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1

Vector Magnetic Field in Emerging Flux Regions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial phase in magnetic flux emergence is the rise of magnetic flux tubes through the solar photosphere, which represents a severe transition between the very different environments of the solar interior and corona. Multi-wavelength observations with Flare Genesis, TRACE, SoHO, and more recently with the vector magnetographs at THEMIS and Hida (DST) led to the following conclusions. The fragmented magnetic field in the emergence region - with dipped field lines or bald patches - is directly related with Ellerman bombs, arch filament systems, and overlying coronal loops. Measurements of vector magnetic fields have given evidence that undulating "serpentine" fields are present while magnetic flux tubes cross the photosphere. See the sketch below, and for more detail see Pariat et al. (2004, 2007); Watanabe et al. (2008):

Schmieder, B.; Pariat, E.

2

Determing Flow Fields Consistent with Vector Magnetic Evolution

Sequences of photospheric vector magnetograms can be used to drive time-dependent models of magnetic evolution in the overlying atmosphere, as well as to investigate dynamics in the atmospheric layer imaged in the magnetograms. While several methods of estimating electric fields consistent with the observed evolution of the magnetic field normal to the magnetogram surface have been developed, these do not

Brian Welsch; G. H. Fisher; W. P. Abbett; D. J. Bercik

2010-01-01

3

Measurement of solar vector magnetic fields using Kodaikanal tower telescope

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Stokes polarimeter was built at the Kodaikanal Tower Telescope to study the vector field map of active regions like sunspot using the well known Fe I lines 6301.5 Å and 6302.5 Å lines. The Mueller matrix of the polarimeter was obtained using simple laboratory and field tests. The instrumental polarisation due to the oblique reflections are removed before the observed Stokes profiles were analysed. The advanced Stokes Polarimeter data analysis program (ASP code) was used to invert the corrected Stokes profiles to calculate the vector magnetic field parameters of NOAA 8951. The maximum field strength obtained at the umbra of the sunspot was 2500 Gauss. The variation of the field strength, the line-of-sight angle and the azimuthal angle along a cut which passes through the umbra resembles that of a simple round sunspot. The accuracy in the calculation of the vector field is high in the umbra and low in the outer edge of the penumbra of the observed sunspot. The range of errors in the calculation of the field strength, line-of-sight inclination angle, and the azimuthal angle of the magnetic vector are 20-100 Gauss, 1-5O, and 12-20O respectively. We also find a good fit for the observed Stokes profiles of the Ti I line at 6303.78 Å with a synthetic profile produced using the vector field parameters derived from the Fe I 6301.5 Å and 6302.5 Å lines.

Sankarasubramanian, R.; Rangarajan, K. E.; Ramesh, K. B.

2002-06-01

4

Vector optical fields with polarization distributions similar to electric and magnetic field lines.

We present, design and generate a new kind of vector optical fields with linear polarization distributions modeling to electric and magnetic field lines. The geometric configurations of "electric charges" and "magnetic charges" can engineer the spatial structure and symmetry of polarizations of vector optical field, providing additional degrees of freedom assisting in controlling the field symmetry at the focus and allowing engineering of the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications. PMID:23842405

Pan, Yue; Li, Si-Min; Mao, Lei; Kong, Ling-Jun; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Pei; Wang, Hui-Tian

2013-07-01

5

Analysis of the vector magnetic fields of complex sunspots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the vector magnetic field in the delta-configurations of two complex sunspot groups is presented, noting several characteristics identified in the delta-configurations. The observations of regions 2469 (S12E80) and 2470 (S21E83) took place in May, 1980 with a vector magnetograph, verified by optical viewing. Longitudinal magnetic field plots located the delta-configurations in relation to the transverse field neutral line. It is shown that data on the polarization yields qualitative information on the magnetic field strengths, while the azimuth of the transverse field can be obtained from the relative intensities of linear polarization measurements aligned with respect to the magnetograph analyses axis at 0 and 90 deg, and at the plus and minus 45 deg positions. Details of the longitudinal fields are discussed. A strong, sheared transverse field component is found to be a signature of strong delta. A weak delta is accompanied by a weak longitudinal gradient with an unsheared transverse component of variable strength.

Patty, S. R.

6

VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELDS OF A SOLAR POLAR REGION

We study the vector magnetic fields of a solar polar region (PR) based on Solar Optical Telescope/Spectro-Polarimeter measurements. To better understand the polar magnetic properties, we compare the observed polar field with that in two solar quiet regions at the limb (QRL) and the disk center (QRD), and with that in a region of a low-latitude coronal hole (CHR). The following results are discussed: (1) The average vertical flux density of PR is 16 G, while the average horizontal flux density is 91 G. If we assume that the observed polar field suffers the same amount of limb weakening in polarization measurements as the Sun's quiet region, the average unsigned flux density in the pole would be 54 G, 60% stronger than that in the CHR. (2) The kG field in the PR occupies 6.7% of the region. The magnetic filling factor in the PR is characterized by a two-peak distribution, which appears at a field strength close to 100 G and 1000 G, respectively. (3) For the network elements, a correlation holds between the vertical and horizontal flux densities, suggesting the same physical entity is manifested by the observed stronger vertical and horizontal components. (4) The ratio of the magnetic flux in the minority polarity to that in the dominant polarity is approximately 0.5, implying that only 1/3 of the magnetic flux in the PR opens to the interplanetary space. Exemplified with CHR by a quasi-linear force-free extrapolation of the observed magnetic field, we find that the photospheric open flux is not always associated with strong vertical magnetic elements.

Jin Chunlan; Wang Jingxiu, E-mail: cljin@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: wangjx@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2011-05-01

7

Magnetic Field Structures in a Facular Region Derived from THEMIS and Hinode Vector Magnetic Field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to compare vector magnetic fields obtained by two spectral polarimeters (THEMIS/MTR and Hinode SOT/SP) and two inversion codes (UNNOFIT and MELANIE), we observed a facular region in the active region NOAA 10996 on 2008 May 23. We found that they give consistent results concerning the distributions of field strengths, azimuth and inclination angles. SOT/SP could resolve small magnetic polarities with sizes of 1'' to 2'', and detect convergence and divergence of the horizontal components of magnetic fields in the facular cells. These findings support the models suggesting the existence of flux tube bundles in faculae. With this model and multi spectral line observations, we could infer the relative formation heights of those spectral lines.

Guo, Y.; Schmieder, B.; Bommier, V.; Mein, P.

2012-05-01

8

Electric-field manipulation of magnetization vector direction

Ferromagnetism and magnetization in Mn-doped III-V semiconductors can be manipulated by various means; by changing its carrier concentration by electric fields [1] or by spin- current flowing along with the electric current [2]. This material system is thus an excellent system to study the physics involved in manipulation of magnetism as well as exploring new ways to control magnetization. Here,

Hideo Ohno

2009-01-01

9

Determining EHV transmission line magnetic fields by applying the vector magnetic potential concept

These days renewed attention is being given to the biological effects of non-ionizing radiations from the power frequency electromagnetic fields of extra-high-voltage (EHV) transmission lines. Prior to fixing limits about the safe levels of human exposure to such radiation, it is essential to determine its field magnitudes. In this paper the concept of vector magnetic potential has been extended for

S. Shahnawaz Ahmed; Rezaul Haque; A. K. M. Rashidul Hasan; Aminul Haque Siddiqui

1995-01-01

10

Non-force-free extrapolation of solar coronal magnetic field using vector magnetograms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our recent improvement in non-force-free extrapolation of coronal magnetic field, using vector magnetograms. Based on the principle of minimum (energy) dissipation rate (MDR), a generally non-force-free magnetic field solution is expressed as the superposition of one potential field and two (constant-[alpha]) linear force-free fields, with distinct [alpha] parameters. With a known potential field, the system is reduced to a second-order one that can be solved using one single-layer vector magnetogram. We devise an iteration procedure to determine the potential field, by achieving satisfactory agreement between the MDR-model computed and measured transverse magnetic field vectors on the bottom boundary. We illustrate this approach by applying it to real magnetograph measurement of solar active region AR 10953. We show that the results are satisfactory as judged from the quantitative magnetic field measurement, and the behavior of the derived Lorentz force.

