps was demonstrated. PMID:23847737

  6. Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Potsaid, Benjamin; Tao, Yuankai K; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Jiang, James; Heim, Peter J S; Kraus, Martin F; Zhou, Chao; Hornegger, Joachim; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Cable, Alex E; Fujimoto, James G

    2013-07-01

    We developed a micromotor based miniature catheter with an outer diameter of 3.2 mm for ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) at a 1 MHz axial scan rate. The micromotor can rotate a micro-prism at several hundred frames per second with less than 5 V drive voltage to provide fast and stable scanning, which is not sensitive to the bending of the catheter. The side-viewing probe can be pulled back to acquire a three-dimensional (3D) data set covering a large area on the specimen. The VCSEL provides a high axial scan rate to support dense sampling under high frame rate operation. Using a high speed data acquisition system, in vivo 3D-OCT imaging in the rabbit GI tract and ex vivo imaging of a human colon specimen with 8 ?m axial resolution, 8 ?m lateral resolution and 1.2 mm depth range in tissue at a frame rate of 400 fps was demonstrated. PMID:23847737

  7. Temperature-enhanced radial current spreading in possible VCSEL structures of nitride lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarzala, R. P.; Mackowiak, P.; Nakwaski, W.

    2002-03-01

    A computer simulation based on an advanced self-consistent thermal-electrical finite-element approach has been carried out to analyse electrical and thermal phenomena in possible electrically-biased axially-symmetric annular-contacted nitride VCSELs (vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers). Joule heating within the upper p-type GaN layer has been determined to be the distinctly dominant heat source in this device. Our analysis revealed that during a continuous-wave (CW) room-temperature (RT) device operation, the highest-temperature area constitutes a ring within the above-mentioned layer close to the active-region perimeter. It dramatically enhances radial current flow from the annular p-side contact towards the centre of the structure before crossing the p-n junction. Therefore current injection into a central active region is considerably improved (by almost 170%!) in RT CW-operating nitride devices as compared with pulse-operating ones. Hence temperature-enhanced radial current spreading within the upper part of the annular-contacted CW nitride VCSELs may enable one to obtain their first RT operation.

  8. InAlGaP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs): Processing and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, M.H.; Choquette, K.D.; Hickman, R.J.; Geib, K.M.

    1997-06-01

    (Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1{minus}y}){sup 1{minus}x}In{sub x}P semiconductor alloys lattice-matched to GaAs are widely used in visible optoelectronic devices. One of the most recent developments in this area is the AlGaInP-based red vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). These lasers, which employ AlGaInP active regions and AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), have demonstrated continuous-wave (CW) lasing over the 630--690 nm region of the spectrum. Applications for these lasers include plastic fiber data communications, laser printing and bar code scanning. In this paper, the authors present an overview of recent developments in the processing and performance of AlGaInP based VCSELs. This overview will include a review of the general heterostructure designs that have been employed, as well as the performance of lasers fabricated by both ion implantation and selective oxidation.

  9. c21orf59/kurly Controls Both Cilia Motility and Polarization.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Kimberly M; Grimes, Daniel T; Schottenfeld-Roames, Jodi; Werner, Michael E; Ku, Tse-Shuen J; Kim, Sun K; Pelliccia, Jose L; Morante, Nicholas F C; Mitchell, Brian J; Burdine, Rebecca D

    2016-03-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based projections that function in the movement of extracellular fluid. This requires cilia to be: (1) motile and driven by dynein complexes and (2) correctly polarized on the surface of cells, which requires planar cell polarity (PCP). Few factors that regulate both processes have been discovered. We reveal that C21orf59/Kurly (Kur), a cytoplasmic protein with some enrichment at the base of cilia, is needed for motility; zebrafish mutants exhibit characteristic developmental abnormalities and dynein arm defects. kur was also required for proper cilia polarization in the zebrafish kidney and the larval skin of Xenopus laevis. CRISPR/Cas9 coupled with homologous recombination to disrupt the endogenous kur locus in Xenopus resulted in the asymmetric localization of the PCP protein Prickle2 being lost in mutant multiciliated cells. Kur also makes interactions with other PCP components, including Disheveled. This supports a model wherein Kur plays a dual role in cilia motility and polarization. PMID:26904945

  10. SHG microscopy excited by polarization controlled beam for three-dimensional molecular orientation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiki, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Araki, T.

    2006-08-01

    We have developed a second-harmonic-generation (SGH) microscope to observe the three-dimensional molecular orientation with three-dimensional high spatial resolution using a polarization mode converter. The mode converter consists of a parallel-aligned nematic-liquid-crystal spatial-light-modulator (PAL-SLM) and quarter-waveplates, and converts a incident linearly polarized beam to orthogonal linearly polarized beams or radially polarized beam. We combined the mode converter with SHG microscope to obtain the local information of the three-dimensional molecular orientation. We demonstrated the detection of three-dimensional molecular orientation of collagen fiber in human Achilles' tendon. For high precision three-dimensional molecular orientation measurement, we propose a technique to calibrate the dependence of SHG detection efficiencies on molecular orientation using a liposome.

  11. The Formin FMNL3 Controls Early Apical Specification in Endothelial Cells by Regulating the Polarized Trafficking of Podocalyxin.

    PubMed

    Richards, Mark; Hetheridge, Clare; Mellor, Harry

    2015-08-31

    Angiogenesis is the fundamental process by which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vasculature. It plays a critical role in the formation of the vasculature during development and is triggered in response to tissue hypoxia in adult organisms. This process requires complex and coordinated regulation of the endothelial cell cytoskeleton to control cell shape and polarity. In our previous work, we showed that the cytoskeletal regulator FMNL3/FRL2 controls the alignment of stabilized microtubules during polarized endothelial cell elongation and that depletion of FMNL3 retards elongation of the intersegmental vessels in zebrafish. Recent work has shown that FMNL3 is also needed for vascular lumen formation, a critical element of the formation of functional vessels. Here, we show that FMNL3 interacts with Cdc42 and RhoJ, two Rho family GTPases known to be required for lumen formation. FMNL3 and RhoJ are concentrated at the early apical surface, or AMIS, and regulate the formation of radiating actin cables from this site. In diverse biological systems, formins mediate polarized trafficking through the generation of similar actin filaments tracks. We show that FMNL3 and RhoJ are required for polarized trafficking of podocalyxin to the early apical surface--an important event in vascular lumenogenesis. PMID:26299518

  12. A compact, portable and low cost generic interrogation strain sensor system using an embedded VCSEL, detector and fibre Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Graham C. B.; Van Hoe, Bram; Yan, Zhijun; Maskery, Oliver; Sugden, Kate; Webb, David; Van Steenberge, Geert

    2012-03-01

    We present a compact, portable and low cost generic interrogation strain sensor system using a fibre Bragg grating configured in transmission mode with a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) light source and a GaAs photodetector embedded in a polymer skin. The photocurrent value is read and stored by a microcontroller. In addition, the photocurrent data is sent via Bluetooth to a computer or tablet device that can present the live data in a real time graph. With a matched grating and VCSEL, the system is able to automatically scan and lock the VCSEL to the most sensitive edge of the grating. Commercially available VCSEL and photodetector chips are thinned down to 20 ?m and integrated in an ultra-thin flexible optical foil using several thin film deposition steps. A dedicated micro mirror plug is fabricated to couple the driving optoelectronics to the fibre sensors. The resulting optoelectronic package can be embedded in a thin, planar sensing sheet and the host material for this sheet is a flexible and stretchable polymer. The result is a fully embedded fibre sensing system - a photonic skin. Further investigations are currently being carried out to determine the stability and robustness of the embedded optoelectronic components.

  13. A fundamental mode Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by a large aperture 808 nm VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y. Q.; Ma, J. L.; Yan, C. L.; Liu, G. J.; Ma, X. H.; Gong, J. F.; Feng, Y.; Wei, Z. P.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, Y. J.

    2013-05-01

    A fundamental mode Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is experimentally demonstrated. The VCSEL has a circular output-beam which makes it easier for it to be directly coupled to a Nd:GdVO4 microcrystal. In our research, a large aperture 808 nm VCSEL, with a multi-ring-shaped aperture (MRSA) and an almost Gaussian-shaped far-field profile, is used as the pumping source. Experimental results for the Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by the VCSEL are presented. The maximum output peak power of 0.754 W is obtained under a pump peak power of 1.3 W, and the corresponding opto-optic conversion efficiency is 58.1%. The average slope efficiency is 65.8% from the threshold pump power of 0.2 W to the pump power of 1.3 W. The laser beam quality factors are measured to be {M}x2=1.2 0 and {M}y2=1.1 5.

  14. C. elegans POP-1/TCF functions in a canonical Wnt pathway that controls cell migration and in a noncanonical Wnt pathway that controls cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Herman, M

    2001-02-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, Wnt signaling pathways are important in controlling cell polarity and cell migrations. In the embryo, a novel Wnt pathway functions through a (beta)-catenin homolog, WRM-1, to downregulate the levels of POP-1/Tcf in the posterior daughter of the EMS blastomere. The level of POP-1 is also lower in the posterior daughters of many anteroposterior asymmetric cell divisions during development. I have found that this is the case for of a pair of postembryonic blast cells in the tail. In wild-type animals, the level of POP-1 is lower in the posterior daughters of the two T cells, TL and TR. Furthermore, in lin-44/Wnt mutants, in which the polarities of the T cell divisions are frequently reversed, the level of POP-1 is frequently lower in the anterior daughters of the T cells. I have used a novel RNA-mediated interference technique to interfere specifically with pop-1 zygotic function and have determined that pop-1 is required for wild-type T cell polarity. Surprisingly, none of the three C. elegans (beta)-catenin homologs appeared to function with POP-1 to control T cell polarity. Wnt signaling by EGL-20/Wnt controls the migration of the descendants of the QL neuroblast by regulating the expression the Hox gene mab-5. Interfering with pop-1 zygotic function caused defects in the migration of the QL descendants that mimicked the defects in egl-20/Wnt mutants and blocked the expression of mab-5. This suggests that POP-1 functions in the canonical Wnt pathway to control QL descendant migration and in novel Wnt pathways to control EMS and T cell polarities. PMID:11171341

  15. Controlled quantum key distribution with three-photon polarization-entangled states via the collective noise channel

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Yi, X. X.

    2011-10-15

    Using three-photon polarization-entangled GHZ states or W states, we propose controlled quantum key distribution protocols for circumventing two main types of collective noise, collective dephasing noise, or collective rotation noise. Irrespective of the number of controllers, a three-photon state can generate a one-bit secret key. The storage technique of quantum states is dispensable for the controller and the receiver, and it therefore allows performing the process in a more convenient mode. If the photon cost in a security check is disregarded, then the efficiency theoretically approaches unity.

  16. High power 808 nm VCSEL arrays for pumping of compact pulsed high energy Nd:YAG lasers operating at 946 nm and 1064 nm for blue and UV light generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Leeuwen, Robert; Xiong, Yihan; Watkins, Laurence S.; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Wang, Qing; Ghosh, Chuni

    2011-02-01

    High power 808 nm VCSEL arrays were developed to pump compact pulsed Nd:YAG lasers. A QCW side-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm produced linearly polarized 4 ns IR pulses with 4.7 mJ pulse energy. These pulses were externally frequency doubled and quadrupled resulting in 2.5 mJ pulse energy at 532 nm and 0.8 mJ at 266 nm respectively. A similar but actively Q-switched dual side-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at the weaker quasi three-level 946 nm transition produced 12 mJ pulses that were efficiently frequency doubled resulting in 5.6 mJ blue pulses of 17 ns duration.

