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1

Diagnostics of vector magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the vector magnetic fields derived from observations with a filter magnetograph will be severely distorted if the spatially unresolved magnetic structure is not properly accounted for. Thus the apparent vector field will appear much more horizontal than it really is, but this distortion is strongly dependent on the area factor and the temperature line weakenings. As the available fluxtube models are not sufficiently well determined, it is not possible to correct the filter magnetograph observations for these effects in a reliable way, although a crude correction is of course much better than no correction at all. The solution to this diagnostic problem is to observe simultaneously in suitable combinations of spectral lines, and/or use Stokes line profiles recorded with very high spectral resolution. The diagnostic power of using a Fourier transform spectrometer for polarimetry is shown and some results from I and V spectra are illustrated. The line asymmetries caused by mass motions inside the fluxtubes adds an extra complication to the diagnostic problem, in particular as there are indications that the motions are nonstationary in nature. The temperature structure appears to be a function of fluxtube diameter, as a clear difference between plage and network fluxtubes was revealed. The divergence of the magnetic field with height plays an essential role in the explanation of the Stokes V asymmetries (in combination with the mass motions). A self consistent treatment of the subarcsec field geometry may be required to allow an accurate derivation of the spatially averaged vector magnetic field from spectrally resolved data.

Stenflo, J. O.

1985-01-01

2

Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

Hagyard, M. J. (editor)

1985-01-01

3

Vector Magnetic Field in Emerging Flux Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial phase in magnetic flux emergence is the rise of magnetic flux tubes through the solar photosphere, which represents a severe transition between the very different environments of the solar interior and corona. Multi-wavelength observations with Flare Genesis, TRACE, SoHO, and more recently with the vector magnetographs at THEMIS and Hida (DST) led to the following conclusions. The fragmented magnetic field in the emergence region - with dipped field lines or bald patches - is directly related with Ellerman bombs, arch filament systems, and overlying coronal loops. Measurements of vector magnetic fields have given evidence that undulating "serpentine" fields are present while magnetic flux tubes cross the photosphere. See the sketch below, and for more detail see Pariat et al. (2004, 2007); Watanabe et al. (2008):

Schmieder, B.; Pariat, E.

4

Measuring vector magnetic fields in solar prominences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present spectropolarimetric observations in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet of a quiescent, hedgerow solar prominence. The data were taken with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife; Canary Islands; Spain). The observed He I circular and linear polarization signals are dominated by the Zeeman effect and by atomic level polarization and the Hanle effect, respectively. These observables are sensitive to the strength and orientation of the magnetic field vector at each spatial point of the field of view. We determine the magnetic field vector of the prominence by applying the HAZEL inversion code to the observed Stokes profiles. We briefly discuss the retrieved magnetic field vector configuration.

Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

2013-05-01

5

The vector structure of active magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations are needed to show the form of the strains introduced into the fields above the surface of the Sun. The longitudinal component alone does not provide the basic information, so that it has been necessary in the past to use the filamentary structure observed in H sub alpha to supplement the longitudinal information. Vector measurements provide the additional essential information to determine the strains, with the filamentary structure available as a check for consistency. It is to be expected, then, that vector measurements will permit a direct mapping of the strains imposed on the magnetic fields of active regions. It will be interesting to study the relation of those strains to the emergence of magnetic flux, flares, eruptive prominences, etc. In particular we may hope to study the relaxation of the strains via the dynamical nonequilibrium.

Parker, E. N.

1985-01-01

6

Mapping the magnetic field vector in a fountain clock  

SciTech Connect

We show how the mapping of the magnetic field vector components can be achieved in a fountain clock by measuring the Larmor transition frequency in atoms that are used as a spatial probe. We control two vector components of the magnetic field and apply audio frequency magnetic pulses to localize and measure the field vector through Zeeman spectroscopy.

Gertsvolf, Marina; Marmet, Louis [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

2011-12-15

7

DC-magnetic field vector measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetometer experiment was designed to determine the local magnetic field by measuring the total of the Earth's magnetic field and that of an unknown spacecraft. The measured field vector components are available to all onboard experiments via the Spacelab command and data management system. The experiment consists of two parts, an electronic box and the magnetic field sensor. The sensor includes three independent measuring flux-gate magnetometers, each measuring one component. The physical background is the nonlinearity of the B-H curve of a ferrite material. Two coils wound around a ferrite rod are necessary. One of them, a tank coil, pumps the ferrite rod at approximately 20 kilohertz. As a consequence of the nonlinearity, many harmonics can be produced. The second coil (i.e., the detection coil) resonates to the first harmonic. If an unknown dc or low-frequency magnetic field exists, the amplitude of the first harmonic is a measure for the unknown magnetic field. The voltages detected by the sensors are to be digitized and transferred to the command and data management system.

Schmidt, R.

1981-01-01

8

DC-magnetic field vector measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetometer experiment was designed to determine the local magnetic field by measuring the total of the Earth's magnetic field and that of an unknown spacecraft. The measured field vector components are available to all onboard experiments via the Spacelab command and data management system. The experiment consists of two parts, an electronic box and the magnetic field sensor. The sensor includes three independent measuring flux-gate magnetometers, each measuring one component. The physical background is the nonlinearity of the B-H curve of a ferrite material. Two coils wound around a ferrite rod are necessary. One of them, a tank coil, pumps the ferrite rod at approximately 20 kilohertz. As a consequence of the nonlinearity, many harmonics can be produced. The second coil (i.e., the detection coil) resonates to the first harmonic. If an unknown dc or low-frequency magnetic field exists, the amplitude of the first harmonic is a measure for the unknown magnetic field. The voltages detected by the sensors are to be digitized and transferred to the command and data management system.

Schmidt, R.

1981-11-01

9

Vector magnetic field camera for permanent magnets inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permanent magnets are widely used in many applications. A fast and reliable system for online evaluation of permanent magnets is required for their quality assurance. Therefore, a new measurement system has been developed to measure the spatial distribution of the vector magnetic field. The system consists of a complex Hall transducer, an analog multiplexer, a mechanical XYZ scanner and a control computer. The matrix of Hall sensors is designed in this way that all 3 components can be measured at once in multiple points. Such kind of transducer enables to reduce the time needed for inspection. The similar matrix transducer was also utilized to evaluate state of magnetized ferromagnetic materials.

Chady, T.; Psuj, G.; Todaka, T.; Enokizono, M.

2013-01-01

10

Inferring Lower Boundary Driving Conditions Using Vector Magnetic Field Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-beta coronal MHD simulations of realistic CME events require the detailed specification of the magnetic fields, velocities, densities, temperatures, etc., in the low corona. Presently, the most accurate estimates of solar vector magnetic fields are made in the high-beta photosphere. Several techniques have been developed that provide accurate estimates of the associated photospheric plasma velocities such as the Differential Affine Velocity Estimator for Vector Magnetograms and the Poloidal/Toroidal Decomposition. Nominally, these velocities are consistent with the evolution of the radial magnetic field. To evolve the tangential magnetic field radial gradients must be specified. In addition to estimating the photospheric vector magnetic and velocity fields, a further challenge involves incorporating these fields into an MHD simulation. The simulation boundary must be driven, consistent with the numerical boundary equations, with the goal of accurately reproducing the observed magnetic fields and estimated velocities at some height within the simulation. Even if this goal is achieved, many unanswered questions remain. How can the photospheric magnetic fields and velocities be propagated to the low corona through the transition region? At what cadence must we observe the photosphere to realistically simulate the corona? How do we model the magnetic fields and plasma velocities in the quiet Sun? How sensitive are the solutions to other unknowns that must be specified, such as the global solar magnetic field, and the photospheric temperature and density?

Schuck, Peter W.; Linton, Mark; Leake, James; MacNeice, Peter; Allred, Joel

2012-01-01

11

Vector field electron tomography of magnetic materials: theoretical development.  

PubMed

The theory of vector field electron tomography, the reconstruction of the three-dimensional magnetic induction around a magnetized object, is derived within the framework of Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. The tomographic reconstruction method uses as input two orthogonal tilt series of magnetic phase maps and is based on the vector slice theorem. An analytical reconstruction of the magnetic induction of a single magnetic dipole is presented as a proof-of-concept. The method is compared to two previously reported approaches: a reconstruction starting from the gradient of the magnetic phase maps, and a direct reconstruction of the magnetic vector potential. Numerical examples as well as estimates of the reconstruction errors for a range of magnetic particle shapes are reported. PMID:17804165

Phatak, C; Beleggia, M; De Graef, M

2008-05-01

12

The inference of the magnetic field vector in prominences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prominences owe their existence to the presence of magnetic fields in the solar corona. The magnetic field determines their geometry and is crucial to their stability, energetics, and dynamics. This review summarizes techniques for measurement of the magnetic field vector in prominences. New techniques for inversions of full Stokes spectro-polarimetry, incorporating both the Zeeman and Hanle mechanisms for generation and modification of polarization, are now at the forefront. Also reviewed are measurements of the magnetic fields in the photosphere below prominences, and how they may be used to infer the field geometry in and surrounding the prominence itself.

Lites, Bruce W.

2014-01-01

13

Lifshitz effects on vector condensate induced by a magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By numerical and analytical methods, we study in detail the effects of the Lifshitz dynamical exponent z on the vector condensate induced by an applied magnetic field in the probe limit. Concretely, in the presence of the magnetic field, we obtain the Landau level independent of z, and we also find the critical value by coupling a Maxwell complex vector field and an SU(2) field into a (3+1)-dimensional Lifshitz black hole, respectively. The research results show that for the two models with the lowest Landau level, the increasing z improves the response of the critical temperature to the applied magnetic field even without the charge density, and the analytical results uphold the numerical results. In addition, we find that, even in the Lifshitz black hole, the Maxwell complex vector model is still a generalization of the SU(2) Yang-Mills model. Furthermore, we construct the square vortex lattice and discuss the implications of these results.

Wu, Ya-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Liu, Mo-Lin; Lu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Yang, Zhuo-Qun

2014-05-01

14

HMI/SDO results with the vector magnetic field data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since May 2010, the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) has made full-disk vector magnetic field measurement of the Sun with a cadence of 12 minutes. The angular resolution is about 1 arc second, corresponding to about 300 km per pixel at solar disk center. Rapid, continuous HMI measurements allow us to follow each small-scale magnetic field element on the photosphere, which will help our understanding of the dynamics in a wide span of space and time. For active regions and sunspots, this temporal and spatial resolution allows us to estimate the energy fluxes passing through the solar photosphere. Those fluxes provide the boundary values for coronal models, such as three-dimensional time-dependent magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) and magneto-friction simulations and the nonlinear force free field (NLFFF) model. The calculations determine the three-dimensional magnetic field structures and theoretically reproduce their evolution above the photosphere. In principle full-disk coverage of the vector field observations (with low enough noise) can give better determination of the magnetic field near the limb, including the polar field, as well as mitigate artifacts in converting the line-of-sight magnetic field observations to the radial component. The HMI vector data products will help study and answer various long-standing questions in field of solar physics. This presentation provides an introductory review of the HMI magnetic field data products being provided through the JSOC (Joint Science Operation Center, http://jsoc.stanford.edu). Products include the 3-component vector data derived with a fast ME-inversion and disambiguation, inferred inductive flows determined by means of DAVE4VM and ILCT, model results by means of the NLFFF and MHD models, as well as near-real-time space weather products.

Hayashi, K.; HMI Vector Magnetic Field Team

2011-12-01

15

Determination of Coronal Magnetic Fields from Vector Magnetograms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the course of the present contract we developed an 'evolutionary technique' for the determination of force-free coronal magnetic fields from vector magnetograph observations. The method can successfully generate nonlinear force- free fields (with non-constant-a) that match vector magnetograms. We demonstrated that it is possible to determine coronal magnetic fields from photospheric measurements, and we applied it to vector magnetograms of active regions. We have also studied theoretical models of coronal fields that lead to disruptions. Specifically, we have demonstrated that the determination of force-free fields from exact boundary data is a well-posed mathematical problem, by verifying that the computed coronal field agrees with an analytic force-free field when boundary data for the analytic field are used; demonstrated that it is possible to determine active-region coronal magnetic fields from photospheric measurements, by computing the coronal field above active region 5747 on 20 October 1989, AR6919 on 15 November 1991, and AR7260 on 18 August 1992, from data taken with the Stokes Polarimeter at Mees Solar Observatory, University of Hawaii; started to analyze active region 7201 on 19 June 1992 using measurements made with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter at NSO/Sac Peak; investigated the effects of imperfections in the photospheric data on the computed coronal magnetic field; documented the coronal field structure of AR5747 and compared it to the morphology of footpoint emission in a flare, showing that the 'high- pressure' H-alpha footpoints are connected by coronal field lines; shown that the variation of magnetic field strength along current-carrying field lines is significantly different from the variation in a potential field, and that the resulting near-constant area of elementary flux tubes is consistent with observations; begun to develop realistic models of coronal fields which can be used to study flare trigger mechanisms; demonstrated that magnetic nonequilibrium can disrupt sheared coronal arcades, and that helmet streamers can disrupt, leading to coronal mass ejections. Our model has significantly extended the realism with which the coronal magnetic field can be inferred from actual observations. In a subsequent contract awarded by NASA, we have continued to apply and improve the evolutionary technique, to study the physical properties of active regions, and to develop theoretical models of magnetic fields.

Mikic, Zoran

1997-01-01

16

Determination of coronal magnetic fields from vector magnetograms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of coronal magnetic fields from vector magnetograms, including the development and application of algorithms to determine force-free coronal fields above selected observations of active regions is studied. Two additional active regions were selected and analyzed. The restriction of periodicity in the 3-D code which is used to determine the coronal field was removed giving the new code variable mesh spacing and is thus able to provide a more realistic description of coronal fields. The NOAA active region AR5747 of 20 Oct. 1989 was studied. A brief account of progress during the research performed is reported.

Mikic, Zoran

1992-01-01

17

The Height Dependence of the Magnetic Vector Field in Sunspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex active region was observed simultaneously with the solar telescopes VTT and THEMIS on Tenrife in May 2005. Spatial scans across the sunspot group were performed at both telescopes. The full Stokes-vector was recorded in several photospheric spectral lines, i.~e. at the VTT in a group of iron and silicon lines in the near infrared and at THEMIS in iron and chromium lines in the visible. Inversions were carried out independently for the different lines in order to derive the magnetic field strength, its inclination and azimuth together with the temperature stratification. Thus we obtained the three-dimensional structure of the magnetic field. Selected locations in the penumbra and in light bridges were considered in detail. We find a general tendency that the magnetic field is weaker and less inclined in higher layers.

Balthasar, H.; Bommier, V.

2009-06-01

18

Determination of the coronal magnetic field from vector magnetograph data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new algorithm was developed, tested, and applied to determine coronal magnetic fields above solar active regions. The coronal field above NOAA active region AR5747 was successfully estimated on 20 Oct. 1989 from data taken at the Mees Solar Observatory of the Univ. of Hawaii. It was shown that observational data can be used to obtain realistic estimates of coronal magnetic fields. The model has significantly extended the realism with which the coronal magnetic field can be inferred from observations. The understanding of coronal phenomena will be greatly advanced by a reliable technique, such as the one presented, for deducing the detailed spatial structure of the coronal field. The payoff from major current and proposed NASA observational efforts is heavily dependent on the success with which the coronal field can be inferred from vector magnetograms. In particular, the present inability to reliably obtain the coronal field has been a major obstacle to the theoretical advancement of solar flare theory and prediction. The results have shown that the evolutional algorithm can be used to estimate coronal magnetic fields.

Mikic, Zoran

1991-01-01

19

VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELDS OF A SOLAR POLAR REGION  

SciTech Connect

We study the vector magnetic fields of a solar polar region (PR) based on Solar Optical Telescope/Spectro-Polarimeter measurements. To better understand the polar magnetic properties, we compare the observed polar field with that in two solar quiet regions at the limb (QRL) and the disk center (QRD), and with that in a region of a low-latitude coronal hole (CHR). The following results are discussed: (1) The average vertical flux density of PR is 16 G, while the average horizontal flux density is 91 G. If we assume that the observed polar field suffers the same amount of limb weakening in polarization measurements as the Sun's quiet region, the average unsigned flux density in the pole would be 54 G, 60% stronger than that in the CHR. (2) The kG field in the PR occupies 6.7% of the region. The magnetic filling factor in the PR is characterized by a two-peak distribution, which appears at a field strength close to 100 G and 1000 G, respectively. (3) For the network elements, a correlation holds between the vertical and horizontal flux densities, suggesting the same physical entity is manifested by the observed stronger vertical and horizontal components. (4) The ratio of the magnetic flux in the minority polarity to that in the dominant polarity is approximately 0.5, implying that only 1/3 of the magnetic flux in the PR opens to the interplanetary space. Exemplified with CHR by a quasi-linear force-free extrapolation of the observed magnetic field, we find that the photospheric open flux is not always associated with strong vertical magnetic elements.

Jin Chunlan; Wang Jingxiu, E-mail: cljin@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: wangjx@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2011-05-01

20

Vector-valued crustal magnetic field estimation using vector Slepian functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve for the terrestrial or a planetary magnetic field from vector-valued measurements made by a satellite, an inversion needs to be performed that correctly maps the noisily and incompletely observed data down to the source level. For the case of the scalar potential, powerful localization techniques have aided in regularizing the ill-posed inverse problem of making global inference from local data, or vice versa. One can use splines, wavelets, cap harmonics, and also Slepian functions, which are optimally concentrated spatio-spectrally with respect to a function-energy norm. The Slepian functions, in particular, have been very useful in gravity geodesy, but also for the study of planetary magnetic fields available as spherical-harmonic potential expansions. It is clear that the benefits of localization are not available to vector data by simply focusing on the vector components individually. Rather, for the most common problems where a potential-description remains adequate, a dedicated function basis needs to be sought that is harmonic, vectorial in nature, bandlimited, and localized to target regions on the surface of the sphere. We have recently developed such a "vectorial spherical Slepian basis", and are thus ready to tackle the study of the satellite geomagnetic inverse problems of the future. In this presentation we apply vector-Slepian functions to the estimation of the vector-valued crustal magnetic field from vector-valued data at satellite altitude. The downward continuation of vector functions that satisfy the source-free assumption can be performed similarly to the scalar downward continuation if the data are described in a suitably transformed vector-spherical harmonic basis. We test our approach with artificial data using different data and noise power spectra and for different target regions. The vector Slepian approach should be beneficial in cases where we either have only local data at satellite altitude but want to obtain as much crustal field information as possible or if we have global data at satellite altitude but want to perform a purely local analysis of the crustal field, as we show by example.

Plattner, A.; Simons, F. J.

2012-12-01

21

DC-SQUID magnetometer system for detecting vector value of magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

A vector magnetometer system for biomagnetic applications is described. The vector magnetometer system consists of 2 vector magnetometers and each vector magnetometer consists of 3 integrated SQUID magnetometers located perpendicularly to each other to detect 3 orthogonal components of the magnetic field simultaneously. The resolution of the each orthogonal components of the magnetic field vector is 11 fT/..sqrt..Hz in the white noise region.

Nakanishi, M.; Kasai, N.; Kado, H.; Koyanagi, M.

1989-03-01

22

The Magnetic Vector Structure of an Active Region Plage Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present scans of the active region plage associated with NOAA 10953, recorded with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter 2 (TIP-2) mounted behind the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on Tenerife and the SOT-SP instrument on-board the HINODE spacecraft. TIP-2 recorded the full Stokes vector close to the diffraction limit of the telescope over a 20 angstroem wavelength range containing six magnetically sensitive FeI lines in the infrared including the g=3 line FeI 15648.5. With these lines we use the advantage that the Zeeman splitting dominates over the Doppler broadening for kG fields. The iron lines used by HINODE are FeI 6301.501and FeI 6302.494. We analyzed the data by applying a Milne-Eddington type inversion to it. In the context of a two-component model we found a bimodal distribution of field strengths, strong fields whose field strength distribution peaks at 1400 [G] and a weak field distribution, which may be associated with quiet sun regions bordering on the plage.

Meling, M. H. M.; Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.

2008-09-01

23

Force-free coronal magnetic field modeling using vector fields from Hinode and SDO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the lack of routine direct measurements of the magnetic field in the solar corona, force-free reconstruction methods are a promising tool for the diagnostics of the magnetic structure there. Routine photospheric magnetic field measurements which monitor the temporal evolution of an active region and contain information on the non-potentiality of the field above are used as an input. Based on the assumption that magnetic forces dominate the solar atmosphere, these models allow estimates of the total and free magnetic energy content and the structure of the magnetic field above active regions. The outcome of force-free field modeling strongly depends on the vector magnetic field data used as boundary condition. We compare the model results based on simultaneously observed vector maps from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board Solar Dynamics Observatory and from the Solar Optical Telescope Spectropolarimeter (SP) on board Hinode. We find substantial differences in the absolute estimates of the magnetic field energy but very similar relative estimates, e.g., the fraction of energy to be set free during an eruption or the fraction of flux linking distinct areas within an active region. Our study reveals that only relative estimates of coronal physical quantities from force-free models might be save and conclusions about the magnetic field topology might be drawn with caution.

Thalmann, Julia K.; Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Wiegelmann, Thomas

2013-04-01

24

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) Vector Magnetic Field Pipeline: Overview and Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) began near-continuous full-disk solar measurements on 1 May 2010 from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). An automated processing pipeline keeps pace with observations to produce observable quantities, including the photospheric vector magnetic field, from sequences of filtergrams. The basic vector-field frame list cadence is 135 seconds, but to reduce noise the filtergrams are combined to derive data products every 720 seconds. The primary 720 s observables were released in mid-2010, including Stokes polarization parameters measured at six wavelengths, as well as intensity, Doppler velocity, and the line-of-sight magnetic field. More advanced products, including the full vector magnetic field, are now available. Automatically identified HMI Active Region Patches (HARPs) track the location and shape of magnetic regions throughout their lifetime. The vector field is computed using the Very Fast Inversion of the Stokes Vector (VFISV) code optimized for the HMI pipeline; the remaining 180? azimuth ambiguity is resolved with the Minimum Energy (ME0) code. The Milne-Eddington inversion is performed on all full-disk HMI observations. The disambiguation, until recently run only on HARP regions, is now implemented for the full disk. Vector and scalar quantities in the patches are used to derive active region indices potentially useful for forecasting; the data maps and indices are collected in the SHARP data series, hmi.sharp_720s. Definitive SHARP processing is completed only after the region rotates off the visible disk; quick-look products are produced in near real time. Patches are provided in both CCD and heliographic coordinates. HMI provides continuous coverage of the vector field, but has modest spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution. Coupled with limitations of the analysis and interpretation techniques, effects of the orbital velocity, and instrument performance, the resulting measurements have a certain dynamic range and sensitivity and are subject to systematic errors and uncertainties that are characterized in this report.

Hoeksema, J. Todd; Liu, Yang; Hayashi, Keiji; Sun, Xudong; Schou, Jesper; Couvidat, Sebastien; Norton, Aimee; Bobra, Monica; Centeno, Rebecca; Leka, K. D.; Barnes, Graham; Turmon, Michael

2014-03-01

25

Vector Magnetic Fields and Electric Currents From the Imaging Vector Magnetograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First, we describe a general procedure to produce high-quality vector magnetograms using the Imaging Vector Magnetograph (IVM) at Mees Solar Observatory. Two IVM effects are newly discussed and taken into account: (1) the central wavelength of the Fabry-Pérot is found to drift with time as a result of undiagnosed thermal or mechanical instabilities in the instrument; (2) the Stokes V-sign convention built into the IVM is found to be opposite to the conventional definition used in the study of radiative transfer of polarized radiation. At the spatial resolution 2'' × 2'', the Stokes Q, U, V uncertainty reaches ~1 × 10-3 to 5 × 10-4 in time-averaged data over 1 hr in the quiet Sun. When vector magnetic fields are inferred from the time-averaged Stokes spectral images of FeI 6302.5 Å, the resulting uncertainties are on the order of 10 G for the longitudinal fields (B par), 40 G for the transverse field strength (B bottom) and ~9° for the magnetic azimuth (phi). The magnetic field inversion used in this work is the "Triplet" code, which was developed and implemented in the IVM software package by the late B. J. LaBonte. The inversion code is described in detail in the Appendix. Second, we solve for the absolute value of the vertical electric current density, |Jz |, accounting for the above IVM problems, for two different active regions. One is a single sunspot region (NOAA 10001 observed on 2002 June 20) while the other is a more complex, quadrupolar region (NOAA10030 observed on 2002 July 15). We use a calculation that does not require disambiguation of 180° in the transverse field directions. The |Jz | uncertainty is on the order of ~7.0 mA m-2. The vertical current density increases with increasing vertical magnetic field. The rate of increase is about 1-2 times as large in the quadrupolar NOAA 10030 region as in the simple NOAA 10001, and it is more spatially variable over NOAA 10030 than over NOAA 10001.

Li, Jing; van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Mickey, Don

2009-02-01

26

An Overhaul of the SOLIS/VSM Vector Magnetic Field Pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vector magnetic field pipeline of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) is currently undergoing several key upgrades. Improved algorithms for fringe removal, quicklook vector magnetic field estimation, Milne-Eddington inversion, and geometrical image correction have been implemented, resulting in drastically improved data products which the National Solar Observatory (NSO) routinely provides to the solar community. This poster highlights the recent improvements we have made and points the users of our spectropolarimetric and magnetic field data to our new and improved data products.

Harker, Brian; SOLIS Team

2013-07-01

27

Solar monochromatic images in magneto-sensitive spectral lines and maps of vector magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method which allows by use of the monochromatic images in some magneto-sensitive spectra line to derive both the magnetic field strength as well as the angle between magnetic field lines and line of sight for various places in solar active regions is described. In this way two dimensional maps of vector magnetic fields may be constructed. This method was applied to some observational material and reasonable results were obtained. In addition, a project for constructing the three dimensional maps of vector magnetic fields was worked out.

Shihui, Y.; Jiehai, J.; Minhan, J.

1985-01-01

28

Changes in measured vector magnetic fields when transformed into heliographic coordinates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes that occur in measured magnetic fields when they are transformed into a heliographic coordinate system are investigated. To carry out this investigation, measurements of the vector magnetic field of an active region that was observed at 1\\/3 the solar radius from disk center are taken, and the observed field is transformed into heliographic coordinates. Differences in the calculated

M. J. Hagyard

1987-01-01

29

Non-force-free extrapolation of solar coronal magnetic field using vector magnetograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our recent improvement in non-force-free extrapolation of coronal magnetic field, using vector magnetograms. Based on the principle of minimum (energy) dissipation rate (MDR), a generally non-force-free magnetic field solution is expressed as the superposition of one potential field and two (constant-[alpha]) linear force-free fields, with distinct [alpha] parameters. With a known potential field, the system is reduced to a second-order one that can be solved using one single-layer vector magnetogram. We devise an iteration procedure to determine the potential field, by achieving satisfactory agreement between the MDR-model computed and measured transverse magnetic field vectors on the bottom boundary. We illustrate this approach by applying it to real magnetograph measurement of solar active region AR 10953. We show that the results are satisfactory as judged from the quantitative magnetic field measurement, and the behavior of the derived Lorentz force.

Hu, Qiang; Dasgupta, B.; Derosa, M. L.; Büchner, J.; Gary, G. A.

2010-02-01

30

Measurements of the magnetic field vector using multiple electromagnetically induced transparency resonances in Rb vapor  

SciTech Connect

We study the dependence of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance amplitudes on the external magnetic field direction in a linearly polarized bichromatic light (lin||lin) configuration in {sup 87}Rb vapor. We demonstrate that all seven resolvable EIT resonances exhibit maxima or minima at certain orientations of the laser polarization relative to the wave vector and magnetic field. This effect can be used for the development of a high-precision EIT vector magnetometer.

Cox, Kevin; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 (United States); Yudin, Valery I.; Taichenachev, Alexey V. [Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk RU-630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk RU-630092 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk RU-630090 (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15

31

Vector Magnetic Field Observations of the Solar South Pole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and dynamics of the magnetic field near the poles of the sun, and its relationship to the coronal temperature and density structure is not well understood. On 1996 March 7, the SoHO spacecraft, and several ground based observatories carried out coordinated observations of the solar South Pole. At that time, the South Pole was tilted about 7 degrees

J.-P. Wulser; D. L. Mickey

1996-01-01

32

Z3 Model of Saturn's Magnetic Field and the Pioneer 11 Vector Helium Magnetometer Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of th...

J. E. P. Connerney M. H. Acuna N. F. Ness

1984-01-01

33

Z3 model of Saturns magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Zâ model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Zâ zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the

J. E. P. Connerney; M. H. Acuna; N. F. Ness

1984-01-01

34

The Z3 model of Saturns magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z3 model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z3 zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the

J. E. P. Connerney; M. H. Acuna; N. F. Ness

1984-01-01

35

The Z3 model of Saturn's magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z3 model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z3 zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the

J. E. P. Connerney; M. H. Acuna; N. F. Ness

1984-01-01

36

The Measurement of Spinal Cord Evoked Magnetic Fields by Vector SQUID Biomagnetometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomagnetometry is a powerful method for the investigation of the neural activity. We developed a multi channel superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) biomagnetometer system for the measurement of the evoked magnetic field from stimulated spinal cords. The system is equipped with three dimensionally configured SQUID vector gradiometers, which can detect not only the radial components of the magnetic field to the subject but also the tangential components. With the system, we could successfully observe the distribution of the evoked magnetic field corresponding to neuronal signals transmitting in the spinal cord of small animals as momentarily changing vector map.

Adachi, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Kawai, Jun; Uehara, Gen

37

First use of synoptic vector magnetograms for global nonlinear, force-free coronal magnetic field models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere is generally thought to provide the energy for much of the activity seen in the solar corona, such as flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), etc. To overcome the unavailability of coronal magnetic field measurements, photospheric magnetic field vector data can be used to reconstruct the coronal field. Currently, there are several modelling techniques being used to calculate three dimensional field lines into the solar atmosphere. For the first time, synoptic maps of a photospheric vector magnetic field synthesized from the vector spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Synoptic Optical Long term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) are used to model the coronal magnetic field and estimate free magnetic energy in the global scale. The free energy (i.e., the energy in excess of the potential field energy) is one of the main indicators used in space weather forecasts to predict the eruptivity of active regions. We solve the nonlinear force free field equations using an optimization principle in spherical geometry. The resulting three-dimensional magnetic fields are used to estimate the magnetic free energy content, which is the difference of the magnetic energies between the nonpotential field and the potential field in the global solar corona. For comparison, we overlay the extrapolated magnetic field lines with the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations by the atmospheric imaging assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).For a single Carrington rotation 2121, we find that the global nonlinear force free field (NLFFF) magnetic energy density is 10.3% higher than the potential one. Most of this free energy is located in active regions.

Asfaw, Tilaye Tadesse; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Macneice, Peter J.

2014-06-01

38

Vector magnetic field observations with the Haleakala polarimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several enhancements were recently made to the Haleakala polarimeter. Linear array detectors provide simultaneous resolution over a 3-A wavelength range, with spectral resolution of 40 mA. Optical fibers are now used to carry the intensity-modulated light from the rotating quarter-wave plate polarimeter to the echelle spectrometer, permitting its removal from the spar to a more stable environment. These changes, together with improved quarter-wave plates, reduced systematic errors to a few parts in 10,000 for routine observations. Examples of Stokes profiles and derived magnetic field maps are presented.

Mickey, D. L.

1985-01-01

39

Electric-field switching of a magnetic propagation vector in a helimagnet.  

PubMed

We report novel magnetoelectric properties of a quantum-spin helimagnet Ba2CuGe2O7 with a noncentrosymmetric (but nonpolar) crystal structure. It was found that the spin helicity of the cycloidal spin order is always fixed to the lattice, therefore the magnetic propagation vector k determines the sign of electric polarization in Ba2CuGe2O7. Consequently, not only the magnetic-field drive of the ferroelectric domain but also the electric-field switching of magnetic k vector can be achieved. PMID:19905597

Murakawa, H; Onose, Y; Tokura, Y

2009-10-01

40

Making global map of the solar surface Br from the HMI vector magnetic field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) has made full-disk vector magnetic field measurements of the Sun with cadence of 12 minutes. The three-component solar surface magnetic field vector data are from the HMI observations with the data process pipeline modules, VFISV (Very Fast Inversion of the Stokes Vector, Borrero et al., 2011) for Milne-Eddington inversion and the minimum-energy disambiguation algorithm (Metcalf 1994, Leka et al, 2009). The models of the global corona and solar wind, such as the PFSS (potential-field source-surface) model and the MHD simulations, often use the maps of solar surface magnetic field, especially the radial component (Br) as the boundary condition. The HMI observation can provide new Br data for these model. Because of weak magnetic signals at the quiet regions of the Sun, the limb darkening, and geometric effects near solar poles, we need to apply an assumption to make a whole-surface map. In this paper, we tested two assumptions for determining Br at weak-field regions. The coronal structures calculated by the PFSS model with the vector-based Br are compared with those with the magnetogram-based Br and the corona observed by the SDO/AIA (Atmospheric Imaging Assembly). In the tested period, CR 2098, the vector-based Br map gives better agreements than the line-of-sight magnetogram data, though we need further investigation for evaluation.

Hayashi, K.; Liu, Y.; Sun, X.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Centeno, R.; Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.

2013-06-01

41

Fast Analytical Computation of Power-Line Magnetic Fields by Complex Vector Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromagnetic environment related to electric power installations is typically evaluated by numerical integration methods. Numerical techniques, although powerful, are not well suited for assessing the dependence of the field strength on electric and geometric parameters. In this paper, a fast procedure to analytically evaluate power-line magnetic fields, based on complex vectors, is proposed. The use of complex algebra greatly

Federico Moro; Roberto Turri

2008-01-01

42

3-D vector magnetic properties of SMC Material for advanced field analysis of SMC machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a rotating electrical machine or the T-joints of a multiphase transformer, the magnetic flux is basically three-dimensional (3-D) and rotational. This paper presents the 3-D vector magnetic properties of soft magnetic composite (SMC) materials for advanced field analysis of electromagnetic devices with SMC core, which is particularly developed for application of electrical machines with complex structure and 3-D flux.

Youguang Guo; Jianguo Zhu; Haiyan Lu; Zhiwei Lin; Shuhong Wang; Jianxun Jin

2008-01-01

43

Changing photospheric vector magnetic fields associated with a B4.2-class solar flare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations have provided evidence that the solar photospheric magnetic fields could have rapid and permanent changes in both longitudinal and transverse components associated with large (X- or M-class) solar flares. However, few observations have been reported about small flares. In this paper we find the observational evidence of changing photospheric vector magnetic fields associated with a B4.2-class flare obtained with the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope (SMFT) installed at Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS) of Nation Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Yu; Shen, Yuandeng

2013-07-01

44

The Effects of Polarization Crosstalk and Solar Rotation on Measuring Full-Disk Solar Photospheric Vector Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of full-disk solar photospheric vector magnetic fields are very important for the studies of the global properties and evolution of solar magnetism. Such observations can allow us to investigate the magnetic connectivities between active regions and the nonpotentiality of magnetic fields with a much wider field of view (FOV) than do local-region observations. Therefore, we developed a full-disk vector

J. T. Su; H. Q. Zhang

2007-01-01

45

Applying New Methods to Flare Prediction Using Photospheric Vector Magnetic Field Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using photospheric vector magnetic field data for solar flare prediction is tested using three distinct approaches. First, we examine on a case-by-case basis, the magnitude and variations of over eighty parameters (almost two hundred wh...

K. D. Leka

2003-01-01

46

Low-magnetic-field control of electric polarization vector in a helimagnet.  

PubMed

The mutual control of the electric and magnetic properties of a solid is currently of great interest because of the possible application for novel electronic devices. We report on the low-magnetic-field (for example, B values of +/-30 milliteslas) control of the polarization (P) vector in a hexaferrite, Ba2Mg2Fe12O22, which shows the helimagnetic spin structure with the propagation vector k0 parallel to [001]. The B-induced transverse conical spin structure carries the P vector directing perpendicular to both B and k0, in accord with the recently proposed spin-current model. Then, the oscillating or multidirectionally rotating B produces the cyclic displacement current via the flexible handling of the magnetic cone axis. PMID:18356519

Ishiwata, Shintaro; Taguchi, Yasujiro; Murakawa, Hiroshi; Onose, Yoshinori; Tokura, Yoshinori

2008-03-21

47

Low-Magnetic-Field Control of Electric Polarization Vector in a Helimagnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual control of the electric and magnetic properties of a solid is currently of great interest because of the possible application for novel electronic devices. We report on the low-magnetic-field (for example, B values of ±30 milliteslas) control of the polarization (P) vector in a hexaferrite, Ba2Mg2Fe12O22, which shows the helimagnetic spin structure with the propagation vector k0 parallel to [001]. The B-induced transverse conical spin structure carries the P vector directing perpendicular to both B and k0, in accord with the recently proposed spin-current model. Then, the oscillating or multidirectionally rotating B produces the cyclic displacement current via the flexible handling of the magnetic cone axis.

Ishiwata, Shintaro; Taguchi, Yasujiro; Murakawa, Hiroshi; Onose, Yoshinori; Tokura, Yoshinori

2008-03-01

48

VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELDS AND CURRENT HELICITIES IN CORONAL HOLES AND QUIET REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

In the solar photosphere, many properties of coronal holes (CHs) are not known, especially vector magnetic fields. Using observations from Hinode, we investigate vector magnetic fields, current densities, and current helicities in two CHs, and compare them with two normal quiet regions (QRs) for the first time. We find that the areas where large current helicities are located are mainly co-spatial with strong vertical and horizontal field elements both in shape and in location. In the CHs, horizontal magnetic fields, inclination angles, current densities, and current helicities are larger than those in the QRs. The mean vertical current density and current helicity in the CHs and QRs, averaged over all the observed areas including the CHs and QRs, are approximately 0.008 A m{sup -2} and 0.005 G{sup 2} m{sup -1}, respectively. The mean current density in magnetic flux concentrations where the vertical fields are stronger than 100 G is as large as 0.012 {+-} 0.001 A m{sup -2}, consistent with that in the flare productive active regions. Our results imply that the magnetic fields, especially the strong fields, both in the CHs and in the QRs are nonpotential.

Yang Shuhong; Zhang Jun; Li Ting [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ding Mingde, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: liting@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2011-01-01

49

An Automated Ambiguity-Resolution Code for Hinode/SP Vector Magnetic Field Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast, automated algorithm is presented for use in resolving the 180° ambiguity in vector magnetic field data, including those data from Hinode/Spectropolarimeter. The Fortran-based code is loosely based on the Minimum Energy Algorithm, and is distributed to provide ambiguity-resolved data for the general user community. Here we generally describe the released code (available at http://www.cora.nwra.com/AMBIG), examples of its performance and usage for Hinode/SP data.

Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.; Crouch, A.

2009-12-01

50

Magnetic Field Mapping and Biaxial Vector Operation for Biomagnetic Applications Using High-Sensitivity Optically Pumped Atomic Magnetometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically pumped alkali-metal atomic magnetometers are expected to be used not only for biomagnetic field measurements but also for magnetic resonance imaging because of their potential ultrahigh sensitivity. Here, we studied magnetic field mapping and biaxial vector operation using atomic magnetometers. A potassium atomic magnetometer was used in these measurements. First, we obtained sensor output signals by solving the Bloch equation. Next, we measured magnetic field distributions generated by a current dipole electrode that was placed in a spherical phantom, which simulated a group of simultaneously activated neurons in the human brain. We obtained vector contour maps of the magnetic field distributions from the dipoles oriented parallel and orthogonal to the pump laser beam and have found good agreement with theoretical magnetic field distributions. These results demonstrate practical applications of magnetic field mapping and biaxial vector operation using optically pumped atomic magnetometers.

Taue, Shuji; Sugihara, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Kamada, Keigo

2011-11-01

51

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) Vector Magnetic Field Pipeline: SHARPs - Space-Weather HMI Active Region Patches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new data product from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) called Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARPs) is now available. SDO/HMI is the first space-based instrument to map the full-disk photospheric vector magnetic field with high cadence and continuity. The SHARP data series provide maps in patches that encompass automatically tracked magnetic concentrations for their entire lifetime; map quantities include the photospheric vector magnetic field and its uncertainty, along with Doppler velocity, continuum intensity, and line-of-sight magnetic field. Furthermore, keywords in the SHARP data series provide several parameters that concisely characterize the magnetic-field distribution and its deviation from a potential-field configuration. These indices may be useful for active-region event forecasting and for identifying regions of interest. The indices are calculated per patch and are available on a twelve-minute cadence. Quick-look data are available within approximately three hours of observation; definitive science products are produced approximately five weeks later. SHARP data are available at jsoc.stanford.edu and maps are available in either of two different coordinate systems. This article describes the SHARP data products and presents examples of SHARP data and parameters.

Bobra, M. G.; Sun, X.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Turmon, M.; Liu, Y.; Hayashi, K.; Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.

2014-04-01

52

Vector magnetic fields in sunspots. I - Stokes profile analysis using the Marshall Space Flight Center magnetograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph is a tunable filter magnetograph with a bandpass of 125 mA. Results are presented of the inversion of Stokes polarization profiles observed with the MSFC vector magnetograph centered on a sunspot to recover the vector magnetic field parameters and thermodynamic parameters of the spectral line forming region using the Fe I 5250.2 A spectral line using a nonlinear least-squares fitting technique. As a preliminary investigation, it is also shown that the recovered thermodynamic parameters could be better understood if the fitted parameters like Doppler width, opacity ratio, and damping constant were broken down into more basic quantities like temperature, microturbulent velocity, or density parameter.

Balasubramaniam, K. S.; West, E. A.

1991-12-01

53

STUDY OF THE ANGLE OF DEPHASING BETWEEN THE VECTORS OF ROTOR AND STATOR MAGNETIC FLOW IN A SYSTEM OF CONTROL THROUGH ORIENTATION OF A MAGNETIC FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents results received from the study of a system of control of three-phase asynchronous motor through an orientation of a magnetic field. The controller does stabilization of the vector of rotor magnetic flow. The purpose of this study is to find how the angle of dephasing between the vectors of magnetic flows in the rotor and stator changes.

Pencho Georgiev; Dinko Gospodinov

54

Vector magnetic field map at the photospheric level below and around a solar filament (neutral line)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a vector magnetic field map obtained on 7 December 2003, below and around a filament located not so far from the active region NOAA 517, whose one spot is also found on the map of 240× 340 arcsec. This region was itself located near the disk center, so that the longitudinal (resp. transverse) field is nearly the vertical (resp. horizontal) one. The THEMIS telescope was used in its spectropolarimetric multiline mode MTR ("MulTiRaies"). The noise level is 5-10 Gauss in the longitudinal field and 50-100 Gauss in the transverse field, while the pixel size is 0.45 arcsec. Fundamental ambiguity is not solved, and the atmosphere is assumed to be homogeneous. The magnetic field derivation method described in this paper was validated on eight test points submitted to the UNNOFIT inversion code, and the results are found in agreement within 14% discrepancy. Two main results appear on the map: (i) a strong spatial correlation between the longitudinal and transverse field resulting in an inclined field vector (making a most probable angle of 60° or 120° with the line-of-sight in the filament region); and (ii) homogeneity of the field direction (inclination and azimuth) in the filament region. Parasitic polarities were also detected: first those located at the filament feet, as theoretically expected, on the one hand; and then weak opposite polarity regular patterns that appear between the network field (strong field at the frontiers of supergranules), on the other. The exact superimposition of the magnetic field map derived from the Fe I 6302.5 Å line and of the H? map, which enabled association of the parasitic polarities with the filament feet, was possible because these two maps were simultaneously obtained, thanks to a unique facility available in the multiline mode of THEMIS.

Bommier, V.; Rayrole, J.; Eff-Darwich, A.

2005-06-01

55

The Vector Magnetic Fields and Thermodynamics of Sunspot Light Bridges: The Case for Field-free Disruptions in Sunspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter of 11 light bridges in sunspots of various ages and sizes, all very close to disk center. Full vector spectropolarimetry and a nonlinear least-squares inversion algorithm allows us to determine not only the vector magnetic field in the bridges and host sunspots but also thermodynamic parameters such as continuum brightness, Doppler shifts, Doppler widths, opacity ratio, and the source function parameters. We can also separate the magnetic and nonmagnetic components of the spectral signal within each resolution element. We find that there is a disruption of the magnetic fields in light bridges, relative both to neighboring umbrae and to normal, undisturbed penumbrae. This change takes the form of lower intrinsic field strength and sparser, more horizontal fields in the bridges relative to umbrae. The magnetic fields in the bridges remain more vertically oriented, however, than those in undisturbed penumbra. There are systematic upflows observed in the bridge plasma relative to the neighboring umbrae, and the evidence points toward a component that is heated and departs from radiative equilibrium. In four cases, we follow a light bridge over several days and find that as the bridges age, they grow wider and brighter, the fields weaken and become sparser, and the heating increases. We also find some evidence that the magnetic field begins to reorganize itself to accommodate the (now) two azimuth centers before there are strong signals of a light bridge in the thermodynamic parameters. This paper presents the first systematic look at sunspot light bridges with full vector polarimetry and thermodynamic determination. The results show that there is an intrusion of field-free, possibly convective material into an otherwise stable, magnetic sunspot. The departure from stability is seen in the magnetic field orientation prior to its appearance in continuum intensity, and the effects of this disruption are evident beyond the immediate umbral intrusion. The results do not unambiguously determine the physical mechanism that makes sunspots disappear. However, it strongly points toward a ropelike magnetic structure through which convection may penetrate when the magnetic fibrils separate or around which field-free plasma may flow. The appearance of field-free heated material is likely an effect, not the cause, of the sunspot light bridges.

Leka, K. D.

1997-07-01

56

Direct Observation of the Intensity Counterpart of Moving Magnetic Features on the Photosphere and the Corresponding Vector Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and the temporal evolution of a bipolar moving magnetic feature (MMF) was studied with high spatio-temporal resolution. The photometric properties were observed with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory using a broadband TiO filter at 705.7nm, while the magnetic field was analyzed using the Spectropolarimetric data obtained by Hinode/SOT. From our high resolution, multi-wavelength observation, we studied 1) the detailed structure of the intensity counterpart in the photosphere of a bipolar MMF, 2) the vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity of the MMF in time. A bipolar MMF having its positive polarity closer to the negative penumbra formed being accompanied by a bright, filamentary structure in the TiO line connecting the MMF and a dark penumbral filament. A fast downflow was detected in the positive polarity region, where the filamentary structure is seen to be brighter than its surroundings. The vector magnetic field obtained from the full Stokes inversion reveals a developing U-shaped magnetic dip between the poles of the bipolar MMF. Our observations provide the most clear intensity counterpart in the photosphere to the observed MMF, and strong evidence of the connection between the MMF and the local penumbral filament as a serpentine field.

Lim, Eunkyung; Yurchyshyn, V.; Goode, P.

2012-05-01

57

OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE OF CHANGING PHOTOSPHERIC VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELDS ASSOCIATED WITH SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations have provided evidence that the solar photospheric magnetic fields could have rapid and permanent changes in both longitudinal and transverse components associated with major flares. As a result, the Lorentz force (LF) acting on the solar photosphere and solar interior could be perturbed, and the change of LF is always nearly in the downward direction. However, these rapid and permanent changes have not been systematically investigated, yet, using vector magnetograms. In this paper, we analyze photospheric vector magnetograms covering five flares to study the evolution of photospheric magnetic fields. In particular, we investigate two-dimensional spatial distributions of the changing LF. Around the major flaring polarity inversion line, the net change of the LF is directed downward in an area of {approx}10{sup 19} cm{sup 2} for X-class flares. For all events, the white-light observations show that sunspots darken in this location after flares, and magnetic fields become more inclined, which is consistent with the ideas put forward by Hudson et al. and Fisher et al., and observations.

Su, J. T.; Jing, J.; Wang, H. M. [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Mao, X. J.; Wang, X. F.; Zhang, H. Q.; Deng, Y. Y.; Guo, J.; Wang, G. P., E-mail: sjt@bao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2011-06-01

58

Unsteady laminar compressible boundary layers with vectored mass transfer and an applied magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the laminar unsteady compressible boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting viscous fluid at the stagnation point of an axisymmetric blunt-nosed body with vectored mass transfer, nonzero dissipation parameter m, and an applied magnetic field. The semisimilar solutions have been obtained numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme in combination with the quasi-linearization technique. The results have been obtained for an accelerating/decelerating stream and a fluctuating stream. The skin friction responds to the fluctuation in the free-stream more compared to the heat transfer. In presence of the magnetic field, a velocity overshoot occurs which gives rise to the point of inflection in velocity profile and for small wall values of the total enthalpy. Skin friction can be reduced by applying a greater vectored mass transfer compared to the mass transfer applied normal to the surface. The results also show that the skin friction coefficient increases but Nusselt number decreases as the magnetic parameter M increases.

Roy, S.; Nath, G.

1992-01-01

59

The Z3 model of Saturn's magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z(sub 3) zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the Z(sub 3) model field are found to be small (approximately 1 percent) and quantitatively consistent with the expected instrumental accuracy. A detailed examination of these differences in spacecraft payload coordinates shows that they are uniquely associated with the instrument frame of reference and operation. A much improved fit to the Pioneer 11 observations is obtained by rotation of the instrument coordinate system about the spacecraft spin axis by 1.4 degree. With this adjustment, possibly associated with an instrumental phase lag or roll attitude error, the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations are fully consistent with the Voyager Z(sub 3) model.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

1984-01-01

60

The Z3 model of Saturns magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z(sub 3) zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the Z(sub 3) model field are found to be small (approximately 1%) and quantitatively consistent with the expected instrumental accuracy. A detailed examination of these differences in spacecraft payload coordinates shows that they are uniquely associated with the instrument frame of reference and operation. A much improved fit to the Pioneer 11 observations is obtained by rotation of the instrument coordinate system about the spacecraft spin axis by 1.4 degree. With this adjustment, possibly associated with an instrumental phase lag or roll attitude error, the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations are fully consistent with the Voyager Z(sub 3) model.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

1984-01-01

61

Z3 model of Saturns magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z(sub 3) zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the Z(sub 3) model field are found to be small (approximately 1%) and quantitatively consistent with the expected instrumental accuracy. A detailed examination of these differences in spacecraft payload coordinates shows that they are uniquely associated with the instrument frame of reference and operation. A much improved fit to the Pioneer 11 observations is obtained by rotation of the instrument coordinate system about the spacecraft spin axis by 1.4 degree. With this adjustment, possibly associated with an instrumental phase lag or roll attitude error, the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations are fully consistent with the Voyager Z(sub 3) model.

Connerney, J.E.P.; Acuna, M.H.; Ness, N.F.

1984-05-01

62

CHARACTERISTIC DEVELOPMENT OF MAGNETIC SHEAR IN A FLARE-PRODUCING SUNSPOT OBTAINED FROM VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS BY HINODE  

SciTech Connect

One of the promising models for the initiation of a solar flare requires observation-based information at the solar surface where the energy released during a flare is injected in the way limited by a real environment. Hinode provides a time series of vector-field maps of the photospheric magnetic field in NOAA10930 that shows strong flaring activity. We use these maps to investigate the structure and evolution of the magnetic field in a major sunspot of this active region. By dividing the sunspot into a number of small regions and assuming a linear force-free-field state in each divided region, we derive the spatial variation of magnetic shear and its temporal development in this sunspot. The magnetic shear first increases in magnitude and area with time, while it decreases before the onset of an X-class flare. A relation between the evolution of magnetic shear and the motions of an accompanying sunspot has also been found. We discuss the physical processes responsible for those observational features, suggesting that the characteristic development of magnetic shear in the major sunspot and the translational motion followed by rotational motion of the accompanying sunspot might be caused by the emergence of a twisted flux tube into the solar atmosphere.

Magara, T. [Hinode Science Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, 181-8588 (Japan)], E-mail: t.magara@nao.ac.jp

2009-09-01

63

How do inaccuracies and unresolved structures in the measured solar photospheric magnetic vector influence the accuracy of coronal magnetic field models?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar magnetic fields are usually extrapolated into the corona starting from photospheric mag-netic measurements that can suffer from significant uncertainties caused by the presence of unresolved fine structures due to a limited spatial resolution and by the limited polarimet-ric accuracy and spectral resolution. We investigate how these inaccuracies in the measured photospheric magnetic field vector influence the accuracy of the

Thomas Wiegelmann; Lotfi Yelles; Sami Solanki; Andreas Lagg

2010-01-01

64

New models of Saturn's magnetic field using Pioneer 11 Vector Helium Magnetometer data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a reanalysis of the Vector Helium Magnetometer data taken by Pioneer 11 during its Saturn encounter in 1979, using improvements in the data set and in the procedures, studies are made of a variety of models. The best is the P(11)84 model, an axisymmetric spherical harmonic model of Saturn's magnetic field within 8 Saturn radii of the planet. The appropriately weighted root mean square average of the difference between the observed and the modeled field is 1.13 percent. For the Voyager-based Z3 model of Connerney, Acuna, and Ness, this average difference from the Pioneer 11 data is 1.81 percent. The external source currents in the magnetopause, tail, bow shock, and perhaps ring currents vary with time and can only be crudely modeled. An algebraic formula is derived for calculating the L shells on which energetic charged particles drift in axisymmetric fields.

Davis, L., Jr.; Smith, E. J.

1986-01-01

65

Vector Magnetic Field Analysis of Lorentz Forces Acting in the Solar Atmosphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of magnetic fields during the energy storage and release process of the solar chromosphere/corona is addressed in the absence of detailed chromospheric field measurements. The potential utility of 3-component solar photospheric magnetic field mea...

K. Krall S. T. Wu J. B. Smith

1983-01-01

66

Observations of vector magnetic fields with a magneto-optic filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of the magnetooptic filter to observe solar magnetic fields in the potassium line at 7699 A is described. The filter has been used in the Big Bear videomagnetograph since October 23. It gives a high sensitivity and dynamic range for longitudnal magnetic fields and enables measurement of transverse magnetic fields using the sigma component. Examples of the observations are presented.

Cacciani, Alessandro; Varsik, John; Zirin, Harold

1990-01-01

67

Influence of pulsed electromagnetic and pulsed vector magnetic potential field on the growth of tumor cells.  

PubMed

Abstract Aims and Background: Tumor diseases cause 20% of deaths in Europe and they are the second most common cause of death and morbidity after cardiovascular diseases. Thus, tumor cells are target of many therapeutic strategies and tumor research is focused on searching more efficient and specific drugs as well as new therapeutic approaches. One of the areas of tumor research is an issue of external fields. In our work, we tested influence of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and a hypothetic field of the pulsed vector magnetic potential (PVMP) on the growth of tumor cells; and further the possible growth inhibition effect of the PVMP. Methods: Both unipolar and bipolar PEMF fields of 5?mT and PVMP fields of 0?mT at frequencies of 15?Hz, 125?Hz and 625?Hz were tested on cancer cell lines derived from various types of tumors: CEM/C2 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), SU-DHL-4 (B-cell lymphoma), COLO-320DM (colorectal adenocarcinoma), MDA-BM-468 (breast adenocarcinoma), and ZR-75-1 (ductal carcinoma). Cell morphology was observed, proliferation activity using WST assay was measured and simultaneous proportion of live, early apoptotic and dead cells was detected using flow cytometry. Results: A PEMF of 125?Hz and 625?Hz for 24?h-48?h increased proliferation activity in the 2 types of cancer cell lines used, i.e. COLO-320DM and ZR-75-1. In contrast, any of employed methods did not confirm a significant inhibitory effect of hypothetic PVMP field on tumor cells. PMID:23781986

Loja, Tomas; Stehlikova, Olga; Palko, Lukas; Vrba, Kamil; Rampl, Ivan; Klabusay, Martin

2013-06-19

68

Magnetic Flux Ropes in the Solar Photosphere: The Vector Magnetic Field under Active Region Filaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an observational search for evidence of prominence-associated magnetic flux ropes at the photospheric level in plage regions away from sunspots. Although there are a few cases of supposed flux rope geometry in the photosphere of complex sunspot regions (notably ``delta sunspots''), such cases appear to be fairly rare and therefore do not contribute significantly to the suspected

B. W. Lites

2005-01-01

69

Unraveling the relationship between electromagnetic field intensity and the magnetic modulation of the wave vector of coupled surface plasmon polaritons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic-field-induced wave-vector modulation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is analytically derived for dielectric/metal and dielectric/metal/dielectric systems when a very thin magneto-optical metallic film is placed at different positions in the metal. In the simplest case of a single dielectric/metal interface, the SPP wave-vector modulation is found to be proportional to the intensity of the electromagnetic field at the location of the magneto-optically active layer. For the more complex dielectric/metal/dielectric systems, the SPPs existing at each dielectric/metal interface interact to give rise to modes with a symmetric- and anti-symmetric-like character. We show that in this case the relationship between wave-vector modulation and field distribution is more complex and does not follow a proportionality law for coupled eigenmodes.

Torrado, Jorge F.; González-Díaz, Juan B.; García-Martín, Antonio; Armelles, Gaspar

2013-07-01

70

FIRST SYNOPTIC MAPS OF PHOTOSPHERIC VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD FROM SOLIS/VSM: NON-RADIAL MAGNETIC FIELDS AND HEMISPHERIC PATTERN OF HELICITY  

SciTech Connect

We use daily full-disk vector magnetograms from Vector Spectromagnetograph on Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun system to synthesize the first Carrington maps of the photospheric vector magnetic field. We describe these maps and make a comparison of the observed radial field with the radial field estimate from line-of-sight magnetograms. Furthermore, we employ these maps to study the hemispheric pattern of current helicity density, H{sub c} , during the rising phase of solar cycle 24. The longitudinal average over the 23 consecutive solar rotations shows a clear signature of the hemispheric helicity rule, i.e., H{sub c} is predominantly negative in the north and positive in the south. Although our data include the early phase of cycle 24, there appears to be no evidence for a possible (systematic) reversal of the hemispheric helicity rule at the beginning of the cycle as predicted by some dynamo models. Furthermore, we compute the hemispheric pattern in active region latitudes (-30 Degree-Sign {<=} {theta} {<=} 30 Degree-Sign ) separately for weak (100 G < |B{sub r} | < 500 G) and strong (|B{sub r} | > 1000 G) radial magnetic fields. We find that while the current helicity of strong fields follows the well-known hemispheric rule (i.e., {theta} {center_dot} H{sub c} < 0), H{sub c} of weak fields exhibits an inverse hemispheric behavior (i.e., {theta} {center_dot} H{sub c} > 0), albeit with large statistical scatter. We discuss two plausible scenarios to explain the opposite hemispheric trend of helicity in weak and strong field regions.

Gosain, S.; Pevtsov, A. A. [National Solar Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A. [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP), Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

2013-07-20

71

First Synoptic Maps of Photospheric Vector Magnetic Field from SOLIS/VSM: Non-radial Magnetic Fields and Hemispheric Pattern of Helicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use daily full-disk vector magnetograms from Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Solar Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) system to synthesize the first Carrington maps of the photospheric vector magnetic field. We describe these maps and make a comparison of observed radial field with the radial field estimate from LOS magnetograms. Further, we employ these maps to study the hemispheric pattern of current helicity density, Hc, during the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. Longitudinal average over the 23 consecutive solar rotations shows a clear signature of the hemispheric helicity rule, i.e. Hc is predominantly negative in the North and positive in South. The hemispheric pattern for individual Carrington rotations is statistically weak, consistent with previous studies of active regions’ helicity. Although our data include the early phase of cycle 24, there appears no evidence for a possible (systematic) reversal of the hemispheric helicity rule at the beginning of cycle as predicted by some dynamo models. Further, we compute the hemispheric pattern in active region latitudes (-30 ? ? ? 30) separately for weak (100< |Br| <500 G)and strong (|Br| >1000 G) radial magnetic fields. We find that while the current helicity of strong fields follows the well-known hemispheric rule (i.e., ?.Hc < 0), Hc of weak fields exhibits an inverse hemispheric behavior (i.e., ?.Hc > 0) albeit with large statistical scatter.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): We use daily full-disk vector magnetograms from Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Solar Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) system to synthesize the first Carrington maps of the photospheric vector magnetic field. We describe these maps and make a comparison of observed radial field with the radial field estimate from LOS magnetograms. Further, we employ these maps to study the hemispheric pattern of current helicity density, Hc, during the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. Longitudinal average over the 23 consecutive solar rotations shows a clear signature of the hemispheric helicity rule, i.e. Hc is predominantly negative in the North and positive in South. The hemispheric pattern for individual Carrington rotations is statistically weak, consistent with previous studies of active regions’ helicity. Although our data include the early phase of cycle 24, there appears no evidence for a possible (systematic) reversal of the hemispheric helicity rule at the beginning of cycle as predicted by some dynamo models. Further, we compute the hemispheric pattern in active region latitudes (-30 ? ? ? 30) separately for weak (100< |Br| <500 G)and strong (|Br| >1000 G) radial magnetic fields. We find that while the current helicity of strong fields follows the well-known hemispheric rule (i.e., ?.Hc < 0), Hc of weak fields exhibits an inverse hemispheric behavior (i.e., ?.Hc > 0) albeit with large statistical scatter.

Gusain, Sanjay; Pevtsov, A. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.

2013-07-01

72

GLOBAL TWIST OF SUNSPOT MAGNETIC FIELDS OBTAINED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION VECTOR MAGNETOGRAMS  

SciTech Connect

The presence of fine structures in sunspot vector magnetic fields has been confirmed from Hinode as well as other earlier observations. We studied 43 sunspots based on the data sets taken from ASP/DLSP, Hinode (SOT/SP), and SVM (USO). In this Letter, (1) we introduce the concept of signed shear angle (SSA) for sunspots and establish its importance for non-force-free fields. (2) We find that the sign of global {alpha} (force-free parameter) is well correlated with that of the global SSA and the photospheric chirality of sunspots. (3) Local {alpha} patches of opposite signs are present in the umbra of each sunspot. The amplitude of the spatial variation of local {alpha} in the umbra is typically of the order of the global {alpha} of the sunspot. (4) We find that the local {alpha} is distributed as alternately positive and negative filaments in the penumbra. The amplitude of azimuthal variation of the local {alpha} in the penumbra is approximately an order of magnitude larger than that in the umbra. The contributions of the local positive and negative currents and {alpha} in the penumbra cancel each other giving almost no contribution for their global values for the whole sunspot. (5) Arc-like structures (partial rings) with a sign opposite to that of the dominant sign of {alpha} of the umbral region are seen at the umbral-penumbral boundaries of some sunspots. (6) Most of the sunspots studied belong to the minimum epoch of the 23rd solar cycle and do not follow the so-called hemispheric helicity rule.

Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Venkatakrishnan, P. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur-313 001 (India); Sankarasubramanian, K. [Space Astronomy and Instrumentation Division, ISRO Satellite Center, Airport Road, Vimanapura, Bangalore-560017 (India)], E-mail: stiwari@prl.res.in, E-mail: pvk@prl.res.in, E-mail: sankark@isac.gov.in

2009-09-10

73

How do inaccuracies and unresolved structures in the measured solar photospheric magnetic vector influence the accuracy of coronal magnetic field models?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar magnetic fields are usually extrapolated into the corona starting from photospheric mag-netic measurements that can suffer from significant uncertainties caused by the presence of unresolved fine structures due to a limited spatial resolution and by the limited polarimet-ric accuracy and spectral resolution. We investigate how these inaccuracies in the measured photospheric magnetic field vector influence the accuracy of the extrapolated coronal mag-netic field. We compare non-linear force-free coronal magnetic field extrapolations from a 3-D radiation MHD simulation snapshot with corresponding extrapolations from synthetic vector magnetograms. The synthetic magnetograms contain instrumental effects such as noise, limited spatial and spectral resolution and the effect of employing a filter instrument. The parameters are chosen in particular to mimic the effects of the Hinode/SOT and the future Solar Orbiter PHI instruments, respectively. We discuss, how photospheric structures, which are inherent in the MHD snapshot, but not resolved in the photospheric magnetic field measurements, influence the quality of the computed coronal magnetic field model.

Wiegelmann, Thomas; Yelles, Lotfi; Solanki, Sami; Lagg, Andreas

74

Singularly perturbed vector fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geometrically invariant concept of singularly perturbed systems of ordinary differential equations (singularly perturbed vector fields) is proposed in this paper. Singularly perturbed vector fields can be represented locally as singularly perturbed systems (for corresponding coordinate system choice. The paper focuses on possible ways of fast and slow directions/manifolds evaluations. A special algorithm for the evaluation is proposed. The algorithm is called as a global quasi-linearization procedure. A practical application of the proposed algorithm for numerical simulations is the main issue of the paper.

Bykov, V.; Goldfarb, I.; Gol'dshtein, V.

2006-12-01

75

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) Vector Magnetic Field Pipeline: Optimization of the Spectral Line Inversion Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Very Fast Inversion of the Stokes Vector (VFISV) is a Milne-Eddington spectral line inversion code used to determine the magnetic and thermodynamic parameters of the solar photosphere from observations of the Stokes vector in the 6173 Å Fe uc(i) line by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We report on the modifications made to the original VFISV inversion code in order to optimize its operation within the HMI data pipeline and provide the smoothest solution in active regions. The changes either sped up the computation or reduced the frequency with which the algorithm failed to converge to a satisfactory solution. Additionally, coding bugs which were detected and fixed in the original VFISV release are reported here.

Centeno, R.; Schou, J.; Hayashi, K.; Norton, A.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.

2014-03-01

76

Three dimensional magnetic fields in extra high speed modified Lundell alternators computed by a combined vector-scalar magnetic potential finite element method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3D finite element (FE) approach was developed and implemented for computation of global magnetic fields in a 14.3 kVA modified Lundell alternator. The essence of the new method is the combined use of magnetic vector and scalar potential formulations in 3D FEs. This approach makes it practical, using state of the art supercomputer resources, to globally analyze magnetic fields and operating performances of rotating machines which have truly 3D magnetic flux patterns. The 3D FE-computed fields and machine inductances as well as various machine performance simulations of the 14.3 kVA machine are presented in this paper and its two companion papers.

Demerdash, N. A.; Wang, R.; Secunde, R.

1992-01-01

77

Vector Magnetic Property Measurement in Magnetic Steel Sheets under High Magnetic Flux Density Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to develop higher torque, lower weight and smaller sized magnetic actuators for driving electrical vehicles and robot arms, designing under high magnetic field and high exciting voltage is most effective. It is therefore very important to understand vector magnetic properties in electrical steel sheets under high magnetic flux density conditions. The vector magnetic properties mean the relationship between the magnetic flux density vector and the magnetic field strength vector and it is very difficult to measure the each component under high magnetic flux density conditions because of the magnetic saturation and the magnetic anisotropy. In this paper, accurate measurement techniques of the vector magnetic properties over 1.5T and measured vector magnetic properties are reported and discussed.

Maeda, Yoshitaka; Todaka, Takashi; Enokizono, Masato

78

A combined vector potential-scalar potential method for FE computation of 3D magnetic fields in electrical devices with iron cores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of combined use of magnetic vector potential based finite-element (FE) formulations and magnetic scalar potential (MSP) based formulations for computation of three-dimensional magnetostatic fields is introduced. In this method, the curl-component of the magnetic field intensity is computed by a reduced magnetic vector potential. This field intensity forms the basic of a forcing function for a global magnetic scalar potential solution over the entire volume of the region. This method allows one to include iron portions sandwiched in between conductors within partitioned current-carrying subregions. The method is most suited for large-scale global-type 3-D magnetostatic field computations in electrical devices, and in particular rotating electric machinery.

Wang, R.; Demerdash, N. A.

1991-01-01

79

Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students visualize the magnetic field of a strong permanent magnet using a compass. The lesson begins with an analogy to the effect of the earth's magnetic field on a compass. Students see the connection that the compass simply responds to the earth's magnetic field since it is the closest, strongest field, and therefore the compass will respond to the field of the permanent magnets, allowing them the ability to map the field of that magnet in the activity. This information will be important in designing a solution to the grand challenge in activity 4 of the unit.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

80

Neutrino mass effects on vector and tensor CMB anisotropies in the presence of a primordial magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

If a primordial magnetic field (PMF) is present during photon decoupling and afterward, a finite neutrino mass can affect all modes of the CMB. In this work, we expand on earlier studies of the scalar mode effects by constructing the vector and tensor-mode equations in the presence of massive neutrinos and a PMF. We compute the power spectrum of the various modes in an illustrative example and find that the neutrino mass can significantly affect the vector and tensor modes when a PMF exists, while the effects are negligible for no PMF. The most prominent result of the present analysis is the behavior of the EE (grad-like polarization power spectrum) component of the tensor mode at low multipoles. For massive neutrinos the EE mode can become comparable to the observed primary anisotropy. Therefore, if and when the EE mode power spectrum is measured at low multipoles the possibility exists to place a strong constraint on the sum of the neutrino masses.

Kojima, Kazuhiko; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Yamazaki, Dai G.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and Division of Theoretical Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku 113-0033 (Japan); Division of Theoretical Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and Division of Theoretical Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA and Division of Theoretical Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2008-08-15

81

Combined magnetic vector-scalar potential finite element computation of 3D magnetic field and performance of modified Lundell alternators in Space Station applications. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of combined use of magnetic vector potential (MVP) based finite element (FE) formulations and magnetic scalar potential (MSP) based FE formulations for computation of three-dimensional (3D) magnetostatic fields is developed. This combined MVP-MSP 3D-FE method leads to considerable reduction by nearly a factor of 3 in the number of unknowns in comparison to the number of unknowns which must be computed in global MVP based FE solutions. This method allows one to incorporate portions of iron cores sandwiched in between coils (conductors) in current-carrying regions. Thus, it greatly simplifies the geometries of current carrying regions (in comparison with the exclusive MSP based methods) in electric machinery applications. A unique feature of this approach is that the global MSP solution is single valued in nature, that is, no branch cut is needed. This is again a superiority over the exclusive MSP based methods. A Newton-Raphson procedure with a concept of an adaptive relaxation factor was developed and successfully used in solving the 3D-FE problem with magnetic material anisotropy and nonlinearity. Accordingly, this combined MVP-MSP 3D-FE method is most suited for solution of large scale global type magnetic field computations in rotating electric machinery with very complex magnetic circuit geometries, as well as nonlinear and anisotropic material properties.

Wang, Ren H.

1991-01-01

82

Combined magnetic vector-scalar potential finite element computation of 3D magnetic field and performance of modified Lundell alternators in Space Station applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of combined use of magnetic vector potential (MVP) based finite element (FE) formulations and magnetic scalar potential (MSP) based FE formulations for computation of three-dimensional (3D) magnetostatic fields is developed. This combined MVP-MSP 3D-FE method leads to considerable reduction by nearly a factor of 3 in the number of unknowns in comparison to the number of unknowns which must be computed in global MVP based FE solutions. This method allows one to incorporate portions of iron cores sandwiched in between coils (conductors) in current-carrying regions. Thus, it greatly simplifies the geometries of current carrying regions (in comparison with the exclusive MSP based methods) in electric machinery applications. A unique feature of this approach is that the global MSP solution is single valued in nature, that is, no branch cut is needed. This is again a superiority over the exclusive MSP based methods. A Newton-Raphson procedure with a concept of an adaptive relaxation factor was developed and successfully used in solving the 3D-FE problem with magnetic material anisotropy and nonlinearity. Accordingly, this combined MVP-MSP 3D-FE method is most suited for solution of large scale global type magnetic field computations in rotating electric machinery with very complex magnetic circuit geometries, as well as nonlinear and anisotropic material properties.

Wang, Ren H.

1991-02-01

83

Active Region Lorentz Force: A CGEM Data Product Based on HMI Vector Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new data product from the CGEM (Coronal Global Evolution Model) collaboration that estimates the Lorentz force in active regions (ARs) based on HMI vector magnetogram patches. Following Fisher et al. (2012), we compute three components of the integrated Lorentz force over the outer solar atmosphere every 12 minutes throughout an AR's disk passage. These estimates, differenced during solar eruptive events, can provide valuable diagnostics on dynamic processes. We perform a preliminary survey on the major events with HMI's four-year data archive. We explore and characterize some of the systematic uncertainties associated with these estimates.

Sun, Xudong

2014-06-01

84

The effect of line damping, magneto-optics and parasitic light on the derivation of sunspot vector magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The least square fitting of Stokes observations of sunspots using a Milne-Eddington-Unno model appears to lead, in many circumstances, to various inconsistencies such as anomalously large doppler widths and, hence, small magnetic fields which are significantly below those inferred solely from the Zeeman splitting in the intensity profile. It is found that the introduction of additional physics into the model such as the inclusion of damping wings and magneto-optic birefrigence significantly improves the fit to Stokes parameters. Model fits excluding the intensity profile, i.e., of both magnitude as well as spectral shape of the polarization parameters alone, suggest that parasitic light in the intensity profile may also be a source of inconsistencies. The consequences of the physical changes on the vector properties of the field derived from the Fe I lambda 6173 line for the 17 November 1975 spot as well as on the thermodynamic state are discussed. A Doppler width delta lambda (D) - 25mA is bound to be consistent with a low spot temperature and microturbulence, and a damping constant of a = 0.2.

Skumanich, A.; Lites, B. W.

1985-01-01

85

Deep-sea magnetic vector anomalies over the Hakurei hydrothermal field and the Bayonnaise knoll caldera, Izu-Ogasawara arc, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted deep-sea magnetic measurements using autonomous underwater vehicles in the Bayonnaise knoll caldera, the Izu-Ogasawara island arc, which hosts the large Hakurei hydrothermal field. We improved the conventional correction method applied for removing the effect of vehicle magnetization, thus greatly enhancing the precision of the resulting vector anomalies. The magnetization distribution obtained from the vector anomaly data shows a ˜2 km wide belt of high magnetization, trending NNW-SSE going through the caldera, and a low-magnetization zone ˜300 m by ˜500 m in area, extending over the Hakurei site. Comparison between the results obtained using the vector anomaly and the total intensity anomaly shows that the magnetic field is determined more accurately, especially in areas of sparse data distribution, when the vector anomaly rather than the total intensity anomaly is used. We suggest a geologically motivated model that basaltic volcanism associated with the back-arc rifting occurred after the formation of the caldera, resulting in the formation of the high-magnetization belt underneath the silicic caldera. The Hakurei hydrothermal field lies in the intersection of the basaltic volcanism belt and the caldera wall fault, suggesting a mechanism that hot water generated by the heat of the volcanic activity has been spouting out through the caldera wall fault. The deposit apparently extends beyond the low-magnetization zone, climbing up the caldera wall. This may indicate that hot water rising from the deep through the alteration zone is transported laterally when it comes near the seafloor along fissures and fractures in the caldera wall.

Honsho, Chie; Ura, Tamaki; Kim, Kangsoo

2013-10-01

86

Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page and its annex describes, in trivial terms, the physics of magnetic fields and the history of its discovery. Included is the work of Halley, Oersted, Ampere and Maxwell. It also describes a way of demonstrating it in the classroom, using a vu-graph projector. Later sections #5, #5a and #6 extend this to magnetic field lines and electromagnetism.

Stern, David

2005-01-04

87

Vector Fields and Line Integrals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Oliver Knill and Dale Winter for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module introduces vector fields, the concept of "work," and the line integral. This is one of a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Knill, Oliver; Winter, Dale

2010-05-20

88

Magnetic properties modeling of soft magnetic composite materials using two-dimensional vector hybrid hysteresis model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2-D vector hybrid hysteresis model for a soft magnetic composite (SMC) material is established, which is combined with classical Preisach model and Stoner-Wohlfarth (S-W) model. The rotational magnetic properties of SMC materials were studied using the vector model, and the computed results were compared with the experimental measurement. It is shown that the vector hybrid model can effectively simulate the rotational magnetic properties under low magnetization fields.

Li, Dandan; Liu, Fugui; Li, Yongjian; Zhao, Zhigang; Zhang, Changgeng; Yang, Qingxin

2014-05-01

89

Nonlinear Force-free Field Extrapolation of a Coronal Magnetic Flux Rope Supporting a Large-scale Solar Filament from a Photospheric Vector Magnetogram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar filaments are commonly thought to be supported in magnetic dips, in particular, in those of magnetic flux ropes (FRs). In this Letter, based on the observed photospheric vector magnetogram, we implement a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of a coronal magnetic FR that supports a large-scale intermediate filament between an active region and a weak polarity region. This result is a first, in the sense that current NLFFF extrapolations including the presence of FRs are limited to relatively small-scale filaments that are close to sunspots and along main polarity inversion lines (PILs) with strong transverse field and magnetic shear, and the existence of an FR is usually predictable. In contrast, the present filament lies along the weak-field region (photospheric field strength <~ 100 G), where the PIL is very fragmented due to small parasitic polarities on both sides of the PIL and the transverse field has a low signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, extrapolating a large-scale FR in such a case represents a far more difficult challenge. We demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code is sufficient for the challenge. The numerically reproduced magnetic dips of the extrapolated FR match observations of the filament and its barbs very well, which strongly supports the FR-dip model for filaments. The filament is stably sustained because the FR is weakly twisted and strongly confined by the overlying closed arcades.

Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Feng, Xueshang; Hu, Qiang

2014-05-01

90

Initial vector magnetic anomaly map from Magsat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global magnetic component anomaly field maps have been derived from the Magsat vector magnetometer data obtained from November 1979 through May 1980. The amplitude of variations of the components over the maps are between 10 and 15 nT, well above the noise in the data. Averaged data, in 2-by-2 deg blocks, exhibit standard errors of the mean of about 1 nT over most of the X and Z maps, and about 2 nT over most of the Y maps. Errors rise to about twice these amounts near the auroral belts. Most of the anomalies in the component data are consistent with a crustal magnetization model which incorporates dipoles aligned only in the direction of the main field. However, there appear to be some regions which require dipoles aligned in some other direction i.e., remanent magnetization.

Langel, R. A.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Phillips, J. D.; Horner, R. J.

1982-01-01

91

The Lorentz transformations of the vectors E, B, P, M and the external electric fields from a stationary superconducting wire with a steady current and from a stationary permanent magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of this paper we review the fundamental difference between the usual transformations of the three-dimensional (3D) vectors of the electric field E, the magnetic field B, the polarization P, the magnetization M and the Lorentz transformations of the 4D geometric quantities, vectors E, B, P, M, with many additional explanations and several new results. In the second part, we have discussed the existence of the electric field vector E outside a stationary superconducting wire with a steady current and also different experiments for the detection of such electric fields. Furthermore, a fundamental prediction of the existence of the external electric field vector E from a stationary permanent magnet is considered. These electric fields are used for the resolution of the "charge-magnet paradox" with 4D geometric quantities for a qualitative explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in terms of fields and not, as usual, in terms of the vector potential and for a qualitative explanation that the particle interference is not a test of a Lorentz-violating model of electrodynamics according to which a magnetic solenoid generates not only a static magnetic field but also a static electric field.

Ivezi?, Tomislav

2013-04-01

92

ESTIMATING ELECTRIC FIELDS FROM VECTOR MAGNETOGRAM SEQUENCES  

SciTech Connect

Determining the electric field distribution on the Sun's photosphere is essential for quantitative studies of how energy flows from the Sun's photosphere, through the corona, and into the heliosphere. This electric field also provides valuable input for data-driven models of the solar atmosphere and the Sun-Earth system. We show how observed vector magnetogram time series can be used to estimate the photospheric electric field. Our method uses a 'poloidal-toroidal decomposition' (PTD) of the time derivative of the vector magnetic field. These solutions provide an electric field whose curl obeys all three components of Faraday's Law. The PTD solutions are not unique; the gradient of a scalar potential can be added to the PTD electric field without affecting consistency with Faraday's Law. We then present an iterative technique to determine a potential function consistent with ideal MHD evolution; but this field is also not a unique solution to Faraday's Law. Finally, we explore a variational approach that minimizes an energy functional to determine a unique electric field, a generalization of Longcope's 'Minimum Energy Fit'. The PTD technique, the iterative technique, and the variational technique are used to estimate electric fields from a pair of synthetic vector magnetograms taken from an MHD simulation; and these fields are compared with the simulation's known electric fields. The PTD and iteration techniques compare favorably to results from existing velocity inversion techniques. These three techniques are then applied to a pair of vector magnetograms of solar active region NOAA AR8210, to demonstrate the methods with real data. Careful examination of the results from all three methods indicates that evolution of the magnetic vector by itself does not provide enough information to determine the true electric field in the photosphere. Either more information from other measurements, or physical constraints other than those considered here are necessary to find the true electric field. However, we show it is possible to construct physically reasonable electric field distributions whose curl matches the evolution of all three components of B. We also show that the horizontal and vertical Poynting flux patterns derived from the three techniques are similar to one another for the cases investigated.

Fisher, G. H.; Welsch, B. T.; Abbett, W. P.; Bercik, D. J. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

2010-05-20

93

Studies of Regular and Random Magnetic Fields in the ISM: Statistics of Polarization Vectors and the Chandrasekhar-Fermi Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarimetry is extensively used as a tool to trace the interstellar magnetic field projected on the plane of sky. Moreover, it is also possible to estimate the magnetic field intensity from polarimetric maps based on the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. In this work, we present results for turbulent, isothermal, three-dimensional simulations of sub/supersonic and sub/super-Alfvénic cases. With the cubes, assuming perfect grain alignment, we created synthetic polarimetric maps for different orientations of the mean magnetic field with respect to the line of sight (LOS). We show that the dispersion of the polarization angle depends on the angle of the mean magnetic field regarding the LOS and on the Alfvénic Mach number. However, the second-order structure function of the polarization angle follows the relation SF~l?, ? being dependent exclusively on the Alfvénic Mach number. The results show an anticorrelation between the polarization degree and the column density, with exponent ?~-0.5, in agreement with observations, which is explained by the increase in the dispersion of the polarization angle along the LOS within denser regions. However, this effect was observed exclusively on supersonic, but sub-Alfvénic, simulations. For the super-Alfvénic, and the subsonic model, the polarization degree showed to be independent of the column density. Our major quantitative result is a generalized equation for the CF method, which allowed us to determine the magnetic field strength from the polarization maps with errors <20%. We also account for the role of observational resolution on the CF method.

Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego; Lazarian, Alex; Kowal, Grzegorz

2008-05-01

94

Comment on ``Resolving the 180° Ambiguity in Solar Vector Magnetic Field Data: Evaluating the Effects of Noise, Spatial Resolution, and Method Assumptions''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper, Leka et al. ( Solar Phys. 260, 83, 2009) constructed a synthetic vector magnetogram representing a three-dimensional magnetic structure defined only within a fraction of an arcsec in height. They rebinned the magnetogram to simulate conditions of limited spatial resolution and then compared the results of various azimuth disambiguation methods on the resampled data. Methods relying on the physical calculation of potential and/or non-potential magnetic fields failed in nearly the same, extended parts of the field of view and Leka et al. ( Solar Phys. 260, 83, 2009) attributed these failures to the limited spatial resolution. This study shows that the failure of these methods is not due to the limited spatial resolution but due to the narrowly defined test data. Such narrow magnetic structures are not realistic in the real Sun. Physics-based disambiguation methods, adapted for solar magnetic fields extending to infinity, are not designed to handle such data; hence, they could only fail this test. I demonstrate how an appropriate limited-resolution disambiguation test can be performed by constructing a synthetic vector magnetogram very similar to that of Leka et al. (Solar Phys. 260, 83, 2009) but representing a structure defined in the semi-infinite space above the solar photosphere. For this magnetogram I find that even a simple potential-field disambiguation method manages to resolve the ambiguity very successfully, regardless of limited spatial resolution. Therefore, despite the conclusions of Leka et al. ( Solar Phys. 260, 83, 2009), a proper limited-spatial-resolution test of azimuth disambiguation methods is yet to be performed in order to identify the best ideas and algorithms.

Georgoulis, Manolis K.

2012-02-01

95

Vector finite elements for electromagnetic field computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel structure for the finite-element analysis of vector fields is presented. This structure uses the affine transformation to represent vectors and vector operations over triangular domains. Two-dimensional high-order vector elements are derived that are consistent with Whitney forms. One-form elements preserve the continuity of the tangential components of a vector field across element boundaries, while two-form elements preserve the

Zoltan J. Cendes

1991-01-01

96

Spectral-Density Mapping of 13C ?- 1H ?Vector Dynamics Using Dipolar Relaxation Rates Measured at Several Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral-density mapping of a 13C ?- 1H ?vector of Leu 10in the 22-residue peptide hormone motilin [P. Allard, J. Jarvet, A. Ehrenberg, and A. Gräslund, J. Biomol. NMR5,133-146 (1995)] is extended in this paper to three polarizing fields 9.4, 11.7, and 14.1 T in order to improve the accuracy of the calculated spectral-density function J(?) and to extend the sampling range up to 750 MHz. The problem with a usually large relative error in J(? H) is eliminated since the generally more precise J(? H- ? C) and J(? H+ ? C) determined at other fields appear at nearly the same frequencies. The fitting of dynamic models to the points of spectral density was made with error weighting, and the influence of J(? H) was found to be negligible. Therefore, the high-frequency part of the spectral-density function is determined essentially without influence from the two transverse-type relaxation rates. In the case of a carbon-proton vector, the relaxation is mainly determined by dipolar interaction and is only weakly influenced by other relaxation mechanisms, which makes it particularly suitable for the spectral-density mapping technique. The measured relaxation rates in the time domain are transformed into the frequency domain by spectral-density mapping, and the slopes in different frequency regions are important parameters when comparing experimental data with theoretical models of motion. Using an adjustable internuclear distance reff, combined with the model-free approach, it is possible to obtain a reasonable fit to measured spectral-density points at J(0) and around J(? C). At the same time, however, the high-frequency slope of the spectral-density function defined by J(? H- ? C) and J(? H+ ? C) could not be reproduced.

Jarvet, Jüri; Allard, Peter; Ehrenberg, Anders; Gräslund, Astrid

97

Satellite to study earth's magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.

1979-01-01

98

MIT Phyics 8.02: Vector Fields - Mapping Fields Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java simulation that illustrates the structure of two-dimensional vector fields using the "grass seeds" (or "iron filings") representation. Users enter x and y components for a field, then choose from a variety of field examples: two-point charges, dipole in constant or no field, two-line currents, radiating dipole, and dipole in a field with gradient. The applet will display the chosen field in either a grass seeds electric field or as equipotential lines. For more advanced users, the applet provides functions for yielding polar coordinates. This item is part of a collection of visualizations developed by the MIT TEAL project to supplement an introductory course in calculus-based electricity and magnetism. Lecture notes, labs, and presentations are also available as part of MIT's Open Courseware Repository: MIT Open Courseware: Electricity and Magnetism

2010-03-31

99

Vector field theories in cosmology  

SciTech Connect

Recently proposed theories based on the cosmic presence of a vectorial field are compared and contrasted. In particular the so-called Einstein aether theory is discussed in parallel with a recent proposal of a strained space-time theory (cosmic defect theory). We show that the latter fits reasonably well the cosmic observed data with only one, or at most two, adjustable parameters, while other vector theories use much more. The Newtonian limits are also compared. Finally we show that the cosmic defect theory may be considered as a special case of the aether theories, corresponding to a more compact and consistent paradigm.

Tartaglia, A.; Radicella, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico and INFN section of Turin Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)

2007-10-15

100

Introduction to Vector Field Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vector field visualization techniques are essential to help us understand the complex dynamics of flow fields. These can be found in a wide range of applications such as study of flows around an aircraft, the blood flow in our heart chambers, ocean circulation models, and severe weather predictions. The vector fields from these various applications can be visually depicted using a number of techniques such as particle traces and advecting textures. In this tutorial, we present several fundamental algorithms in flow visualization including particle integration, particle tracking in time-dependent flows, and seeding strategies. For flows near surfaces, a wide variety of synthetic texture-based algorithms have been developed to depict near-body flow features. The most common approach is based on the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) algorithm. There also exist extensions of LIC to support more flexible texture generations for 3D flow data. This tutorial reviews these algorithms. Tensor fields are found in several real-world applications and also require the aid of visualization to help users understand their data sets. Examples where one can find tensor fields include mechanics to see how material respond to external forces, civil engineering and geomechanics of roads and bridges, and the study of neural pathway via diffusion tensor imaging. This tutorial will provide an overview of the different tensor field visualization techniques, discuss basic tensor decompositions, and go into detail on glyph based methods, deformation based methods, and streamline based methods. Practical examples will be used when presenting the methods; and applications from some case studies will be used as part of the motivation.

Kao, David; Shen, Han-Wei

2010-01-01

101

Representation of magnetic fields in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several methods by which a magnetic field in space can be represented are reviewed with particular attention to problems of the observed geomagnetic field. Time dependence is assumed to be negligible, and five main classes of representation are described by vector potential, scalar potential, orthogonal vectors, Euler potentials, and expanded magnetic field.

Stern, D. P.

1975-01-01

102

3D vector magnetic properties of soft magnetic composite material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even under one-dimensional (1D) alternating or 2D rotating magnetic excitation, a magnetic material shows 3D magnetic property due to the rotation of magnetic domains. Only when the 3D properties are properly considered the understanding and modelling of the magnetisation process can be complete. This paper summarises our work about the investigation on the magnetic properties of soft magnetic composite (SMC) material under 3D vector magnetisations by using a 3D magnetic property tester. The core loss models under 3D flux density vectors are analysed and applied to predict the core losses of a permanent magnet claw pole/transverse flux motor with SMC core.

Guo, Y. G.; Zhu, J. G.; Lin, Z. W.; Zhong, J. J.

2006-07-01

103

A data-driven time-dependent three-dimensional MHD simulation of solar active regions with HMI vector magnetic field data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of the solar active regions by means of our data-driven time-dependent three-dimensional MHD simulation model using the HMI vector magnetic field data. The simulations start with pre-emergence phase, or very early phase of the active region so that the development of the loop structures and other signatures of the active regions will be traced. We tested several cases, mainly for AR 11158 of Feb. 2011. Either of the plasma motion or electric field, inferred from the DAVE4VM (Schuck, 2008) is given to the solar-surface boundary surface of the simulation box to which the method of projected normal characteristics (Nakagawa et al. 1987; Wu and Wang, 1987) is applied to ensure the numerical stability and consistency in physics. As our first attempt, we choose the ideal MHD equations without any additional terms except gravity. The results of the simulation show that the method can trace some signatures of the solar active regions, such as development of the magnetic-field loop and (nonlinear) twist. Not having all information at the simulation initial time, nor all physics processes on the photosphere, at transition region, and in the solar corona, agreements in plasma quantities with the other observation such as AIA image data are limited. No flare-like eruptions were obtained under a simulation setting we currently test. The temporal sequences of three-component vector data can give good constraints on the MHD simulation studies of the sub-Alfvenic region, though, we will need more observations, and probably assumptions, to fulfill the physics system. The MHD simulation can be a powerful tool to bridge the measurements and observation, helping interpretation and giving requirement.

Hayashi, Keiji; Hoeksema, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Sun, X.; Bobra, M.; Norton, A. A.

2013-07-01

104

HMI Magnetic Field Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on SDO has measured magnetic field, velocity, and intensity in the photosphere over the full disk continuously since May 2010 with arc-second resolution. Scalar images are measured every 45 seconds. From these basic observables the pipeline automatically identifies and tracks active regions on the solar disk. The vector magnetic field and a variety of summary quantities are determined every 720s in these tracked Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARPS). Synoptic and synchronic maps are constructed daily and after each Carrington Rotation Most data products are available with definitive scientific calibration after a few day deal at and in a quick-look near-real-time version a few minutes after the observations are made. Uncertainties are determined for the derived products. All of the magnetic field products along with movies and images suitable for browsing are available at http:://Hmi.stanford.edu/magnetic. Other products, e.g. coronal field over active regions, can be computed on demand.

Hoeksema, Jon T.; HMI Magnetic Field Team

2013-07-01

105

Generic complex vector fields in R2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study what kind of general complex vector fields in R2 one is most likely to encounter and study their singularities. We first construct a dense and open subset of nonvanishing complex vector fields under certain topology, whose elements are called generic complex vector fields. Then we show that a generic complex vector field can be reduced to either the Cauchy-Riemann operator or a Mizohata type operator or a cuspidal operator locally. Finally we note that an integral of any cuspidal operator is of the form (xy+x3,y) locally after coordinates changes.

Le, Anbo

2008-09-01

106

MIT Physics 8.02 - Vector Fields Visualizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the MIT TEAL/Studio Physics Project, this web page contains a set of simulations relating to vector fields. Each of the visualizations was developed to supplement the MIT Physics 8.02 course in calculus-based Electricity and Magnetism. Topics include vector cross product, interactive field mapping, path and surface integrals, circulating flow of particles, particle sink, and flow fields with a variety of animated patterns. In addition, the TEAL project has made course notes, labs, and presentations available as part of its Open Courseware Repository: MIT Open Courseware: Electricity and Magnetism

Belcher, John

2010-03-30

107

Fluxgate based detection of magnetic nanoparticle dynamics in a rotating magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a measurement setup allowing the investigation of the dynamics of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions in a rotating magnetic field. To determine the vector of the sample magnetization, sensitive fluxgate magnetometers are utilized detecting the sample's stray field. The phase lag between sample magnetization and rotating magnetic field vector is determined via the cross correlation spectrum. The phase lag

Jan Dieckhoff; Meinhard Schilling; Frank Ludwig

2011-01-01

108

Classical bouncing Universes from vector fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the anisotropic Universe filled with massless vector field in the General Relativity frame we obtain bouncing solution for one of scale factors. We obtain the Universe with finite maximal energy density, finite value of R,RR,RR and non-zero value of a scale factor for directions transverse to a vector field. Such a bounce can be also obtained for a massive vector field with kinetic initial conditions, which gives isotropic low energy limit. We discuss the existence of a bounce for a massless vector field with additional matter fields, such as cosmological constant or dust. We also discuss bouncing solution for massless vector field domination in n+2-dimensional space-time.

Artymowski, Micha?; Lalak, Zygmunt

2012-01-01

109

The magnetic field investigation on Cluster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic field investigation of the Cluster four-spacecraft mission is designed to provide intercalibrated measurements of the B magnetic field vector. The instrumentation and data processing of the mission are discussed. The instrumentation is identical on the four spacecraft. It consists of two triaxial fluxgate sensors and of a failure tolerant data processing unit. The combined analysis of the four spacecraft data will yield such parameters as the current density vector, wave vectors, and the geometry and structure of discontinuities.

Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Southwood, D. J.; Musmann, G.; Luhr, H.; Neubauer, F. M.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Riedler, W.; Heyn, M. F.; Acuna, M. H.

1988-01-01

110

Magnetic fields in astrophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence of cosmic magnetism is examined, taking into account the Zeeman effect, beats in atomic transitions, the Hanle effect, Faraday rotation, gyro-lines, and the strength and scale of magnetic fields in astrophysics. The origin of magnetic fields is considered along with dynamos, the conditions for magnetic field generation, the topology of flows, magnetic fields in stationary flows, kinematic turbulent

Ia. B. Zeldovich; A. A. Ruzmaikin; D. D. Sokolov

1983-01-01

111

Quantitative model of the magnetospheric magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative representations of the magnetic fields associated with the magnetopause currents and the distributed currents (tail and quiet time ring currents) have been developed. These fields are used together with a dipole representation of the main field of the earth to model the total vector magnetospheric magnetic field. The model is based on quiet time data averaged over all 'tilt

W. P. Olson; K. A. Pfitzer

1974-01-01

112

Exploring Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the magnetic field of a bar magnet as an introduction to understanding Earth's magnetic field. First, learners explore and play with magnets and compasses. Then, learners trace the field lines of the magnet using the compass on a large piece of paper. This activity will also demonstrate why prominences are always "loops."

Nasa

2012-06-26

113

Earth's Inconstant Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA site describes long-term changes in Earth's magnetic field, and how magnetic stripes in the Atlantic seafloor provide evidence for reversals of this field. The site presents a model of Earth's interior that helps explain how Earth's magnetic field is generated and how the reversals occur. A computer-generated image shows the complicated magnetic field in-between reversals.

2007-04-27

114

Exploring Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about magnetic fields. Using iron filings, learners will observe magnets in various arrangements to investigate the magnetic field lines of force. This information is then related to magnetic loops on the Sun's surface and the magnetic field of the Earth. This is the second activity in the Exploring the Earth's Magnetic Field: An IMAGE Satellite Guide to the Magnetosphere educators guide.

115

Magnetization strucrure of thermal vent on island arc from vector magnetic anomlies using AUV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geomagnetic anomaly measured by a scalar magnetometer,such as a proton precession magnetometer cannot be defined its direction, then it does not satisfy the Laplace's equation. Therefore physical formula describing the relation between magnetic field and magnetization cannot be established.Because the difference between results obtained from scalar data and from vector data is very significant, we must use vector magnetic field data for magnetization analyses to get the more reliable and exact solutions. The development program of fundamental tools for exploration of deep seabed resources started with the financial support of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT) in 2008 and will end in 2012. In this project, we are developing magnetic exploration tools for seabed resources using AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) and other deep-towed vehicles to measure not the scalar magnetic field but the vector magnetic field in order to estimate magnetization structure below the sea-floor exactly and precisely. We conducted AUV magnetic survey in 2010 at the thermal area called Hakurei deposit in the Bayonnaise submarine caldera at the southern end of Izu island arc, about 400km south of Tokyo. We analyzed the observed vector magnetic fields to get the vector magnetic anomaly Fields using the method of Isezaki(1984). We inverted these vector magnetic anomaly fields to magnetization structure. CONCLUSIONS 1.The scalar magnetic field TIA (Total Intensity Anomaly) has no physical formula describing the relation between M (Magnetization) and TIA because TIA does not satisfy the Laplace's equation. Then it is impossible to estimate M from TIA. 2.Anlyses of M using TIA have been done so far under assumption TIA=PTA (Projected Total Anomay on MF (Main Geomagnetic Field)), however, which caused the analysis error due to ?T= TIA - PTA . 3.We succeeded to measure the vector magnetic anomaly fields using AUV despite the severe magnetic noises around the magnetometer sensors. The method of Isezaki(1984) works good to eliminate these noises. 4.We got the very precise magnetization structure in the Bayonnaise submarine caldera area at the southern end of Izu island arc. We used the prism model which forms the shape of magnetized source body whose top is the sea-floor. The total number od prisms is 1500 making the 3 layers (0-80m, 80-160m, 160- 240m below the sea-floor, 25x20=500 prisms in 1 layer). The 4500 unknowns(3 unknowns, Mx,My,Mz in each prosm) are obtained from 12000 observed vector magnetic anomaly fields by inversion method. 5. The tentative result shows that the 1st and 2nd layers have smaller intensity of magnetization compared to the 3rd layer. The 2nd layer has the smallest of three layers. However the Hakurei deposit area in the 2nd layer has the a little bit greater magnetization than surrounding area which suggests that the Hakurei deposit includes some magnetic minerals. 6.We strongly recommend to carry out the magnetic survey using a three component magnetometer to get TF and TA which have many advantages for magnetic analyses (magnetization, upward continuation etc.) which cannot be done using scalar TIA.

Isezaki, N.; Matsuo, J.; Sayanagi, K.

2012-04-01

116

Preflare magnetic and velocity fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares

Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.

1986-01-01

117

Exploring Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the presence of magnetic fields around magnets, the sun and the earth. They will explore magnetic field lines, understand that magnetic lines of force show the strength and direction of magnetic fields, determine how field lines interact between attracting and repelling magnetic poles, and discover that the earth and sun have magnetic properties. They will also discover that magnetic force is invisible and that a "field of force" is a region or space in which one object can attract or repel another.

118

Magnetic Fields Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the effects of magnetic fields in matter addressing permanent magnets, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, and magnetization. First students must compare the magnetic field of a solenoid to the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Students then learn the response of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic material to a magnetic field. Now aware of the mechanism causing a solid to respond to a field, students learn how to measure the response by looking at the net magnetic moment per unit volume of the material.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

119

Repulsive vector interaction in three-flavor magnetized quark and stellar matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the vector interaction on three-flavor magnetized matter is studied within the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio quark model. We considered cold matter under a static external magnetic field within two different models for the vector interaction in order to investigate how the form of the vector interaction and the intensity of the magnetic field affect the equation of state as well as the strangeness content. It was shown that the flavor-independent vector interaction predicts a smaller strangeness content and, therefore, harder equations of state. On the other hand, the flavor-dependent vector interaction favors larger strangeness content the larger the vector coupling. We confirmed that, at low densities, the magnetic field and the vector interaction have opposite competing effects: the first one softens the equation of state while the second hardens it. Quark stars and hybrid stars subject to an external magnetic field were also studied. Larger star masses are obtained for the flavor-independent vector interaction. Hybrid stars may bare a core containing deconfined quarks if neither the vector interaction nor the magnetic field are too strong. Also, the presence of strong magnetic fields seems to disfavor the existence of a quark core in hybrid stars.

Menezes, Débora P.; Pinto, Marcus B.; Castro, Luis B.; Costa, Pedro; Providência, Constança

2014-05-01

120

Visualizing Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students take the age old concept of etch-a-sketch a step further. Using iron filings, students begin visualizing magnetic field lines. To do so, students use a compass to read the direction of the magnet's magnetic field. Then, students observe the behavior of iron filings near that magnet as they rotate the filings about the magnet. Finally, students study the behavior of iron filings suspended in mineral oil which displays the magnetic field in three dimensions.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

121

The polar heliospheric magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that the polar heliospheric magnetic field, at large heliocentric distances, may deviate considerably from the generally accepted Archimedean spiral. Instead, it is suggested that the large-scale field near the poles may be dominated by randomly-oriented transverse magnetic fields with magnitude much larger than the average spiral. The average vector field is still the spiral, but the average magnitude may be much larger. In addition, the field direction is transverse to the radial direction most of the time instead of being nearly radial. This magnetic-field structure has important consequences for the transport of cosmic rays. Preliminary model calculations suggest changes in the radial gradient of galactic cosmic rays which may improve agreement with observations.

Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.

1989-01-01

122

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Three Axis Vector Magnetometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northrop Grumman Corporation is leveraging the technology developed for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) to build a combined Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (EPR-NMR) magnetometer. The EPR-NMR approach provides a high bandwidth and high sensitivity simultaneous measurement of all three vector components of the magnetic field averaged over the small volume of the sensor's one vapor cell. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the EPR-NMR magnetometer including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated to date. General performance results will also be presented.

Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

2012-06-01

123

The structure of helical interplanetary magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interplanetary magnetic field is known to be highly helical. Although the detailed spatial structure of the fields has yet to be elucidated, the helicity spectrum has been conjectured to result from a random walk in the direction of a constant magnitude magnetic field vector. A model using three-dimensional fluctuations with variations in B is demonstrated giving a good fit to the helicity spectrum as well as to other properties of the interplanetary magnetic field.

Goldstein, M. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Fitch, C. A.

1991-01-01

124

Using Ideal Electric Fields Estimated from Vector Magnetogram Sequences to Drive Coronal MHD Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic models of the coronal magnetic field show promise as space weather forecasting tools. Such models should be driven by electric fields derived from sequences of photospheric vector magnetograms, the only routine measurements of the solar magnetic field currently available. Previous studies derived flows --- or, equivalently, ideal electric fields --- consistent with evolution of the normal photospheric field, which

B. T. Welsch; G. H. Fisher; W. P. Abbett; D. J. Bercik

2008-01-01

125

Massive Vector Fields and Black Holes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A massive vector field inside the event horizon created by the static sources located outside the black hole is investigated. It is shown that the back reaction of such a field on the metric near r = 0 cannot be neglected. The possibility of the space-tim...

V. P. Frolov

1977-01-01

126

Mapping Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about bar magnets and their invisible magnetic fields. Learners will experiment with magnets and a compass to detect and draw magnetic fields. This is Activity 1 of a larger resource, entitled Exploring the Sun. The NASA spacecraft missions represented by this material include SOHO, TRACE, STEREO, Hinode, and SDO.

127

Magnetic field mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field mapper locates imperfections in cadmium sulphide solar cells by detecting and displaying the variations of the normal component of the magnetic field resulting from current density variations. It can also inspect for nonuniformities in other electrically conductive materials.

Masters, R. M.; Stenger, F. J.

1969-01-01

128

PREPROCESSING MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH CHROMOSPHERIC LONGITUDINAL FIELDS  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

Yamamoto, Tetsuya T. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, K., E-mail: tyamamot@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan)

2012-06-20

129

The Declining Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the declining strength of Earth's magnetic field. Learners will review a graph of magnetic field intensity and calculate the amount by which the field has changed its intensity in the last century, the rate of change of its intensity, and when the field should decrease to zero strength at the current rate of change. Learners will also use evidence from relevant sources to create a conjecture on the effects on Earth of a vanished magnetic field. Access to information sources about Earth's magnetic field strength is needed for this activity. This is Activity 7 in the Exploring Magnetism on Earth teachers guide.

130

Solar Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical currents flowing in the solar plasma generate a magnetic field, which is detected in the SOLAR ATMOSPHERE by spectroscopic and polarization measurements (SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD: INFERENCE BY POLARIMETRY). The SOLAR WIND carries the magnetic field into interplanetary space where it can be measured directly by instruments on space probes....

Schüssler, M.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

131

Convexity and semiconvexity along vector fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a family of vector fields we introduce a notion of convexity and of semiconvexity of a function along the trajectories\\u000a of the fields and give infinitesimal characterizations in terms of inequalities in viscosity sense for the matrix of second\\u000a derivatives with respect to the fields. We also prove that such functions are Lipschitz continuous with respect to the Carnot–Carathéodory

Martino Bardi; Federica Dragoni

132

Optical currents in vector fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of phase relations and the degree of mutual coherence of superimposing waves in the arrangements of twowave superposition on the characteristics of the microparticle's motion has been analyzed. The prospects of studying temporal coherence using the proposed approach are made. For the first time, we have shown experimentally the possibility of diagnostics the optical currents in liquids caused by polarization characteristics of an optical field alone, using test metallic particles of nanoscale.

Angelsky, O. V.; Gorsky, M. P.; Maksimyak, P. P.; Maksimyak, A. P.; Hanson, S. G.; Zenkova, C. Y.

2011-09-01

133

Vector Potential and Stored Energy of a Quadrupole Magnet Array  

SciTech Connect

The vector potential, magnetic field and stored energy of a quadrupole magnet array are derived. Each magnet within the array is a current sheet with a current density proportional to the azimuthal angle 2{theta} and the longitudinal periodicity (2m-1){pi}/L. Individual quadrupoles within the array are oriented in a way that maximizes the field gradient The array does not have to be of equal spacing and can be of a finite size, however when the array is equally spaced and is of infinite size the solution can be simplified. We note that whereas, in a single quadrupole magnet with a current density proportional to cos2{theta} the gradient is pure, such purity is not preserved in a quadrupole array.

Caspi, S.

1999-03-15

134

Magnetic vector data from the western Caribbean reveal possible origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a cruise with RV Meteor in the spring of 2010, magnetic measurements were carried out in the central and western Caribbean with up to six magnetic sensors deployed at the same time. These were i) a towed gradiometer consisting of two Overhauser sensors, ii) two towed vector magnetometers, and iii) two shipboard oriented vector magnetometers. While the gradiometer data provide total field magnetic anomalies free from external variations, the vector data can be analyzed with different methods in the space and wavenumber domains. In the case of the towed vector data, attitude control is challenging whereas shipboard data require a very thorough compensation for the ship's magnetic field. The data were analyzed with the goal to gain insight into the origin of the basement rocks especially of the western Caribbean. Position and strike direction of magnetic anomalies in the Columbia basin possibly hold the key to distinguish between an origin of the crust in the Pacific ocean and an alternative in situ formation between the Americas. On six long profiles in the Columbia basin and adjacent regions we find consistently strike directions of the magnetic anomalies around N100°E which seems to be incompatible with a Pacific origin of the crust. Three Project Magnet aeromagnetic vector profiles crossing the research area at different angles were analyzed with the same method and yield very similar results. In our interpretation, the crust underlying the Columbia basin formed during the Cretaceous at a roughly E-W trending spreading center between the Americas. Since the crust likely formed during the Cretaceous Superchron (C 34), the strike direction we find in our data probably does not represent typical seafloor spreading anomalies. Instead we believe it is related to changes in the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field which are known to have left correlated traces in oceanic crust formed during this period. The analysis methods we used are sensitive to intensity changes just as well as to polarity changes. We can demonstrate that the data quality is high and that the strike direction signal is clear and well correlated between the different profiles and that it is also consistent between towed, shipboard, and aeromagnetic sensors.

Barckhausen, U.; Engels, U.

2013-12-01

135

Drawing Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a compass and a permanent magnet to trace the magnetic field lines produced by the magnet. By positioning the compass in enough spots around the magnet, the overall magnet field will be evident from the collection of arrows representing the direction of the compass needle. In activities 3 and 4 of this unit, students will use this information to design a way to solve the grand challenge of separating metal for a recycling company.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

136

The Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of the magnetic field lines of Earth uses a bar magnet, iron filings, and a compass. The site explains how to measure the magnetic field of the Earth by measuring the direction a compass points from various points on the surface. There is also an explanation of why the north magnetic pole on Earth is actually, by definition, the south pole of a magnet.

Barker, Jeffrey

137

Circuits and Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use the same method as in the activity from lesson 2 to explore the magnetism due to electric current instead of a permanent magnet. Students use a compass and circuit to trace the magnetic field lines induced by the electric current moving through the wire. Students develop an understanding of the effect of the electrical current on the compass needle through the induced magnetic field and understand the complexity of a three dimensional field system.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

138

Full vector model for magnetization in sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments provide a continuous record of past geomagnetic field variations. Although it is theoretically possible to get both the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field from sediment records, the mechanism is not fully understood. Previous workers have postulated that flocculation plays an important role in detrital remanent magnetism (DRM). Flocs are porous, loose and highly fragile aggregates of microscopic clay particles and their behavior in a viscous medium is likely to be different than single particles of magnetic minerals. In order to understand the role of flocculation in sediment magnetization, we carried out a set of redeposition experiments at different field intensities and a quasi-constant field inclination of 45°. We present here a simple numerical model of flocculation, incorporating both magnetic and hydrodynamic torques to explain the experimental data. At small floc sizes DRM acquisition is likely to be non-linear in field strengths comparable to the Earth's, but the sediments may be able to record the directions accurately. With increasing floc sizes sediments may retain a record of the intensity that is linearly related to the applied field or a direction parallel to the applied field, but are unlikely to do both at the same time. Also, the majority of the magnetic particles in the sediments may not be contributing significantly towards the net DRM and any bulk normalizing parameter may be unsuitable if the depositional environment has changed over the depositional period.

Mitra, Ritayan; Tauxe, Lisa

2009-09-01

139

Averages in vector spaces over finite fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in Rn when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number of model cases.

ANTHONY CARBERY; BRENDAN STONES; JAMES WRIGHT

2008-01-01

140

Circular Conditional Autoregressive Modeling of Vector Fields*  

PubMed Central

As hurricanes approach landfall, there are several hazards for which coastal populations must be prepared. Damaging winds, torrential rains, and tornadoes play havoc with both the coast and inland areas; but, the biggest seaside menace to life and property is the storm surge. Wind fields are used as the primary forcing for the numerical forecasts of the coastal ocean response to hurricane force winds, such as the height of the storm surge and the degree of coastal flooding. Unfortunately, developments in deterministic modeling of these forcings have been hindered by computational expenses. In this paper, we present a multivariate spatial model for vector fields, that we apply to hurricane winds. We parameterize the wind vector at each site in polar coordinates and specify a circular conditional autoregressive (CCAR) model for the vector direction, and a spatial CAR model for speed. We apply our framework for vector fields to hurricane surface wind fields for Hurricane Floyd of 1999 and compare our CCAR model to prior methods that decompose wind speed and direction into its N-S and W-E cardinal components.

Modlin, Danny; Fuentes, Montse; Reich, Brian

2013-01-01

141

Vector magnetic analysis within the southern Ayu Trough, equatorial western Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the analysis of magnetic field data of the Ayu Trough, a divergent plate margin located in the southern Philippine Sea plate. The survey, which mapped both axial and off-axis regions of the southern Ayu Trough, recorded the total field using a proton precession magnetometer towed behind the ship and the vector magnetic field using a shipboard three-component fluxgate

Sang-Mook Lee; Seung-Sep Kim

2004-01-01

142

Photospheric magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.

Howard, R.

1972-01-01

143

Isotropy theorem for cosmological vector fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider homogeneous Abelian vector fields in an expanding universe. We find a mechanical analogy in which the system behaves as a particle moving in three dimensions under the action of a central potential. In the case of bounded and rapid evolution compared to the rate of expansion, we show—by making use of the virial theorem—that for an arbitrary potential and polarization pattern, the average energy-momentum tensor is always diagonal and isotropic despite the intrinsic anisotropic evolution of the vector field. For simple power-law potentials of the form V=?(A?A?)n, the average equation of state is found to be w=(n-1)/(n+1). This implies that vector coherent oscillations could act as natural dark matter or dark energy candidates. Finally, we show that under very general conditions, the average energy-momentum tensor of a rapidly evolving bounded vector field in any background geometry is always isotropic and has the perfect fluid form for any locally inertial observer.

Cembranos, J. A. R.; Hallabrin, C.; Maroto, A. L.; Jareño, S. J. Núñez

2012-07-01

144

Mapping Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the magnetic field of a bar magnet. The lesson begins with an introductory discussion with learners about magnetism to draw out any misconceptions that may be in their minds. Then, learners freely experiment with bar magnets and various materials, such as paper clips, rulers, copper or aluminum wire, and pencils, to discover that magnets attract metals containing iron, nickel, and/or cobalt but not most other materials. Next, learners experiment with using a magnetic compass to discover how it is affected by the magnet and then draw the magnetic field lines of the magnet by putting dots at the location of the compass arrow. This is the first lesson in the first session of the Exploring Magnetism teacher guide.

145

Force-Freeness of Solar Magnetic Fields in the Photosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that solar magnetic fields are force-free in the solar corona but not in the solar photosphere at all. In order to examine the force-freeness of active region magnetic fields at the photospheric level, we have calculated the integrated magnetic forces for 12 vector magnetograms of three flare-productive active regions. The magnetic field vectors are derived from

Y.-J. Moon; G. S. Choe; H. S. Yun; Y. D. Park; D. L. Mickey

2002-01-01

146

Force-Freeness of Solar Magnetic Fields in the Photosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that solar magnetic fields are force-free in the solar corona, but not in the solar photosphere. In order to examine the force-freeness of active region magnetic fields at the photospheric level, we have calculated the integrated magnetic forces for 33 vector magnetograms of four flare-productive active regions. The magnetic field vectors are derived from simultaneous Stokes

Y. Moon; G. S. Choe; H. S. Yun; Y. D. Park; D. L. Mickey

2001-01-01

147

Force?Freeness of Solar Magnetic Fields in the Photosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Q2 It is widely believed that solar magnetic fields are force-free in the solar corona but not in the solar photo- sphere at all. In order to examine the force-freeness of active region magnetic fields at the photospheric level, we have calculated the integrated magnetic forces for 12 vector magnetograms of three flare-productive active regions. The magnetic field vectors are

G. S. Choe; H. S. Yun; Y. D. Park; D. L. Mickey

2002-01-01

148

In situ preparation of magnetic nonviral gene vectors and magnetofection in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nonviral gene vectors were in situ prepared in the presence of ferrous salts and hyperbranched poly(ethylenimine)s (HPEI) with different molecular weights. HPEI, one of the most promising nonviral vectors, was not only utilized as the nanoreactor and stabilizer to prepare magnetic nanoparticles, but also skillfully used as a base supplier to avoid introducing alkali hydroxide or ammonia. Magnetic nonviral gene vectors with various magnetite contents and saturation magnetizations were obtained by changing the weight ratio of HPEI to FeSO4·7H2O and the molecular weight of HPEI. MTT assays suggested that the resulting magnetite/HPEI gene vectors had lower cytotoxicity compared with pure HPEI. The magnetite/HPEI nonviral gene vectors were used for magnetofection. It was found that the luciferase expression level mediated by magnetite/HPEI in COS-7 cells under a magnetic gradient field was approximately 13-fold greater than that of standard HPEI transfection.

