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1

Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus): a review  

PubMed Central

The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed. PMID:18534014

Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; González-Pensado, Solana; Bielli, Alejandro; Villagrán, Matías; Olazabal, Daniel; Pérez, William

2008-01-01

2

Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) courtship and mating behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758), is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9?±?0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance) was 8.2?±?1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive. PMID:23062236

2012-01-01

3

Seasonal antler cycle in a herd of pampas deer ( Ozotoceros bezoarticus) in Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe the yearling antler cycle of pampas deer bucks (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) 22 bucks and 72 antler cycles have been studied in a semi-captive population. Date of individual antler cast, first day on which the brow and the trez tine were observed, and day of the velvet shedding were registered. Time intervals (days) between first and second antler casts, between

Rodolfo Ungerfeld; Alejandro Bielli

2008-01-01

4

Arterial thoracic vascularization in some deer species: pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and axis deer (Axis axis).  

PubMed

In this study, the arterial distributions of the aortic arches of three deer species (Axis axis, Ozotoceros bezoarticus and Mazama gouazoubira) were described. The animals were dissected immediately after being found dead. Latex injection method was used to observe the vascularization of the thorax. The branching pattern of the arteries of the thoracic aorta in O. bezoarticus was similar to domestic ruminants. In the M. gouazoubira and A. axis, there were no bicarotid trunk. Interestingly, the first branch of the brachiocephalic trunk was the left costocervical trunk in A. axis. Then, brachiocephalic trunk was divided into right and left subclavian arteries. M. gouazoubira and A. axis in contrast to O. bezoarticus were different when compared with other ruminants, and the absence of bicarotid trunk was more striking than previous reports. PMID:24611999

Pérez, W; Erdo?an, S

2014-12-01

5

Molecular detection and identification of hemoparasites in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linnaeus, 1758) from the Pantanal Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemoparasites were surveyed in 60 free-living pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus from the central area of the Pantanal, known as Nhecolândia, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, through the analysis of nested PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing. Blood samples were tested for Babesia/Theileria, Anaplasma spp., and Trypanosoma spp. using nPCR assays and sequencing of the 18S rRNA, msp4, ITS, and cathepsin L genes. The identity of each sequence was confirmed by comparison with sequences from GenBank using BLAST software. Forty-six (77%) pampas deer were positive for at least one hemoparasite, according to PCR assays. Co-infection occurred in 13 (22%) animals. Based on the sequencing results, 29 (48%) tested positive for A. marginale. Babesia/Theileria were detected in 23 (38%) samples, and according to the sequencing results 52% (12/23) of the samples were similar to T. cervi, 13% (3/23) were similar to Babesia bovis, and 9% (2/23) were similar to B. bigemina. No samples were amplified with the primers for T. vivax, while 11 (18%) were amplified with the ITS primers for T. evansi. The results showed pampas deer to be co-infected with several hemoparasites, including species that may cause serious disease in cattle. Pampas deer is an endangered species in Brazil, and the consequences of these infections to their health are poorly understood. PMID:23567028

Silveira, Júlia A G; Rabelo, Elida M L; Lacerda, Ana C R; Borges, Paulo A L; Tomás, Walfrido M; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Tomich, Renata G P; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

2013-06-01

6

Seasonality of the antler cycle of pampas deer (ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster) from the pantanal wetland, brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antler cycle of tropical deer species is little known, in contrast to cervids of temperate zones. Since the antler cycle is controlled by the photoperiod and the consequent pattern of hormone secretion, temperate?zone cervids show a seasonal antler cycle. For tropical deer, the seasonality is not well defined or is unknown for many species. This study reports monthly observations of

Walfrido Moraes Tomás

1995-01-01

7

Vocalizations During Electroejaculation in Anaesthetized Adult and Young Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) Males.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0 ) [initial frequency (Fstart ), maximal frequency (Fmax ), minimal frequency (Fmin ) and final frequency (Fend )] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p < 0.05). The latency time from the beginning of each series (each voltage) decreased until 4 V (p < 0.01). The number of vocalizations/voltage increased from 4 V (p < 0.05). The length of each vocalization and the total time during which animals vocalized were greater in YM than AM (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Similarly, the fundamental frequencies were higher in YM than AM (p ? 0.05). Overall, we concluded that the vocalizations emitted during electroejaculation in pampas deer under general anaesthesia are related to the voltage applied during the process. Young males vocalize more time, probably due to a greater sensibility to the electric stimulation. The differences in the characteristics of the vocalizations between adult and young males may be related to the anatomic differences in the neck of adult or young males. PMID:25683788