  17. Efficiency optimization and analysis of 808nm VCSELs with a full electro-thermal-optical numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Andreas P.; Kolb, Johanna S.; Roemer, Friedhard; Weichmann, Ulrich; Moench, Holger; Witzigmann, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    A high electro-optical conversion efficiency of a VCSEL (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers) is one of the key requirements for their application in high power systems for heating, illumination and pumping applications. The substantial amount of degrees of freedom in the epitaxial and structural design of a VCSEL demands numerical guidance in form of technology computer aided design (TCAD) modeling for a straight forward and successful optimization of the devices. We set up a full electro-thermal optical model for the simulation of VCSEL devices. The electro-thermal part of the simulation follows a drift-diffusion model complemented by a customized, energy resolved, semi-classical carrier capture theory in the QW regions. Optical modes, eigensolutions of the vectorial electromagnetic wave equation, stem from a finite element vectorial solver. The electro-thermal and optical models are linked via the photon-rate equation using QW gain spectra (screened Hartree-Fock approximation) and iterated to self-consistency in a Gummel-type iteration scheme. For comparison and calibration, experimental reference data was extracted from oxide-confined, top-emitting VCSEL devices with an emission wavelength of 808 nm. Our simulations are in good agreement with the electro-optical characteristics of the experimental reference. With the calibrated, microscopic model, routes of design adjustment for efficiency optimization are explored. Exemplarily, the maximum VCSEL efficiency of the simulated reference design increases by 10% (absolute) when free hole absorption is switched off. Accordingly, with the combination of an electro-thermal and optical description, a balancing of the tradeoffs of pDBR doping towards reduced free carrier absorption results in a noteworthy efficiency improvement which is validated with experimental data.

  18. Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sciamanna, M.; Panajotov, K.

    2006-02-15

    We perform a theoretical investigation of the polarization dynamics in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection, i.e., the injected field has a linear polarization (LP) orthogonal to that of the free-running VCSEL. In agreement with previous experiments [Z. G. Pan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999 (1993)], an increase of the injection strength may lead to a polarization switching accompanied by an injection locking. We find that this route to polarization switching is typically accompanied by a cascade of bifurcations to wave-mixing dynamics and time-periodic and possibly chaotic regimes. A detailed mapping of the polarization dynamics in the plane of the injection parameters (detuning, injection strength) unveils a large richness of dynamical scenarios. Of particular interest is the existence of another injection-locked solution for which the two LP modes both lock to the master laser frequency, i.e., an elliptically polarized injection-locked (EPIL) steady state. Modern continuation techniques allow us to unveil an unfolding mechanism of the EPIL solution as the detuning varies and also to link the existence of the EPIL solution to a resonance condition between the master laser frequency and the free-running frequency of the normally depressed LP mode in the slave laser. We furthermore report an additional case of bistability, in which the EPIL solution may coexist with the second injection-locked solution (the one being locked to the master polarization). This case of bistability is a result of the interaction between optical injection and the two-polarization-mode characteristics of VCSEL devices.

  19. Arabidopsis thaliana Rop GTPases are localized to tips of root hairs and control polar growth.

    PubMed

    Molendijk, A J; Bischoff, F; Rajendrakumar, C S; Friml, J; Braun, M; Gilroy, S; Palme, K

    2001-06-01

    Plants contain a novel unique subfamily of Rho GTPases, vital components of cellular signalling networks. Here we report a general role for some members of this family in polarized plant growth processes. We show that Arabidopsis AtRop4 and AtRop6 encode functional GTPases with similar intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates. We localized AtRop proteins in root meristem cells to the cross-wall and cell plate membranes. Polar localization of AtRops in trichoblasts specifies the growth sites for emerging root hairs. These sites were visible before budding and elongation of the Arabidopsis root hair when AtRops accumulated at their tips. Expression of constitutively active AtRop4 and AtRop6 mutant proteins in root hairs of transgenic Arabidopsis plants abolished polarized growth and delocalized the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient. Polar localization of AtRops was inhibited by brefeldin A, but not by other drugs such as latrunculin B, cytochalasin D or caffeine. Our results demonstrate a general function of AtRop GTPases in tip growth and in polar diffuse growth. PMID:11387211

  20. Polarization control in X-ray FELs by reverse undulator tapering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2015-05-01

    Baseline design of a typical X-ray FEL undulator assumes a planar configuration which results in a linear polarization of the FEL radiation. However, many experiments at X-ray FEL user facilities would profit from using a circularly polarized radiation. As a cheap upgrade one can consider an installation of a short helical (or cross-planar) afterburner, but then one should have an efficient method to suppress powerful linearly polarized background from the main undulator. In this paper we propose a new method for such a suppression: an application of the reverse taper in the main undulator. We discover that in a certain range of the taper strength, the density modulation (bunching) at saturation is practically the same as in the case of non-tapered undulator while the power of linearly polarized radiation is suppressed by orders of magnitude. Then strongly modulated electron beam radiates at full power in the afterburner. Considering SASE3 undulator of the European XFEL as a practical example, we demonstrate that soft X-ray radiation pulses with peak power in excess of 100 GW and an ultimately high degree of circular polarization can be produced. The proposed method is rather universal, i.e. it can be used at SASE FELs and seeded (self-seeded) FELs, with any wavelength of interest, in a wide range of electron beam parameters, and with any repetition rate.

  1. Control phase shift of spin-wave by spin-polarized current and its application in logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiangxu; Wang, Qi; Liao, Yulong; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2015-11-01

    We proposed a new ways to control the phase shift of propagating spin waves by applying a local spin-polarized current on ferromagnetic stripe. Micromagnetic simulation showed that a phase shift of about ? can be obtained by designing appropriate width and number of pinned magnetic layers. The ways can be adopted in a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer structure to fulfill logic NOT gates based on spin waves.

  2. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of thermal control coatings and heat-shielding materials illuminated by polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voschula, I. V.; Dlugunovich, V. A.; Zhumar, A. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    Stokes parameters were measured for radiation reflected in the range 5 to 80 by silver-colored, white, and black thermal control coatings deposited on an aluminum alloy substrate, by green paint on a phenolic plastic surface, and by uncoated carbon-fiber reinforced plastic illuminated by linearly polarized He-Ne laser radiation at an incident angle of -5. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function of the investigated samples was determined as a function of the view zenith angle.

  3. DC characteristics and analog/RF performance of novel polarity control GaAs-Ge based tunnel field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Kondekar, Pravin; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, for the first time, DC characteristics and analog/RF performance of polarity control GaAs-Ge hetero TFET (GaAs-Ge H-TFET) structure have been analysed, using electrically doped dynamically configurable concept. For this, we have considered a hetero structure with two distinctive gates (Control gate and Polarity gate). Polarity gate induces p+ region at the source side and n+ region at the drain side, instead of relying on the abrupt doping profile at the junctions. Therefore, the fabrication process of the proposed device avoids ion-implantation, photo masking and complicated thermal budget. Hence, it shows high immunity against process variations, doping control issues and random dopant fluctuations (RDF). In order to optimize the device performance, interfacing of III-V groups materials with IV group semiconductor is done for hetero-junction. The introduction of hetero-junction and band gap engineering offer higher ION/IOFF ratio (5.1 × 1012), steep sub-threshold slope (18 mV/decade) and significantly change in analog/RF performance. The analog/RF figures of merit are analysed in term of transconductance (gm), output conductance (gds), gate to source capacitance (Cgs), gate to drain capacitance (Cgd), cutoff frequency (fT) and gain bandwidth (GBW) product. The proposed work would be beneficial for low power high frequency applications. The simulation results presented in this paper were carried out by using 2-D ATLAS.

  4. Controlling circular polarization of light emitted by quantum dots using chiral photonic crystal slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, S. V.; Tikhodeev, S. G.; Gippius, N. A.; Maksimov, A. A.; Filatov, E. V.; Tartakovskii, I. I.; Kulakovskii, V. D.; Weiss, T.; Schneider, C.; Geler, J.; Kamp, M.; Hfling, S.

    2015-11-01

    We study the polarization properties of light emitted by quantum dots that are embedded in chiral photonic crystal structures made of achiral planar GaAs waveguides. A modification of the electromagnetic mode structure due to the chiral grating fabricated by partial etching of the waveguide layer has been shown to result in a high circular polarization degree ?c of the quantum dot emission in the absence of external magnetic field. The physical nature of the phenomenon can be understood in terms of the reciprocity principle taking into account the structural symmetry. At the resonance wavelength, the magnitude of | ?c| is predicted to exceed 98%. The experimentally achieved value of | ?c|=81 % is smaller, which is due to the contribution of unpolarized light scattered by grating defects, thus breaking its periodicity. The achieved polarization degree estimated removing the unpolarized nonresonant background from the emission spectra can be estimated to be as high as 96%, close to the theoretical prediction.

  5. Eukaryotic Chemotaxis: A Network of Signaling Pathways Controls Motility, Directional Sensing, and Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, Kristen F.; Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Devreotes, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis, the directed migration of cells in chemical gradients, is a vital process in normal physiology and in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Chemotactic cells display motility, directional sensing, and polarity. Motility refers to the random extension of pseudopodia, which may be driven by spontaneous actin waves that propagate through the cytoskeleton. Directional sensing is mediated by a system that detects temporal and spatial stimuli and biases motility toward the gradient. Polarity gives cells morphologically and functionally distinct leading and lagging edges by relocating proteins or their activities selectively to the poles. By exploiting the genetic advantages of Dictyostelium, investigators are working out the complex network of interactions between the proteins that have been implicated in the chemotactic processes of motility, directional sensing, and polarity. PMID:20192768

  6. Fast deterministic switching in orthogonal spin torque devices via the control of the relative spin polarizations

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Junbo; Buhrman, R. A.; Ralph, D. C.; Kavli Institute at Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853

    2013-12-16

    We model 100 ps pulse switching dynamics of orthogonal spin transfer (OST) devices that employ an out-of-plane polarizer and an in-plane polarizer. Simulation results indicate that increasing the spin polarization ratio, C{sub P} = P{sub IPP}/P{sub OPP}, results in deterministic switching of the free layer without over-rotation (360° rotation). By using spin torque asymmetry to realize an enhanced effective P{sub IPP}, we experimentally demonstrate this behavior in OST devices in parallel to anti-parallel switching. Modeling predicts that decreasing the effective demagnetization field can substantially reduce the minimum C{sub P} required to attain deterministic switching, while retaining low critical switching current, I{sub p} ∼ 500 μA.

  7. Polarity and asymmetric cell division in the control of lymphocyte fate decisions and function.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohammed; Russell, Sarah M

    2016-04-01

    Polarity is important in several lymphocyte processes including lymphocyte migration, formation of the immunological synapse, and asymmetric cell division (ACD). While lymphocyte migration and immunological synapse formation are relatively well understood, the role of lymphocyte ACD is less clear. Recent advances in measuring polarity enable more robust analyses of asymmetric cell division. Use of these new methods has produced crucial quantification of ACD at precise phases of lymphocyte development and activation. These developments are leading to a better understanding of the drivers of fate choice during lymphocyte activation and provide a context within which to explain the effects of ACD. PMID:26945468

  8. Collisional control of ground state polar molecules and universal dipolar scattering.

    PubMed

    Ticknor, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    We explore the impact of the short-range interaction on the scattering of ground state polar molecules and study the transition from a weak to strong dipolar scattering over an experimentally reasonable range of energies and electric field values. In the strong dipolar limit, the scattering scales with respect to a dimensionless quantity defined by mass, induced dipole moment, and collision energy. The scaling has implications for all quantum mechanical dipolar scattering. Furthermore the universal scattering regime will readily be achieved with polar molecules at ultracold temperatures. PMID:18517950

  9. Generation and control of spin-polarized photocurrents in GaMnAs heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Bezerra, Anibal T. Farinas, Paulo F.; Studart, Nelson; Degani, Marcos H.; Maialle, Marcelo Z.

    2014-01-13

    Photocurrents are calculated for a specially designed GaMnAs semiconductor heterostructure. The results reveal regions in the infrared range of the energy spectrum, in which the proposed structure is remarkably spin-selective. For such photon energies, the generated photocurrents are strongly spin-polarized. Application of a relatively small static bias in the growth direction of the structure is predicted to efficiently reverse the spin-polarization for some photon energies. This behavior suggests the possibility of conveniently simple switching mechanisms. The physics underlying the results is studied and understood in terms of the spin-dependent properties emerging from the particular potential profile of the structure.