Hu, Qiang; Dasgupta, B.; Derosa, M. L.; Büchner, J.; Gary, G. A.

2010-02-01

11

We study the dependence of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance amplitudes on the external magnetic field direction in a linearly polarized bichromatic light (lin||lin) configuration in {sup 87}Rb vapor. We demonstrate that all seven resolvable EIT resonances exhibit maxima or minima at certain orientations of the laser polarization relative to the wave vector and magnetic field. This effect can be used for the development of a high-precision EIT vector magnetometer.

Cox, Kevin; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 (United States); Yudin, Valery I.; Taichenachev, Alexey V. [Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk RU-630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk RU-630092 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk RU-630090 (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15

12

Vector Tomography for the Coronal Magnetic Field. II. Hanle Effect Measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of saturated coronal Hanle effect vector tomography or the application of vector tomographic inversion techniques to reconstruct the three-dimensional magnetic field configuration of the solar corona using linear polarization measurements of coronal emission lines. We applied Hanle effect vector tomographic inversion to artificial data produced from analytical coronal magnetic field models with equatorial and meridional currents and global coronal magnetic field models constructed by extrapolation of real photospheric magnetic field measurements. We tested tomographic inversion with only Stokes Q, U, electron density, and temperature inputs to simulate observations over large limb distances where the Stokes I parameters are difficult to obtain with ground-based coronagraphs. We synthesized the coronal linear polarization maps by inputting realistic noise appropriate for ground-based observations over a period of two weeks into the inversion algorithm. We found that our Hanle effect vector tomographic inversion can partially recover the coronal field with a poloidal field configuration, but that it is insensitive to a corona with a toroidal field. This result demonstrates that Hanle effect vector tomography is an effective tool for studying the solar corona and that it is complementary to Zeeman effect vector tomography for the reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field.

Kramar, M.; Inhester, B.; Lin, H.; Davila, J.

2013-09-01

13

Non-force-free Extrapolation of Coronal Magnetic Field with Applications to Vector Magnetograms

Motivated by increasingly more advanced solar observations, we recently develop a method of non-force-free extrapolation of the solar coronal magnetic field from vector magnetograms, especially those for a finite active region. Based on a more complex variational principle, the principle of minimum (energy) dissipation rate (MDR), we adopt and solve a more complex equation governing the coronal magnetic field that

Q. Hu; A. Wang; B. Dasgupta; G. A. Gary; S. Wu

2009-01-01

14

Making global map of the solar surface Br from the HMI vector magnetic field observations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) has made full-disk vector magnetic field measurements of the Sun with cadence of 12 minutes. The three-component solar surface magnetic field vector data are from the HMI observations with the data process pipeline modules, VFISV (Very Fast Inversion of the Stokes Vector, Borrero et al., 2011) for Milne-Eddington inversion and the minimum-energy disambiguation algorithm (Metcalf 1994, Leka et al, 2009). The models of the global corona and solar wind, such as the PFSS (potential-field source-surface) model and the MHD simulations, often use the maps of solar surface magnetic field, especially the radial component (Br) as the boundary condition. The HMI observation can provide new Br data for these model. Because of weak magnetic signals at the quiet regions of the Sun, the limb darkening, and geometric effects near solar poles, we need to apply an assumption to make a whole-surface map. In this paper, we tested two assumptions for determining Br at weak-field regions. The coronal structures calculated by the PFSS model with the vector-based Br are compared with those with the magnetogram-based Br and the corona observed by the SDO/AIA (Atmospheric Imaging Assembly). In the tested period, CR 2098, the vector-based Br map gives better agreements than the line-of-sight magnetogram data, though we need further investigation for evaluation.

Hayashi, K.; Liu, Y.; Sun, X.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Centeno, R.; Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.

2013-06-01

15

Spatial distribution of cardiac magnetic vector fields acquired from 3120 SQUID positions.

An extended measurement of the magnetic vector field of the human heart is presented. It is acquired by sequential recordings, shifting a 16 SQUID vector magnetometer across 195 positions over a healthy subject's thorax. The magnetocardiographic (MCG) signals were synchronized using a simultaneously measured ECG channel. The registration of the field extends over a volume of 1000 mm x 600 mm x 420 mm sampled at 3120 SQUID positions. We present diagrams of the vector amplitude of selected points in 6 planes at increasing distances from the frontal thorax. Each plane contains 76 vector points. Additionally, we measured the vector field at 126 points lateral to the chest. At the edge points of the measurement volume, the absolute value of the magnetic vector signal amplitude exceeds 0.3 pT in all measurement points. The dataset provides an excellent base to study dedicated MCG detection or rejection methods. Examples where rejection of the heart signal is necessary are magnetoencephalography, magnetoneurography and fetal MCG. The knowledge of the spatio-temporal distribution of the magnetic vector field of the heart supports the development and comparison of multi-SQUID systems and will be used to create new MCG interpretation and representation algorithms. PMID:16012615

Steinhoff, U; Schnabel, A; Burghoff, M; Freibier, T; Thiel, F; Koch, H; Trahms, L

2004-11-30

16

We present observations with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter of 11 light bridges in sunspots of various ages and sizes, all very close to disk center. Full vector spectropolarimetry and a nonlinear least-squares inversion algorithm allows us to determine not only the vector magnetic field in the bridges and host sunspots but also thermodynamic parameters such as continuum brightness, Doppler shifts,

K. D. Leka

1997-01-01

17

A quantitative comparison of vector magnetic field measurement and analysis techniques

We make a quantitative comparison between spectral vs filter measurement and analysis techniques for extraction of solar vector magnetic fields from polarimetric data using as a basis the accurately calibrated, high angular resolution. Stokes profile data from the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter. It is shown that filter-based measurements deliver qualitative images of the field alignment for sunspots that are visually similar

B. W. Lites; V. Martinez Pillet; A. Skumanich

1994-01-01

18

A quantitative comparison of vector magnetic field measurement and analysis techniques

We make a quantitative comparison between spectral vs filter measurement and analysis techniques for extraction of solar vector magnetic fields from polarimetric data using as a basis the accurately calibrated, high angular resolution Stokes profile data from the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter. It is shown that filter-based measurements deliver qualitative images of the field alignment for sunspots that are visually similar

B. W. Lites; V. Martínez Pillet; A. Skumanich

1994-01-01

19

Changing photospheric vector magnetic fields associated with a B4.2-class solar flare

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations have provided evidence that the solar photospheric magnetic fields could have rapid and permanent changes in both longitudinal and transverse components associated with large (X- or M-class) solar flares. However, few observations have been reported about small flares. In this paper we find the observational evidence of changing photospheric vector magnetic fields associated with a B4.2-class flare obtained with the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope (SMFT) installed at Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS) of Nation Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Yu; Shen, Yuandeng

2013-07-01

20

Migration transformation of two-dimensional magnetic vector and tensor fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new method of rapid interpretation of magnetic vector and tensor field data, based on ideas of potential field migration which extends the general principles of seismic and electromagnetic migration to potential fields. 2-D potential field migration represents a direct integral transformation of the observed magnetic fields into a subsurface susceptibility distribution, which can be used for interpretation or as an a priori model for subsequent regularized inversion. Potential field migration is very stable with respect to noise in the observed data because the transform is reduced to the downward continuation of a well-behaved analytical function. We present case studies for imaging of SQUID-based magnetic tensor data acquired over a magnetite skarn at Tallawang, Australia. The results obtained from magnetic tensor field migration agree very well with both Euler deconvolution and the known geology.

