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Sample records for vcsel polarization control

  1. VCSEL polarization control for chip-scale atomic clocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Geib, Kent Martin; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Wendt, Joel Robert; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Keeler, Gordon Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Mytek, LLC have collaborated to develop a monolithically-integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) assembly with controllable polarization states suitable for use in chip-scale atomic clocks. During the course of this work, a robust technique to provide polarization control was modeled and demonstrated. The technique uses deeply-etched surface gratings oriented at several different rotational angles to provide VCSEL polarization stability. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) model was used to optimize the design for high polarization selectivity and fabrication tolerance. The new approach to VCSEL polarization control may be useful in a number of defense and commercial applications, including chip-scale atomic clocks and other low-power atomic sensors.

  2. Volume production of polarization controlled single-mode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin; King, Roger; Jäger, Roland; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Gerlach, Philipp; Duckeck, Denise; Wimmer, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Over the past 3 years laser based tracking systems for optical PC mice have outnumbered the traditional VCSEL market datacom by far. Whereas VCSEL for datacom in the 850 nm regime emit in multipe transverse modes, all laser based tracking systems demand for single-mode operation which require advanced manufacturing technology. Next generation tracking systems even require single-polarization characteristics in order to avoid unwanted movement of the pointer due to polarization flips. High volume manufacturing and optimized production methods are crucial for achieving the addressed technical and commercial targets of this consumer market. The resulting ideal laser source which emits single-mode and single-polarization at low cost is also a promising platform for further applications like tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) or miniature atomic clocks when adapted to the according wavelengths.

  3. Polarization mode control of long-wavelength VCSELs by intracavity patterning

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Long, Christopher Michael; Mickovic, Zlatko; Dwir, Benjamin; Caliman, Andrei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Mereuta, Alexandru; Sirbu, Alexei; Kapon, Eli

    2016-04-26

    Polarization mode control is enhanced in wafer-fused vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting at 1310 nm wavelength by etching two symmetrically arranged arcs above the gain structure within the laser cavity. The intracavity patterning introduces birefringence and dichroism, which discriminates between the two polarization states of the fundamental transverse modes. We find that the cavity modifications define the polarization angle at threshold with respect to the crystal axes, and increase the gain anisotropy and birefringence on average, leading to an increase in the polarization switching current. As a result, experimental measurements are explained using the spin-flip model of VCSEL polarization dynamics.

  4. Photonic heterostructure High Contrast Grating as a novel polarization control and light confinement system in HCG VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebski, M.; Dems, M.; Chen, J.; Qijie, W.; Dao Hua, Z.; Czyszanowski, T.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we present results of computer optical simulations of VCSEL with modified high refractive index contrast grating (HCG) as a top mirror. We consider the HCG of two different designs which determine the lateral aperture. Such HCG mirror provides selective guiding effect. We show that proper design of aperture of HCG results in almost sixfold increase in cavity Q-factor for zero order mode and a discrimination of higher order modes.

  5. Influence of birefringence splitting on ultrafast polarization oscillations in VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, Markus; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.; Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Spin-VCSELs offer numerous advantages over conventional lasers like reduced threshold, spin amplification and ultrafast polarization dynamics. The latter have the potential to generate polarization modulation frequencies far above the conventional intensity relaxation oscillation frequency of one and the same device and thus can be an interesting basis for ultrafast optical data transmission. We have shown that fast polarization oscillations can be generated by pulsed spin injection. Furthermore the oscillation frequency can be tuned via modification of the VCSEL's cavity strain. Using this technique, oscillation frequencies with a tuning range from nearly zero up to 40 GHz can be demonstrated. In the device under study, this is more than six times the intensity relaxation oscillation frequency, which is nearly independent of the strain. Now we demonstrate the influence of the strain-induced birefringence splitting on the oscillation frequency. We find that the polarization oscillation frequency is directly corresponding to the birefringence splitting. The reason is that the polarization oscillates according to the beating frequency of the two orthogonal linearly polarized cavity modes in the VCSEL. In the case of spin-pumping, those two modes form the circular polarization output of the laser by superposition. Their frequencies are shifted by birefringence manipulation and form the basis of birefringence splitting. The measurement results are compared with simulations employing the spin-flip model. Our results show that high-frequency polarization oscillations can not only be generated with the help of external strain but with high birefringence splitting in general.

  6. Dynamics of dual-polarization VCSEL-based optical frequency combs under optical injection locking.

    PubMed

    Prior, E; de Dios, C; Criado, R; Ortsiefer, M; Meissner, P; Acedo, P

    2016-09-01

    The present experimental work studies the dynamics of dual-polarization optical frequency combs (OFCs) based on gain switching (GS) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes under optical injection locking (OIL). This study presents two main results. First, we have obtained an overall comb formed by two orthogonally polarized sub-combs with comparable span and power. The overall comb shows enhanced optical span and flatness and high coherence between its modes. The second result is that we have been able to control the polarization state of the overall comb by tuning the polarization state of the injected light by locking the same single teeth of the comb. This produces an overall comb with single polarization that is parallel or orthogonal. These are novel findings that provide for the development of efficient and compact OFCs based on GS VCSEL sources with versatile polarization dynamics. PMID:27607978

  7. Efficient and individually controllable mechanisms for mode and polarization selection in VCSELs, based on a common, localized, sub-wavelength surface grating.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Johan; Haglund, Asa; Vukusić, Josip; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Jedrasik, Piotr; Larsson, Anders

    2005-08-22

    We have theoretically investigated the combined fundamental-mode and polarization selection in 850-nm oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using a locally etched sub-wavelength surface grating. The physical mechanisms behind the selection are, first, the strongly polarization sensitive effective refractive index of the volume occupied by the grating structure, and second, the dramatic change of the reflectivity of a multi-layer Bragg mirror that can occur by simply changing the refractive index of the outermost layer. For a VCSEL cavity this layer is the surface layer and its refractive index is changed by the introduction of the sub-wavelength grating; in this case the grating leads to a higher reflectivity for the desired polarization. By localizing the surface grating area to a carefully chosen region near the optical axis it is therefore possible to ensure that the fundamental mode experiences a high reflectivity, or low cavity loss, while other modes experience more of the low-reflectance region of the peripheral part of the Bragg mirror and thus suffer higher loss. Cold-cavity calculations on a VCSEL with oxide aperture and grating region diameters of 4.5 microm and 2.5 microm, respectively, indicate that a loss difference of ~20 cm(-1) between the fundamental mode and the first higher order mode can be obtained simultaneously with an orthogonal polarization mode discrimination of >15 cm-1. Based on previous experience, these values should enable robust single-mode operation with only the desired polarization orientation. What is also important, for the lasing mode the introduction of a sub-wavelength grating has no detrimental effect, so its characteristics, such as threshold current, slope efficiency, and far-field profile are unaffected. Moreover, since the effective index is a result of an averaging over several sub-wavelength grating periods, it is fairly insensitive to the detailed shape of the grating grooves, which should

  8. All-optical 2-bit header recognition and packet switching using polarization bistable VCSELs.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Nakao, Kazuya; Katayama, Takeo; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    We propose and evaluate an all-optical 2-bit header recognition and packet switching method using two 1.55-µm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and three optical switches. Polarization bistable VCSELs acted as flip-flop devices by using AND-gate operations of the header and set pulses, together with the reset pulses. Optical packets including 40-Gb/s non-return-to-zero pseudo-random bit-sequence payloads were successfully sent to one of four ports according to the state of two bits in the headers with a 4-bit 500-Mb/s return-to-zero format. The input pulse powers were 17.2 to 31.8 dB lower than the VCSEL output power. We also examined an extension of this method to multi-bit header recognition and packet switching. PMID:25968674

  9. VCSELs with optically controlled current confinement: experiments and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Sven; Gerlach, Philipp; Michalzik, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    We have devised a novel oxide-free and regrowth-free approach for optically controlled current confinement in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). This is realized with a monolithically integrated phototransistor (PT), which is configured as an optical switch and embedded between the two Bragg reflectors. We have fabricated functional PT-VCSELs by one-step epitaxial growth plus metal deposition with different top contact sizes. We present light-current-voltage characteristics of the lasers as well as a simple theoretical model explaining the occurrence of a distinct turn-on point and clarify epitaxial design requirements to reach strong optically controlled current confinement.

  10. Controlling the parameters of wet lateral oxidation for VCSEL fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaziat, Majid; Reed, David; Kor, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Physical parameters that need to be controlled during the wet oxidation of VCSEL mesas are numerous and include: temperature uniformity, vapor flow pattern, epitaxial thickness and composition uniformity, diffusion through adjacent layers, oxidation onset delay, etch skirt, and wafer surface prep. We report the results of our studies on some of these factors including vapor flow patterns, and oxidation front monitoring. The results are being used for the optimization of our commercial system for wet lateral oxidation.

  11. Investigation of polarization switching of VCSEL subject to intensity modulated and optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazhan, Salam; Ghassemlooy, Z.; Busawon, K.; Gholami, A.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the results of an experimental investigation of the polarization switching (PS) of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using the so-called polarization-rotated optical feedback mechanism. In particular, the experiments is performed by changing the laser driving current, optical feedback (OF) level, modulation signal parameters, such as frequency, modulation-depth in order to assess their influences on the PS of VCSEL. We show that a smaller polarization angle θp is required to realize PS with increasing the level of OF. Moreover, for a fixed OF level and increased bias current a smaller θp is required to ensure PS. However, for a fixed OF and variable modulation parameters, both the frequency and modulation-depth lead to the elimination of PS over the entire range of measurement.

  12. Dual-channel chaos synchronization and communication based on unidirectionally coupled VCSELs with polarization-rotated optical feedback and polarization-rotated optical injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2009-07-20

    A novel dual-channel chaotic synchronization configuration is proposed. This system is constructed on the basis of two unidirectionally coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), where a VCSEL subjected to polarization-rotated optical feedback is used as a transmitter and the other VCSEL subjected to polarization-rotated optical injection is used as a receiver. The synchronization and communication performances of such a system are numerically investigated. The results show that, similar to polarization-preserved coupled system with polarization-preserved optical feedback at the T-VCSEL port and polarization-preserved optical injection at the R-VCSEL port, such polarization-rotated coupled system can also realize complete synchronization between each pair of linear polarization (LP) modes and the total output of T-VCSEL and R-VCSEL. Compared with the polarization-preserved coupled system, this proposed system has higher tolerance to mismatched parameters. Furthermore, the average intensities of two orthogonal LP modes are almost the same so that this framework may be used to realize dual-channel chaos communication. Under the additive chaos modulation (ACM) encryption scheme, the encoded messages can be successfully extracted for both of orthogonal LP modes. PMID:19654666

  13. Experimental stability maps of a 1550nm-VCSEL subject to polarized optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, A.; Schires, K.; Khan, N.; Quirce, A.; Valle, A.; Pesquera, L.; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J.

    2010-02-01

    We report an experimental study of the injection locking properties and nonlinear dynamics of a 1550nm-Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) subject to parallel and to orthogonal polarized optical injection into the two orthogonal polarizations of the fundamental transverse mode of the device. A rich variety of nonlinear dynamics have been observed for both parallel and orthogonal optical injection outside the stable locking range, including limit cycle, period doubling, chaos and polarization switching. Additionally, for the case of orthogonal optical injection, we report a first experimental observation of the change in the shape of the stability map as the applied bias current is increased well above threshold.

  14. Controlled switching of ultrafast circular polarization oscillations in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Höpfner, Henning Lindemann, Markus; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate a scheme for controlled switching of polarization oscillations in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSEL). Under hybrid electrical and optical pumping conditions, our VCSEL devices show polarization oscillations with frequencies far above the VCSEL's electrical modulation bandwidth. Using multiple optical pulses, we are able to excite and amplify these polarization oscillations. When specific phase and amplitude conditions for the optical excitation pulses are met, destructive interference leads to switch-off of the polarization oscillation, enabling the generation of controlled short polarization bursts.

  15. Engineering of angular dependence of high-contrast grating mirror for transverse mode control of VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    We present our recent activity on highly angular-dependent high contrast grating (HCG) for the transverse mode control of VCSELs. The modeling and the experiment show the design flexibility of HCG to manage the angular dependence of HCG. The optimized angular dependent HCG functions as a spatial frequency filter. We are able to use the engineered angular dependence of HCG for the transverse-mode control of VCSELs by filtering out high-order transverse-modes. We fabricated and characterized amorphous Si HCG mirrors, which clearly show the large angular dependence. We demonstrated single-mode 980nm VCSELs with a HCG mirror functioning as a spatial frequency filter.

  16. VCSEL-powered and polarization-maintaining fiber-optic grating vector rotation sensor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Du, Fa; Zhang, Zhaochuan; Li, Chunjie; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2013-08-12

    A compact fiber-optic vector rotation sensor in which a short section of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber stub containing a straight fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is spliced to another single mode fiber without any lateral offset is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Due to the intrinsic birefringence of the PM fiber, two well-defined resonances (i.e. orthogonally polarized FBG core modes) with wavelength separation of 0.5 nm have been achieved in reflection, and they exhibit a high sensitivity to fiber rotation. Both the orientation and the angle of rotation can be determined unambiguously via simple power detection of the relative amplitudes of the orthogonal core reflections. Meanwhile, instead of using a broadband source (BBS), the sensor is powered by a commercial vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with the laser wavelength matched to the PM-FBG core modes, which enables the sensor to work at much higher power levels (~15 dB better than BBS). This improves the signal-to-noise ratio considerably (~50 dB), and makes a demodulation filter unnecessary. Vector rotation measurement with a sensitivity of 0.09 dB/deg has been achieved via cost-effective single detector real time power measurement, and the unwanted power fluctuations and temperature perturbations can be effectively referenced out. PMID:23938824

  17. VCSEL proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatum, Jim

    2007-02-01

    Since the commercialization of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) in 1996, Finisar's Advanced Optical Components Division has shipped well over 50 Million VCSELs. The vast majority of these were shipped into the data communications industry, which was essentially the only volume application until 2005. The driver for VCSEL manufacturing might well shift to the increasingly popular laser based optical mouse. The advantages of the laser based mouse over traditional LED mice include operation on a wider range of surfaces, higher resolution, and increased battery lifetime. What is the next application that will drive growth in VCSELs? This paper will offer a historical perspective on the emergence of VCSELs from the laboratory to reality, and the companies that have played key roles in VCSEL commercialization. Furthermore, a perspective on the market needs of future VCSEL development and applications is described.

  18. Recent Advances of VCSEL Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2006-12-01

    A vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was invented 30 years ago. A lot of unique features can be expected, such as low-power consumption, wafer-level testing, small packaging capability, and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly in recent years, and they are now key devices in local area networks using multimode optical fibers. Also, long wavelength VCSELs are currently attracting much interest for use in single-mode fiber metropolitan area and wide area network applications. In addition, a VCSEL-based disruptive technology enables various consumer applications such as a laser mouse and laser printers. In this paper, the recent advance of VCSEL photonics will be reviewed, which include the wavelength extension of single-mode VCSELs and their wavelength integration/control. Also, this paper explores the potential and challenges for new functions of VCSELs toward optical signal processing.

  19. Control of emitted light polarization in a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to circularly polarized optical injection

    SciTech Connect

    Alharthi, S. S. Hurtado, A.; Al Seyab, R. K.; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J.; Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M.

    2014-11-03

    We experimentally demonstrate the control of the light polarization emitted by a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) at room temperature. This is achieved by means of a combination of polarized optical pumping and polarized optical injection. Without external injection, the polarization of the optical pump controls that of the spin-VCSEL. However, the addition of the externally injected signal polarized with either left- (LCP) or right-circular polarization (RCP) is able to control the polarization of the spin-VCSEL switching it at will to left- or right-circular polarization. A numerical model has been developed showing a very high degree of agreement with the experimental findings.

  20. Evolution of VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatum, Jim A.

    2014-02-01

    Over the last 20 years, nearly 1 billion VCSELs have been shipped, the vast majority of them emitting at 850nm using GaAs active regions, and primarily used in data communications and optical tracking applications. Looking to the future, the ever increasing speed of data communications is driving the VCSEL to evolve with more complex active regions, optical mode control, and alternate wavelengths to meet the more stringent requirements. We will discuss the current state of VCSELs for 28Gbps, and higher speeds, focusing on evolution to more complex active regions and alternate wavelength approaches, particularly as the market evolves to more active optical cables. Other high volume applications for VCSELs are driving improvements in single mode and optical power characteristics. We will present several evolving market trends and applications, and the specific VCSEL requirements that are imposed. The ubiquitous 850nm, GaAs active region VCSEL is evolving in multiple ways, and will continue to be a viable optical source well in to the future.

  1. VCSELs for atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkland, Darwin K.; Peake, Gregory M.; Geib, Kent M.; Lutwak, Robert; Garvey, R. Michael; Varghese, Mathew; Mescher, Mark

    2006-02-01

    The spectroscopic technique of coherent population trapping (CPT) enables an all-optical interrogation of the groundstate hyperfine splitting of cesium (or rubidium), compared to the optical-microwave double resonance technique conventionally employed in atomic frequency standards. All-optical interrogation enables the reduction of the size and power consumption of an atomic clock by two orders of magnitude, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are preferred optical sources due to their low power consumption and circular output beam. Several research teams are currently using VCSELs for DARPA's chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) program with the goal of producing an atomic clock having a volume < 1 cm^3, a power consumption < 30 mW, and an instability (Allan deviation) < 1x10^-11 during a 1-hour averaging interval. This paper describes the VCSEL requirements for CPT-based atomic clocks, which include single mode operation, single polarization operation, modulation bandwidth > 4 GHz, low power consumption (for the CSAC), narrow linewidth, and low relative intensity noise (RIN). A significant manufacturing challenge is to reproducibly obtain the required wavelength at the specified VCSEL operating temperature and drive current. Data are presented that show the advantage of operating at the D1 (rather than D2) resonance of the alkali atoms. Measurements of VCSEL linewidth will be discussed in particular, since atomic clock performance is especially sensitive to this parameter.

  2. VCSEL Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, Rainer

    In this chapter we outline major principles of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) design and operation. Basic device properties and generally applicable cavity design rules are introduced. Characteristic parameters like threshold gain and current, differential quantum efficiency and power conversion efficiency, as well as thermal resistance are discussed. We describe the design of Bragg reflectors and explain the transfer matrix method as a convenient tool to compute VCSEL resonator properties in a one-dimensional approximation. Experimental results illustrate the emission characteristics of high-efficiency VCSELs that apply selective oxidation for current and photon confinement. Both the 850 and 980 nm wavelength regions are considered. The basic treatment of laser dynamics and noise behavior is presented in terms of the small-signal modulation response as well as the relative intensity noise. Finally we give some examples of VCSEL applications in fiber-based optical interconnects, i.e., optical data transmission over short distances.

  3. VCSEL Swept Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Jiang, James; Potsaid, Benjamin; Robertson, Martin; Heim, Peter J. S.; Burgner, Christopher; John, Demis; Cole, Garrett D.; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Fujimoto, James G.; Davis, Anjul M.; Cable, Alex E.

    Wavelength-swept light sources are widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). In recent years, amplified micro-electromechanical systems tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (MEMS-VCSELs) have emerged as a high performance swept source, providing a unique combination of of wide tuning range, high maximum sweep rate, variable sweep rate, long dynamic coherence length enabled by dynamic mode-hop-free single mode operation, high optical power, and excellent imaging quality. Other important parameters provided by these devices include operation in a stable polarization state, low output power ripple, and linearized wavelength sweeping. This work describes MEMS-VCSEL device design, fabrication, and performance for devices in the 1050nm band relevant to ophthalmic imaging, and the 1310nm band relevant to vascular, skin, and anatomic imaging. Tuning ranges achieved include 100 nm at 1050nm and 150nm at 1310, with the latter result representing the widest tuning range of any MEMS-VCSEL at any wavelength. Both 1050 and 1310nm devices have enabled record imaging speed, record imaging range, and enhanced SS-OCT imaging.

  4. Hybrid polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, George R.; Ibragimov, Edem; Sluz, Joseph; Sova, Raymond

    2005-05-01

    We demonstrate a novel method of polarization control that combines rotatable waveplates (angle control) and variable retarders (retardance control). Such a "hybrid" polarization controller performs far better than conventional controllers, allowing nearly perfect arbitrary-to-arbitrary polarization transformations. We show theoretically that the two control parameters augment one another because they tend to result in orthogonal movements on the Poincaré sphere.

  5. High-power VCSEL systems and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Holger; Conrads, Ralf; Deppe, Carsten; Derra, Guenther; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gu, Xi; Heusler, Gero; Kolb, Johanna; Miller, Michael; Pekarski, Pavel; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Pruijmboom, Armand; Weichmann, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    Easy system design, compactness and a uniform power distribution define the basic advantages of high power VCSEL systems. Full addressability in space and time add new dimensions for optimization and enable "digital photonic production". Many thermal processes benefit from the improved control i.e. heat is applied exactly where and when it is needed. The compact VCSEL systems can be integrated into most manufacturing equipment, replacing batch processes using large furnaces and reducing energy consumption. This paper will present how recent technological development of high power VCSEL systems will extend efficiency and flexibility of thermal processes and replace not only laser systems, lamps and furnaces but enable new ways of production. High power VCSEL systems are made from many VCSEL chips, each comprising thousands of low power VCSELs. Systems scalable in power from watts to multiple ten kilowatts and with various form factors utilize a common modular building block concept. Designs for reliable high power VCSEL arrays and systems can be developed and tested on each building block level and benefit from the low power density and excellent reliability of the VCSELs. Furthermore advanced assembly concepts aim to reduce the number of individual processes and components and make the whole system even more simple and reliable.

  6. Highly angular dependent high-contrast grating mirror and its application for transverse-mode control of VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shunya; Kashino, Junichi; Matsutani, Akihiro; Ohtsuki, Hideo; Miyashita, Takahiro; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-09-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a highly angular dependent high contrast grating (HCG) mirror. The modeling and experiment on amorphous-Si/SiO2 HCG clearly show the large angular dependence of reflectivity, which enables single transverse-mode operations of large-area VCSELs. We fabricate 980 nm VCSELs with the angular dependent HCG functioning as a spatial frequency filter. We obtained the single transverse mode operation of the fabricated device in contrast to conventional VCSELs with semiconductor multilayer mirrors.

  7. VCSEL Applications and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson; Goorjian, Peter; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Li, Jian-Zhong

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) simulation and its applications. Details are given on the optical interconnection in information technology of VCSEL, the formulation of the simulation, its numeric algorithm, and the computational results.

  8. Long-wavelength VCSELs for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortsiefer, M.; Rosskopf, J.; Neumeyr, C.; Gründl, T.; Grasse, C.; Chen, J.; Hangauer, A.; Strzoda, R.; Gierl, C.; Meissner, P.; Küppers, F.; Amann, M.-C.

    2012-03-01

    Long-wavelength VCSELs with emission wavelengths beyond 1.3 μm have seen a remarkable progress over the last decade. This success has been accomplished by using highly advanced device concepts which effectively overcome the fundamental technological drawbacks related with long-wavelength VCSELs such as inferior thermal properties and allow for the realization of lasers with striking device performance. In this presentation, we will give an overview on the state of the technology for long-wavelength VCSELs in conjunction with their opportunities in applications for optical sensing. While VCSELs based on InP are limited to maximum emission wavelengths around 2.3 μm, even longer wavelengths up to the mid-infrared range beyond 3 μm can be achieved with VCSELs based on GaSb. For near-infrared InP-based VCSELs, the output characteristics include sub-mA threshold currents, up to several milliwatts of singlemode output power and ultralow power consumption. New concepts for widely tunable VCSELs with tuning ranges up to 100 nm independent from the material system for the active region are also presented. Today, optical sensing by Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy is a fast emerging market. Gas sensing systems are used for a wide range of applications such as industrial process control, environmental monitoring and safety applications. With their inherent and compared to other laser types superior properties including enhanced current tuning rates, wavelength tuning ranges, modulation frequencies and power consumption, long-wavelength VCSELs are regarded as key components for TDLS applications.

  9. Interferometric polarization control

    SciTech Connect

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Novak, Giles

    2006-07-20

    We develop the Jones and Mueller matrices for structures that allow control of the path length difference between two linear orthogonal polarizations and consider the effect of placing multiple devices in series. Specifically, we find that full polarization modulation (measurement of Stokes Q, U, and V) can be achieved by placing two such modulators in series if the relative angles of the beam-splitting grids with respect to the analyzer orientation are appropriately chosen. Such a device has several potential advantages over a spinning wave plate modulator for measuring astronomical polarization in the far infrared through millimeter: (i) The use of small, linear motions eliminates the need for cryogenic rotational bearings; (ii) the phase flexibility allows measurement of circular as well as linear polarization; and (iii) this architecture allows for both multiwavelength and broadband modulation. We also present initial laboratory results.

  10. Red Emitting VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  11. Phase-Controlled Polarization Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Wollack, E. J.; Novak, G.; Moseley, S. H.; Pisano, G.; Krejny, M.; U-Yen, K.

    2012-01-01

    We report technology development of millimeter/submillimeter polarization modulators that operate by introducing a a variable, controlled phase delay between two orthogonal polarization states. The variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) operates via the introduction of a variable phase delay between two linear orthogonal polarization states, resulting in a variable mapping of a single linear polarization into a combination of that Stokes parameter and circular (Stokes V) polarization. Characterization of a prototype VPM is presented at 350 and 3000 microns. We also describe a modulator in which a variable phase delay is introduced between right- and left- circular polarization states. In this architecture, linear polarization is fully modulated. Each of these devices consists of a polarization diplexer parallel to and in front of a movable mirror. Modulation involves sub-wavelength translations of the mirror that change the magnitude of the phase delay.

  12. Laser interferometer for absolute distance measurement based on a tunable VCSEL laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cip, Ondrej; Mikel, Bretislav; Lazar, Josef

    2005-02-01

    In the work, we present the absolute distance interferometer with a narrow-linewidth tunable VCSEL laser (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) working at &lambda ~760 nm. As a detection technique, we use a fast wavelength-scanning interferometry improved by an amplitude division of the interference fringe with using two signals in quadrature. Used VCSEL laser is wide tunable with the mod-hop free tuning range more than 1.2 nm by means of the amplitude modulation of the injection current. We control the stabilization and tuning process of the laser wavelength with using the frequency lock to a Fabry-Perot resonator. We build that resonator as a glass plan-parallel etalon with high-fines. Except the frequency lock, the etalon helps us to measure a wavelength-tuning interval of VCSEL laser during the scanning process. We have stabilized an operating temperature of the VCSEL laser by means of a fast digital temperature controller. The optical set-up of the interferometer begins with a polarizing beam-splitter. It splits the laser beam into the measuring and reference arm of the Michelson interferometer. Two cubic corner cubes reflect beams back to this beam-splitter. It collects reflected beams to the same axis of propagation. Then a detection unit produces the combination of two perpendicularly polarized laser beams with production of two electronic signals that are in the quadrature. A fast analog-to-digital card equipped with the digital signal processor (DSP) samples these signals. DSP also controls the course of the scanning process. After Δλ ~ 1 nm scan of the wavelength of VCSEL laser we obtain a record of passed interference fringes and passed Fabry-Perot resonance modes at the same time. On basis of these measured quantities we are able to calculate with high precision the instantaneous value of the optical path length difference between the measuring and reference arm of the Michelson interferometer. We experimentally compared the developed absolute

  13. Principles of VCSEL designing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakwaski, W.

    2008-03-01

    Comprehensive computer simulations are currently the most efficient and cheap methods in designing and optimisation of semiconductor device structures. Seemingly they should be as exact as possible, but in practice it is well known that the most exact approaches are also the most involved and the most time-consuming ones and need powerful computers. In some cases, cheaper somewhat simplified modelling simulations are sufficiently accurate. Therefore, an appropriate modelling approach should be chosen taking into account a compromise between our needs and our possibilities. Modelling of operation and designing of structures of vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers (VCSELs) requires appropriate mathematical description of physical processes crucial for devices operation, i.e., various optical, electrical, thermal, recombination and sometimes also mechanical phenomena taking place within their volumes. Equally important are mutual interactions between above individual processes, usually strongly non-linear and creating a real network of various inter-relations. Chain is as strong as its weakest link. Analogously, model is as exact as its less exact part. Therefore it is useless to improve exactness of its more accurate parts and not to care about less exact ones. All model parts should exhibit similar accuracy. In any individual case, a reasonable compromise should be reached between high modelling fidelity and its practical convenience depending on a main modelling goal, importance and urgency of expected results, available equipment and also financial possibilities. In the present paper, some simplifications used in VCSEL modelling are discussed and their impact on exactness of VCSEL designing is analysed.