  10. Polarization correlations in pulsed, vertical cavity, surface-emitting lasers.

    PubMed

    Shelly, D; Garrison, T; Beck, M K; Christensen, D

    2000-09-25

    We have examined noise behavior and polarization correlations in the output of a pulsed, multitransverse-mode, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). We have measured the output of the laser simultaneously in two orthogonal, linear polarizations as a function of drive current for pulse widths of 3 ns, 10 ns, and 30 ns. We present joint probability distributions for the number of detected photoelectrons in each of the two polarization-resolved outputs. The joint distributions indicate that the correlations can be quite complicated, and are not completely described by a single number (i.e., the correlation coefficient). Furthermore, we find that the number of lasing modes appears to be the most important parameter in determining the degree of polarization correlation. PMID:19407873

  11. Robust and tunable 16.375Gb/s dual-band optical OFDM transmissions over directly modulated VCSEL-based 200m OM2 MMFs.

    PubMed

    Deng, M L; Jiang, N; Duan, X; Giddings, R P; Yi, X W; Cao, B Y; Mansoor, S; Qiu, K; Tang, J M

    2015-01-12

    Utilizing low-cost, 2.2GHz modulation bandwidth, uncooled and standalone directly modulated VCSEL (DM-VCSEL)-based real-time dual-band optical OFDM (OOFDM) transmitters, aggregated 16.375Gb/s transmissions of OOFDM signals having bandwidths approximately 3.8 times higher than the VCSEL manufacturer-specified modulation bandwidths, are experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, over 200m OM2 MMF links based on intensity modulation and direct detection. The aggregated signal transmission capacities of the aforementioned links vary by just 8% for various OM2 MMFs ranging from 100m to 500m, and by just 10% over a 1GHz passband carrier frequency detuning range. Such dual-band OOFDM adaptability-induced excellent performance robustness and large passband frequency tunability can significantly relax the requirements on VCSEL modulation bandwidth for achieving specific transmission performances for cost-sensitive application scenarios such as data centers. PMID:25835683

  12. Rictor Regulates Spermatogenesis by Controlling Sertoli Cell Cytoskeletal Organization and Cell Polarity in the Mouse Testis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Heling; Chen, Zhenguo; Wang, Caixia; Xiong, Zhi; Zhao, Wanlu; Jia, Chunhong; Lin, Jun; Lin, Yan; Yuan, Weiping; Zhao, Allan Z; Bai, Xiaochun

    2015-11-01

    Maintenance of cell polarity is essential for Sertoli cell and blood-testis barrier (BTB) function and spermatogenesis; however, the signaling mechanisms that regulate the integrity of the cytoskeleton and polarity of Sertoli cells are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that rapamycin-insensitive component of target of rapamycin (TOR) (Rictor), a core component of mechanistic TOR complex 2 (mTORC2), was expressed in the seminiferous epithelium during testicular development, and was down-regulated in a cadmium chloride-induced BTB damage model. We then conditionally deleted the Rictor gene in Sertoli cells and mutant mice exhibited azoospermia and were sterile as early as 3 months old. Further study revealed that Rictor may regulate actin organization via both mTORC2-dependent and mTORC2-independent mechanisms, in which the small GTPase, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, and phosphorylation of the actin filament regulatory protein, Paxillin, are involved, respectively. Loss of Rictor in Sertoli cells perturbed actin dynamics and caused microtubule disarrangement, both of which accumulatively disrupted Sertoli cell polarity and BTB integrity, accompanied by testicular developmental defects, spermiogenic arrest and excessive germ cell loss in mutant mice. Together, these findings establish the importance of Rictor/mTORC2 signaling in Sertoli cell function and spermatogenesis through the maintenance of Sertoli cell cytoskeletal dynamics, BTB integrity, and cell polarity. PMID:26360620

  13. Controlling the excitation process of free electrons by a femtosecond elliptically polarized laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lili; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-11-01

    This paper is focused on the excitation rates of free electrons of an aluminum (Al) bulk irradiated by an elliptically polarized laser in simulation, using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The polarized 400 nm, 10 fs laser pulse consisted of two elementary sinusoidal beams, and is adjusted by changing the phase difference ? and the intersection angle ? of the polarization directions between the two beams. The simulation includes cases of ? = ?/2 with ? = 30, ? = 45, ? = 60, ? = 90, ? = 120, ? = 135, ? = 150, and cases of ? = 90 with ? = ?/4, ? = ?/3, ? = ?/2, ? = 2?/3, ? = 3?/4. The absorbed energy, the excitation rates and the density distributions of free electrons after laser termination are investigated. At the given power intensity (11014Wcm-2), pulse width (10 fs) and wavelength (400 nm) of each elementary laser beam, computational results indicate that the excitation rate of free electrons is impacted by three major factors: the long axis direction of the laser projected profile, the amplitude difference of the first main oscillation (1st AD), and the total amplitude difference of main oscillations (TAD) of the external electric field. Among the aforementioned three factors for the excitation rate of free electrons, the direction of long axis plays the most significant role. The screen effect is crucial to compare the importance of the remaining two factors. The analysis approach to investigate the electron dynamics under an elliptically polarized laser is both pioneering and effective.

  14. PCP Signaling between Migrating Neurons and their Planar-Polarized Neuroepithelial Environment Controls Filopodial Dynamics and Directional Migration.

    PubMed

    Davey, Crystal F; Mathewson, Andrew W; Moens, Cecilia B

    2016-03-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a cell-contact mediated mechanism for transmitting polarity information between neighboring cells. PCP "core components" (Vangl, Fz, Pk, Dsh, and Celsr) are essential for a number of cell migratory events including the posterior migration of facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) in the plane of the hindbrain neuroepithelium in zebrafish and mice. While the mechanism by which PCP signaling polarizes static epithelial cells is well understood, how PCP signaling controls highly dynamic processes like neuronal migration remains an important outstanding question given that PCP components have been implicated in a range of directed cell movements, particularly during vertebrate development. Here, by systematically disrupting PCP signaling in a rhombomere-restricted manner we show that PCP signaling is required both within FBMNs and the hindbrain rhombomere 4 environment at the time when they initiate their migration. Correspondingly, we demonstrate planar polarized localization of PCP core components Vangl2 and Fzd3a in the hindbrain neuroepithelium, and transient localization of Vangl2 at the tips of retracting FBMN filopodia. Using high-resolution timelapse imaging of FBMNs in genetic chimeras we uncover opposing cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous functions for Fzd3a and Vangl2 in regulating FBMN protrusive activity. Within FBMNs, Fzd3a is required to stabilize filopodia while Vangl2 has an antagonistic, destabilizing role. However, in the migratory environment Fzd3a acts to destabilize FBMN filopodia while Vangl2 has a stabilizing role. Together, our findings suggest a model in which PCP signaling between the planar polarized neuroepithelial environment and FBMNs directs migration by the selective stabilization of FBMN filopodia. PMID:26990447

  15. PCP Signaling between Migrating Neurons and their Planar-Polarized Neuroepithelial Environment Controls Filopodial Dynamics and Directional Migration

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Cecilia B.

    2016-01-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a cell-contact mediated mechanism for transmitting polarity information between neighboring cells. PCP “core components” (Vangl, Fz, Pk, Dsh, and Celsr) are essential for a number of cell migratory events including the posterior migration of facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) in the plane of the hindbrain neuroepithelium in zebrafish and mice. While the mechanism by which PCP signaling polarizes static epithelial cells is well understood, how PCP signaling controls highly dynamic processes like neuronal migration remains an important outstanding question given that PCP components have been implicated in a range of directed cell movements, particularly during vertebrate development. Here, by systematically disrupting PCP signaling in a rhombomere-restricted manner we show that PCP signaling is required both within FBMNs and the hindbrain rhombomere 4 environment at the time when they initiate their migration. Correspondingly, we demonstrate planar polarized localization of PCP core components Vangl2 and Fzd3a in the hindbrain neuroepithelium, and transient localization of Vangl2 at the tips of retracting FBMN filopodia. Using high-resolution timelapse imaging of FBMNs in genetic chimeras we uncover opposing cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous functions for Fzd3a and Vangl2 in regulating FBMN protrusive activity. Within FBMNs, Fzd3a is required to stabilize filopodia while Vangl2 has an antagonistic, destabilizing role. However, in the migratory environment Fzd3a acts to destabilize FBMN filopodia while Vangl2 has a stabilizing role. Together, our findings suggest a model in which PCP signaling between the planar polarized neuroepithelial environment and FBMNs directs migration by the selective stabilization of FBMN filopodia. PMID:26990447

  16. The spatio-temporal domains of Frizzled6 action in planar polarity control of hair follicle orientation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao; Smallwood, Philip M; Williams, John; Nathans, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, hair follicles cover most of the body surface and exhibit precise and stereotyped orientations relative to the body axes. Follicle orientation is controlled by the planar cell polarity (PCP; or, more generally, tissue polarity) system, as determined by the follicle mis-orientation phenotypes observed in mice with PCP gene mutations. The present study uses conditional knockout alleles of the PCP genes Frizzled6 (Fz6), Vangl1, and Vangl2, together with a series of Cre drivers to interrogate the spatio-temporal domains of PCP gene action in the developing mouse epidermis required for follicle orientation. Fz6 is required starting between embryonic day (E)11.5 and E12.5. Eliminating Fz6 in either the anterior or the posterior halves of the embryo or in either the feet or the torso leads to follicle mis-orientation phenotypes that are limited to the territories associated with Fz6 loss, implying either that PCP signaling is required for communicating polarity information on a local but not a global scale, or that there are multiple independent sources of global polarity information. Eliminating Fz6 in most hair follicle cells or in the inter-follicular epidermis at E15.5 suggests that PCP signaling in developing follicles is not required to maintain their orientation. The asymmetric arrangement of Merkel cells around the base of each guard hair follicle dependents on Fz6 expression in the epidermis but not in differentiating Merkel cells. These experiments constrain current models of PCP signaling and the flow of polarity information in mammalian skin. PMID:26517967

  17. Ultrafast polarization dynamics and noise in pulsed vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

    PubMed

    Blansett, E; Raymer, M; Khitrova, G; Gibbs, H; Serkland, D K; Allerman, A; Geib, K

    2001-09-10

    We have measured on ps time scales the temporal behavior of the intensity noise of, and correlations between, orthogonally polarized modes in an optically pumped VCSEL. Measurements were made in both the circular and the linear bases. Sub-ps optical pumping with circular polarization leads to positively correlated intensity noise for emission in orthogonal linear polarizations. Optical pumping with linear polarization leads to anti-correlated intensity noise for emission in orthogonal linear polarizations, due to random orientation of linearly polarized emission. Intensity noise for circularly polarized emission is uncorrelated or anti-correlated depending on spin-flip rates which determine the strength of gain competition. We have generalized the theoretical treatment of San Miguel, Feng, and Moloney to successfully model these phenomena. PMID:19421302

  18. Polarization-based all-optical logic controlled-NOT, XOR, and XNOR gates employing electro-optic effect in periodically poled lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinxing; Chen, Yuping; Chen, Xianfeng

    2011-10-01

    Based on electro-optic Pockels effect of periodically poled lithium niobate, different polarization-based binary all-optical logic functions: controlled-NOT, XOR, and XNOR gates were demonstrated by altering the linear polarization state of input optical signal about 90° on the polarization plant. Because the depletion of signal intensity in polarization-based logic gates is smaller than that of digital logic signal in intensity-based logic gates and almost negligible, this scheme has potential application in realizing complex logic functions by cascading several basic gates.