Zhdanov, Michael S.; Cai, Hongzhu; Wilson, Glenn A.

2012-06-01

21

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent investigations of the magnetic field vector properties in the solar internetwork have provided diverging results. While some works found that the internetwork is mostly pervaded by horizontal magnetic fields, other works argued in favor of an isotropic distribution of the magnetic field vector. Motivated by these seemingly contradictory results and by the fact that most of these works have employed spectropolarimetric data at disk center only, we have revisited this problem employing high-quality data (noise level ? ? 3 × 10-4 in units of the quiet-Sun intensity) at different latitudes recorded with the Hinode/SP instrument. Instead of applying traditional inversion codes of the radiative transfer equation to retrieve the magnetic field vector at each spatial point on the solar surface and studying the resulting distribution of the magnetic field vector, we surmised a theoretical distribution function of the magnetic field vector and used it to obtain the theoretical histograms of the Stokes profiles. These histograms were then compared to the observed ones. Any mismatch between them was ascribed to the theoretical distribution of the magnetic field vector, which was subsequently modified to produce a better fit to the observed histograms. With this method we find that Stokes profiles with signals above 2 × 10-3 (in units of the continuum intensity) cannot be explained by an isotropic distribution of the magnetic field vector. We also find that the differences between the histograms of the Stokes profiles observed at different latitudes cannot be explained in terms of line-of-sight effects. However, they can be explained by a distribution of the magnetic field vector that inherently varies with latitude. We note that these results are based on a series of assumptions that, although briefly discussed in this paper, need to be considered in more detail in the future.

Borrero, J. M.; Kobel, P.

2013-02-01

22

Non-force-free Extrapolation of Coronal Magnetic Field with Applications to Vector Magnetograms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by increasingly more advanced solar observations, we recently develop a method of non-force-free extrapolation of the solar coronal magnetic field from vector magnetograms, especially those for a finite active region. Based on a more complex variational principle, the principle of minimum (energy) dissipation rate (MDR), we adopt and solve a more complex equation governing the coronal magnetic field that is non-force-free in general. We describe the theoretical basis in the context of general solar atmosphere conditions, and derive the extrapolation approach utilizing vector magnetograms as bottom boundary conditions. We illustrate the approach using both MHD numerical simulation results, and real vector magnetograph measurements of solar active regions. We wish to establish the validity of our approach, especially by detailed inter-comparison with self-consistent, full MHD simulation results, and investigations of the dynamics associated with non-vanishing forces.

Hu, Q.; Wang, A.; Dasgupta, B.; Gary, G. A.; Wu, S.

2009-12-01

23

The Evolution of Vector Magnetic Fields in an Emerging Flux Region

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collaborative observations of NOAA Active Region 9231 were carried out during 9 days in 2000 November using the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter (ASP), Yohkoh/SXT, TRACE, and SOHO/MDI, in order to record the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field and its related coronal response. During this period an emerging flux region (EFR) appeared in the photosphere near the well-developed leading sunspot of this region, and subsequently bright bundles of coronal loops formed between the main concentrations of opposite magnetic polarity. The structure of the photospheric field comprising the EFR is classified into three regions: (1) the main bipolar magnetic flux of the EFR; (2) two small, rapidly emerging bipoles within the EFR; and (3) the remainder of the EFR excluding the other two regions. Two small, rapidly emerging bipoles are observed within a few hours of their first appearance at the photosphere. Examination of the vector magnetic field, its filling factor, and Doppler motion within the EFR shows that the young emerging magnetic field is nearly horizontal, the intrinsic field strength is weaker than that of the surrounding magnetic field (~500 G), and the weak field has a high filling factor (>80%) and upward motion (<1 km s-1). At both ends of the horizontal field structure we find that the magnetic field strength increases to about 1500 G and the filling factor drops to about 40% as the magnetic field becomes vertical in orientation during its first 12 hr. This field strength is typical of the field within the main bipolar magnetic flux, but the filling factor increases to 80% during the following 2 days. The process for organizing magnetic field configuration including convective collapse and flux concentration provides one possible explanation of the evolution of the field strength and the filling factor in the EFR. In addition, aymmetric surface distributions of magnetic field inclination were observed in the horizontal magnetic field area in the EFR. These asymmetric distributions were also observed in the small, young, emerging bipoles. This may mean that the magnetic field of the EFR is affected by the preexisting magnetic environment surrounding the EFR and that the emerging magnetic loops are deformed before or at the time they reach the photospheric level.

Kubo, M.; Shimizu, T.; Lites, B. W.

2003-09-01

24

Vector magnetic fields of emerging solar flux. I. Properties at the site of emergence

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several small emerging bipolar regions have been observed with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter (ASP), including extensive time series measurements of one small region. Both new and previously recognized properties of the actual site of first emergence, where the magnetic field is nearly horizontal to the surface, are revealed by these observations. They provide the most complete and accurate observational description to date of newly emerging vector magnetic fields. We find that: 1) the strength of the magnetic field at the site of the emergence (where the vector field is nearly parallel to the solar surface) ranges from about 200 to 600 G, 2) as individual flux elements migrate rapidly away from the emergence zone, they attain kiloGauss strengths only after becoming oriented nearly vertically, 3) the emergence zone is dotted by small, transient, upward rising ( ~ 1 km s(-1) ) horizontal magnetic elements as indicated by the Doppler shift of the polarized spectral profiles, 4) the leading polarity flux coalesces immediately into a compact region which forms a pore, but the emerging following polarity flux is spatially much less compact, 5) some ``moving magnetic features'' having the same magnetic polarity as the growing pore, but on the opposite side of the pore from the emergence zone, coalesce with the pore during the observation period, and 6) the observations suggest a low canopy of weak horizontal magnetic fields arches over the emergence zone. These observations support a widely accepted picture of emerging bipolar flux: the buoyantly rising flux transports mass from the photosphere into the chromosphere, where it then may drain downward along arched magnetic loops. The observed formation of a pore suggests that emergence of subsurface structure, not organized flows near the surface, is largely responsible for the apparent coalescence of sunspots from more diffuse fields viewed at the solar surface. These observations neither confirm nor refute the operation of convective collapse of flux tubes.

Lites, B. W.; Skumanich, A.; Martinez Pillet, V.

1998-05-01

25

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically pumped alkali-metal atomic magnetometers are expected to be used not only for biomagnetic field measurements but also for magnetic resonance imaging because of their potential ultrahigh sensitivity. Here, we studied magnetic field mapping and biaxial vector operation using atomic magnetometers. A potassium atomic magnetometer was used in these measurements. First, we obtained sensor output signals by solving the Bloch equation. Next, we measured magnetic field distributions generated by a current dipole electrode that was placed in a spherical phantom, which simulated a group of simultaneously activated neurons in the human brain. We obtained vector contour maps of the magnetic field distributions from the dipoles oriented parallel and orthogonal to the pump laser beam and have found good agreement with theoretical magnetic field distributions. These results demonstrate practical applications of magnetic field mapping and biaxial vector operation using optically pumped atomic magnetometers.