  14. VCSEL-based sensors for distance and velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Holger; Carpaij, Mark; Gerlach, Philipp; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gudde, Ralph; Hellmig, Jochen; Kolb, Johanna; van der Lee, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    VCSEL based sensors can measure distance and velocity in three dimensional space and are already produced in high quantities for professional and consumer applications. Several physical principles are used: VCSELs are applied as infrared illumination for surveillance cameras. High power arrays combined with imaging optics provide a uniform illumination of scenes up to a distance of several hundred meters. Time-of-flight methods use a pulsed VCSEL as light source, either with strong single pulses at low duty cycle or with pulse trains. Because of the sensitivity to background light and the strong decrease of the signal with distance several Watts of laser power are needed at a distance of up to 100m. VCSEL arrays enable power scaling and can provide very short pulses at higher power density. Applications range from extended functions in a smartphone over industrial sensors up to automotive LIDAR for driver assistance and autonomous driving. Self-mixing interference works with coherent laser photons scattered back into the cavity. It is therefore insensitive to environmental light. The method is used to measure target velocity and distance with very high accuracy at distances up to one meter. Single-mode VCSELs with integrated photodiode and grating stabilized polarization enable very compact and cost effective products. Besides the well know application as computer input device new applications with even higher accuracy or for speed over ground measurement in automobiles and up to 250km/h are investigated. All measurement methods exploit the known VCSEL properties like robustness, stability over temperature and the potential for packages with integrated optics and electronics. This makes VCSEL sensors ideally suited for new mass applications in consumer and automotive markets.

  15. Interferometric polarization control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); Moseley, Samuel H. (Inventor); Novak, Giles A. (Inventor); Chuss, David T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A signal conditioning module provides a polarimeter capability in a photometric system. The module may include multiple variable delay polarization modulators. Each modulator may include an input port, and a first arm formed to include a first reflector and first rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The first reflector may direct an input radiation signal to the first rooftop mirror. Each modulator also may include an output port and a second arm formed to include a second reflector and second rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The second reflector can guide a signal from the second rooftop mirror towards the output port to provide an output radiation signal. A beamsplitting grid may be placed between the first reflector and the first rooftop mirror, and also between the second reflector and the second rooftop mirror. A translation apparatus can provide adjustment relative to optical path length vis-a-vis the first arm, the second arm and the grid.

  16. Interferometric Polarization Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T. (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); Moseley, Samuel H. (Inventor); Novak, Giles A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A signal conditioning module provides a polarimeter capability in a photometric system. The module may include multiple variable delay polarization modulators. Each modulator may include an input port, and a first arm formed to include a first reflector and first rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The first reflector may direct an input radiation signal to the first rooftop mirror. Each modulator also may include an output port and a second arm formed to include a second reflector and second rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The second reflector can guide a signal from the second rooftop mirror towards the output port to provide an output radiation signal. A beamsplitting grid may be placed between the first reflector and the first rooftop mirror, and also between the second reflector and the second rooftop mirror. A translation apparatus can provide adjustment relative to optical path length vis-a-vis the first arm, the second arm and the grid.

  17. Circular polarization switching and bistability in an optically injected 1300 nm spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    SciTech Connect

    Alharthi, S. S. Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J.; Hurtado, A.; Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M.

    2015-01-12

    We report the experimental observation of circular polarization switching (PS) and polarization bistability (PB) in a 1300 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). We demonstrate that the circularly polarized optical signal at 1300 nm can gradually or abruptly switch the polarization ellipticity of the spin-VCSEL from right-to-left circular polarization and vice versa. Moreover, different forms of PS and PB between right- and left-circular polarizations are observed by controlling the injection strength and the initial wavelength detuning. These results obtained at the telecom wavelength of 1300 nm open the door for novel uses of spin-VCSELs in polarization sensitive applications in future optical systems.

  18. Dynamic Self-Locking of an OEO Containing a VCSEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Yu, Nan; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-01

    A method of dynamic self-locking has been demonstrated to be effective as a means of stabilizing the wavelength of light emitted by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) that is an active element in the frequency-control loop of an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) designed to implement an atomic clock based on an electromagnetically- induced-transparency (EIT) resonance. This scheme can be considered an alternative to the one described in Optical Injection Locking of a VCSEL in an OEO (NPO-43454), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 7 (July 2009), page 33. Both schemes are expected to enable the development of small, low-power, high-stability atomic clocks that would be suitable for use in applications involving precise navigation and/or communication. To recapitulate from the cited prior article: In one essential aspect of operation of an OEO of the type described above, a microwave modulation signal is coupled into the VCSEL. Heretofore, it has been well known that the wavelength of light emitted by a VCSEL depends on its temperature and drive current, necessitating thorough stabilization of these operational parameters. Recently, it was discovered that the wavelength also depends on the microwave power coupled into the VCSEL. This concludes the background information. From the perspective that led to the conception of the optical injection-locking scheme described in the cited prior article, the variation of the VCSEL wavelength with the microwave power circulating in the frequency-control loop is regarded as a disadvantage and optical injection locking is a solution of the problem of stabilizing the wavelength in the presence of uncontrolled fluctuations in the microwave power. The present scheme for dynamic self-locking emerges from a different perspective, in which the dependence of VCSEL wavelength on microwave power is regarded as an advantageous phenomenon that can be exploited as a means of controlling the wavelength. The figure schematically depicts

  19. 1550-nm wavelength-tunable HCG VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Christopher; Rao, Yi; Huang, Michael; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate wavelength-tunable VCSELs using high contrast gratings (HCGs) as the top output mirror on VCSELs, operating at 1550 nm. Tunable HCG VCSELs with a ~25 nm mechanical tuning range as well as VCSELs with 2 mW output power were realized. Error-free operation of an optical link using directly-modulated tunable HCG VCSELs transmitting at 1.25 Gbps over 18 channels spaced by 100 GHz and transmitted over 20 km of single mode fiber is demonstrated, showing the suitability of the HCG tunable VCSEL as a low cost source for WDM communications systems.

  20. Frequency tuning of polarization oscillations in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, Markus; Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2016-04-01

    Controlling the coupled spin-photon dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is an attractive opportunity to overcome the limitations of conventional, purely charge based semiconductor lasers. Such spin-controlled VCSELs (spin-VCSELs) offer several advantages, like reduced threshold, spin amplification and polarization control. Furthermore the coupling between carrier spin and light polarization bears the potential for ultrafast polarization dynamics. By injecting spin-polarized carriers, the complex polarization dynamics can be controlled and utilized for high-speed applications. Polarization oscillations as resonance oscillations of the coupled spin- photon system can be generated using pulsed spin injection, which can be much faster than the intensity dynamics in conventional devices. We already demonstrated that the oscillations can be switched in a controlled manner. These controllable polarization dynamics can be used for ultrafast polarization-based optical data communication. The polarization oscillation frequency and therefore the possible data transmission rate is assumed to be mainly determined by the birefringence-induced mode-splitting. This provides a direct tool to increase the polarization dynamics toward higher frequencies by adding a high amount of birefringence to the VCSEL structure. Using this technique, we could recently demonstrate experimentally a birefringence splitting of more than 250 GHz using mechanical strain. Here, we employ the well-known spin-flip model to investigate the tuning of the polarization oscillation frequency. The changing mechanical strain is represented by a linear birefringence sweep to values up to 80πGHz. The wide tuning range presented enables us to generate polarization oscillation frequencies exceeding the conventional intensity modulation frequency in the simulated device by far, mainly dependent on the birefringence in the cavity only.

  1. Integrated high power VCSEL systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Holger; Conrads, Ralf; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gu, Xi; Miller, Michael; Pekarski, Pavel; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Pruijmboom, Armand; Weichmann, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    High power VCSEL systems are a novel laser source used for thermal treatment in industrial manufacturing. These systems will be applied in many applications, which have not used a laser source before. This is enabled by the unique combination of efficiency, compactness and robustness. High power VCSEL system technology encompasses elements far beyond the VCSEL chip itself: i.e. heat sinks, bonding technology and integrated optics. This paper discusses the optimization of these components and processes specifically for building high-power laser systems with VCSEL arrays. New approaches help to eliminate components and process steps and make the system more robust and easier to manufacture. New cooler concepts with integrated electrical and mechanical interfaces have been investigated and offer advantages for high power system design. The bonding process of chips on sub-mounts and coolers has been studied extensively and for a variety of solder materials. High quality of the interfaces as well as good reliability under normal operation and thermal cycling have been realized. A viable alternative to soldering is silver sintering. The very positive results which have been achieved with a variety of technologies indicate the robustness of the VCSEL chips and their suitability for high power systems. Beam shaping micro-optics can be integrated on the VCSEL chip in a wafer scale process by replication of lenses in a polymer layer. The performance of VCSEL arrays with integrated collimation lenses has been positively evaluated and the integrated chips are fully compatible with all further assembly steps. The integrated high power systems make the application even easier and more robust. New examples in laser material processing and pumping of solid state lasers are presented.

  2. Monolithic subwavelength high refractive-index-contrast grating VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Lott, James A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present optical design and simulation results of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) that incorporate monolithic subwavelength high refractive-index-contrast grating (MHCG) mirrors - a new variety of HCG mirror that is composed of high index material surrounded only on one side by low index material. We show the impact of an MHCG mirror on the performance of 980 nm VCSELs designed for high bit rate and energy-efficient optical data communications. In our design, all or part of the all-semiconductor top coupling distributed Bragg reflector mirror is replaced by an undoped gallium-arsenide MHCG. We show how the optical field intensity distribution of the VCSEL's fundamental mode is controlled by the combination of the number of residual distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror periods and the physical design of the topmost gallium-arsenide MHCG. Additionally, we numerically investigate the confinement factors of our VCSELs and show that this parameter for the MHCG DBR VCSELs may only be properly determined in two or three dimensions due to the periodic nature of the grating mirror.

  3. 120 Gbps VCSEL arrays: fabrication and quality aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin; Intemann, Steffan; Wimmer, Christian; Borowski, Lin R.; King, Roger; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Jäger, Roland

    2010-02-01

    Data centers and supercomputers are driving the demand for short reach aggregate bandwidth. E.g. active CXP active optical cables (AOC) with an aggregate bandwidth of 120 Gbps [1] are being installed since about one year in some of the biggest server farms in the world. As these applications require parallel optics, obviously this is a natural playground for VCSEL technology. The 10G VCSEL platform of Philips ULM Photonics is enabling operation of such AOC at less than 3 W total power by low bias currents for the individual VCSEL as low as 3.4 mA at room temperature and 5.5 mA at 85°C ambient. In combination with ideally matched driver electronics, the launch power of the VCSELs can be stabilized within 0.15dB variation across this operating temperature range [2] and thus allow for open loop power control. With more than 108 hours of operation in the field and no field return reported, the FIT rate for the 1x12 VCSEL array can be calculated to be less than 10 FIT.

  4. Optical Injection Locking of a VCSEL in an OEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-01

    Optical injection locking has been demonstrated to be effective as a means of stabilizing the wavelength of light emitted by a vertical-cavity surface- emitting laser (VCSEL) that is an active element in the frequency-control loop of an opto-electronic oscillator (OEO) designed to implement an atomic clock based on an electromagnetically- induced-transparency resonance. This particular optical-injection- locking scheme is expected to enable the development of small, low-power, high-stability atomic clocks that would be suitable for use in applications involving precise navigation and/or communication. In one essential aspect of operation of an OEO of the type described above, a microwave modulation signal is coupled into the VCSEL. Heretofore, it has been well known that the wavelength of light emitted by a VCSEL depends on its temperature and drive current, necessitating thorough stabilization of these operational parameters. Recently, it was discovered that the wavelength also depends on the microwave power coupled into the VCSEL. Inasmuch as the microwave power circulating in the frequency-control loop is a dynamic frequency-control variable (and, hence, cannot be stabilized), there arises a need for another means of stabilizing the wavelength. The present optical-injection-locking scheme satisfies the need for a means to stabilize the wavelength against microwave- power fluctuations. It is also expected to afford stabilization against temperature and current fluctuations. In an experiment performed to demonstrate this scheme, wavelength locking was observed when about 200 W of the output power of a commercial tunable diode laser was injected into a commercial VCSEL, designed to operate in the wavelength range of 795+/-3 nm, that was generating about 200 microW of optical power. (The use of relatively high injection power levels is a usual practice in injection locking of VCSELs.)

  5. Lithographic VCSEL array multimode and single mode sources for sensing and 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leshin, J.; Li, M.; Beadsworth, J.; Yang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Tucker, F.; Eifert, L.; Deppe, D. G.

    2016-05-01

    Sensing applications along with free space data links can benefit from advanced laser sources that produce novel radiation patterns and tight spectral control for optical filtering. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are being developed for these applications. While oxide VCSELs are being produced by most companies, a new type of oxide-free VCSEL is demonstrating many advantages in beam pattern, spectral control, and reliability. These lithographic VCSELs offer increased power density from a given aperture size, and enable dense integration of high efficiency and single mode elements that improve beam pattern. In this paper we present results for lithographic VCSELs and describes integration into military systems for very low cost pulsed applications, as well as continuouswave applications in novel sensing applications. The VCSELs are being developed for U.S. Army for soldier weapon engagement simulation training to improve beam pattern and spectral control. Wavelengths in the 904 nm to 990 nm ranges are being developed with the spectral control designed to eliminate unwanted water absorption bands from the data links. Multiple beams and radiation patterns based on highly compact packages are being investigated for improved target sensing and transmission fidelity in free space data links. These novel features based on the new VCSEL sources are also expected to find applications in 3-D imaging, proximity sensing and motion control, as well as single mode sensors such as atomic clocks and high speed data transmission.

  6. 780nm-range VCSEL array for laser printer system and other applications at Ricoh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jikutani, Naoto; Itoh, Akihiro; Harasaka, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Toshihide; Sato, Shunichi

    2016-03-01

    A 780 nm-range 40 channels vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array was developed as a writing light source for printers. A 15° off missoriented GaAs substrate, an aluminum-free GaInAsP/GaInP compressively-strained multiple quantum well and an anisotropic-shape transverse-mode filter were employed to control polarization characteristics. The anisotropic-shape transverse-mode filter also suppressed higher transverse-mode and enabled high-power single-mode operation. Thus, orthogonal-polarization suppression-ratio (OPSR) of over 22 dB and side-mode suppression-ratio (SMSR) of 30 dB were obtained at operation power of 3mW at same time for wide oxide-aperture range below 50 μm2. Moreover, a thermal resistance was reduced for 38% by increasing a thickness of high thermal conductivity layer (3λ/4-AlAs layer) near a cavity. By this structure, a peak-power increased to 1.3 times. Moreover, a power-fall caused by self-heating at pulse-rise was decreased to 10% and the one caused by a thermal-crosstalk between channels was decreased to 46%. The VCSEL array was mounted in a ceramic package with a tilted seal glass to prevent optical-crosstalk caused by other channels. Thus, we achieved stable-output and high-quality beam characteristics for long-duration pulse drive.

  7. Ultrafast Narrow Band Modulation of VCSELs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Multimode beating was greatly enhanced by taking output from part (e.g., half) of the output facet. Simpler sources of microwaves and millimeter waves of various frequencies were generated by varying the VCSEL diameter in a single multimode VCSEL our coupling of a few VCSELs. Breathing frequency in multi-mode operations affects modulation response and bandwidth. Optimizing RO frequency and mode beating frequency could potentially expand bandwidths suitable for wide band digital communications.

  8. VCSEL arrays for optical wireless systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Katsuhisa; Nitatori, Koichi; Iwamoto, Takashi; Miura, Takamitsu; Sakai, Masahisa

    2001-05-01

    Now we have studied the development of the optical devices used in optical wireless communication systems. For optical wireless systems, the emitted light should have an intensity distribution in the shape of a pill-box. Use of VCSEL array was believed to allow the emitted light to have pill-box distribution and we performed the study concerning the optimum VCSEL array for optical wireless systems. This article describes the development of the VCSEL array for optical wireless systems.

  9. 1060nm 28-Gbps VCSEL developed at Furukawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshihito; Funabashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Hitoshi; Nagashima, Kazuya; Kamiya, Shinichi; Kasukawa, Akihiko

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents recent development results of our 28-Gbps VCSELs featured with double intra-cavity structure and a lasing wavelength of 1060 nm. The double intra-cavity realizes very low cavity loss due to undoped semiconductor bottom DBR and dielectric top DBR layers. Compressively strained InGaAs MQW provides high differential gain that contributes to low power consumption and high reliability. Based on our 10-Gbps VCSEL structure, we carefully optimized MQW, selective oxide structure, cavity length, and doping profile in order to achieve high speed operation while maintaining high reliability and other laser performances. The developed VCSELs exhibit modulation 3 dB-bandwidth exceeding 20 GHz and D-factor of 10 GHz/(mA)1/2. Typical threshold current and slope efficiency are 0.5 mA and 0.5 W/A, respectively. The paper also discusses static and dynamic characteristics of VCSELs with various oxide aperture sizes simultaneously fabricated on the same wafer. For a longer transmission distance and better optical coupling to a multimode fiber, optical lateral confinement is precisely controlled to reduce spectral width as well as far-field pattern. Clearly opened eye diagrams are obtained at a bit rate of 28 Gbps. Bit error rate tests are also performed and 28 Gbps error free transmission has been confirmed over 300 meters of multimode-fiber optimized for 1060 nm with a PRBS pattern length of 231-1.

  10. Double high refractive-index contrast grating VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Wasiak, Michał; Sarzała, Robert P.; Lott, J. A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) are typically used as the highly reflecting mirrors of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). In order to provide optical field confinement, oxide apertures are often incorporated in the process of the selective wet oxidation of high aluminum-content DBR layers. This technology has some potential drawbacks such as difficulty in controlling the uniformity of the oxide aperture diameters across a large-diameter (≥ 6 inch) production wafers, high DBR series resistance especially for small diameters below about 5 μm despite elaborate grading and doping schemes, free carrier absorption at longer emission wavelengths in the p-doped DBRs, reduced reliability for oxide apertures placed close to the quantum wells, and low thermal conductivity for transporting heat away from the active region. A prospective alternative mirror is a high refractive index contrast grating (HCG) monolithically integrated with the VCSEL cavity. Two HCG mirrors potentially offer a very compact and simplified VCSEL design although the problems of resistance, heat dissipation, and reliability are not completely solved. We present an analysis of a double HCG 980 nm GaAs-based ultra-thin VCSEL. We analyze the optical confinement of such a structure with a total optical thickness is ~1.0λ including the optical cavity and the two opposing and parallel HCG mirrors.

  11. High-speed VCSELs and VCSEL arrays for single- and multi-core fiber interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Anders; Westbergh, Petter; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Haglund, Erik; Haglund, Emanuel P.

    2015-03-01

    Our recent work on high speed 850 nm VCSELs and VCSEL arrays is reviewed. With a modulation bandwidth approaching 30 GHz, our VCSELs have enabled transmitters and links operating at data rates in excess of 70 Gbps (at IBM) and transmission over onboard polymer waveguides at 40 Gbps (at University of Cambridge). VCSELs with an integrated mode filter for single mode emission have enabled transmission at 25 Gbps over >1 km of multimode fiber and a speed-distance product of 40 Gbps·km. Dense VCSEL arrays for multicore fiber interconnects have demonstrated 240 Gbps aggregate capacity with excellent uniformity and low crosstalk between the 40 Gbps channels.

  12. VCSELs for exascale computing, computer farms, and green photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Werner; Moser, Philip; Wolf, Philip; Larisch, Gunter; Li, Hui; Li, Wei; Lott, James; Bimberg, Dieter

    2012-11-01

    The bandwidth-induced communication bottleneck due to the intrinsic limitations of metal interconnects is inhibiting the performance and environmental friendliness of todaýs supercomputers, data centers, and in fact all other modern electrically interconnected and interoperable networks such as data farms and "cloud" fabrics. The same is true for systems of optical interconnects (OIs), where even when the metal interconnects are replaced with OIs the systems remain limited by bandwidth, physical size, and most critically the power consumption and lifecycle operating costs. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are ideally suited to solve this dilemma. Global communication providers like Google Inc., Intel Inc., HP Inc., and IBM Inc. are now producing optical interconnects based on VCSELs. The optimal bandwidth per link may be analyzed by by using Amdahĺs Law and depends on the architecture of the data center and the performance of the servers within the data center. According to Google Inc., a bandwidth of 40 Gb/s has to be accommodated in the future. IBM Inc. demands 80 Tbps interconnects between solitary server chips in 2020. We recently realized ultrahigh bit rate VCSELs up to 49 Gb/s suited for such optical interconnects emitting at 980 nm. These devices show error-free transmission at temperatures up to 155°C and operate beyond 200°C. Single channel data-rates of 40 Gb/s were achieved up to 75°C. Record high energy efficiencies close to 50 fJ/bit were demonstrated for VCSELs emitting at 850 nm. Our devices are fabricated using a full three-inch wafer process, and the apertures were formed by in-situ controlled selective wet oxidation using stainless steel-based vacuum equipment of our own design. assembly, and operation. All device data are measured, recorded, and evaluated by our proprietary fully automated wafer mapping probe station. The bandwidth density of our present devices is expected to be scalable from about 100 Gbps/mm² to a

  13. Active Polymer Microfiber with Controlled Polarization Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hongyan; Wang, Ruxue; Liu, Yingying; Cheng, Junjie; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Polarization Sensitivity of an active polymer microfiber has been proposed and realized with the electrospun method. The fluorescence intensity guiding through this active polymer microfiber shows high sensitivity to the polarization state of the excitation light. What is more, the fluorescence out-coupled from tip of the microfiber can be of designed polarization state. Principle of these phenomena lies on the ordered and controlled orientation of the polydiacetylene (PDA) main chains inside polymer microfiber. PMID:27099828

  14. Flip-chip integration of tilted VCSELs onto a silicon photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huihui; Lee, Jun Su; Zhao, Yan; Scarcella, Carmelo; Cardile, Paolo; Daly, Aidan; Ortsiefer, Markus; Carroll, Lee; O'Brien, Peter

    2016-07-25

    In this article we describe a cost-effective approach for hybrid laser integration, in which vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are passively-aligned and flip-chip bonded to a Si photonic integrated circuit (PIC), with a tilt-angle optimized for optical-insertion into standard grating-couplers. A tilt-angle of 10° is achieved by controlling the reflow of the solder ball deposition used for the electrical-contacting and mechanical-bonding of the VCSEL to the PIC. After flip-chip integration, the VCSEL-to-PIC insertion loss is -11.8 dB, indicating an excess coupling penalty of -5.9 dB, compared to Fibre-to-PIC coupling. Finite difference time domain simulations indicate that the penalty arises from the relatively poor match between the VCSEL mode and the grating-coupler. PMID:27464079

  15. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Charles D.

    1991-01-01

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neutrons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  16. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neturons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  17. Ultrafast Directional Beam Switching in Coupled VCSELs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng; Goorjian, Peter

    2001-01-01

    We propose a new approach to performing ultrafast directional beam switching using two coupled Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). The proposed strategy is demonstrated for two VCSELs of 5.6 microns in diameter placed about 1 micron apart from the edges, showing a switching speed of 42 GHz with a maximum far-field angle span of about 10 degrees.

  18. VCSEL technology for medical diagnostics and therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbs-Brenner, M. K.; Johnson, K. L.; Bendett, M.

    2009-02-01

    In the 1990's a new laser technology, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers, or VCSELs, emerged and transformed the data communication industry. The combination of performance characteristics, reliability and performance/cost ratio allowed high data rate communication to occur over short distances at a commercially viable price. VCSELs have not been widely used outside of this application space, but with the development of new attributes, such as a wider range of available wavelengths, the demonstration of arrays of VCSELs on a single chip, and a variety of package form factors, VCSELs can have a significant impact on medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. One area of potential application is neurostimulation. Researchers have previously demonstrated the feasibility of using 1850nm light for nerve stimulation. The ability to create an array of VCSELs emitting at this wavelength would allow significantly improved spatial resolution, and multiple parallel channels of stimulation. For instance, 2D arrays of 100 lasers or more can be integrated on a single chip less than 2mm on a side. A second area of interest is non-invasive sensing. Performance attributes such as the narrow spectral width, low power consumption, and packaging flexibility open up new possibilities in non-invasive and/or continuous sensing. This paper will suggest ways in which VCSELs can be implemented within these application areas, and the advantages provided by the unique performance characteristics of the VCSEL. The status of VCSEL technology as a function of available wavelength and array size and form factors will be summarized.

  19. Analysis of waveguiding properties of VCSEL structures

    SciTech Connect

    Erteza, I.A.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the feasibility of using the distributed Bragg reflector, grown on the substrate for a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser), to provide waveguiding within the substrate. This waveguiding could serve as an interconnection among VCSELs in an array. Before determining the feasibility of waveguide interconnected VCSELs, two analysis methods are presented and evaluated for their applicability to this problem. The implementations in Mathematica of both these methods are included. Results of the analysis show that waveguiding in VCSEL structures is feasible. Some of the many possible uses of waveguide interconnected VCSELs are also briefly discussed. The tools and analysis presented in this report can be used to evaluate such system concepts and to do detailed design calculations.

  20. Communication using VCSEL laser array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Ultrafast directional beam switching, using coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is combined with a light modulator to provide information transfer at bit rates of tens of GHz. This approach is demonstrated to achieve beam switching frequencies of 32-50 GHz in some embodiments and directional beam switching with angular differences of about eight degrees. This switching scheme is likely to be useful for ultrafast optical networks at frequencies much higher than achievable with other approaches. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a Fabry-Perot etalon, or a semiconductor-based electro-absorption transmission channel, among others, can be used as a light modulator.

  1. SASE FEL Polarization Control Using Crossed Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuantao; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2008-09-30

    There is a growing interest in producing intense, coherent x-ray radiation with an adjustable and arbitrary polarization state. In this paper, we study the crossed undulator scheme for rapid polarization control in a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free electron laser (FEL). Because a SASE source is a temporally chaotic light, we perform a statistical analysis on the state of polarization using FEL theory and simulations. We show that by adding a small phase shifter and a short (about 1.3 times the FEL power gain length), 90{sup o} rotated planar undulator after the main SASE planar undulator, one can obtain circularly polarized light--with over 80% polarization--near the FEL saturation.

  2. Ultrafast Beam Switching Using Coupled VCSELs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng; Goorjian, Peter

    2001-01-01

    We propose a new approach to performing ultrafast beam switching using two coupled Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). The strategy is demonstrated by numerical simulation, showing a beam switching of 10 deg at 42 GHz.