  19. Scattering Intensity and Directionality Probed Along Individual Zinc Oxide Nanorods with Precisely Controlled Light Polarization and Nanorod Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Daniel S.; Singh, Manpreet; Song, Sheng; Chang, Jae Young; Kang, Yongkoo; Hahm, Jong-in

    2015-01-01

    We elucidated the light-matter interaction of individual ZnO NRs with a monochromatic beam of linearly polarized light that scatters elastically from the ZnO NRs by performing forward scattering and back-aperture imaging in a dark-field setting. We precisely controlled the electric field vector of the incident light and the NR orientation within the plane of light interaction during both modes of measurement, and spatially resolved the scattering response from different interaction points along the NR long axis. We then discerned, for the first time, the effects of light polarization, analyzer angle, and NR orientation on the intensity and directionality of the optical responses both qualitatively and quantitatively along the length of the single ZnO NRs. We identified distinctive scattering profiles from individual ZnO NRs subject to incident light polarization with controlled NR orientation from the forward dark-field scattering and back-aperture imaging modes. The fundamental light interaction behavior of ZnO NRs is likely to govern their functional outcomes in photonics, optoelectronics, and sensor devices. Hence, our efforts provided much needed insight into unique optical responses from individual 1D ZnO nanomaterials, which could be highly beneficial in developing next-generation optoelectronic systems and optical biodetectors with improved device efficiency and sensitivity. PMID:26568952

  20. Polarization controlled deep sub-wavelength periodic features written by femtosecond laser on nanodiamond thin film surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Kuntumalla, Mohan; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.; Rajamudili, Kuladeep; Rao Desai, Narayana

    2014-04-21

    Deep sub-wavelength (Λ/λ = ∼0.22) periodic features are induced uniformly on a nanodiamond (ND) thin film surface using femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation (pulse duration = ∼110 fs and central wavelength of ∼800 nm). The topography of the surface features is controlled by the laser polarization. Orientation of features is perpendicular to laser polarization. Periodicity (spatial periodicity of < λ/4) of the surface features is less than the laser wavelength. This work gives an experimental proof of polarization controlled surface plasmon-fs laser coupling mechanism prompting the interaction between fs laser and solid matter (here ND thin film) which in turn is resulting in the periodic surface features. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with micro Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy are carried out to extract surface morphology and phase information of the laser irradiated regions. This work demonstrates an easy and efficient surface fabrication technique.

  1. MIMO-OFDM WDM PON with DM-VCSEL for femtocells application.

    PubMed

    Othman, M B; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Caminos, J; Kozuch, W; Prince, K; Yu, Xianbin; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Monroy, I Tafur

    2011-12-12

    We report on experimental demonstration of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM 5.6-GHz radio over fiber signaling over 20 km WDM-PON with directly modulated (DM) VCSELs for femtocells application. MIMO-OFDM algorithms effectively compensate for impairments in the wireless link. Error-free signal demodulation of 64 subcarrier 4-QAM signals modulated at 198.5 Mb/s net data rate is achieved after fiber and 2 m indoor wireless transmission. We report BER of 7x10(-3) at the receiver for 16-QAM signals modulated at 397 Mb/s after 1 m of wireless transmission. Performance dependence on different wireless transmission path lengths, antenna separation, and number of subcarriers have been investigated. PMID:22274067

  2. Comprehensive analysis of electrically-pumped GaSb-based VCSELs.

    PubMed

    Arafin, S; Bachmann, A; Vizbaras, K; Hangauer, A; Gustavsson, J; Bengtsson, J; Larsson, A; Amann, M-C

    2011-08-29

    This paper discusses several performance-related aspects of electrically-pumped GaSb-based buried tunnel junction VCSELs with an emission wavelength of 2.6 ?m based on theoretical and experimental results. These results allow a deeper insight into the internal device physics, such as radial diffusion of carriers, maximum continuous-wave operating temperature, diffraction loss, internal temperature, gain and loss parameters, internal quantum efficiency of the active region etc. These parameters can be taken into account while designing mid-infrared lasers which leads to an improved device performance. A simple thermal model of the devices based on the two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method using the material data from the literature is also presented. In addition, an application-based result utilizing these lasers for the measurement of absolute water vapor concentration by wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) method are also described, hinting that devices are well-suited for the targeted sensing applications. PMID:21935091

  3. 1060-nm VCSEL-based parallel-optical modules for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, N.; Nagashima, K.; Kise, T.; Rizky, A. F.; Uemura, T.; Nekado, Y.; Ishikawa, Y.; Nasu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The capability of mounting a parallel-optical module onto a PCB through solder-reflow process contributes to reduce the number of piece parts, simplify its assembly process, and minimize a foot print for both AOC and on-board applications. We introduce solder-reflow-capable parallel-optical modules employing 1060-nm InGaAs/GaAs VCSEL which leads to the advantages of realizing wider modulation bandwidth, longer transmission distance, and higher reliability. We demonstrate 4-channel parallel optical link performance operated at a bit stream of 28 Gb/s 231-1 PRBS for each channel and transmitted through a 50-μm-core MMF beyond 500 m. We also introduce a new mounting technology of paralleloptical module to realize maintaining good coupling and robust electrical connection during solder-reflow process between an optical module and a polymer-waveguide-embedded PCB.

  4. Wide temperature operation of a VCSEL pumped 355nm frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Brian; Hays, Alan; McIntosh, Chris; Goldberg, Lew

    2013-03-01

    We have fabricated prototype frequency tripled Nd:YAG lasers using 808nm Vertical Cavity Surface emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays for end-pumping. The passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated 15mJ pulses with a duration of 2-4 ns. Used as a source for third harmonic generation, the laser produced in excess of 2mJ at 355nm. Of particular concern was the impact of temperature variation on conversion efficiency, which included effects for both the source laser and non-linear crystals. Various solutions to the temperature effects were explored to enable operation of the frequency tripled laser over a wide temperature range.

  5. Switching spatial dissipative solitons in a VCSEL with frequency selective feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwell, N.; McIntyre, C.; Scroggie, A. J.; Oppo, G. L.; Firth, W. J.; Ackemann, T.

    2010-07-01

    The process of switching on bistable spatial dissipative solitons in a VCSEL with frequency selective feedback is analyzed experimentally and theoretically. Two regimes of successful writing of spatial solitons with an external pulse are identified: for short durations of the writing beam pulse, the input amplitude has to increase, while for longer durations, the input amplitude can remain constant. Switch on spectrograms of the frequency spectrum show a transient dynamics over many modes of the external cavity with a drift of the central frequency from higher to lower frequency. Such a multi-mode regime is almost independent of the frequency of the writing beam. It is interpreted to be due to the existence of multiple unstable solitons with different frequencies which channel the transient dynamics. Good agreement between experimental results and numerical simulations in both the time and frequency domains is found.

  6. Volumetric cutaneous microangiography of human skin in vivo by VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate volumetric cutaneous microangiography of the human skin in vivo that utilises 1.3-?m high-speed sweptsource optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The swept source is based on a micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS)-tunable vertical cavity surface emission laser (VCSEL) that is advantageous in terms of long coherence length over 50 mm and 100 nm spectral bandwidth, which enables the visualisation of microstructures within a few mm from the skin surface. We show that the skin microvasculature can be delineated in 3D SS-OCT images using ultrahigh-sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) with a correlation mapping mask, providing a contrast enhanced blood perfusion map with capillary flow sensitivity. 3D microangiograms of a healthy human finger are shown with distinct cutaneous vessel architectures from different dermal layers and even within hypodermis. These findings suggest that the OCT microangiography could be a beneficial biomedical assay to assess cutaneous vascular functions in clinic.

  7. A quantum dot single-photon source with on-the-fly all-optical polarization control and timed emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Dirk; Breddermann, Dominik; Zrenner, Artur; Schumacher, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Sources of single photons are key elements for applications in quantum information science. Among the different sources available, semiconductor quantum dots excel with their integrability in semiconductor on-chip solutions and the potential that photon emission can be triggered on demand. Usually, the photon is emitted from a single-exciton ground state. Polarization of the photon and time of emission are either probabilistic or pre-determined by electronic properties of the system. Here, we study the direct two-photon emission from the biexciton. The two-photon emission is enabled by a laser pulse driving the system into a virtual state inside the band gap. From this intermediate state, the single photon of interest is then spontaneously emitted. We show that emission through this higher-order transition provides a versatile approach to generate a single photon. Through the driving laser pulse, polarization state, frequency and emission time of the photon can be controlled on-the-fly.

  8. Dynamics accompanying polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virte, Martin; Panajotov, Krassimir; Sciamanna, Marc

    2012-06-01

    Experiments on quantum well and recently quantum dot VCSELs have shown that the increase of injection current may lead to a transition from a linearly polarized light emission at threshold to a region of nonlinear dynamics (self-pulsing) accompanying polarization switching between either two orthogonal linearly polarized states or non-orthogonal elliptically polarized states. The dynamics occurs on a nanosecond time-scale and relates either to the birefringence induced frequency splitting or to the relaxation oscillation frequency. In this contribution, we bring new light into the bifurcation mechanisms explaining the occurrence of deterministic self-pulsing accompanying polarization switching. We demonstrate theoretically that depending on the laser parameters, different polarization switching scenarios may be observed with self-pulsing dynamics at a dominant time-scale related to either linear cavity birefringence or relaxation oscillation, and with additional period doubling or quasiperiodicity. Our work therefore not only reconciles previous experiments with different conclusions on dynamical states, but also provides an improved understanding of the bifurcations underlying the commonly used spin flip model for VCSEL - hence motivating new in depth experiments of polarization dynamics at nanosecond time scale.

  9. Polarization-resolved cartography of light emission of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with high space and frequency resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Lippi, G. L.

    2015-11-01

    We couple a double-channel imaging technique, allowing for the simultaneous acquisition of high-quality and high-resolution intensity and peak emission wavelength profiles [T. Wang and G. L. Lippi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 063111 (2015)], to the polarization-resolved analysis of the optical emission of a multimode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Detailed information on the local wavelength shifts between the two polarized components and on the wavelength gradients can be easily gathered. A polarization- and position-resolved energy balance can be constructed for each wavelength component, allowing in a simple way for a direct analysis of the collected light. Applications to samples, other than VCSELs, are suggested.

  10. Low-switching-energy and high-repetition-frequency all-optical flip-flop operations of a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takashi; Yamayoshi, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    Subfemtojoule polarization bistable switching in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is experimentally demonstrated. All-optical flip-flop operation of the VCSEL was performed using two orthogonally polarized injection light pulses. The optimum wavelengths of the two injection pulses for achieving minimum switching power were different and corresponded to the lasing wavelengths of the two polarization states of the laser. The pulse width/switching frequency dependence of the injection pulses showed that a minimum switching energy was obtained at 1ns/500MHz. A record low switching energy of 0.3fJ has been achieved as well as a record high switching frequency of 10GHz.

  11. Microbial Competition in Polar Soils: A Review of an Understudied but Potentially Important Control on Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Terrence H.; Callender, Katrina L.; Whyte, Lyle G.; Greer, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Intermicrobial competition is known to occur in many natural environments, and can result from direct conflict between organisms, or from differential rates of growth, colonization, and/or nutrient acquisition. It has been difficult to extensively examine intermicrobial competition in situ, but these interactions may play an important role in the regulation of the many biogeochemical processes that are tied to microbial communities in polar soils. A greater understanding of how competition influences productivity will improve projections of gas and nutrient flux as the poles warm, may provide biotechnological opportunities for increasing the degradation of contaminants in polar soil, and will help to predict changes in communities of higher organisms, such as plants. PMID:24832797

  12. Inter and intra-metamolecular interaction enabled broadband high-efficiency polarization control in metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Longqing; Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    The near field meta-molecular interactions in a lattice play an important role in determining the collective behavior of the metamaterials. Here, we exploit the nearest neighbor inter unit cell interactions and the intra near-field coupling in metamolecules to manipulate the co- and the cross-polarized light. We observed large enhancement in the bandwidth and the amplitude of the transmitted light in the strongly coupled meta-molecular lattice. We further show that the proposed metasurface could function as a broadband achromatic quarter-wave plate. The chosen meta-molecular design also enhances the cross-polarized light when integrated with a ground plane to operate in the reflection mode.