Shi, Yunfeng; Zhou, Linzhu; Wang, Ruibin; Pang, Yan; Xiao, Wangchuan; Li, Huiqin; Su, Yue; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Bangshang; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue; Gu, Hongchen

2010-03-01

149

Using Ideal Electric Fields Estimated from Vector Magnetogram Sequences to Drive Coronal MHD Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic models of the coronal magnetic field show promise as space weather forecasting tools. Such models should be driven by electric fields derived from sequences of photospheric vector magnetograms, the only routine measurements of the solar magnetic field currently available. Previous studies derived flows --- or, equivalently, ideal electric fields --- consistent with evolution of the normal photospheric field, which could be used in "component driving" of an MHD model, i.e., enforcing consistent evolution of the observed and modeled normal magnetic fields. In this extension of the component-driving approach, we demonstrate how to derive ideal electric fields consistent with the observed evolution of both the normal and horizontal magnetic field, useful for "vector driving," i.e., enforcing consistency between all three components of the observed and model photospheric magnetic vectors. To drive an MHD model, this "ideal vector driving" (IVD) approach amount to specification of both the velocity (perpendicular the magnetic field) and its vertical derivative at the model's bottom boundary. The IVD method can incorporate results from local/ tracking methods (e.g., LCT or DAVE) and/or results from global methods (e.g., MEF or poloidal-toroidal decomposition [PTD]). We have applied this new approach to "synthetic magnetograms" extracted from MHD simulations (where the magnetic and electric fields are exactly known), as well as to a four-hour sequence of vector magnetograms from NOAA AR 8210, on 01 May 1998, just prior to an M-class flare and geoeffective CME.

Welsch, B. T.; Fisher, G. H.; Abbett, W. P.; Bercik, D. J.

2008-05-01

150

Melatonin and magnetic fields.  

PubMed

There is public health concern raised by epidemiological studies indicating that extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields generated by electric power distribution systems in the environment may be hazardous. Possible carcinogenic effects of magnetic field in combination with suggested oncostatic action of melatonin lead to the hypothesis that the primary effects of electric and magnetic fields exposure is a reduction of melatonin synthesis which, in turn, may promote cancer growth. In this review the data on the influence of magnetic fields on melatonin synthesis, both in the animals and humans, are briefly presented and discussed. PMID:12019358

Karasek, Michal; Lerchl, Alexander

2002-04-01

151

Toroidal Plasma Containment with Rotating Magnetic Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental investigations were conducted on a toroidal plasma with alternating pinch- and theta-pinch magnetic fields as well as with a theta-pinch and with a screw pinch. For the alternating pinch, the resultant magnetic vector is rotating, so that the...

D. E. Brown H. G. Loos

1966-01-01

152

Applying New Methods to Flare Prediction II: Realization of Methods for Photospheric Vector Magnetic Field Data and Their Extension into the Chromosphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals for this AFOSR contract focused on analysis and interpretation of solar magnetic field data in the context of solar flare prediction. Drs. Leka (P.I), Barnes and Metcalf (with collaborators) have been productive in all respects; our quantitative...

K. D. Leka

2006-01-01

153

UXO survey using vector magnetic gradiometer on autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector magnetic gradiometer measures the gradient components of ferromagnetic objects and with appropriate processing, such as inversion, is possible to derive the range, bearing and magnetic moment of the target of interests. This paper presents the progress of the development of magnetic gradiometer using autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for UXO survey. A prototype magnetic gradiometer was developed for magnetic detection

Y. H. Pei; H. G. Yeo

2009-01-01

154

Analysis of Recurrent Patterns in Toroidal Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the development of magnetic confinement fusion which will potentially be a future source for low cost power, physicists must be able to analyze the magnetic field that confines the burning plasma. While the magnetic field can be described as a vector field, traditional techniques for analyzing the field's topology cannot be used because of its Hamiltonian nature. In this

Allen R. Sanderson; Guoning Chen; Xavier Tricoche; David Pugmire; Scott Kruger; Joshua Breslau

2010-01-01

155

Electromagnetic momentum density and the Poynting vector in static fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many static configurations involving electrical currents and charges possess angular momentum in electromagnetic form; two examples are discussed here, an electric charge in the field of a magnetic dipole, and an electric charge in the vicinity of a long solenoid. These provide clear evidence of the physical significance of the circulating energy flux indicated by the Poynting vector, as the angular momentum of the circulating electromagnetic energy can be converted to mechanical angular momentum by turning off the magnetic field. Electromagnetic momentum is created whenever electric fields change in the presence of a magnetic field and whenever magnetic fields change in the presence of an electric field. When simple dielectrics are involved, the momentum density can be resolved into two components, a pure-field component ?0E×B and a component ?e?0E×B associated with the polarization of the dielectric, the sum being ?r?0E×B=D×B. It is argued that the latter component should be considered to be part of the electromagnetic momentum density, whose value then is D×B.

Johnson, Francis S.; Cragin, Bruce L.; Hodges, R. Richard

1994-01-01

156

Magnetic Field Viewing Cards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some years now laminated cards containing a green, magnetically sensitive film have been available from science education suppliers. When held near a magnet, these cards appear dark green in regions where the field is perpendicular to the card and light green where the field is parallel to the card. The cards can be used to explore the magnetic field near a variety of magnets as well as near wire loops. In this paper we describe how to make these cards and how we have used them in our physics classrooms and labs.

Kanim, Stephen; Thompson, John R.

2005-09-01

157

The galactic magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates for the scale, geometry and strength of the magnetic field in the galactic system can be derived from observations of polarization properties of radio emission from the Galaxy, extragalactic radio sources and pulsars, and polarization of starlight. Within distances of about 500 parsecs (1 parsec = 3.26 lightyears) from the solar system the magnetic field is directed towards galactic

T A Spoelstra; T. A. T

1977-01-01

158

How the geomagnetic field vector reverses polarity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A highly detailed record of both the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as it reverses has been obtained from a Miocene volcanic sequence. The transitional field is low in intensity and is typically non-axisymmetric. Geomagnetic impulses corresponding to astonishingly high rates of change of the field sometimes occur, suggesting that liquid velocity within the Earth's core increases during geomagnetic reversals. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

Prevot, M.; Mankinen, E. A.; Gromme, C. S.; Coe, R. S.

1985-01-01

159

Interplanetary Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides information and a graphical exercise for students regarding the interaction between magnetic field lines and a plasma. The activity involves tracing a typical interplanetary magnetic field line, dragged out of a location on the Sun by the radial flow of the solar wind. This illustrates the way magnetic field lines are "frozen to the plasma" and the wrapping of field lines due to the rotation of the sun. This is part of the work "The Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere". A Spanish translation is available.

Stern, David

2005-04-27

160

A low-temperature high resolution scanning tunneling microscope with a three-dimensional magnetic vector field operating in ultrahigh vacuum.  

PubMed

We present a low-temperature ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope setup with a combination of a superconducting solenoid coil and two split-pair magnets, providing a rotatable magnetic field up to 500 mT applicable in all spatial directions. An absolute field maximum of B=7 T(3 T) can be applied perpendicular (parallel) to the sample surface. The instrument is operated at a temperature of 4.8 K. Topographic and spectroscopic measurements on tungsten carbide and indium antimonide revealed a z-noise of 300 fm(pp), which barely changes in magnetic field. The microscope is equipped with a tip exchange mechanism and a lateral sample positioning stage, which allows exact positioning of the tip with an accuracy of 5 microm prior to the measurement. Additional contacts to the sample holder allow, e.g., the application of an additional gate voltage. The UHV part of the system contains versatile possibilities of in situ sample and tip preparation as well as low-energy electron diffraction and Auger analysis. PMID:19485511

Mashoff, T; Pratzer, M; Morgenstern, M

2009-05-01

161

Smoothly Blending Vector Fields for Global Robot Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new algorithm for constructing smooth vector fields for global robot navigation. Given a ddimensional cell complex with each cell a convex polygon, our algorithm defines a number of local vector fields: one for each cell, and one for each face connecting two cells together. We smoothly blend these component vector fields together using bump functions; the precomputation

Stephen R. Lindemann; Steven M. LaValle

2005-01-01

162

Magnetic fields at Neptune  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center-University of Delaware Bartol Research Institute magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft discovered a strong and complex intrinsic magnetic field of Neptune and an associated magnetosphere and magnetic tail. A maximum magnetic field of nearly 10,000 nanoteslas (1 nanotesla = 10{sup {minus}5} gauss) was observed near closest approach, at a distance of 1.18 R{sub N}. The planetary magnetic field between 4 and 15 R{sub N} can be well represented by an offset tilted magnetic dipole (OTD), displaced from the center of Neptune by the surprisingly large amount of 0.55 R{sub N} and inclined by 47{degrees} with respect to the rotation axis. Within 4 R{sub N}, the magnetic field representation must include localized sources or higher order magnetic multipoles, or both, which are not yet well determined. As the spacecraft exited the magnetosphere, the magnetic tail appeared to be monopolar, and no crossings of an imbedded magnetic field reversal or plasma neutral sheet were observed. The auroral zones are most likely located far from the rotation poles and may have a complicated geometry. The rings and all the known moons of Neptune are imbedded deep inside the magnetosphere, except for Nereid, which is outside when sunward of the planet. The radiation belts will have a complex structure owing to the absorption of energetic particles by the moons and rings of Neptune and losses associated with the significant changes in the diurnally varying magnetosphere configuration. In an astrophysical context, the magnetic field of Neptune, like that of Uranus, may be described as that of an oblique rotator.

Ness, N.F. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (USA)); Acuna, M.H.; Burlaga, L.F.; Connerney, J.E.P.; Lepping, R.P. (NASA, Greenbelt, MD (USA)); Neubauer, F.M. (Universitaet zu Koln (West Germany))

1989-12-15

163

Sonoluminescence in High Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made a detailed study of sonoluminescence (SL) in high magnetic fields. In magnetic field sweeps at constant levels of acoustic drive, SL disappears above a pressure-dependent threshold magnetic field. Sweeps of acoustic drive at fixed magnetic fields show that the upper and lower bounds of forcing pressure that determine the region of SL increase dramatically with magnetic field.

J. B. Young; T. Schmiedel; Woowon Kang

1996-01-01

164

Improved determination of vector lithospheric magnetic anomalies from MAGSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific contributions made in developing new methods to isolate and map vector magnetic anomalies from measurements made by Magsat are described. In addition to the objective of the proposal, the isolation and mapping of equatorial vector lithospheric Magsat anomalies, isolation of polar ionospheric fields during the period were also studied. Significant progress was also made in isolation of polar delta(Z) component and scalar anomalies as well as integration and synthesis of various techniques of removing equatorial and polar ionospheric effects. The significant contributions of this research are: (1) development of empirical/analytical techniques in modeling ionospheric fields in Magsat data and their removal from uncorrected anomalies to obtain better estimates of lithospheric anomalies (this task was accomplished for equatorial delta(X), delta(Z), and delta(B) component and polar delta(Z) and delta(B) component measurements; (2) integration of important processing techniques developed during the last decade with the newly developed technologies of ionospheric field modeling into an optimum processing scheme; and (3) implementation of the above processing scheme to map the most robust magnetic anomalies of the lithosphere (components as well as scalar).

Ravat, Dhananjay

1993-01-01

165

The photospheric magnetic field response to a solar flare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the vector magnetic field measurements the authors have studied the scaling of photospheric magnetic field and current helicity Bz·(?×B)z during the periods of high flare activity in two active regions. The results allow to assume that from the very onset of a flare the transverse photospheric magnetic field undergoes significant changes, namely, the fluctuations energy is reduced as well

V. I. Abramenko; V. B. Yurchishin; V. Carbone

1998-01-01

166

Magnetic Bar Field Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Magnetic Bar Field Model shows the field of a bar magnet and has a movable compass that reports the magnetic field values. The bar magnet model is built by placing a group of magnetic dipoles along the bar magnet. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Magnetic Bar Field model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticBarField.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre; Cox, Anne

2009-09-18

167

Mapping Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about electromagnetism. Learners will use a compass to map the magnetic field lines surrounding a coil of wire that is connected to a battery. This activity requires a large coil or spool of wire, a source of electricity such as 3 D-cell batteries or an AC to DC power adapter, alligator-clipped wire, and magnetic compasses. This is the third lesson in the second session of the Exploring Magnetism teachers guide.

168

Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will introduce students to the idea of magnetic field lines--a concept they have probably encountered but may not fully grasp. Completing this activity and reading the corresponding background information should enable students to understand

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

169

Solar Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research work was directed towards the following: (1) Perform necessary laboratory experiments, including a study on the Zeeman effect in absorption. Make observations of the sunspot and general magnetic fields of the sun. (2) Conduct a program of int...

M. Cimino

1966-01-01

170

He I VECTOR MAGNETOMETRY OF FIELD-ALIGNED SUPERPENUMBRAL FIBRILS  

SciTech Connect

Atomic-level polarization and Zeeman effect diagnostics in the neutral helium triplet at 10830 A in principle allow full vector magnetometry of fine-scaled chromospheric fibrils. We present high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of superpenumbral fibrils in the He I triplet with sufficient polarimetric sensitivity to infer their full magnetic field geometry. He I observations from the Facility Infrared Spectropolarimeter are paired with high-resolution observations of the H{alpha} 6563 A and Ca II 8542 A spectral lines from the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer from the Dunn Solar Telescope in New Mexico. Linear and circular polarization signatures in the He I triplet are measured and described, as well as analyzed with the advanced inversion capability of the ''Hanle and Zeeman Light'' modeling code. Our analysis provides direct evidence for the often assumed field alignment of fibril structures. The projected angle of the fibrils and the inferred magnetic field geometry align within an error of {+-}10 Degree-Sign . We describe changes in the inclination angle of these features that reflect their connectivity with the photospheric magnetic field. Evidence for an accelerated flow ({approx}40 m s{sup -2}) along an individual fibril anchored at its endpoints in the strong sunspot and weaker plage in part supports the magnetic siphon flow mechanism's role in the inverse Evershed effect. However, the connectivity of the outer endpoint of many of the fibrils cannot be established.

Schad, T. A. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Penn, M. J. [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Pukalani, HI 96768 (United States)

2013-05-10

171

Tangential vector finite elements for electromagnetic field computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One approach to eliminating spurious modes in the finite-element solution of the vector wave equation is the use of tangential vector finite elements. With tangential vector finite elements, only the tangential components of the vector field are made continuous across the element boundaries. Edge-elements are the simplest example of tangential vector finite elements. However, edge-elements provide only the lowest-order of

J. F. Lee; D. K. Sun; Z. J. Cendes

1991-01-01

172

Coronal magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of coronal X-ray emission in determining the configuration of the magnetic field lines in the corona is discussed. Spatially-resolved X-ray observations provided by Skylab and subsequently by missions such as OSO-8 and SMM show the solar corona to be inhomogeneous, with open and closed structures determined by the topology of the magnetic field. The scenario provided by observations

R. Pallavicini

1986-01-01

173

Solar Wind Magnetic Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

Smith, E. J.

1995-01-01

174

The nonequilibrium of magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The more subtle properties of magnetic fields which create nonequilibrium and lead to vigorous activity in otherwise sluggish gas-field systems are evaluated for gross hydromagnetic effects. The gentle manipulation of magnetic fields on a large scale leads to the production of small scale variations and discontinuities, providing intense dissipation of magnetic field in a large scale system. A magnetic field

E. N. Parker

1981-01-01

175

Microinhomogeneities in Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small variations in the fields of magnets, caused by structures or domains in the pole faces, were investigated by moving a small coil in a circular path. It was found that for a given pole face the variations in the field were all about the same size, and decreased exponentially from the pole face. None of the materials tested as

H. H. Brown Jr.; F. Bitter

1956-01-01

176

Vector field models of inflation and dark energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider several new classes of viable vector field alternatives to the inflaton and quintessence scalar fields. Spatial vector fields are shown to be compatible with the cosmological anisotropy bounds if only slightly displaced from the potential minimum while dominant, or if driving an anisotropic expansion with nearly vanishing quadrupole today. The Bianchi I model with a spatial field and

Tomi S. Koivisto; David F. Mota

2008-01-01

177

Magnetic Field Solver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.

Ilin, Andrew V.

2006-01-01

178

Three-dimensional magnetic-field sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Devices sensitive to all three components of a magnetic-field vector are presented. The sensitivity to two field components in the plane of the chip is achieved by merging two one-dimensional vertical magnetotransistors positioned at a 90-deg angle to each other. An additional surface-collector pair makes this device also sensitive to the last field component, which is perpendicular to the plane

Srdjan Kordic; Peter J. A. Munter

1988-01-01

179

Robust point matching via vector field consensus.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm, called vector field consensus, for establishing robust point correspondences between two sets of points. Our algorithm starts by creating a set of putative correspondences which can contain a very large number of false correspondences, or outliers, in addition to a limited number of true correspondences (inliers). Next, we solve for correspondence by interpolating a vector field between the two point sets, which involves estimating a consensus of inlier points whose matching follows a nonparametric geometrical constraint. We formulate this a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of a Bayesian model with hidden/latent variables indicating whether matches in the putative set are outliers or inliers. We impose nonparametric geometrical constraints on the correspondence, as a prior distribution, using Tikhonov regularizers in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. MAP estimation is performed by the EM algorithm which by also estimating the variance of the prior model (initialized to a large value) is able to obtain good estimates very quickly (e.g., avoiding many of the local minima inherent in this formulation). We illustrate this method on data sets in 2D and 3D and demonstrate that it is robust to a very large number of outliers (even up to 90%). We also show that in the special case where there is an underlying parametric geometrical model (e.g., the epipolar line constraint) that we obtain better results than standard alternatives like RANSAC if a large number of outliers are present. This suggests a two-stage strategy, where we use our nonparametric model to reduce the size of the putative set and then apply a parametric variant of our approach to estimate the geometric parameters. Our algorithm is computationally efficient and we provide code for others to use it. In addition, our approach is general and can be applied to other problems, such as learning with a badly corrupted training data set. PMID:24808341

Jiayi Ma; Ji Zhao; Jinwen Tian; Yuille, Alan L; Zhuowen Tu

2014-04-01

180

Magnetic ionization fronts. I. Parallel magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the continuity equations across an ionization front. By including a plane parallel magnetic field we find significant differences in the allowed velocities of the R- and D-type solutions between the magnetized and non-magnetized cases. These results may have implications for the study of ionization bounded diffuse sources where a moderate or strong magnetic field is expected.

Redman, M. P.; Williams, R. J. R.; Dyson, J. E.; Hartquist, T. W.; Fernandez, B. R.

1998-03-01

181

Eruptive solar magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quasi-steady evolution of solar magnetic fields in response to gradual photospheric changes is considered, with particular attention given to the threshold of a sudden eruption in the solar atmosphere. The formal model of an evolving, force-free field dependent on two Cartesian coordinates is extended to a field which is not force free but in static equilibrium with plasma pressure and gravity. The basic physics is illustrated through the evolution of a loop-shaped electric current sheet enclosing a potential bipolar field with footpoints rooted in the photosphere. A free-boundary problem is posed and then solved for the equilibrium configuration of the current sheet in a hydrostatically supported isothermal atmosphere. As the footpoints move apart to spread a constant photospheric magnetic flux over a larger region, the equilibria available extend the field to increasing heights.

Low, B. C.

1981-01-01

182

An educational path for the magnetic vector potential and its physical implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an educational path for the magnetic vector potential A aimed at undergraduate students and pre-service physics teachers. Starting from the generalized Ampère-Laplace law, in the framework of a slowly varying time-dependent field approximation, the magnetic vector potential is written in terms of its empirical references, i.e. the conduction currents. Therefore, once the currents are known, our approach allows for a clear and univocal physical determination of A, overcoming the mathematical indeterminacy due to the gauge transformations. We have no need to fix a gauge, since for slowly varying time-dependent electric and magnetic fields, the ‘natural’ gauge for A is the Coulomb one. We stress the difference between our approach and those usually presented in the literature. Finally, a physical interpretation of the magnetic vector potential is discussed and some examples of the calculation of A are analysed.

Barbieri, S.; Cavinato, M.; Giliberti, M.

2013-09-01

183

The Sun and Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about magnetic fields and their relation to the Sun, learners will simulate sunspots by using iron filings to show magnetic fields around a bar or cow magnet, and draw the magnetic field surrounding two dipole magnets, both in parallel and perpendicular alignments. Finally, learners examine images of sunspots to relate their magnetic field drawings and observations to what is seen on the Sun.

184

Fluxgate based detection of magnetic nanoparticle dynamics in a rotating magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a measurement setup allowing the investigation of the dynamics of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions in a rotating magnetic field. To determine the vector of the sample magnetization, sensitive fluxgate magnetometers are utilized detecting the sample's stray field. The phase lag between sample magnetization and rotating magnetic field vector is determined via the cross correlation spectrum. The phase lag spectra measured for various rotating field amplitudes on aqueous magnetite nanoparticle suspensions show good agreement with theory if the multidispersity of core and hydrodynamic size is taken into account.

Dieckhoff, Jan; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

2011-09-01

185

Magnetic Field and Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson where learners explore magnetic forces, fields, and the relationship between electricity. Learners will use this information to infer how the Earth generates a protective magnetic field. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson seven in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that were developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

186

The Wind Magnetic Field Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field experiment on WIND will provide data for studies of a broad range of scales of structures and fluctuation characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field throughout the mission, and, where appropriate, relate them to the statics and dynamics of the magnetosphere. The basic instrument of the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) is a boom-mounted dual triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and associated electronics. The dual configuration provides redundancy and also permits accurate removal of the dipolar portion of the spacecraft magnetic field. The instrument provides (1) near real-time data at nominally one vector per 92 s as key parameter data for broad dissemination, (2) rapid data at 10.9 vectors s-1 for standard analysis, and (3) occasionally, snapshot (SS) memory data and Fast Fourier Transform data (FFT), both based on 44 vectors s-1. These measurements will be precise (0.025%), accurate, ultra-sensitive (0.008 nT/step quantization), and where the sensor noise level is <0.006 nT r.m.s. for 0 10 Hz. The digital processing unit utilizes a 12-bit microprocessor controlled analogue-to-digital converter. The instrument features a very wide dynamic range of measurement capability, from ±4 nT up to ±65 536 nT per axis in eight discrete ranges. (The upper range permits complete testing in the Earth's field.) In the FTT mode power spectral density elements are transmitted to the ground as fast as once every 23 s (high rate), and 2.7 min of SS memory time series data, triggered automatically by pre-set command, requires typically about 5.1 hours for transmission. Standard data products are expected to be the following vector field averages: 0.0227-s (detail data from SS), 0.092 s (‘detail’ in standard mode), 3 s, 1 min, and 1 hour, in both GSE and GSM coordinates, as well as the FFT spectral elements. As has been our team's tradition, high instrument reliability is obtained by the use of fully redundant systems and extremely conservative designs. We plan studies of the solar wind: (1) as a collisionless plasma laboratory, at all time scales, macro, meso and micro, but concentrating on the kinetic scale, the highest time resolution of the instrument (=0.022 s), (2) as a consequence of solar energy and mass output, (3) as an external source of plasma that can couple mass, momentum, and energy to the Earth's magnetosphere, and (4) as it is modified as a consequence of its imbedded field interacting with the moon. Since the GEOTAIL Inboard Magnetometer (GIM), which is similar to the MFI instrument, was developed by members of our team, we provide a brief discussion of GIM related science objectives, along with MFI related science goals.

Lepping, R. P.; Ac?na, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Farrell, W. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Schatten, K. H.; Mariani, F.; Ness, N. F.; Neubauer, F. M.; Whang, Y. C.; Byrnes, J. B.; Kennon, R. S.; Panetta, P. V.; Scheifele, J.; Worley, E. M.

1995-02-01

187

Lie Bracket of Vector Fields in Noncommutative Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to avoid some difficulties, related with the Lie bracket, in the definition of vector fields in a noncommutative setting, as they were defined by Woronowicz, Schmüdgen-Schüler and Aschieri-Schupp. We extend the definition of vector fields to consider them as derivations of the algebra, through Cartan pairs introduced by Borowiec. Then, using translations, we introduce the invariant vector fields. Finally, the definition of Lie bracket realized by Dubois-Violette, considering elements in the center of the algebra, is also extended to these invariant vector fields.

Jara, P.; Llena, D.

2003-09-01

188

Magnetic Gradiometer and Vector Magnetometer Survey of the Galapagos Triple Junction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several fundamental tectonic problems of the equatorial Pacific remain unsolved due to the lack of magnetic anomaly data. A basic limitation encountered with the use of the standard proton precession magnetometer (or any total field instrument) is that total field anomalies over approximately N/S striking bodies are very small at low magnetic latitudes. Another problem encountered with magnetic surveys near the magnetic equator are the diurnal variations associated with the external field. Measurements of the vector anomalous field and total field gradient offer ways to overcome these limitations. Total field gradiometer data allow recognition and removal of time dependent external field variations. Vector magnetic anomalies provide two distinct advantages over total field measurements. Although the total field anomalies are small (typically 50 nT) over most of the equatorial Pacific, the vertical and horizontal components of the anomalous field are 2-5 times larger. In addition, vector anomaly data can be used to evaluate the two dimensionality of the magnetic source since the along track and vertical anomalies are related by a 90o phase shift for a perfectly two dimensional source. To evaluate the advantages of these systems, we conducted a survey of the trails of the Galapagos triple junction using both a high resolution total field gradiometer and a vector magnetometer. The longitudinal gradiometer system consists of two Overhauser sensors (0.01 nT sensitivity) towed 350 and 450m behind the survey vessel. The towed vector magnetometer utilizes a commercial motion reference sensor (0.02o orientation accuracy with three fluxgate sensors) suitable for measuring horizontal and vertical anomalies as small as 30-50 nT. Vector anomalies across Cocos-Nazca crust corroborate the high degree of linearity of these E/W lineations; horizontal and vertical anomalies exhibit high coherence (>0.9) and the expected 90o phase relationship at wavelengths longer than ~8km. Vector data from lower amplitude Pacific-Cocos and Pacific-Nazca lineations are more difficult to interpret, with lower coherence at somewhat longer wavelengths (>11km). The lower apparent degree of linearity over these N/S lineations in part reflects the much higher amplitude of any three dimensional sources. The combined use of vector and gradiometer measurements shows considerable promise for mapping magnetic lineations in low latitude regions.

Gee, J.; Cande, S. C.; Parker, R. L.; Lonsdale, P. F.; Bowles, J.

2004-05-01

189

High field superconducting magnets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

190

The interplanetary magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-scale properties of the interplanetary magnetic field as determined by the solar wind velocity structure are examined. The various ways in which magnetic fields affect phenomena in the solar wind are summarized. The dominant role of high and low velocity solar wind streams that persist, with fluctuations and evolution, for weeks or months is emphasized. It is suggested that for most purposes the sector structure is better identified with the stream structure than with the magnetic polarity and that the polarity does not necessarily change from one velocity sector to the next. Several mechanisms that might produce the stream structure are considered. The interaction of the high and low velocity streams is analyzed in a model that is steady state when viewed in a frame that corotates with the sun.

Davis, L., Jr.

1972-01-01

191

Magnetic Fields in Molecular Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maps of far-infrared and submillimeter polarization vectors have typically been examined one-at-a-time for magnetic field structure related to processes such as gravitational collapse, differential rotation, expanding H II regions, or tidal stripping. The same maps can be used to determine angular dispersion due to turbulence in molecular clouds, where the turbulent dispersion is distinguished from dispersion due to curvature of the large-scale structure or the apparent dispersion due to measurement error. Taking into account the differences between the dispersion due to magneto-hydrodynamic waves in the arms of the Galaxy and dispersion due to turbulence in molecular clouds, one can infer field strengths in dense clouds using a method analogous to that used by Chandresekhar & Fermi to determine field strengths in the Galactic plane. With an accurate archive of flux and polarization maps one can also determine three-dimensional cloud shapes and field orientations, or look for correlations between fields in molecular clouds and fields in the surrounding medium.

Hildebrand, R. H.

2009-12-01

192

On the Computation of Integral Curves in Adaptive Mesh Refinement Vector Fields  

SciTech Connect

Integral curves, such as streamlines, streaklines, pathlines, and timelines, are an essential tool in the analysis of vector field structures, offering straightforward and intuitive interpretation of visualization results. While such curves have a long-standing tradition in vector field visualization, their application to Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulation results poses unique problems. AMR is a highly effective discretization method for a variety of physical simulation problems and has recently been applied to the study of vector fields in flow and magnetohydrodynamic applications. The cell-centered nature of AMR data and discontinuities in the vector field representation arising from AMR level boundaries complicate the application of numerical integration methods to compute integral curves. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to alleviate these problems and show its application to streamline visualization in an AMR model of the magnetic field of the solar system as well as to a simulation of two incompressible viscous vortex rings merging.

Deines, Eduard; Weber, Gunther H.; Garth, Christoph; Van Straalen, Brian; Borovikov, Sergey; Martin, Daniel F.; Joy, Kenneth I.

2011-06-27

193

The Earth's Magnetic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Windows to the Universe website provides information and images about Earth's magnetic field (the magnetosphere), including detailed information about the aurora borealis, magnets, and solar wind. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging website that includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

194

Slow decay of magnetic fields in open Friedmann universes  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic fields in Friedmann universes can experience superadiabatic growth without departing from conventional electromagnetism. The reason is the relativistic coupling between vector fields and spacetime geometry, which slows down the decay of large-scale magnetic fields in open universes, compared to that seen in perfectly flat models. The result is a large relative gain in magnetic strength that can lead to astrophysically interesting B fields, even if our Universe is only marginally open today.

Barrow, John D. [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Tsagas, Christos G. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

2008-05-15

195

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field (HMF) is the physical framework in which energetic particles and cosmic rays propagate. Changes in the large scale structure of the magnetic field lead to short- and long term changes in cosmic ray intensities, in particular in anti-phase with solar activity. The origin of the HMF in the corona is well understood and inner heliospheric observations can generally be linked to their coronal sources. The structure of heliospheric magnetic polarities and the heliospheric current sheet separating the dominant solar polarities are reviewed here over longer than a solar cycle, using the three dimensional heliospheric observations by Ulysses. The dynamics of the HMF around solar minimum activity is reviewed and the development of stream interaction regions following the stable flow patterns of fast and slow solar wind in the inner heliosphere is described. The complex dynamics that affects the evolution of the stream interaction regions leads to a more chaotic structure of the HMF in the outer heliosphere is described and discussed on the basis of the Voyager observations. Around solar maximum, solar activity is dominated by frequent transients, resulting in the interplanetary counterparts of Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). These produce a complex aperiodic pattern of structures in the inner heliosphere, at all heliolatitudes. These structures continue to interact and evolve as they travel to the outer heliosphere. However, linking the observations in the inner and outer heliospheres is possible in the case of the largest solar transients that, despite their evolutions, remain recognizably large structures and lead to the formation of Merged Interaction Regions (MIRs) that may well form a quasi-spherical, "global" shell of enhanced magnetic fields around the Sun at large distances. For the transport of energetic particles and cosmic rays, the fluctuations in the magnetic field and their description in alternative turbulent models remains a very important research topic. These are also briefly reviewed in this paper.

Balogh, André; Erdõs, Géza

2013-06-01

196

Controllable Pairs of Vector Fields on SL(n,R).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consider the class C of compact right invariant vectors fields on SL(n,R). We show that for each non zero element (X sub 1) of C there exists an element (X sub 2) of C such that the pair of vectors fields ((X sub 1), (X sub 2)) is controllable.

B. Bonnard

1979-01-01

197

Magnetic Field of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can learn about how the magnetic field of the earth is similar to magnets. Go to the following link: Magnetic Field of the Earth 1. What makes the earth like a magnet? 2. How do we measure magnetism? Be sure to check out the fun games and activities on this web site too!! Now click on the following link and listen to a 2 minute presentation about magnetism: Pulse Planet Next go to ...

Merritt, Mrs.

2005-10-18

198

Laser fields at flat interfaces: I. Vector potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model calculating the laser fields at a flat structureless surface taking into account the surface photoelectric effect is presented. The photon is p or transverse magnetic linearly polarized, continuous and its wave length is long, i.e. ?vac ? 12.4 nm. The sharp rise of the electron density at the interface generates an atomic scale spatial dependence of the laser field. In real space and in the temporal gauge, the vector potential A of the laser is obtained as a solution of the classical Ampère-Maxwell and the material equations. The susceptibility is a product of the electron density of the material system with the surface and of the bulk tensor and non-local isotropic (TNLI) polarizability. The electron density is obtained quantum mechanically by solving the Schrödinger equation. The bulk TNLI polarizability including dispersion is calculated from a Drude-Lindhard-Kliewer model. In one dimension perpendicular to the surface the components A_x(z,?) and A_z(z,?) of the vector potential are solutions of the Ampère-Maxwell system of two coupled integro-differential equations. The model, called vector potential from the electron density-coupled integro-differential equations (VPED-CIDE), is used here to obtain the electron escape probability from the power density absorption, the reflectance, the electron density induced by the laser and Feibelman's parameters d? and d?. Some preliminary results on aluminium surfaces are given here and in a companion paper the photoelectron spectra are calculated with results in agreement with the experiment.

Ra?eev, G.

2012-07-01

199

Non-Langevin high-temperature magnetization of nanoparticles in a weak magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Experimental evidence and theoretical substantiation are presented for the asymptotic behavior of high-temperature magnetization of an ensemble of nanoparticles in a weak magnetic field, which was predicted earlier and which differs qualitatively from the 'Langevin' limit for ideal superparamagnetic particles. It is shown that the physical reason for the new asymptotic behavior is the temperature-independent 'positive' tilt of the uniform magnetization vector at local energy minima in the direction of the field; this asymptotic behavior is associated with the nonstandard thermodynamics of single-domain particles, which depends on the ratio of characteristic frequencies of regular precession and random diffusion of this vector. An alternative approach is proposed for describing the magnetic dynamics of an ensemble of nanoparticles in a magnetic field, and the precession orbits of the magnetization vector are considered as stochastic states of each particle, whereas each state is characterized by the trajectory-averaged value of magnetization.

Chuev, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)], E-mail: m_a_chuev@mail.ru

2009-02-15

200

Magnetic Field Activities for the High School Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit is designed to acquaint students with the properties of magnetic fields. It is meant to introduce the idea of a "field" through investigations of magnetic fields as produced by various common magnetic materials and direct electrical currents. They will learn that the difference between a magnetic field and a gravitational field is that a gravitational field, in the experience of a student, always points downward and is always of the same strength. Magnetic fields are not limited to one direction or strength. Further, all students will know, by the mid-point of this unit, that magnetic fields are inherently loop shaped. Familiarity with the uniform gravitational field of classical Newtonian dynamics and kinematics is not required. As they complete the unit, students will gain an appreciation for the vector nature of fields, the ubiquity of field sources in the environment, and the ability to visualize such fields as three-dimensional entities.

Eckel, Ed; Friel, Matthew

201

THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD  

SciTech Connect

With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength Almost-Equal-To 20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2012-12-10

202

Magnetic Field Topology in Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

2000-01-01

203

The WIND magnetic field investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field experiment on WIND will provide data for studies of a broad range of scales of structures and fluctuation characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field throughout the mission, and, where appropriate, relate them to the statics and dynamics of the magnetosphere. The basic instrument of the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) is a boom-mounted dual triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and

R. P. Lepping; M. H. Ac?na; L. F. Burlaga; W. M. Farrell; J. A. Slavin; K. H. Schatten; F. Mariani; N. F. Ness; F. M. Neubauer; Y. C. Whang; J. B. Byrnes; R. S. Kennon; P. V. Panetta; J. Scheifele; E. M. Worley

1995-01-01

204

Low field magnetic resonance imaging  

DOEpatents

A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Sakellariou, Dimitrios (Billancourt, FR); Meriles, Carlos A. (Fort Lee, NJ); Trabesinger, Andreas H. (London, GB)

2010-07-13

205

Tracking Vector Magnetograms with the Magnetic Induction Equation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The differential affine velocity estimator (DAVE) that we developed in 2006 for estimating velocities from line-of-sight magnetograms is modified to directly incorporate horizontal magnetic fields to produce a differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms (DAVE4VM). The DAVE4VM's performance is demonstrated on the synthetic data from the anelastic pseudospectral ANMHD simulations that were used in the recent comparison of velocity inversion techniques by Welsch and coworkers. The DAVE4VM predicts roughly 95% of the helicity rate and 75% of the power transmitted through the simulation slice. Intercomparison between DAVE4VM and DAVE and further analysis of the DAVE method demonstrates that line-of-sight tracking methods capture the shearing motion of magnetic footpoints but are insensitive to flux emergence - the velocities determined from line-of-sight methods are more consistent with horizontal plasma velocities than with flux transport velocities. These results suggest that previous studies that rely on velocities determined from line-of-sight methods such as the DAVE or local correlation tracking may substantially misrepresent the total helicity rates and power through the photosphere.

Schuck, P.

2009-01-01

206

Tracking Vector Magnetograms with the Magnetic Induction Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differential affine velocity estimator (DAVE) that we developed in 2006 for estimating velocities from line-of-sight magnetograms is modified to directly incorporate horizontal magnetic fields to produce a differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms (DAVE4VM). The DAVE4VM's performance is demonstrated on the synthetic data from the anelastic pseudospectral ANMHD simulations that were used in the recent comparison of velocity inversion techniques by Welsch and coworkers. The DAVE4VM predicts roughly 95% of the helicity rate and 75% of the power transmitted through the simulation slice. Intercomparison between DAVE4VM and DAVE and further analysis of the DAVE method demonstrates that line-of-sight tracking methods capture the shearing motion of magnetic footpoints but are insensitive to flux emergence - the velocities determined from line-of-sight methods are more consistent with horizontal plasma velocities than with flux transport velocities. These results suggest that previous studies that rely on velocities determined from line-of-sight methods such as the DAVE or local correlation tracking may substantially misrepresent the total helicity rates and power through the photosphere.

Schuck, Peter W.