Taue, Shuji; Sugihara, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Kamada, Keigo

2011-11-01

26

A new vector potential BEM for magnetic fields bounded by perfect conductors

Efficiency of magnetic vector potential boundary integral equation method for perfect conductor boundary problems is substantially increased by imposing the condition of zero normal component of the vector potential and by expressing both the tangential components of the vector potential and of the magnetic flux density as linear combinations of gradients of nodal shape functions. The integral equation is projected

Ioan R. Ciric; Florea I. Hantila; Mihai Maricaru

2010-01-01

27

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates a wide range of 3D vector fields, including spherical, radial, and linear. The fields can be displayed as vectors, particle trajectories, equipotentials, and other options. The number of particles, vectors, or streamlines, and the field strength are adjustable. Directions and source code are also included. This is an extension of a 3D Electric and Magnetic Field viewer from the same author.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-13

28

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter of 11 light bridges in sunspots of various ages and sizes, all very close to disk center. Full vector spectropolarimetry and a nonlinear least-squares inversion algorithm allows us to determine not only the vector magnetic field in the bridges and host sunspots but also thermodynamic parameters such as continuum brightness, Doppler shifts, Doppler widths, opacity ratio, and the source function parameters. We can also separate the magnetic and nonmagnetic components of the spectral signal within each resolution element. We find that there is a disruption of the magnetic fields in light bridges, relative both to neighboring umbrae and to normal, undisturbed penumbrae. This change takes the form of lower intrinsic field strength and sparser, more horizontal fields in the bridges relative to umbrae. The magnetic fields in the bridges remain more vertically oriented, however, than those in undisturbed penumbra. There are systematic upflows observed in the bridge plasma relative to the neighboring umbrae, and the evidence points toward a component that is heated and departs from radiative equilibrium. In four cases, we follow a light bridge over several days and find that as the bridges age, they grow wider and brighter, the fields weaken and become sparser, and the heating increases. We also find some evidence that the magnetic field begins to reorganize itself to accommodate the (now) two azimuth centers before there are strong signals of a light bridge in the thermodynamic parameters. This paper presents the first systematic look at sunspot light bridges with full vector polarimetry and thermodynamic determination. The results show that there is an intrusion of field-free, possibly convective material into an otherwise stable, magnetic sunspot. The departure from stability is seen in the magnetic field orientation prior to its appearance in continuum intensity, and the effects of this disruption are evident beyond the immediate umbral intrusion. The results do not unambiguously determine the physical mechanism that makes sunspots disappear. However, it strongly points toward a ropelike magnetic structure through which convection may penetrate when the magnetic fibrils separate or around which field-free plasma may flow. The appearance of field-free heated material is likely an effect, not the cause, of the sunspot light bridges.

Leka, K. D.

1997-07-01

29

The Vector Magnetic Field, Evershed Flow, and Intensity in a Sunspot

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of simultaneous observations of the vector magnetic field, Evershed flow, and intensity pattern in a nearly axisymmetric sunspot, made with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter at the Vacuum Tower Telescope at NSO (Sacramento Peak). The vector magnetic field is determined from the Stokes profiles of the magnetically sensitive lines Fe I 630.15 and 630.25 nm, and Doppler velocities and intensities are measured in several lines including the weak C I 538.03 nm line, formed in the deepest layers of the atmosphere. The strength of the magnetic field decreases with increasing zenith angle (angle of inclination to the local vertical), and this decrease is nearly linear over most of the range of values in the sunspot. Magnetic field strength and continuum intensity are inversely related in the sunspot in a manner similar to the characteristic nonlinear relationship found by Kopp & Rabin in the infrared line Fe I 1564.9 nm. A different relationship is found between magnetic field strength and core intensity (in Fe I 630.25 nm), however, with the curve doubling back to give two distinct values of field strength at the same core intensity in the penumbra---the higher and lower field strengths corresponding to the inner and outer penumbra, respectively. In the penumbra the magnetic field pattern consists of spokelike extensions of stronger, more vertical magnetic field separated by regions of weaker, nearly horizontal magnetic field, as found by Degenhardt & Wiehr and Lites et al. The penumbral magnetic field extends outward beyond the outer continuum boundary of the sunspot, forming a canopy at the height of formation of Fe I 630.25 nm. Our results for the Evershed flow confirm the discovery by Rimmele that this flow is generally confined to narrow, elevated channels in the penumbra. In the Fe I 630.25 nm line and other strong photospheric lines we see isolated, radially elongated channels of Evershed flow crossing the outer penumbra. These flow channels lie in regions of the penumbra where the magnetic field is very nearly horizontal. In the weak C I 538.03 nm line (formed at a height h = 40 km) the flow pattern shows small, isolated patches of upflow, lying at the inner end of the Fe I flow channels where the magnetic field is more inclined to the horizontal. These patches presumably correspond to the upstream footpoints of the arched magnetic flux tubes carrying the Evershed flow. For some of the flow channels we find isolated patches of strong downflow in the C I line just outside the penumbra that might correspond to the downstream footpoints of these flux tubes. There is a weak association between the Evershed flow channels and the dark filaments seen in continuum intensity in the penumbra, but a much stronger association between the flow and the dark filaments seen in core intensity measured in the same spectral line.

Stanchfield, Donald C. H., II; Thomas, John H.; Lites, Bruce W.

1997-03-01

30

Vector Magnetic Field Inversions of High Cadence SOLIS-VSM Data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have processed full Stokes observations from the SOLIS VSM in the photospheric lines Fe I 630.15 nm and 630.25 nm. The data sets have high spectral and temporal resolution, moderate spatial resolution, and large polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy. We used the LILIA, an LTE code written by \\citet{fischer_Navarro2001} to invert the data. We also applied the non-potential magnetic field calculation method of \\citet{fischer_Manolis2005} in order to resolve the 180 degree ambiguity. The output are maps of the full magnetic field vector at the photospheric level. Here we present the first inversions of the active region NOAA 10808 during an X-class flare, which occurred on 13 September 2005.

Fischer, C. E.; Keller, C. U.; Snik, F.

2009-06-01

31

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper "The Vector Magnetic Fields and Thermodynamics of Sunspot Light Bridges: The Case for Field-free Disruptions in Sunspots" by K. D. Leka (ApJ, 484, 900 [1997]), the images of the sunspots used in the study (Fig. 1) were too dark as a result of a printer's error. The figure is reproduced here for clarity. The variations of the width and brightness of the light bridges analyzed should now be apparent; the regions of interest and positions of the artificial spectrograph slit should also now be clearly visible. No other aspect of the paper was in error, and none of the conclusions have changed.

Leka, K. D.

1998-03-01

32

Measuring the Strength and Direction of Solar Magnetic Fields (Vector Magnetograms)

This movie shows how magnetic fields evolved on the surface of the sun at an active region in February of 2011. The blue arrows show where magnetic fields rise up off the surface and the red arrows show the magnetic field lines returning to the surface. Credit: NASA/SDO and the HMI science team

Holly Zell

2012-01-11

33

Observations of vector magnetic fields with a magneto-optic filter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of the magnetooptic filter to observe solar magnetic fields in the potassium line at 7699 A is described. The filter has been used in the Big Bear videomagnetograph since October 23. It gives a high sensitivity and dynamic range for longitudnal magnetic fields and enables measurement of transverse magnetic fields using the sigma component. Examples of the observations are presented.