  13. The sedoheptulose kinase CARKL directs macrophage polarization through control of glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Haschemi, Arvand; Kosma, Paul; Gille, Lars; Evans, Charles R; Burant, Charles F; Starkl, Philipp; Knapp, Bernhard; Haas, Robert; Schmid, Johannes A; Jandl, Christoph; Amir, Shahzada; Lubec, Gert; Park, Jaehong; Esterbauer, Harald; Bilban, Martin; Brizuela, Leonardo; Pospisilik, J Andrew; Otterbein, Leo E; Wagner, Oswald

    2012-06-01

    Immune cells are somewhat unique in that activation responses can alter quantitative phenotypes upwards of 100,000-fold. To date little is known about the metabolic adaptations necessary to mount such dramatic phenotypic shifts. Screening for novel regulators of macrophage activation, we found nonprotein kinases of glucose metabolism among the most enriched classes of candidate immune modulators. We find that one of these, the carbohydrate kinase-like protein CARKL, is rapidly downregulated in vitro and in vivo upon LPS stimulation in both mice and humans. Interestingly, CARKL catalyzes an orphan reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway, refocusing cellular metabolism to a high-redox state upon physiological or artificial downregulation. We find that CARKL-dependent metabolic reprogramming is required for proper M1- and M2-like macrophage polarization and uncover a rate-limiting requirement for appropriate glucose flux in macrophage polarization. PMID:22682222

  14. Control of Electronic Conduction at an Oxide Heterointerface using Surface Polar Adsorbates

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Christopher

    2011-08-19

    We study the effect of the surface adsorption of a variety of common laboratory solvents on the conductivity at the interface between LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. This interface possesses a range of intriguing physics, notably a proposed connection between the surface state of the LaAlO{sub 3} and the conductivity buried in the SrTiO{sub 3}. We show that the application of chemicals such as acetone, ethanol, and water can induce a large change (factor of three) in the conductivity. This phenomenon is observed only for polar solvents. These data provide experimental evidence for a general polarization-facilitated electronic transfer mechanism.

  15. Off-resonant polarized light-controlled thermoelectric transport in ultrathin topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Vasilopoulos, P.

    2015-03-01

    We study thermoelectric transport in ultrathin topological insulators under the application of circularly polarized off-resonant light of frequency ? and amplitude A . We derive analytical expressions for the band structure, orbital magnetization Morb, and the thermal (?x y) and Nernst (?x y) conductivities. Reversing the light polarization from right to left leads to an exchange of the conduction and valence bands of the symmetric and antisymmetric surface states and to a sign change in Morb,?x y, and ?x y. Varying the sample thickness or A /? leads to a strong enhancement of Morb and ?x y. These effects, accessible to experiments, open the possibility for selective, state-exchanged excitations under light and the conversion of heat to electric energy.

  16. Photoionization of Synchrotron-Radiation-Excited Atoms: Separating Partial Cross Sections by Full Polarization Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloïse, S.; O'Keeffe, P.; Cubaynes, D.; Meyer, M.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.

    2005-06-01

    Resonant atomic excitation by synchrotron radiation and subsequent ionization by a tunable dye laser is used to study the photoionization of short-lived Rydberg states in Xe. By combining circular and linear polarization of the synchrotron as well as of the laser photons the partial photoionization cross sections were separated in the region of overlapping autoionizing resonances of different symmetry and the parameters of the resonances were extracted.

  17. Photoionization of Synchrotron-Radiation-Excited Atoms: Separating Partial Cross Sections by Full Polarization Control

    SciTech Connect

    Aloiese, S.; Meyer, M.; Cubaynes, D.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.

    2005-06-10

    Resonant atomic excitation by synchrotron radiation and subsequent ionization by a tunable dye laser is used to study the photoionization of short-lived Rydberg states in Xe. By combining circular and linear polarization of the synchrotron as well as of the laser photons the partial photoionization cross sections were separated in the region of overlapping autoionizing resonances of different symmetry and the parameters of the resonances were extracted.

  18. Photoionization of synchrotron-radiation-excited atoms: separating partial cross sections by full polarization control.

    PubMed

    Aloïse, S; O'Keeffe, P; Cubaynes, D; Meyer, M; Grum-Grzhimailo, A N

    2005-06-10

    Resonant atomic excitation by synchrotron radiation and subsequent ionization by a tunable dye laser is used to study the photoionization of short-lived Rydberg states in Xe. By combining circular and linear polarization of the synchrotron as well as of the laser photons the partial photoionization cross sections were separated in the region of overlapping autoionizing resonances of different symmetry and the parameters of the resonances were extracted. PMID:16090387

  19. Importance of head group polarity in controlling aggregation properties of cationic gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Borse, Mahendra S; Devi, Surekha

    2006-11-16

    Cationic gemini surfactants have been extensively studied in the recent past and the effect of chain length, spacer length and nature on aggregation behavior has been examined. But the effect of variation in head group polarity on micellization has not been examined. Hence, the effect of head group polarity of the butane-1,4-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) surfactants on aggregation properties is studied through conductance, surface tension, viscosity, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. The critical micellar concentration (cmc), average degree of micelle ionization (beta(ave)), minimum area per molecule of surfactant at air-water interface (A(min)), surface excess concentration (Gamma(max)) and Gibbs free energy change of micellization (DeltaG degrees (mic)) of the surfactants were determined from conductance and surface tension data. The aggregation numbers (N), dimension of micelle (b/a), effective fractional charge per monomer (alpha) were determined from SANS and hydration of micelle (h(m)) from viscosity data. The increasing head group polarity of gemini surfactant having spacer chain length of 4 methylene units promotes micellar growth, leading to decrease in cmc, beta(ave), DeltaG degrees (mic) and increase in N and b/a. This is well supported by the observed increase in hydration (h(m)) of micelle with increase in aggregation number (N) and dimension (b/a) of micelle. The Kraft temperature (k(T)), foamability and foam stability as a function of head group polarity of gemini surfactants were also examined. PMID:16806032

  20. Controlling the Polarity of Fullerene Derivatives to Optimize Nanomorphology in Blend Films.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Fukashi; Iwai, Toshiyuki; Moriwaki, Kazuyuki; Takao, Yuko; Ito, Takatoshi; Mizuno, Takumi; Ohno, Toshinobu

    2016-02-24

    Developing a design strategy to establish the compatibility of acceptor materials with donor materials is important for the rational development of organic solar cells. We synthesized 2,6-dimethoxyphenyl methanofullerene derivatives to realize an enhanced open-circuit voltage, and we investigated polarities and their effects on the film morphology of the active layer. The polarities of the synthesized fullerene derivatives were affected significantly by the presence of functional groups, such as methoxy, ether, and ester groups. Macro/nanoscopic morphological investigation and spectroscopic analysis of the blend films of the poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT)/fullerene derivatives showed that a balanced polarity between materials results in the formation of optimized nanomorphology without grains and robust phase separation. Measurements of the device performance of the photovoltaic cells composed of P3HT and the fullerene derivatives confirmed the same tendency as that shown in the morphological analysis. This finding enables us to obtain an improved power conversion efficiency because of the enhanced open circuit voltage derived from the fullerene derivatives. PMID:26862987

  1. PRC1 controls spindle polarization and recruitment of cytokinetic factors during monopolar cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sanjay; Wilmeth, Lori Jo; Eyer, Jarrett; Shuster, Charles B

    2012-04-01

    The central spindle is a postanaphase array of microtubules that plays an essential role in organizing the signaling machinery for cytokinesis. The model by which the central spindle organizes the cytokinetic apparatus is premised on an antiparallel arrangement of microtubules, yet cells lacking spindle bipolarity are capable of generating a distal domain of ectopic furrowing when forced into mitotic exit. Because protein regulator of cytokinesis (PRC1) and kinesin family member 4A (KIF4A) are believed to play a principal role in organizing the antiparallel midzone array, we sought to clarify their roles in monopolar cytokinesis. Although both factors localized to the distal ends of microtubules during monopolar cytokinesis, depletion of PRC1 and KIF4A displayed different phenotypes. Cells depleted of PRC1 failed to form a polarized microtubule array or ectopic furrows following mitotic exit, and recruitment of Aurora B kinase, male germ cell Rac GTPase-activating protein, and RhoA to the cortex was impaired. In contrast, KIF4A depletion impaired neither polarization nor ectopic furrowing, but it did result in elongated spindles with a diffuse distribution of cytokinetic factors. Thus, even in the absence of spindle bipolarity, PRC1 appears to be essential for polarizing parallel microtubules and concentrating the factors responsible for contractile ring assembly, whereas KIF4A is required for limiting the length of anaphase microtubules. PMID:22323288

  2. PLR-1, a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, controls cell polarity and axonal extensions in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jaffar M; Pan, Jie; Hutter, Harald

    2015-02-01

    During embryonic development neurons differentiate and extend axons and dendrites that have to reach their appropriate targets. In Caenorhabditis elegans the AVG neuron is the first neuron to extend an axon during the establishment of the ventral nerve cord, the major longitudinal axon tract in the animal. In genetic screens we isolated alleles of plr-1, which caused polarity reversals of the AVG neuron as well as outgrowth and navigation defects of the AVG axon. In addition plr-1 mutants show outgrowth defects in several other classes of neurons as well as the posterior excretory canals. plr-1 is predicted to encode a transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase and is widely expressed in the animal including the AVG neuron and the excretory cell. plr-1 has recently been shown to negatively regulate Wnt signalling by removing Wnt receptors from the cell surface. We observed that mutations in a gene reducing Wnt signalling as well as mutations in unc-53/NAV2 and unc-73/Trio suppress the AVG polarity defects in plr-1 mutants, but not the defects seen in other cells. This places plr-1 in a Wnt regulation pathway, but also suggests that plr-1 has Wnt independent functions and interacts with unc-53 and unc-73 to control cell polarity. PMID:25448694

  3. Impedance Analysis of Controlled-Polarization-Type Ferroelectric-Gate Thin Film Transistor Using Resistor-Capacitor Lumped Constant Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Tadahiro; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Ashida, Atsushi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2011-04-01

    We propose a novel ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistor using a polar oxide semiconductor channel, which is called a controlled-polarization (CP)-type ferroelectric-gate thin film transistor (TFT). Although the CP-type ferroelectric-gate TFTs with a ZnO/YMnO3 structure shows nonvolatile memory operation, the relationship between the electrical characteristics of the TFTs and the direction of spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric layer (PSFe) below the channel has not been revealed. In this study, the direction of PSFe is analyzed by the impedance spectra of the channel conductance because it can be expected that the channel conductance depends on the direction of the PSFe. The five conditions of the channel conductance are assumed and the impedances between the source electrode and the gate electrode of each condition are calculated by SPICE. The direction of PSFe at various gate voltages is determined by the comparison of the calculated results and experimental results. It was found that the channel conductance of the ferroelectric-gate TFT has steep change by the change of the direction of PSFe.