2009-12-01

207

Tracking Vector Magnetograms with the Magnetic Induction Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differential affine velocity estimator (DAVE) that we developed in 2006 for estimating velocities from line- of-sight magnetograms is modified to directly incorporate horizontal magnetic fields to produce a differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms (DAVE4VM). The DAVE4VM's performance is demonstrated on the synthetic data from the anelastic pseudospectral ANMHD simulations that were used in the recent comparison of velocity inversion techniques by Welsch and coworkers. The DAVE4VM predicts roughly 95% of the helicity rate and 75% of the power transmitted through the simulation slice. Intercomparison between DAVE4VM and DAVE and further analysis of the DAVE method demonstrates that line-of-sight tracking methods capture the shearing motion of magnetic footpoints but are insensitive to flux emergence - the velocities determined from line-of-sight methods are more consistent with horizontal plasma velocities than with flux transport velocities. These results suggest that previous studies that rely on velocities determined from line-of-sight methods such as the DAVE or local correlation tracking may substantially misrepresent the total helicity rates and power through the photosphere.

Schuck, P. W.

2008-12-01

208

Tracking Vector Magnetograms with the Magnetic Induction Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differential affine velocity estimator (DAVE) that we developed in 2006 for estimating velocities from line-of-sight magnetograms is modified to directly incorporate horizontal magnetic fields to produce a differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms (DAVE4VM). The DAVE4VM's performance is demonstrated on the synthetic data from the anelastic pseudospectral ANMHD simulations that were used in the recent comparison of velocity inversion techniques by Welsch and coworkers. The DAVE4VM predicts roughly 95% of the helicity rate and 75% of the power transmitted through the simulation slice. Intercomparison between DAVE4VM and DAVE and further analysis of the DAVE method demonstrates that line-of-sight tracking methods capture the shearing motion of magnetic footpoints but are insensitive to flux emergence-the velocities determined from line-of-sight methods are more consistent with horizontal plasma velocities than with flux transport velocities. These results suggest that previous studies that rely on velocities determined from line-of-sight methods such as the DAVE or local correlation tracking may substantially misrepresent the total helicity rates and power through the photosphere.

Schuck, P. W.

2008-08-01

209

Observational Study of Solar Magnetic Field and Eruption Phenomena at Huairou Solar Observing Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the observational study of vector magnetic field and also the development of new optical instrumentations at Huairou Solar Observing Station, National Astronomical Observatories of China. The presentations are following: 1.The synthetical analysis between photospheric vector magnetic field and the morphological configuration in solar atmosphere provides the essential information on the developments of magnetic energy in source regions of

Hongqi Zhang

2006-01-01

210

The 1983 tail-era data series. Volume 2: ISEE 3 magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISEE 3 spacecraft measurements within and near the Earth's magnetic tail is presented. Plots are shown of ISEE 3 magnetic field data. The plots in this volume showing observations from the ISEE 3 vector helium magnetometer experiment were produced from a tape of merged plasma\\/magnetic field data. The magnetometer produced six vector measurements\\/sec that were subsequently averaged over one minute

D. H. Fairfield; J. L. Phillips

1990-01-01

211

Electric and magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

1982-01-01

212

Magsat: A satellite for measuring near earth magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magsat, designed for making measurements of the geomagnetic vector field, is evaluated. For accurate vector measurements the attitude of the fluxgate magnetometer will be determined to about 15 arc-seconds. Expected measurement accuracy will be 6 (gamma) in each component and 3 in magnitude. The Magsat data will be applied to solid earth studies including modeling of the Earth's main magnetic

R. A. Langel; R. D. Regan; J. P. Murphy

1977-01-01

213

Magnetic structures of Ising and vector spins monolayers by Monte-Carlo simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the optimal magnetic structures for monolayers of either square or triangular lattice symmetry with evidence for morphological differences. The interplay between short-range exchange and long-range dipolar forces leads to quite different results for Ising spins and vector spins. For the Ising model, spin domains with parallel stripes, chevron patterns and labyrinths at different scales and with thermal disorder are deduced. For the vector model with a weak perpendicular anisotropy, the spins are planar and form a lattice of vortices of both signs. Such a structure remains stable even under a large perpendicular magnetic field, whereas a weak in-plane magnetic field is sufficient to obtain a uniform magnetic domain. For a sufficiently large perpendicular anisotropy, a mixed structure appears that includes spin vortex areas surrounding spin-up and spin-down areas.

Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Ghazali, A.; Lévy, J.-C. S.

1998-05-01

214

Juno and Jupiter's Magnetic Field (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Juno spacecraft, launched in August 2011, will reach Jupiter in early July 2016, where it will enter a polar orbit, with an 11 day period and a perijove altitude of approximately 5000 km. The baseline mission will last for one year during which Juno will complete 32 orbits, evenly spaced in longitude. The baseline mission presents an unparalleled opportunity for investigating Jupiter's magnetic field. In many ways Jupiter is a better planet for studying dynamo-generated magnetic fields than the Earth: there are no crustal fields, of course, which otherwise mask the dynamo-generated field at high degree; and an orbiting spacecraft can get proportionately much closer to the dynamo region. Assuming Jupiter's dynamo extends to 0.8 Rj, Juno at closet approach is only 0.3 Rc above the dynamo, while Earth orbiting magnetic field missions sample the field at least 1 Rc above the dynamo (where Rc is the respective outer core or dynamo region radius). Juno's MAG Investigation delivers magnetic measurements with exceptional vector accuracy (100 ppm) via two FGM sensors, each co-located with a dedicated pair of non-magnetic star cameras for attitude determination at the sensor. We expect to image Jupiter's dynamo with unsurpassed resolution. Accordingly, we anticipate that the Juno magnetic field investigation may place important constraints on Jupiter's interior structure, and hence on the formation and evolution of Jupiter.

Bloxham, J.; Connerney, J. E.; Jorgensen, J. L.

2013-12-01

215

Magnetically Vectored Nanocapsules for Tumor Penetration and Remotely Switchable On-Demand Drug Release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hollow-sphere nanocapsules containing intentionally trapped magnetic nanoparticles and defined anticancer drugs provide a powerful magnetic vector under moderate gradient magnetic fields, and enable the nanocapsules to penetrate into the midst of tumors and allow a controlled on-off switchable release of the anticancer drug cargo by remotely applied Radio Frequency (RF) magnetic field. This imageable smart drug delivery system is compact because the drug molecules and magnetic nanoparticles can all be self-contained within 80~150 nm capsules. In vitro as well as in vivo results indicate that the nanocapsules are effective in reducing tumor cell growth. In Chapter 1, the concept of Drug Delivery Systems (DDSs) and the impact of nanotechnology on Drug Delivery Systems were introduced. Triggered drug release using magnetothermally-responsive nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles for nanomedicine, and ordered mesoporous materials in the context of Drug Delivery System were discussed. In Chapter 2, creation of remotely controllable, On-Off switchable drug release methodology was described. In this thesis work, triggerable nanocapsules which contain magnetic nanoparticles responsive to external radio frequency (RF) magnetic field have been successfully created. This is in contrast to the regular hollow nanospheres for slow passive release of drugs. The new nanocapsule material consists of bio-inert, bio-compatible or bio-degradable material that we can be selected from a variety of materials depending on specific medical applications. In Chapter 3, study and utilization of magnetic vector for guided tumor penetration was discussed. In the presence of a moderate gradient magnetic field, a powerful magnetic vector is created that allows these nanocapsules to cross cell membranes or blood-tissue barriers and penetrate into the midst of tumors, thus overcoming the well-known problem of limited access of anti-cancer drugs to cancer cells in the interior of a tumor tissue. In Chapter 4, potential applications to Blood-Brain-Barrier (BBB) crossing and other therapeutics was described. In Chapter 5, the study was summarized and concluded.

Kong, Seong Deok

216

Vector magnetic analysis within the southern Ayu Trough, equatorial western Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the analysis of magnetic field data of the Ayu Trough, a divergent plate margin located in the southern Philippine Sea plate. The survey, which mapped both axial and off-axis regions of the southern Ayu Trough, recorded the total field using a proton precession magnetometer towed behind the ship and the vector magnetic field using a shipboard three-component fluxgate magnetometer together with multibeam bathymetry. The two magnetic field anomalies show good agreement, indicating that the reduction of vector field data was successful. Our inspection of E-W profiles shows that there is little correlation in magnetic anomalies between adjacent profiles and lack of symmetry with respect to the trough axis. However, a careful examination of gridded magnetic anomaly map reveals that symmetry may be found to the north of 1°N along N120E, which is roughly the direction of spreading at this region as revealed by the fine-scale seafloor fabric by our survey. Vector magnetic anomalies exhibit important differences with strike of magnetic boundaries within the inner region between Tobi and Mapia Ridges trending predominantly N-S, whereas in the outer region they are almost E-W. This finding suggests that the outer region appears to retain the magnetization and crustal structure of the old West Philippine Basin, while the inner region is inherited from the E-W seafloor spreading in the Ayu Trough. The short along-axis segmentation and complex seafloor morphology caused by slow oblique spreading may explain the lack of symmetry in the magnetic anomalies with respect to the trough axis and a wider occurrence of 3-D magnetic source crust roughly to the south of 1°N.

Lee, Sang-Mook; Kim, Seung-Sep

2004-02-01

217

MIT Physics 8.02: Vector Fields Visualizations - Cross Product of Two Vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive three-dimensional animation that illustrates the concept of vector cross product. Users set angle theta from zero to 360 degrees, and then rotate a vector through the angle. An animated hand automatically points in the proper direction according to the Right Hand Rule. No mathematics is introduced. This item is part of a collection of visualizations developed by the MIT TEAL project to supplement an introductory course in calculus-based electricity and magnetism. Lecture notes, labs, and presentations are also available as part of MIT's Open Courseware Repository: MIT Open Courseware: Electricity and Magnetism

2010-03-31

218

Visualizing Vector Fields Using Line Integral Convolution and Dye Advection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present local and global techniques to visualize three-dimensional vector field data. Using the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) method to image the global vector field, our new algorithm allows the user to introduce colored 'dye' into the vector field to highlight local flow features. A fast algorithm is proposed that quickly recomputes the dyed LIC images. In addition, we introduce volume rendering methods that can map the LIC texture on any contour surface and/or translucent region defined by additional scalar quantities, and can follow the advection of colored dye throughout the volume.

Shen, Han-Wei; Johnson, Christopher R.; Ma, Kwan-Liu

1996-01-01

219

3D vector magnetic properties of soft magnetic composite material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even under one-dimensional (1D) alternating or 2D rotating magnetic excitation, a magnetic material shows 3D magnetic property due to the rotation of magnetic domains. Only when the 3D properties are properly considered the understanding and modelling of the magnetisation process can be complete. This paper summarises our work about the investigation on the magnetic properties of soft magnetic composite (SMC)

Y. G. Guo; J. G. Zhu; Z. W. Lin; J. J. Zhong

2006-01-01

220

Magnetic field strength of active region filaments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We study the vector magnetic field of a filament observed over a compact active region neutral line. Methods: Spectropolarimetric data acquired with TIP-II (VTT, Tenerife, Spain) of the 10 830 Å spectral region provide full Stokes vectors that were analyzed using three different methods: magnetograph analysis, Milne-Eddington inversions, and PCA-based atomic polarization inversions. Results: The inferred magnetic field strengths in the filament are around 600-700 G by all these three methods. Longitudinal fields are found in the range of 100-200 G whereas the transverse components become dominant, with fields as high as 500-600 G. We find strong transverse fields near the neutral line also at photospheric levels. Conclusions: Our analysis indicates that strong (higher than 500 G, but below kG) transverse magnetic fields are present in active region filaments. This corresponds to the highest field strengths reliably measured in these structures. The profiles of the helium 10 830 Å lines observed in this active region filament are dominated by the Zeeman effect.

Kuckein, C.; Centeno, R.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Casini, R.; Manso Sainz, R.; Shimizu, T.

2009-07-01

221

The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0 +/- 1.4, B=13.1 +/- 1.2, K=1.1 +/- 1.8, and C=2.9 +/- 1.4 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at approximately -20 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z greater than 1 kpc), but here we surmise its existence in the thin disk at z less than 200 pc. The most unexpected and unexplained term within the Ogorodnikov-Milne model is the first-degree magnetic harmonic, representing a rigid rotation of the stellar field about the axis -Y pointing opposite to the direction of rotation. This harmonic comes out with a statistically robust coefficient of 6.2 +/- 0.9 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1) and is also present in the velocity field of more distant stars. The ensuing upward vertical motion of stars in the general direction of the Galactic center and the downward motion in the anticenter direction are opposite to the vector field expected from the stationary Galactic warp model.

Markarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

2007-01-01

222

The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (VX,VY,VZ)=(10.5,18.5,7.3)+/-0.1 km s-1 not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (VX,VY,VZ)=(9.9,15.6,6.9)+/-0.2 km s-1. The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0+/-1.4, B=-13.1+/-1.2, K=1.1+/-1.8, and C=-2.9+/-1.4 km s-1 kpc-1. The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at ~-20 km s-1 kpc-1. A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z>1 kpc), but here we surmise its existence in the thin disk at z<200 pc. The most unexpected and unexplained term within the Ogorodnikov-Milne model is the first-degree magnetic harmonic, representing a rigid rotation of the stellar field about the axis -Y pointing opposite to the direction of rotation. This harmonic comes out with a statistically robust coefficient of 6.2+/-0.9 km s-1 kpc-1 and is also present in the velocity field of more distant stars. The ensuing upward vertical motion of stars in the general direction of the Galactic center and the downward motion in the anticenter direction are opposite to the vector field expected from the stationary Galactic warp model.

Makarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

2007-07-01

223

Magnetic field observations on DEA and B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field observations are conducted on each of the DE-A and -B satellites by a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer. In the basic mode the instrumental resolution is + or - 1.5 nT; in addition, the DE-A magnetometer has two modes of higher resolution: + or - 0.25 nT and + or - 20 pT. The sampling rate is 16 vector samples

W. H. Farthing; M. Sugiura; B. G. Ledley; L. J. Cahill Jr.

1981-01-01

224

Fast superconducting magnetic field switch  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with an electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater than the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. Magnetic switches and particularly fast kicker magnets are used in the accelerator industry to quickly deflect particle beams into and out of various transport lines, storage rings, dumps, and specifically to differentially route individual bunches of particles from a train of bunches which are injected or ejected from a given ring.

Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

1995-12-31

225

Inter-relationship among magnetization, polarization and magnetic wave vector in multiferroic spinel CoCr2O4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been known that the spinel CoCr2O4 is a multiferroic with conical spiral magnetic order characterized by three physical parameters: magnetization (M), polarization (P) and magnetic modulation vector (Q). We have found that these observables have a close inter-relationship in the multiferroic state and their inter-relationship changes in a methodical manner upon temperature variation and through applied magnetic fields. In order to understand the origin of this inter-relationship, we have performed comprehensive characterization experiments on the multiferroic compound, including measurements of dielectric constant, polarization, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, and resonant x-ray scattering as functions of temperature and applied magnetic field.

Choi, Young Jai; Okamoto, Jun; Huang, Di-Jing; Chao, Kuo Sheng; Lin, Hong-Ji; Chen, Chien-Te; van Veenendaal, Michel; Kaplan, Thomas A.; Cheong, Sang-Wook

2008-03-01

226

Examples of non-conjugated holomorphic vector fields and foliations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider germs of holomorphic vector fields near the origin of C2 with a saddle-node singularity, and the induced singular foliations. In a previous article we described the invariants addressing the analytical classification of these vector fields. They split into three parts: a formal, an orbital and a tangential component. For a fixed formal class, the orbital invariant (associated to the foliation) was obtained by Martinet and Ramis; we give it an integral representation. We then derive examples of non-orbitally conjugated foliations by the use of a "first-step" normal form, whose first-significative jet is an invariant. The tangential invariant also admits an integral representation, hence we derive explicit examples of vector fields, inducing the same foliation, that are not mutually conjugated. In addition, we provide a family of normal forms for vector fields orbitally equivalent to the model of Poincaré-Dulac.

Teyssier, Loc

227

Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical (GMO) or Faraday effect in iron garnets, they with a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss, (20 mT) for an interaction length for an optical beam of a few millimeters achieve a polarization rotation or phase shift of 45 deg (1/8 cycle). When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 level for frequencies from less than 1 Hz to frequencies into the high kHz range. Through further improvements; an increase in interaction length, better materials and by far the greatest factor, the addition of a flux concentrator, sensitivities at the pT/Hz1/2 level appear to be within reach. We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals.

Wyntjes, Geert

2002-02-01

228

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is the extension of the coronal magnetic field carried out into the solar system by the solar wind. It is the means by which the Sun interacts with planetary magnetospheres and channels charged particles propagating through the heliosphere. As the HMF remains rooted at the solar photosphere as the Sun rotates, the large-scale HMF traces out an Archimedean spiral. This pattern is distorted by the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams, as well as the interplanetary manifestations of transient solar eruptions called coronal mass ejections. On the smaller scale, the HMF exhibits an array of waves, discontinuities, and turbulence, which give hints to the solar wind formation process. This review aims to summarise observations and theory of the small- and large-scale structure of the HMF. Solar-cycle and cycle-to-cycle evolution of the HMF is discussed in terms of recent spacecraft observations and pre-spaceage proxies for the HMF in geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray records.

Owens, Mathew J.; Forsyth, Robert J.

2013-11-01

229

Visualization of 3 Dimensional Seismic Vector Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake simulations produce vast amounts of surface and volumetric temporal data. We have implemented methods to visualize scalar and vector data that allows comprehension of the large amount of information. We leverage advances in graphics processors to draw oriented and textured geometry interactively. We have developed four glyphs to depict the underlying vector data: spheres, ellipsoids, lines, and voxels. The glyphs can be switched interactively and offer multiple visual representations where each glyph enhances different underlying property. Additionally, we have developed highlighting mechanisms to enhance comprehension of direction of vector data. For instance, a sphere would ordinarily not provide directional cues but with our method of highlight the sphere can indicate the direction. We have also developed interactively tunable methods to resolve occlusion of volumetric data. We present multimodal visual representations that provide an array of interactive and flexible visualization techniques to the scientists for scientific investigation through visualization. The visualization tool can be run on a laptop, desktop or virtual reality (VR) environment. We are leveraging one such state-of-the-art system called “StarCAVE”. The StarCAVE surrounds the user with seamless, immersive and stereoscopic virtual environment. This VR environment provides the capability to view the volumetric data from inside the volume in an immersive manner, which is similar to witnessing the earthquake event from inside earth from any vantage point. Interactive visualization of the Terashake simulation allows scientists to flexibly explore existing data intuitively. This is a crop of the Terashake simulation containing the San Andreas near San Bernadino. Color represents velocity magnitude, while direction is that of the displacement vector.

McQuinn, E.; Chourasia, A.; Minster, J. H.; Schulze, J.

2009-12-01

230

Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)

Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

1983-01-01

231

Analytic integrability for some degenerate planar vector fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the analytic integrability of degenerate vector fields of the form (y3+2ax3y+⋯,-x5-3ax2y2+⋯) around the origin. For these vector fields it is proved that integrability does not imply formal orbital equivalence to the Hamiltonian leading part. Moreover, it is shown the existence of a system in this class which has a center but is neither analytically integrable nor formal orbital reversible.

Algaba, Antonio; García, Cristóbal; Giné, Jaume

2014-07-01

232

Electric field vector characterization of terahertz surface plasmons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the ability to characterize independently the vector components of the electric field associated with terahertz surface plasmons. This is accomplished via electro-optic sampling, using an electro-optic crystal placed in close proximity to a corrugated metal foil. The individual electric field vector components are measured using two separate ZnTe crystals. Since ZnTe exhibits isotropic dielectric properties, all of the

Ajay Nahata; Wenqi Zhu

2007-01-01

233

Orinetation of the Magnetic Fields in Interplanetary Flux Ropes and Solar Filaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronal mass ejections are often associated with erupting magnetic structures or disappearing filaments. Majority of CMEs headed directly toward the earth are observed at 1AU as magnetic clouds --- region in the solar wind where the magnetic field strength is higher than average and smooth rotation of the magnetic field vectors. The 3D structure of magnetic clouds can be represented

Vasyl B. Yurchyshyn; Haimin Wang; P. R. Goode; Yuanyong Deng

2001-01-01

234

Computation of solar magnetic fields from photospheric observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observational difficulties of obtaining the magnetic field distribution in the chromosphere and corona of the sun has led to methods of extending photospheric magnetic mesurements into the solar atmosphere by mathematical procedures. A new approach to this problem presented here is that a constant alpha force-free field can be uniquely determined from the tangential components of the measured photospheric flux alone. The vector magnetographs now provide measurements of both the solar photospheric tangential and the longitudinal magnetic field. This paper presents derivations for the computation of the solar magnetic field from these type of measurements. The fields considered are assumed to be a constant alpha force-free fields or equivalent, producing vanishing Lorentz forces. Consequently, magnetic field lines and currents are related by a constant and hence show an identical distribution. The magnetic field above simple solar regions are described from the solution of the field equations.

Hannakam, L.; Gary, G. A.; Teuber, D. L.

1984-01-01

235

Some Structural Properties of Solar Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss some results of the study of spatial characteristics of solar magnetic fields. The analysis is based on the magnetic field data obtained with a new spectromagnetograph installed on the IZMIRAN Tower Telescope (Fe I 6302.5 Å) (Kozhevatov et al., 2002), the data of the MSFC solar vector magnetograph (Fe I 5250.2 Å) and the data of longitudinal magnetic 96 m daily maps of SOHO/MDI magnetograph (Ni I 6768 Å) downloaded through Internet. Our study was directed in some different ways: the fractal properties of sunspots; fractal properties of space distribution of the magnetic fields along great distances comparable with the size of active regions or active complexes; fractal properties of active and quiet regions as global entities. To do it we used some different methods, particularly, the well known method using the relation between the area and the perimeter of magnetic field lines (see (Feder, 1988; Meunier, 1999; Nesme-Ribes at al., 1996; Balke et al., 1993)) and technique developed by Higuchi (1988), who applied it to the investigation of long time series. Note also that magnetic structure in terms of the fractal models was developed earlier in (Zelenyi & Milovanov, 1991; Milovanov & Zelenyi, 1993; Mogilevskii, 1994; Mogilevskii, 2001; Abramenko et al., 2002; Abramenko, 2005; Salakhudinova & Golovko, 2005). The main results are: 1. Fractal analysis of sunspot magnetic field indicated the existence of three families of self-similar contour lines roughly belonging to the umbra, penumbra and the ambient photosphere correspondingly. The greatest fractal dimension corresponds to the regions of weakest fields (ambient photosphere), the least one corresponds to the intermediate region (penumbra). 2. More detailed analysis shows that the fractal coefficient has a maximum (about 1.50) near the umbra--penumbra interface. 3. The global fractal numbers of space distribution of magnetic field on solar surface is closely connected with the mean absolute values of the longitudinal magnetic field for this surface. The fractal numbers diminish with the rising of mean magnetic field (from values about 2.0 for the relatively quiet region to 1- 1.2 for very active regions). 4. The dependences of fractal numbers of the space distribution of longitudinal and transversal fields versus mean longitudinal field are similar by their character but the fractal values for transversal field are higher than the corresponding factor values for longitudinal field by factor about 1.5. This means that the distribution of transversal field along the space is more chaotic than the distribution of longitudinal field.

Ioshpa, B.; Mogilevskii, E.; Obridko, V.

2007-05-01

236

Fast superconducting magnetic field switch  

DOEpatents

The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

Goren, Yehuda (Mountain View, CA); Mahale, Narayan K. (The Woodlands, TX)

1996-01-01

237

Fast superconducting magnetic field switch  

DOEpatents

The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

1996-08-06

238

A model for solar activity prediction based on solar photospheric magnetic field observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays solar photospheric magnetic field observations provide vector magnetic fields on the photospheric surface. Some important physical parameters, such as vertical currents, current helicity, magnetic separatrix, position of singular points and so on, can be derived from the observed magnetic fields. Pre-status of important solar events must be related to evolutions of these parameters. By analyzing long term observational data,

H. Wang; Y. Cui; H. Du; Z. Du

2004-01-01

239

Gauge Fields, Membranes, and Subdeterminant Vector Models  

SciTech Connect

We present a class of classically marginal N-vector models in d=4 and d=3 whose scalar potentials can be written as subdeterminants of symmetric matrices. The d=3 case can be thought of as a generalization of the scalar sector of the Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson model. Using the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation we calculate their effective potentials which exhibit intriguing large-N scaling behaviors. We comment on the possible relevance of our models to strings, membranes, and also to a class of novel spin systems that are based on ternary commutation relations.

Leigh, Robert G.; Mauri, Andrea; Minic, Djordje; Petkou, Anastasios C. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria, Milano 20133 (Italy); IPNAS, Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece)

2010-06-04

240

Evolution of twisted magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic field of the solar corona evolves quasistatically in response to slowly changing photospheric boundary conditions. The magnetic topology is preserved by the low resistivity of the solar atmosphere. We show that a magnetic flux coordinate system simplifies the problem of calculating field evolution with invariant topology. As an example, we calculate the equilibrium of a thin magnetic flux tube with small twist per unit length.

Zweibel, E.G.; Boozer, A.H.

1985-02-01

241

Reconnection of Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1.1 The Sun E. R. Priest; 1.2 Earth's magnetosphere J. Birn; Part II. Basic Theory of MHD Reconnection: 2.1 Classical theory of two-dimensional reconnection T. G. Forbes; 2.2 Fundamental concepts G. Hornig; 2.3 Three-dimensional reconnection in the absence of magnetic null points G. Hornig; 2.4 Three-dimensional reconnection at magnetic null points D. Pontin; 2.5 Three-dimensional flux tube reconnection M. Linton; Part III. Basic Theory of Collisionless Reconnection: 3.1 Fundamentals of collisionless reconnection J. Drake; 3.2 Diffusion region physics M. Hesse; 3.3 Onset of magnetic reconnection P. Pritchett; 3.4 Hall-MHD reconnection A. Bhattacharjee and J. Dorelli; 3.5 Role of current-aligned instabilities J. Büchner and W. Daughton; 3.6 Nonthermal particle acceleration M. Hoshino; Part IV. Reconnection in the Magnetosphere: 4.1 Reconnection at the magnetopause: concepts and models J. G. Dorelli and A. Bhattacharjee; 4.2 Observations of magnetopause reconnection K.-H. Trattner; 4.3 On the stability of the magnetotail K. Schindler; 4.4 Simulations of reconnection in the magnetotail J. Birn; 4.5 Observations of tail reconnection W. Baumjohann and R. Nakamura; 4.6 Remote sensing of reconnection M. Freeman; Part V. Reconnection in the Sun's Atmosphere: 5.1 Coronal heating E. R. Priest; 5.2 Separator reconnection D. Longcope; 5.3 Pinching of coronal fields V. Titov; 5.4 Numerical experiments on coronal heating K. Galsgaard; 5.5 Solar flares K. Kusano; 5.6 Particle acceleration in flares: theory T. Neukirch; 5.7 Fast particles in flares: observations L. Fletcher; 6. Open problems J. Birn and E. R. Priest; Bibliography; Index.

Birn, J.; Priest, E. R.

2007-01-01

242

Dispersion of Magnetic Fields in Molecular Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chandrasekhar & Fermi (1953) used the dispersion of starlight polarization vectors about contours of Galactic latitude to determine the strength of the magnetic field in the arms of the Galaxy. The same technique, the Chandrasekhar Fermi (CF) method, has been applied to estimates of field strengths in the relatively dense medium of molecular clouds. The basis for deriving field strengths from dispersion measurements is the same for observations of Galactic arms or molecular clouds: in either case dispersion decreases as the field strengthens. But in the case of the Galactic arms, the dispersion is due to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves; the displacements are perpendicular to the direction of propagation. In the case of turbulent dispersion in molecular clouds, there is no preferred direction. The turbulent component can be in any orientation and may have structure due to effects such as differential rotation, gravitational collapse, or expanding H II regions. Consequently, dispersion measured about mean fields, assumed straight, may be much larger than should be attributed to MHD waves or turbulence. Dispersion measured about model large-scale fields that give approximate fits to a polarization map will result in better estimates but still give inaccurate values of the turbulent component. Here we describe a method for determining magnetic field dispersion about local structured fields, without assuming any model for the large-scale field. To do this, we use the second-order structure function of the measured polarization vectors to separate the turbulent component of the dispersion from the large-scale field. Our study incorporates the effect on the measured dispersion of signal integration through the thickness of the cloud as well as across the area subtended by the telescope beam. Our method provides accurate, independent estimates of the turbulent to mean magnetic field strength ratio. We discuss applications to the molecular clouds Orion, M17, and DR21.

Vaillancourt, John E.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Houde, M.

2009-05-01

243

Dispersion of Magnetic Fields in Molecular Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chandrasekhar & Fermi (1953) used the dispersion of starlight polarization vectors about contours of Galactic latitude to determine the strength of the magnetic field in the arms of the Galaxy. The same technique, the Chandrasekhar-Fermi (CF) method, has been applied to estimates of field strengths in the relatively dense medium of molecular clouds. The basis for deriving field strengths from dispersion measurements is the same for observations of Galactic arms or molecular clouds: in either case dispersion decreases as the field strengthens. But in the case of the Galactic arms, the dispersion is due to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves; the displacements are perpendicular to the direction of propagation. In the case of turbulent dispersion in molecular clouds, there is no preferred direction. The turbulent component can be in any orientation and may have structure due to effects such as differential rotation, gravitational collapse, or expanding H II regions. Consequently, dispersion measured about mean fields, assumed straight, may be much larger than should be attributed to MHD waves or turbulence. Dispersion measured about model large-scale fields that give approximate fits to a polarization map will result in better estimates but still give inaccurate values of the turbulent component. Here we describe a method for determining magnetic field dispersion about local structured fields, without assuming any model for the large-scale field. To do this, we use the second-order structure function of the measured polarization vectors to separate the turbulent component of the dispersion from the large-scale field. Our study incorporates the effect on the measured dispersion of signal integration through the thickness of the cloud as well as across the area subtended by the telescope beam. Our method provides accurate, independent estimates of the turbulent to mean magnetic field strength ratio. We discuss applications to the molecular clouds Orion, M17, and DR21.

Vaillancourt, John E.; Houde, M.; Hildebrand, R. H.

2010-01-01

244

Matter in strong magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of matter are drastically modified by strong magnetic fields, B>>m2ee3c\\/h3=2.35×109 G (1 G=10-4 T), as are typically found on the surfaces of neutron stars. In such strong magnetic fields, the Coulomb force on an electron acts as a small perturbation compared to the magnetic force. The strong-field condition can also be mimicked in laboratory semiconductors. Because of the

Dong Lai

2001-01-01

245

THEORY OF CHARGED VECTOR MESONS INTERACTING WITH THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that starting from the usual canonical formalism for the ; electromagnetic interaction of a charged vector meson with arbitrary magnetic ; moment one is ied to a set of rules for Feynman diagrams, which appears to ; contain terms that are both infinite and noncovariant. These difficulties, ; however, can be circumvented by introducing a xi -limiting

T. D. Lee; C. N. Yang

1962-01-01

246

Magnetic fields around evolved stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of mechanisms, such as magnetic fields, (binary) companions and circumstellar disks have been suggested to be the cause of non-spherical PNe and in particular collimated outflows. This work investigates one of these mechanisms: the magnetic fields. While MHD simulations show that the fields can indeed be important, few observations of magnetic fields have been done so far. We used the VLBA to observe five evolved stars, with the goal of detecting the magnetic field by means of water maser polarization. The sample consists in four AGB stars (IK Tau, RT Vir, IRC+60370 and AP Lyn) and one pPN (OH231.8+4.2). In four of the five sources, several strong maser features were detected allowing us to measure the linear and/or circular polarization. Based on the circular polarization detections, we infer the strength of the component of the field along the line of sight to be between ~30 mG and ~330 mG in the water maser regions of these four sources. When extrapolated to the surface of the stars, the magnetic field strength would be between a few hundred mG and a few Gauss when assuming a toroidal field geometry and higher when assuming more complex magnetic fields. We conclude that the magnetic energy we derived in the water maser regions is higher than the thermal and kinetic energy, leading to the conclusion that, indeed, magnetic fields probably play an important role in shaping Planetary Nebulae.

Leal-Ferreira, M.; Vlemmings, W.; Kemball, A.; Amiri, N.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, G.

2014-04-01

247

The Sun's global magnetic field.  

PubMed

Our present-day understanding of solar and stellar magnetic fields is discussed from both an observational and theoretical viewpoint. To begin with, observations of the Sun's large-scale magnetic field are described, along with recent advances in measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic fields on other stars. Following this, magnetic flux transport models used to simulate photospheric magnetic fields and the wide variety of techniques used to deduce global coronal magnetic fields are considered. The application and comparison of these models to the Sun's open flux, hemispheric pattern of solar filaments and coronal mass ejections are then discussed. Finally, recent developments in the construction of steady-state global magnetohydrodynamic models are considered, along with key areas of future research. PMID:22665897

Mackay, Duncan H

2012-07-13

248

Survey of the ULF wave Poynting vector near the Earth's magnetic equatorial plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultralow frequency (ULF) waves transfer energy in the Earth's magnetosphere through a variety of mechanisms that impact the Earth's ionosphere, radiation belts, and other plasma populations. Measurements of the electromagnetic portion of the energy transfer rate are an important source of information for assessing the importance of ULF waves relative to other energy transfer mechanisms as well as a diagnostic for studying the behavior of ULF waves. Using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellite data, we examine the time?averaged electromagnetic energy transfer rate, or Poynting vector, as a function of frequency and region of the magnetosphere; for this study, we focus on the direction and rate of energy transfer relative to the background magnetic field, comparing perpendicular and parallel transfer rates. This study extends earlier studies of the ULF wave Poynting vector that focused on narrower frequency ranges or specific regions of the magnetosphere; here we consider the 3-50 mHz frequency range, all local time sectors, radial distances from 3 to 13 Re, and magnetic latitudes close to the equatorial plane. We measure time?averaged Poynting vectors that range from 10-11 to 10-5 W/m2 , with larger Poynting vector magnitudes occurring at larger radial distances and smaller frequencies. In every spatial region and frequency we examined, we found a large degree of scatter in both the Poynting vector magnitude and direction. The Poynting vector tends to be anisotropic at all frequencies, with more energy transferred along rather than across the background magnetic field. This preference for parallel energy transfer near the magnetic equator suggests that Joule dissipation in the ionosphere and the acceleration of auroral electrons are the largest sinks of ULF wave energy in the magnetosphere.

Hartinger, M. D.; Moldwin, M. B.; Takahashi, K.; Bonnell, J. W.; Angelopoulos, V.

2013-10-01

249

Survey of the ULF wave Poynting vector near the Earth's magnetic equatorial plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves transfer energy in the Earth's magnetosphere through a variety of mechanisms that impact the Earth's ionosphere, radiation belts, and other plasma populations. Measurements of the electromagnetic portion of the energy transfer rate are an important source of information for assessing the importance of ULF waves relative to other energy transfer mechanisms and as a diagnostic for studying the behavior of ULF waves. Using THEMIS satellite data, we examine the time averaged electromagnetic energy transfer rate, or Poynting vector, as a function of frequency (3-50 mHz) and region of the magnetosphere. This study extends earlier work focused on narrower frequency ranges or specific regions of the magnetosphere; here, we consider the Pc5 to Pc3 frequency range, all local time sectors, radial distances from 3 to 13 Re, and magnetic latitudes close to the equatorial plane. We measure time averaged Poynting vectors that range from ~10^-11 to 10^-5 W/m^2, with larger Poynting vector magnitudes occurring at larger radial distances and smaller frequencies. In every spatial region and frequency we examined, we found a large degree of scatter in both the Poynting vector magnitude and direction. The Poynting vector tends to be anisotropic at all frequencies, with more energy transferred along rather than across the background magnetic field. This preference for parallel energy transfer near the magnetic equator suggests that the ionosphere is the largest sink of wave energy in the magnetosphere.

Hartinger, M.; Moldwin, M.; Takahashi, K.; Bonnell, J. W.; Angelopoulos, V.

2013-12-01

250

Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to the simple example of a spherically symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space; the pattern of the lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics.

Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M.; Shabad, A. E.

2014-04-01

251

Electric field vector characterization of terahertz surface plasmons.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the ability to characterize independently the vector components of the electric field associated with terahertz surface plasmons. This is accomplished via electro-optic sampling, using an electro-optic crystal placed in close proximity to a corrugated metal foil. The individual electric field vector components are measured using two separate ZnTe crystals. Since ZnTe exhibits isotropic dielectric properties, all of the detection configurations obey identical phase-matching constraints. Furthermore, since ZnTe is characterized by a single independent electro-optic tensor component, the field measurements may be directly compared against one another. PMID:19532819

Nahata, Ajay; Zhu, Wenqi

2007-04-30

252

The Extended Coronal Magnetic Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coronal magnetic field should contain many field lines connecting the photosphere to interplanetary space. A sharp boundary separates two adjacent sectors of opposite polarity. The large-scale structure of the corona is related to the photospheric sec...

J. M. Wilcox

1970-01-01

253

Flares and Changing Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the principal objectives of the magnetic field observing program at the Sacramento Peak Observatory has been to discover whether there are any observable changes in the photospheric fields at the time of flares.

D. M. Rust

1972-01-01

254

The tandem Fabry Perot Full-Disk Solar Vector Magnetogram system for the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope (SMART)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For solar and heliospheric physics, energy release mechanism of solar flares and onset of CMEs are one of the most the most important issues. Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope (SMART) in Hida observatory Kyoto University aims to investigate the relation between the solar flares and photospheric vector magnetic field. Full disk high resolution H-alpha images as well as and photospheric

K. Otsuji; S. Nagata; S. Ueno; R. Kitai; G. Kimura; Y. Nakatani; T. Ishii; S. Morita; K. Shibata

2009-01-01

255

A statistical study on property of spatial magnetic field for solar active region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields dominate most solar activities, there exist direct relations between solar flare and the distributions of magnetic field, and also its corresponding magnetic energy. In this paper, the statistical results about the relationships between the spatial magnetic field and solar flare are given basing on vector magnetic field observed by the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope (SMFT) at Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS). The spatial magnetic fields are obtained by extrapolated photosphere vector magnetic field observed by SMFT. There are 23 active regions with flare eruption are chosen as data samples, which were observed from 1997 to 2007. The results are as follows: 1. Magnetic field lines become lower after flare for 16 (69 %) active regions; 2. The free energy are decreased after flare for 17 (74 %) active regions. It can conclude that for most active regions the changes of magnetic field after solar flare re coincident with the previous observations and studies.

Liu, S.