  3. Organic photovoltaic cells with controlled polarization sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Awartani, Omar; O'Connor, Brendan T.; Kudenov, Michael W.

    2014-03-03

    In this study, we demonstrate linearly polarized organic photovoltaic cells with a well-controlled level of polarization sensitivity. The polarized devices were created through the application of a large uniaxial strain to the bulk heterojunction poly(3-hexylthiophene):Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) film and printing the plastically deformed active layer onto a PEDOT:PSS and indium tin oxide coated glass substrate. The P3HT:PCBM layer is processed such that it is able to accommodate high strains (over 100%) without fracture. After printing the strained films, thermal annealing is used to optimize solar cell performance while maintaining polarization sensitivity. A dichroic ratio and short circuit current ratio of ≈6.1 and ≈1.6 were achieved, respectively.

  4. High-power red VCSEL arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seurin, Jean-Francois; Khalfin, Viktor; Xu, Guoyang; Miglo, Alexander; Li, Daizong; Zhou, Delai; Sundaresh, Mukta; Zou, Wei-Xiong; Lu, Chien-Yao; Wynn, James D.; Ghosh, Chuni

    2013-03-01

    High-power red laser sources are used in many applications such as cosmetics, cancer photodynamic therapy, and DNA sequencing in the medical field, laser-based RGB projection display, and bar-code scanning to name a few. Verticalcavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be used as high-power laser sources, as efficient single devices can be configured into high-power two-dimensional arrays and scaled into modules of arrays. VCSELs emit in a circular, uniform beam which can greatly reduce the complexity and cost of optics. Other advantages include a narrow and stable emission spectrum, low speckle of the far-field emission, and good reliability. However, developing efficient red VCSEL sources presents some challenges because of the reduced quantum-well carrier confinement and the increased Aluminum content (to avoid absorption) which increases thermal impedance, and also decreases the DBR index contrast resulting in increased penetration length and cavity losses. We have recently developed VCSEL devices lasing in the visible 6xx nm wavelength band, and reaching 30% power conversion efficiency. We fabricated high-power 2D arrays by removing the GaAs substrate entirely and soldered the chips on high thermal conductivity submounts. Such arrays have demonstrated several Watts of output power at room temperature, in continuous-wave (CW) operation. Several tens of Watts are obtained in QCW operation. Results and challenges of these high-power visible VCSEL arrays will be discussed.

  5. Advances and new functions of VCSEL photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2014-11-01

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was born in Japan. The 37 years' research and developments opened up various applications including datacom, sensors, optical interconnects, spectroscopy, optical storages, printers, laser displays, laser radar, atomic clock and high power sources. A lot of unique features have been already proven, such as low power consumption, a wafer level testing and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly and they are now key devices in local area networks based on multi-mode optical fibers. Optical interconnections in data centers and supercomputers are attracting much interest. In this paper, the advances on VCSEL photonics will be reviewed. We present the high-speed modulation of VCSELs based on a coupled cavity structure. For further increase in transmission capacity per fiber, the wavelength engineering of VCSEL arrays is discussed, which includes the wavelength stabilization and wavelength tuning based on a micro-machined cantilever structure. We also address a lateral integration platform and new functions, including high-resolution beam scanner, vortex beam creation and large-port free space wavelength selective switch with a Bragg reflector waveguide.

  6. Fast beam steering with full polarization control using a galvanometric optical scanner and polarization controller.

    PubMed

    Jofre, M; Anzolin, G; Steinlechner, F; Oliverio, N; Torres, J P; Pruneri, V; Mitchell, M W

    2012-05-21

    Optical beam steering is a key element in many industrial and scientific applications like in material processing, information technologies, medical imaging and laser display. Even though galvanometer-based scanners offer flexibility, speed and accuracy at a relatively low cost, they still lack the necessary control over the polarization required for certain applications. We report on the development of a polarization steerable system assembled with a fiber polarization controller and a galvanometric scanner, both controlled by a digital signal processor board. The system implements control of the polarization decoupled from the pointing direction through a feed-forward control scheme. This enables to direct optical beams to a desired direction without affecting its initial polarization state. When considering the full working field of view, we are able to compensate polarization angle errors larger than 0.2 rad, in a temporal window of less than ∼ 20 ms. Given the unification of components to fully control any polarization state while steering an optical beam, the proposed system is potentially integrable and robust. PMID:22714214

  7. Interface control of bulk ferroelectric polarization

    PubMed Central

    Yu, P.; Luo, W.; Yi, D.; Zhang, J. X.; Rossell, M. D.; Yang, C.-H.; You, L.; Singh-Bhalla, G.; Yang, S. Y.; He, Q.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Erni, R.; Martin, L. W.; Chu, Y. H.; Pantelides, S. T.; Pennycook, S. J.; Ramesh, R.

    2012-01-01

    The control of material interfaces at the atomic level has led to novel interfacial properties and functionalities. In particular, the study of polar discontinuities at interfaces between complex oxides lies at the frontier of modern condensed matter research. Here we employ a combination of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations to demonstrate the control of a bulk property, namely ferroelectric polarization, of a heteroepitaxial bilayer by precise atomic-scale interface engineering. More specifically, the control is achieved by exploiting the interfacial valence mismatch to influence the electrostatic potential step across the interface, which manifests itself as the biased-voltage in ferroelectric hysteresis loops and determines the ferroelectric state. A broad study of diverse systems comprising different ferroelectrics and conducting perovskite underlayers extends the generality of this phenomenon. PMID:22647612

  8. VCSELs for interferometric readout of MEMS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkland, Darwin K.; Geib, Kent M.; Peake, Gregory M.; Keeler, Gordon A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Baker, Michael S.; Okandan, Murat

    2016-03-01

    We report on the development of single-frequency VCSELs (vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers) for sensing the position of a moving MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) object with resolution much less than 1nm. Position measurement is the basis of many different types of MEMS sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure sensors. Typically, by switching from a traditional capacitive electronic readout to an interferometric optical readout, the resolution can be improved by an order of magnitude with a corresponding improvement in MEMS sensor performance. Because the VCSEL wavelength determines the scale of the position measurement, laser wavelength (frequency) stability is desirable. This paper discusses the impact of VCSEL amplitude and frequency noise on the position measurement.

  9. Waveguide-slot antenna with controlled polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamardinova, V. I.; Kapitanov, V. A.; Nikolaev, A. G.

    A theoretical study, based on experimental data obtained for a waveguide-slot antenna with controlled polarization, is conducted, prompted by the necessity of developing airborne side-looking radars whose antenna is extended in one dimension (along the aircraft fuselage) and has controlled polarization. Emission by an inclined slot in a waveguide of circular cross section is examined; computations and experimental verification of results are carried out for two counterinclined slots. Results of testing of a waveguide with slots at 45 deg to the waveguide generatrix at a wavelength of 3 cm yielded a gain factor of 1300 and radiation pattern width of 1 deg 10 arcmin in the horizontal plane and 5 deg in the vertical. The level of the sidelobe was 13 dB, while that of the following lobes did not exceed 20 dB.

  10. Control of polarization in integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koonath, Prakash Vijayan

    Integrated optical devices have attracted considerable attention in recent years with the rapid progress in optical communications, and the emergence of dense wavelength division multiplexing systems. The control over the state of polarization of the optical signal is an important issue that needs to be addressed due to the structure-induced anisotropy in these devices. In this thesis, two different types of integrated optical devices, with distinct approaches to address their polarization sensitivity, have been explored. The first device investigated was a semiconductor optical amplifier based on multi-quantum wells, where the gain depends on the state of polarization of the optical signal. To realize amplifiers with polarization insensitive gain, tensile-strained quantum wells structures were utilized as active regions in these devices. Optical gain calculations were performed using k.p method to calculate the tensile stress that needs to be introduced for gain equalization. These devices were then fabricated and tested to demonstrate the concept of gain equalization in InGaAsP/InP based material system at 1300 nm wavelength window and in AlInGaAs/InP based material system at both 1300 nm and 1550 run wavelength windows. In the second device, polarization sensitivity of integrated optical devices, combined with the linear electro-optic effect in III-V semiconductor materials, is exploited to manipulate the state of polarization of the optical signal. A phase modulator, combined with a TE <--> TM converter, may be used to obtain a device that converts the arbitrary elliptical input state of polarization to either the TE or the TM mode of the structure. Finite element methods have been developed to model the propagation and loss characteristics, and calculate the switching voltages of these devices based on AlGaAs/GaAs material system. The fabricated devices were then investigated for their I-V characteristics and propagations losses with

  11. Modeling the Control of Planar Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Jeffrey D.; Tomlin, Claire J.

    2016-01-01

    A growing list of medically important developmental defects and disease mechanisms can be traced to disruption of the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway. The PCP system polarizes cells in epithelial sheets along an axis orthogonal to their apical-basal axis. Studies in the fruitfly, Drosophila, have led to the concept of a modular system controlling PCP. The components of the PCP signaling modules, and the effector systems with which they interact, function together to produce emergent patterns. Experimental methods allow the manipulation of individual PCP signaling molecules in specified groups of cells; these interventions not only perturb the polarization of the targeted cells at a subcellular level, but also perturb patterns of polarity at the multicellular level, often affecting nearby cells in characteristic ways. These kinds of experiments should, in principle, allow one to infer the architecture within and between modules, but the relationships between molecular interactions and tissue-level pattern are sufficiently complex that they defy intuitive understanding. Mathematical modeling has been an important tool to address these problems. This review explores the emergence of a local signaling hypothesis, and describes how a local intercellular signal, coupled with a directional cue, can give rise to global pattern. We will discuss the critical role mathematical modeling has played in guiding and interpreting experimental results, and speculate about future roles for mathematical modeling of PCP. Mathematical models at varying levels of abstraction have and are expected to continue contributing in distinct ways to understanding the regulation of PCP signaling. PMID:21755606

  12. Observation of electro-activated localized structures in broad area VCSELs.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, J; Brambilla, M; Columbo, L; Prati, F; Rizza, C; Tissoni, G; Agranat, A J; DelRe, E

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the electro-activation of a localized optical structure in a coherently driven broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operated below threshold. Control is achieved by electro-optically steering a writing beam through a pre-programmable switch based on a photorefractive funnel waveguide. PMID:25606953

  13. Fabricating VCSELs in a high-tech start-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin; Jaeger, Roland; King, Roger; Schneider, Burghard; Wiedenmann, Dieter

    2003-04-01

    U-L-M photonics GmbH has been set up to develop next-generation vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) products and to exploit the full potential of these industry-leading devices in terms of performance and application areas. Reliability is important for all application areas for VCSELs. This paper presents the excellent reliability characteristics of U-L-M"s VCSEL technology. Accumulation of all advantageous properties VCSELs are famous for, like low power consumption, circular low divergent beam profile, high modulation bandwidth, and scalability of monolithic arrangements, results in two-dimensional (2D) VCSEL arrays that appear as key components to reach highest aggregate bandwidths of tomorrow"s parallel optical transceivers. We report on 2D VCSEL arrays, substrate emitting although operating at 850 nm and prepared for flip-chip bonding, that are well suited for the customer"s needs in terms of speed, power consumption, and compact integration. Up to now, in most single channel transceivers, the VCSEL is packaged in a TO can and connected to the driver via a printed circuit board. We investigate the performance of a high speed VCSEL in a TO 46 package and demonstrate 10 Gbps transmission. The potential of VCSEL technology in other areas of application than datacom or telecom is just going to be exploited. We present a 760 nm single-mode VCSELs for gas monitoring applications.

  14. Progress in extended wavelength VCSEL technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Klein; Dummer, Matthew; Hibbs-Brenner, Mary; Hogan, William; Steidl, Charles

    2013-03-01

    Vixar has been developing VCSELs at both shorter (680nm) and longer (1850nm) wavelengths. This paper reports on advances in technology at both of these wavelengths. 680nm VCSELs based upon the AlGaAs/AlGaInP materials system were designed and fabricated for high speed operation for plastic optical fiber (POF) based links for industrial, automotive and consumer applications. High speed testing was performed in a "back-to-back" configuration over short lengths of glass fiber, over 42 meters of POF, with and without I.C. drivers and preamps, and over temperature. Performance to 90°C, 10 Gbps and over 40 meters of plastic optical fiber has been demonstrated. Reliability testing has been performed over a range of temperatures and currents. Preliminary results predict a TT1% failure of at least 240,000 hours at 40°C and an average current modulation of 4mA. In addition, the VCSELs survive 1000 hours at 85% humidity 85°C in a non-hermetic package. 1850nm InP based VCSELs are being developed for optical neurostimulation. The goals are to optimize the output power and power conversion efficiency. 7mW of DC output power has been demonstrated at room temperature, as well as a power conversion efficiency of 12%. Devices operate to 85°C. Over 70mW of pulsed power has been achieved from a 35 VCSEL array, with a pulse width of 10μsec.

  15. Polarization Preservation and Control in a Figure-8 Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbenev, Ya. S.; Morozov, V. S.; Lin, F.; Zhang, Y.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yu. N.

    2016-02-01

    We present a complete scheme for managing the polarization of ion beams in Jefferson Lab’s proposed Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC). It provides preservation of the ion polarization during all stages of beam acceleration and polarization control in the collider’s experimental straights. We discuss characteristic features of the spin motion in accelerators with Siberian snakes and in accelerators of figure-8 shape. We propose 3D spin rotators for polarization control in the MEIC ion collider ring. We provide polarization calculations in the collider with the 3D rotator for deuteron and proton beams. The main polarization control features of the figure-8 design are summarized.

  16. Silicon-on-insulator integrated tunable polarization controller (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento-Merenguel, Jose-Dario; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Halir, Robert; Le Roux, Xavier; Vivien, Laurent; Cheben, Pavel; Durán-Valdeiglesias, Elena; Molina-Fernández, Iñigo; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Xu, Danxia; Schmid, Jens H.; Janz, Siegfried; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro

    2016-05-01

    Polarization management is a key functionality in many photonic applications, including optical communications, imaging or quantum information. Developing integrated devices capable of reliably controlling polarization state would result in compact and low cost circuits with improved stability compared with fiber or bulk optics solutions. However, stringent fabrication tolerances make the integration of polarization managing elements highly challenging. The main challenge in polarization controllers, composed by polarization rotators and polarization phase shifters, is to precisely control rotation angle in integrated polarization rotators. Proposed solutions typically require sophisticated fabrication processes or extremely tight fabrication tolerances, seriously hindering their practical application. Here we present a technology independent polarization controller scheme that relies on phase shifters to largely relax fabrication tolerances of polarization rotators. In addition, these phase shifters enable dynamic wavelength tuning. In our scheme, three polarization rotation elements are interconnected with two tunable phase shifters to adjust the polarization extinction ratio, while an output polarization phase shifter is used to select the relative phase. This way we can achieve any desired output state of polarization. We have implemented this scheme in the silicon-on-insulator platform, experimentally demonstrating a record polarization extinction range of 40 dB (± 20 dB) with a 98% coverage of the Poincaré sphere. Furthermore, the device is tunable in the complete C-band. These results constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the highest polarization extinction range achieved in a fully integrated device.

  17. Controllable spiking patterns in long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for neuromorphic photonics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtado, Antonio; Javaloyes, Julien

    2015-12-14

    Multiple controllable spiking patterns are achieved in a 1310 nm Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in response to induced perturbations and for two different cases of polarized optical injection, namely, parallel and orthogonal. Furthermore, reproducible spiking responses are demonstrated experimentally at sub-nanosecond speed resolution and with a controlled number of spikes fired. This work opens therefore exciting research avenues for the use of VCSELs in ultrafast neuromorphic photonic systems for non-traditional computing applications, such as all-optical binary-to-spiking format conversion and spiking information encoding.

  18. Self-Sustained Ultrafast Pulsation in Coupled VCSELs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2001-01-01

    High frequency, narrow-band self-pulsating operation is demonstrated in two coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The coupled VCSELs provide an ideal source for high-repetition rate (over 40 GHz), sinusoidal-like modulated laser source with Gaussian-like near- and far-field profiles. We also show that the frequency of the modulation can be tuned by the inter-VCSEL separation or by DC-bias level.

  19. Comparison of Techniques for Bonding VCSELs Directly to Ics

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hayes, E.M. Wilmsen, C.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Pu, R.

    1999-03-26

    This paper reports the successful bonding of 8 x 8 and 4 x 4 VCSEL arrays to Si CMOS and GaAs MESFET integrated circuits and to GaAs substrates. Three different bonding techniques are demonstrated and their electrical, optical and mechanical characteristics are compared. All three techniques remove the substrate from the VCSEL wafer, leaving individual VCSELs bonded directly to locations within the integrated circuit.

  20. Nonlinear mode coupling in optical fibers and VCSELs and some applications to communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, Kunal

    2000-11-01

    Nonlinear phenomena are relatively easy to observe in optical fibers and semiconductor laser cavities. In optical fibers, nonlinear effects can be seen even at low power due to the high intensities in the small fiber cores and long propagation distances possible in low loss fibers. Semiconductor lasers, in particular, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), have cavities with very high Q-factors, which result in high intra cavity intensities even at low facet powers. In this thesis we will examine how these nonlinear effects are responsible for coupling between the different modes present in the medium and some applications to optical communication systems. In optical fibers, the nonlinear processes that dominate are self-phase matched processes that automatically satisfy the phase matching condition. These processes include self phase modulation (SPM) and cross phase modulation (XPM). SPM is responsible for the stability and interaction between propagating pulses known as solitons. XPM is responsible for coupling signals with different polarizations or wavelengths propagating in a fiber. In this thesis we have investigated the possibility of controlling the non-linear interaction between solitons, using XPM from another pulse and using this mechanism for pattern recognition in an optical data stream. We demonstrate high-speed (63Gb/s) recognition of 8-bit header words which is a useful function at an add- drop node in an optical network. Both SPM and XPM can be explained in terms of a nonlinear refractive index-a simplification that is made possible by the extremely fast relaxation times in silica (~40fs). In semiconductors the carriers exhibit both fast intra band (~50fs) and spin-flip relaxation (~2ps), and slow inter band dipole relaxation (~Ins). Due to this hierarchy of relaxation times, the interaction of light with the semiconductor medium cannot be described by a single effective refractive index and the carrier dynamics have to be accounted for

  1. VCSEL fault location apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Keeler, Gordon A.; Serkland, Darwin K.

    2007-05-15

    An apparatus for locating a fault within an optical fiber is disclosed. The apparatus, which can be formed as a part of a fiber-optic transmitter or as a stand-alone instrument, utilizes a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) to generate a test pulse of light which is coupled into an optical fiber under test. The VCSEL is subsequently reconfigured by changing a bias voltage thereto and is used as a resonant-cavity photodetector (RCPD) to detect a portion of the test light pulse which is reflected or scattered from any fault within the optical fiber. A time interval .DELTA.t between an instant in time when the test light pulse is generated and the time the reflected or scattered portion is detected can then be used to determine the location of the fault within the optical fiber.

  2. Studying the VCSEL to VCSEL injection locking for enhanced chromatic dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linfu

    2010-11-01

    In order to supply a theoretical guide for digital chaotic telecommunication, the technique of Optical injection locking (OIL) of semiconductor lasers on the chaotic communication have been investigated based on the theoretical models used to describe the dynamics of solitary VCSEL subjected to the external optical injection and signal transmission in fiber. The numerical simulation results show that, the frequency chirp and time-resolved chirp are reduced in magnitude, using a VCSEL laser as master and another VCSEL as slave, it leads to a no-penalty transmission over 50 km of uncompensated in SSMF at 10Gb/s, and it could be higher rate and more remote if there were appropriate compensation.

  3. GaAs/AlOx high-contrast grating mirrors for mid-infrared VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuneau, G.; Laaroussi, Y.; Chevallier, C.; Genty, F.; Fressengeas, N. s.; Cerutti, L.; Gauthier-Lafaye, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Mid-infrared Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (MIR-VCSEL) are very attractive compact sources for spectroscopic measurements above 2μm, relevant for molecules sensing in various application domains. A long-standing issue for long wavelength VCSEL is the large structure thickness affecting the laser properties, added for the MIR to the tricky technological implementation of the antimonide alloys system. In this paper, we propose a new geometry for MIR-VCSEL including both a lateral confinement by an oxide aperture, and a high-contrast sub-wavelength grating mirror (HCG mirror) formed by the high contrast combination AIOx/GaAs in place of GaSb/A|AsSb top Bragg reflector. In addition to drastically simplifying the vertical stack, HCG mirror allows to control through its design the beam properties. The robust design of the HCG has been ensured by an original method of optimization based on particle swarm optimization algorithm combined with an anti-optimization one, thus allowing large error tolerance for the nano-fabrication. Oxide-based electro-optical confinement has been adapted to mid-infrared lasers, byusing a metamorphic approach with (Al) GaAs layer directly epitaxially grown on the GaSb-based VCSEL bottom structure. This approach combines the advantages of the will-controlled oxidation of AlAs layer and the efficient gain media of Sb-based for mid-infrared emission. We finally present the results obtained on electrically pumped mid-IR-VCSELs structures, for which we included oxide aperturing for lateral confinement and HCG as high reflectivity output mirrors, both based on AlxOy/GaAs heterostructures.

  4. A semiconductor laser with monolithically integrated dynamic polarization control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, B M; Naeem, M A; Hutchings, D C; Marsh, J H; Kelly, A E

    2012-08-27

    We report the first demonstration of a semiconductor laser monolithically integrated with an active polarization controller, which consists of a polarization mode converter followed by an active, differential phase shifter. High speed modulation of the device output polarization is demonstrated via current injection to the phase shifter section. PMID:23037101

  5. Furnace control apparatus using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J.; Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  6. Process control system using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1994-02-15

    A system for nondestructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figures.

  7. Process control system using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J.; Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1994-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  8. Furnace control apparatus using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-03-28

    A system for nondestructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figures.

  9. Commercialized VCSEL components fabricated at TrueLight Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jin-Shan; Lin, Yung-Sen; Li, Chao-Fang A.; Chang, C. H.; Wu, Jack; Lee, Bor-Lin; Chuang, Y. H.; Tu, S. L.; Wu, Calvin; Huang, Kai-Feng

    2001-05-01

    TrueLight Corporation was found in 1997 and it is the pioneer of VCSEL components supplier in Taiwan. We specialize in the production and distribution of VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) and other high-speed PIN-detector devices and components. Our core technology is developed to meet blooming demand of fiber optic transmission. Our intention is to diverse the device application into data communication, telecommunication and industrial markets. One mission is to provide the high performance, highly reliable and low-cost VCSEL components for data communication and sensing applications. For the past three years, TrueLight Corporation has entered successfully into the Gigabit Ethernet and the Fiber Channel data communication area. In this paper, we will focus on the fabrication of VCSEL components. We will present you the evolution of implanted and oxide-confined VCSEL process, device characterization, also performance in Gigabit data communication and the most important reliability issue

  10. Cavity structures for low loss oxide-confined VCSELs

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hadley, G.R.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Mathes, D.; Hull, R.

    1997-05-01

    The authors examine the threshold characteristics of selectively oxidized VCSELs as a function of the number, thickness, and placement of the buried oxide apertures. The threshold current density for small area VCSELs is shown to increase with the number of oxide apertures in the cavity due to increased optical loss, while the threshold current density for broad area VCSELs decreases with increasing number of apertures due to more uniform current injection. Reductions of the threshold gain and optical loss are achieved for small area VCSELs using thin oxide apertures which are displaced longitudinally away from te optical cavity. They show that the optical loss can be sufficiently reduced to allow lasing in VCSELs with aperture area as small as 0.25 {micro}m{sup 2}.

  11. Trap-control system for polarized-electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Agranovich, V.L.; Beloglazov, V.I.; Efimov, V.P.; Kuz'menko, V.S.

    1985-11-01

    An electronic logic system for controlling accumulation and holding of electrons with energies less than 10 eV for polarization is described. A source of polarized electrons based on spin exchange with atoms of polarized hydrogen has been created for physics research on the linear accelerator of the Kharkov Applied Physics Institute. It was necessary to create functional supply and control circuits that feed to the trap electrodes pulsed voltages of given amplitude, polarity and duration. A diagram of the trap-control system is shown.

  12. All-optical polarization control and noise cleaning based on a nonlinear lossless polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barozzi, Matteo; Vannucci, Armando; Picchi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    We propose an all-optical fiber-based device able to accomplish both polarization control and OSNR enhancement of an amplitude modulated optical signal, affected by unpolarized additive white Gaussian noise, at the same time. The proposed noise cleaning device is made of a nonlinear lossless polarizer (NLP), that performs polarization control, followed by an ideal polarizing filter that removes the orthogonally polarized half of additive noise. The NLP transforms every input signal polarization into a unique, well defined output polarization (without any loss of signal energy) and its task is to impose a signal polarization aligned with the transparent eigenstate of the polarizing filter. In order to effectively control the polarization of the modulated signal, we show that two different NLP configurations (with counter- or co-propagating pump laser) are needed, as a function of the signal polarization coherence time. The NLP is designed so that polarization attraction is effective only on the "noiseless" (i.e., information-bearing) component of the signal and not on noise, that remains unpolarized at the NLP output. Hence, the proposed device is able to discriminate signal power (that is preserved) from in-band noise power (that is partly suppressed). Since signal repolarization is detrimental if applied to polarization-multiplexed formats, the noise cleaner application is limited here to "legacy" links, with 10 Gb/s OOK modulation, still representing the most common format in deployed networks. By employing the appropriate NLP configurations, we obtain an OSNR gain close to 3dB. Furthermore, we show how the achievable OSNR gain can be estimated theoretically.

  13. Broadband laser polarization control with aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yang, He; Fu, Bo; Li, Diao; Tian, Ying; Chen, Ya; Mattila, Marco; Yong, Zhenzhong; Li, Ru; Hassanien, Abdou; Yang, Changxi; Tittonen, Ilkka; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jintao; Li, Qingwen; Kauppinen, Esko I; Lipsanen, Harri; Sun, Zhipei

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a simple approach to fabricate an aligned carbon nanotube (ACNT) device for broadband polarization control in fiber laser systems. The ACNT device was fabricated by pulling from as-fabricated vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. Their anisotropic properties are confirmed with various microscopy techniques. The device was then integrated into fiber laser systems (at two technologically important wavelengths of 1 and 1.5 μm) for polarization control. We obtained a linearly-polarized light output with the maximum extinction ratio of ∼12 dB. The output polarization direction could be fully controlled by the ACNT alignment direction in both lasers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the ACNT device is applied to polarization control in laser systems. Our results exhibit that the ACNT device is a simple, low-cost, and broadband polarizer to control laser polarization dynamics, for various photonic applications (such as material processing, polarization diversity detection in communications etc.), where linear polarization control is necessary. PMID:26060940

  14. Multiplexed gas spectroscopy using tunable VCSELs

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, T; Bond, S; McCarrick, J; Zumstein, J; Chang, A; Moran, B; Benett, W J

    2012-04-10

    Detection and identification of gas species using tunable laser diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been performed using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL). Two detection methods are compared: direct absorbance and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). In the first, the output of a DC-based laser is directly monitored to detect for any quench at the targeted specie wavelength. In the latter, the emission wavelength of the laser is modulated by applying a sinusoidal component on the drive current of frequency {omega}, and measuring the harmonics component (2{omega}) of the photo-detected current. This method shows a better sensitivity measured as signal to noise ratio, and is less susceptible to interference effects such as scattering or fouling. Gas detection was initially performed at room temperature and atmospheric conditions using VCSELs of emission wavelength 763 nm for oxygen and 1392 nm for water, scanning over a range of approximately 10 nm, sufficient to cover 5-10 gas specific absorption lines that enable identification and quantization of gas composition. The amplitude and frequency modulation parameters were optimized for each detected gas species, by performing two dimensional sweeps for both tuning current and either amplitude or frequency, respectively. We found that the highest detected signal is observed for a wavelength modulation amplitude equal to the width of the gas absorbance lines, in good agreement with theoretical calculations, and for modulation frequencies below the time response of the lasers (<50KHz). In conclusion, we will discuss limit of detection studies and further implementation and packaging of VCSELs in diode arrays for continuous and simultaneous monitoring of multiple species in gaseous mixtures.

