Sample records for veado-campeiro ozotoceros bezoarticus

  1. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus): a review

    PubMed Central

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; González-Pensado, Solana; Bielli, Alejandro; Villagrán, Matías; Olazabal, Daniel; Pérez, William


    The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed. PMID:18534014

  2. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) courtship and mating behavior

    PubMed Central


    Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758), is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9?±?0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance) was 8.2?±?1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive. PMID:23062236

  3. Sperm characterization and identification of sperm sub-populations in ejaculates from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus).


    Beracochea, F; Gil, J; Sestelo, A; Garde, J J; Santiago-Moreno, J; Fumagalli, F; Ungerfeld, R


    Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a native endangered species. Knowledge of the basic spermiogram characteristics and the morphometric descriptors is necessary to effectively develop sperm cryopreservation. In other species, sperm sub-population is related to sperm cryo-resistance. The objective was to provide a general description of the sperm, including sperm head morphometric descriptors, its repeatability, and the existence of sperm sub-populations. Sperm were obtained from adult males by electroejaculation during the breeding season. The motility score was 3.4 ± 0.2 (mean ± SEM) and progressive motility was 59.4 ± 3.7%. Ejaculated volume was 413.9 ± 51.0 ?l, the total number of sperm ejaculated was 321.2 ± 55.4 × 10(6). Also, 63.3 ± 3.1% of the sperm were morphologically abnormal and 23.7 ± 2.3% had acrosome damage. The sperm head length was 7.6 ± 0.01 ?m, width 4.4 ± 0.01 ?m, area 28.1 ± 0.07 ?m(2) and the perimeter was 21.9 ± 0.04 ?m. There was a positive relationship among morphometric descriptors and the motility score, overall motility and progressive motility. Also length (P=0.011), width (P=0.003), area (P=0.006) and perimeter (P=0.009) of sperm head obtained in two different collections were positively related. Overall, the low concentration, volume, overall quality and abnormal morphology, and wide variation of these variables may be a limitation for the development of sperm cryopreserved banks. There were three sperm sub-populations with different morphometric characteristics. The morphometric descriptors are maintained similarly among different collections. PMID:25104472

  4. Morphological Examination of the Obturator Notch and Canal in Cervidae

    PubMed Central

    TAE, Hyun-Jin; PARK, Byung-Yong; KIM, In-Shik; AHN, Dongchoon


    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate gross findings of the obturator notch (ON) and obturator canal (OC) in Cervidae. A total of 183 pelvic girdles from 26 species of deer were examined, and the obturator canal (OC) was classified into 4 types based on the degree of separation from the obturator foramen (OF). The deep ON was observed primarily in the subfamily Capreolinae (telemetacarpal deer). The small bony OC was frequently observed in Hydropotes inermis, Mazama gouazoubira and Ozotoceros bezoarticus. A canal without a tubercle or bony bridge structure was mainly observed in the subfamily Cervinae (plesiometacarpal deer). These results suggest that the deep ONs or the OCs separated by bony structures are more common in telemetacarpal rather than plesiometacarpal deer. PMID:24430657

  5. Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil

    PubMed Central


    Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers. PMID:22863070

  6. [Phylogenetic relationships among Neotropical deer genera (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) by means of DNAmt sequences and microsatellite markers].


    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Randi, Ettore; Martínez-Agüero, María; Alvarez, Diana


    The current work shows two molecular phylogenetic analyses on Neotropical deers. In the first analysis, the mitochondrial control region (D-loop) was sequenced in six Odocoileinae species from Latin America, using the sequences of two Muntiacinae as outgroups. The results obtained were as follows: A sequence of Mazama americana showed a striking relationship with several sequences of Odocoileus in contrast to that expected, since this M. americana haplotype, from a Mexican origin, was not associated with several Bolivian Mazama sequences analyzed. This could put forward that this genera is not monophyletic. On the other hand, these Bolivian Mazama formed a clade with Pudu puda and Ozotoceros bezoarticus. Likely, an Odocoileus virginianus sequence from the Central area of Colombia showed a more strong relationship with a Northamerican O. heminonus sequence than with the other O. virginianus sequences of Colombian origin as well. This could be explained by means of various different hypotheses. The first is the existence of common ancestral haplotypes between both species. Another one is the reiterative hybridization among both Odocoileus species before the migration of O. virginianus from North America to South America. Moreover, the maximum parsimony analysis showed an intense relationship between the Muntiacinae and this Neotropical Cervidae clade. In addition, and adding credence to the relevant polyphyletism found in Mazama by means of the mitochondrial control region DNA sequences, a second analysis with 16 DNA microsatellite loci also showed a higher genetic relationship between M. americana and O. virginianus, than between the first species regard to Mazama gouazoubira. PMID:19069784

  7. [Genetic variability in Neotropical deer genera (Mammalia: Cervidae) according to DNA microsatellite loci].