2014-02-01

256

A statistical study on property of spatial magnetic field for solar active region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields dominate most solar activities, there exist direct relations between solar flare and the distributions of magnetic field, and also its corresponding magnetic energy. In this paper, the statistical results about the relationships between the spatial magnetic field and solar flare are given basing on vector magnetic field observed by the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope (SMFT) at Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS). The spatial magnetic fields are obtained by extrapolated photosphere vector magnetic field observed by SMFT. There are 23 active regions with flare eruption are chosen as data samples, which were observed from 1997 to 2007. The results are as follows: 1. Magnetic field lines become lower after flare for 16 (69 %) active regions; 2. The free energy are decreased after flare for 17 (74 %) active regions. It can conclude that for most active regions the changes of magnetic field after solar flare re coincident with the previous observations and studies.

Liu, S.

2014-06-01

257

A vector oriented control for a magnetically levitated shaft  

SciTech Connect

Considering the nonlinear model of Active Magnetic Bearings, a new means of nonlinear control is presented which treats variables as rotating vectors in the control plane, specially the unbalance. It became easy to cancel out the effect of this perturbation in a rotating reference. Therefore, the rotor can rotate around any desired point, particularly the geometric center or the center of gravity. Simulations illustrate the efficacy of this control law.

De Miras, J.; Charara, A. [UTC, Compiegne (France)] [UTC, Compiegne (France)

1998-07-01

258

Dresden pulsed magnetic field facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the status quo of the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD) that is being set up at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in Dresden, Germany. First pulsed-field coils reaching up to 71 T with a pulse duration of about 100 ms have been designed, constructed, and tested. A two-coil 100 T magnet and a long-pulse (1000 ms) 60 T magnet are under construction. Electrical-transport and magnetization experiments are running routinely in the pilot laboratory at the IFW Dresden. The feasibility of NMR experiments in pulsed-field environments has been proven.

Wosnitza, J.; Bianchi, A. D.; Freudenberger, J.; Haase, J.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Kozlova, N.; Schultz, L.; Skourski, Y.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Zvyagin, S. A.

2007-03-01

259

Origin of cosmic magnetic fields.  

PubMed

We calculate, in the free Maxwell theory, the renormalized quantum vacuum expectation value of the two-point magnetic correlation function in de Sitter inflation. We find that quantum magnetic fluctuations remain constant during inflation instead of being washed out adiabatically, as usually assumed in the literature. The quantum-to-classical transition of super-Hubble magnetic modes during inflation allow us to treat the magnetic field classically after reheating, when it is coupled to the primeval plasma. The actual magnetic field is scale independent and has an intensity of few×10(-12)??G if the energy scale of inflation is few×10(16)??GeV. Such a field accounts for galactic and galaxy cluster magnetic fields. PMID:23971556

Campanelli, Leonardo

2013-08-01

260

Project MAGNET high-level vector survey data reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1951, the U.S. Navy, under its Project MAGNET program, has been continuously collecting vector aeromagnetic survey data to support the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency's world magnetic and charting program. During this forty-year period, a variety of survey platforms and instrumentation configurations have been used. The current Project MAGNET survey platform is a Navy Orion RP-3D aircraft which has been specially modified and specially equipped with a redundant suite of navigational positioning, attitude, and magnetic sensors. A review of the survey data collection procedures and calibration and editing techniques applied to the data generated by this suite of instrumentation will be presented. Among the topics covered will be the determination of its parameters from the low-level calibration maneuvers flown over geomagnetic observatories.

Coleman, Rachel J.

1992-01-01

261

Magnetic and Axial-Vector Transitions of the Baryon Antidecuplet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the recent results of the magnetic transitions andaxial-vector transitions of the baryon antidecuplet within the framework of the chiral quark-soliton model. The dynamical model parameters are fixed by experimental data for the magnetic moments of the baryon octet, for the hyperon semileptonic decay constants, and for the singlet axial-vector constant. The transition magnetic moments ?_{??} and ?_{N?} are well reproduced and other octet-decuplet and octet-antidecuplet transitions are predicted. In particular, the present calculation of ?_{??^*} is found to be below the upper bound 0.82?_N that the SELEX collaboration measured very recently. The results explains consistently the recent findings of a new N^* resonance from the GRAAL and Tohoku LNS group. We also obtain the transition axial-vector constants for the ?^+ to KN from which the decay width of the ?^{+} pentaquark baryon is determined as a functio n of the pion-nucleon sigma term ?_{? N}. We investigate the dependence of the decay width of the ?^{+} on the g_{A}^{(0)}, with the g_{A}^{(0)} varied within the range of the experimental uncertainty. We show that a small decay width of the ?^{+}to KN, i.e. ?_{? KN} ? 1 MeV, is compatible with the values of all known semileptonic decays with the generally accepted value of g_{A}^{(0)} ? 0.3 for the proton.

Kim, H.; Yang, G.; Goeke, K.

262

Magnetic field sensor by orthoferrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among all ferromagnets orthoferrites possess the highest velocities of domain wall motion. Dynamic properties of a magnetic field meter based on domain wall dynamics in yttrium orthoferrite are reported. It is shown that at low driving magnetic fields and at frequencies up to the MHz band domain wall dynamics can be adequately described by linear equations. In a wide range

Y. S. Didosyan; V. Y. Barash; N. A. Bovarin; H. Hauser; P. Fulmek

1997-01-01

263

THE CLUSTER MAGNETIC FIELD INVESTIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cluster mission provides a new opportunity to study plasma processes and structures in the near-Earth plasma environment. Four-point measurements of the magnetic field will enable the analysis of the three dimensional structure and dynamics of a range of phenomena which shape the macroscopic properties of the magnetosphere. Difference measurements of the magnetic field data will be combined to derive

A. Balogh; M. W. Dunlop; S. W. H. Cowley; D. J. Southwood; J. G. Thomlinson; K. H. Glassmeier; G. Musmann; H. Luhr; S. Buchert; M. H. AcuÑA; D. H. Fairfield; J. A. Slavin; W. Riedler; K. Schwingenschuh; M. G. Kivelson

1997-01-01

264

Analytical maximum likelihood estimation of stellar magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polarized spectrum of stellar radiation encodes valuable information on the conditions of stellar atmospheres and the magnetic fields that permeate them. In this paper, we give explicit expressions to estimate the magnetic field vector and its associated error from the observed Stokes parameters. We study the solar case where specific intensities are observed and then the stellar case, where we receive the polarized flux. In the second case, we concentrate on the explicit expression for the case of a slow rotator with a dipolar magnetic field geometry. Moreover, we also give explicit formulae to retrieve the magnetic field vector from the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) profiles without assuming mean values for the LSD artificial spectral line. The formulae have been obtained assuming that the spectral lines can be described in the weak-field regime and using a maximum likelihood approach. The errors are recovered by means of the Hermitian matrix. The bias of the estimators is analysed in depth.

Martínez González, M. J.; Manso Sainz, R.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Belluzzi, L.

2012-01-01

265

Dresden pulsed magnetic field facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the status quo of the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD) that is being set up at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in Dresden, Germany. First pulsed-field coils reaching up to 71T with a pulse duration of about 100ms have been designed, constructed, and tested. A two-coil 100T magnet and a long-pulse (1000ms) 60T magnet are under construction. Electrical-transport

J. Wosnitza; A. D. Bianchi; J. Freudenberger; J. Haase; T. Herrmannsdörfer; N. Kozlova; L. Schultz; Y. Skourski; S. Zherlitsyn; S. A. Zvyagin

2007-01-01

266

Magnetic field dependence of superfluid density in cuprate superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the kinetic energy driven superconducting mechanism, the doping and magnetic field dependence of the superfluid density in cuprate superconductors is studied. The electromagnetic response kernel is evaluated by considering both couplings of the electron charge and electron magnetic momentum with an external magnetic field and employed to calculate the superfluid density based on the specular reflection model for a purely transverse vector potential, then the main features of the doping and magnetic field dependence of the superfluid density in cuprate superconductors are well reproduced.

Feng, Shiping; Zhao, Huaisong; Huang, Zheyu

2012-12-01

267

Superconductivity at High Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using pulsed-magnetic-field techniques, we have studied the magnetic-field-induced superconducting transitions of alloys in the systems Ti-V, Ti-Nb, Ti-Ta, Ti-Mo, Zr-Nb, Hf-Nb, Hf-Ta, U-Nb, and U-Mo. For concentrated alloys the low-current-density resistive critical field Hr(J<~10 A\\/cm2) is nearly independent of the amount of cold working and the relative orientations of magnetic field, current, and anisotropic defect structure. The observed values of

T. G. Berlincourt; R. R. Hake

1963-01-01

268

High latitude solar magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kitt Peak magnetograms are used to measure polar magnetic fields. The polar mean absolute field increases at the same time as the polar mean field decreases. That is, the polar mean absolute field varies in phase with solar activity, in contrast to the out of phase variation of the mean polar field. It is found that the polar fields have a large bipolar component even at solar minimum, with a magnitude equal to that found at low latitudes outside the active latitude bands.

Murray, Norman

1992-01-01

269

Orientation of the Magnetic Fields in Interplanetary Flux Ropes and Solar Filaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often associated with erupting magnetic structures or disappearing filaments. The majority of CMEs headed directly toward the Earth are observed at 1 AU as magnetic clouds-the region in the solar wind where the magnetic field strength is higher than average and there is a smooth rotation of the magnetic field vectors. The three-dimensional structure of

Vasyl B. Yurchyshyn; Haimin Wang; Philip R. Goode; Yuanyong Deng

2001-01-01

270

Vector field and rotational curves in dark galactic halos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study equations of a non-gauge vector field in a spherically symmetric static metric. The constant vector field with a scale arrangement of components, the temporal component about the Planck mass mPl and the radial component about M suppressed with respect to the Planck mass, serves as a source of metric reproducing flat rotation curves in dark halos of spiral galaxies, so that the velocity of rotation v0 is determined by the hierarchy of scales: \\sqrt{2} v_0^2= M/m_{\\rm Pl} , and M ~ 1012 GeV. A natural estimate of Milgrom's acceleration about the Hubble rate is obtained.

Kiselev, V. V.

2005-02-01

271

On hyperbolicity violations in cosmological models with vector fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmological models with vector fields received much attention in recent years. Unfortunately, most of them are plagued with severe instabilities or other problems. In particular, it was noted in ref. [1] that the models with a non-linear function of the Maxwellian kinetic term do always imply violations of hyperbolicity somewhere in the phase space. In this work we make this statement more precise in several respects and show that those violations may not be present around spatially homogeneous configurations of the vector field.

Golovnev, Alexey; Klementev, Aleksandr

2014-02-01

272

Vectorial calibration of 3D magnetic field sensor arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vectorial calibration of magnetic field sensor arrays along three axes is presented. In this context, a distinction must be made between the calibration of alignment errors between the 3D sensors and the calibration of orthogonality errors between the three axes of a 3D sensor. Alignment errors within the sensor array are determined by using a homogeneous vector field generated

M. P. Lassahn; G. Trenkler

1995-01-01

273

Distribution functions for magnetic fields on the quiet Sun  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical properties of the highly structured magnetic field of the quiet Sun are best described in terms of distribution functions, in particular the probability density functions (PDF) for the flux densities and the angular distribution for the orientations of the field vector. They are needed to test the validity of various MHD simulations, but past determinations have led to

J. O. Stenflo

2010-01-01

274

Saturn's Magnetic Field: Modeling and Predictions for Cassini  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini spacecraft is en route to Saturn and will arrive there on July 1 of 2004. Cassini is equipped with both a fluxgate vector magnetometer and a helium magnetometer, which has vector and scalar modes of operation. Fluxgate vector measurements along with scalar measurements made by the helium sensor when Cassini is close to Saturn will be used to accurately determine the magnetic field and its higher order moments (up to fifth order). In preparation for Saturn orbit insertion and a four-year tour with more than seventy orbits, we have reexamined existing magnetic field models and magnetic field data obtained by the Pioneer-11 spacecraft during its brief Saturn flyby in 1979. We predict what might be measured by Cassini both at orbit insertion, when Cassini will come as close as 1.3 Saturn radii, as well as the remainder of the four-year tour.

Burton, M. E.; Smith, E. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

2001-12-01

275

The Cassini Magnetic Field Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dual technique magnetometer system onboard the Cassini orbiter is described. This instrument consists of vector helium and fluxgate magnetometers with the capability to operate the helium device in a scalar mode. This special mode is used near the planet in order to determine with very high accuracy the interior field of the planet. The orbital mission will lead to

M. K. Dougherty; S. Kellock; D. J. Southwood; A. Balogh; E. J. Smith; B. T. Tsurutani; B. Gerlach; K.-H. Glassmeier; F. Gleim; C. T. Russell; G. Erdos; F. M. Neubauer; S. W. H. Cowley

2004-01-01

276

Magnetic field structure evolution in rotating magnetic field plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A study of magnetic field structure evolution during 40-ms plasma discharge has been performed in a new device with 80 cm long/40 cm diameter cylindrical chamber, in which a plasma current I{sub p}{approx_equal}2 kA was driven and sustained by a rotating magnetic field. The main focus of the experiments is on how the changes in externally applied magnetic field affect the current profile and magnetic field in plasma. During plasma discharge, a pulse current was briefly fed to a magnetic coil located at the midplane (middle coil). The magnetic field in cross section of plasma was scanned with pickup probes. Two regimes were studied: without and with an external toroidal field (TF) produced by axial I{sub z} current. With a relatively small current (I{sub m} {<=} 600 A) in the middle coil, the plasma current is boosted up to 5 kA. The magnetic flux surfaces become extended along the axial Z direction, sometimes with the formation of doublet shape plasma. The regime without TF appears to be less stable, presumably due to the reversal of plasma current in central area of plasma column.

Petrov, Yuri; Yang Xiaokang; Huang, T.-S. [Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, Texas 77446 (United States)

2008-07-15

277

Spinning magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible electrical charge model based on the spinning time invariant point magnetic dipole within the framework of classical physics is outlined, as suggested by the admissible circular trajectory of a test charge around the magnetic dipole in its equatorial plane. The model depends on the moving force line hypothesis which has been claimed to have been disproved. The controversy

Jovan Djuric

1975-01-01

278

Vector field statistical analysis of kinematic and force trajectories.  

PubMed

When investigating the dynamics of three-dimensional multi-body biomechanical systems it is often difficult to derive spatiotemporally directed predictions regarding experimentally induced effects. A paradigm of 'non-directed' hypothesis testing has emerged in the literature as a result. Non-directed analyses typically consist of ad hoc scalar extraction, an approach which substantially simplifies the original, highly multivariate datasets (many time points, many vector components). This paper describes a commensurately multivariate method as an alternative to scalar extraction. The method, called 'statistical parametric mapping' (SPM), uses random field theory to objectively identify field regions which co-vary significantly with the experimental design. We compared SPM to scalar extraction by re-analyzing three publicly available datasets: 3D knee kinematics, a ten-muscle force system, and 3D ground reaction forces. Scalar extraction was found to bias the analyses of all three datasets by failing to consider sufficient portions of the dataset, and/or by failing to consider covariance amongst vector components. SPM overcame both problems by conducting hypothesis testing at the (massively multivariate) vector trajectory level, with random field corrections simultaneously accounting for temporal correlation and vector covariance. While SPM has been widely demonstrated to be effective for analyzing 3D scalar fields, the current results are the first to demonstrate its effectiveness for 1D vector field analysis. It was concluded that SPM offers a generalized, statistically comprehensive solution to scalar extraction's over-simplification of vector trajectories, thereby making it useful for objectively guiding analyses of complex biomechanical systems. PMID:23948374

Pataky, Todd C; Robinson, Mark A; Vanrenterghem, Jos

2013-09-27

279

Single-point Inversion of the Coronal Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fe XIII 10747 and 10798 Å lines observed in the solar corona are sensitive to the coronal magnetic field in such a way that, in principle, the full vector field at a point on the line of sight can be inferred from their combined polarization signals. This paper presents analytical inversion formulae for the field parameters and analyzes the uncertainty of magnetic field measurements made from such observations, assuming emission dominated by a single region along the line-of-sight. We consider the case of the current CoMP instrument as well as the future COSMO and ATST instruments. Uncertainties are estimated with a direct analytic inverse and with an MCMC algorithm. We find that (in effect) two components of the vector field can be recovered with CoMP, and well-recovered with COSMO or ATST, but that the third component can only be recovered when the solar magnetic field is strong and optimally oriented.

Plowman, Joseph; Casini, Roberto; Judge, Philip G.; Tomczyk, Steven

2014-06-01

280

Toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields at Venus. Venus Express observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field and plasma measurements carried out onboard Venus Express during solar minimum conditions suggest the existence of two kinds of magnetic field configuration in the Venusian ionosphere. We interpret these as the manifestation of two different types of generation mechanisms for the induced magnetosphere. A different magnetic field topology (toroidal and poloidal) arises if the induced currents are driven either by the solar wind motional electric field or by the Faraday electric field—a conducting ionosphere sees the magnetic field carried by solar wind as a time-varying field. At the dayside, both driving agents produce a similar draping pattern of the magnetic field. However, different magnetic field signatures inherent to both induction mechanisms appear at lower altitudes in the terminator region. The conditions at low solar EUV flux when the ionosphere of Venus becomes magnetized seem to be favorable to distinguish between two different types of the induced fields. We present cases of both types of the magnetic field topology. The cases when the effects of the Faraday induction become well noticeable are especially interesting since they provide us with an example of solar wind interaction with a tiny induced dipole field immersed into the ionosphere. Another interesting case when poloidal magnetic fields are evidently displayed is observed when the IMF vector is almost aligned with the solar wind velocity. In general case, both mechanisms of induction probably complement each other.

Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.; Woch, J.; Zhang, T. L.; Wei, Y.; Fedorov, A.; Barabash, S.; Lundin, R.

2013-10-01

281

Vector fields during cosmic inflation: Stability analysis and phenomenological signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is based on the study of vector fields during cosmic inflation. Cosmic inflation has proven to be an accurate description of the very early universe, not only because of its success in resolving the classical problems of big bang cosmology, but also for introducing a natural mechanism for the generation of primordial fluctuations which give rise to the structure (galaxies and cluster of galaxies) in the universe. For simplicity, most inflationary scenarios assume that the expansion is driven by a scalar field. However, due to the fact that the underlying particle physics model of inflation is unknown, and due to some features emerged in some studies of the cosmic microwave background data, there have recently been considerable interest in vector field driven models of inflation. In this thesis, I present a complete stability analysis of some of the compelling models where vector fields are assumed to play an important role during inflation. The stability analysis is performed by studying all possible fluctuations around the background solution of these models. It is explicitly proven that for models where the gauge invariance of the vector field is broken, the background solution is unstable. The proof is performed both (1) by studying the quadratic action for the fluctuations, and showing that ghost instabilities are present in the model; and (2) by studying the linearized Einstein equations and showing that the solutions diverge close to horizon crossing. For models that are free of instabilities, relevant power spectra are computed and the resulting phenomenology is discussed.

Himmetoglu, Burak

282

Early SDO/HMI Magnetic Field Observations (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar magnetic features no longer have any expectation of privacy and understanding the Sun’s magnetic field is the key to space weather prediction. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory measures polarized line profiles that measure both line-of-sight and vector magnetic fields in the photosphere. The longitudinal field is measured every 45 seconds with filtergrams from the same camera used to determine the velocity. The Stokes parameters are calculated from a longer sequence taken with a second 4096 x 4096 CCD. Inversion and disambiguation provide an estimate of the vector magnetic field components and uncertainties at least every 12 minutes in active regions. Full disk synoptic observations began in April and magnetograms are available shortly after they are observed from jsoc.stanford.edu along with a plethora of other useful magnetic field products. The low-noise line-of-sight measurements compare favorably with MDI and GONG. The vector field is being compared with other observations and appears quite stable, even in small strong-field concentrations outside of active regions. Scattered light is low and the sensitivity is very good. HMI observes the entire disk all of the time, so any feature of interest can be tracked during its entire disk passage without interruption. Knowing the detailed time development will lead to better understanding of energy storage and release in the atmosphere above and what leads to the spectacular events detected by AIA, EVE, and other instruments.

Hoeksema, J. T.; Hmi Magnetic Field Team

2010-12-01

283

Poynting vectors and electric field distributions in simple dielectric gratings  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss, with illustrations drawn from the simple example of a dielectric grating under total internal reflection illumination, the use of electric field, energy density and Poynting vector as tools for understanding phenomena associated with dielectric gratings. The electric field has greatest direct observational interest, and exhibits patterns of nodes and antinodes that are both expected and intuitive. The energy density, though not directly linked with photoelectric response, has readily understood global patterns. The Poynting vector has more elaborate structure, involving patterns of curls, but the patterns are sensitive to small changes in illumination angle or groove depth. Plots of Poynting vectors may not be as useful for dielectric structures as they are for metals.

Shore, B.W.; Feit, M.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Li, L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

1996-02-07

284

Magnetic fields in galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While it is established that galaxy clusters host magnetic fields of the order of a few ?G, both, their origin as well as their role in the intracluster medium (ICM) remain unclear. I will review the observational evidence for magnetic fields in galaxy clusters and present various lines of research that study the effects of magnetic fields in the ICM. Magnetic fields affect the way in which galaxies interact with the ICM, they may render the ICM buoyantly unstable in the presence of anisotropic thermal conduction, and they affect the thermal structure of the gas in cluster cores. Finally, opportunities for future research in this field, in particular in light of new radio telescopes is highlighted.

Brüggen, M.

2013-06-01

285

Magnetic field of Mars: Summary of results from the aerobraking and mapping orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Magnetic Field Investigation was designed to provide fast vector measurements of the ambient magnetic field in the near-Mars environment and over a wide dynamic range. The fundamental objectives of this investigation were to (1) establish the nature of the magnetic field of Mars; (2) develop appropriate models for its representation; and (3) map the Martian

J. E. P. Connerney; P. Wasilewski; R. P. Lin; D. Mitchell; K. A. Anderson; C. W. Carlson; J. McFadden; H. Rème; C. Mazelle; D. Vignes; S. J. Bauer; P. Cloutier; N. F. Ness

2001-01-01

286

Magsat: A satellite for measuring near earth magnetic fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magsat, designed for making measurements of the geomagnetic vector field, is evaluated. For accurate vector measurements the attitude of the fluxgate magnetometer will be determined to about 15 arc-seconds. Expected measurement accuracy will be 6 (gamma) in each component and 3 in magnitude. The Magsat data will be applied to solid earth studies including modeling of the Earth's main magnetic field, delineation of regional magnetic anomalies of crustal origin, and interpretation of those anomalies in terms of geologic and geophysical models. An opportunity will be presented to the scientific community to participate in data use investigations.

Langel, R. A.; Regan, R. D.; Murphy, J. P.

1977-01-01

287

Magnetic Field Effect Transistors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been demonstrated that magnetic Cr02 can be selectively deposited on semiconductor substrates and polymide resin plastics with feature resolution smaller than micron. In addition, hard coatings have been fabricated to protect active devices as well...

J. T. Spencer P. A. Dowben

1990-01-01

288

Magnetic Fields in the Sun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas a...

D. J. Mullan

1974-01-01

289

Magnetization structure of Aogashima Island using vector magnetic anomalies obtained by a helicopter-borne magnetometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Aogashima Island, a volcanic island located in the southernmost part of the Izu Seven Islands Chain, vector magnetic anomalies were obtained in a helicopter-borne magnetic survey. The purpose of this study was to understand the volcanic structure of Aogashima Island in order to mitigate future disasters. Commonly, to obtain the magnetic structure of a volcanic island, total intensity anomalies (TIA) have been used, even though they have intrinsic errors that have not been evaluated correctly. Because the total intensity magnetic anomaly (TIA) is not a physical value, it does not satisfy Maxwell's Equations, Laplace's Equation, etc., and so TIA is not suitable for any physical analyses. In addition, it has been conventionally assumed that TIA is the same as the projected total intensity anomaly vector (PTA) for analyses of TIA. However, the effect of the intrinsic error (?T=TIA-PTA) on the analysis results has not been taken into account. To avoid such an effect, vector magnetic anomalies were measured so that a reliable analysis of Aogashima Island magnetization could be carried out. In this study, we evaluated the error in TIA and used vector anomalies to avoid this erroneous effect, in the process obtaining reliable analysis results for 3D, vector magnetization distributions. An area of less than 1 A/m magnetization was found in the south-west part of Aogashima Island at the depth of 1-2km. Taking the location of fumarolic activity into consideration, the lower-magnetization area was expected to be the source of that fumarolic activity of Aogashima Island.

Isezaski, Nobuhiro; Matsuo, Jun

2009-02-01

290

Visualizing and manipulating automatic document orientation methods using vector fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce and illustrate a design framework whereby tabletop documents are oriented according to vector fields that can be visualized and altered by end users. We explore and illustrate the design space using interactive 2D mockups and show how this approach can potentially combine the advantages of the fully manual and fully automatic document orientation methods previously proposed in the

Pierre Dragicevic; Yuanchun Shi

2009-01-01

291

Vector fields during cosmic inflation: Stability analysis and phenomenological signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is based on the study of vector fields during cosmic inflation. Cosmic inflation has proven to be an accurate description of the very early universe, not only because of its success in resolving the classical problems of big bang cosmology, but also for introducing a natural mechanism for the generation of primordial fluctuations which give rise to the

Burak Himmetoglu

2010-01-01

292

NEUMANN-NEUMANN METHODS FOR VECTOR FIELD PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study some Schwarz methods of Neumann-Neumann type for some vector field problems, discretized with the lowest order Raviart-Thomas and Ned´ elec finite elements. We consider a hybrid Schwarz preconditioner consisting of a coarse component, which involves the solution of the original problem on a coarse mesh, and local ones, which involve the solution of Neumann problems

ANDREA TOSELLI

2000-01-01

293

Some Remarks on the Vector Subspaces of a Finite Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Let F be a finite field of elements and E an extension of F of degree n. Consider E as a vector space over F. It is shown that for every subspace V of E there exists a unique polynomial whose roots are the elements of V, and there exists a unique polynomi...

R. L. Pele

1966-01-01

294

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of time-varying magnetic fields from therapeutic devices  

PubMed Central

While magnetic resonance imaging of static magnetic fields generated by external probes has been previously demonstrated, there is an unmet need to image time-varying magnetic fields, such as those generated by transcranial magnetic stimulators or radiofrequency hyperthermia probes. A method to image such time-varying magnetic fields is introduced in this work. This article presents the theory behind the method and provides proof of concept by imaging time-varying magnetic fields generated by a figure-eight coil inside simple phantoms over a range of frequencies and intensities, using a 7T small animal MRI scanner. The method is able to reconstruct the three-dimensional components of the oscillating magnetic field vector.

Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Bhatia, Vivek; Prem-Kumar, Krishan; Ulfarsson, Magnus

2013-01-01

295

Deep-sea Vector Magnetic Anomalies over the Bayonnaise Knoll Caldera (Izu-Ogasawara Arc) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bayonnaise Knoll caldera is located on the eastern margin of the backarc rift zone of the Izu-Ogasawara island arc. The caldera rim is ~3 km in diameter and 100-200 m high from the caldera floor 840-920 m deep. A large active hydrothermal field associated with sulfide deposit, called the Hakurei site, has been found at the foot of the southeastern caldera wall. We conducted deep-sea magnetic measurements using autonomous underwater vehicles to map ~75 % of an area 3 km by 4 km in the caldera. The magnetic vector field data were collected at 40-150 m altitude along the survey lines spaced 80-200 m apart. We improved the conventional correction method applied for removing the effect of vehicle magnetization, which greatly enhanced the precision of the resulting vector anomalies and allowed us to use the vector anomaly instead of the total intensity anomaly for inversion analysis. The magnetization distribution obtained using the vector anomaly was significantly different from the one obtained using the total intensity anomaly, especially in areas where the survey tracks were widely spaced. The aliasing effect appears in areas of sparse data distribution, and the magnetic field is more correctly calculated from the vector anomaly than the total intensity anomaly. The magnetization distribution in the caldera has two major features: a ~1.5-km wide belt of high magnetization, trending NNW-SSE through the caldera, and a clear low magnetization zone, ~300 m x ~500 m wide, extending over the Hakurei site. The high magnetization belt is considered to reflect basaltic volcanism associated with the backarc rifting that occurred after the formation of the Bayonnaise Knoll. The low magnetization zone is interpreted as the alteration zone resulting from the hydrothermal activity. Several zones of localized high magnetization are recognized within the high magnetization belt, some of them in the caldera wall adjacent to the low magnetization zone of the Hakurei site. We speculate that intensive magma intrusion occurred beneath the caldera wall and has provided the heat to generate hydrothermal fluid, which has been spouting out through the caldera wall faults. The surface expression of the vent field extends beyond the alteration zone inferred from the magnetization distribution, spreading upwards in the caldera wall. High-resolution topography around the Hakurei site indicates that the hydrothermal vents are generally distributed over a landform of slope failure. These observations would imply that hydrothermal fluid rising up in the up-flow zone moves laterally as well when it comes near the seafloor, probably along numerous fractures and fissures in the caldera wall. The distribution of pre-existing faults and fractures may rather control the fluid flow pathways in the shallow part and condition the surface extent of the vent field.

Honsho, C.; Ura, T.; Kim, K.

2013-12-01

296

Theorem on magnet fringe field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transverse particle motion in particle accelerators is governed almost totally by non-solenoidal magnets for which the body magnetic field can be expressed as a series expansion of the normal (b(sub n)) and skew (a(sub n)) multipoles, B(sub y) + iB(sub x)...

J. Wei R. Talman

1995-01-01

297

Majorana Neutrinos and Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is stressed that if neutrinos are massive they are probably of Majorana type. This implies that their magnetic moment form factor vanishes identically so that the previously discussed phenomenon of spin rotation in a magnetic field would not appear to ...

J. Schechter J. W. F. Valle

1981-01-01

298

Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

Stewart, Gay B.

2000-01-01

299

Neutron in Strong Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relativistic world-line Hamiltonian for strongly interacting 3q systems in a magnetic field is derived from the path integral for the corresponding Green's function. The neutral baryon Hamiltonian in the magnetic field obeys the pseudomomentum conservation and allows a factorization of the c.m. and internal motion. The resulting expression for the baryon mass in the magnetic field is written explicitly with the account of hyperfine, one pion exchange, and one gluon exchange (color Coulomb) interaction. The neutron mass is fast decreasing with the magnetic field, losing 1/2 of its value at eB ˜0.25 GeV2 and is nearly zero at eB ˜0.5 GeV2. Possible physical consequences of the calculated mass trajectory of the neutron, Mn(B), are presented and discussed.

Andreichikov, M. A.; Kerbikov, B. O.; Orlovsky, V. D.; Simonov, Yu. A.

2014-04-01

300

Evaluation of turbulent magnetic energy spectra in the three-dimensional wave vector domain in the solar wind  

SciTech Connect

Using four-point measurements of the CLUSTER spacecraft, the energy distribution of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is determined directly in the three-dimensional wave vector domain in the range 3 x 10{sup -4} rad/km < k < 3 x 10{sup -3} rad/km. The analysis method takes account of a regular tetrahedron configuration of CLUSTER and the Doppler effect. The energy distribution in the flow rest frame is anisotropic, characterized by two distinct extended structures perpendicular to the mean magnetic field and furthermore perpendicular to the flow direction. The three-dimensional distribution is averaged around the direction of the mean magnetic field direction, and then is further reduced to one-dimensional distributions in the wave number domain parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. The one-dimensional energy spectra are characterized by the power law with the index -5/3 and furthermore very close energy density between parallel and perpendicular directions to the mean magnetic field at the same wave numbers. Though the distributions and the spectra are not covered in a wide range of wave vectors, our measurements suggest that the solar wind fluctuation is anisotropic in the three-dimensional wave vector space. It is, however, rather isotropic when reduced into the parallel and perpendicular wave vector geometries due to the second anisotropy imposed by the flow direction.

Gary, S Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Narita, Y [UNIV OF BRAUNSCHWEIG; Glassmeier, K H [UNIV OF BRAUNSCHWEIG; Goldstein, M L [NGSFC; Safraoui, F [NGSFC; Treumann, R A [UNIV. MUNICH

2009-01-01

301

Vector fields with a non-degenerate source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the solution theory of operators of the form ?X+A, acting on smooth sections of a vector bundle with connection ? over a manifold M, where X is a vector field having a critical point with positive linearization at some point p?M. As an operator on a suitable space of smooth sections ??(U,V), it fulfills a Fredholm alternative, and the same is true for the adjoint operator. Furthermore, we show that the solutions depend smoothly on the data ?, X and A.

Ludewig, Matthias

2014-05-01

302

Instability of anisotropic cosmological solutions supported by vector fields.  

PubMed

Models with vector fields acquiring a nonvanishing vacuum expectation value along one spatial direction have been proposed to sustain a prolonged stage of anisotropic accelerated expansion. Such models have been used for realizations of early time inflation, with a possible relation to the large scale cosmic microwave background anomalies, or of the late time dark energy. We show that, quite generally, the concrete realizations proposed so far are plagued by instabilities (either ghosts or unstable growth of the linearized perturbations) which can be ultimately related to the longitudinal vector polarization present in them. Phenomenological results based on these models are therefore unreliable. PMID:19392187

Himmetoglu, Burak; Contaldi, Carlo R; Peloso, Marco

2009-03-20

303

Solar magnetic fields and convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flux-rope model of solar magnetic fields is developed further by the use of a variety of observational results.(i)It is confirmed that magnetic fields emerging to form active regions are already in the form of helically twisted flux ropes.(ii)A flux rope is not a homogeneous structure but is made up of hundreds or thousands of flux fibres. These are individually

J. H. Piddington

1976-01-01

304

Solar magnetic fields: an introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field of the Sun is thought to be produced by a dynamo in the solar interior and exhibits its greatest influence\\u000a on the solar plasma in the tenuous outer layers of the solar atmosphere, where it lies at the heart of almost every major\\u000a phenomenon. Most direct observations of the magnetic field are restricted to the solar surface,

S. K. Solanki

305

Spontaneous thermal magnetic field fluctuation  

SciTech Connect

In recent days, the relativistic version of the classic Weibel instability received renewed attention for its potential role as a mechanism to generate cosmic magnetic fields. However, one of the key conceptual foundations in association with the Weibel instability has not been addressed in the literature. Namely, the spontaneous emission of magnetic field fluctuation, which is supposed to provide the seed perturbation for the Weibel instability, has not been adequately discussed. The present Brief Communication addresses this issue.

Yoon, Peter H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2007-06-15

306

The scientific case for magnetic field satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To make full use of modern magnetic data and the paleomagnetic record, we must greatly improve our understanding of how the geodynamo system works. It is clearly nonlinear, probably chaotic, and its dimensionless parameters cannot yet be reproduced on a laboratory scale. It is accessible only to theory and to measurements made at and above the earth's surface. These measurements include essentially all geophysical types. Gravity and seismology give evidence for undulations in the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and for temperature variations in the lower mantle which can affect core convection and hence the dynamo. VLBI measurements of the variations in the Chandler wobble and length of day are affected by, among other things, the electromagnetic and mechanical transfer of angular momentum across the CMB. Finally, measurements of the vector magnetic field, its intensity, or its direction, give the most direct access to the core dynamo and the electrical conductivity of the lower mantle. The 120 gauss coefficients of degrees up to 10 probably come from the core, with only modest interference by mantle conductivity and crustal magnetization. By contrast, only three angular accelerations enter the problem of angular momentum transfer across the CMB. Satellite measurements of the vector magnetic field are uniquely able to provide the spatial coverage required for extrapolation to the CMB, and to isolate and measure certain magnetic signals which to the student of the geodynamo represent noise, but which are of great interest elsewhere in geophysics. Here, these claims are justified and the mission parameters likely to be scientifically most useful for observing the geodynamo system are described.

Backus, George E. (editor); Benton, Edward R.; Harrison, Christopher G. A.; Heirtzler, James R.

1987-01-01

307

Theorem on magnet fringe field  

SciTech Connect

Transverse particle motion in particle accelerators is governed almost totally by non-solenoidal magnets for which the body magnetic field can be expressed as a series expansion of the normal (b{sub n}) and skew (a{sub n}) multipoles, B{sub y} + iB{sub x} = {summation}(b{sub n} + ia{sub n})(x + iy){sup n}, where x, y, and z denote horizontal, vertical, and longitudinal (along the magnet) coordinates. Since the magnet length L is necessarily finite, deflections are actually proportional to ``field integrals`` such as {bar B}L {equivalent_to} {integral} B(x,y,z)dz where the integration range starts well before the magnet and ends well after it. For {bar a}{sub n}, {bar b}{sub n}, {bar B}{sub x}, and {bar B}{sub y} defined this way, the same expansion Eq. 1 is valid and the ``standard`` approximation is to neglect any deflections not described by this expansion, in spite of the fact that Maxwell`s equations demand the presence of longitudinal field components at the magnet ends. The purpose of this note is to provide a semi-quantitative estimate of the importance of {vert_bar}{Delta}p{sub {proportional_to}}{vert_bar}, the transverse deflection produced by the ion-gitudinal component of the fringe field at one magnet end relative to {vert_bar}{Delta}p{sub 0}{vert_bar}, the total deflection produced by passage through the whole magnet. To emphasize the generality and simplicity of the result it is given in the form of a theorem. The essence of the proof is an evaluation of the contribution of the longitudinal field B{sub x} from the vicinity of one magnet end since, along a path parallel to the magnet axis such as path BC.

Wei, Jie [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Talman, R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Nuclear Studies

1995-12-31

308

Optical sensor of magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

1986-03-25

309

Chiral transition with magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the nature of the chiral transition for an effective theory with spontaneous breaking of symmetry, where charged bosons and fermions are subject to the effects of a constant external magnetic field. The problem is studied in terms of the relative intensity of the magnetic field with respect to the mass and the temperature. When the former is the smallest of the scales, we present a suitable method to obtain magnetic and thermal corrections up to ring order at high temperature. By these means, we solve the problem of the instability in the boson sector for these theories, where the squared masses—taken as functions of the order parameter—can vanish and even become negative. The solution is found by considering the screening properties of the plasma, encoded in the resummation of the ring diagrams at high temperature. We also study the case where the magnetic field is the intermediate of the three scales and explore the nature of the chiral transition as we vary the field strength, the coupling constants, and the number of fermions. We show that the critical temperature for the restoration of chiral symmetry monotonically increases from small to intermediate values of the magnetic field and that this temperature is always above the critical temperature for the case when the magnetic field is absent.