  15. High-speed highly temperature stable 980 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gb/s at up to 85 °C for short reach optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutig, Alex; Lott, James A.; Blokhin, Sergey A.; Moser, Philip; Wolf, Philip; Hofmann, Werner; Nadtochiy, Alexey M.; Bimberg, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    The progressive penetration of optical communication links into traditional copper interconnect markets greatly expands the applications of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for the next-generation of board-to-board, moduleto- module, chip-to-chip, and on-chip optical interconnects. Stability of the VCSEL parameters at high temperatures is indispensable for such applications, since these lasers typically reside directly on or near integrated circuit chips. Here we present 980 nm oxide-confined VCSELs operating error-free at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s at temperatures as high as 85 °C without adjustment of the drive current and peak-to-peak modulation voltage. The driver design is therefore simplified and the power consumption of the driver electronics is lowered, reducing the production and operational costs. Small and large signal modulation experiments at various temperatures from 20 up to 85 °C for lasers with different oxide aperture diameters are presented in order to analyze the physical processes controlling the performance of the VCSELs. Temperature insensitive maximum -3 dB bandwidths of around 13-15 GHz for VCSELs with aperture diameters of 10 μm and corresponding parasitic cut-off frequencies exceeding 22 GHz are observed. Presented results demonstrate the suitability of our VCSELs for practical high speed and high temperature stable short-reach optical links.

  16. Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories.

    PubMed

    Wen, Haidan; Lindenberg, Aaron M

    2009-07-10

    The dynamics of ionized electrons in a plasma can be controlled by synthetic optical fields composed of the fundamental and the second harmonic of femtosecond optical pulses with an arbitrary phase and polarization. We show here that the plasma-emitted half-cycle THz radiation directly reflects the two-dimensional trajectories of the electrons through polarization sensitive THz emission spectroscopy. As a result, we find that the THz polarization smoothly rotates through 2pi radians as the relative phase between the two pulses is adjusted, providing a new means of coherently controlling the polarization of light at THz frequencies. PMID:19659205

  17. Coherent Terahertz Polarization Control through Manipulation of Electron Trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Haidan; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2009-07-10

    The dynamics of ionized electrons in a plasma can be controlled by synthetic optical fields composed of the fundamental and the second harmonic of femtosecond optical pulses with an arbitrary phase and polarization. We show here that the plasma-emitted half-cycle THz radiation directly reflects the two-dimensional trajectories of the electrons through polarization sensitive THz emission spectroscopy. As a result, we find that the THz polarization smoothly rotates through 2pi radians as the relative phase between the two pulses is adjusted, providing a new means of coherently controlling the polarization of light at THz frequencies.

  18. A Quasioptical Vector Interferometer for Polarization Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, Harvey S.; Novak, Giles

    2005-01-01

    We present a mathematical description of a Quasioptical Vector Interferometer (QVI), a device that maps an input polarization state to an output polarization state by introducing a phase delay between two linear orthogonal components of the input polarization. The advantages of such a device over a spinning wave-plate modulator for measuring astronomical polarization in the far-infrared through millimeter are: 1. The use of small, linear motions eliminates the need for cryogenic rotational bearings, 2. The phase flexibility allows measurement of Stokes V as well as Q and U, and 3. The QVI allows for both multi-wavelength and broadband modulation. We suggest two implementations of this device as an astronomical polarization modulator. The first involves two such modulators placed in series. By adjusting the two phase delays, it is possible to use such a modulator to measure Stokes Q, U, and V for passbands that are not too large. Conversely, a single QVI may be used to measure Q and V independent of frequency. In this implementation, Stokes U must be measured by rotating the instrument. We conclude this paper by presenting initial laboratory results.

  19. Continuous control of spin polarization using a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, J. A.; Zhao, G. J.; Li, B. C.; Tracy, Brian D.; Zhang, J.; Kim, D. R.; Smith, David J.; Chen, T. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of a point contact between a Co/Cu multilayer and a superconductor tip varies for different bias voltage. Direct measurement of spin polarization by Andreev reflection spectroscopy reveals that the GMR change is due to a change in spin polarization. This work demonstrates that the GMR structure can be utilized as a spin source and that the spin polarization can be continuously controlled by using an external magnetic field.

  20. Versatile endless optical polarization controller/tracker/demultiplexer.

    PubMed

    Koch, Benjamin; Noé, Reinhold; Sandel, David; Mirvoda, Vitali

    2014-04-01

    Following an initial discussion of control error signal generation, we present new developments and applications of automatic endless optical polarization control based on a commercial electrooptic LiNbO(3) polarization transformer: (i) Fast tracking and subsequent demultiplexing of DPSK/DQPSK/QAM polarization channels was hitherto limited to a fairly fixed optical input power. With APD photoreceivers used for residual interference detection, we demonstrate here an optical level tolerance of at least 7 dB, compared to only 3 dB for PIN photoreceivers. DPSK channel polarizations are tracked at up to 40 krad/s and higher speed on the Poincaré sphere. (ii) High-order optical modulation schemes require increased accuracy of the polarization controller in the demultiplexer. This is possible at the expense of a reduced tracking speed. We achieve a mean polarization extinction ratio of >40 dB or <0.02 rad error while tracking arbitrary endless polarization changes of up to 1000 rad/s. (iii) While electronic polarization tracking in coherent receivers is currently limited to a symbol rate of about 28 GBaud we show optical polarization tracking of a signal with 1 THz bandwidth. PMID:24718201

  1. Guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammad Jalal; Khaleque, Tanzina; Magnusson, Robert

    2014-05-19

    We demonstrate efficient guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters. The devices consist of subwavelength gratings that are partially etched into a thin silicon-nitride film deposited on a glass substrate. Two color filters with grating periods of 300 nm and 370 nm are designed and fabricated. The 300-nm device exhibits green and blue colors and the 370-nm device generates red and yellow colors for TE and TM polarization, respectively. The pixels have a spectral bandwidth of ~12 nm with efficiencies exceeding 90% for TE polarization and 80% for TM polarization. The devices may find application in displays, image sensors, and biomedical imaging technologies. PMID:24921349

  2. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization

    PubMed Central

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P.; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by “fishbone” gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12°-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6°. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed. PMID:25512515

  3. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A; Linfield, Edmund H; Capasso, Federico

    2014-12-30

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by "fishbone" gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12°-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6°. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed. PMID:25512515

  4. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S. R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444kW/cm2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control overmore » the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.« less

  5. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S; Figiel, Jeffrey J; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S R J; Wang, George T

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444 kW cm(-2) and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control over the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates. PMID:26899502

  6. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting. S.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S. R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444 kW cm-2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control over the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.

  7. Design and analysis of VCSEL based twodimension wavelength converter.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Shum, P; Kao, M

    2003-07-14

    A novel two-dimensional vertical cavity surface emission laser (VCSEL) based wavelength converter is proposed. We developed a twodimensional transmission line laser model (TLLM) to analyze the proposed wavelength converter. This model takes into account Bragg reflectors by using the modified connecting matrix. Therefore, accurate and efficient modeling of the VCSEL structure is achieved. Extinction ratio of the output signal is investigated by considering input signal power, wavelength, facet reflectivity and cavity diameter. PMID:19466044

  8. Progress and challenges in electrically pumped GaN-based VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, A.; Hashemi, E.; Bengtsson, J.; Gustavsson, J.; Stattin, M.; Calciati, M.; Goano, M.

    2016-04-01

    ABSTRACT The Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) is an established optical source in short-distance optical communication links, computer mice and tailored infrared power heating systems. Its low power consumption, easy integration into two-dimensional arrays, and low-cost manufacturing also make this type of semiconductor laser suitable for application in areas such as high-resolution printing, medical applications, and general lighting. However, these applications require emission wavelengths in the blue-UV instead of the established infrared regime, which can be achieved by using GaN-based instead of GaAs-based materials. The development of GaN-based VCSELs is challenging, but during recent years several groups have managed to demonstrate electrically pumped GaN-based VCSELs with close to 1 mW of optical output power and threshold current densities between 3-16 kA/cm2. The performance is limited by challenges such as achieving high-reflectivity mirrors, vertical and lateral carrier confinement, efficient lateral current spreading, accurate cavity length control and lateral optical mode confinement. This paper summarizes different strategies to solve these issues in electrically pumped GaN-VCSELs together with state-of-the-art results. We will highlight our work on combined transverse current and optical mode confinement, where we show that many structures used for current confinement result in unintentionally optically anti-guided resonators. Such resonators can have a very high optical loss, which easily doubles the threshold gain for lasing. We will also present an alternative to the use of distributed Bragg reflectors as high-reflectivity mirrors, namely TiO2/air high contrast gratings (HCGs). Fabricated HCGs of this type show a high reflectivity (>95%) over a 25 nm wavelength span.

  9. Polar auxin transport: controlling where and how much

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; DeLong, A.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin is transported through plant tissues, moving from cell to cell in a unique polar manner. Polar auxin transport controls important growth and developmental processes in higher plants. Recent studies have identified several proteins that mediate polar auxin transport and have shown that some of these proteins are asymmetrically localized, paving the way for studies of the mechanisms that regulate auxin transport. New data indicate that reversible protein phosphorylation can control the amount of auxin transport, whereas protein secretion through Golgi-derived vesicles and interactions with the actin cytoskeleton might regulate the localization of auxin efflux complexes.

  10. Development of VCSELs for optical nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dummer, Matthew; Johnson, Klein; Hibbs-Brenner, Mary; Keller, Matthew; Gong, Tim; Wells, Jonathon; Bendett, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Neural stimulation using infrared optical pulses has numerous potential advantages over traditional electrical stimulation, including improved spatial precision and no stimulation artifact. However, realization of optical stimulation in neural prostheses will require a compact and efficient optical source. One attractive candidate is the vertical cavity surface emitting laser. This paper presents the first report of VCSELs developed specifically for neurostimulation applications. The target emission wavelength is 1860 nm, a favorable wavelength for stimulating neural tissues. Continuous wave operation is achieved at room temperature, with maximum output power of 2.9 mW. The maximum lasing temperature observed is 60° C. Further development is underway to achieve power levels necessary to trigger activation thresholds.

  11. Multifocal array with controllable polarization in each focal spot.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linwei; Sun, Meiyu; Zhang, Dawei; Yu, Junjie; Wen, Jing; Chen, Jiannong

    2015-09-21

    We propose a method for producing multifocal spot arrays (MSAs) capable of controlling the position and polarization orientation of each focal spot with radially polarized Bessel-Gaussian beam. Based on a simple analytical equation that can be used to manipulate the position of the focal spot, we design a type of multi-zone plate (MZP) composed of many fan-shaped subareas which accordingly generate lateral position-controllable multifocal spots. By adding a π-phase difference between a division line passing through the center of the back aperture with different orientations to corresponding subareas of the MZP, we realize MSAs in which orientations of the linear polarization in each focal spot can be arbitrarily manipulated. Such position and polarization controllable MSAs may potentially have applications in many fields. PMID:26406670

  12. Temperature stable mid-infrared GaInAsSb/GaSb Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs).

    PubMed

    Ikyo, A B; Marko, I P; Hild, K; Adams, A R; Arafin, S; Amann, M-C; Sweeney, S J

    2016-01-01

    GaInAsSb/GaSb based quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared spectral range between 2 and 3 micrometres are of great importance for low cost gas monitoring applications. This paper discusses the efficiency and temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs emitting at 2.6 μm and the processes that must be controlled to provide temperature stable operation. We show that non-radiative Auger recombination dominates the threshold current and limits the device performance at room temperature. Critically, we demonstrate that the combined influence of non-radiative recombination and gain peak-cavity mode de-tuning determines the overall temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs. The results show that improved temperature stable operation around room temperature can only be achieved with a larger gain peak-cavity mode de-tuning, offsetting the significant effect of increasing non-radiative recombination with increasing temperature, a physical effect which must be accounted for in mid-infrared VCSEL design. PMID:26781492

  13. Temperature stable mid-infrared GaInAsSb/GaSb Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs)

    PubMed Central

    Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Hild, K.; Adams, A. R.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C.; Sweeney, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    GaInAsSb/GaSb based quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared spectral range between 2 and 3 micrometres are of great importance for low cost gas monitoring applications. This paper discusses the efficiency and temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs emitting at 2.6 μm and the processes that must be controlled to provide temperature stable operation. We show that non-radiative Auger recombination dominates the threshold current and limits the device performance at room temperature. Critically, we demonstrate that the combined influence of non-radiative recombination and gain peak – cavity mode de-tuning determines the overall temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs. The results show that improved temperature stable operation around room temperature can only be achieved with a larger gain peak – cavity mode de-tuning, offsetting the significant effect of increasing non-radiative recombination with increasing temperature, a physical effect which must be accounted for in mid-infrared VCSEL design. PMID:26781492

  14. Temperature stable mid-infrared GaInAsSb/GaSb Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Hild, K.; Adams, A. R.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C.; Sweeney, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    GaInAsSb/GaSb based quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared spectral range between 2 and 3 micrometres are of great importance for low cost gas monitoring applications. This paper discusses the efficiency and temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs emitting at 2.6 μm and the processes that must be controlled to provide temperature stable operation. We show that non-radiative Auger recombination dominates the threshold current and limits the device performance at room temperature. Critically, we demonstrate that the combined influence of non-radiative recombination and gain peak - cavity mode de-tuning determines the overall temperature sensitivity of the VCSELs. The results show that improved temperature stable operation around room temperature can only be achieved with a larger gain peak - cavity mode de-tuning, offsetting the significant effect of increasing non-radiative recombination with increasing temperature, a physical effect which must be accounted for in mid-infrared VCSEL design.

  15. Polarization control in ridge-waveguide-laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, M.

    1987-04-20

    The polarization dependence of the gain/current relation and threshold current of quasi-index-guided laser diodes is analyzed for the case of lambda = 1.3 ..mu..m InGaAsP-InP ridge-waveguide lasers. Thereby it is shown that three different regimes for the stripe width and the lateral effective index discontinuity can be distinguished where one modal polarization (TE or TM) predominates. The significance of this finding on laser design and polarization control is discussed, and a comparison is performed on experimental results.

  16. Integrated-optic polarization controllers incorporating polymer waveguide birefringence modulators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Whee; Park, Su-Hyun; Chu, Woo-Sung; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2012-05-21

    Polarization controllers based on polymer waveguide technology are demonstrated by incorporating thermo-optic birefringence modulators (BMs) and thin-film wave plates. Highly birefringent polymer materials are used to increase the efficiency of birefringence modulation in proportion to the heating power. Thin-film quarter-wave plates are fabricated by using a crosslinkable liquid crystal, reactive mesogen, and inserted between the BMs to produce static phase retardation and polarization coupling. By applying a triangular AC signal to one BM and a DC signal to another, the polarization states of the output light are modulated to cover the entire surface of the Poincaré sphere. PMID:22714231

  17. Automated Microwave Frequency Control in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Ethan; Johnson, Ian; Keller, Dustin; Solid Polarized Target Group Team

    2016-03-01

    To achieve highest polarization levels in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments, target materials must be subjected to microwave irradiation at a particular frequency determined by the difference in the nuclear Larmor and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) frequencies. However, this resonant frequency is variable; it drifts as a result of radiation damage. Manually adjusting the frequency to accommodate for this fluctuation can be difficult, and improper adjustments negatively impact the polarization. In response to this problem, a controller has been developed which automates the process of seeking and maintaining optimal frequency. The creation of such a controller has necessitated research into the correlation between microwave frequency and corresponding polarization growth or decay rates in DNP experiments. Knowledge gained from the research of this unique relationship has additionally lead to the development of a Monte-Carlo simulation which accurately models polarization as a function of frequency and a number of other parameters. The simulation and controller continue to be refined, however, recent DNP experimentation has confirmed the controller's effectiveness.

  18. Polarity control in WSe2 double-gate transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resta, Giovanni V.; Sutar, Surajit; Balaji, Yashwanth; Lin, Dennis; Raghavan, Praveen; Radu, Iuliana; Catthoor, Francky; Thean, Aaron; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; de Micheli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    As scaling of conventional silicon-based electronics is reaching its ultimate limit, considerable effort has been devoted to find new materials and new device concepts that could ultimately outperform standard silicon transistors. In this perspective two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2 and WSe2, have recently attracted considerable interest thanks to their electrical properties. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of a doping-free, polarity-controllable device fabricated on few-layer WSe2. We show how modulation of the Schottky barriers at drain and source by a separate gate, named program gate, can enable the selection of the carriers injected in the channel, and achieved controllable polarity behaviour with ON/OFF current ratios >106 for both electrons and holes conduction. Polarity-controlled WSe2 transistors enable the design of compact logic gates, leading to higher computational densities in 2D-flatronics.

  19. Polarity control in WSe2 double-gate transistors.

    PubMed

    Resta, Giovanni V; Sutar, Surajit; Balaji, Yashwanth; Lin, Dennis; Raghavan, Praveen; Radu, Iuliana; Catthoor, Francky; Thean, Aaron; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; de Micheli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    As scaling of conventional silicon-based electronics is reaching its ultimate limit, considerable effort has been devoted to find new materials and new device concepts that could ultimately outperform standard silicon transistors. In this perspective two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2 and WSe2, have recently attracted considerable interest thanks to their electrical properties. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of a doping-free, polarity-controllable device fabricated on few-layer WSe2. We show how modulation of the Schottky barriers at drain and source by a separate gate, named program gate, can enable the selection of the carriers injected in the channel, and achieved controllable polarity behaviour with ON/OFF current ratios >10(6) for both electrons and holes conduction. Polarity-controlled WSe2 transistors enable the design of compact logic gates, leading to higher computational densities in 2D-flatronics. PMID:27390014

  20. Polarity control in WSe2 double-gate transistors

    PubMed Central

    Resta, Giovanni V.; Sutar, Surajit; Balaji, Yashwanth; Lin, Dennis; Raghavan, Praveen; Radu, Iuliana; Catthoor, Francky; Thean, Aaron; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; de Micheli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    As scaling of conventional silicon-based electronics is reaching its ultimate limit, considerable effort has been devoted to find new materials and new device concepts that could ultimately outperform standard silicon transistors. In this perspective two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2 and WSe2, have recently attracted considerable interest thanks to their electrical properties. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of a doping-free, polarity-controllable device fabricated on few-layer WSe2. We show how modulation of the Schottky barriers at drain and source by a separate gate, named program gate, can enable the selection of the carriers injected in the channel, and achieved controllable polarity behaviour with ON/OFF current ratios >106 for both electrons and holes conduction. Polarity-controlled WSe2 transistors enable the design of compact logic gates, leading to higher computational densities in 2D-flatronics. PMID:27390014

  1. Polarization control at spin-driven ferroelectric domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Naëmi; Bergman, Anders; Cano, Andres; Poudel, Narayan; Lorenz, Bernd; Fiebig, Manfred; Meier, Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Unusual electronic states arise at ferroelectric domain walls due to the local symmetry reduction, strain gradients and electrostatics. This particularly applies to improper ferroelectrics, where the polarization is induced by a structural or magnetic order parameter. Because of the subordinate nature of the polarization, the rigid mechanical and electrostatic boundary conditions that constrain domain walls in proper ferroics are lifted. Here we show that spin-driven ferroelectricity promotes the emergence of charged domain walls. This provides new degrees of flexibility for controlling domain-wall charges in a deterministic and reversible process. We create and position a domain wall by an electric field in Mn0.95Co0.05WO4. With a magnetic field we then rotate the polarization and convert neutral into charged domain walls, while its magnetic properties peg the wall to its location. Using atomistic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert simulations we quantify the polarization changes across the two wall types and highlight their general occurrence.

  2. Stable polarization self-modulation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Hohl, A.; Gavrielides, A.; Hou, H.; Choquette, K.D.

    1998-05-01

    The characteristics of polarization self-modulation in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) were studied for frequencies up to {approx}9 GHz both experimentally and theoretically. Polarization self-modulation was obtained by rotating the linearly polarized output of the VCSEL by 90{degree} and reinjecting it into the laser. Experimentally we simultaneously recorded time traces, optical and radio-frequency spectra. We found for increasing modulation frequencies that the output characteristics changed from square-wave to sinusoidal and the VCSEL system assumed new polarization eigenstates that are different from the free-running VCSEL eigenstates. We modeled polarization self-modulation as an interband process and found a good qualitative agreement between our experimental and numerical results. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Polarization-controlled optical ring cavity (PORC) tunable pulse stretcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Andrew P.; Kiefer, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    A new concept and a theoretical approach for modeling a tunable polarization-controlled optical ring cavity pulse stretcher is demonstrated. The technique discussed herein permits highly simplified and flexible tuning of the temporal shape of nanosecond duration pulses. Using half-wave plates positioned extra- and intracavity, transmission to reflection ratios across both input faces of a polarization beam splitter can easily be controlled. The resulting models indicate a further reduction in peak intensity of 30%, with respect to conventional dielectric beam splitting optical ring cavities, when configured under equivalent and optimized cavity settings.

  4. Silicon-integrated short-wavelength hybrid-cavity VCSEL.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Emanuel P; Kumari, Sulakshna; Westbergh, Petter; Gustavsson, Johan S; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel; Larsson, Anders

    2015-12-28

    We demonstrate a short-wavelength hybrid-cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) heterogeneously integrated on silicon. A GaAs-based "half-VCSEL" has been attached to a dielectric distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on a silicon wafer using ultra-thin divinylsiloxane-bis-benzocyclobutene (DVS-BCB) adhesive bonding, thereby creating a cavity with the standing-wave optical field extending over the silicon- and GaAs-based parts of the cavity. A 9 µm oxide aperture diameter VCSEL with a threshold current of 1.2 mA produces 1.6 mW optical output power at 6.0 mA bias current with a wavelength of ~845 nm. PMID:26832027

  5. Temperature characteristic of 808nm VCSELs with large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yuan; Feng, Dawei; Hao, Yongqin; Wang, Yong; Yan, Changling; Lu, Peng; Li, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In order to study the output characteristics of 808nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser(VCSEL) with large aperture at different temperature, 808nm VCSEL with 500μm emitting diameter are fabricated with Reticular Electrode Structure(RES). Lasing wavelength, optical power and the threshold current are measured by changing the temperature of heat sink. And an output power of 0.42W is achieved at 1.3A at room temperature under continuous wave operation. The central wavelength is 803.32nm, and the full width at half maximum is 0.16nm, the temperature shift is 0.06nm/°, the thermal resistance is 0.098°/mW. The testing results show that 808nm VCSEL with large aperture is good temperature characteristic.

  6. Chirp and polarization control of femtosecond molecular fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, T; Das, D K; Kumar, S K Karthick; Goswami, D

    2013-01-01

    We explore the simultaneous effect of chirp and polarization as the two control parameters for non-resonant photo-dissociation of n-propyl benzene. Experiments performed over a wide range of laser intensities show that these two control knobs behave mutually exclusively. Specifically, for the coherently enhanced fragments (C3H3+, C5H5+) with negatively chirped pulses and C6H5+ with positively chirped pulses, polarization effect is the same as compared to that in the case of transform-limited pulses. Though a change in polarization affects the overall fragmentation efficiency, the fragmentation pattern of n-propyl benzene molecule remains unaffected in contrast to the chirp case. PMID:24115807

  7. Polarity Control in Group-III Nitrides beyond Pragmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, Stefan; Stolyarchuk, Natalia; Markurt, Toni; Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Collazo, Ramón; Courville, Aimeric; Di Felice, Rosa; Sitar, Zlatko; Vennéguès, Philippe; Albrecht, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the polarity of polar semiconductors on nonpolar substrates offers a wealth of device concepts in the form of heteropolar junctions. A key to realize such structures is an appropriate buffer-layer design that, in the past, has been developed by empiricism. GaN or ZnO on sapphire are prominent examples for that. Understanding the basic processes that mediate polarity, however, is still an unsolved problem. In this work, we study the structure of buffer layers for group-III nitrides on sapphire by transmission electron microscopy as an example. We show that it is the conversion of the sapphire surface into a rhombohedral aluminum-oxynitride layer that converts the initial N-polar surface to Al polarity. With the various AlxOyNz phases of the pseudobinary Al2O3 -AlN system and their tolerance against intrinsic defects, typical for oxides, a smooth transition between the octahedrally coordinated Al in the sapphire and the tetrahedrally coordinated Al in AlN becomes feasible. Based on these results, we discuss the consequences for achieving either polarity and shed light on widely applied concepts in the field of group-III nitrides like nitridation and low-temperature buffer layers.

  8. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ≥2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale. PMID:23944468

  9. Full-field interferometric confocal microscopy using a VCSEL array

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Brandon; Bromberg, Yaron; Choma, Michael A.; Cao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We present an interferometric confocal microscope using an array of 1200 VCSELs coupled to a multimode fiber. Spatial coherence gating provides ~18,000 continuous virtual pinholes allowing an entire en face plane to be imaged in a snapshot. This approach maintains the same optical sectioning as a scanning confocal microscope without moving parts, while the high power of the VCSEL array (~5 mW per laser) enables high-speed image acquisition with integration times as short as 100 µs. Interferometric detection also recovers the phase of the image, enabling quantitative phase measurements and improving the contrast when imaging phase objects. PMID:25078199

  10. VCSEL-based flexible opto-fluidic fluorescence sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongseok; Gai, Boju; Yoon, Jongseung

    2016-03-01

    Flexible opto-fluidic fluorescence sensors based on microscale vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (micro-VCSELs) and silicon photodiodes (Si-PDs) are demonstrated, where arrays of 850 nm micro-VCSELs and thin film Si-PDs are heterogeneously integrated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by transfer printing, in conjunction with elastomeric fluidic channel. Enabled with optical isolation trenches together with wavelength- and angle-selective spectral filters implemented to suppress the absorption of excitation light, the integrated flexible fluorescence sensors exhibited significantly enhanced signal-to-background ratio, resulting in a maximum sensitivity of 5 × 10-5 wt% of infrared-absorbing organic dyes.

  11. Polarization characteristics, control, and modulation of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Lear, K.L.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.; Figiel, J.J.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Hagerott-Crawford, M.; Zolper, J.C.; Leibenguth, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers and methods for polarization control and modulation are discussed. The partitioning of power between the two orthogonal eigen polarizations is shown to depend upon the relative spectral alignment of the nondegenerate polarization cavity resonances with the laser gain spectrum. A dominant polarization can thus be maintained by employing a blue-shifted offset of the peak laser gain relative to the cavity resonance wavelength. Alternatively, the polarization can be controlled through use of anisotropic transverse cavity geometries. The orthogonal eigen polarizations are also shown to enable polarization modulation. By exploiting polarization switching transitions in cruciform lasers, polarization modulation of the fundamental mode up to 50 MHz is demonstrated. At lower modulation frequencies, complementary digital polarized output or frequency doubling of the polarized output is obtained. Control and manipulation of vertical-cavity laser polarization may prove valuable for present and future applications.

  12. Evaluation of a 1540nm VCSEL for fibre Bragg gratings interrogation in dynamic measurement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Souto, J. A.; Martin-Mateos, P.; Posada, J. E.; Acedo, P.; Jackson, D. A.