Fumagalli, F; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

2015-04-01

8

Seasonal changes in fecal testosterone concentrations and their relationship to the reproductive behavior, antler cycle and grouping patterns in free-ranging male Pampas deer ( Ozotoceros bezoarticus bezoarticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to validate noninvasive endocrine monitoring techniques for Pampas deer and to evaluate seasonal changes in testicular steroidogenic activity and their correlation to reproductive behavior, antler cycle and group size. Thus, fecal samples, behavioral data and observations of antler status were collected at monthly intervals during 1 year from free-ranging Pampas deer stags (three radio-collared

Ricardo José Garcia Pereira; José Maurício Barbanti Duarte; João Alberto Negrão

2005-01-01

9

Seasonal changes in fecal testosterone concentrations and their relationship to the reproductive behavior, antler cycle and grouping patterns in free-ranging male Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus bezoarticus).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to validate noninvasive endocrine monitoring techniques for Pampas deer and to evaluate seasonal changes in testicular steroidogenic activity and their correlation to reproductive behavior, antler cycle and group size. Thus, fecal samples, behavioral data and observations of antler status were collected at monthly intervals during 1 year from free-ranging Pampas deer stags (three radio-collared individuals and 15 random individuals) living in Emas National Park, Brazil (18 degrees S latitude). Fecal steroids were extracted using 80% methanol and steroid concentrations were quantified by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Fecal testosterone concentrations peaked in December-January (summer), March (early autumn) and in August-September (winter-spring), with minimal values from April-July. Reproductive behavior had two peaks, the first in December-January, characterized by predominately anogenital sniffing, flehmen, urine sniffing, chasing and mounting behavior, and the second peak in July-September (behavior primarily related to gland marking). There were significant correlations between fecal testosterone and reproductive behavior (r=0.490), and between fecal testosterone and antler phases (r=0.239). Antler casting and regrowth occurred under low testosterone concentrations, whereas velvet shedding was associated with high concentrations of testosterone. We inferred that Pampas deer stags exhibited a seasonal cycle that modulated sexual behavior and the antler cycle, and we concluded that fecal steroid analysis was a practical and reliable non-invasive method for the evaluation of the endocrine status of free-ranging Pampas deer. PMID:15826677

Pereira, Ricardo José Garcia; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; Negrão, João Alberto

2005-05-01

10

Effects of environmental conditions, human activity, reproduction, antler cycle and grouping on fecal glucocorticoids of free-ranging Pampas deer stags (Ozotoceros bezoarticus bezoarticus).  

PubMed

In this study, a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was validated in detecting glucocorticoids in Pampas deer feces, in order to investigate the influence of several factors on the adrenocortical function. Fecal samples, behavioral data and information concerning male grouping and antlers status were collected at a monthly basis during a 1 year period from free-ranging stags living at Emas National Park, Brazil (18 degrees S/52 degrees W). The results revealed that concentrations of fecal glucocorticoids in winter were significantly higher than those corresponding to spring and summer. In addition, dry season data presented higher levels than during the wet season. Significant difference was found between fecal levels of breeding stags in summer and nonbreeding stags, whereas no difference was observed between breeding stags in winter and nonbreeding stags. On the other hand, males from areas with frequent human disturbance exhibited higher glucocorticoid concentrations and flight distances than individuals from areas of lower human activity. Males with antlers in velvet had elevated levels compared with animals in hard antler or antler casting. Also, we found that glucocorticoid levels were higher in groups with three or more males than in groups with only one male. The flight distances showed positive correlation with fecal glucocorticoid. These data indicate that fecal glucocorticoid provides a useful approach in the evaluation of physiological effects of environment, inter-individuals relationship and human-induced stressors on free-ranging Pampas deer stags. PMID:16000199

Garcia Pereira, Ricardo José; Barbanti Duarte, José Maurício; Negrão, João Alberto

2006-01-01

11

Morphological examination of the obturator notch and canal in Cervidae.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate gross findings of the obturator notch (ON) and obturator canal (OC) in Cervidae. A total of 183 pelvic girdles from 26 species of deer were examined, and the obturator canal (OC) was classified into 4 types based on the degree of separation from the obturator foramen (OF). The deep ON was observed primarily in the subfamily Capreolinae (telemetacarpal deer). The small bony OC was frequently observed in Hydropotes inermis, Mazama gouazoubira and Ozotoceros bezoarticus. A canal without a tubercle or bony bridge structure was mainly observed in the subfamily Cervinae (plesiometacarpal deer). These results suggest that the deep ONs or the OCs separated by bony structures are more common in telemetacarpal rather than plesiometacarpal deer. PMID:24430657

Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Byung-Yong; Kim, In-Shik; Ahn, Dongchoon