  4. Gate-voltage-controlled spin and valley polarization transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal MoS? junction.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Shao, Jianmei; Yao, Daoxin; Yang, Guowei

    2014-02-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are extensively explored due to the remarkable physical property and the great potential for post-silicon electronics since the landmark achievement of graphene. The monolayer (ML) MoS2 with a direct energy gap is a typical 2D material and promising candidate for a wide range of device applications. The extensive efforts so far have focused on the optical valley control applications of ML MoS2 rather than the electrical control of spin and valley transport. However, the electrical manipulation of spin injection and transport is essential to realize practical spintronics applications. Here, we theoretically demonstrated that the valley and spin transport can be electrically manipulated by a gate voltage in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal monolayer MoS2 junction device. It was found that the fully valley- and spin-polarized conductance can be achieved due to the spin-valley coupling of valence-band edges together with the exchange field, and both the amplitude and direction of the fully spin-polarized conductance can be modulated by the gate voltage. These findings not only provided deep understanding to the basic physics in the spin and valley transport of ML MoS2 but also opened an avenue for the electrical control of valley and spin transport in monolayer dichalcogenide-based devices. PMID:24417464

  5. High-speed modulation characteristics and small-signal circuit modeling of deeply implanted GRINSCH-VCSELs with graded heterointerfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Gerry G.; Cheng, Julian

    1994-06-01

    The high frequency behavior of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) has been investigated. The small-signal optical modulation response and the impedance characteristics of several different multiple-quantum-well (MQW) VCSEL device structures have been measured and modeled as a function of dc bias and frequency in the 0.13- to 20-GHz range. An equivalent circuit model describing the intrinsic and extrinsic response of the VCSEL was derived, and a good fit to the experimental impedance and modulation data has been achieved. The extrinsic model yields the VCSEL electrical transfer function from which the 3 dB corner frequency (attributed to RLC parasitics) can be evaluated. In some of the devices measured, the 3 dB cutoff frequency is higher than the 3 dB optical modulation bandwidth measured. It is demonstrated that the electrical circuit parasitics alone are not the limiting factor in obtaining the maximum modulation bandwidth from these devices. It is found that the output power roll-over effect due to thermal heating is also a significant limit in obtaining higher optical modulation frequencies. By fitting the model of the intrinsic modulation response to the measured data a maximum resonant relaxation frequency of over 22 GHz is obtained (for a device with an 11-micrometers -diameter active region). It is also found that the amplitude of the modulation in these MQW devices is significantly reduced as the current increases much above threshold, and that this attenuation of the amplitude is explained by the frequency roll-off of the electrical RC parasitics.

  6. Highly polarized emission of the liquid crystalline conjugated polymer by controlling the surface anchoring energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In Jo, Soo; Kim, Youngsik; Baek, Ji-Ho; Yu, Chang-Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated a highly polarized organic light-emitting diode (OLED) through the enhancement of the orientational ordering of the emitting polymer with a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) phase. The highly ordered state of the conjugate polymer was obtained by thermal annealing at the nematic temperature and strong azimuthal anchoring energy of the underlying polyimide. The order parameter of the conjugate polymer was analyzed using a second-harmonic generation model and the dichroic ratio was measured to be 22 : 1. Also, we applied our optimized OLED with high optical polarizability to an effective light source for a twisted nematic LC display.

  7. Flat frequency comb generation based on efficiently multiple four-wave mixing without polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qimeng; Sun, Bao; Chen, Fushen; Jiang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new technique for flat optical frequency comb (OFC) generation, which is based on the nonlinear process of multiple four-wave mixing (FWM) effects. The nonlinear effects are significantly enhanced by using the proposed optical feedback scheme consisting of a single mode fiber (SMF), two highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs) with different zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) and polarization beam splitters (PBSs). Simulation results illustrate its efficiency and applicability of expanding a comb to 128 coherent lines spaced by only 20 GHz within 6-dB power deviation.

  8. Position- and orientation-controlled polarized light interaction of individual indium tin oxide nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Daniel S.; Joh, Daniel Y.; Lee, Thomas; Milchak, Marissa; Zhou, Hebing; Kang, Yongkoo; Hahm, Jong-in

    2014-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the position, orientation, and polarization angle dependence of scattered light from well-characterized, indium tin oxide nanorods (ITO NRs) upon illumination with monochromatic light. Scattering signals from individual ITO NRs of horizontal and vertical configurations are probed quantitatively by examining signal response with respect to the analyzer angle and position along the length of the NR. Our efforts can be highly beneficial in providing fundamental understanding for the light interaction behavior of ITO NRs. Our results can provide valuable bases for comprehending optical emission from individual NRs, with their ever-growing applications in optoelectronics, photonics, and biosensing. PMID:24753625

  9. Position- and orientation-controlled polarized light interaction of individual indium tin oxide nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Daniel S.; Joh, Daniel Y.; Lee, Thomas; Milchak, Marissa; Zhou, Hebing; Kang, Yongkoo; Hahm, Jong-in

    2014-02-24

    We have systematically investigated the position, orientation, and polarization angle dependence of scattered light from well-characterized, indium tin oxide nanorods (ITO NRs) upon illumination with monochromatic light. Scattering signals from individual ITO NRs of horizontal and vertical configurations are probed quantitatively by examining signal response with respect to the analyzer angle and position along the length of the NR. Our efforts can be highly beneficial in providing fundamental understanding for the light interaction behavior of ITO NRs. Our results can provide valuable bases for comprehending optical emission from individual NRs, with their ever-growing applications in optoelectronics, photonics, and biosensing.

  10. Flat frequency comb generation based on efficiently multiple four-wave mixing without polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qimeng; Sun, Bao; Chen, Fushen; Jiang, Jun

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for flat optical frequency comb (OFC) generation, which is based on the nonlinear process of multiple four-wave mixing (FWM) effects. The nonlinear effects are significantly enhanced by using the proposed optical feedback scheme consisting of a single mode fiber (SMF), two highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs) with different zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) and polarization beam splitters (PBSs). Simulation results illustrate its efficiency and applicability of expanding a comb to 128 coherent lines spaced by only 20 GHz within 6-dB power deviation.

  11. A new spore precipitator with polarized dielectric insulators for physical control of tomato powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Hiroki; Moriura, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Norio; Shimizu, Kunihiko; Oichi, Wataru; Nonomura, Teruo; Kakutani, Koji; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Higashi, Katsuhide; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2006-09-01

    ABSTRACT In an attempt to physically protect greenhouse tomato plants from the powdery mildew fungus Oidium neolycopersici, we developed a new electrostatic spore precipitator in which a copper wire conductor is linked to an electrostatic generator and covered with a transparent acrylic cylinder (insulator). The conductor was negatively charged by the generator, and the electrostatic field created by the conductor was used to dielectrically polarize the insulator cylinder. The dielectrically polarized cylinder also produced an electrostatic force without a spark discharge. This force was directly proportional to the potential applied to the conductor and was used to attract conidia of the pathogen. The efficacy of this spore precipitator in protecting hydroponically cultured tomato plants from powdery mildew was evaluated in the greenhouse. The hydroponic culture troughs were covered with a cubic frame installed with the spore precipitator, and the disease progress on precipitator-guarded and unguarded seedlings was traced after the conidia were disseminated mechanically from inoculum on tomato plants. Seedlings in the guarded troughs remained uninfected during the entire experiment, in spite of rapid spread of the disease to all leaves of the unguarded seedlings. PMID:18944052

  12. VANGL2 regulates membrane trafficking of MMP14 to control cell polarity and migration.

    PubMed

    Williams, B Blairanne; Cantrell, V Ashley; Mundell, Nathan A; Bennett, Andrea C; Quick, Rachel E; Jessen, Jason R

    2012-05-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) describes the polarized orientation of cells within the plane of a tissue. Unlike epithelial PCP, the mechanisms underlying PCP signaling in migrating cells remain undefined. Here, the establishment of PCP must be coordinated with dynamic changes in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. During gastrulation, the membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP or MMP14) is required for PCP and convergence and extension cell movements. We report that the PCP protein Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) regulates the endocytosis and cell-surface availability of MMP14 in manner that is dependent on focal adhesion kinase. We demonstrate that zebrafish trilobite/vangl2 mutant embryos exhibit increased Mmp14 activity and decreased ECM. Furthermore, in vivo knockdown of Mmp14 partially rescues the Vangl2 loss-of-function convergence and extension phenotype. This study identifies a mechanism linking VANGL2 with MMP14 trafficking and suggests that establishment of PCP in migrating gastrula cells requires regulated proteolytic degradation or remodeling of the ECM. Our findings implicate matrix metalloproteinases as downstream effectors of PCP and suggest a broadly applicable mechanism whereby VANGL2 affects diverse morphogenetic processes. PMID:22357946

  13. Type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase controls neutrophil polarity and directional movement

    PubMed Central

    Lacalle, Rosa Ana; Peregil, Rosa M.; Albar, Juan Pablo; Merino, Ernesto; Martínez-A, Carlos; Mérida, Isabel; Mañes, Santos

    2007-01-01

    Directional cell movement in response to external chemical gradients requires establishment of front–rear asymmetry, which distinguishes an up-gradient protrusive leading edge, where Rac-induced F-actin polymerization takes place, and a down-gradient retractile tail (uropod in leukocytes), where RhoA-mediated actomyosin contraction occurs. The signals that govern this spatial and functional asymmetry are not entirely understood. We show that the human type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase isoform β (PIPKIβ) has a role in organizing signaling at the cell rear. We found that PIPKIβ polarized at the uropod of neutrophil-differentiated HL60 cells. PIPKIβ localization was independent of its lipid kinase activity, but required the 83 C-terminal amino acids, which are not homologous to other PIPKI isoforms. The PIPKIβ C terminus interacted with EBP50 (4.1-ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-binding phosphoprotein 50), which enabled further interactions with ERM proteins and the Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI). Knockdown of PIPKIβ with siRNA inhibited cell polarization and impaired cell directionality during dHL60 chemotaxis, suggesting a role for PIPKIβ in these processes. PMID:18158329

  14. Control of vibrational states by spin-polarized transport in a carbon nanotube resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, P.; Belzig, W.; Rastelli, G.

    2015-02-01

    We study spin-dependent transport in a suspended carbon nanotube quantum dot in contact with two ferromagnetic leads and with the dot's spin coupled to the flexural mechanical modes. The spin-vibration interaction induces spin-flip processes between the two energy levels of the dot. This interaction arises from the spin-orbit coupling or a magnetic field gradient. The inelastic vibration-assisted spin flips give rise to a mechanical damping and, for an applied bias voltage, to a steady nonequilibrium occupation of the harmonic oscillator. We analyze these effects as function of the energy-level separation of the dot and the magnetic polarization of the leads. Depending on the magnetic configuration and the bias-voltage polarity, we can strongly cool a single mode or pump energy into it. In the latter case, we find that within our approximation, the system approaches eventually a regime of mechanical instability. Furthermore, owing to the sensitivity of the electron transport to the spin orientation, we find signatures of the nanomechanical motion in the current-voltage characteristic. Hence, the vibrational state can be read out in transport measurements.

  15. Tailoring polarity in a layered nickelate with single atomic layer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anand; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Zhou, Hua; Balachandran, Prasanna; Fabbris, Gilberto; Hoffman, Jason; Haskel, Daniel; Rondinelli, James

    2014-03-01

    Many of the 3d transition metal oxides share a common structural MO6 building unit--a central transition metal (TM) cation octahedrally coordinated with oxygen nearest neighbors. The electronic states in these materials can be modified by tailoring the M-O bonds, which typically include the application of epitaxial strain in thin films, or pressure and isovalent cation substitution in bulk samples. Here, we present a new route to tailor the M-O bonds without changes to the strain state or stoichiometry in two-dimensional perovskite nickelate (n =1 in the Ruddlesden Popper series). We do this by tailoring the dipolar electrostatic interactions at the unit cell level in nominally non-polar LaSrNiO4 via single atomic layer-by-layer synthesis using oxide-MBE. We reconstruct the response of the crystal lattice to the induced polarity using a x-ray phase retrieval technique (COBRA). We find that the response of the O anions to the resulting local electric fields distorts the M-O bonds, being largest for the apical oxygens (Oap) . It also alters the Ni valence.

  16. Controllable fully spin-polarized transport in a ferromagnetically doped topological insulator junction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Benliang; Tang, Dongsheng; Zhou, Guanghui; Zhou, Benhu

    2014-04-21

    We investigate the energy band structure and the spin-dependent transport for a normal/ferromagnetic/normal two-dimension topological insulator (TI) junction. By diagonalizing Hamiltonian for the system, the band structure shows that the edge states on two sides are coupled resulting in a gap opening due to the transverse spatial confinement. Further, the exchange field induced by magnetic impurities can also modulate the band structure with two spin degenerate bands splitting. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, the dependence of spin-dependent conductance and spin-polarization on the Fermi energy, the exchange field strength and the ferromagnetic TI (FTI) length are also analyzed, respectively. Interestingly, the degenerate conductance plateaus for spin-up and -down channels are broken, and both the conductances are suppressed by magnetic impurities due to the time-reversal symmetry broken and inelastic scattering. The spin-dependent conductance shows different behaviors when the Fermi energy is tuned into different ranges. Moreover, the conductance can be fully spin polarized by tuning the Fermi energy and the exchange field strength, or by tuning the Fermi energy and the FTI length. Consequently, the junction can transform from a quantum spin Hall state to a quantum anomalous Hall state, which is very important to enable dissipationless charge current for designing perfect spin filter.