    2014-05-01

    The performance of a 1540 nm pigtailed VCSEL has been characterized in terms of output power, frequency range and rate of wavelength sweeping for its application in fibre Bragg grating interrogation. Results are presented for the laser operating under optimized control when used to illuminate a single FBG mounted under tension between a fixed plane and a loud speaker cone subject to a range of frequencies at arbitrary amplitudes and transients. The ultimate objective is to extend the set-up to a parallel fibre topology supporting 8 FBGs with equal wavelengths.

  13. Genetic control of polar cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, J.; Ford, S. ); Somerville, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Certain plant cells, like root hairs and pollen tubes, exhibit polar cell growth, with expansion limited to the tip of the growing cell. In order to understand the mechanisms regulating polar cell expansion, we are studying the process of root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. By visually screening roots from 12,000 mutagenized Arabidopsis seedlings on Petri dishes, more than 40 root hair mutants have been identified. We have focused our attention on mutants that possess nuclear recessive mutations in three genes (RHD2, RHD3, and RDH4) that appear to be involved in controlling polar cell growth in root hairs. We are currently using cellular, genetic, and molecular approaches to understand these genes' normal roles in root hair elongation.

  14. Coherent control of optical polarization effects in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyedmohammad A; Plum, Eric; Shi, Jinhui; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    Processing of photonic information usually relies on electronics. Aiming to avoid the conversion between photonic and electronic signals, modulation of light with light based on optical nonlinearity has become a major research field and coherent optical effects on the nanoscale are emerging as new means of handling and distributing signals. Here we demonstrate that in slabs of linear material of sub-wavelength thickness optical manifestations of birefringence and optical activity (linear and circular birefringence and dichroism) can be controlled by a wave coherent with the wave probing the polarization effect. We demonstrate this in proof-of-principle experiments for chiral and anisotropic microwave metamaterials, where we show that the large parameter space of polarization characteristics may be accessed at will by coherent control. Such control can be exerted at arbitrarily low intensities, thus arguably allowing for fast handling of electromagnetic signals without facing thermal management and energy challenges. PMID:25755071

  15. Coherent control of optical polarization effects in metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyedmohammad A.; Plum, Eric; Shi, Jinhui; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-01-01

    Processing of photonic information usually relies on electronics. Aiming to avoid the conversion between photonic and electronic signals, modulation of light with light based on optical nonlinearity has become a major research field and coherent optical effects on the nanoscale are emerging as new means of handling and distributing signals. Here we demonstrate that in slabs of linear material of sub-wavelength thickness optical manifestations of birefringence and optical activity (linear and circular birefringence and dichroism) can be controlled by a wave coherent with the wave probing the polarization effect. We demonstrate this in proof-of-principle experiments for chiral and anisotropic microwave metamaterials, where we show that the large parameter space of polarization characteristics may be accessed at will by coherent control. Such control can be exerted at arbitrarily low intensities, thus arguably allowing for fast handling of electromagnetic signals without facing thermal management and energy challenges. PMID:25755071

  16. Polarization controllable multispectral symmetry-breaking absorberin mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nan; Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Hasan, Dihan; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Alioto, Massimo; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-08-01

    The versatility of mid-infrared metamaterial absorbers along with the ease of fabrication has been widely used in thermal imaging, molecule sensing, and many other applications. Controllable multispectral absorption is highly required for small footprint, multi-purpose, and real-time sensing applications. In this paper, we present the polarization control of interchangeable multispectral absorption based on the dual-band metamaterial absorber in split mode. Large modulation depth of absorption is obtained during multi-band transition through polarization control. We perform theoretical and numerical analysis to explain the results by formulating an equivalent circuit for the asymmetric cross resonator. Thermal controllability is also demonstrated to show the reversible and repeatable manipulation of absorption intensity at a given wavelength. Moreover, we characterized the limitation of this device under extreme high temperature. This work offers a design methodology for interchangeable multispectral metamaterial absorber from a new perspective by adopting polarization of incident light as a control mechanism, and this will open up possibilities for many valuable applications in the future.

  17. 1060nm VCSEL development at Furukawa for parallel optical interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funabashi, Masaki; Imai, Suguru; Takaki, Keishi; Kamiya, Shinichi; Shimizu, Hitoshi; Kawakita, Yasumasa; Hiraiwa, Koji; Yoshida, Junji; Suzuki, Toshihito; Ishikawa, Takuya; Tsukiji, Naoki; Kasukawa, Akihiko

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews research and development of 1060nm VCSELs at Furukawa Electric. We pursue the simultaneous realization of three strong demands for low power consumption, high reliability, and high speed. For this purpose, we have chosen compressively strained InGaAs/GaAs active layers emitting in a 1060 nm wavelength range because of their advantages of lower threshold voltage, smaller defect propagation velocity, and larger material differential gain, compared to those of GaAs/AlGaAs active layers widely used in 850 nm VCSELs. Oxide-confined and double intracavity structures provide low and stable electrical resistance as well as low optical loss. The developed VCSELs exhibited low threshold currents of 0.31 mA at 25 °C and 0.56 mA at 90 °C, together with highly uniform slope efficiency distributions throughout a wafer. We also demonstrated 10 Gbps error free transmission at a very low bias current of 1.4 mA, yielding low power dissipation operation of 0.14 mW/Gbps. Clear eye openings up to 20 Gbps were confirmed at a low bias current of 3mA. A series of endurance tests and accelerated aging tests on nearly 5000 VCSELs have proved Telcordia qualified high reliability and a very low failure rate of 30 FIT/channel at an operating temperature of 40 °C and a bias current of 6mA, with a 90% confidential level.

  18. Uniformity and performance of selectively oxidized VCSEL arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Geib, K.M.; Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The authors report the uniformity characteristics of low threshold 1,060 nm and high power 850 nm 8 x 8 individually addressable oxide-confined VCSEL arrays. Uniformity of lasing thresholds and operating characteristics are described, as well as thermal issues for 2-dimensional laser arrays.

  19. Research on VCSEL of single-mode multilayer photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenchao; Liu, Zhengjun; Sha, Xiaopeng

    2010-10-01

    Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) of single mode have the potential advantage in the domains of optical information network, routing interactions, optical information storage and data transmission for their excellent performance. However, operating on the single-mode model in the whole pumped area is not solved, which impacts the technologies and applications. In this paper, a new research on VCSEL of single mode multilayer photonic crystal is presented. In the structure of photonic crystal, defects in the horizontal direction are provided by the micro-cavity, while the AIR-KTP interface on the top and the KTP-DBR (Distributed Bragg Reflection) interface at the bottom of cavity provide the defects in the vertical direction, which form quantum defects of electron-hole pairs. The PC-VCSEL in the paper has excellent mode-selection characteristics, which can operate continuously at 850nm in single mode. The single-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 45dB is obtained in a wide dynamic range. The PC-VCSEL is expected to become a high-power single-mode light in the future.

  20. VCSEL-based optical trapping for microparticle manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, Rainer; Kroner, Andrea; Bergmann, Anna; Rinaldi, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, research into microfluidic devices has attracted much interest in the fields of biology and medicine, since they promise cheap and fast sample analysis with drastically reduced volume requirements. The combination of various analysis steps on one chip forms a small-sized biomedical system, where handling, fixing, and sorting of particles are major components. Here, it was demonstrated that optical manipulation is an efficient tool; in particular it is accurate, contactless, and biocompatible. However, the commonly required extensive optical setup contradicts the concept of a miniaturized system. We present a novel particle manipulation concept based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as light sources. The small dimensions and the low power consumption of these devices enable a direct integration with microfluidic systems. The symmetric geometry of VCSELs leads to a high-quality, circular output beam, which we additionally shape by an etched surface relief in the laser output facet and an integrated photoresist microlens. Thus, a weakly focused output beam with a beam waist of some micrometers is generated in the microfluidic channel. With this configuration we were able to demonstrate particle deflection, trapping, and sorting with a solitary VCSEL with output powers of only 5mW. Furthermore, the surface emission of VCSELs allows a comparatively easy fabrication of two-dimensional laser arrays with arbitrary arrangement of pixels. Smart particle sorting and switching schemes can thus be realized. We have fabricated densely packed VCSEL arrays with center-to-center spacings of only 24 μm. Equipped with integrated microlenses, these arrays are integrated with microfluidic chips based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), enabling ultra-compact particle sorting and fractionation.

  1. Cryogenic control system of the large COMPASS polarized target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautheron, F.; Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Berglund, P.; Doshita, N.; Goertz, St.; Gustafsson, K.; Horikawa, N.; Kisselev, Y.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kondo, K.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.

    2004-06-01

    The dilution refrigerator used to cool the large COMPASS polarized target is monitored through a PC running LabVIEW TM 6.1 under Windows 2000 TM. About 60 parameters of the target (temperatures, pressures, flow rates) are continuously plotted and checked. They are periodically recorded in an Oracle TM database and in a data file. An alarm for every parameter can be individually activated and optionally connected to a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) delivery message system. A web server receives and publishes the online status of the target with online tables and graphics on a dedicated COMPASS polarized target information web site. A Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC) powered by an uninterruptable source keeps the cryogenic system safe and stable during the long beam periods by controlling valves and interlocks. This safety feature protects the dilution refrigerator against potential damages in case of power failure.

  2. Quantum phase gate and controlled entanglement with polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Eric; Keller, Arne; Atabek, Osman; Milman, Perola

    2007-03-15

    We propose an alternative scenario for the generation of entanglement between rotational quantum states of two polar molecules. This entanglement arises from dipole-dipole interaction, and is controlled by a sequence of laser pulses simultaneously exciting both molecules. We study the efficiency of the process, and discuss possible experimental implementations with cold molecules trapped in optical lattices or in solid matrices. Finally, various entanglement detection procedures are presented, and their suitability for these two physical situations is analyzed.

  3. Polarization control at spin-driven ferroelectric domain walls.

    PubMed

    Leo, Naëmi; Bergman, Anders; Cano, Andres; Poudel, Narayan; Lorenz, Bernd; Fiebig, Manfred; Meier, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Unusual electronic states arise at ferroelectric domain walls due to the local symmetry reduction, strain gradients and electrostatics. This particularly applies to improper ferroelectrics, where the polarization is induced by a structural or magnetic order parameter. Because of the subordinate nature of the polarization, the rigid mechanical and electrostatic boundary conditions that constrain domain walls in proper ferroics are lifted. Here we show that spin-driven ferroelectricity promotes the emergence of charged domain walls. This provides new degrees of flexibility for controlling domain-wall charges in a deterministic and reversible process. We create and position a domain wall by an electric field in Mn0.95Co0.05WO4. With a magnetic field we then rotate the polarization and convert neutral into charged domain walls, while its magnetic properties peg the wall to its location. Using atomistic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert simulations we quantify the polarization changes across the two wall types and highlight their general occurrence. PMID:25868608

  4. Angular resolution of orthogonal polarizations using inhomogeneous control field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Shubhrangshu; Kumar, Pardeep

    2016-05-01

    The control of propagation direction of light by another light through their interaction with the medium has created a new avenue of research, with a special focus on the beam deflection in a homogeneous medium subjected to external fields. The key requirement for such a deflection is the spatial modulation of the refractive index of the medium induced by an inhomogeneous field. Beam deflection has been previously studied inside a medium, where electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) or active Raman gain (ARG) plays the crucial role. Here, we present a theoretical analysis to demonstrate the polarization-dependent light deflection of a weak probe field in a weakly birefringent medium in tripod configuration. We show that by changing the incidence angle of a control field as well as its transverse intensity profile, one can induce quite large (~ 100 mrad) angular divergence to different polarization components of the probe field. We identify that it is the coherent population oscillation (CPO) that leads to negligible absorption of the polarization components, contrary to the proposals which rely upon EIT and ARG.

  5. A long-range polarization-controlled optical tractor beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvedov, Vladlen; Davoyan, Arthur R.; Hnatovsky, Cyril; Engheta, Nader; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2014-11-01

    The laser beam has become an indispensable tool for the controllable manipulation and transport of microscopic objects in biology, physical chemistry and condensed matter physics. In particular, ‘tractor’ laser beams can draw matter towards a laser source and perform, for instance, all-optical remote sampling. Recent advances in lightwave technology have already led to small-scale experimental demonstrations of tractor beams. However, the realization of long-range tractor beams has not gone beyond the realm of theoretical investigations. Here, we demonstrate the stable transfer of gold-coated hollow glass spheres against the power flow of a single inhomogeneously polarized laser beam over tens of centimetres. Additionally, by varying the polarization state of the beam we can stop the spheres or reverse the direction of their motion at will.

  6. Piezotronic Effect in Polarity-Controlled GaN Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenfu; Pu, Xiong; Han, Changbao; Du, Chunhua; Li, Linxuan; Jiang, Chunyan; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-25

    Using high-quality and polarity-controlled GaN nanowires (NWs), we studied the piezotronic effect in crystal orientation defined wurtzite structures. By applying a normal compressive force on c-plane GaN NWs with an atomic force microscopy tip, the Schottky barrier between the Pt tip and GaN can be effectively tuned by the piezotronic effect. In contrast, the normal compressive force cannot change the electron transport characteristics in m-plane GaN NWs whose piezoelectric polarization axis is turned in the transverse direction. This observation provided solid evidence for clarifying the difference between the piezotronic effect and the piezoresistive effect. We further demonstrated a high sensitivity of the m-plane GaN piezotronic transistor to collect the transverse force. The integration of c-plane GaN and m-plane GaN indicates an overall response to an external force in any direction. PMID:26256533

  7. Tunable 1550nm VCSELs using high-contrast grating for next-generation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Christopher; Rao, Yi; Huang, Michael; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate wavelength-tunable SFF transceivers operating at 1550 nm using a tunable VCSEL with a high contrast grating (HCG) as the output mirror. Tunable HCG VCSELs with a ~25 nm mechanical tuning range and over 2 mW output power were realized. Error-free operation of an optical link using directly-modulated tunable HCG VCSELs transmitting at 1.25 Gbps over 18 channels spaced by 100 GHz and transmitted over 20 km of single mode fiber is demonstrated, showing the suitability of the HCG tunable VCSEL as a low cost source for next generation DWDM communications systems in access networks and data centers.

  8. Free-Space Optical Interconnect Employing VCSEL Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Savich, Gregory R.; Torres, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Sensor signal processing is widely used on aircraft and spacecraft. The scheme employs multiple input/output nodes for data acquisition and CPU (central processing unit) nodes for data processing. To connect 110 nodes and CPU nodes, scalable interconnections such as backplanes are desired because the number of nodes depends on requirements of each mission. An optical backplane consisting of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), VCSEL drivers, photodetectors, and transimpedance amplifiers is the preferred approach since it can handle several hundred megabits per second data throughput.The next generation of satellite-borne systems will require transceivers and processors that can handle several Gb/s of data. Optical interconnects have been praised for both their speed and functionality with hopes that light can relieve the electrical bottleneck predicted for the near future. Optoelectronic interconnects provide a factor of ten improvement over electrical interconnects.

  9. Effect of optical feedback on a VCSEL TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujanic, D.; Jaeger, W.; Tulip, J.

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the effects of optical feedback on the sensitivity of VCSEL tunable-diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS). Three VCSELs, emitting at different wavelengths in the near-infrared, were used. A TDLS system, subjected to optical feedback, exhibited a common signal-to-noise ratio profile for all three lasers. A catastrophic degradation of TDLS sensitivity occurred when feedback exceeded a level which we associate with coherence collapse. The TDLS system had a CH4 minimum detection limit of 7.5 ppmm without optical feedback. Optical feedback of less than ten percent reduced this sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. This reduction of system sensitivity was accompanied by a second-harmonic absorption signal baseline shift which degraded the system accuracy.

  10. Capacitively Coupled CMOS VCSEL Driver Circuits for Optical Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Victor

    This thesis presents the analysis, design and implementation of a common-cathode capacitively-coupled VCSEL driver in 65nm CMOS intended for short-reach optical interconnects. The driver consists of an AC-coupled high-frequency path and a low-frequency path that provides DC signal components. By increasing the low-frequency path bandwidth by 10 times compared to previous AC-coupled drivers allowed the on-chip coupling capacitor to be reduced to 2.1pF, occupying 3 times less area than prior art. The driver introduces capacitively-coupled two-tap emphasis to equalize the VCSEL's optical response. The VCSEL was modulated with an OMA of up to 5.1dBm and an ER of 9dB, measuring an RMS jitter of 5ps at a data rate of 15Gb/s, which represents the highest OMA and ER achieved in high-speed anode-driving LDDs. The driver could be programmed for a low-power mode, outputting 2.3dBm OMA at power consumption of only 30mW, corresponding to an energy efficiency of 2pJ/bit.

  11. High volume production of single-mode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenmann, Dieter; Grabherr, Martin; Jäger, Roland; King, Roger

    2006-02-01

    Up to now applications for singlemode VCSELs were in low volume and high prized applications like tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, [1,2]) or optical interferometers. Typical volumes for these applications are in the range of thousands of pcs per year, with pricing levels of several 100 USD/pcs. New applications for singlemode VCSELs in consumer markets require manufacturing in very high volumes and at very low cost. Examples are laser-based optical mouse sensors, optical encoders, and rubidium atomic clocks for GPS systems [3,4]. U-L-M photonics presents manufacturing aspects, device performance and reliability data for these devices. The first part of the paper is dealing with high volume manufacturing of 850 nm singlemode VCSEL chips with very high efficiency and low operation current. Special processing technologies have been developed to achieve yields on 3 inch wafers of more than 90%. Wafer qualification procedures are discussed as well. The second part of the paper covers high volume packaging in TO and SMT type packages where very high packaging yields must be achieved. In the last part of the paper reliability issues are discussed, focused on the very high susceptibility of these devices to electrostatic discharge.

  12. Orientation detection of a single molecule using pupil filter with electrically controllable polarization pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Yoshiki, Keisuke; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a system for measuring the orientation of single molecules using a conventional wide-field fluorescence microscope with a polarization filter consisting of a polarizer and a compact polarization mode converter. The polarization filter electrically controls the pattern of polarization filtering. Since the polarization of the fluorescence from a single molecule highly depends on the angle between the observation direction and the molecular direction, polarization pattern filtering at the pupil plane of the objective lens allows the orientation of a single molecule to be visualized. Using this system, we demonstrated the orientation detection of single molecules.

  13. Processing TOVS Polar Pathfinder data using the distributed batch controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, James; Salem, Kenneth M.; Schweiger, Axel; Livny, Miron

    1997-09-01

    The distributed batch controller (DBC) supports scientific batch data processing. Batch jobs are distributed by the DBC over a collection of computing resources. Since these resources may be widely scattered the DBC is well suited for collaborative research efforts whose resources may not be centrally located. The DBC provides its users with centralized monitoring and control of distributed batch jobs. Version 1 of the DBC is currently being used by the TOVS Polar Pathfinder project to generate Arctic atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles. Profile generating jobs are distributed and executed by the DBC on workstation clusters located at several sites across the US. This paper describes the data processing requirements of the TOVS Polar Pathfinder project, and how the DBC is being used to meet them. It also describes Version 2 of the DBC. DBC V2 is implemented in Java, and utilizes a number of advanced Java features such as threads and remote method invocation. It incorporates a number of functional enhancements. These include a flexible mechanism supporting interoperation of the DBC with a wider variety of execution resources and an improved user interface.

  14. Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reduzzi, Maurizio; Hummert, Johan; Dubrouil, Antoine; Calegari, Francesca; Nisoli, Mauro; Frassetto, Fabio; Poletto, Luca; Chen, Shaohao; Wu, Mengxi; Gaarde, Mette B.; Schafer, Kenneth; Sansone, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The extreme ultraviolet absorption spectrum of an atom is strongly modified in the presence of a synchronized intense infrared field. In this work we demonstrate control of the absorption properties of helium atoms dressed by an infrared pulse by changing the relative polarization of the infrared and extreme ultraviolet fields. Light-induced features associated with the dressed 1 s 2 s , 1 s 3 s , and 1 s 3 d states, referred to as 2 s+ , 3 s± , and 3 d± light-induced states, are shown to be strongly modified or even eliminated when the relative polarization is rotated. The experimental results agree well with calculations based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using a restricted excitation model that allows efficient treatment of the three-dimensional problem. We also present an analysis of the light-induced states based on Floquet theory, which allows for a simple explanation of their properties. Our results open a new route to creating controllable superpositions of dipole allowed and nondipole allowed states in atoms and molecules.

  15. Polarization-controlled directional scattering for nanoscopic position sensing.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Martin; Woźniak, Paweł; Bag, Ankan; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the propagation and coupling of light to sub-wavelength antennas is a crucial prerequisite for many nanoscale optical devices. Recently, the main focus of attention has been directed towards high-refractive-index materials such as silicon as an integral part of the antenna design. This development is motivated by the rich spectral properties of individual high-refractive-index nanoparticles. Here we take advantage of the interference of their magnetic and electric resonances to achieve strong lateral directionality. For controlled excitation of a spherical silicon nanoantenna, we use tightly focused radially polarized light. The resultant directional emission depends on the antenna's position relative to the focus. This approach finds application as a novel position sensing technique, which might be implemented in modern nanometrology and super-resolution microscopy set-ups. We demonstrate in a proof-of-concept experiment that a lateral resolution in the Ångström regime can be achieved. PMID:27095171

  16. Polarization-Independent Silicon Metadevices for Efficient Optical Wavefront Control.

    PubMed

    Chong, Katie E; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony; Dominguez, Jason; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Luk, Ting S; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2015-08-12

    We experimentally demonstrate a functional silicon metadevice at telecom wavelengths that can efficiently control the wavefront of optical beams by imprinting a spatially varying transmittance phase independent of the polarization of the incident beam. Near-unity transmittance efficiency and close to 0-2π phase coverage are enabled by utilizing the localized electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances of low-loss silicon nanoparticles tailored to behave as electromagnetically dual-symmetric scatterers. We apply this concept to realize a metadevice that converts a Gaussian beam into a vortex beam. The required spatial distribution of transmittance phases is achieved by a variation of the lattice spacing as a single geometric control parameter. PMID:26192100

  17. Polarization-controlled directional scattering for nanoscopic position sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Martin; Woźniak, Paweł; Bag, Ankan; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Controlling the propagation and coupling of light to sub-wavelength antennas is a crucial prerequisite for many nanoscale optical devices. Recently, the main focus of attention has been directed towards high-refractive-index materials such as silicon as an integral part of the antenna design. This development is motivated by the rich spectral properties of individual high-refractive-index nanoparticles. Here we take advantage of the interference of their magnetic and electric resonances to achieve strong lateral directionality. For controlled excitation of a spherical silicon nanoantenna, we use tightly focused radially polarized light. The resultant directional emission depends on the antenna's position relative to the focus. This approach finds application as a novel position sensing technique, which might be implemented in modern nanometrology and super-resolution microscopy set-ups. We demonstrate in a proof-of-concept experiment that a lateral resolution in the Ångström regime can be achieved.

  18. Wink-controlled polarization-switched telescopic contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Glenn M; Arianpour, Ashkan; Cookson, Scott; Zhang, Arthur; Hendrik, Lee; O'Brien, Tyrone; Alvarez, Agusto; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-11-10

    We describe a wink-controlled hands-free switching system for eye-borne telescopic vision, based on a previously tested fixed-magnification telescope embedded within scleral contact lenses. Here we integrate orthogonal polarizers into the contact lens covering the F/9.1 refractive 1× and F/9.6 catadioptric 2.8× vision paths, to allow switching via external liquid crystal shutters. We provide hands-free control by an infrared wink/blink monitor, using passive retroreflectors embedded within the contact lenses. We demonstrate system operation of the self-contained switching eyewear and the modified contact lenses with a life-size human eye model with mechanical "eyelids." PMID:26560792

  19. Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chong, Katie E.; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony Randolph; Dominguez, Jason James; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore; Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian; Luk, Ting S.; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N.; et al

    2015-07-20

    In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a functional silicon metadevice at telecom wavelengths that can efficiently control the wavefront of optical beams by imprinting a spatially varying transmittance phase independent of the polarization of the incident beam. Near-unity transmittance efficiency and close to 0–2π phase coverage are enabled by utilizing the localized electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances of low-loss silicon nanoparticles tailored to behave as electromagnetically dual-symmetric scatterers. We apply this concept to realize a metadevice that converts a Gaussian beam into a vortex beam. The required spatial distribution of transmittance phases is achieved by a variation of the latticemore » spacing as a single geometric control parameter.« less

  20. Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Katie E.; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony Randolph; Dominguez, Jason James; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore; Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian; Luk, Ting S.; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-07-20

    In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a functional silicon metadevice at telecom wavelengths that can efficiently control the wavefront of optical beams by imprinting a spatially varying transmittance phase independent of the polarization of the incident beam. Near-unity transmittance efficiency and close to 0–2π phase coverage are enabled by utilizing the localized electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances of low-loss silicon nanoparticles tailored to behave as electromagnetically dual-symmetric scatterers. We apply this concept to realize a metadevice that converts a Gaussian beam into a vortex beam. The required spatial distribution of transmittance phases is achieved by a variation of the lattice spacing as a single geometric control parameter.

  1. Polarization-controlled directional scattering for nanoscopic position sensing

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Martin; Woźniak, Paweł; Bag, Ankan; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the propagation and coupling of light to sub-wavelength antennas is a crucial prerequisite for many nanoscale optical devices. Recently, the main focus of attention has been directed towards high-refractive-index materials such as silicon as an integral part of the antenna design. This development is motivated by the rich spectral properties of individual high-refractive-index nanoparticles. Here we take advantage of the interference of their magnetic and electric resonances to achieve strong lateral directionality. For controlled excitation of a spherical silicon nanoantenna, we use tightly focused radially polarized light. The resultant directional emission depends on the antenna's position relative to the focus. This approach finds application as a novel position sensing technique, which might be implemented in modern nanometrology and super-resolution microscopy set-ups. We demonstrate in a proof-of-concept experiment that a lateral resolution in the Ångström regime can be achieved. PMID:27095171

  2. attitude control design for the solar polar orbit radio telesope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, D.; Zheng, J.