2014-05-01

12

Morphological Examination of the Obturator Notch and Canal in Cervidae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate gross findings of the obturator notch (ON) and obturator canal (OC) in Cervidae. A total of 183 pelvic girdles from 26 species of deer were examined, and the obturator canal (OC) was classified into 4 types based on the degree of separation from the obturator foramen (OF). The deep ON was observed primarily in the subfamily Capreolinae (telemetacarpal deer). The small bony OC was frequently observed in Hydropotes inermis, Mazama gouazoubira and Ozotoceros bezoarticus. A canal without a tubercle or bony bridge structure was mainly observed in the subfamily Cervinae (plesiometacarpal deer). These results suggest that the deep ONs or the OCs separated by bony structures are more common in telemetacarpal rather than plesiometacarpal deer. PMID:24430657

TAE, Hyun-Jin; PARK, Byung-Yong; KIM, In-Shik; AHN, Dongchoon

2014-01-01

13

Demographic characterization and social patterns of the Neotropical pampas deer.  

PubMed

The most endangered subspecies of pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus uruguayensis is an endemic cervidae of the Uruguayan temperate grasslands. The aim of our study was to assess the demographic trends, grouping structure and dynamic of this small and isolated population. We surveyed the population during seven years and detected an average of 117 (+ 72.7 SD) individuals (44 censuses). The average population structure observed was 55% adult females, 34% adult males, 10% juveniles, and 1% fawns, with a low recruitment rate of 0.11. The pampas deer is a gregarious cervidae with 62% of individuals being observed within groups of at least three animals. Nevertheless we observed substantial differences on group size and composition based on sex, reproductive status, season and trophic resources availability. The population dynamics showed significant changes around the year in the sexual aggregation-segregation pattern, corresponding with reproductive and physiological status. The mean density on this population (11 deer/ km(2)) is the highest reported for the species. Comparable data, from other populations, showed a significant correlation between density and sex ratio, with a reduction in the proportion of males with higher deer densities. An action plan for this endangered population should include initiatives involving private landowners, and guidelines to improve the deer habitat. PMID:23853746

Cosse, Mariana; González, Susana

2013-12-01

14

Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers. PMID:22863070

2012-01-01

15

Retrospective study of central nervous system lesions and association with Parelaphostrongylus species by histology and specific nested polymerase chain reaction in domestic camelids and wild ungulates.  

PubMed

Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from elk (Cervus elaphus), goats, and camelids with case histories and lesions suggestive of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis were examined by histology to characterize lesions that could aid in definitively diagnosing P. tenuis infection. Additionally, sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) using Parelaphostrongylus-specific primers to determine how PCR results corresponded with histological findings. Histological changes in brain and spinal cord consisted of linear tracks of hemorrhage; tracks or perivascular accumulations of hemosiderin-laden macrophages; acute foci of axonal degeneration and/or linear glial scars; and perivascular, parenchymal, or meningeal accumulations of eosinophils and/or lymphocytes and plasma cells. Of the 43 samples with histologic lesions consistent with neural larval migrans, 19 were PCR positive; however, only 8 were confirmed Parelaphostrongylus by DNA sequencing. Additionally, 1 goat was identified with a protostrongylid that had a 97% identity to both Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and a protostrongylid nematode from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) from Argentina. None of the histologic lesions individually or in combination correlated statistically to positive molecular tests for the nematode. The results indicate that it is possible to extract Parelaphostrongylus DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, but extended fixation presumably can cause DNA crosslinking. Nested PCR provides another diagnostic tool to identify the cause of neurologic disease in camelids and elk with histologic lesions consistent with neural larval migrans. Furthermore, potential novel protostrongylid DNA was detected from a goat with lesions consistent with P. tenuis infection, suggesting that other neurotropic Parelaphostrongylus species may occur locally. PMID:25274743

Dobey, Carrie L; Grunenwald, Caroline; Newman, Shelley J; Muller, Lisa; Gerhold, Richard W

2014-11-01

16

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Mycoplasma ovis in selected free-ranging Brazilian deer populations.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma ovis is a hemoplasma that may cause anemia and mortality in small ruminants. Our aim was to determine whether M. ovis infects populations of free-ranging deer in Brazil. Buffy coat samples from 64 Blastocerus dichotomus from Porto Primavera, 18 Ozotocerus bezoarticus from Pantanal, and 21 O. bezoarticus from Emas National Park were tested. Using a M. ovis PCR protocol to amplify extracted DNA, 46/64 (72%) of deer from Porto Primavera, 10/18 (56%) from Pantanal, and 4/21 (19%) from Emas National Park were positive, giving an overall positive rate of 58% for hemoplasma in these wild deer. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed 3 genetically distinct hemoplasmas including M. ovis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma erythrocervae', and a hemoplasma most closely related to M. ovis. Phylogenetic analysis of the 23S rRNA gene from selected sequences confirmed these relationships. PMID:22102675

Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Santos, Andrea Pires; Guimarães, Ana Marcia Sa; Mohamed, Ahmed; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Messick, Joanne Belle

2011-10-01