  17. Controlled calcite nucleation on polarized calcite single crystal substrates in the presence of polyacrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Norio; Horiuchi, Naohiro; Nakamura, Miho; Nozaki, Kosuke; Hiyama, Tetsuo; Nagai, Akiko; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-04-01

    We studied theoretically and experimentally the effects of the surface electric field generated by polarization and polyacrylic acid (PAA) additives on the heterogeneous nucleation of calcite on the calcite single crystal substrates with (10.4), (10.0) and (00.1) orientations. A set of "in-situ" experiments with optical microscopy was performed to determine the waiting time of CaCO3 nucleation, defined as the time interval between the onset of the diffusion of CO2 and the appearance of the first visible precipitation. Calcite was nucleated on the oriented calcite substrates through diffusion of NH3 and CO2 gas from a solid ammonium carbonate into calcium chloride solutions. A theoretical analysis showed that the surface electric field of the polarized calcite substrate decrease the activation energy for nucleation and consequently promotes nucleation. Experimentally, the surface electric field and PAA addition were found to decrease both contact angles and waiting times, and as a result, promote the heterogeneous nucleation. Combined effect of PAA and surface electric field further reduced contact angles and waiting times regardless of orientation differences of the calcite substrates. The cooperation acts remarkably on N-surface of the respective calcite substrates. The results were explained by the Cassie's equation, a classical heterogeneous nucleation theory under a surface electric field, and matching of the charged sites on the PAA chain with the ion arrangement on the calcite substrate.

  18. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Esherick, Peter; Owyoung, Adelbert

    1988-01-01

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other.

  19. Quasi-continuous metasurface for ultra-broadband and polarization-controlled electromagnetic beam deflection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanqin; Pu, Mingbo; Zhang, Zuojun; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zeyu; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional metasurface has attracted growing interest in recent years, owing to its ability in manipulating the phase, amplitude and polarization state of electromagnetic wave within a single interface. However, most existing metasurfaces rely on the collective responses of a set of discrete meta-atoms to perform various functionalities. In this paper, we presented a quasi-continuous metasurface for high-efficiency and broadband beam steering in the microwave regime. It is demonstrated both in simulation and experiment that the incident beam deviates from the normal direction after transmitting through the ultrathin metasurface. The efficiency of the proposed metasurface approximates to the theoretical limit of the single-layer metasurface in a broad frequency range, owing to the elimination of the circuit resonance in traditional discrete structures. The proposed scheme promises potential applications in broadband electromagnetic modulation and communication systems, etc. PMID:26635228

  20. Controlling energy level offsets in organic/organic heterostructures using intramolecular polar bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhm, Steffen; Salzmann, Ingo; Heimel, Georg; Oehzelt, Martin; Haase, Anja; Johnson, Robert L.; Rabe, Jrgen P.; Koch, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    The impact of intramolecular polar bonds (IPBs) on the energy level alignment in layered systems of rodlike conjugated molecules standing on the substrate was investigated for pentacene (PEN) and perfluoropentacene (PFP) on SiO2 using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. A remarkably large energy offset of 1.75 eV was found between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels of PEN and PFP caused by IPBs at the surface of standing PFP layers. This large HOMO-level offset results in a narrow intermolecular energy gap of approximately 0.4 eV at the interface between PEN and PFP layers. However, the absence of significant spatial overlap of PEN and PFP electron wave functions across the layers suppresses interlayer optical transitions.

  1. Theory of magnetic field control on polarization in multiferroic RCrO3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolov, Angel T.; Apostolova, Iliana N.; Wesselinowa, Julia M.

    2015-12-01

    A microscopic mechanism to describe the magnetic field H dependence of the polarization P is proposed on the basis of a microscopic model for RCrO3 including the spin-phonon interaction. Using the Green's function theory in Peierls systems we have studied the two contributions to P due to the antisymmetric exchange Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction P AS and the magnetostriction P MS . The behaviour of P( H) - increase or decrease - in different multiferroics can be explained in our model taking into account the second order spin-phonon interaction constants. When a magnetic field is applied to a magnetoelectric material, the material is strained. H changes the average of the spin operator products and so P. Moreover, H renormalizes the elastic constant which explains the strain effect. From here we have found a qualitative relationship between pressure and magnetic field effects on P. The observed results are in good qualitatively agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Quasi-continuous metasurface for ultra-broadband and polarization-controlled electromagnetic beam deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanqin; Pu, Mingbo; Zhang, Zuojun; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zeyu; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional metasurface has attracted growing interest in recent years, owing to its ability in manipulating the phase, amplitude and polarization state of electromagnetic wave within a single interface. However, most existing metasurfaces rely on the collective responses of a set of discrete meta-atoms to perform various functionalities. In this paper, we presented a quasi-continuous metasurface for high-efficiency and broadband beam steering in the microwave regime. It is demonstrated both in simulation and experiment that the incident beam deviates from the normal direction after transmitting through the ultrathin metasurface. The efficiency of the proposed metasurface approximates to the theoretical limit of the single-layer metasurface in a broad frequency range, owing to the elimination of the circuit resonance in traditional discrete structures. The proposed scheme promises potential applications in broadband electromagnetic modulation and communication systems, etc.

  3. Quasi-continuous metasurface for ultra-broadband and polarization-controlled electromagnetic beam deflection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanqin; Pu, Mingbo; Zhang, Zuojun; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zeyu; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional metasurface has attracted growing interest in recent years, owing to its ability in manipulating the phase, amplitude and polarization state of electromagnetic wave within a single interface. However, most existing metasurfaces rely on the collective responses of a set of discrete meta-atoms to perform various functionalities. In this paper, we presented a quasi-continuous metasurface for high-efficiency and broadband beam steering in the microwave regime. It is demonstrated both in simulation and experiment that the incident beam deviates from the normal direction after transmitting through the ultrathin metasurface. The efficiency of the proposed metasurface approximates to the theoretical limit of the single-layer metasurface in a broad frequency range, owing to the elimination of the circuit resonance in traditional discrete structures. The proposed scheme promises potential applications in broadband electromagnetic modulation and communication systems, etc. PMID:26635228

  4. Controlling spin polarized band-structure by variation of vacancy intensity in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamali, S.; Kilmametov, A.; Ghafari, M.; Itou, M.; Hahn, H.; Sakurai, Y.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the magnetic properties of FeAl alloys with different grain sizes produced by high-pressure torsion were probed by means of magnetic Compton scattering. The measurements were performed at 300 and 10 K. Magnetic Compton profiles of nanocrystalline (35 nm) and ultrafine-grained (160 nm) FeAl alloys were analyzed in terms of the integral area, the width, and the distinctive dip intensity at low momenta. The changes in total magnetic moment and the strength of spin-polarization of itinerant electrons are assumed to be caused by vacancies induced during the preparation of the samples. Despite local disordering due to interfacial regions and deviations in perfect stoichiometry for B2 structure, the effect of vacancies is considered as the major magnetic state contributor.

  5. Controlling spin polarized band-structure by variation of vacancy intensity in nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kamali, S; Kilmametov, A; Ghafari, M; Itou, M; Hahn, H; Sakurai, Y

    2015-02-25

    In this study, the magnetic properties of FeAl alloys with different grain sizes produced by high-pressure torsion were probed by means of magnetic Compton scattering. The measurements were performed at 300 and 10 K. Magnetic Compton profiles of nanocrystalline (35 nm) and ultrafine-grained (160 nm) FeAl alloys were analyzed in terms of the integral area, the width, and the distinctive dip intensity at low momenta. The changes in total magnetic moment and the strength of spin-polarization of itinerant electrons are assumed to be caused by vacancies induced during the preparation of the samples. Despite local disordering due to interfacial regions and deviations in perfect stoichiometry for B2 structure, the effect of vacancies is considered as the major magnetic state contributor. PMID:25646271

  6. A novel adaptive controller for two-degree of freedom polar robot with unknown perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faieghi, Mohammad Reza; Delavari, Hadi; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2012-02-01

    In industrial applications, the performance of robot manipulators is always affected due to the presence of uncertainties and disturbances. This paper proposes a novel adaptive control scheme for robust control of robotic manipulators perturbed by unknown uncertainties and disturbances. First, an active sliding mode controller is designed and a sufficient condition is obtained guarantying reachability of the states to hit the sliding surface in finite time. Then, based on a Lyapunov function candidate an adaptive switching gain is derived which make the controller capable to bring the tracking error to zero without any disturbance exerted upon the stability. By virtue of this controller it can be shown that the controller can track the desired trajectories even in the presence of unknown perturbations. For the problem of determining the control parameters Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm has been employed. Our theoretic achievements are verified by numerical simulations.

  7. Issues of choice and control in the behaviour of a pair of captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen R

    2006-07-01

    Stereotyped behaviour occurs in a wide variety of captive animals including ursids. The provision of animal control over aspects of their environment by providing choices is a critical element for improving welfare. The behaviour of two sibling polar bears at a metropolitan zoo was examined to investigate the effect of providing access to their indoor, off-exhibit holding space. Both bears demonstrated behavioural changes when given the choice to access their indoor dens including decreased stereotyped behaviours and increased social play. These results, although based on just two bears, provide additional support for the assertion that choice and control are closely tied to issues of well-being for captive animals. PMID:16687218

  8. Effect of GaN interlayer on polarity control of epitaxial ZnO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X. Q.; Sun, H. P.; Pan, X. Q.

    2010-10-11

    Epitaxial ZnO thin films were grown on nitrided (0001) sapphire substrates with an intervening GaN layer by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that polarity of the ZnO epilayer could be controlled by modifying the GaN interlayer. ZnO grown on a distorted 3-nm-thick GaN interlayer has Zn-polarity while ZnO on a 20-nm-thick GaN interlayer with a high structural quality has O-polarity. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates that the polarity of ZnO epilayer is controlled by the atomic structure of the interface between the ZnO buffer layer and the intervening GaN layer.

  9. Extraction and analysis of high-frequency response and impedance of 980-nm VCSELs as a function of temperature and oxide aperture diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Philip; Li, Hui; Moser, Philip; Larisch, Gunter; Lott, James A.; Bimberg, Dieter

    2015-03-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are decisive cost-effective, energy-efficient, and reliable light sources for short-reach (up to ~300 m) optical interconnects in data centers and supercomputers. To viably replace copper interconnects and advance to on-chip integrated photonics, reliable VCSELs ideally must be able to operate highly energy efficient, but at large bit rates and without cooling up to 85 C, with immunity to temperature variations. Our 980 nm VCSELs achieve such temperature-stable, energy-efficient, and high-speed operation coincidently. Record low 139 fJ/bit of dissipated heat for 35 Gbit/s error-free data transmission at 85 C is reported. Careful design of both the VCSEL's epitaxial structure and device geometry is of essence. Introducing a suitable gain-to-etalon wavelength offset simultaneously improves the temperature-stability, the maximum bit rate at high temperatures, and the energy efficiency. Tuning the photon lifetime additionally increases the bandwidth by changing the relation between damping and resonance relaxation frequency. Systematic temperature-dependent and oxide aperture-diameter-dependent measurements, including static L-I-V curves and emission spectra, small signal analysis, and data transmission experiments are reported. The modulation bandwidth, the parasitic cut-off frequency, the relaxation resonance frequency, lumped-circuit elements, and the K- and D-factors are derived, useful for energy-efficient optical interconnects based on 980 nm VCSELs.