    This paper studies the attitude dynamics and control of the Solar Polar Orbit Radio Telescope SPORT The SPORT which consists of one parent satellite and eight tethered satellites runs around the Sun in a polar orbit The parent satellite locates at the mass center of the constellation and tethered satellites which are tied with the parent satellite through a non-electric rope rotate around the parent satellite It is also supposed that the parent satellite and all tethered satellites are in a plane when the constellation works begin figure htbp centerline includegraphics width 3 85in height 2 38in 75271331 6a6eb71057 doc1 eps label fig1 end figure Fig 1 the SPORT constellation Firstly this paper gives the dynamic equations of the tethered satellite and the parent satellite From the dynamic characteristic of the tethered satellite we then find that the roll axis is coupled with the yaw axis The control torque of the roll axis can control the yaw angle But the control torque of the roll axis and pitch axis provided by the tether is very small it can not meet the accuracy requirement of the yaw angle In order to improve the attitude pointing accuracy of the tethered satellite a gradient pole is set in the negative orientation of the yaw axis The gradient pole can improve not only the attitude accuracy of roll angle and pitch angle but also that of the yaw angle indirectly As to the dynamic characteristic of the parent satellite the roll axis is coupled with the pitch axis due to the spinning angular velocity At the same

  3. Wnt-Dependent Control of Cell Polarity in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Runkle, Kristin B; Witze, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    The secreted ligand Wnt5a regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movement during development by signaling through the poorly defined noncanonical Wnt pathway. Cell polarity regulates most aspects of cell behavior including the organization of apical/basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cells, polarized cell divisions along a directional plane, and front rear polarity during cell migration. These characteristics of cell polarity allow coordinated cell movements required for tissue formation and organogenesis during embryonic development. Genetic model organisms have been used to identify multiple signaling pathways including Wnt5a that are required to establish cell polarity and regulate polarized cell behavior. However, the downstream signaling events that regulate these complex cellular processes are still poorly understood. The methods below describe assays to study Wnt5a-induced cell polarity in cultured cells, which may facilitate our understanding of these complex signaling pathways. PMID:27590152

  4. Widely continuous-tuning single-wavelength laser based on commercial multimode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Tsu-Chiang; Hsu, Chuan-Pi; Wu, Yu-Heng; Cheng, Da-Long; Kuo, Wang-Chuang

    2010-08-01

    The conventional vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are designed to have a very short resonant cavity. Therefore, the longitudinal mode of the VCSELs is intrinsically single; and the VCSELs are expected to be an excellent instrument for many precision measurements that demand high-purity single-wavelength light sources. However, the laser facet of the conventional VCSELs is relatively large, around 10 μm, which admits the emission of multi-transverse modes. Accordingly, conducting a single transverse mode from VCSELs is an important research topic. In this research, the beam-profile-adapted optical feedback (BPAF) method was investigated by a single-mode fiber cavity (SMFC), in which the beam profile of the multimode-VCSEL's output was adapted to the fundamental-transverse mode of an optical fiber to feedback into the laser's cavity. The operational principle and performance of BPAF will be presented. The experimental results successfully demonstrated that BPAF can efficiently conduct multimode VCSELs to stably lase the fundamental transverse mode with a wide tuning range of about 1090 GHz, or 2.62 nm, and a spectrum purity around 20 dB. Some precision spectrum measurements will be exhibited. These results will help to extend the application of the VCSELs in many precision measurements.

  5. VCSEL arrays for high-aggregate bandwidth of up to 1.34 Tbps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin; Intemann, Steffan; King, Roger; Wabra, Stefan; Jäger, Roland; Riedl, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Even though the lane speed of VCSEL based AOC and transceivers has reached 25 Gbps and beyond [1-7], parallel optics are getting even more important in order to meet the increasing demand for aggregate bandwidths in upcoming applications, among others, 100 Gigabit Ethernet, Infiniband EDR, or EOM (embedded optical modules). As 100 Gbps can be achieved by, e.g., 4 times 25 Gbps using standard QSFP form factor, different approaches are using large scale 2D VCSEL arrays operating at lower lane speeds. Early work on 2D VCSEL based transceivers has already been presented beginning of this century [8] and recent work also addressed the potential of this technology [9,10]. In 2013, Compass EOS has introduced a 1.34 Tbps core router solution [11,12,13] that incorporates 2D VCSEL arrays of 14x12 emitters designed and manufactured by Philips U-L-M Photonics. The VCSEL array is mounted face down onto a CMOS ASIC, directly on top of the analog area. The emission wavelength of 1000 nm allows for substrate side emission and thus for flip-chip mounting as well as the possibility of integrating 2D microlens arrays onto the stack of CMOS and VCSEL array. After briefly introducing the router with regard to the incorporated VCSEL technology we discuss the design and performance of the VCSEL array. Finally, the assembly solution for this most compact and dense transceiver solution is presented.

  6. Complete photoionization experiments via ultrafast coherent control with polarization multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Lux, C; Baumert, T

    2014-06-01

    Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) obtained from ionization of potassium atoms using moderately intense femtosecond IR fields (∼10^{12}  W cm^{-2}) of various polarization states are shown to provide a route to "complete" photoionization experiments. Ionization occurs by a net three-photon absorption process, driven via the 4s→4p resonance at the one-photon level. A theoretical treatment incorporating the intrapulse electronic dynamics allows for a full set of ionization matrix elements to be extracted from 2D imaging data. 3D PADs generated from the extracted matrix elements are also compared to experimental, tomographically reconstructed, 3D photoelectron distributions, providing a sensitive test of their validity. Finally, application of the determined matrix elements to ionization via more complex, polarization-shaped, pulses is demonstrated, illustrating the utility of this methodology towards detailed understanding of complex ionization control schemes and suggesting the utility of such "multiplexed" intrapulse processes as powerful tools for measurement. PMID:24949763

  7. Control of the polarization of attosecond pulses using a two-color field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Camilo; Hoffmann, David J.; Torres, Ricardo; Chipperfield, Luke E.; Marangos, Jonathan P.

    2009-11-01

    Control over the polarization of an attosecond pulse train (APT) is demonstrated theoretically using orthogonally polarized two-color fields. The carrier envelope phase of the two pulses is used as a control parameter to generate both an APT with linear polarization in two nearly perpendicular planes or a train of elliptically polarized pulses of alternating helicity. By using few-cycle driving laser fields an isolated attosecond pulse with elliptical polarization is shown to be generated after selecting the cut-off region of the harmonic spectrum. The control mechanism is explained in terms of classical trajectories.

  8. Investigation of a polarization controller in Ti:LiNbO3 near 1530 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, W. J.; Kim, J.; Madsen, C. K.; Eknoyan, O.

    2015-01-01

    The results of analytical and experimental investigations for an electro-optic polarization controller are reported. A device configuration composed of two polarization converters with a phase shifter centered between them and all integrated over a single Ti diffused channel waveguide on LiNbO3 is used. Polarization control is achieved by applying voltages on the three integrated elements independently to adjust the phase difference between orthogonal TE and TM components of a guided optical wave as well as their relative strength. Experimental results agree with analytical predictions. For arbitrary incident polarization, endless polarization transformation can be realized at the output.

  9. Polarizer-free liquid crystal display with double microlens array layers and polarization-controlling liquid crystal layer.

    PubMed

    Lee, You-Jin; Yu, Chang-Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2015-10-19

    We propose a polarizer-free liquid crystal display (LCD) consisting of two microlens array (MLA) layers, a twisted nematic (TN) LC layer, and two light-blocking masks. By changing the polarization state, focal length of the LCD can be controlled. Since two light-blocking masks have a circular stop pattern and a complementary open pattern, entire gray-scale spectrum may be realized by controlling the intensity of light passing through masks. Ultimately, fast response time characteristics could be achieved due to the alignment of LC molecules on the flat MLA surface. PMID:26480423

  10. Final report on LDRD project :leaky-mode VCSELs for photonic logic circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, Terry W.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Blansett, Ethan L.; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Bauer, Thomas; Ongstand, Andrea; Medrano, Melissa R.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Montano, Victoria A.

    2005-11-01

    This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project ''Leaky-mode VCSELs for photonic logic circuits''. Leaky-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) offer new possibilities for integration of microcavity lasers to create optical microsystems. A leaky-mode VCSEL output-couples light laterally, in the plane of the semiconductor wafer, which allows the light to interact with adjacent lasers, modulators, and detectors on the same wafer. The fabrication of leaky-mode VCSELs based on effective index modification was proposed and demonstrated at Sandia in 1999 but was not adequately developed for use in applications. The aim of this LDRD has been to advance the design and fabrication of leaky-mode VCSELs to the point where initial applications can be attempted. In the first and second years of this LDRD we concentrated on overcoming previous difficulties in the epitaxial growth and fabrication of these advanced VCSELs. In the third year, we focused on applications of leaky-mode VCSELs, such as all-optical processing circuits based on gain quenching.

  11. Final report on LDRD project : narrow-linewidth VCSELs for atomic microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Weng Wah; Geib, Kent Martin; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Serkland, Darwin Keith

    2011-09-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are well suited for emerging photonic microsystems due to their low power consumption, ease of integration with other optical components, and single frequency operation. However, the typical VCSEL linewidth of 100 MHz is approximately ten times wider than the natural linewidth of atoms used in atomic beam clocks and trapped atom research, which degrades or completely destroys performance in those systems. This report documents our efforts to reduce VCSEL linewidths below 10 MHz to meet the needs of advanced sub-Doppler atomic microsystems, such as cold-atom traps. We have investigated two complementary approaches to reduce VCSEL linewidth: (A) increasing the laser-cavity quality factor, and (B) decreasing the linewidth enhancement factor (alpha) of the optical gain medium. We have developed two new VCSEL devices that achieved increased cavity quality factors: (1) all-semiconductor extended-cavity VCSELs, and (2) micro-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (MECSELs). These new VCSEL devices have demonstrated linewidths below 10 MHz, and linewidths below 1 MHz seem feasible with further optimization.

  12. Actin nucleation at the centrosome controls lymphocyte polarity

    PubMed Central

    Obino, Dorian; Farina, Francesca; Malbec, Odile; Sáez, Pablo J.; Maurin, Mathieu; Gaillard, Jérémie; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Gautreau, Alexis; Yuseff, Maria-Isabel; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cell polarity is required for the functional specialization of many cell types including lymphocytes. A hallmark of cell polarity is the reorientation of the centrosome that allows repositioning of organelles and vesicles in an asymmetric fashion. The mechanisms underlying centrosome polarization are not fully understood. Here we found that in resting lymphocytes, centrosome-associated Arp2/3 locally nucleates F-actin, which is needed for centrosome tethering to the nucleus via the LINC complex. Upon lymphocyte activation, Arp2/3 is partially depleted from the centrosome as a result of its recruitment to the immune synapse. This leads to a reduction in F-actin nucleation at the centrosome and thereby allows its detachment from the nucleus and polarization to the synapse. Therefore, F-actin nucleation at the centrosome—regulated by the availability of the Arp2/3 complex—determines its capacity to polarize in response to external stimuli. PMID:26987298

  13. Substorm Bulge/Surge Controlled by Polar Cap Flow Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Nishimura, T.; Zou, Y.; Gallardo-Lacourt, B.; Donovan, E.; Shiokawa, K.; Nicolls, M. J.; Chen, S.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Nishitani, N.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence that localized channels of enhanced polar cap flow drive plasma sheet/auroral oval flow channels, auroral poleward boundary intensifications and streamers, and substorm onset. Evidence has also indicated that a persistence of such flow channels after substorm onset may enhance post-onset auroral poleward expansion and activity. Here, we combine auroral imager and radar observations to show evidence that polar-cap flow channels can directly feed the substorm bulge westward motion, i.e., the westward traveling surge, and its poleward expansion well into the pre-existing polar cap. By taking advantage of the capability of tracing polar cap arcs and patches over long distances with red line imaging, we are able to trace flow features that strongly affect the substorm bulge across the polar cap for up to ~1-1.5 hr prior to their impacting and affecting the substorm bulge.

  14. Actin nucleation at the centrosome controls lymphocyte polarity.

    PubMed

    Obino, Dorian; Farina, Francesca; Malbec, Odile; Sáez, Pablo J; Maurin, Mathieu; Gaillard, Jérémie; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Gautreau, Alexis; Yuseff, Maria-Isabel; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cell polarity is required for the functional specialization of many cell types including lymphocytes. A hallmark of cell polarity is the reorientation of the centrosome that allows repositioning of organelles and vesicles in an asymmetric fashion. The mechanisms underlying centrosome polarization are not fully understood. Here we found that in resting lymphocytes, centrosome-associated Arp2/3 locally nucleates F-actin, which is needed for centrosome tethering to the nucleus via the LINC complex. Upon lymphocyte activation, Arp2/3 is partially depleted from the centrosome as a result of its recruitment to the immune synapse. This leads to a reduction in F-actin nucleation at the centrosome and thereby allows its detachment from the nucleus and polarization to the synapse. Therefore, F-actin nucleation at the centrosome-regulated by the availability of the Arp2/3 complex-determines its capacity to polarize in response to external stimuli. PMID:26987298

  15. VCSEL-based optical interconnections at interbox distances and shorter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, Jack L.

    1996-01-01

    Optics will soon be established as the mainstay for data-intensive communications at distances about 100 meters or less between workstations, displays and peripherals. The datacom hardware includes arrays of multi-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting in the 650 - 1000 nm range and parallel channels of multi-mode optical fiber, which are major departures from the already-established long-distance optical fiber communications for telecom. These radical departures are brought about by two major forces. (1) They are forced by the driving need to reduce costs for datacom links to the consumer affordability level, as opposed to the network provider level in telecom links. (2) They are allowed by the different requirements of the shorter communication distances. In the future, optics is expected to replace traditional communication links at even shorter distances. If optical communications extends down to the inter-chip level, it is likely that the 'chipcom' links will require technologies as different from datacom technologies as VCSEL arrays and fiber ribbons are from distributed feedback lasers and single-mode fibers. In this paper are reviewed the forces which shape the emerging datacom hardware, current state of datacom links, and a crude forecast of what will be required for chipcom links.

  16. Transverse Mode Dynamics of VCSELs Undergoing Current Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Ning, C. Z.; Agrawal, Govind

    2000-01-01

    Transverse mode dynamics of a 20-micron-diameter vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) undergoing gain switching by deep current modulation is studied numerically. The direct current (dc) level is set slightly below threshold and is modulated by a large alternating current (ac). The resulting optical pulse train and transverse-mode patterns are obtained numerically. The ac frequency is varied from 2.5 GHz to 10 GHz, and the ac amplitude is varied from one-half to four times that of the dc level. At high modulation frequencies, a regular pulse train is not generated unless the ac amplitude is large enough. At all modulation frequencies, the transverse spatial profile switches from single-mode to multiple-mode pattern as the ac pumping level is increased. Optical pulse widths vary in the range 5-30 ps. with the pulse width decreasing when either the frequency is increased or the ac amplitude is decreased. The numerical modeling uses an approximation form of the semiconductor Maxwell-Bloch equations. Temporal evolution of the spatial profiles of the laser (and of carrier density) is determined without any assumptions about the type or number of modes. Keywords: VCSELs, current modulation, gain switching, transverse mode dynamics, computational modeling

  17. Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Lee, ByungKun; Choi, WooJhon; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Kraus, Martin F.; Liang, Kaicheng; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of conventional OCT and can assess depth-resolved tissue birefringence in addition to intensity. Most existing PS-OCT systems are relatively complex and their clinical translation remains difficult. We present a simple and robust all-fiber PS-OCT system based on swept source technology and polarization depth-encoding. Polarization multiplexing was achieved using a polarization maintaining fiber. Polarization sensitive signals were detected using fiber based polarization beam splitters and polarization controllers were used to remove the polarization ambiguity. A simplified post-processing algorithm was proposed for speckle noise reduction relaxing the demand for phase stability. We demonstrated systems design for both ophthalmic and catheter-based PS-OCT. For ophthalmic imaging, we used an optical clock frequency doubling method to extend the imaging range of a commercially available short cavity light source to improve polarization depth-encoding. For catheter based imaging, we demonstrated 200 kHz PS-OCT imaging using a MEMS-tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and a high speed micromotor imaging catheter. The system was demonstrated in human retina, finger and lip imaging, as well as ex vivo swine esophagus and cardiovascular imaging. The all-fiber PS-OCT is easier to implement and maintain compared to previous PS-OCT systems and can be more easily translated to clinical applications due to its robust design. PMID:25401008

  18. 1310nm VCSELs in 1-10Gb/s commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, Jack; Graham, Luke; Crom, Max; Maranowski, Kevin; Smith, Joseph; Fanning, Tom

    2006-02-01

    Beginning with 4 Gigabit/sec Fibre-Channel, 1310nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are now entering the marketplace. Such VCSELs perform like distributed feedback lasers but have drive currents and heat dissipation like 850nm VCSELs, making them ideal for today's high-performance interconnects and the only choice for the next step in increased interconnection density. Transceiver performances at 4 and 10 Gigabits/sec over fiber lengths 10-40km are presented. The active material is extremely robust, resulting in excellent reliability.

  19. Compliant heterogeneous assemblies of micro-VCSELs as a new materials platform for integrated optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongseok; Lee, Sung-Min; Kwong, Anthony; Yoon, Jongseung

    2015-03-01

    Despite many unique advantages, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) have been available mostly on rigid, planar wafers over restricted areas, thereby limiting their usage for applications that can benefit from large-scale, programmable assemblies, hybrid integration with dissimilar materials and devices, or mechanically flexible constructions. Here, materials design and fabrication strategies that address these limitations of conventional VCSELs are presented. Specialized design of epitaxial materials and etching processes, together with printing-based deterministic assemblies and substrate thermal engineering, enabled defect-free release of microscale VCSELs and their device- and circuit-level implementation on non-native, flexible substrates with performance comparable to devices on the growth substrate.

  20. Very high-capacity short-reach VCSEL systems exploiting multicarrier intensity modulation and direct detection.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Alberto; Argenio, Debora; Boffi, Pierpaolo

    2016-06-13

    Multicarrier intensity modulation of a bandwidth-limited long-wavelength VCSEL is exploited combined to direct detection to achieve very high capacity simple systems for short-reach applications. Tailored FDM subcarriers modulation and allocation allow to match the non-uniform frequency response of the system induced by the direct modulation and detection of the FDM signal and by the uncompensated SSMF propagation, overcoming the VCSEL bandwidth limitations. A whole transported throughput ranging from 34 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s from few hundreds meters to 20 km of SSMF propagation is experimentally demonstrated even by employing a 5-GHz band VCSEL source. PMID:27410296

  1. VCSEL end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with adjustable pulse energy.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lew; McIntosh, Chris; Cole, Brian

    2011-02-28

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser utilizing a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber, is end-pumped by the focused emission from an 804 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array. By changing the VCSEL operating current, we demonstrated 2x adjustability in the laser output pulse energy, from 9 mJ to 18 mJ. This energy variation was attributed to changes in the angular distribution of VCSEL emission with drive current, resulting in a change in the pump intensity distribution generated by a pump-light-focusing lens. PMID:21369256

  2. Triggering of guiding and antiguiding effects in GaN-based VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Ehsan; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Gustavsson, Johan; Stattin, Martin; Glauser, Marlene; Cosendey, Gatien; Grandjean, Nicolas; Calciati, Marco; Goano, Michele; Haglund, Åsa

    2014-02-01

    We show numerically that many recently proposed GaN-based VCSEL cavities, with DBR mirrors deposited onto the current aperture, balance dangerously close to the border between the guided and antiguided regime. A guided cavity is often preferred because of its lower optical loss, but a strongly antiguided cavity offers built-in modal discrimination favoring single fundamental mode operation. We show that very small changes in the VCSEL structure are sufficient to strongly change the guiding character of the VCSEL cavity, and that thermal lensing caused by device self-heating under operation can dramatically reduce the optical loss but not the modal discrimination in the antiguided cavities.

  3. Heterogeneously-integrated VCSEL using high-contrast grating on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, James; Zhu, Li; Yang, Weijian; Qiao, Pengfei; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2015-02-01

    We present a unique heterogeneous integration approach for VCSELs on silicon using eutectic bonding. An electrically pumped III-V - silicon heterogeneous VCSEL is demonstrated using a high-contrast grating (HCG) reflector on silicon. CW output power >1.5 mW, thermal resistance of 1.46 K/mW, and 5 Gb/s direct modulation is demonstrated. We also explore the possibility of an all-HCG VCSEL structure that would benefit from stronger thermal performance, larger tuning efficiency, and higher direct modulation speeds.

  4. 960-km SSMF transmission of 105.7-Gb/s PDM 3-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chongjin; Dong, Po; Winzer, Peter; Gréus, C; Ortsiefer, M; Neumeyr, C; Spiga, Silvia; Müller, Michael; Amann, M-C

    2013-05-01

    We generate a 105.7-Gb/s signal by directly modulating a 1.5-µm VCSEL with a 33.35-Gbaud 3-level signal and polarization multiplexing. By using digital coherent detection, we successfully transmit the 105.7-Gb/s line rate (88.10 Gb/s net bit rate) signal over 960-km standard single-mode-fiber (SSMF) at a 20% hard-decision forward-error correction (FEC) threshold, which is at bit-error ratio (BER) of 1.5 x 10(-2) PMID:23670015

  5. Prickle isoforms control the direction of tissue polarity by microtubule independent and dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Katherine A.; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Planar cell polarity signaling directs the polarization of cells within the plane of many epithelia. While these tissues exhibit asymmetric localization of a set of core module proteins, in Drosophila, more than one mechanism links the direction of core module polarization to the tissue axes. One signaling system establishes a polarity bias in the parallel, apical microtubules upon which vesicles containing core proteins traffic. Swapping expression of the differentially expressed Prickle isoforms, Prickle and Spiny-legs, reverses the direction of core module polarization. Studies in the proximal wing and the anterior abdomen indicated that this results from their differential control of microtubule polarity. Prickle and Spiny-legs also control the direction of polarization in the distal wing (D-wing) and the posterior abdomen (P-abd). We report here that this occurs without affecting microtubule polarity in these tissues. The direction of polarity in the D-wing is therefore likely determined by a novel mechanism independent of microtubule polarity. In the P-abd, Prickle and Spiny-legs interpret at least two directional cues through a microtubule-polarity-independent mechanism. PMID:26863941

  6. High Power Dynamic Polarization Control Using Plasma Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D.; Michel, P.; Chapman, T.; Tubman, E.; Pollock, B. B.; Chen, C. Y.; Goyon, C.; Ross, J. S.; Divol, L.; Woolsey, N.; Moody, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of a plasma wave plate based on laser-induced birefringence. An elliptically polarized input was converted into a nearly ideal circularly polarized beam using an optical system composed of a second laser beam and a plasma. The results are in excellent agreement with linear theory and three-dimensional simulations up to phase delays exceeding π /4 , thus establishing the feasibility of laser-plasma photonic devices that are ultrafast, damage-resistant, and easily tunable.

  7. Controlling the polarization eigenstate of a quantum dot exciton with light.

    PubMed

    Belhadj, Thomas; Simon, Claire-Marie; Amand, Thierry; Renucci, Pierre; Chatel, Beatrice; Krebs, Olivier; Lemaître, Aristide; Voisin, Paul; Marie, Xavier; Urbaszek, Bernhard

    2009-08-21

    We demonstrate optical control of the polarization eigenstates of a neutral quantum dot exciton without any external fields. By varying the excitation power of a circularly polarized laser in microphotoluminescence experiments on individual InGaAs quantum dots we control the magnitude and direction of an effective internal magnetic field created via optical pumping of nuclear spins. The adjustable nuclear magnetic field allows us to tune the linear and circular polarization degree of the neutral exciton emission. The quantum dot can thus act as a tunable light polarization converter. PMID:19792745

  8. Kif26b controls endothelial cell polarity through the Dishevelled/Daam1-dependent planar cell polarity-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Guillabert-Gourgues, Aude; Jaspard-Vinassa, Beatrice; Bats, Marie-Lise; Sewduth, Raj N; Franzl, Nathalie; Peghaire, Claire; Jeanningros, Sylvie; Moreau, Catherine; Roux, Etienne; Larrieu-Lahargue, Frederic; Dufourcq, Pascale; Couffinhal, Thierry; Duplàa, Cecile

    2016-03-15

    Angiogenesis involves the coordinated growth and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) toward a proangiogenic signal. The Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, through the recruitment of Dishevelled (Dvl) and Dvl-associated activator of morphogenesis (Daam1), has been proposed to regulate cell actin cytoskeleton and microtubule (MT) reorganization for oriented cell migration. Here we report that Kif26b-a kinesin-and Daam1 cooperatively regulate initiation of EC sprouting and directional migration via MT reorganization. First, we find that Kif26b is recruited within the Dvl3/Daam1 complex. Using a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay, we show that Kif26b and Daam1 depletion impairs tip cell polarization and destabilizes extended vascular processes. Kif26b depletion specifically alters EC directional migration and mislocalized MT organizing center (MTOC)/Golgi and myosin IIB cell rear enrichment. Therefore the cell fails to establish a proper front-rear polarity. Of interest, Kif26b ectopic expression rescues the siDaam1 polarization defect phenotype. Finally, we show that Kif26b functions in MT stabilization, which is indispensable for asymmetrical cell structure reorganization. These data demonstrate that Kif26b, together with Dvl3/Daam1, initiates cell polarity through the control of PCP signaling pathway-dependent activation. PMID:26792835

  9. Laser polarization and phase control of up-conversion fluorescence in rare-earth ions

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yunhua; Zhang, Shian; Zhang, Hui; Ding, Jingxin; Jia, Tianqing; Qiu, Jianrong; Sun, Zhenrong

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the up-conversion fluorescence control via resonance-mediated two-photon absorption in rare-earth ions by varying both the laser polarization and phase. We show that both the laser polarization and phase can control the up-conversion fluorescence, and the up-conversion fluorescence intensity is decreased when the laser polarization changes from linear through elliptical to circular. We also show that the laser polarization will affect the control efficiency of the up-conversion fluorescence by varying the laser phase, and the circular polarization will reduce the control efficiency. Furthermore, we suggest that the control efficiency by varying the laser polarization and the effect of the laser polarization on the control efficiency by varying the laser phase can be artificially manipulated by controlling the laser spectral bandwidth. This optical control method opens a new opportunity to control the up-conversion fluorescence of rare-earth ions, which may have significant impact on the related applications of rare-earth ions. PMID:25465401

  10. High power VCSEL array pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yihan; Van Leeuwen, Robert; Watkins, Laurence S.; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Miglo, Alexander; Wang, Qing; Ghosh, Chuni

    2012-03-01

    Solid-state lasers pumped by high-power two-dimensional arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) were investigated. Both end-pumping and side-pumping schemes of Nd:YAG lasers with high power kW-class 808 nm VCSEL pump modules were implemented. For one application 10 mJ blue laser pulses were obtained from a frequencydoubled actively Q-switched VCSEL-array dual side-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 946 nm. For another application 10 mJ green laser pulses were obtained from a frequency-doubled passively Q-switched VCSEL-array endpumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. Both QCW and CW pumping schemes were investigated to achieve high average Q-switched power.

  11. Reliability and degradation of oxide VCSELs due to reaction to atmospheric water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafinca, Alexandru; Weidberg, Anthony R.; McMahon, Steven J.; Grillo, Alexander A.; Farthouat, Philippe; Ziolkowski, Michael; Herrick, Robert W.

    2013-03-01

    850nm oxide-aperture VCSELs are susceptible to premature failure if operated while exposed to atmospheric water vapor, and not protected by hermetic packaging. The ATLAS detector in CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has had approximately 6000 channels of Parallel Optic VCSELs fielded under well-documented ambient conditions. Exact time-to-failure data has been collected on this large sample, providing for the first time actual failure data at use conditions. In addition, the same VCSELs were tested under a variety of accelerated conditions to allow us to construct a more accurate acceleration model. Failure analysis information will also be presented to show what we believe causes corrosion-related failure for such VCSELs.

  12. Dynamic properties of silicon-integrated short-wavelength hybrid-cavity VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Emanuel P.; Kumari, Sulakshna; Westbergh, Petter; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel; Larsson, Anders

    2016-03-01

    We present a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) where a GaAs-based "half-VCSEL" is attached to a dielectric distributed Bragg reflector on silicon using ultra-thin divinylsiloxane-bis-benzocyclobutene (DVS-BCB) adhesive bonding, creating a hybrid cavity where the optical field extends over both the GaAs- and the Si-based parts of the cavity. A VCSEL with an oxide aperture diameter of 5 μm and a threshold current of 0.4 mA provides 0.6 mW output power at 845 nm. The VCSEL exhibits a modulation bandwidth of 11 GHz and can transmit data up to 20 Gbps.

  13. Rigorous, highly-efficient optical tools for HCG-VCSEL design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debernardi, Pierluigi; Orta, Renato; Hofmann, Werner

    2013-03-01

    High Contrast Gratings (HCG) have become a hot research topic, because of their new functionalities at very small volumes. However no efficient 3D VCSEL model capable to account for HCG has been reported so far. HCG design is therefore mainly based on 1D simulations. For realistic structures usually FDTD is the most popular approach, with its well known cumbersome computation drawbacks. VELM code,1 the well established VCSEL electromagnetic solver developed in the last ten years in the Torino group, has now been upgraded to rigorously handle HCG layers. The efficiency of the tool is preserved, and an entire set of HCG VCSEL modes can be computed in minutes on an ordinary desktop. A full set of design tools and guidelines, starting from 1D HCG properties up to 3D simulations which include HCG in the VCSEL design, will be presented and applied to the design of a structure that is in fabrication.