Cacciani, Alessandro; Varsik, John; Zirin, Harold

1990-01-01

34

Abstract Aims and Background: Tumor diseases cause 20% of deaths in Europe and they are the second most common cause of death and morbidity after cardiovascular diseases. Thus, tumor cells are target of many therapeutic strategies and tumor research is focused on searching more efficient and specific drugs as well as new therapeutic approaches. One of the areas of tumor research is an issue of external fields. In our work, we tested influence of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and a hypothetic field of the pulsed vector magnetic potential (PVMP) on the growth of tumor cells; and further the possible growth inhibition effect of the PVMP. Methods: Both unipolar and bipolar PEMF fields of 5?mT and PVMP fields of 0?mT at frequencies of 15?Hz, 125?Hz and 625?Hz were tested on cancer cell lines derived from various types of tumors: CEM/C2 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), SU-DHL-4 (B-cell lymphoma), COLO-320DM (colorectal adenocarcinoma), MDA-BM-468 (breast adenocarcinoma), and ZR-75-1 (ductal carcinoma). Cell morphology was observed, proliferation activity using WST assay was measured and simultaneous proportion of live, early apoptotic and dead cells was detected using flow cytometry. Results: A PEMF of 125?Hz and 625?Hz for 24?h-48?h increased proliferation activity in the 2 types of cancer cell lines used, i.e. COLO-320DM and ZR-75-1. In contrast, any of employed methods did not confirm a significant inhibitory effect of hypothetic PVMP field on tumor cells. PMID:23781986

Loja, Tomas; Stehlikova, Olga; Palko, Lukas; Vrba, Kamil; Rampl, Ivan; Klabusay, Martin

2013-06-19

35

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make non-viral gene delivery a useful tool in the study and treatment of genetic disorders, it is imperative that these methodologies be further refined to yield optimal results. Transfection of magnetic nanoparticles and nanorods are used as non-viral gene vectors to transfect HeLa EGFP-654 cells that stably express a mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. We deliver antisense oligonucleotides to these cells designed to correct the aberrant splicing caused by the mutation in the EGFP gene. We also transfect human bronchial endothelial cells and immortalized WI-38 lung cells with pEGFP-N1 vectors. To achieve this we bind the genes to magnetic nanoparticles and nanorods and introduce magnetic fields to effect transfection. We wish to examine the effects of magnetic fields on the transfection of these particles and the benefits of using alternating (AC) magnetic fields in improving transfection rates over direct (DC) magnetic fields. We specifically look at the frequency dependence of the AC field and particle aspect ratio as it pertains to influencing transfection rate. We posit that the increase in angular momentum brought about by the AC field and the high aspect ratio of the nanorod particles, is vital to generating the force needed to move the particle through the cell membrane.

Ford, Kris; Mair, Lamar; Fisher, Mike; Rowshon Alam, Md.; Juliano, Rudolph; Superfine, Richard

2008-10-01

36

A New Vector Potential BEM for Magnetic Fields Bounded by Perfect Conductors

A novel formulation of the boundary integral equation for the magnetic vector potential is presented, where its normal component is imposed to be zero while, instead of enforcing its tangential component, only the circulations of the potential are imposed along any closed paths on the boundary. When the boundary is modelled to be a perfect conductor, these circulations are equal

Ioan R. Ciric; Florea I. Hantila; Mihai Maricaru

2011-01-01

37

The authors used the technique of vector Generalized Magneto-optical Ellipsometry to study the behavior of the magnetization vector of a 50 Co thin film as a function of external field magnitude and direction. With this method, which determines the both the direction and magnitude of the magnetization, averaged over the 1 mm incident laser beam, they were able to determine the relative contributions of magnetization rotation and domain formation to the reversal of M. The Co sample had a uniaxial in-plane anisotropy. The authors found that when the angle between the applied field and the easy axis was greater than {approximately} 40 degrees, the reversal occurred primarily by rotation of the magnetization, accompanied by a small reduction of the magnitude of M. In this angular region, the critical field-the field at which there is a large jump in the angle of M -- as a function of applied field angle followed a coherent rotation model. However, at applied field angles less than 40 degrees to the easy axis, they found a larger reduction in {vert_bar}M{vert_bar} occurring before and during the jump in the magnetization angle. The jump also occurred at fields much lower than those predicted by the coherent rotation model, indicating a reversal mode initiated by domain formation.

Pufall, M. R.; Berger, A.

1999-10-26

38

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)|

Curjel, C. R.

1990-01-01

39

In the Caltech coaxial magnetized plasma jet experiment, fundamental studies are carried out relevant to spheromak formation, astrophysical jet formation/propagation, solar coronal physics, and the general behavior of twisted magnetic flux tubes that intercept a boundary. In order to measure the spatial profile of the magnetic field vector for understanding the underlying physics governing the dynamical behavior, a non-perturbing visible emission spectroscopic method is implemented to observe the Zeeman splitting in emission spectra. We have designed and constructed a polarization-resolving optical system that can simultaneously detect the left- and right-circularly polarized emission. The system is applied to singly ionized nitrogen spectral lines. The magnetic field strength is measured with a precision of about ±13 mT. The radial profiles of the azimuthal and axial vector magnetic field components are resolved by using an inversion method. PMID:23464211

Shikama, T; Bellan, P M

2013-02-01

40

In addition to the electric field E(r), the associated magnetic field H(r) and current density J(r) characterize any electromagnetic device, providing insight into antenna coupling and mutual impedance. We demonstrate the optical analogue of the radio frequency vector network analyzer implemented in interferometric homodyne scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) for obtaining E(r), H(r), and J(r). The approach is generally applicable and demonstrated for the case of a linear coupled-dipole antenna in the midinfrared. The determination of the underlying 3D vector electric near-field distribution E(r) with nanometer spatial resolution and full phase and amplitude information is enabled by the design of probe tips with selectivity with respect to Ek and E? fabricated by focused ion-beam milling and nano-CVD.

Olmon, Robert L.; Rang, Matthias; Krenz, Peter M.; Lail, Brian A.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Boreman, Glenn D.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

2010-10-15

41

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use daily full-disk vector magnetograms from Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Solar Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) system to synthesize the first Carrington maps of the photospheric vector magnetic field. We describe these maps and make a comparison of observed radial field with the radial field estimate from LOS magnetograms. Further, we employ these maps to study the hemispheric pattern of current helicity density, Hc, during the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. Longitudinal average over the 23 consecutive solar rotations shows a clear signature of the hemispheric helicity rule, i.e. Hc is predominantly negative in the North and positive in South. The hemispheric pattern for individual Carrington rotations is statistically weak, consistent with previous studies of active regions’ helicity. Although our data include the early phase of cycle 24, there appears no evidence for a possible (systematic) reversal of the hemispheric helicity rule at the beginning of cycle as predicted by some dynamo models. Further, we compute the hemispheric pattern in active region latitudes (-30 ? ? ? 30) separately for weak (100< |Br| <500 G)and strong (|Br| >1000 G) radial magnetic fields. We find that while the current helicity of strong fields follows the well-known hemispheric rule (i.e., ?.Hc < 0), Hc of weak fields exhibits an inverse hemispheric behavior (i.e., ?.Hc > 0) albeit with large statistical scatter.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): We use daily full-disk vector magnetograms from Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Solar Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) system to synthesize the first Carrington maps of the photospheric vector magnetic field. We describe these maps and make a comparison of observed radial field with the radial field estimate from LOS magnetograms. Further, we employ these maps to study the hemispheric pattern of current helicity density, Hc, during the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. Longitudinal average over the 23 consecutive solar rotations shows a clear signature of the hemispheric helicity rule, i.e. Hc is predominantly negative in the North and positive in South. The hemispheric pattern for individual Carrington rotations is statistically weak, consistent with previous studies of active regions’ helicity. Although our data include the early phase of cycle 24, there appears no evidence for a possible (systematic) reversal of the hemispheric helicity rule at the beginning of cycle as predicted by some dynamo models. Further, we compute the hemispheric pattern in active region latitudes (-30 ? ? ? 30) separately for weak (100< |Br| <500 G)and strong (|Br| >1000 G) radial magnetic fields. We find that while the current helicity of strong fields follows the well-known hemispheric rule (i.e., ?.Hc < 0), Hc of weak fields exhibits an inverse hemispheric behavior (i.e., ?.Hc > 0) albeit with large statistical scatter.

Gusain, Sanjay; Pevtsov, A. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.