  10. Design of Control Instrumentation of a 4 meter Variable Polarization Undulator (EPU)

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesza, Joe; Deyhim, Alex; Fan Taiching; Chen, Jenny

    2007-01-19

    The design of a high end, very sophisticated controller, that consists of an Allen Bradley ControlLogix PLC with a Kinetix servo controller for a 4.16 m EPU is presented. Four servo motors control the gap - 2 on the upper girder and 2 on the lower girder, and another 4 servos controls the phase - 2 on the upper girder inner and outer and 2 on the lower girder, inner and outer. This system is designed for The Taiwan Light Source (TLS) a synchrotron radiation machine of the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) at the energy of 1.5 GeV with electron beam current of 200 {approx} 400 mA.

  11. Theory and characterization of elliptically polarized modes in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volet, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The polarization of the beam emitted from telecom-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is studied in detail. Stokes parameters are extracted separately for the two polarization submodes of the fundamental spatial mode LP01. This characterization was performed at room temperature and for a significant number of devices. This led to the discovery of stable optical modes with a polarization that differs from the linear case. This crucial result was obtained without immersing the devices in an external magnetic field or driving them under external optical injection. In addition, the polarization can be tuned directly with the drive current. Moreover, the polarization handedness can be switched electrically. A theoretical investigation shows that some of the equations forming the basis of the spin-flip model should be reconsidered. In particular, a generalization of this theory is discussed and fantastic agreement is found with the experimental results. This work paves the way for a broad range of novel applications with the VCSEL technology, in particular for spintronics, bio-chemical sensing and telecommunication.

  12. Inducible Costimulator Protein (Icos) Controls T Helper Cell Subset Polarization after Virus and Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kopf, Manfred; Coyle, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Nicole; Barner, Marijke; Oxenius, Annette; Gallimore, Awen; Gutierrez-Ramos, Jose-Carlos; Bachmann, Martin F.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that certain pathogens can trigger efficient T cell responses in the absence of CD28, a key costimulatory receptor expressed on resting T cells. Inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) is an inducible costimulator structurally and functionally related to CD28. Here, we show that in the absence of CD28 both T helper cell type 1 (Th1) and Th2 responses were impaired but not abrogated after infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Inhibition of ICOS in CD28-deficient mice further reduced Th1/Th2 polarization. Blocking of ICOS alone had a limited but significant capacity to downregulate Th subset development. In contrast, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, which are regulated to a minor and major extent by CD28 after LCMV and VSV infection, respectively, remained unaffected by blocking ICOS. Together, our results demonstrate that ICOS regulates both CD28-dependent and CD28-independent CD4+ subset (Th1 and Th2) responses but not CTL responses in vivo. PMID:10880526

  13. A ventrally localized protease in the Drosophila egg controls embryo dorsoventral polarity.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Suk; Stevens, Leslie M; Sieverman, Kathryn J; Nguyen, Jesse; Stein, David

    2012-06-01

    Drosophila embryo dorsoventral (DV) polarity is defined by serine protease activity in the perivitelline space (PVS) between the embryonic membrane and the inner layer of the eggshell. Gastrulation Defective (GD) cleaves and activates Snake (Snk). Activated Snk cleaves and activates Easter (Ea), exclusively on the ventral side of the embryo. Activated Ea then processes Sptzle (Spz) into the activating ligand for Toll, a transmembrane receptor that is distributed throughout the embryonic plasma membrane. Ventral activation of Toll depends upon the activity of the Pipe sulfotransferase in the ventral region of the follicular epithelium that surrounds the developing oocyte. Pipe transfers sulfate residues to several protein components of the inner vitelline membrane layer of the eggshell. Here we show that GD protein becomes localized in the ventral PVS in a Pipe-dependent process. Moreover, ventrally concentrated GD acts to promote the cleavage of Ea by Snk through an extracatalytic mechanism that is distinct from GD's proteolytic activation of Snk. Together, these observations illuminate the mechanism through which spatially restricted sulfotransferase activity in the developing egg chamber leads to localization of serine protease activity and ultimately to spatially specific activation of the Toll receptor in the Drosophila embryo. PMID:22578419

  14. Microtubule Initiation from the Nuclear Surface Controls Cortical Microtubule Growth Polarity and Orientation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Chris; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear envelope in plant cells has long been known to be a microtubule organizing center (MTOC), but its influence on microtubule organization in the cell cortex has been unclear. Here we show that nuclear MTOC activity favors the formation of longitudinal cortical microtubule (CMT) arrays. We used green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged gamma tubulin-complex protein 2 (GCP2) to identify nuclear MTOC activity and GFP-tagged End-Binding Protein 1b (EB1b) to track microtubule growth directions. We found that microtubules initiate from nuclei and enter the cortex in two directions along the long axis of the cell, creating bipolar longitudinal CMT arrays. Such arrays were observed in all cell types showing nuclear MTOC activity, including root hairs, recently divided cells in root tips, and the leaf epidermis. In order to confirm the causal nature of nuclei in bipolar array formation, we displaced nuclei by centrifugation, which generated a corresponding shift in the bipolarity split point. We also found that bipolar CMT arrays were associated with bidirectional trafficking of vesicular components to cell ends. Together, these findings reveal a conserved function of plant nuclear MTOCs and centrosomes/spindle pole bodies in animals and fungi, wherein all structures serve to establish polarities in microtubule growth. PMID:25008974

  15. Magnetosheath plasma precipitation in the polar cusp and its control by the interplanetary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Woch, J.; Lundin, R. )

    1992-02-01

    Magnetosheath particle precipitation in the polar cusp region is studied based on Viking hot plasma data obtained on meridional cusp crossings. Two distinctively different regions are commonly encountered on a typical pass. One region is characterized by high-density particle precipitation, with an ion population characterized by a convecting Maxwellian distribution. Typical magnetosheath parameters are inferred for the spectrum of the source population. The spectral shape of the ion population encountered in the second region suggests that here the magnetosheath ions have been energized by about 1 keV, corresponding to an ion velocity gain of about twice the magnetosheath Alfven velocity. The location of the region containing the accelerated plasma is dependent on the IMF B{sub z} component. For southward IMF the acceleration region is bounded by the ring current population on the equatorward side and by the unaccelerated magnetosheath plasma precipitation on the poleward side. For northward IMF the region is located at the poleward edge of the region with unaccelerated precipitation. The accelerated ion population is obviously transported duskward (dawnward) for a dawnward (duskward) directed IMF. These observations are interpreted as evidence for plasma acceleration due to magnetopause current sheet disruptions/merging of magnetospheric and interplanetary magnetic flux tubes.

  16. Control of Arabidopsis apical-basal embryo polarity by antagonistic transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Zachery R; Long, Jeff A

    2010-03-18

    Plants, similarly to animals, form polarized axes during embryogenesis on which cell differentiation and organ patterning programs are orchestrated. During Arabidopsis embryogenesis, establishment of the shoot and root stem cell populations occurs at opposite ends of an apical-basal axis. Recent work has identified the PLETHORA (PLT) genes as master regulators of basal/root fate, whereas the master regulators of apical/shoot fate have remained elusive. Here we show that the PLT1 and PLT2 genes are direct targets of the transcriptional co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL) and that PLT1/2 are necessary for the homeotic conversion of shoots to roots in tpl-1 mutants. Using tpl-1 as a genetic tool, we identify the CLASS III HOMEODOMAIN-LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIP III) transcription factors as master regulators of embryonic apical fate, and show they are sufficient to drive the conversion of the embryonic root pole into a second shoot pole. Furthermore, genetic and misexpression studies show an antagonistic relationship between the PLT and HD-ZIP III genes in specifying the root and shoot poles. PMID:20190735

  17. Planar cell polarity controls directional Notch signaling in the Drosophila leg.

    PubMed

    Capilla, Amalia; Johnson, Ruth; Daniels, Maki; Benavente, Mara; Bray, Sarah J; Galindo, Mximo Ibo

    2012-07-01

    The generation of functional structures during development requires tight spatial regulation of signaling pathways. Thus, in Drosophila legs, in which Notch pathway activity is required to specify joints, only cells distal to ligand-producing cells are capable of responding. Here, we show that the asymmetric distribution of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins correlates with this spatial restriction of Notch activation. Frizzled and Dishevelled are enriched at distal sides of each cell and hence localize at the interface with ligand-expressing cells in the non-responding cells. Elimination of PCP gene function in cells proximal to ligand-expressing cells is sufficient to alleviate the repression, resulting in ectopic Notch activity and ectopic joint formation. Mutations that compromise a direct interaction between Dishevelled and Notch reduce the efficacy of repression. Likewise, increased Rab5 levels or dominant-negative Deltex can suppress the ectopic joints. Together, these results suggest that PCP coordinates the spatial activity of the Notch pathway by regulating endocytic trafficking of the receptor. PMID:22736244

  18. Planar cell polarity controls directional Notch signaling in the Drosophila leg

    PubMed Central

    Capilla, Amalia; Johnson, Ruth; Daniels, Maki; Benavente, Mara; Bray, Sarah J.; Galindo, Mximo Ibo

    2012-01-01

    The generation of functional structures during development requires tight spatial regulation of signaling pathways. Thus, in Drosophila legs, in which Notch pathway activity is required to specify joints, only cells distal to ligand-producing cells are capable of responding. Here, we show that the asymmetric distribution of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins correlates with this spatial restriction of Notch activation. Frizzled and Dishevelled are enriched at distal sides of each cell and hence localize at the interface with ligand-expressing cells in the non-responding cells. Elimination of PCP gene function in cells proximal to ligand-expressing cells is sufficient to alleviate the repression, resulting in ectopic Notch activity and ectopic joint formation. Mutations that compromise a direct interaction between Dishevelled and Notch reduce the efficacy of repression. Likewise, increased Rab5 levels or dominant-negative Deltex can suppress the ectopic joints. Together, these results suggest that PCP coordinates the spatial activity of the Notch pathway by regulating endocytic trafficking of the receptor. PMID:22736244

  19. Mapping of two-polarization-mode dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatare, I.; Sciamanna, M.; Nizette, M.; Thienpont, H.; Panajotov, K.

    2009-08-01

    We report theoretically on the interplay between polarization switching and bifurcations to nonlinear dynamics in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection. Qualitatively different bifurcation scenarios leading to polarization switching are found and mapped out in the plane of the injection parameters, i.e., the frequency detuning vs injection strength plane. A Hopf bifurcation mechanism on the two-polarization-mode solution determines the injection-locking boundaries and influences polarization switching induced by optical injection. We furthermore report on a torus bifurcation emerging from a two-linearly polarized (LP) mode time-periodic dynamics before polarization switching and injection locking appear. It corresponds to an interesting combination of relaxation oscillation dynamics in the x -LP mode together with wave mixing dynamics in the injected y -LP mode. In agreement with recent experiments, we unveil a period-doubling route to chaos that involves both VCSEL orthogonal LP modes. The corresponding region of chaotic dynamics coincides with abrupt changes in the polarization switching boundaries in the plane of the injection parameters.

  20. Volumetric cutaneous microangiography of human skin in vivo by VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Woo June Choi; Wang, R K

    2014-08-31

    We demonstrate volumetric cutaneous microangiography of the human skin in vivo that utilises 1.3-μm high-speed sweptsource optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The swept source is based on a micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS)-tunable vertical cavity surface emission laser (VCSEL) that is advantageous in terms of long coherence length over 50 mm and 100 nm spectral bandwidth, which enables the visualisation of microstructures within a few mm from the skin surface. We show that the skin microvasculature can be delineated in 3D SS-OCT images using ultrahigh-sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) with a correlation mapping mask, providing a contrast enhanced blood perfusion map with capillary flow sensitivity. 3D microangiograms of a healthy human finger are shown with distinct cutaneous vessel architectures from different dermal layers and even within hypodermis. These findings suggest that the OCT microangiography could be a beneficial biomedical assay to assess cutaneous vascular functions in clinic. (laser biophotonics)