  14. Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Metasurfaces are planar structures that locally modify the polarization, phase and amplitude of light in reflection or transmission, thus enabling lithographically patterned flat optical components with functionalities controlled by design. Transmissive metasurfaces are especially important, as most optical systems used in practice operate in transmission. Several types of transmissive metasurface have been realized, but with either low transmission efficiencies or limited control over polarization and phase. Here, we show a metasurface platform based on high-contrast dielectric elliptical nanoposts that provides complete control of polarization and phase with subwavelength spatial resolution and an experimentally measured efficiency ranging from 72% to 97%, depending on the exact design. Such complete control enables the realization of most free-space transmissive optical elements such as lenses, phase plates, wave plates, polarizers, beamsplitters, as well as polarization-switchable phase holograms and arbitrary vector beam generators using the same metamaterial platform. PMID:26322944

  15. Ultrafast spin-polarization control of Dirac fermions in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Barriga, J.; Golias, E.; Varykhalov, A.; Braun, J.; Yashina, L. V.; Schumann, R.; Minár, J.; Ebert, H.; Kornilov, O.; Rader, O.

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) are characterized by spin-polarized Dirac-cone surface states that are protected from backscattering by time-reversal symmetry. Control of the spin polarization of topological surface states (TSSs) using femtosecond light pulses opens novel perspectives for the generation and manipulation of dissipationless surface spin currents on ultrafast time scales. Using time-, spin-, and angle-resolved spectroscopy, we directly monitor the ultrafast response of the spin polarization of photoexcited TSSs to circularly polarized femtosecond pulses of infrared light. We achieve all-optical switching of the transient out-of-plane spin polarization, which relaxes in about 1.2 ps. Our observations establish the feasibility of ultrafast optical control of spin-polarized Dirac fermions in TIs and pave the way for optospintronic applications at ultimate speeds.

  16. Capture and sorting of multiple cells by polarization-controlled three-beam interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yu; Wang, Zuobin; Hu, Yaowei; Li, Dayou; Qiu, Renxi

    2016-03-01

    For the capture and sorting of multiple cells, a sensitive and highly efficient polarization-controlled three-beam interference set-up has been developed. With the theory of superposition of three beams, simulations on the influence of polarization angle upon the intensity distribution and the laser gradient force change with different polarization angles have been carried out. By controlling the polarization angle of the beams, various intensity distributions and different sizes of dots are obtained. We have experimentally observed multiple optical tweezers and the sorting of cells with different polarization angles, which are in accordance with the theoretical analysis. The experimental results have shown that the polarization angle affects the shapes and feature sizes of the interference patterns and the trapping force.

  17. Neuronal polarity selection by topography-induced focal adhesion control.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Aldo; Cecchini, Marco; Serresi, Michela; Faraci, Paolo; Pisignano, Dario; Beltram, Fabio

    2010-06-01

    Interaction between differentiating neurons and the extracellular environment guides the establishment of cell polarity during nervous system development. Developing neurons read the physical properties of the local substrate in a contact-dependent manner and retrieve essential guidance cues. In previous works we demonstrated that PC12 cell interaction with nanogratings (alternating lines of ridges and grooves of submicron size) promotes bipolarity and alignment to the substrate topography. Here, we investigate the role of focal adhesions, cell contractility, and actin dynamics in this process. Exploiting nanoimprint lithography techniques and a cyclic olefin copolymer, we engineered biocompatible nanostructured substrates designed for high-resolution live-cell microscopy. Our results reveal that neuronal polarization and contact guidance are based on a geometrical constraint of focal adhesions resulting in an angular modulation of their maturation and persistence. We report on ROCK1/2-myosin-II pathway activity and demonstrate that ROCK-mediated contractility contributes to polarity selection during neuronal differentiation. Importantly, the selection process confined the generation of actin-supported membrane protrusions and the initiation of new neurites at the poles. Maintenance of the established polarity was independent from NGF stimulation. Altogether our results imply that focal adhesions and cell contractility stably link the topographical configuration of the extracellular environment to a corresponding neuronal polarity state. PMID:20304485

  18. Apicobasal polarity controls lymphocyte adhesion to hepatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Reglero-Real, Natalia; Alvarez-Varela, Adrián; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Feito, Jorge; Marcos-Ramiro, Beatriz; Fernández-Martín, Laura; Gómez-Lechón, Maria José; Muntané, Jordi; Sandoval, Pilar; Majano, Pedro L; Correas, Isabel; Alonso, Miguel A; Millán, Jaime

    2014-09-25

    Loss of apicobasal polarity is a hallmark of epithelial pathologies. Leukocyte infiltration and crosstalk with dysfunctional epithelial barriers are crucial for the inflammatory response. Here, we show that apicobasal architecture regulates the adhesion between hepatic epithelial cells and lymphocytes. Polarized hepatocytes and epithelium from bile ducts segregate the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) adhesion receptor onto their apical, microvilli-rich membranes, which are less accessible by circulating immune cells. Upon cell depolarization, hepatic ICAM-1 becomes exposed and increases lymphocyte binding. Polarized hepatic cells prevent ICAM-1 exposure to lymphocytes by redirecting basolateral ICAM-1 to apical domains. Loss of ICAM-1 polarity occurs in human inflammatory liver diseases and can be induced by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We propose that adhesion receptor polarization is a parenchymal immune checkpoint that allows functional epithelium to hamper leukocyte binding. This contributes to the haptotactic guidance of leukocytes toward neighboring damaged or chronically inflamed epithelial cells that expose their adhesion machinery. PMID:25242329

  19. CMOS VCSEL driver circuit for 25+Gbps/channel short-reach parallel optical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masumi

    This thesis proposes a new CMOS driver for Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting LASER (VCSEL) diode arrays. A VCSEL is a promising light source for optical communication. However, its threshold voltage (1.5V for a 850-nm VCSEL) exceeds the rated supply voltage of nanoscale CMOS technologies. This makes difficult designing a driver sourcing a modulated current to a VCSELs anode directly, an arrangement suitable for low-cost parallel optical links. To overcome this problem, a combination of analog circuit techniques is proposed including a novel pad shield driving technique. A prototype fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS technology achieved 26-Gb/s bit-rate and 1.80-pJ/b power efficiency with an optical modulation amplitude (OMA) of +1.8dBm and 3.1ps-rms jitter when driving a 850-nm 14Gb/s commercial VCSEL. This is the highest-speed anode-driving CMOS VCSEL driver reported to date. Also it has the best power efficiency and the smallest area (0:024 mm2) amongst anode-driving drivers in any process technology.

  20. Optimization of an avionic VCSEL-based optical link through large signal characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Khadijetou S.; Rissons, A.; Gambardella, E.; Mollier, J.-C.

    2008-04-01

    Optical communication systems have been widely preferred for network communications, especially for Datacoms Local Area Network links. The optical technology is an excellent candidate for on-board systems due to the potential weight saving and EMC immunity. According to the short length of the link and a cost saving, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) and multimode fiber are the best solution for gigabit systems. In this context, we propose a modeling of 850nm VCSEL based on the rate equations analysis to predict the optical interconnect performances (jitter, bit error rate). Our aim is to define the operation conditions of VCSEL under large signal modulation in order to maximize the Extinction Ratio (current I OFF below threshold) without affecting link performances. The VCSEL model is developed to provide large signal modulation response. Biasing below threshold causes stochastic turn-on delay. Fluctuations of this delay occur, due to the spontaneous emission. This leads to additional turn-on jitter. These stochastic effects are included in the model by adding the Langevin photon and electron noise sources. The VCSEL behavior under high-speed modulation is studied to observe the transient response and extract the resonance frequency, overshoot and turn-on delay. The associated jitter is evaluated with the standard deviation of the turn-on delay probability density function. Simulations of stochastic and deterministic jitters are realized under different conditions of modulation (OFF current levels). Comparing simulations with measurement results carried out on VCSEL and a short haul gigabit link validates the approach.

  1. High Power Dynamic Polarization Control Using Plasma Photonics.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, D; Michel, P; Chapman, T; Tubman, E; Pollock, B B; Chen, C Y; Goyon, C; Ross, J S; Divol, L; Woolsey, N; Moody, J D

    2016-05-20

    We report the first experimental demonstration of a plasma wave plate based on laser-induced birefringence. An elliptically polarized input was converted into a nearly ideal circularly polarized beam using an optical system composed of a second laser beam and a plasma. The results are in excellent agreement with linear theory and three-dimensional simulations up to phase delays exceeding π/4, thus establishing the feasibility of laser-plasma photonic devices that are ultrafast, damage-resistant, and easily tunable. PMID:27258871

  2. Baseline scheme for polarization preservation and control in the MEIC ion complex

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong; Kondratenko, Anatoliy; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yury

    2015-09-01

    The scheme for preservation and control of the ion polarization in the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) has been under active development in recent years. The figure-8 configuration of the ion rings provides a unique capability to control the polarization of any ion species including deuterons by means of "weak" solenoids rotating the particle spins by small angles. Insertion of "weak" solenoids into the magnetic lattices of the booster and collider rings solves the problem of polarization preservation during acceleration of the ion beam. Universal 3D spin rotators designed on the basis of "weak" solenoids allow one to obtain any polarization orientation at an interaction point of MEIC. This paper presents the baseline scheme for polarization preservation and control in the MEIC ion complex.

  3. Bright high-order harmonic generation with controllable polarization from a relativistic plasma mirror.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with a controllable polarization state are powerful tools for investigating the structural and electronic as well as the magnetic properties of materials. However, such light sources are still limited to only a few free-electron laser facilities and, very recently, to high-order harmonic generation from noble gases. Here we propose and numerically demonstrate a laser-plasma scheme to generate bright XUV pulses with fully controlled polarization. In this scheme, an elliptically polarized laser pulse is obliquely incident on a plasma surface, and the reflected radiation contains pulse trains and isolated circularly or highly elliptically polarized attosecond XUV pulses. The harmonic polarization state is fully controlled by the laser-plasma parameters. The mechanism can be explained within the relativistically oscillating mirror model. This scheme opens a practical and promising route to generate bright attosecond XUV pulses with desirable ellipticities in a straightforward and efficient way for a number of applications. PMID:27531047

  4. Bright high-order harmonic generation with controllable polarization from a relativistic plasma mirror

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with a controllable polarization state are powerful tools for investigating the structural and electronic as well as the magnetic properties of materials. However, such light sources are still limited to only a few free-electron laser facilities and, very recently, to high-order harmonic generation from noble gases. Here we propose and numerically demonstrate a laser–plasma scheme to generate bright XUV pulses with fully controlled polarization. In this scheme, an elliptically polarized laser pulse is obliquely incident on a plasma surface, and the reflected radiation contains pulse trains and isolated circularly or highly elliptically polarized attosecond XUV pulses. The harmonic polarization state is fully controlled by the laser–plasma parameters. The mechanism can be explained within the relativistically oscillating mirror model. This scheme opens a practical and promising route to generate bright attosecond XUV pulses with desirable ellipticities in a straightforward and efficient way for a number of applications. PMID:27531047

  5. Optical implementation of polarization-independent, bidirectional, nonblocking Clos network using polarization control technique in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junbo; Yang, Jiankun; Li, Xiujian; Chang, Shengli; Su, Xianyu; Ping, Xu

    2011-04-01

    The clos network is one of the earliest multistage interconnection networks. Recently, it has been widely studied in parallel optical information processing systems, and there have been many efforts to develop this network. In this paper, a smart and compact Clos network, including Clos(2,3,2) and Clos(2,4,2), is proposed by using polarizing beam-splitters (PBS), phase spatial light modulators (PSLM), and mirrors. PBS features that are s-component (perpendicular to the incident plane) of the incident light beam is reflected, and the p-component (parallel to the incident plane) passes through it. According to switching logic, under control of external electrical signals, PSLM functions to control routing paths of the signal beams, i.e., the polarization of each optical signal is rotated or not rotated 90° by a programmable PSLM. This new type of configuration grants the features of less optical components, compact in structure, efficient in performance, and insensitive to polarization of signal beam. In addition, the straight, the exchange, and the broadcast functions of the basic switch element are implemented bidirectionally in free-space. Furthermore, the new optical experimental module of 2×3 and 2×4 optical switch is also presented by a cascading polarization-independent bidirectional 2×2 optical switch. Simultaneously, the routing state-table of 2×3 and 2×4 optical switch to perform all permutation output and nonblocking switch for the input signal beam, is achieved. Since the proposed optical setup consists of only optical polarization elements, it is compact in structure, and possesses a low energy loss, a high signal-to-ratio, and an available large number of optical channels. Finally, the discussions and the experimental results show that the Clos network proposed here should be helpful in the design of large-scale network matrix, and may be used in optical communication and optical information processing.

  6. Blazed vector gratings fabricated using photosensitive polymer liquid crystals and control of polarization diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Kuzuwata, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Noda, Kohei; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-03-01

    The blazed vector grating possessing antisymmetric distributions of the birefringence were fabricated by exposing the line-focused linearly polarized ultraviolet light on the photosensitive polymer liquid crystals. The polarization states of the diffraction beams can be highly and widely controlled by designing the blazed structures, and the diffraction properties were well-explained by Jones calculus.

  7. Spontaneous and electric field–controlled front–rear polarization of human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Saltukoglu, Deniz; Grünewald, Julian; Strohmeyer, Nico; Bensch, Robert; Ulbrich, Maximilian H.; Ronneberger, Olaf; Simons, Matias

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that electrical fields (EFs) are able to influence the direction of migrating cells, a process commonly referred to as electrotaxis or galvanotaxis. Most studies have focused on migrating cells equipped with an existing polarity before EF application, making it difficult to delineate EF-specific pathways. Here we study the initial events in front–rear organization of spreading keratinocytes to dissect the molecular requirements for random and EF-controlled polarization. We find that Arp2/3-dependent protrusive forces and Rac1/Cdc42 activity were generally required for both forms of polarization but were dispensable for controlling the direction of EF-controlled polarization. By contrast, we found a crucial role for extracellular pH as well as G protein coupled–receptor (GPCR) or purinergic signaling in the control of directionality. The normal direction of polarization toward the cathode was reverted by lowering extracellular pH. Polarization toward the anode was also seen at neutral pH when GPCR or purinergic signaling was inhibited. However, the stepwise increase of extracellular pH in this scenario led to restoration of cathodal polarization. Overall our work puts forward a model in which the EF uses distinct polarization pathways. The cathodal pathway involves GPCR/purinergic signaling and is dominant over the anodal pathway at neutral pH. PMID:26424799

  8. Measured results of polarization crosstalk cancellation using LMS control. [Least Mean Square

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, C. A.; Rassweiler, G. G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of wideband decoupling networks for the cancellation of polarization crosstalk in dual-polarized communication links. Measured cancellation performance for an all-electronic IF network and an RF electro-mechanical waveguide network are presented. Each of these networks utilizes LMS-type adaptive control techniques to adjust the cancellation network.

  9. Demonstration of open-quantum-system optimal control in dynamic nuclear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, S.; Cory, D. G.

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is used in nuclear magnetic resonance to transfer polarization from electron spins to nuclear spins. The resulting nuclear polarization enhancement can, in theory, be two or three orders of magnitude depending on the sample. In solid-state systems, however, there are competing mechanisms of DNP, which, when occurring simultaneously, reduce the net polarization enhancement of the nuclear spin. We present a simple quantum description of DNP and apply optimal control theory (OCT) with an open-quantum-system framework to design pulses that select one DNP process and suppress the others. We demonstrate experimentally an order of magnitude improvement in the DNP enhancement using OCT pulses.

  10. Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle. PMID:27514307

  11. Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle. PMID:27514307

  12. High-speed operation of bow-tie-shaped oxide aperture VCSELs with photon-photon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents experimental and modeling results for extending the 3-dB modulation bandwidth of a 980-nm quasi-single-mode (QSM) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a passive transverse-coupled cavity (TCC). While the bandwidth of a conventional VCSEL is 9 GHz, the 3-dB modulation bandwidth of a QSM TCC VCSEL with the same epi-wafer structure can reach 27 GHz, which is three times larger than the conventional VCSEL without optical feedback. A clear eye opening is obtained for large-signal modulations at 36 Gbps. A numerical simulation for further enhancement of the bandwidth is also conducted.

  13. Plasmonic circular polarization analyzer formed by unidirectionally controlling surface plasmon propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jiaming; Wang, Jiajian; Tang, Peng; Liu, Wei; Huang, Tao; Wang, Yanqi; Lin, Feng; Fang, Zheyu; Zhu, Xing

    2015-04-20

    Analyzing the polarization of a circularly polarized light is a critical issue. We have fabricated a spiral nano-structure on the Au film by using focused ion beam etching technique. The fabricated structure can be used as a plasmonic circular polarization analyzer. By designing the relative orientation of two nano-apertures in the spiral structural unit, the propagation direction of the surface plasmon polaritons excited by circularly polarized light of opposite handedness can be controlled. Therefore, the spiral structure could be used to accurately determine the helicity of the excited circularly polarized light. Based on the results of scanning near-field optical microscopy, the obtained circular polarization extinction ratio of this structure was above 500. This structure can be used for a flexible detecting size and a very wide spectrum.

  14. Independent Controls of Differently-Polarized Reflected Waves by Anisotropic Metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hui Feng; Wang, Gui Zhen; Kong, Gu Sheng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a kind of anisotropic planar metasurface, which has capacity to manipulate the orthogonally-polarized electromagnetic waves independently in the reflection mode. The metasurface is composed of orthogonally I-shaped structures and a metal-grounded plane spaced by a dielectric isolator, with the thickness of about 1/15 wavelength. The normally incident linear-polarized waves will be totally reflected by the metal plane, but the reflected phases of x- and y-polarized waves can be controlled independently by the orthogonally I-shaped structures. Based on this principle, we design four functional devices using the anisotropic metasurfaces to realize polarization beam splitting, beam deflection, and linear-to-circular polarization conversion with a deflection angle, respectively. Good performances have been observed from both simulation and measurement results, which show good capacity of the anisotropic metasurfaces to manipulate the x- and y-polarized reflected waves independently. PMID:25873323

  15. Magmatism During Rifting Controls the Polarity of Tilted Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvet, F.; Bourgeois, O.; Dauteuil, O.

    2009-12-01

    mode of rifting and the polarity of tilted blocks are controlled by the ratio between the rate of lithospheric stretching and the rate of magma supply. When the rate of crustal thickening by magmatism is smaller than (or equal to) the rate of crustal thinning by lithospheric stretching (as in non-volcanic passive margins and in slow-spreading oceanic ridges) the resulting rift zone is composed of outward-tilted blocks. By contrast, when the rate of crustal thickening by magmatism is bigger than the rate of crustal thinning by lithospheric stretching (as in volcanic passive margins and in hotspot-influenced slow-spreading oceanic ridges), the resulting rift zone is composed of inward-tilted blocks.

  16. Polarization-dependent coupling between a polarization-independent high-index-contrast subwavelength grating and waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the optical coupling between a polarization-independent high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) and two orthogonal in-plane waveguides. We fabricated the HCG with waveguides on a silicon-on-insulator substrate and demonstrated that a waveguide with a strong output is switched by changing the polarization of light injected into the HCG. The light coupled more strongly to the waveguide in the direction perpendicular to the polarization of the incident light than to that in the parallel direction. If this waveguide-coupled HCG is incorporated into a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), the output waveguide can be switched by changing the lasing polarization of the VCSEL.

  17. Photoelectron spin-polarization control in the topological insulator Bi2Se3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Z-H; Veenstra, C N; Zhdanovich, S; Schneider, M P; Okuda, T; Miyamoto, K; Zhu, S-Y; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Haverkort, M W; Elfimov, I S; Damascelli, A

    2014-02-21

    We study the manipulation of the spin polarization of photoemitted electrons in Bi2Se3 by spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. General rules are established that enable controlling the photoelectron spin-polarization. We demonstrate the ± 100% reversal of a single component of the measured spin-polarization vector upon the rotation of light polarization, as well as full three-dimensional manipulation by varying experimental configuration and photon energy. While a material-specific density-functional theory analysis is needed for the quantitative description, a minimal yet fully generalized two-atomic-layer model qualitatively accounts for the spin response based on the interplay of optical selection rules, photoelectron interference, and topological surface-state complex structure. It follows that photoelectron spin-polarization control is generically achievable in systems with a layer-dependent, entangled spin-orbital texture. PMID:24579623

  18. Generation of a controllable multifocal array from a modulated azimuthally polarized beam.

    PubMed

    Mu, Tingkui; Chen, Zeyu; Pacheco, Shaun; Wu, Rengmao; Zhang, Chunmin; Liang, Rongguang

    2016-01-15

    In this Letter, the focal spot areas of an azimuthally polarized beam modulated with a vortex-0-2π-phase plate or a π-phase-step plate are numerically found to be smaller than a radially polarized beam for three pupil functions with uniform, Gaussian, and Bessel-Gauss profiles. Several types of multizone phase plates are theoretically designed and numerically simulated for generating tight multifocal arrays from the azimuthally polarized beams for what we believe is the first time. The positions and polarization states of the multifocal arrays can be controlled simply by varying the pattern of the multizone plates. The produced multifocal array with controllable position and polarization is beneficial to parallel optical recording and parallel optical imaging. PMID:26766689

  19. Invited Article: Broadband highly efficient dielectric metadevices for polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, Sergey; Hopkins, Ben; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-06-01

    Metadevices based on dielectric nanostructured surfaces with both electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances have resulted in the best efficiency to date for functional flat optics with only one disadvantage: a narrow operational bandwidth. Here we experimentally demonstrate broadband transparent all-dielectric metasurfaces for highly efficient polarization manipulation. We utilize the generalized Huygens principle, with a superposition of the scattering contributions from several electric and magnetic multipolar modes of the constituent meta-atoms, to achieve destructive interference in reflection over a large spectral bandwidth. By employing this novel concept, we demonstrate reflectionless (˜90% transmission) half-wave plates, quarter-wave plates, and vector beam q-plates that can operate across multiple telecom bands with ˜99% polarization conversion efficiency.

  20. Controlling Aggregation in Non-Polar Asphaltene Suspensions Through Electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, Sara; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Asphaltenes, the most aromatic and largest molecular weight components of petroleum fluids, can undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition in conditions including highly non-polar environments. Phase separation begins with molecular association and proceeds to and through the colloidal length-scale until complete sedimentation or deposition. Non-ionic polymeric dispersants can stabilize asphaltenes at the colloidal scale in non-polar suspensions. We perform a variety of experiments which suggest that stabilization occurs by adsorption of dispersant onto the asphaltenes, truncating the progress of precipitation. In particular, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and phase-analysis light scattering (PALS) measurements indicate that electrostatic repulsion is responsible for stabilizing asphaltene colloids against further aggregation. Aggregation time increases exponentially with dispersant concentration, as expected for particles interacting through a combination of attractive dispersion forces and repulsive electrostatics. However, contrary to current understandings of electrostatic stabilization in non-polar systems, the charges in colloidal asphaltene suspensions seem to arise from the asphaltene colloids themselves rather than from dispersant micelles.

  1. Active-polarization-controlled long-depth focus generated by orthogonal nanoslit array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lilin; Li, Yuanjie; Sun, Aihui; Xiong, Zhicheng; Liu, Cheng; Kong, Yan; Wang, Shouyu

    2016-08-01

    In order to realize long-range directional excitation and coupling, active-polarization-controlled Bessel beams with an orthogonal nanoslit array are proposed. Excited with left or right circular polarization light, long-depth focus from Bessel beams can be generated with different propagation directions. Moreover, multiple long-depth foci are also designed according to dual-conical phase settings. Proved with numerical simulations, it is considered that the active-polarization-controlled system can be potentially used in future logic photonic and plasmonic systems for optical switching and multichannel coupling.

  2. High-efficiency VCSEL arrays for illumination and sensing in consumer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seurin, Jean-Francois; Zhou, Delai; Xu, Guoyang; Miglo, Alexander; Li, Daizong; Chen, Tong; Guo, Baiming; Ghosh, Chuni

    2016-03-01

    There has been increased interest in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) for illumination and sensing in the consumer market, especially for 3D sensing ("gesture recognition") and 3D image capture. For these applications, the typical wavelength range of interest is 830~950nm and power levels vary from a few milli-Watts to several Watts. The devices are operated in short pulse mode (a few nano-seconds) with fast rise and fall times for time-of-flight applications (ToF), or in CW/quasi-CW for structured light applications. In VCSELs, the narrow spectrum and its low temperature dependence allows the use of narrower filters and therefore better signal-to-noise performance, especially for outdoor applications. In portable devices (mobile devices, wearable devices, laptops etc.) the size of the illumination module (VCSEL and optics) is a primary consideration. VCSELs offer a unique benefit compared to other laser sources in that they are "surface-mountable" and can be easily integrated along with other electronics components on a printed circuit board (PCB). A critical concern is the power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of the illumination source operating at high temperatures (>50 deg C). We report on various VCSEL based devices and diffuser-integrated modules with high efficiency at high temperatures. Over 40% PCE was achieved in broad temperature range of 0-70 °C for either low power single devices or high power VCSEL arrays, with sub- nano-second rise and fall time. These high power VCSEL arrays show excellent reliability, with extracted mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) of over 500 years at 60 °C ambient temperature and 8W peak output.

  3. Developments of VCSELs for printers and optical communications at Fuji Xerox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Takashi; Takeda, Kazutaka; Otoma, Hiromi; Murakami, Akemi; Sakurai, Jun; Nakayama, Hideo; Gu, Xiaodong; Koyama, Fumio

    2016-03-01

    We review the characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) for use in printers and optical communications. In 2003, we launched the world's first laser printer with a 780-nm single-mode 8×4 VCSEL array introduced to the light exposure system in order to meet the market demands for improving the image quality and speed for laser printers. The design of the VCSEL array enabled us to increase the pixel density and the printing speed by projecting 32 beams at a time to the photoconductor in the exposure process. High uniformity with less than 5% of variation has been achieved for both the optical output and the divergence angle. Currently, our high-end color printer is capable of producing the resolution of 2400 dpi (dots per inch) at the speed of 137 ppm (pages per minute). In the field of optical interconnections and networks, 850-nm VCSELs are needed as high-speed optical transmitters (>=10Gbps). In order to address communication traffic that will increase further as well as to reduce their power consumption to an even lower level, we assessed the lasing characteristics of 850-nm VCSELs with InGaAs strained quantum-well (QW) active layers by changing the ratio of Indium composition. As a result, we succeeded in reducing the power consumption per bit to 43 fJ/bit at 10-Gbps, which is much lower than that of commercial GaAs QW VCSELs. Also, we studied 850-nm transverse-coupled-cavity VCSELs, which enabled us to achieve a high 3dB modulation bandwidth (>23 GHz) and realize eye-openings at the large-signal modulation rate of 36 Gbps.