Ayala, Alejandro; Hernández, Luis Alberto; Mizher, Ana Júlia; Rojas, Juan Cristóbal; Villavicencio, Cristián

2014-06-01

310

On the relation between photospheric flow fields and the magnetic field distribution on the solar surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the technique of local correlation tracking on a 28 minute time sequence of white-light images of solar granulation, the horizontal flow field on the solar surface is measured. The time series was obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 (Space Shuttle flight 51-F) and is free from atmospheric blurring and distortion. The SOUP flow fields have been compared with carefully aligned magnetograms taken over a nine hour period at the Big Bear Solar Observatory before, during, and after the SOUP images. The flow field and the magnetic field agree in considerable detail: vectors which define the flow of the white-light intensity pattern (granulation) point toward magnetic field regions, magnetic fields surround flow cells, and magnetic features move along the flow arrows. The projected locations of free particles ('corks') in the measured flow field congregate at the same locations where the magnetic field is observed.

Simon, George W.; Title, A. M.; Topka, K. P.; Tarbell, T. D.; Shine, R. A.

1988-01-01

311

Magnetic field in the coma of Comet Halley  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary analysis of the magnetic field measurements by the MISCHA magnetometer aboard Vega 1 indicates weak evidence for crossings of Comet Halley's bow (shock) wave about 1 million km (inbound) and 450,000 km (outbound) from the nucleus. Each Vega spacecraft crossed the diffuse contact surface, or cometopause, at 50,000 to 20,000 km. The enhanced 75-80 nT field measured inside the cometopause suggests that the solar-wind field had penetrated the outer cometary ionosphere. The rotation of the magnetic field vector within the ionosphere could result from detection of a persistent, preexisting interplanetary field. 11 references.

Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Eroshenko, E.G.; Stiazhkin, V.A.; Russell, C.T.

1986-08-01

312

Preparation and characterization of magnetic gene vectors for targeting gene delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PEI-CMD-MNPs were successfully prepared by the surface modification of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) and polyethyleneimine (PEI). The PEI-CMD-MNPs polyplexes exhibited a typical superparamagnetic behavior and were well stable over the entire range of pH and NaCl concentration. These PEI-CMD-MNPs were used as magnetic gene vectors for targeting gene delivery. The prepared MNPs at different surface modification stages were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emissions canning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic laser light scattering (DLS) analysis. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). To evaluate the performance of the magnetic nanoparticles as gene transfer vector, the PEI-CMD-MNPs were used to delivery green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene into BHK21 cells. The expression of GFP gene was detected by fluorescence microscope. DNA-PEI-CMD-MNPs polyplexes absorbed by the cells were also monitored by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The transfection efficiency and gene expression efficiency of that transfected with a magnet were much higher than that of standard transfection.

Zheng, S. W.; Liu, G.; Hong, R. Y.; Li, H. Z.; Li, Y. G.; Wei, D. G.

2012-10-01

313

Magnetic fields of the solar system: A comparative planetology toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields within the solar system provide a strong organizing force for processes active both within a planet or moon, and outside of it. In the interest of stimulating research and education in the field of comparative planetology, we present documented Fortran and MATLAB source codes and benchmarks to the latest models for planets and satellites that host internal magnetic fields. This presentation is made in the context of an interactive website: http://planetary-mag.net. Models are included for Earth (Comprehensive model CM4 of Sabaka et al., 2004, Geophysics J. Int.), Mercury (Anderson et al, 2011, Science), the Moon (Purucker and Nicholas, 2010, JGR), Mars (Lillis et al., 2010, JGR), and the outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune (Russell and Dougherty, 2010, Space Science Reviews). All models include magnetic fields of internal origin, and fields of external origin are included in the models for Mercury, the Earth, and the Moon. As models evolve, we intend to include magnetic fields of external origin for the other planets and moons. The website allows the user to select a coordinate system, such as planet-centered, heliocentric, or boundary normal, and the location within that coordinate system, and the vector magnetic field due to each of the component source fields at that location is then calculated and presented. Alternatively, the user can input a range as well as a grid spacing, and the vector magnetic field will be calculated for all points on that grid and be made available as a file for downloading.

Nicholas, J. B.; Purucker, M. E.; Johnson, C. L.; Sabaka, T. J.; Olsen, N.; Sun, Z.; Al Asad, M.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Slavin, J. A.; Alexeev, I. I.; Belenkaya, E. S.; Phillips, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Lillis, R. J.; Langlais, B.; Winslow, R. M.; Russell, C. T.; Dougherty, M. K.; Zuber, M. T.

2011-12-01

314

Magnetic field analysis and optimal design of magnetic bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field distribution of a radial magnetic bearing with sixteen-pole was analyzed by using finite element method. It was verified by magnetic field measurement. Magnetic bearing structure was optimized based on finite element analysis (FEA) and magnetic circuit method. Optimization was done in object of maximum magnetic force. Two optimizations had similar results. Analysis showed that FEA-based optimization is more

Han Wu; Chunguang Xu; Dingguo Xiao; Juan Hao

2009-01-01

315

The magnetic field of Jupiter - A generalized inverse approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation of planetary magnetic fields from observations of the magnetic field gathered along a spacecraft flyby trajectory is examined with the aid of generalized inverse techniques, with application to the internal magnetic field of Jupiter. Model non-uniqueness resulting from the limited spatial extent of the observations and noise on the data is explored and quantitative estimates of the model parameter resolution are found. The presence of a substantial magnetic field of external origin due to the currents flowing in the Jovian magnetodisc is found to be an important source of error in estimates of the internal Jovian field, and new models explicitly incorporating these currents are proposed. New internal field models are derived using the vector helium magnetometer observations and the high field fluxgate observations of Pioneer 11, and knowledge of the external current system gained from the Pioneer 10 and Voyagers 1 and 2 encounters.

Connerney, J. E. P.

1981-09-01

316

PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY WEAK, MISALIGNED MAGNETIC FIELDS  

SciTech Connect

The gas from which stars form is magnetized, and strong magnetic fields can efficiently transport angular momentum. Most theoretical models of this phenomenon find that it should prevent formation of large (>100 AU), rotationally supported disks around most protostars, even when non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects that allow the field and gas to decouple are taken into account. Using recent observations of magnetic field strengths and orientations in protostellar cores, we show that this conclusion is incorrect. The distribution of magnetic field strengths is very broad, and alignments between fields and angular momentum vectors within protostellar cores are essentially random. By combining the field strength and misalignment data with MHD simulations showing that disk formation is expected for both weak and misaligned fields, we show that these observations imply that we should expect disk fractions of {approx}10%-50% even when protostars are still deeply embedded in their parent cores, and even if the gas is governed by ideal MHD.

Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Crutcher, Richard M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hull, Charles L. H., E-mail: mkrumhol@ucsc.edu [Astronomy Department and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

2013-04-10

317

Magnetic field of Jupiter: A generalized inverse approach  

SciTech Connect

The estimation of planetary magnetic fields from observations of the magnetic field gathered along a spacecraft flyby trajectory is examined with the aid of generalized inverse techniques, with application to the internal magnetic field of Jupiter. Model non-uniqueness resulting from the limited spatial extent of the observations and noise on the data is explored and quantitative estimates of the model parameter resolution are found. The presence of a substantial magnetic field of external origin due to the currents flowing in the Jovian magnetodisc is found to be an important source of error in estimates of the internal Jovian field, and new models explicitly incorporating these currents are proposed. New internal field models are derived using the vector helium magnetometer observations and the high field fluxgate observations of Pioneer 11, and knowledge of the external current system gained from the Pioneer 10 and Voyagers 1 and 2 encounters.

Connerney, J.E.P.

1981-09-01

318

Magnetic field of Jupiter: A generalized inverse approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimation of planetary magnetic fields from observations of the magnetic field gathered along a spacecraft flyby trajectory is examined with the aid of generalized inverse techniques, with application to the internal magnetic field of Jupiter. Model nonuniqueness resulting from the limited spatial extent of the observations and noise on the data is explored and quantitative estimates of the model parameter resolution are found. The presence of a substantial magnetic field of external origin due to the currents flowing in the Jovian magnetodisc is found to be an important source of error in estimates of the internal Jovian field, and new models explicitly incorporating these currents are proposed. New internal field models are derived using the vector helium magnetometer observations and the high field fluxgate observations of Pioneer 11, and knowledge of the external current system gained from the Pioneer 10 and Voyagers 1 and 2 encounters.

Connerney, J. E. P.

1981-01-01

319

The magnetic field of Jupiter - A generalized inverse approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimation of planetary magnetic fields from observations of the magnetic field gathered along a spacecraft flyby trajectory is examined with the aid of generalized inverse techniques, with application to the internal magnetic field of Jupiter. Model non-uniqueness resulting from the limited spatial extent of the observations and noise on the data is explored and quantitative estimates of the model parameter resolution are found. The presence of a substantial magnetic field of external origin due to the currents flowing in the Jovian magnetodisc is found to be an important source of error in estimates of the internal Jovian field, and new models explicitly incorporating these currents are proposed. New internal field models are derived using the vector helium magnetometer observations and the high field fluxgate observations of Pioneer 11, and knowledge of the external current system gained from the Pioneer 10 and Voyagers 1 and 2 encounters.

Connerney, J. E. P.

1981-01-01

320

Magnetic fields in quiescent prominences  

SciTech Connect

The origin of the axial fields in high-latitude quiescent prominences is considered. The fact that almost all quiescent prominences obey the same hemisphere-dependent rule strongly suggests that the solar differential rotation plays an important role in producing the axial fields. However, the observations are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the axial fields are produced by differential rotation acting on an existing coronal magnetic field. Several possible explanations for this discrepancy are considered. The possibility that the sign of the axial field depends on the topology of the magnetic field in which the prominence is embedded is examined, as is the possibility that the neutral line is tilted with respect to the east-west direction, so that differential rotation causes the neutral line also to rotate with time. The possibility that the axial fields of quiescent prominences have their origin below the solar surface is also considered. 29 refs.

Van Ballegooijen, A.A.; Martens, P.C.H. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-09-01

321

Photospheric Magnetic Field Properties of Flaring versus Flare-quiet Active Regions. II. Discriminant Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply statistical tests based on discriminant analysis to the wide range of photospheric magnetic parameters described in a companion paper by Leka & Barnes, with the goal of identifying those properties that are important for the production of energetic events such as solar flares. The photospheric vector magnetic field data from the University of Hawai'i Imaging Vector Magnetograph are

K. D. Leka; G. Barnes

2003-01-01

322

Measurement and modelling of magnetic properties of soft magnetic composite material under 2D vector magnetisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the measurement and modelling of magnetic properties of SOMALOY TM 500, a soft magnetic composite (SMC) material, under different 2D vector magnetisations, such as alternating along one direction, circularly and elliptically rotating in a 2D plane. By using a 2D magnetic property tester, the B- H curves and core losses of the SMC material have been measured with different flux density patterns on a single sheet square sample. The measurements can provide useful information for modelling of the magnetic properties, such as core losses. The core loss models have been successfully applied in the design of rotating electrical machines with SMC core.

Guo, Y. G.; Zhu, J. G.; Zhong, J. J.

2006-07-01

323

Chromospheric magnetic fields of an active region filament  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vector magnetic fields of an active region filament are co-spatially and co-temporally mapped in photosphere and upper chromosphere, by using spectro-polarimetric observations made by Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP II) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT). A Zeeman-based ME inversion is performed on the full Stokes vectors of both the photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm and the chromospheric He I 1083.0 nm lines. We found that the strong magnetic fields, with the field strength of 600 - 800 G in the He I line formation height, are not uncommon among AR filaments. But such strong magnetic field is not always found in AR filaments.

Xu, Z.; Solanki, S.; Lagg, A.

2012-06-01

324

MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.  

SciTech Connect

Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation.

JAIN, A.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; LOUIE, W.; MARONE, A.; THOMAS. R.; WANDERER, P.

2004-10-03

325

Magnetic fields in neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims at studying how magnetic fields affect the observational properties and the long-term evolution of isolated neutron stars, which are the strongest magnets in the universe. The extreme physical conditions met inside these astronomical sources complicate their theoretical study, but, thanks to the increasing wealth of radio and X-ray data, great advances have been made over the last years. A neutron star is surrounded by magnetized plasma, the so-called magnetosphere. Modeling its global configuration is important to understand the observational properties of the most magnetized neutron stars, magnetars. On the other hand, magnetic fields in the interior are thought to evolve on long time-scales, from thousands to millions of years. The magnetic evolution is coupled to the thermal one, which has been the subject of study in the last decades. An important part of this thesis presents the state-of-the-art of the magneto-thermal evolution models of neutron stars during the first million of years, studied by means of detailed simulations. The numerical code here described is the first one to consistently consider the coupling of magnetic field and temperature, with the inclusion of both the Ohmic dissipation and the Hall drift in the crust.

Viganò, Daniele

2013-09-01

326

Helicity of the solar magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicity measures complexity in the field. Magnetic helicity is given by a volume integral over the scalar product of magnetic field B and its vector potential A. A direct computation of magnetic helicity in the solar atmosphere is not possible due to unavailability of the observations at different heights and also due to non-uniqueness of A. The force-free parameter ? has been used as a proxy of magnetic helicity for a long time. We have clarified the physical meaning of ? and its relationship with the magnetic helicity. We have studied the effect of polarimetric noise on estimation of various magnetic parameters. Fine structures of sunspots in terms of vertical current (Jz) and ? have been examined. We have introduced the concept of signed shear angle (SSA) for sunspots and established its importance for non force-free fields. We find that there is no net current in sunspots even in presence of a significant twist, showing consistency with their fibril-bundle nature. The finding of existence of a lower limit of SASSA for a given class of X-ray flare will be very useful for space weather forecasting. A good correlation is found between the sign of helicity in the sunspots and the chirality of the associated chromospheric and coronal features. We find that a large number of sunspots observed in the declining phase of solar cycle 23 do not follow the hemispheric helicity rule whereas most of the sunspots observed in the beginning of new solar cycle 24 do follow. This indicates a long term behaviour of the hemispheric helicity patterns in the Sun. The above sums up my PhD thesis.

Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar

2011-08-01

327

Magnetic Fields in Quantum Degenerate Systems and in Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider self-magnetization of charged and neutral vector bosons bearing a magnetic moment in a gas and in vacuum. For charged vector bosons (W bosons) a divergence of the magnetization in both the medium and the electroweak vacuum occurs for the critical field B=Bwc=mw2/e. For B > Bwc the system is unstable. This behavior suggests the occurrence of a phase transition at B = Bc, where the field is self-consistently maintained. This mechanism actually prevents B from reaching the critical value Bc. For virtual neutral vector bosons bearing an anomalous magnetic moment, the ground state behavior for B=Bnbc=mnb2/q have a similar behavior. The magnetization in the medium is associated to a Bose-Einstein condensate and we conjecture a similar condensate occurs also in the case of vacuum. The model is applied to virtual electron-positron pairs bosonization in a magnetic field B ˜ Bpc< ˜ 2me2/e, where me is the electron mass. This would lead also to vacuum self-magnetization in QED, where in both cases the symmetry breaking is due to a condensate of quasi-massless particles.

Rojas, H. Pérez; Querts, E. Rodríguez

328

Large Solar Flares and Sheared Magnetic Field Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Comment gives additional information about the nature of flaring locations on the Sun described in the article "Sun unleashes Halloween storm", by R. E. Lopez, et al. What causes the large explosions from solar active regions that unleash huge magnetic storms and adverse space weather? It is now beyond doubt that the magnetic field in solar active regions harbors free energy that is released during these events. Direct measurements of the longitudinal and transverse components of active region magnetic fields with the vector magnetograph at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), taken on a regular basis for the last 30 years, have found key signatures of the locations of powerful flares. A vector magnetograph detects and measures the magnetic shear, which is the deviation of the observed transverse magnetic field direction from the potential field. The sheared locations possess abundant free magnetic energy for solar flares. In addition to active region NOAA 10486, the one that produced the largest flares last October, the NASA/MSFC vector magnetograph has observed several other such complex super active regions, including NOAA 6555 and 6659.

Choudhary, Debi Prasad

2001-01-01

329

The planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere of Jupiter: Pioneer 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained by the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer are presented along with models of the intrinsic magnetic field of JupiteL and its magnetosphere. Data acquired between 2.84 and 6.0 Rj, where the intensity of the planetary field ranged between 1900 and 18,400 'y, were used to develop a six-parameter eccentric dipole model of the field. The dipole so derived

E. J. Smith; L. Davis Jr.; D. E. Jones; P. J. Coleman Jr.; D. S. Colburn; P. Dyal; C. P. Sonett; A. M. A. Frandsen

1974-01-01

330

Alternating magnetic field assisted magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic antidot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the effects of high-frequency electromagnetic waves on magnetization reversal have been extensively studied, the influence of a low-frequency ac field on magnetization reversal has seldom been examined. In this study, we measured the magnetoresistance and examined the magnetic switching process of Permalloy antidot thin films under an alternating magnetic field with a frequency of 25 kHz. When no alternating magnetic field was present, the transitional field of the antidot thin films decreased as the angle of the direct magnetic field increased. When an alternating magnetic field was present, the transitional field exhibited the same trend. We compared the magnetization process of the antidot thin films with and without the alternating magnetic field and determined that the alternating field can facilitate the transition of magnetization, specifically, by lowering the transitional field with the highest variation rate (33.73%).

Huang, Hao-Ting; Ger, Tzong-Rong; Huang, Chen-Yu; Liao, Kuei-Tien; Wang, Pei-Jen; Lai, Jun-Yang; Chen, Jiann-Yeu; Lai, Mei-Feng

2014-05-01

331

New techniques in 3D scalar and vector field visualization  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have recently developed several techniques for volume visualization of scalar and vector fields, all of which use back-to-front compositing. The first renders volume density clouds by compositing polyhedral volume cells or their faces. The second is a ``splatting`` scheme which composites textures used to reconstruct the scalar or vector fields. One version calculates the necessary texture values in software, and another takes advantage of hardware texture mapping. The next technique renders contour surface polygons using semi-transparent textures, which adjust appropriately when the surfaces deform in a flow, or change topology. The final one renders the ``flow volume`` of smoke or dye tracer swept out by a fluid flowing through a small generating polygon. All of these techniques are applied to a climate model data set, to visualize cloud density and wind velocity.

Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Becker, B.

1993-05-05

332

A non-linear coupled 3D model for magnetic field and electric circuit equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a 3-D numerical model in which the magnetic field and electric circuit equations in the absence of eddy currents are solved simultaneously. To consider the magnetic equations, use is made of a magnetic vector potential formulation with the gauge condition (A.w=0) which makes it possible to reduce the number of unknowns. To take into account the magnetic

F. Piriou; A. Razek

1992-01-01

333

First Flare-related Rapid Change of Photospheric Magnetic Field Observed by Solar Dynamics Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photospheric magnetic field not only plays important roles in building up free energy and triggering solar eruptions, but also has been observed to change rapidly and permanently responding to the coronal magnetic field restructuring due to coronal transients. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument (HMI) on board the newly launched Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) produces seeing-free full-disk vector magnetograms at

Shuo Wang; Chang Liu; Rui Liu; Na Deng; Yang Liu; Haimin Wang

2011-01-01

334

2T/5T Two-Axis Cryogen Free Superconducting Vector Magnet With Variable Temperature Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conduction cooled 2T / 5T superconducting vector magnetic system with a variable temperature space was developed and tested. The system is based on a commercial two-stage 4 K Gifford-McMahon cryocooler with the cooling power of 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The cool down time of the magnet from room temperature to 3.2 K is 17 hours. The system provides sample temperature range of 6.0-300 K. The clear diameter of variable temperature space is 39 mm. A 5 T solenoid generates magnetic field in the vertical axis and a 2 T split coil generates field in the horizontal axis. The magnets are made of niobium-titanium wire wound on a copper former. A PC controlled rotary drive is applied to rotate a sample holder around the vertical axis. Thus the measured sample can be exposed to the magnetic field in any desired direction. A helium gas gap heat switch is used as a controllable thermal link between the variable temperature space and the 2nd stage to avoid overheating of the magnet at high temperatures of the sample. The system design, manufacturing and test results are presented.

Demikhov, E. I.; Demikhov, T. E.; Kostrov, E. A.; Lysenko, V. V.; Piskunov, N. A.

2014-05-01

335

Vibrating H3+ in a Uniform Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential energy surfaces are obtained for singlet H3+ in magnetic fields of up to 2350 T. The magnetic interaction was treated by first-order perturbation theory and the interaction terms computed ab initio. They were then fitted to a functional form and added to a recent, highly accurate adiabatic potential energy surface. In its most stable orientation, the molecule is arranged such that the magnetic field vector is in the molecular plane. The most stable configuration is no longer D3h as in the field-free case, but C2v, though the stabilization energy is extremely small, of the order of 0.01 cm-1 for a 2350 T field. Finally, we have calculated, for a range of magnetic field strengths and orientations, all the vibrational eigenvalues that are below the barrier to linearity in the field-free case.

Medel Cobaxin, Héctor; Alijah, Alexander

2013-10-01

336

Magnetic field in the stator yoke of homopolar inductor alternators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is developed for the numerical calculation of the magnetic field in the stator yoke of homopolar inductor alternators with periodic boundary conditions set in terms of the normal flux density vector component on inside and outside surfaces of the yoke. The proposed algorithm is based on the line relaxation algorithm and, unlike other algorithms, features an additional condition

V. V. Apsit; Iu. I. Dikin; D. Ia. Macha

1979-01-01

337

On the existence of interfacial waves with inclined magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dispersive characteristics of interfacial waves in low beta plasma is studied. The condition for the existence of these waves is derived. It is assumed that the magnetic field and the propagation vector are inclined at different angles to the density discontinuity which is horizontal.The dispersion relation for such a configuration is solved for the interfacial (surface) waves as a

A. Satya Narayanan

1997-01-01

338

Analysis of superconducting electromagnetic finite elements based on a magnetic vector potential variational principle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromagnetic finite elements are extended based on a variational principle that uses the electromagnetic four potential as primary variable. The variational principle is extended to include the ability to predict a nonlinear current distribution within a conductor. The extension of this theory is first done on a normal conductor and tested on two different problems. In both problems, the geometry remains the same, but the material properties are different. The geometry is that of a 1-D infinite wire. The first problem is merely a linear control case used to validate the new theory. The second problem is made up of linear conductors with varying conductivities. Both problems perform well and predict current densities that are accurate to within a few ten thousandths of a percent of the exact values. The fourth potential is then removed, leaving only the magnetic vector potential, and the variational principle is further extended to predict magnetic potentials, magnetic fields, the number of charge carriers, and the current densities within a superconductor. The new element produces good results for the mean magnetic field, the vector potential, and the number of superconducting charge carriers despite a relatively high system condition number. The element did not perform well in predicting the current density. Numerical problems inherent to this formulation are explored and possible remedies to produce better current predicting finite elements are presented.

Schuler, James J.; Felippa, Carlos A.

1991-01-01

339

Optical currents in coherent and partially coherent vector fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of computer simulation of spatial distribution of the Poynting vector and illustrate motion of microparticles in spatially inhomogeneously polarized fields. The influence of phase relations and the degree of mutual coherence of superposing waves in the arrangements of two-wave and four-wave superposition on the characteristics of microparicle's motion has been analyzed. The prognosis of prospects of the study of temporal coherence using the proposed approach is made.

Angelsky, O. V.; Maksimyak, P. P.; Zenkova, C. Yu.; Gorsky, M. P.; Gorodynska, N. V.

2010-09-01

340

Texture splats for 3D vector and scalar field visualization  

SciTech Connect

Volume Visualization is becoming an important tool for understanding large 3D datasets. A popular technique for volume rendering is known as splatting. With new hardware architectures offering substantial improvements in the performance of rendering texture mapped objects, we present textured splats. An ideal reconstruction function for 3D signals is developed which can be used as a texture map for a splat. Extensions to the basic splatting technique are then developed to additionally represent vector fields.

Crawfis, R.A.; Max, N.

1993-04-06

341

Vector-field-smoothed Bayesian learning for incremental speaker adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a fast and incremental speaker adaptation method called MAP\\/VFS, which combines maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation, or in other words Bayesian learning, with vector field smoothing (VFS). The point is that MAP is an intra-class training scheme while VFS is an inter-class smoothing technique. This is a basic technique for on-line adaptation which will be important in

Jun-ichi TAKAHASHI; Shigeki SAGAYAMA

1995-01-01

342

High-field magnets and high-field superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief historical review of the development of high magnetic fields and high field superconductors including brief summaries of the early developments of high magnetic fields and the Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory (FBNML). The start of the first revolution (when large critical currents in Nb3Sn were observed in high magnetic fields) and the development of practical

Simon Foner; Francis Bitter

1995-01-01

343

Structural properties of a vector hollow Gaussian beam in the far-field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate description of the vector hollow Gaussian beam (HGB) in the far-field is a sum of two orthogonal terms: the TE and TM terms. The TE term denotes the electric field transverse to the propagation axis, and the TM term the associated magnetic field transverse to the propagation axis. The structural properties of a vector HGB, which are related to the energy flux distributions of the HGB and its TE and TM terms, are investigated in the far-field. The analytical expressions for the ratios of the powers of the TE and TM terms to that of the HGB are presented without any approximation. The contributions of the powers of the TE and TM terms to the power of the HGB are determined by the f-parameter and the beam order. The analytical formulae of the far-field divergence angles of the TE term, the TM term, and the HGB, which are defined by the second-order moment of the energy flux, are derived. The divergence angles depend on the f-parameter and the beam order. A relation among the divergence angles of the TE term, the TM term, and the HGB are also presented. The influences of the f-parameter and the beam order on the structural properties of a vector HGB are numerically examined in the far-field.

Zhou, Guoquan

2011-07-01

344

Magnetic Fields in Irregular Galaxies: NGC 4214  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic fields are an important component of the interstellar medium of galaxies. They provide support, transfer energy from supernovae, provide a possible heating mechanism, and channel gas flows (Beck 2004). Despite the importance of magnetic fields in the ISM, it is not well known what generates and sustains galactic magnetic fields or how magnetic fields, gas, and stars interact in

Amanda A. Kepley; E. M. Wilcots; T. Robishaw; C. Heiles; E. Zweibel

2006-01-01

345

Solar magnetic fields - The Italian contribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short account is given of the methods of observation, the characteristics of solar magnetic fields, the relationships between velocity and magnetic fields, the theoretical approaches, and the possibilities opened by studies of stellar activity of the solar type. In discussing the classification and characteristics of solar magnetic fields, attention is given to normal bipolar regions, large-scale unipolar magnetic fields,

D. Fabbri; G. Godoli; F. Mazzucconi

1982-01-01

346

Progress in Solar Magnetic Field Extrapolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar magnetic field is the predominant factor of the solar activities. Precise measurements of solar magnetic fields so far are still confined to the thin layer of the solar photosphere. In order to understand the nature of the coronal magnetic fields, it becomes necessary to extrapolate the coronal magnetic fields based on theoretical models using observed photospheric magnetograms as boundary

Juan Hao; Mei Zhang

2007-01-01

347

A filament supported by different magnetic field configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolation of vector magnetogram data obtained by THEMIS/MTR on 2005 May 27 suggests the simultaneous existence of different magnetic configurations within one active region filament: one part of the filament is supported by field line dips within a flux rope, while the other part is located in dips within an arcade structure. Although the axial field chirality (dextral) and the magnetic helicity (negative) are the same along the whole filament, the chiralities of the filament barbs at different sections are opposite, i.e., right-bearing in the flux rope part and left-bearing in the arcade part. This argues against past suggestions that different barb chiralities imply different signs of helicity of the underlying magnetic field. This new finding about the chirality of filaments will be useful to associate eruptive filaments and magnetic cloud using the helicity parameter in the Space Weather Science.

Guo, Y.; Schmieder, B.; Démoulin, P.; Wiegelmann, T.; Aulanier, G.; Török, T.; Bommier, V.

2011-08-01

348

Observations of Mercury's magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field data obtained by Mariner 10 during the third and final encounter with the planet Mercury on 16 March 1975 were studied. A well developed bow shock and modest magnetosphere, previously observed at first encounter on 29 March 1974, were again observed. In addition, a much stronger magnetic field near closest approach, 400 gamma versus 98 gamma, was observed at an altitude of 327 km and approximately 70 deg north Mercurian latitude. Spherical harmonic analysis of the data provide an estimate of the centered planetary magnetic dipole of 4.7 x 10 to the 22nd power Gauss/cu cm with the axis tilted 12 deg to the rotation axis and in the same sense as Earth's. The interplanetary field was sufficiently different between first and third encounters that in addition to the very large field magnitude observed, it argues strongly against a complex induction process generating the observed planetary field. While a possibility exists that Mercury possesses a remanent field due to magnetization early in its formation, a present day active dynamo seems to be a more likely candidate for its origin.

Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.

1975-01-01

349

Deflections in magnet fringe fields.  

PubMed

A transverse multipole expansion is derived, including the longitudinal components necessarily present in regions of varying magnetic field profile. It can be used for exact numerical orbit following through the fringe-field regions of magnets whose end designs introduce no extraneous components, i.e., fields not required to be present by Maxwell's equations. Analytic evaluations of the deflections are obtained in various approximations. Mainly emphasized is a "straight-line approximation," in which particle orbits are treated as straight lines through the fringe-field regions. This approximation leads to a readily-evaluated figure of merit, the ratio of rms end deflection to nominal body deflection, that can be used to determine whether or not a fringe field can be neglected. Deflections in "critical" cases (e.g., near intersection regions) are analyzed in the same approximation. PMID:12786502

Papaphilippou, Y; Wei, J; Talman, R

2003-04-01

350

Magnetic field tomography, helical magnetic fields and Faraday depolarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide-band radio polarization observations offer the possibility to recover information about the magnetic fields in synchrotron sources, such as details of their three-dimensional configuration, that has previously been inaccessible. The key physical process involved is the Faraday rotation of the polarized emission in the source (and elsewhere along the wave's propagation path to the observer). In order to proceed, reliable methods are required for inverting the signals observed in wavelength space into useful data in Faraday space, with robust estimates of their uncertainty. In this paper, we examine how variations of the intrinsic angle of polarized emission ?0 with the Faraday depth ? within a source affect the observable quantities. Using simple models for the Faraday dispersion F(?) and ?0(?), along with the current and planned properties of the main radio interferometers, we demonstrate how degeneracies among the parameters describing the magneto-ionic medium can be minimized by combining observations in different wavebands. We also discuss how depolarization by Faraday dispersion due to a random component of the magnetic field attenuates the variations in the spectral energy distribution of the polarization and shifts its peak towards shorter wavelengths. This additional effect reduces the prospect of recovering the characteristics of the magnetic field helicity in magneto-ionic media dominated by the turbulent component of the magnetic field.

Horellou, C.; Fletcher, A.

2014-07-01

351

Development of Techniques for Visualization of Scalar and Vector Fields in the Immersive Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visualization of scalar and vector fields in the immersive environment (CAVE - Cave Automated Virtual Environment) is important for its application to radiation shielding research at NASA Langley Research Center. A complete methodology and the underlying software for this purpose have been developed. The developed software has been put to use for the visualization of the earth s magnetic field, and in particular for the study of the South Atlantic Anomaly. The methodology has also been put to use for the visualization of geomagnetically trapped protons and electrons within Earth's magnetosphere.

Bidasaria, Hari B.; Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.

2005-01-01

352

Low-frequency fluctuations in plasma magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that even a non-magnetized plasma with temperature T sustains zero-frequency magnetic fluctuations in thermal equilibrium. Fluctuations in electric and magnetic fields, as well as in densities, are computed. Four cases are studied: a cold, gaseous, isotropic, non-magnetized plasma; a cold, gaseous plasma in a uniform magnetic field; a warm, gaseous plasma described by kinetic theory; and a degenerate electron plasma. For the simple gaseous plasma, the fluctuation strength of the magnetic field as a function of frequency and wavenumber is calculated with the aid of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This calculation is done for both collisional and collisionless plasmas. The magnetic field fluctuation spectrum of each plasma has a large zero-frequency peak. The peak is a Dirac {delta}-function in the collisionless plasma; it is broadened into a Lorentzian curve in the collisional plasma. The plasma causes a low frequency cutoff in the typical black-body radiation spectrum, and the energy under the discovered peak approximates the energy lost in this cutoff. When the imposed magnetic field is weak, the magnetic field were vector fluctuation spectra of the two lowest modes are independent of the strength of the imposed field. Further, these modes contain finite energy even when the imposed field is zero. It is the energy of these modes which forms the non-magnetized zero-frequency peak of the isotropic plasma. In deriving these results, a simple relationship between the dispersion relation and the fluctuation power spectrum of electromagnetic waves if found. The warm plasma is shown, by kinetic theory, to exhibit a zero-frequency peak in its magnetic field fluctuation spectrum as well. For the degenerate plasma, we find that electric field fluctuations and number density fluctuations vanish at zero frequency; however, the magnetic field power spectrum diverges at zero frequency.

Cable, S.; Tajima, T.

1992-02-01

353

Formation of Magnetic Particle Chains in Ultra High Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic particles form chain-like clusters in the magnetic field. This phenomenon is of interest in two separate fields, one is a development system of the laser printer and another is an electromagnetic manipulation of biological cells. Experiments on the chain formation in air and oil have been performed in the ultra high magnetic field created by a superconducting magnet. It

Hiroyuki Kawamoto; Masatomo Teshima; Hiroyuki Takahashi; Nobuyuki Nakayama; Noriyuki Hirota

2007-01-01

354

Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

Research on small-scale and large-scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields during 1987-1990 is reviewed, focusing on observational studies. Particular attention is given to the new techniques, which include the correlation tracking of granules, the use of highly Zeeman-sensitive infrared spectral lines and multiple lines to deduce small-scale field strength, the application of long integration times coupled with good seeing conditions to study weak fields, and the use of high-resolution CCD detectors together with computer image-processing techniques to obtain images with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Synoptic observations of large-scale fields during the sunspot cycle are also discussed. 101 refs.

Sheeley, N.R., Jr. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

355

DSP-based vector and current controllers for a permanent magnet synchronous motor drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of DSP-based vector and current controllers for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive is presented. Several different implementations of the vector controller are evaluated, and the consequent effect on the maximum motor speed is examined. A careful choice of the cosine look-up table which is used in the vector controller is presented. The possibility of implementing a

P. Pillay; C. R. Allen; R. Budhabhathi

1990-01-01

356

Magnetic Forces and Field Line Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about depicting the relative strength of magnetic fields using field line density. Learners will use the magnetic field line drawing of six magnetic poles created in a previous activity and identify the areas of strong, weak, and medium magnetic intensity using the density of magnetic field lines. This is the fifth activity in the Magnetic Math booklet; this booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. How to Draw Magnetic Fields - II in the Magnetic Math booklet must be completed prior to this activity.

357

Magnetic Fields of the Earth and Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity that compares the magnetic field of the Earth to the complex magnetic field of the Sun. Using images of the Earth and Sun that have magnets attached in appropriate orientations, learners will use a handheld magnetic field detector to observe the magnetic field of the Earth and compare it to that of the Sun, especially in sunspot areas. For each group of students, this activity requires use of a handheld magnetic field detector, such as a Magnaprobe or a similar device, a bar magnet, and ten small disc magnets.

358

The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism.We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) = (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) = (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star...

Makarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

2007-01-01

359

Absolute magnetic helicity and the cylindrical magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The different magnetic helicities conserved under conditions of perfect electrical conductivity are expressions of the fundamental property that every evolving fluid surface conserves its net magnetic flux. This basic hydromagnetic point unifies the well known Eulerian helicities with the Lagrangian helicity defined by the conserved fluxes frozen into a prescribed set of disjoint toroidal tubes of fluid flowing as a permanent partition of the entire fluid [B. C. Low, Astrophys. J. 649, 1064 (2006)]. This unifying theory is constructed from first principles, beginning with an analysis of the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of fluids, separating the ideas of fluid and magnetic-flux tubes and removing the complication of the magnetic vector potential's free gauge from the concept of helicity. The analysis prepares for the construction of a conserved Eulerian helicity, without that gauge complication, to describe a 3D anchored flux in an upright cylindrical domain, this helicity called absolute to distinguish it from the well known relative helicity. In a version of the Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation, the evolving field at any instant is a unique superposition of a writhed, untwisted axial flux with a circulating flux of field lines all closed and unlinked within the cylindrical domain. The absolute helicity is then a flux-weighted sum of the writhe of that axial flux and its mutual linkage with the circulating flux. The absolute helicity is also conserved if the frozen-in field and its domain are continuously deformed by changing the separation between the rigid cylinder-ends with no change of cylinder radius. This hitherto intractable cylindrical construction closes a crucial conceptual gap for the fundamentals to be complete at last. The concluding discussion shows the impact of this development on our understanding of helicity, covering (i) the helicities of wholly contained and anchored fields; (ii) the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of field evolution; (iii) twist as a topological property of solenoidal fields versus the linkage properties of open and closed discrete curves treated by Gauss, Caligarneau, Berger, and Prior; and (iv) the change of absolute helicity by resistive diffusion. These are important hydromagnetic properties of twisted magnetic fields in the million-degree hot, highly conducting corona of the Sun.

Low, B. C. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 80307 (United States)

2011-05-15

360

BEC manipulation with fictitious magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) atoms with counterpropagating laser beams can often be represented by fictitious magnetic fields [1]. These fictitious fields can be combined with ordinary magnetic fields to produce total fields whose amplitudes vary in space on the scale of the laser wavelength. When the strengths of such magnetic fields are positioned in the neighborhood of a

Jeffrey Heward; Mark Edwards; Charles W. Clark

2010-01-01

361

Flares and changing magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

An observational study of maps of the longitudinal component of the photospheric fields in flaring active regions leads to the following conclusions:(1)The broad-wing Ha kernels characteristic of the impulsive phase of flares occur within 10? of neutral lines encircling features of isolated magnetic polarity (‘satellite sunspots’).(2)Photospheric field changes intimately associated with several importance 1 flares and one importance 2B flare

David M. Rust

1972-01-01

362

Non-Linear Stability of a Weakly Ionized Plasma with a Nonuniform Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using vector eignfunction expansion, an asymptotic nonlinear theory of a weakly ionized plasma in a strong magnetic field is presented. When the external field H is slightly larger than the critical magnetic field Hc, an instability exists. For slightly unstable plasma motions, a precise form on Landau's equation is obtained. The inclusion of nonlinearities gives rise to amplitude saturation. It

S. K. Malik; M. Singh

1978-01-01

363

The Cassini Magnetic Field Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dual technique magnetometer system onboard the Cassini orbiter is described. This instrument consists of vector helium and fluxgate magnetometers with the capability to operate the helium device in a scalar mode. This special mode is used near the planet in order to determine with very high accuracy the interior field of the planet. The orbital mission will lead to a detailed understanding of the Saturn/Titan system including measurements of the planetary magnetosphere, and the interactions of Saturn with the solar wind, of Titan with its environments, and of the icy satellites within the magnetosphere.