    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Martinez-Agüero, María; Alvarez, Diana; Goodman, Simon


    Species conservation programs are highly based on analyses of population genetics. We compared eight Neotropical Cervidae (Mazama americana, M. gouzaoubira, M. rufina, Odocoileus virginianus, Hippocamelus antisensis, Pudu mephistopholes, Ozotoceros bezoarticus and Blastoceros dichotomus) and some European and Asian Cervidae (Cervus elaphus, C. nippon, Capreolus capreolus, C. pygargus and Dama dama). The European species C. elaphus was our standard for a high degree of genetic variability: we used a Scottish population originated in the mix of diverse Western European subspecies. On the contrary, Cervus nippon (a population from Scotland with a founder effect) was our standard for a depauperated population. The M. americana, M. gouzaoubira and O. virginianus samples had high diversity values close to our C. elaphus population (H = 0.64, 0.70 and 0.61, respectively), while M. rufina was very low, close to C. nippon. Several sample sets of Mazama and Odocoileus yielded a homozygote excess, probably due to the Wahlund (subdivison) effect. There was no evidence of recent bottleneck events. PMID:19928479

  8. Demographic characterization and social patterns of the Neotropical pampas deer.


    Cosse, Mariana; González, Susana


    The most endangered subspecies of pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus uruguayensis is an endemic cervidae of the Uruguayan temperate grasslands. The aim of our study was to assess the demographic trends, grouping structure and dynamic of this small and isolated population. We surveyed the population during seven years and detected an average of 117 (+ 72.7 SD) individuals (44 censuses). The average population structure observed was 55% adult females, 34% adult males, 10% juveniles, and 1% fawns, with a low recruitment rate of 0.11. The pampas deer is a gregarious cervidae with 62% of individuals being observed within groups of at least three animals. Nevertheless we observed substantial differences on group size and composition based on sex, reproductive status, season and trophic resources availability. The population dynamics showed significant changes around the year in the sexual aggregation-segregation pattern, corresponding with reproductive and physiological status. The mean density on this population (11 deer/ km(2)) is the highest reported for the species. Comparable data, from other populations, showed a significant correlation between density and sex ratio, with a reduction in the proportion of males with higher deer densities. An action plan for this endangered population should include initiatives involving private landowners, and guidelines to improve the deer habitat. PMID:23853746

  9. Retrospective study of central nervous system lesions and association with Parelaphostrongylus species by histology and specific nested polymerase chain reaction in domestic camelids and wild ungulates.


    Dobey, Carrie L; Grunenwald, Caroline; Newman, Shelley J; Muller, Lisa; Gerhold, Richard W


    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from elk (Cervus elaphus), goats, and camelids with case histories and lesions suggestive of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis were examined by histology to characterize lesions that could aid in definitively diagnosing P. tenuis infection. Additionally, sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) using Parelaphostrongylus-specific primers to determine how PCR results corresponded with histological findings. Histological changes in brain and spinal cord consisted of linear tracks of hemorrhage; tracks or perivascular accumulations of hemosiderin-laden macrophages; acute foci of axonal degeneration and/or linear glial scars; and perivascular, parenchymal, or meningeal accumulations of eosinophils and/or lymphocytes and plasma cells. Of the 43 samples with histologic lesions consistent with neural larval migrans, 19 were PCR positive; however, only 8 were confirmed Parelaphostrongylus by DNA sequencing. Additionally, 1 goat was identified with a protostrongylid that had a 97% identity to both Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and a protostrongylid nematode from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) from Argentina. None of the histologic lesions individually or in combination correlated statistically to positive molecular tests for the nematode. The results indicate that it is possible to extract Parelaphostrongylus DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, but extended fixation presumably can cause DNA crosslinking. Nested PCR provides another diagnostic tool to identify the cause of neurologic disease in camelids and elk with histologic lesions consistent with neural larval migrans. Furthermore, potential novel protostrongylid DNA was detected from a goat with lesions consistent with P. tenuis infection, suggesting that other neurotropic Parelaphostrongylus species may occur locally. PMID:25274743