  4. Synthesis and Optical Control of Circular Polarization in monolayer Tungsten Disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreary, Kathleen; Hanbicki, Aubrey; Jonker, Berend; Currie, Marc; Kioseoglou, George

    The unique electronic band structure in single layer WS2 provides the ability to selectively populate a desired valley by exciting with circularly polarized light. The valley population is reflected through the circular polarization of photoluminescence (PL). We investigate the circularly polarized PL in WS2 monolayers synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The resulting polarization is strongly dependent on the sample preparation. As-grown CVD WS2 (still on the growth substrate) exhibits low polarized emission, regardless of laser excitation or laser power. Removing WS2 from the growth substrate and repositioning on the same substrate significantly impacts the optical properties. In transferred films, the excitonic state is optically controlled via high-powered laser exposure such that subsequent PL is solely from either the charged exciton state or the neutral exciton state. Neutral excitonic emission exhibits zero polarization whereas the trion polarization can exceed 25% at room temperature. The removal process may modify the strain, sample-to-substrate distance, and chemical doping in the WS2 monolayer, and work is underway to determine how these factors influence the valley populations. These results demonstrate a new method to control the excitonic state and PL polarization in monolayer WS2. . Supported by core programs at NRL and the NRL Nanoscience Institute, and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research #AOARD 14IOA018-134141.

  5. Microdisk-waveguide system for the control of the polarization state of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, Hooman

    In optical fibers and photonic integrated circuits (PIC's), the signal polarization can undergo random rotations. Since strong confinement (SC) microphotonic devices are polarization sensitive, a chip-scale polarization rotator is beneficial for the realization of chip-scale integrated optics. Moreover, control over polarization states of photon(s) is necessary for realization of quantum information technology in optical domain. Optical microdisks vertically-coupled to a waveguide bus due to the precise control over coupling distance in fabrication and relative ease of dense integration have become increasingly important as a building block for photonic integrated circuits. Both passive and active devices have been demonstrated including channel dropping filters, tunable resonant filters and switches, intensity modulators, phase modulators, laser sources, and WDM demultiplexers. In this research it has been proposed and experimentally observed preferential polarization mode conversion and signal amplification due to the existence of non-zero, asymmetric, and geometry dependent cross-polarization coupling coefficients between non-orthogonal modes of the waveguide and the vertically-coupled active microdisk. A theory based on coupled mode theory (CMT) is developed to realize microdisk-waveguide system as a narrowband polarization rotator. An integrated structure consisting of a polarization splitter, a microdisk as a narrowband polarization rotator and a combiner is proposed to be applicable in fiber communication and integrated optics. A broadband polarization rotator on ridge waveguides was designed. However, it is concluded that microdisk application for a polarization rotator is helpful to reduce the device size at the cost of bandwidth. Tuning of the microdisk resonance is required when the operating wavelength is changed. By incorporation of the two properties of the active microdisk as a polarization rotator and tunable phase shifter, two-microdisk device is

  6. Control of Fibrinogen Assembly by Changing a Polarity of Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Jaseung; Liu, Ying; Snow, Sara; Rambhia, Pooja; Koga, Tadanori; Rafailovich, Miriam; Galanakis, Dennis

    2009-03-01

    Thrombogenesis causes various problems associated with an interruption in the blood flow (e.g., myocardial and cerebral infarction), and a hindrance to use of blood-contact vascular biomaterials (e.g., hemodialysis and cardiopulmonary bypass) with long-term patency since undesired adsorption of blood components occurs on vessels or biomaterials, such as surface-induced thrombosis. we showed that this clotting procedure can be occurred on hydrophobic polymeric surfaces without thrombin cleavage. However, the fibrinogen fibers were not formed on the polar surface such as spun-cast polymer film with pyridine and phenol groups. We also found that αC domains play an important role in initiation of polymerization on surface. Therefore, molecular association was inhibited on the polar surfaces due to confinement of αC chains on the surfaces. These findings were directly applied to stent surface modification. The commercial stent consist of Co-Cr alloy forms undesired fiber formation. However, PS-r-PVPh (13% phenol) coated stent surfaces completely prevent fiber formation.

  7. The BASL Polarity Protein Controls a MAPK Signaling Feedback Loop in Asymmetric Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Pengcheng; Shao, Wanchen; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Dong, Juan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell polarization is linked to fate determination during asymmetric division of plant stem cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In Arabidopsis, BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE (BASL) is polarized to control stomatal asymmetric division. A MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE (MAPK) cascade determines terminal stomatal fate by promoting the degradation of the lineage determinant SPEECHLESS (SPCH). Here we demonstrate that a positive feedback loop between BASL and the MAPK pathway constitutes a polarity module at the cortex. Cortical localization of BASL requires phosphorylation mediated by MPK3/6. Phosphorylated BASL functions as a scaffold and recruits the MAPKKK YODA and MPK3/6 to spatially concentrate signaling at the cortex. Activated MPK3/6 reinforces the feedback loop by phosphorylating BASL, and inhibits stomatal fate by phosphorylating SPCH. Polarization of the BASL-MAPK signaling feedback module represents a mechanism connecting cell polarity to fate differentiation during asymmetric stem cell division in plants. PMID:25843888

  8. Statistical Analysis of Crossed Undulator for Polarization Control in a SASE FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuantao; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    There is a growing interest in producing intense, coherent x-ray radiation with an adjustable and arbitrary polarization state. In this paper, we study the crossed undulator scheme (K.-J. Kim, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 445, 329 (2000)) for rapid polarization control in a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free electron laser (FEL). Because a SASE source is a temporally chaotic light, we perform a statistical analysis on the state of polarization using FEL theory and simulations. We show that by adding a small phase shifter and a short (about 1.3 times the FEL power gain length), 90{sup o} rotated planar undulator after the main SASE planar undulator, one can obtain circularly polarized light--with over 80% polarization--near the FEL saturation.

  9. Heterogeneously integrated long-wavelength VCSEL using silicon high contrast grating on an SOI substrate.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, James; Yang, Weijian; Zhu, Li; Qiao, Pengfei; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2015-02-01

    We report an electrically pumped hybrid cavity AlGaInAs-silicon long-wavelength VCSEL using a high contrast grating (HCG) reflector on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The VCSEL operates at silicon transparent wavelengths ~1.57 μm with >1 mW CW power outcoupled from the semiconductor DBR, and single-mode operation up to 65 °C. The thermal resistance of our device is measured to be 1.46 K/mW. We demonstrate >2.5 GHz 3-dB direct modulation bandwidth, and show error-free transmission over 2.5 km single mode fiber under 5 Gb/s direct modulation. We show a theoretical design of SOI-HCG serving both as a VCSEL reflector as well as waveguide coupler for an in-plane SOI waveguide, facilitating integration of VCSEL with in-plane silicon photonic circuits. The novel HCG-VCSEL design, which employs scalable flip-chip eutectic bonding, may enable low cost light sources for integrated optical links. PMID:25836117

  10. Emcore's 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Neinyi; Xie, Chuan; Luo, Wenlin; Helms, Chris J.; Wang, Li; Liu, Chiyu; Sun, Qi; Huang, Shenghong; Lei, Chun; Jackson, K. P.; Carson, Rich F.

    2012-03-01

    Emcore's 850 nm UltralaseTM VCSELs, operating at a data rate from 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s, is presented. They were based on our low-cost and hermetic-by-design chip platform which contains the same element for either singlets or arrays with a 250 μm pitch. First, we discuss high-speed VCSEL evolutions, device designs, manufacturing processes, and device characteristics. Secondly, we present performance of Emcore's TOSAs, 40 Gb/s parallel optic modules (S12), 120 Gb/s CXP modules, active connect cables (40 Gb/s QDR and 56 Gb/s FDR), as well as comprehensive reliability qualifications of UltralaseTM VCSELs. Lastly, we briefly go over the recent progress of 20 Gb/s and 25 Gb/s VCSEL developments. We have successfully achieved a 3dB bandwidth of 15 GHz at 85°C and 8 mA for a 7.5 μm aperture UltralaseTM VCSEL.

  11. Recent advances in MEMS-VCSELs for high performance structural and functional SS-OCT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, V.; John, D. D.; Burgner, C.; Robertson, M. E.; Potsaid, B.; Jiang, J. Y.; Tsai, T. H.; Choi, W.; Lu, C. D.; Heim, P. J. S.; Fujimoto, J. G.; Cable, A. E.

    2014-03-01

    Since the first demonstration of swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) imaging using widely tunable micro-electromechanical systems vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (MEMS-VCSELs) in 2011, VCSEL-based SSOCT has advanced in both device and system performance. These advances include extension of MEMS-VCSEL center wavelength to both 1060nm and 1300nm, improved tuning range and tuning speed, new SS-OCT imaging modes, and demonstration of the first electrically pumped devices. Optically pumped devices have demonstrated continuous singlemode tuning range of 150nm at 1300nm and 122nm at 1060nm, representing a fractional tuning range of 11.5%, which is nearly a factor of 3 greater than the best reported MEMS-VCSEL tuning ranges prior to 2011. These tuning ranges have also been achieved with wavelength modulation rates of >500kHz, enabling >1 MHz axial scan rates. In addition, recent electrically pumped devices have exhibited 48.5nm continuous tuning range around 1060nm with 890kHz axial scan rate, representing a factor of two increase in tuning over previously reported electrically pumped MEMS-VCSELs in this wavelength range. New imaging modes enabled by optically pumped devices at 1060nm and 1300nm include full eye length imaging, pulsatile Doppler blood flow imaging, high-speed endoscopic imaging, and hand-held wide-field retinal imaging.

  12. Control the polarization state of light with symmetry-broken metallic metastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Xiang Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Hu, Yu-Hui; Wang, Zheng-Han; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2015-07-15

    Controlling the polarization state, the transmission direction, the amplitude and the phase of light in a very limited space is essential for the development of on-chip photonics. Over the past decades, numerous sub-wavelength metallic microstructures have been proposed and fabricated to fulfill these demands. In this article, we review our efforts in achieving negative refractive index, controlling the polarization state, and tuning the amplitude of light with two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. We designed an assembly of stacked metallic U-shaped resonators that allow achieving negative refraction for pure magnetic and electric responses respectively at the same frequency by selecting the polarization of incident light. Based on this, we tune the permittivity and permeability of the structure, and achieve negative refractive index. Further, by control the excitation and radiation of surface electric current on a number of 2D and 3D asymmetric metallic metastructures, we are able to control the polarization state of light. It is also demonstrated that with a stereostructured metal film, the whole metal surfaces can be used to construct either polarization-sensitive or polarization-insensitive prefect absorbers, with the advantage of efficient heat dissipation and electric conductivity. Our practice shows that metamaterials, including metasurface, indeed help to master light in nanoscale, and are promising in the development of new generation of photonics.

  13. High power VCSEL device with periodic gain active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Y. Q., II; Qin, L.; Sun, Y. F.; Li, T.; Cui, J. J.; Peng, B.; Liu, G. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, L. J.; Cui, D. F.; Xu, Z. Y.

    2007-11-01

    High power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with large aperture have been fabricated through improving passivation, lateral oxidation and heat dissipation techniques. Different from conventional three quantum well structure, a periodic gain active region with nine quantum wells was incorporated into the VCSEL structure, with which high efficiency and high power operation were expected. The nine quantum wells were divided into three groups with each of them located at the antinodes of the cavity to enhance the coupling between the optical field and the gain region. Large aperture and bottom-emitting configuration was used to improve the beam quality and the heat dissipation. A maximum output power of 1.4W was demonstrated at CW operation for a 400μm-diameter device. The lasing wavelength shifted to 995.5nm with a FWHM of 2nm at a current of 4.8A due to the internal heating and the absence of active water cooling. A ring-shape farfield pattern was induced by the non-homogeneous lateral current distribution in large diameter device. The light intensity at the center of the ring increased with increasing current. A symmetric round light spot at the center and single transverse mode operation with a divergence angle of 16° were observed with current beyond 4.8A.

  14. Electrical characterization of long wavelength VCSELs with tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consoli, A.; Arias, J.; Tijero, J. M.; López Hernández, F. J.; Esquivias, I.

    2011-03-01

    We present results on the electrical characterization of commercial fiber pigtailed 1. 55 μm 2.5 Gb/s VCSEL based on InAlGaAs active region, tunnel junction (TJ), air-gap aperture and InAlGaAs/InAlAs mirrors. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were measured and the results were fitted to the analytical expressions of an equivalent circuit considering the TJ in series with the active junction and a series resistance. Carrier capture/escape effects were considered in order to account for the reduced value of the drop in the measured differential resistance at threshold. The electrical parameters of both junctions were determined, showing that the TJ was responsible for most of the voltage drop at threshold. High frequency electrical impedance measurements were used to determine internal parameters as well as the role of external parasitics. The results were analyzed using a small signal equivalent circuit which includes the TJ, carrier capture/escape effects, the cavity parasitics, and the electrical access. A good agreement between the experimental and the equivalent circuit impedances at different bias was obtained by considering the differential resistances of the active and tunnel junctions extracted from the I-V characteristics, yielding reasonable values of the dynamic time constants and of the recombination coefficients.

  15. A Polarization Control System for Intensity-Resolved Guided Mode Resonance Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sheng-Fu; Chang, Fu-Chen; Chen, Zhi-Heng; Wang, Chih-Ming; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Chen, Wen-Yih; Chang, Jenq-Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a polarization-control setup for intensity-resolved guided mode resonance sensors is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation data based on rigorous coupled wave approach calculations. The proposed intensity-resolved measurement setup transfers polarization ellipses, which are produced from guided mode resonance to a linear polarization state under a buffer solution condition, and then suppresses the signals to dark using a polarization-control set. Hence, any changes in the refractive index results in an increase in the intensity signals. Furthermore, no wavelength-resolved or angular-resolved measurement is needed in this scheme. According to the experimental results, a wide linear detection range of 0.014 refractive index units is achieved and the limit of detection is 1.62E-4 RIU. PMID:24625743

  16. Control of polarization and mode mapping of small volume high Q micropillars

    SciTech Connect

    Daraei, A.; Sanvitto, D.; Timpson, J. A.; Fox, A. M.; Whittaker, D. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Guimaraes, P. S. S.; Vinck, H.; Tahraoui, A.; Fry, P. W.; Liew, S. L.; Hopkinson, M.

    2007-08-15

    We show that the polarization of the emission of a single quantum dot embedded within a microcavity pillar of elliptical cross section can be completely controlled and even switched between two orthogonal linear polarizations by changing the coupling of the dot emission with the polarized photonic modes. We also measure the spatial profile of the emission of a series of pillars with different ellipticities and show that the results can be well described by simple theoretical modeling of the modes of an infinite length elliptical cylinder.

  17. Intense THz radiation from laser plasma with controllable waveform and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ya; Liu, Peng; Song, Liwei; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate the generation of waveform-controlled THz radiation from air plasma that is produced when carrier envelope phase (CEP) stabilized few-cycle laser pulses undergoes filamentation in ambient air. Elliptically polarized THz waves are generated from air plasma induced by circularly polarized few-cycle laser pulses. Our results reveal that electric field asymmetry in rotating directions of the circularly polarized few-cycle laser pulses produces the enhanced broadband transient currents, and the phase difference of perpendicular laser field components is partially inherited in the generation process of THz emission.

  18. Ultrafast direct modulation of transverse-mode coupled-cavity VCSELs far beyond the relaxation oscillation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    A novel approach for bandwidth augmentation for direct modulation of VCSELs using transverse-coupled-cavity (TCC) scheme is raised, which enables us to tailor the modulation-transfer function. The base structure is similar to that of 3QW VCSELs with 980 nm wavelength operation. While the bandwidth of conventional VCSELs was limited by 9-10 GHz, the 3-dB bandwidth of TCC VCSEL with aperture diameters of 8.5×8.5μm2 and 3×3μm2 are increased by a factor of 3 far beyond the relaxation-oscillation frequency. Our current bandwidth achievement on the larger aperture size is 29 GHz which is limited by the used photo-detector. To the best of our knowledge this is the fastest 980 nm VCSEL.

  19. VCSEL based transmitter module for automotive temperature range between -55° C and +125° C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poferl, Stefan G.; Krieg, Marcel; Hocky, Oliver; Zeeb, Eberhard

    2003-04-01

    Robust, high speed optical data bus systems are increasingly required in automobiles, not only for entertainment applications within the passenger compartment but also for engine management systems and safety sensor networks. Optoelectronic components and modules intended to be used in cars have to withstand harsh environmental conditions, e.g. they have to be operational within a wide temperature range of up to - 55 °C to +1 25 °C for several thousand hours and at the same time they have to be of very low-cost. In this paper we describe a 500 MBit/s transmitter module based on a commercial available 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a bias-T driving circuit. The optical output power of the module varies only by -0.5 dBm +/- 1dB in the required temperature range without active temperature control. In addition we describe a packaging solution for the VCSEL transmitters allowing the operation of the module even in an extreme engine compartment environment, where short term temperature peaks above 125 °C appear.

  20. Power-stabilized tunable narrow-band source using a VCSEL and an EDFA for FBG sensor interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizunami, Toru; Hirose, Shuji; Yoshinaga, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-09-01

    Wavelength tuning with a current of a long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) was studied for application to wavelength readout of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. 1.5 µm single-longitudinal-mode VCSELs with a spectral line width of 30 MHz were used. To decrease the variation in the output power with the current, saturated amplification of the VCSEL output by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) was proposed. In the experiment, the wavelength readout of an FBG by variation in the VCSEL current was studied first, and then amplification characteristics using a commercially available EDFA module were measured. Two VCSELs with different wavelengths and tuning ranges were used as input and compared. For a VCSEL with a wavelength tuning range of 2.5 nm, there was a threefold change in the VCSEL output power. However, the variation in the amplified output power was within ±14%. For another VCSEL with a wavelength tuning range of 3.9 nm, the variation in the amplified output power was within ±18% for variation in the VCSEL output power by 2.2 times. The power slope with respect to the wavelength was also decreased by the stabilization. Computer simulation was performed to study the wavelength shift in the measured Bragg wavelength induced by the power slope. The simulation showed that the wavelength shift can be reduced to 1/2.5-1/5 by the stabilization compared with that using a single VCSEL. Application to long-period grating sensors was also discussed.

  1. Flip-chip assembly of VCSELs to silicon grating couplers via laser fabricated SU8 prisms.

    PubMed

    Kaur, K S; Subramanian, A Z; Cardile, P; Verplancke, R; Van Kerrebrouck, J; Spiga, S; Meyer, R; Bauwelinck, J; Baets, R; Van Steenberge, G

    2015-11-01

    This article presents the flip-chip bonding of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) to silicon grating couplers (GCs) via SU8 prisms. The SU8 prisms are defined on top of the GCs using non-uniform laser ablation process. The prisms enable perfectly vertical coupling from the bonded VCSELs to the GCs. The VCSELs are flip-chip bonded on top of the silicon GCs employing the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT)-assisted thermocompression technique. An excess loss of < 1 dB at 1.55 µm measured from the bonded assemblies is reported in this paper. The results of high speed transmission experiments performed on the bonded assemblies with clear eye openings up to 20 Gb/s are also presented. PMID:26561097

  2. Optical chaos synchronization and encrypted communications of VCSEL by direct optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosomi, Naohito; Sasaki, Wakao

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we propose electro-optical nonlinear delayed feedback systems (NDFS) for optical secure communications using VCSEL for the first time. Its optical output can perform more sensitive chaotic dynamics by varying only a few mA of injection current range resulting in very significant charges of VCSEL's operation conditions from threshold to maximum rating. This enables us to vary chaotic output dynamically by a slight difference of initial values in NDFS. We have proposed a chaos synchronization system using two identical NDFS's of VCSEL, and realized chaos synchronization by optical injection. As a result of experiment the correlation coefficient up to about 0.88 was obtained. Moreover, by varying the delay time and feedback gain in the parameters of NDFSs, we have confirmed that the variations of these parameters may affect variations of correlation.

  3. Up-conversion luminescence polarization control in Er3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhang; Yun-Hua, Yao; Shi-An, Zhang; Chen-Hui, Lu; Zhen-Rong, Sun

    2016-02-01

    We propose a femtosecond laser polarization modulation scheme to control the up-conversion (UC) luminescence in Er3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals dispersed in the silicate glass. We show that the UC luminescence can be suppressed when the laser polarization is changed from linear through elliptical to circular, and the higher repetition rate will yield the lower control efficiency. We theoretically analyze the physical control mechanism of the UC luminescence polarization modulation by considering on- and near-resonant two-photon absorption, energy transfer up-conversion, and excited state absorption, and show that the polarization control mainly comes from the contribution of near-resonant two-photon absorption. Furthermore, we propose a method to improve the polarization control efficiency of UC luminescence in rare-earth ions by applying a two-color femtosecond laser field. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304396), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474096 and 51132004), and the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. 14JC1401500).

  4. Requirement of Phosphoinositides Containing Stearic Acid To Control Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Laquel, Patricia; Testet, Eric; Tuphile, Karine; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIPs) are present in very small amounts but are essential for cell signaling, morphogenesis, and polarity. By mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that some PIPs with stearic acyl chains were strongly disturbed in a psi1Δ Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain deficient in the specific incorporation of a stearoyl chain at the sn-1 position of phosphatidylinositol. The absence of PIPs containing stearic acid induced disturbances in intracellular trafficking, although the total amount of PIPs was not diminished. Changes in PIPs also induced alterations in the budding pattern and defects in actin cytoskeleton organization (cables and patches). Moreover, when the PSI1 gene was impaired, a high proportion of cells with bipolar cortical actin patches that occurred concomitantly with the bipolar localization of Cdc42p was specifically found among diploid cells. This bipolar cortical actin phenotype, never previously described, was also detected in a bud9Δ/bud9Δ strain. Very interestingly, overexpression of PSI1 reversed this phenotype. PMID:26711260

  5. Cellular networks controlling Th2 polarization in allergy and immunity.

    PubMed

    Kool, Mirjam; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the development of Th1 (type 1 T helper cells), Th17 and Treg (regulatory T cells), little is known of the mechanisms governing Th2 development, which is important for immunity to helminths and for us to understand the pathogenesis of allergy. A picture is emerging in which mucosal epithelial cells instruct dendritic cells to promote Th2 responses in the absence of IL-12 (interleukin 12) production and provide instruction through thymic stromal lymphopoieitin (TSLP) or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). At the same time, allergens, helminths and chemical adjuvants elicit the response of innate immune cells like basophils, which provide more polarizing cytokines and IL-4 and reinforce Th2 immunity. This unique communication between cells will only be fully appreciated if we study Th2 immunity in vivo and in a tissue-specific context, and can only be fully understood if we compare several models of Th2 immune response induction. PMID:22403589

  6. High Efficacy Green LEDs by Polarization Controlled MOVPE

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Christian

    2013-03-31

    Amazing performance in GaInN/GaN based LEDs has become possible by advanced epitaxial growth on a wide variety of substrates over the last decade. An immediate push towards product development and worldwide competition for market share have effectively reduced production cost and generated substantial primary energy savings on a worldwide scale. At all times of the development, this economic pressure forced very fundamental decisions that would shape huge industrial investment. One of those major aspects is the choice of epitaxial growth substrate. The natural questions are to what extend a decision for a certain substrate will limit the ultimate performance and to what extent, the choice of a currently more expensive substrate such as native GaN could overcome any of the remaining performance limitations. Therefore, this project has set out to explore what performance characteristic could be achieved under the utilization of bulk GaN substrate. Our work was guided by the hypotheses that line defects such as threading dislocations in the active region should be avoided and the huge piezoelectric polarization needs to be attenuated – if not turned off – for higher performing LEDs, particularly in the longer wavelength green and deep green portions of the visible spectrum. At their relatively lower performance level, deep green LEDs are a stronger indicator of relative performance improvements and seem particular sensitive to the challenges at hand.

  7. High-speed 850 nm oxide-confined VCSELs for DATACOM applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutig, Alex; Blokhin, Sergey; Nadtochiy, Alexey M.; Fiol, Gerrit; Lott, James A.; Shchukin, Vitaly A.; Ledenstov, Nikolai N.; Bimberg, Dieter

    2010-02-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are low cost and reliable light sources for high-speed local area and storage area network (LAN/SAN) optical fiber data communication systems and short-reach computer interconnects. The continuing rapid increase of serial transmission data rates driven by multi-core microprocessor's bandwidth upgrades cannot be sustained via conventional copper-based links as bit rates move beyond 10 Gbit/s and distances greater than 1 m. The intrinsic limitation of copper at high single-channel data rates facilitates the need to transition to optical fiberbased links at ever shorter distances. For LAN/SAN applications the 850 nm wavelength is standard. This same wavelength is also the standard for several other evolving short-reach application areas including Fibre Channel, CEI, USB, InfiniBand, and HDMI optical link systems. Herein we present our recent results on 850 nm oxide-confined VCSELs operating at data bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s. The low operational current density in the range of ~10 kA/cm2 ensures viable device reliability and long-term stability based on well-known industry certification specifications. Key VCSEL device parameters including the relaxation resonance frequency, damping, and parasitic cut-off frequency are determined for VCSELs with oxide-confined apertures of various diameters. We find that a parasitic cut-off frequency of 24-28 GHz limits the VCSEL's high speed operation at the highest optical modulation rates. We believe that with some effort the device parasitics can be further reduced such that current modulated VCSELs can be realized with larger than 30 GHz optical modulation bandwidth and reliable and practical operation beyond 40 Gbit/s.

  8. Update on High-Resolution Geodetically Controlled LROC Polar Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B.; Lee, E.; Weller, L.; Richie, J.; Edmundson, K.; Laura, J.; Robinson, M.; Speyerer, E.; Boyd, A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Wagner, R.; Nefian, A.

    2015-10-01

    We describe progress on high-resolution (1 m/pixel) geodetically controlled LROC mosaics of the lunar poles, which can be used for locating illumination resources (for solar power or cold traps) or landing site and surface operations planning.

  9. Measurements of ECH absorption on ATF using a polarization-controlled beam launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.; Schaich, C.R.; White, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is used on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) experiment at ORNL for plasma formation and heating. A 53.2 GHz gyrotron generates 200 kW cw which is transported to ATF in 6.35 cm evacuated waveguide. Power is launched into ATF using a recently completed polarization controlled beam launcher which can launch a linear polarized beam with a /minus/20 dB diameter of 12 cm at the plasma center. The launcher consists of a Vlasov mode converting antenna, a Teflon-copper laminate polarization rotating grating, and a spherical focusing mirror. The plane of polarization can be remotely adjusted by rotating the grating with a motorized vacuum feedthrough. First pass plasma absorption is monitored in two planes of polarization using a dual-polarized detector looking through a dome shaped scattering cut-off screen. During plasma operation, the detected signals indicate that absorption under ideal conditions is nearly complete. With low density or a shifted resonance zone, absorption is small and there are cases where there is mode coupling to the perpendicular polarization. This is presumably due to shear in the ATF magnetic field. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Optically controlled spin-polarization memory effect on Mn delta-doped heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Balanta, M A G; Brasil, M J S P; Iikawa, F; Mendes, Udson C; Brum, J A; Danilov, Yu A; Dorokhin, M V; Vikhrova, O V; Zvonkov, B N

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of the interaction between spin-polarized photo-created carriers and Mn ions on InGaAs/GaAs: Mn structures. The carriers are confined in an InGaAs quantum well and the Mn ions come from a Mn delta-layer grown at the GaAs barrier close to the well. Even though the carriers and the Mn ions are spatially separated, the interaction between them is demonstrated by time-resolved spin-polarized photoluminescence measurements. Using a pre-pulse laser excitation with an opposite circular-polarization clearly reduces the polarization degree of the quantum-well emission for samples where a strong magnetic interaction is observed. The results demonstrate that the Mn ions act as a spin-memory that can be optically controlled by the polarization of the photocreated carriers. On the other hand, the spin-polarized Mn ions also affect the spin-polarization of the subsequently created carriers as observed by their spin relaxation time. These effects fade away with increasing time delays between the pulses as well as with increasing temperatures. PMID:27080310