2013-07-01

42

GLOBAL TWIST OF SUNSPOT MAGNETIC FIELDS OBTAINED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION VECTOR MAGNETOGRAMS

The presence of fine structures in sunspot vector magnetic fields has been confirmed from Hinode as well as other earlier observations. We studied 43 sunspots based on the data sets taken from ASP/DLSP, Hinode (SOT/SP), and SVM (USO). In this Letter, (1) we introduce the concept of signed shear angle (SSA) for sunspots and establish its importance for non-force-free fields. (2) We find that the sign of global {alpha} (force-free parameter) is well correlated with that of the global SSA and the photospheric chirality of sunspots. (3) Local {alpha} patches of opposite signs are present in the umbra of each sunspot. The amplitude of the spatial variation of local {alpha} in the umbra is typically of the order of the global {alpha} of the sunspot. (4) We find that the local {alpha} is distributed as alternately positive and negative filaments in the penumbra. The amplitude of azimuthal variation of the local {alpha} in the penumbra is approximately an order of magnitude larger than that in the umbra. The contributions of the local positive and negative currents and {alpha} in the penumbra cancel each other giving almost no contribution for their global values for the whole sunspot. (5) Arc-like structures (partial rings) with a sign opposite to that of the dominant sign of {alpha} of the umbral region are seen at the umbral-penumbral boundaries of some sunspots. (6) Most of the sunspots studied belong to the minimum epoch of the 23rd solar cycle and do not follow the so-called hemispheric helicity rule.

Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Venkatakrishnan, P. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur-313 001 (India); Sankarasubramanian, K. [Space Astronomy and Instrumentation Division, ISRO Satellite Center, Airport Road, Vimanapura, Bangalore-560017 (India)], E-mail: stiwari@prl.res.in, E-mail: pvk@prl.res.in, E-mail: sankark@isac.gov.in

2009-09-10

43

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are the dominant fields that determine the static and dynamic properties of the solar corona. The coronal mass ejections (CMEs) involve the release of the magnetic energy stored in the magnetic field. Therefore, analyzing the magnetic field could help to understand the nature of CMEs. One of the more promising coronal magnetic field measurement methods that have been successfully demonstrated is the spectropolarimetric observations of the Fe XIII 10747 A forbidden emission line (Lin, Penn & Tomczyk 2000; Lin, Kuhn & Coulter 2004; Tomczyk et al. 2007) formed due to Hanle and Zeeman effects. However, these measurements are integrated over line-of-sight (LOS). Therefore it is impossible to determine the configuration of the coronal magnetic field from a single observation (single viewing direction). Vector tomography based on polarimetric observations of the forbidden coronal emission lines can reconstruct the coronal magnetic field when the observations are obtained from several viewing directions. As the tomography method requires observations from many directions, a rigid rotation of the coronal structures during a half of solar rotation is assumed. However, many pre-CME magnetic configurations evolve more rapidly causing significant reduce in the number of available observing directions. Here we study the sensitivity of the vector tomographic inversion to possible pre-CME coronal magnetic field configurations and the number of available observing directions. We show that the vector tomography techniques has the potential to resolve the 3D coronal non-potential magnetic field structure.

Kramar, Maxim; Lin, H.; Inhester, B.; Davila, J.

2010-05-01

44

Reversing Motion Vector Fields

We examine the problem of estimating a reverse motionvector field from a given forward motion vector fieldand its motion-compensated residual. This problem haspractical importance when providing reverse-play functionalityin compressed video environments, where video data isstored, processed, and transported in compressed form. Wepresent a family of algorithms that trade off motion vectoraccuracy for computational efficiency. Experimental resultsdemonstrate the performance of these...

Susie J. Wee

1998-01-01

45

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to develop higher torque, lower weight and smaller sized magnetic actuators for driving electrical vehicles and robot arms, designing under high magnetic field and high exciting voltage is most effective. It is therefore very important to understand vector magnetic properties in electrical steel sheets under high magnetic flux density conditions. The vector magnetic properties mean the relationship between the magnetic flux density vector and the magnetic field strength vector and it is very difficult to measure the each component under high magnetic flux density conditions because of the magnetic saturation and the magnetic anisotropy. In this paper, accurate measurement techniques of the vector magnetic properties over 1.5T and measured vector magnetic properties are reported and discussed.

Maeda, Yoshitaka; Todaka, Takashi; Enokizono, Masato

46

Energy considerations in vector magnetization models

Scalar magnetization model energy calculations, which are useful in calculating energy losses in open magnetization processes, are extended here to vector models. The energy loss is calculated as the difference between the energy input to the magnetic medium and the change in energy stored in the locally reversible component of the total magnetization. It is shown that under rotating magnetizing processes, the energy loss decreases as the material is saturated. For smaller rotating fields in anisotropic media, the magnetization lies between the applied field and the easy axis and the energy loss is not constant with rotation even if the magnitude of the field is constant. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

DellaTorre, Edward; Reimers, Ann

2001-06-01

47

Tomographic reconstruction of vector fields

The application of tomography to the reconstruction of vector fields is considered. Two different types of interaction between the radiation used for measurement and the investigated vector fields are discussed. A complete reconstruction of a vector field can only be obtained if measurements based on both types of interaction are available. Otherwise, only curl-free or source-free components of the field

Hans Braun; Axel Hauck

1991-01-01

48

A new modeling of the vector magnetic property

This paper presents a new modeling of the vector magnetic property with an integration term. Recently, the studies of the two-dimensional (2-D) magnetic property have made progress rapidly and the achievements have become a center of attention. The 2-D magnetic measuring technique shows us practical vector constitutive relations in magnetic materials. We enable the magnetic field analysis, which considered the

Hiroyasu Shimoji; Masato Enokizono; Takashi Todaka; Tatsuya Honda

2002-01-01

49

Simplified representation of vector fields

Vector field visualization remains a difficult task. Although many local and global visualization methods for vector fields such as flow data exist, they usually require extensive user experience on setting the visualization parameters in order to produce images communicating the desired insight. We present a visualization method that produces simplified but suggestive images of the vector field automatically, based on

Alexandru Telea; Jarke J. van Wijk

1999-01-01

50

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalized form of Killingbeck potential is an attractive Coulomb term plus a linear term and a harmonic oscillator term, i.e. - a/ r + br + ? r 2, which has a useful application in quarkonium spectroscopy. The ground state energy with the corresponding wave function are obtained for any arbitrary m-state in two-dimensional Klein-Gordon equation with equal mixture of scalar-vector Killingbeck potentials in the presence of constant magnetic and singular Ahoronov-Bohm flux fields perpendicular to the plane where the interacting charged particle is confined. The analytical exact iteration method is used in our solution. We obtain the energy eigensolutions for particle and antiparticle corresponding to S( r) = V( r) and S( r) = - V( r) cases, respectively. Some special cases like the Coulomb, harmonic oscillator potentials and the nonrelativistic limits are found in presence and absence of external fields.

Ikhdair, Sameer M.