Dougherty, M. K.; Kellock, S.; Southwood, D. J.; Balogh, A.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Gerlach, B.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Gleim, F.; Russell, C. T.; Erdos, G.; Neubauer, F. M.; Cowley, S. W. H.

2004-09-01

364

Ohm's Law for Mean Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions it ...

A. H. Boozer

1986-01-01

365

Regular and Anomalous Effects in the Magnetic and Velocity Fields of Symmetrical Sunspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most cases, the photoelectric measurements of magnetic fields in sunspots with penumbrae demonstrate a classical, more or less homogeneous distribution of the magnetic and velocity fields. But there exist some interesting cases of anomalous effects, when in the area of a sunspot, both the magnetic, and velocity field become very complicated, and intricated magnetic and velocity structures, accompanied often by large gradients develop. On the basis of our experience with modelling vector fields in symmetrical sunspots (Klvana et al., 1998), we specify the regular and anomalous behavior of the measured longitudinal components of magnetic and velocity field vectors; from this we judge on the vector configuration of both fields. We demonstrate and analyse such anomalous effects on the leading spot of the active region NOAA 7981, measured in the spectral lines FeI 525.347 nm and MgI 517.27 nm. In the spectral continuum the spot appears to be more or less symmetric.

Klvana, M.; Bumba, V.; Kaltman, T.

366

Crystal field and magnetic properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at theta = 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) x 10 to the -6th Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 1 - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is on the order of 160 to 180 K.

Flood, D. J.

1977-01-01

367

Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electro-magnetic environment.

R. Haagmans; Y. Menard; R. Floberghagen; G. Plank; M. R. Drinkwater

2010-01-01

368

Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

Foster, John E.

2000-01-01

369

Large-scale solar magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics discussed in this review of large-scale solar magnetic fields include large-scale magnetic surface features, the solar activity cycle and the large-scale patterns, and magnetic fields in the corona. Features considered include the decay of active regions, the background field pattern, the polar fields, giant regular structures, expansion of the field in surface harmonics, and the average inclination of magnetic-field

R. Howard

1977-01-01

370

Killing vector fields in three dimensions: a method to solve massive gravity field equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Killing vector fields in three dimensions play an important role in the construction of the related spacetime geometry. In this work we show that when a three-dimensional geometry admits a Killing vector field then the Ricci tensor of the geometry is determined in terms of the Killing vector field and its scalars. In this way we can generate all products and covariant derivatives at any order of the Ricci tensor. Using this property we give ways to solve the field equations of topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG) introduced recently. In particular when the scalars of the Killing vector field (timelike, spacelike and null cases) are constants then all three-dimensional symmetric tensors of the geometry, the Ricci and Einstein tensors, their covariant derivatives at all orders, and their products of all orders are completely determined by the Killing vector field and the metric. Hence, the corresponding three-dimensional metrics are strong candidates for solving all higher derivative gravitational field equations in three dimensions.

Gürses, Metin

2010-10-01

371

Magnetic fields in the sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

Mullan, D. J.

1974-01-01

372

Multi-Instrumental Vector Magnetic Observations and Techniques for Investigating Auroral Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space based magnetometers in highly inclined low earth orbits are essential for characterizing the state of the auroral space environment and the dynamic processes within. This paper demonstrates the utility of data derived from multiple satellites including AMPERE (70 Iridium spacecraft), DMSP (4 spacecraft) and ST5 (3 spacecraft), and the AMIENext technique to investigate periods of interest in 2006 and 2010. A new satellite conjunction-finding technique magnetically maps in situ observations to a common altitude in the APEX coordinate system to assess the spatial and temporal stability and quality of vector magnetic measurements (Knipp et al., 2014). In March of 2006, the ST5 constellation was launched into a pearls-on-a-string configuration. Subsequent data processing produced superb, quality controlled magnetic observations from the 90-day mission (e.g. Slavin et al., 2008, Le et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2009). We present conjunction comparisons between the ST5 and DMSP spacecraft during the ST5 mission lifetime, which was dominated by a series of high-speed solar wind events. In May of 2010, a unipolar Magnetic Cloud passed Earth, providing an opportunity to investigate the magnetopshere-ionosphere coupling response to a slow moving transient followed by higher speed flow. This event included significant, long-lived disturbances in the asymmetric ring current and auroral electrojet (AE) index. Assimilation of space-based magnetic observations via the AMIENext procedure, reveal twisting in the dayside patterns, consistent with the sign changes in IMF By and a highly structured topology as IMF Bz turned northward. We present a detailed comparison between the magnetic observations from DMSP and AMPERE. To aid in investigating the local magnetic field and in providing data to assimilative models, we have also created new datasets in self-describing NASA CDF formats for the DMSP and ST5 vector magnetometers and for the DMSP precipitating ion and electron instruments and we will discuss their availability.

Redmon, Robert; Knipp, Delores; Kilcommons, Liam; Richmond, Art; Matsuo, Tomoko; Anderson, Brian; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James; Le, Guan; Wilson, Gordon; Rich, Fred; Denig, William

2014-05-01

373

Statistics of anisotropies in inflation with spectator vector fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistics of the primordial power spectrum in models where massless gauge vectors are coupled to the inflaton, paying special attention to observational implications of having fundamental or effective horizons embedded in a bath of infrared fluctuations. As quantum infrared modes cross the horizon, they classicalize and build a background vector field. We find that the vector experiences a statistical precession phenomenon. Implications for primordial correlators and the interpretation thereof are considered. Firstly, we show how in general two, not only one, additional observables, a quadrupole amplitude and an intrinsic shape parameter, are necessary to fully describe the correction to the curvature power spectrum, and develop a unique parametrization for them. Secondly, we show that the observed anisotropic amplitude and the associated preferred direction depend on the volume of the patch being probed. We calculate non-zero priors for the expected deviations between detections based on microwave background data (which probes the entire Hubble patch) and large scale structure (which only probes a fraction of it).

Thorsrud, Mikjel; Urban, Federico R.; Mota, David F.

2014-04-01

374

Magnetic field of the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws of electromagnetism. According to a rule of the left hand: if the magnetic field in a kernel is directed to drawing, electric current are directed to an axis of rotation of the Earth, - a action of force clockwise (to West). Definition of the force causing drift a kernel according to the law of Ampere F = IBlsin. Powerful force 3,5 × 1012 Nyton, what makes drift of the central part of a kernel of the Earth on 0,2 the longitude in year to West, and also it is engine of the mechanism of movement of slabs together with continents. Movement of a core of the Earth carry out around of a terrestrial axis one circulation in the western direction in 2000 of years. Linear speed of rotation of a kernel concerning a mantle on border the mantle a kernel: V = × 3,471 × 10 = 3,818 × 10 m/s = 33 m/day = 12 km/years. Considering greater viscosity of a mantle, the powerful energy at rotation of a kernel seize a mantle and lithospheric slabs and makes their collisions as a result of which there are earthquakes and volcano. Continents Northern and Southern America every year separate from the Europe and Africa on several centimeters. Atlantic ocean as a result of movement of these slabs with such speed was formed for 200 million years, that in comparison with the age of the Earth - several billions years, not so long time. Drift of a kernel in the western direction is a principal cause of delay of speed of rotation of the Earth. Flow of radial electric currents allot according to the law of Joule - Lenz, the quantity of warmth : Q = I2Rt = IUt, of thermal energy 6,92 × 1017 calories/year. This defines heating of a kernel and the Earth as a whole. In the valley of the median-Atlantic ridge having numerous volcanos, the lava flow constantly thus warm up waters of Atlantic ocean. It is a fact the warm current Gulf Stream. Thawing of a permafrost and ices of Arctic ocean, of glaciers of Greenland and Antarctica is acknowledgement: the warmth of earth defines character of thawing of glaciers and a permafrost. This is a global warming. The version of the author: the period

Popov, Aleksey

2013-04-01

375

Electron dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.  

PubMed

This review explores the dynamics of two-dimensional electrons in magnetic potentials that vary on scales smaller than the mean free path. The physics of microscopically inhomogeneous magnetic fields relates to important fundamental problems in the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity, spintronics and graphene physics and spins out promising applications which will be described here. After introducing the initial work done on electron localization in random magnetic fields, the experimental methods for fabricating magnetic potentials are presented. Drift-diffusion phenomena are then described, which include commensurability oscillations, magnetic channelling, resistance resonance effects and magnetic dots. We then review quantum phenomena in magnetic potentials including magnetic quantum wires, magnetic minibands in superlattices, rectification by snake states, quantum tunnelling and Klein tunnelling. The third part is devoted to spintronics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This covers spin filtering by magnetic field gradients and circular magnetic fields, electrically induced spin resonance, spin resonance fluorescence and coherent spin manipulation. PMID:21393794

Nogaret, Alain

2010-06-30

376

Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations: A VHO Enabled Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the solar wind key parameter search capability of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) affords an opportunity to study magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The power spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions . The time periods of fixed solar wind conditions are obtained from VHO searches that greatly simplify the process. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed

Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Merka, J.; Narock, T.

2010-01-01

377

Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations: A VHO Enabled Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the solar wind key parameter search capability of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) affords an opportunity to study magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the 2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The power spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. The time periods of fixed solar wind conditions are obtained from VHO searches that greatly simplify the process. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed

Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Merka, J.; Narock, T.

2011-01-01

378

Magnetic field structure generation in collisional dusty plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A perpendicular ion drift is proposed as a possible mechanism for the generation of magnetic field structures in a highly collisional dusty plasma. The basic dissipation mechanism is assumed to be the dust-neutral momentum exchange, so that plasmas with a small ionization fraction are natural candidates for experiments. The model reduces to a nonlinear partial differential equation for the vector potential. The conditions for linear instability are presented. Possible stationary states are periodic arrangements for the magnetic field, described by a Lienard equation. The fully depleted (ion-dust) case is also considered in detail. Applications of the present work to magnetic field structures in planetary rings, comets and low-temperature dusty plasma experiments are discussed. A necessary condition for the validity of the model is a sufficiently slow time-scale of the generated magnetic fields in dusty plasmas.

Kant Shukla, Padma; Haas, Fernando

2008-11-01

379

Exploring Vector Fields with Distribution-based Streamline Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Streamline-based techniques are designed based on the idea that properties of streamlines are indicative of features in the underlying field. In this paper, we show that statistical distributions of measurements along the trajectory of a streamline can be used as a robust and effective descriptor to measure the similarity between streamlines. With the distribution-based approach, we present a framework for interactive exploration of 3D vector fields with streamline query and clustering. Streamline queries allow us to rapidly identify streamlines that share similar geometric features to the target streamline. Streamline clustering allows us to group together streamlines of similar shapes. Based on users selection, different clusters with different features at different levels of detail can be visualized to highlight features in 3D flow fields. We demonstrate the utility of our framework with simulation data sets of varying nature and size.

Lu, Kewei; Chaudhuri, Abon; Lee, Teng-Yok; Shen, Han-Wei; Wong, Pak C.

2013-02-26

380

Oxide superconductors under magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of the broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.

Kitazawa, K.

1990-01-01

381

Oxide superconductors under magnetic field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.

Kitazawa, K.

1991-01-01

382

Saturn's planetary magnetic field as observed by Cassini Saturn's planetary magnetic field as observed by Cassini  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 18 months since Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) in July 2004, Cassini has flown within 10 Rs of the planet on numerous occassions. These passes occurred at different distances and local times, and within a +/- 20 degrees range in latitude, allowing a good three-dimensional mapping of the magnetic field in the inner magnetosphere to be carried out. We report on our cumulative analysis of all of the available data and in particular of the vector data from the Fluxgate magnetometer. This analysis provides the first few harmonics of the internal field, and allows disentangling of the planetary magnetic field from that due to external sources. We compare the internal field model with past models based on flyby data. In addition, the current disk, the most important external contribution close to the planet, can be studied and its time evolution monitored. We also look for periodic terms in the magnetic field components, particularly relevant for their role in determining the rotation rate of the planet.

Giampieri, G.; Dougherty, M. K.; Smith, E. J.; Russell, C. T.

2005-12-01

383

Changes in the Electrocardiograms of Rats and Dogs Exposed to DC Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of cardiovascular performance in magnetic fields (MF) is being undertaken. Cardiovascular performance is evaluated as a function of the MF strength. Since the vector characteristics of MF may be a factor influencing cardiovascular function, ...

C. T. Gaffey T. S. Tenforde

1979-01-01

384

Dynamics of Magnetic Bubbles in Acoustic and Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on shelled bubbles that can be manipulated with magnetic fields. The magnetic shell consists of self-assembled magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic susceptibility of the bubbles is proportional to the surface area, chib=(9±3×10-6m)r2 where r is the radius. Magnetic bubbles are compressible in moderate acoustic fields. A bubble with a radius of 121mum oscillates in resonance in a sound field

Xue Zhao; Pedro A. Quinto-Su; Claus-Dieter Ohl

2009-01-01

385

C/NOFS Magnetic Field Measurements in the Low-latitude Ionosphere during Magnetic Storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vector Electric Field Investigation suite on the C/NOFS satellite includes a fluxgate magnetometer to monitor the Earth's magnetic fields in the low-latitude ionosphere. Measurements yield full magnetic vectors every second over the range of ± 45,000 nT with a one-bit resolution of 1.37 nT (16 bit A/D) in each component. The sensor's primary responsibility is to support calculations of both V×B and E×B with greater accuracy than can be obtained using standard magnetic field models. The data also contain information about large-scale current systems, that, when analyzed in conjunction with electric field measurements, promise to significantly expand understanding of equatorial electrodynamics. We first compare in situ measurements with the POMME (POtsdam Magnetic Model of the Earth) model to establish in-flight sensor "calibrations" and to compute magnetic residuals. At low latitudes the residuals are predominately products of the ring current during magnetic storms. Since C/NOFS provides a complete coverage of all local times every 97 minutes, magnetic field data allow studies of the temporal evolution and local-time variations of stormtime ring current. The analysis demonstrates the feasibility of using instrumented spacecraft in low-inclination orbits to extract a timely proxy for the provisional Dst index and to specify the ring current's evolution.

Le, G.; Burke, W. J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Maus, S.; Luhr, H.

2011-12-01

386

MIT Physics 8.02: Vector Field Diagram and Field Line Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet was designed to enhance understanding of electric field lines. By "drawing" lines from simulated charges on a color-coded field, the learner can explore vector field diagrams and form concepts about strength/direction of field lines. Sign and ratio of charge can be changed. This activity is appropriate for introductory and algebra-based physics classes. It is part of a larger collection of NSF-funded physics animations and simulations for use in the interactive classroom.

Belcher, John

2006-11-13

387

Large-scale magnetic fields in Bok globules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The role of magnetic fields in the star formation process is a contentious matter of debate. In particular, no clear observational proof exists of a general influence by magnetic fields during the initial collapse of molecular clouds. Aims: Our aim is to examine magnetic fields and their influence on a wide range of spatial scales in low-mass star-forming regions. Methods: We trace the large-scale magnetic field structure on scales of 103-105 AU in the local environment of Bok globules through optical and near-infrared polarimetry and combine these measurements with existing submillimeter measurements, thereby characterizing the small-scale magnetic field structure on scales of 102-103 AU. Results: For the first time, we present polarimetric observations in the optical and near-infrared of the three Bok globules B335, CB68, and CB54, combined with archival observations in the submillimeter and the optical. We find a significant polarization signal (P ? 2%,P/?P > 3) in the optical and near-infrared for all three globules. Additionally, we detect a connection between the structure on scales of 102-103 AU to 103-104 AU for both B335 and CB68. Furthermore, for CB54, we trace ordered polarization vectors on scales of ~105 AU. We determine a magnetic field orientation that is aligned with the CO outflow in the case of CB54, but nearly perpendicular to the CO outflow for CB68. For B335 we find a change in the magnetic field oriented toward the outflow direction, from the inner core to the outer regions. Conclusions: We find strongly aligned polarization vectors that indicate dominant magnetic fields on a wide range of spatial scales. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 089.C-0846(A) and 090.C-0785(A).

Bertrang, G.; Wolf, S.; Das, H. S.

2014-05-01

388

Vectors from A to B  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about vectors and velocity. It outlines the addition and subtraction of vectors, and introduces the application of trigonometry to describing vectors. The resource is designed to support student analysis of THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) Magnetometer line-plot data. Learners will complete worksheets consisting of problem sets that allow them to work with vector data in magnetic fields. This is activity 15 from Exploring Magnetism: Earth's Magnetic Personality.

389

FIRST SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES IN PHOTOSPHERIC INTENSITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD DATA  

SciTech Connect

The formation and the temporal evolution of a bipolar moving magnetic feature (MMF) was studied with high-spatial and temporal resolution. The photometric properties were observed with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory using a broadband TiO filter (705.7 nm), while the magnetic field was analyzed using the spectropolarimetric data obtained by Hinode. For the first time, we observed a bipolar MMF simultaneously in intensity images and magnetic field data, and studied the details of its structure. The vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity of the MMF were also studied. A bipolar MMF with its positive polarity closer to the negative penumbra formed, accompanied by a bright, filamentary structure in the TiO data connecting the MMF and a dark penumbral filament. A fast downflow ({<=}2 km s{sup -1}) was detected at the positive polarity. The vector magnetic field obtained from the full Stokes inversion revealed that a bipolar MMF has a U-shaped magnetic field configuration. Our observations provide a clear intensity counterpart of the observed MMF in the photosphere, and strong evidence of the connection between the MMF and the penumbral filament as a serpentine field.

Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Philip, E-mail: eklim@bbso.njit.edu [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314-9672 (United States)

2012-07-01

390

First Simultaneous Detection of Moving Magnetic Features in Photospheric Intensity and Magnetic Field Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and the temporal evolution of a bipolar moving magnetic feature (MMF) was studied with high-spatial and temporal resolution. The photometric properties were observed with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory using a broadband TiO filter (705.7 nm), while the magnetic field was analyzed using the spectropolarimetric data obtained by Hinode. For the first time, we observed a bipolar MMF simultaneously in intensity images and magnetic field data, and studied the details of its structure. The vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity of the MMF were also studied. A bipolar MMF with its positive polarity closer to the negative penumbra formed, accompanied by a bright, filamentary structure in the TiO data connecting the MMF and a dark penumbral filament. A fast downflow (<=2 km s-1) was detected at the positive polarity. The vector magnetic field obtained from the full Stokes inversion revealed that a bipolar MMF has a U-shaped magnetic field configuration. Our observations provide a clear intensity counterpart of the observed MMF in the photosphere, and strong evidence of the connection between the MMF and the penumbral filament as a serpentine field.

Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Philip

2012-07-01

391

Explaining Mercury's peculiar magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MESSENGER magnetometer data revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is not only particularly weak but also has a peculiar geometry. The MESSENGER team finds that the location of the magnetic equator always lies significantly north of the geographic equator, is largely independent of the distance to the planet, and also varies only weakly with longitude. The field is best described by an axial dipole that is offset to the north by about 20% of the planetary radius. In terms of classical Gauss coefficients, this translates into a low axial dipole component of g10= -190 nT but a relatively large axial quadrupole contribution that amounts to roughly 40% of this value. The axial octupole is also sizable while higher harmonic contributions are much weaker. Very remarkable is also the fact that the equatorial dipole contribution is very small, consistent with a dipole tilt below 0.8 degree, and this is also true for the other non-axisymmetic field contributions. We analyze several numerical dynamos concerning their capability of explaining Mercury's magnetic field. Classical schemes geared to model the geomagnetic field typically show a much weaker quadrupole component and thus a smaller offset. The onset only becomes larger when the dynamo operates in the multipolar regime at higher Rayleigh numbers. However, since the more complex dynamics generally promotes all higher multipole contributions the location of the magnetic equator varies strongly with longitude and distance to the planet. The situation improves when introducing a stably stratified outer layer in the dynamo region, representing either a rigid FeS layer or a sub-adiabatic core-mantle boundary heat flux. This layer filters out the higher harmonic contributions and the field not only becomes sufficiently weak but also assumes a Mercury like offset geometry during a few percent of the simulation time. To increase the likelihood for the offset configuration, the north-south symmetry must be permanently broken and we explore two scenarios. Increasing the heat flux through the northern hemisphere of the core-mantle boundary is an obvious choice but is not supported by current models for Mercury's mantle. We find that a combination of internal rather than bottom driving and an increased heat flux through the equatorial region of the core-mantle boundary also promotes the required symmetry breaking and results in very Mercury like fields. The reason is that the imposed heat flux pattern, though being equatorially symmetric, lowers the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of equatorially anti-symmetric convection modes. In both scenarios, a stably stratified layer or a feedback coupling to the magnetospheric field is required for lowering the field strength to Mercury-like values.

Wicht, Johannes; Cao, Hao; Heyner, Daniel; Dietrich, Wieland; Christensen, Ulrich R.

2014-05-01

392

vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The word vector comes from the Latin term vehere, to carry. In Biology, a vector is an agent which carries disease, such as a mosquito carrying infected blood from one patient to the next. In physics, a vector is a quantity which has both a magnitude and a direction associated with it. The most commonly used example of vectors in everyday life is velocity. When you drive your car, your speedometer tells you the speed of your car, but it doesn't tell you where you are going. The combination of both where you are going and how fast you are going there is your car's velocity.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

393

Magnetic field induced lattice ground states from holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the holographic field theory dual of a probe SU(2) Yang-Mills field in a background (4 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically Anti-de Sitter space. We find a new ground state when a magnetic component of the gauge field is larger than a critical value. The ground state forms a triangular Abrikosov lattice in the spatial directions perpendicular to the magnetic field. The lattice is composed of superconducting vortices induced by the condensation of a charged vector operator. We perform this calculation both at finite temperature and at zero temperature with a hard wall cutoff dual to a confining gauge theory. The study of this state may be of relevance to both holographic condensed matter models as well as to heavy ion physics. The results shown here provide support for the proposal that such a ground state may be found in the QCD vacuum when a large magnetic field is present.

Bu, Yan-Yan; Erdmenger, Johanna; Shock, Jonathan P.; Strydom, Migael

2013-03-01

394

Magnetic domain structure in thin film under alternate magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic domain structures in a garnet thin film under alternate magnetic fields have been investigated. In alternate magnetic fields, a labyrinth structure approaches a parallel-stripe structure. The competition among the segment clusters, in which stripes have different directions, causes stable dynamical domain structures. With the increase of the amplitude of alternate fields, the segment clusters become small.

M. Mino; H. Yamazaki

2004-01-01

395

Magnetic domain structure in thin film under alternate magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic domain structures in a garnet thin film under alternate magnetic fields have been investigated. In alternate magnetic fields, a labyrinth structure approaches a parallel-stripe structure. The competition among the segment clusters, in which stripes have different directions, causes stable dynamical domain structures. With the increase of the amplitude of alternate fields, the segment clusters become small.

Mino, M.; Yamazaki, H.

396

Magnetic domain structure in thin film under alternate magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic domain structures in a garnet thin film under alternate magnetic fields have been investigated. In alternate magnetic fields, a labyrinth structure approaches a parallel-stripe structure. The competition among the segment clusters, in which stripes have different directions, causes stable dynamical domain structures. With the increase of the amplitude of alternate fields, the segment clusters become small.

Mino, M.; Yamazaki, H.

2004-05-01

397

Spin polarization vectors of field emitted electrons from Fe/W tips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atomic and electronic structures at the apex of W tips were studied by means of field ion microscopy and field emission microscopy, before and after the thermal deposition of a 5 nm Fe film. Two geometries of W tip, a conventional hemi-spherical type and a chisel (flat needle) type, were prepared. The hemispherical and the chisel W tips had a lang110rang direction parallel and perpendicular to the tip axis, respectively. The coated Fe films were found to be most likely in a non-crystalline phase, and to have a lower work function leading to a drastic change in electron emission from the apexes. The spin-polarization vectors of field-emitted electrons from these Fe/W tips were investigated with a Mott detector with a rotatable mechanism of tips. A similar absolute value of the spin-polarization vector \\vert {\\skew4\\vec{P}}_tip\\vert =0.415\\pm0.025 was obtained for each Fe/W, while the direction of the spin-polarization vector was dependent on the shape of the apex. The angle from the tip axis was ?=45° for the hemispherical apex and ?=66° for the chisel apex. A spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy setup with a rotation mechanism of such Fe/W tips made it possible to detect both the in-plane and the out-of-plane spin component of a sample magnetization.

Irisawa, T.; Yamada, T. K.; Mizoguchi, T.

2009-11-01

398

Magnetic field of Jupiter and its interaction with the solar wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jupiter's magnetic field and its interaction with the magnetized solar ; wind were observed with the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. The magnetic ; dipole is directed opposite to that of the Earth with a moment of 4.0 gauss R\\/sub ; j\\/ ³ (R\\/sup , Jupiter radius and an inclination of 15' lying in a system ; III meridian of

E. J. Smith; L. Jr. Davis; D. E. Jones; D. S. Colburn; P. J. Jr. Coleman; P. Dyal; C. P. Sonett

1974-01-01

399

Multiresolution and Explicit Methods for Vector Field Analysis and Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a request for a second renewal (3d year of funding) of a research project on the topic of multiresolution and explicit methods for vector field analysis and visualization. In this report, we describe the progress made on this research project during the second year and give a statement of the planned research for the third year. There are two aspects to this research project. The first is concerned with the development of techniques for computing tangent curves for use in visualizing flow fields. The second aspect of the research project is concerned with the development of multiresolution methods for curvilinear grids and their use as tools for visualization, analysis and archiving of flow data. We report on our work on the development of numerical methods for tangent curve computation first.

Nielson, Gregory M.

1997-01-01

400

View-dependent streamlines for 3D vector fields.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a new streamline placement and selection algorithm for 3D vector fields. Instead of considering the problem as a simple feature search in data space, we base our work on the observation that most streamline fields generate a lot of self-occlusion which prevents proper visualization. In order to avoid this issue, we approach the problem in a view-dependent fashion and dynamically determine a set of streamlines which contributes to data understanding without cluttering the view. Since our technique couples flow characteristic criteria and view-dependent streamline selection we are able achieve the best of both worlds: relevant flow description and intelligible, uncluttered pictures. We detail an efficient GPU implementation of our algorithm, show comprehensive visual results on multiple datasets and compare our method with existing flow depiction techniques. Our results show that our technique greatly improves the readability of streamline visualizations on different datasets without requiring user intervention. PMID:20975200

Marchesin, Stéphane; Chen, Cheng-Kai; Ho, Chris; Ma, Kwan-Liu

2010-01-01

401

Magnetic Microbubbles: Magnetically Targeted and Ultrasound-Triggered Vectors for Gene Delivery in Vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the concept of magnetofection, we prepared lipid shell microbubbles loaded with highly positively charged iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles through electrostatic and matrix affinity interactions. These magnetic microbubbles showed strong ultrasound contrast. When the magnetic microbubbles were mixed with plasmid DNA encoding a reporter gene, gene delivery to HeLa cells was achieved only when ultrasound was applied. Gene transfer efficiency strongly depended on the application of a gradient magnetic field. Treatment of HeLa cells with the microbubbles and ultrasound resulted in strong concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects, whereas ultrasound alone, lipid microbubbles alone, magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic microbubbles alone did not significantly affect cell viability. These magnetic microbubbles could be used as magnetically targeted diagnostic agents for real-time ultrasound imaging or for cancer therapy, therapy of vascular thrombosis and gene therapy.

Vlaskou, Dialechti; Pradhan, Pallab; Bergemann, Christian; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hensel, Karin; Schmitz, Georg; Plank, Christian; Mykhaylyk, Olga

2010-12-01

402

Comparing Magnetic Fields on Earth and Mars  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation compares the magnetic fields on Earth and Mars. The Earth has a large-scale planetary magnetic field that can protect it from space weather and other hazards. Mars, on the other hand...

403

Anisotropic Magnetism in Field-Structured Composites  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic field-structured-composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g. rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chain-like particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheet-like particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCS of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material.

Anderson, Robert A.; Martin, James E.; Odinek, Judy; Venturini, Eugene

1999-06-24

404

Magnetic order of UPt3 in high magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weak magnetic order of the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt3 has been investigated by elastic neutron-scattering measurements in magnetic fields up to 12 T along the a and c axes of the hexagonal crystal structure. The small antiferromagnetically ordered moment of 0.02?B/(U atom) shows only a weak dependence on the applied magnetic field and no sign of a domain repopulation for B?a. In high magnetic fields an increase in the magnetic correlation length is observed for magnetic fields along the c axis.

van Dijk, N. H.; Fåk, B.; Regnault, L. P.; Huxley, A.; Fernández-Díaz, M.-T.

1998-08-01

405

THE ABRUPT CHANGES IN THE PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC AND LORENTZ FORCE VECTORS DURING SIX MAJOR NEUTRAL-LINE FLARES  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the abrupt photospheric magnetic changes associated with six major flares using 12 minute, 0.''5 pixel{sup -1} vector magnetograms from NASA's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite. The six major flares occurred near the main magnetic neutral lines of four active regions, NOAA 11158, 11166, 11283, and 11429. During all six flares the neutral-line field vectors became stronger and more horizontal, in each case almost entirely due to strengthening of the horizontal field components parallel to the neutral line. In all six cases the neutral-line pre-flare fields were more vertical than the reference potential fields, and collapsed abruptly and permanently closer to potential-field tilt angles during every flare, implying that the relaxation of magnetic stress associated with non-potential tilt angles plays a major role during major flares. The shear angle with respect to the reference potential field did not show such a pattern, demonstrating that flare processes do not generally relieve magnetic stresses associated with photospheric magnetic shear. The horizontal fields became significantly and permanently more aligned with the neutral line during the four largest flares, suggesting that the collapsing field is on average more aligned with the neutral line than the pre-flare neutral-line field. The vertical Lorentz force had a large, abrupt, permanent downward change during each of the flares, consistent with loop collapse. The horizontal Lorentz force changes acted mostly parallel to the neutral line in opposite directions on each side, a signature of the fields contracting during the flare, pulling the two sides of the neutral line toward each other. The greater effect of the flares on field tilt than on shear may be explained by photospheric line-tying.

Petrie, G. J. D. [National Solar Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2012-11-01

406

Magnetic field experiment on the Freja Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freja is a Swedish scientific satellite mission to study fine scale auroral processes. Launch was October 6, 1992, piggyback on a Chinese Long March 2C, to the present 600×1750 km, 63° inclination orbit. The JHU/APL provided the Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE), which includes a custom APL-designed Forth, language microprocessor. This approach has led to a truly generic and flexible design with adaptability to differing mission requirements and has resulted in the transfer of significant ground analysis to on-board processing. Special attention has been paid to the analog electronic and digital processing design in an effort to lower system noise levels, verified by inflight data showing unprecedented system noise levels for near-Earth magnetic field measurements, approaching the fluxgate sensor levels. The full dynamic range measurements are of the 3-axis Earth's magnetic field taken at 128 vector samples s-1 and digitized to 16 bit, resolution, primarily used to evaluate currents and the main magnetic field of the Earth. Additional 3-axis ‘AC’ channels are bandpass filtered from 1.5 to 128 Hz to remove the main field spin signal, the range is±650 nT. These vector measurements cover Pc waves to ion gyrofrequency magnetic wave signals up to the oxygen gyrofrequency (˜40 Hz). A separate, seventh channel samples the spin axis sensor with a bandpass filter of 1.5 to 256 Hz, the signal of which is fed to a software FFT. This on-board FFT processing covers the local helium gyrofrequencies (˜160 Hz) and is plotted in the Freja Summary Plots (FSPs) along with disturbance fields. First data were received in the U.S. October 16 from Kiruna, Sweden via the Internet and SPAN e-mail networks, and were from an orbit a few hours earlier over Greenland and Sweden. Data files and data products, e.g., FSPs generated at the Kiruna ground station, are communicated in a similar manner through an automatic mail distribution system in Stockholm to PIs and various users. Distributed management of spacecraft operations by the science team is also achieved by this advanced communications system. An exciting new discovery of the field-aligned current systems is the high frequency wave power or structure associated with the various large-scale currents. The spin axis ‘AC’ data and its standard deviation is a measure of this high-frequency component of the Birkeland current regions. The exact response of these channels and filters as well as the physics behind these wave and/or fine-scale current structures accompanying the large-scale currents is being pursued; nevertheless, the association is clear and the results are used for the MFE Birkeland current monitor calculated in the MFE microprocessor. This monitor then sets a trigger when it is greater than a commandable, preset threshold. This ‘event’ flag can be read by the system unit and used to remotely command all instruments into burst mode data taking and local memory storage. In addition,Freja is equipped with a 400 MHz ‘Low Speed Link’ transmitter which transmits spacecraft hcusekeeping that can be received with a low cost, portable receiver. These housekeeping data include the MFE auroral zone current detector; this space weather information indicates the location and strength of ionospheric current systems that directly impact communications, power systems, long distance telephone lines and near-Earth satellite operations. The JHU/APL MFE is a joint effort with NASA/GSFC and was co-sponsored by the Office of Naval Research and NASA/Headquarters in cooperation with the Swedish National Space Board and the Swedish Space Corporation.

Freja Magnetic Field Experiment Team

1994-11-01

407

Upper limit on the intrinsic magnetic field of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data set of 18,000 low-altitude nightside vector measurements from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) magnetometer is used to establish a new upper limit on the intrinsic dipolar magnetic moment of Venus. Various techniques are used to search for coherence in the magnetic observations which might be attributable to such an intrinsic field, with negative results. A similar search is conducted for surface magnetism, that is, geographically correlated magnetic features, also with negative results. The present study represents the best limits that PVO observations can provide and is limited by the amount of low-altitude nightside data available. New upper limit to the magnetic moment is 8.4 x 10 to the 10th T/cu m or about 10 to the -5th of the terrestrial magnetic moment. This is a factor of four lower than the previous upper limit.

Philliips, J. L.; Russell, C. T.

1987-03-01

408

Magnetic field configuration associated with solar gamma ray flares in June, 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vector magnetic field configuration of the solar active region AR 6659 that produced very high levels of flare activity in Jun. 1991 is described. The morphology and evolution of the photospheric fields are described for the period 7-10 Jun., and the flares taking place around these dates and their locations relative to the photospheric fields are indicated. By comparing the observed vector field with the potential field calculated from the observed line-of-sight flux, we identify the nonpotential characteristics of the fields along the magnetic neutral lines where the flares were observed. These results are compared with those from the earlier study of gamma-ray flares.

Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Smith, J. E.; Trussart, F.-M.; Kenney, E. G.

1992-01-01

409

Crustal Magnetic Fields of Terrestrial Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field measurements are very valuable, as they provide constraints on the interior of the telluric planets and Moon.\\u000a The Earth possesses a planetary scale magnetic field, generated in the conductive and convective outer core. This global magnetic\\u000a field is superimposed on the magnetic field generated by the rocks of the crust, of induced (i.e. aligned on the current main

Benoit Langlais; Vincent Lesur; Michael E. Purucker; Jack E. P. Connerney; Mioara Mandea

2010-01-01

410

Magnetic holes in the solar wind. [(interplanetary magnetic fields)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented of high resolution interplanetary magnetic field measurements from the magnetometer on Explorer 43 which showed that low magnetic field intensities in the solar wind at 1 AU occur as distinct depressions or 'holes'. These magnetic holes are new kinetic-scale phenomena, having a characteristic dimension on the order of 20,000 km. They occurred at a rate of 1.5/day in the 18-day time span (March 18 to April 6, 1971) that was analyzed. Most of the magnetic holes are characterized by both a depression in the absolute value of the magnetic field, and a change in the magnetic field direction; some of these are possibly the result of magnetic merging. However, in other cases the magnetic field direction does not change; such holes are not due to magnetic merging, but might be a diamagnetic effect due to localized plasma inhomogeneities.

Turner, J. M.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Lemaire, J. F.

1976-01-01

411

Magnetic fields in the absence of spiral density waves - NGC 4414  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present three-frequency VLA observations of the flocculent spiral galaxy NGC 4414 made in order to study the magnetic field structure in absence of strong density wave flows. NGC 4414 shows a regular spiral pattern of observed polarization vec B-vectors with a radial component comparable in strength to the azimuthal one. The average pitch angle of the magnetic field is

M. Soida; R. Beck; M. Urbanik; J. Braine

2002-01-01

412

Measuring the magnetic fields of jupiter and the outer solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vector helium magnetometer, one of the Pioneer-Jupiter experiments, has measured the magnetic field of Jupiter and the interplanetary magnetic field in the outer solar system. The comprehensive scientific objectives of the investigations are explained and are then translated into the major instrument requirements. The principles of operation of the magnetometer, which involve the optical pumping of metastable helium, are

E. Smith; B. Connor

1975-01-01

413

Non--LTE line formation in the presence of magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium in the presence of a magnetic field are presented. A general difference equation scheme for solving the vector transfer equation in Stokes parameters, allowing for arbitrary variations of the magnetic field and other quantities, is described. The solution of the Stokes non--LTE problem for Ca II by the complete linearization method is

L. H. Auer; J. N. Heasley; L. L. House

1977-01-01

414

Power spectra of solar magnetic fields as seen by SOHO, ACE, and Ulysses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large fraction of the dynamics of the interplanetary magnetic field appear to originate in the normal modes of the Sun, in many cases from modes that are poorly observed with optical instruments. Here we use data from three major sources: spherical harmonic expansions of magnetograms taken by the MDI instrument on SOHO; vector magnetic field data from ACE (sometimes

David J. Thomson

2008-01-01

415

Reconstruction of 3D Coronal Magnetic Structures from THEMIS/MTR and Hinode/SOT Vector Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordinated campaigns using THEMIS, Hinode, and other instruments have allowed us to study the magnetic fields of faculae, filaments, and active regions. In a first case, we modelled the 3D magnetic field in a flaring active region with a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation, using magnetic vectors observed by THEMIS/MTR as boundary condition. In order to construct a consistent bottom boundary for the model, we first removed the 180 degree ambiguity of the transverse fields and minimized the force and torque in the observed vector fields. We found a twisted magnetic flux rope, well aligned with the polarity inversion line and a part of an H? filament, and located where a large flare is initiated about two hours later. In a second case, Hinode/SOT allowed us to detect fine flux concentrations in faculae, while MTR provided us with magnetic information at different levels in the atmosphere. The polarimetry analysis of the MTR and SOT data gave consistent results, using both UNNOFIT and MELANIE inversion codes.

Schmieder, B.; Guo, Y.; Aulanier, G.; Démoulin, P.; Török, T.; Bommier, V.; Wiegelmann, T.; Gosain, S.

2012-08-01

416

Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA’s Living Planet Programme. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth’s interior and near-Earth electro-magnetic environment. After release