2013-11-01

51

The coupled magnetic vector potential-magnetic scalar potential (CMVP-MSP) method of computation of 3D magnetic fields by finite elements (3D-FE) is applied here to a brushless DC motor with skewed permanent magnet mounts on its rotor. Results of the CMVP-MSP and 3D-FE computation of the magnetic field and associated motor parameters (EMFs and armature inductances) are detailed in this paper. These

M. A. Alhamadi; N. A. Demerdash

1994-01-01

52

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japanese Solar-B satellite, currently scheduled for launch in September 2005, includes a spectro-polarimeter (SP) to precisely measure the full Stokes polarization vector (I,Q,U,V) in the Fe I lines at 6302Å. These will be processed to produce vector magnetograms of the solar surface using algorithms based on those for the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter (ASP) as described in Skumanich, et al, 1997, ApJ Suppl 110. Accumulations of the raw images into time averaged I,Q,U,V images will be done on board and the results will be 12 bit JPEG compressed to make the best use of the available telemetry. Hence a single radiation hit in a raw image affects the entire time average at that point. Also, radiation spikes affect JPEG compression performance. Because of concerns about these effects, we simulated them separately and in combination using ASP data and radiation level measurements from the TRACE satellite. Like TRACE, Solar-B will fly in a high inclination, sun synchronous orbit and be exposed to radiation from the polar radiation belts as well as the SAA. Since the SP detector will be better shielded than that on TRACE, we hope that these will be an over estimate of the effects. The results from the simulations are very encouraging. We find that for active region magnetic fields we can use JPEG to compress the data volume by more than a factor of 10 without compromising the accuracy of the inferred magnetic field vector. The radiation in the polar regions has little effect and even the much stronger SAA radiation causes average perturbations that are less than the formal errors for sunspot fields and about twice the formal errors for plage fields. However, very weak field measurements will benefit from less lossy compression and periods of low radiation. Of course, the very strong radiation hits always produce artifacts. Compression performance is affected only slightly so it will not be necessary to avoid observations in the SAA because of excessive telemetry usage. This work was supported by NASA contract NAS8-01002.

Lites, B.; Shine, R. A.; López Ariste, A.; Tarbell, T. D.

2002-12-01

53

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous processing of the Lunar Prospector magnetometer (LP-MAG) data has yielded ~40% coverage of the Moon. Here, new mapping of the low-altitude LP-MAG data is reported with the goal of producing the first global vector map of the lunar crustal magnetic field. By considering all data regardless of the external plasma environment and using less restrictive editing criteria, 2360 partial and complete passes have been identified that can be used to investigate the lunar crustal magnetic anomalies. The cleanest global coverage is provided using 329 low-altitude nightside and terminator passes. An inverse power method has been used to continue the final mapping data to constant altitude. Using the 329 optimal passes, global maps of the lunar crustal magnetic field are constructed at 30 and 40 km. Consistent with previous studies: (1) the largest concentrations of anomalies are mapped antipodal to the Crisium, Serenitatis, Imbrium, and Orientale basins and (2) isolated anomalies at Reiner Gamma, Rima Sirsalis, Descartes, and Airy are mapped. Anomalies previously unmapped by the LP-MAG experiment include (1) isolated anomalies near the craters Abel and Hartwig, (2) weak magnetization within the Nectarian-aged Crisium and Moscoviense basins, and (3) a relatively weak anomaly in an area dominated by crater chains associated with the formation of Nectaris. Future work with the new low-altitude data set is discussed and will include determining whether the lunar anomalies are capable of deflecting the solar wind and investigating directions of magnetization to evaluate a possible former core dynamo.

Richmond, N. C.; Hood, L. L.

2008-02-01

54

Construction of vector field hierarchies

We present a method for the hierarchical representation of vector fields. Our approach is based on iterative refinement using clustering and principal component analysis. The input to our algorithm is a discrete set of points with associated vectors. The algorithm generates a top-down segmentation of the discrete field by splitting clusters of points. We measure the error of the various

Bjoern Heckel; Gunther H. Weber; Bernd Hamann; Kenneth I. Joy

1999-01-01

55

Wavelet Decomposition of Spherical Vector Fields with Respect to Sources

This article is concerned with an approach of modelling the Earth’s magnetic field as measured by satellites in terms of a\\u000a special system of vector spherical harmonics and in terms of vector kernel functions, called vector scaling functions and\\u000a wavelets. The main ingredient is the presentation of a system of vector spherical harmonics which separates a given spherical\\u000a vector field

Carsten Mayer

2006-01-01

56

Discrete multiscale vector field decomposition

While 2D and 3D vector fields are ubiquitous in computational sciences, their use in graphics is often limited to regular grids, where computations are easily handled through finite-difference methods. In this paper, we propose a set of simple and accurate tools for the analysis of 3D discrete vector fields on arbitrary tetrahedral grids. We introduce a variational, multiscale decomposition of

Yiying Tong; Santiago V. Lombeyda; Anil N. Hirani; Mathieu Desbrun

2003-01-01

57

Magnetic vector potential tree edge values for boundary elements

An efficient boundary integral equation solution for magnetic field problems is presented, based on a novel magnetic vector potential formulation and using edge elements and tree-cotree spanning. A zero normal component of this vector potential A and the condition for its line integral along any closed path on the boundary are imposed such that the continuity of the normal component

Florea I. Hantila; Ioan R. Ciric

2003-01-01

58

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The applet simulates various vector fields, including spherical, radial, and constant plane. It is a generalized version of an electrostatic field simulation by the same author. The field strength and number of particles simulated are adjustable. Divergence, curl, and potential can be color-coded. Grid lines, potential lines, or streamlines can be displayed. Directions, specific links to the subject and source code are also included.

Falstad, Paul

2004-07-23

59

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of this paper we review the fundamental difference between the usual transformations of the three-dimensional (3D) vectors of the electric field E, the magnetic field B, the polarization P, the magnetization M and the Lorentz transformations of the 4D geometric quantities, vectors E, B, P, M, with many additional explanations and several new results. In the second part, we have discussed the existence of the electric field vector E outside a stationary superconducting wire with a steady current and also different experiments for the detection of such electric fields. Furthermore, a fundamental prediction of the existence of the external electric field vector E from a stationary permanent magnet is considered. These electric fields are used for the resolution of the "charge-magnet paradox" with 4D geometric quantities for a qualitative explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in terms of fields and not, as usual, in terms of the vector potential and for a qualitative explanation that the particle interference is not a test of a Lorentz-violating model of electrodynamics according to which a magnetic solenoid generates not only a static magnetic field but also a static electric field.

Ivezi?, Tomislav

2013-04-01

60

Scale-dependent bias due to primordial vector fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anisotropic stress perturbations induced by primordial Gaussian vector fields create non-Gaussianity in curvature perturbations. We found that such non-Gaussianity closely resembles the local-type non-Gaussianity parametrized by fNL, and generates scale-dependent bias in large-scale structures. We also found a simple relationship between the scale-dependent bias and the power spectrum of the vector fields. When the vector fields are interpreted as primordial magnetic fields, the effective fNL is shown to be always negative. The scale-dependent bias provides a new approach to probing primordial vector fields.

Shiraishi, Maresuke; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Matsubara, Takahiko

2013-07-01

61

Energy considerations in vector magnetization models

Scalar magnetization model energy calculations, which are useful in calculating energy losses in open magnetization processes, are extended here to vector models. The energy loss is calculated as the difference between the energy input to the magnetic medium and the change in energy stored in the locally reversible component of the total magnetization. It is shown that under rotating magnetizing

Edward Dellatorre; Ann Reimers

2001-01-01

62

Imaging vector fields using Line Integral Convolution.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Imaging vector fields has applications in science, art, image processing and special effects. An effective new approach is to use linear and curvilinear filtering techniques to locally blur textures along a vector field. This approach builds on several pr...

B. Cabral L. C. Leedom

1993-01-01

63

MIT Phyics 8.02: Vector Fields - Mapping Fields Applet

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java simulation that illustrates the structure of two-dimensional vector fields using the "grass seeds" (or "iron filings") representation. Users enter x and y components for a field, then choose from a variety of field examples: two-point charges, dipole in constant or no field, two-line currents, radiating dipole, and dipole in a field with gradient. The applet will display the chosen field in either a grass seeds electric field or as equipotential lines. For more advanced users, the applet provides functions for yielding polar coordinates. This item is part of a collection of visualizations developed by the MIT TEAL project to supplement an introductory course in calculus-based electricity and magnetism. Lecture notes, labs, and presentations are also available as part of MIT's Open Courseware Repository: MIT Open Courseware: Electricity and Magnetism

2010-03-31

64

Vector finite elements for electromagnetic field computation

A novel structure for the finite-element analysis of vector fields is presented. This structure uses the affine transformation to represent vectors and vector operations over triangular domains. Two-dimensional high-order vector elements are derived that are consistent with Whitney forms. One-form elements preserve the continuity of the tangential components of a vector field across element boundaries, while two-form elements preserve the

Zoltan J. Cendes

1991-01-01

65

The “parallel vectors” operator: a vector field visualization primitive

In this paper we propose an elementary operation on a pair of vector fields as a building block for defining and computing global line-type features of vector or scalar fields. While usual feature definitions often are procedural and therefore implicit, our operator allows precise mathematical definitions. It can serve as a basis for comparing feature definitions and for reuse of

Ronald Peikert; Martin Roth

1999-01-01

66

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We interrelate the concept of a torse forming vector field and the concepts of exterior concurrent and quasi-exterior concurrent vector fields. Different second order properties of a torse forming vector field T are studied, as for instance it is proved that any torse forming is a quasi-exterior concurrent vector field. We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a torse forming vector field to be 2-exterior concurrent. In this case a foliation is given.

Mihai, Adela; Mihai, Ion

2013-11-01

67

Regularization of Vector Fields by Surgery.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Regularization is a common procedure in the study of differential equations. The usual method is to multiply the vector field by a suitably chosen positive scalar function which vanishes on the set of singularities of the vector field. The new vector fiel...

R. Easton

1970-01-01

68

Visualizing Nonlinear Vector Field Topology

Abstract| We present our results on the visualization of non-linear vector eld topology. The underlying mathemat- ics is done in Cliord algebra, a system describing geometry by extending the usual vector space by a multiplication of vectors. We started with the observation that all known algorithms for vector eld topology are based on piecewise linear or bilinear approximation and that

Gerik Scheuermann; Heinz Krüger; Martin Menzel; Alyn P. Rockwood

1998-01-01

69

Influence of a repulsive vector coupling in magnetized quark matter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider two flavor magnetized quark matter in the presence of a repulsive vector coupling (GV) devoting special attention to the low temperature region of the phase diagram to show how this type of interaction counterbalances the effects produced by a strong magnetic field. The most important effects occur at intermediate and low temperatures affecting the location of the critical end point as well as the region of first order chiral transitions. When GV=0 the presence of high magnetic fields (eB?10m?2) increases the density coexistence region with respect to the case when B and GV are absent while a decrease of this region is observed at high GV values and vanishing magnetic fields. Another interesting aspect observed at the low temperature region is that the usual decrease of the coexistence chemical value (inverse magnetic catalysis) at GV=0 is highly affected by the presence of the vector interaction which acts in the opposite way. Our investigation also shows that the presence of a repulsive vector interaction enhances the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations which, for very low temperatures, take place at eB?6m?2. We observe that the presence of a magnetic field, together with a repulsive vector interaction, gives rise to a complex transition pattern since B favors the appearance of multiple solutions to the gap equation whereas GV turns some metastable solutions into stable ones allowing for a cascade of transitions to occur.

Denke, Robson Z.; Pinto, Marcus Benghi

2013-09-01

70

Magnetic fields in astrophysics

The evidence of cosmic magnetism is examined, taking into account the Zeeman effect, beats in atomic transitions, the Hanle effect, Faraday rotation, gyro-lines, and the strength and scale of magnetic fields in astrophysics. The origin of magnetic fields is considered along with dynamos, the conditions for magnetic field generation, the topology of flows, magnetic fields in stationary flows, kinematic turbulent

Ia. B. Zeldovich; A. A. Ruzmaikin; D. D. Sokolov

1983-01-01

71

Applications of Vector Fields to Image Processing

We use rotational and curvature properties of vector fields to identify critical features of an image. Using vector analysis and dif-ferential geometry, we establish the properties needed, and then use these properties in three ways. First, our results make it theoretically possible to identify extremal edges of an intensity function f(x, y) of two variables by considering the gradient vector

Raul Machuca; Keith Phillips

1983-01-01

72

Detecting boundaries in a vector field

A vector gradient approach is proposed to detect boundaries in multidimensional data with multiple attributes (a vector field). It is used to extend a gradient edge detector to color images. The statistical effects of noise on the distribution of the amplitudes and directions of the vector gradient are characterized. The noise behavior of the L 2 norm of the scalar

H.-C. Lee; D. R. Cok

1991-01-01

73

MIT Physics 8.02 - Vector Fields Visualizations

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the MIT TEAL/Studio Physics Project, this web page contains a set of simulations relating to vector fields. Each of the visualizations was developed to supplement the MIT Physics 8.02 course in calculus-based Electricity and Magnetism. Topics include vector cross product, interactive field mapping, path and surface integrals, circulating flow of particles, particle sink, and flow fields with a variety of animated patterns. In addition, the TEAL project has made course notes, labs, and presentations available as part of its Open Courseware Repository: MIT Open Courseware: Electricity and Magnetism

Belcher, John

2010-03-30

74

Arguments for H and B to be considered `axial', or pseudo vectors, are\\u000arevisited. As a point against, we examine the complex-coordinate method for\\u000anumerical grid truncation and mode loss analysis proved very successful in\\u000acomputational electrodynamics. This method is not compatible with convention\\u000athat H and B are axial.

Dzmitry M. Shyroki

2003-01-01

75

Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows

Methods for automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general, and flow topology in particular, are described. By using techniques to extract and visualize topological information, it is possible to combine the simplicity of schematic depictions with the quantitative accuracy of curves and surfaces computed directly from the data. Two-dimensional vector field topology is discussed, covering critical

James L. Helman; Lambertus Hesselink

1991-01-01

76

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the effects of magnetic fields in matter addressing permanent magnets, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, and magnetization. First students must compare the magnetic field of a solenoid to the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Students then learn the response of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic material to a magnetic field. Now aware of the mechanism causing a solid to respond to a field, students learn how to measure the response by looking at the net magnetic moment per unit volume of the material.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

77

The interaction between water outgassed from the space shuttle and the ionospheric plasma leads to production of water ions by charge exchange and an active and complex plasma wave environment for the space shuttle. The authors show that the amplitude and spectral character of some of these waves are controlled by the angle between the magnetic field and the shuttle's velocity vector V{sub T} relative to the ionospheric plasma. When the flow is approximately perpendicular to the magnetic field (V{sub {parallel}}/V{sub T}{approximately}0), large wave amplitudes and characteristic mushroom wave structures are observed, whereas more nearly parallel flows {vert bar}V{parallel}{vert bar} {approximately} V{sub {perpendicular}} are characterized by low wave levels. They show that linear instability theory predicts the growth of Doppler-shifted lower hybrid waves in the observed frequency range when driven by the ring and/or beam distributions of water ions produced by charge exchange in the vicinity of the space shuttle. Two mutually compatible interpretations for the V{sub {parallel}}/V{sub T} effect exist. The first interpretation involves the path lengths available for growth of waves driven by pickup ions varying with the quantity V{sub {parallel}}/V{sub T} and being limited by spatial variations in the water ion distribution. The second interpretation follows directly from the linear theory: decreasing the ring/beam speed V{sub {perpendicular}} of the pickup ions driving the waves (increasing V{sub {parallel}}/V{sub T} results in smaller growth rates), with zero growth rate below some threshold value of V{sub {perpendicular}}.These results have immediate implications for future shuttle missions and orbiting platforms subject to outgassing of water. If these facilities are used for ionospheric plasma studies or active experiments involving plasma waves, the plasma wave background due to pickup ions associated with the orbiter should be minimized.

Cairns, I.H.; Gurnett, D.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

1991-05-01

78

Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined.

Boozer, A.H.

1985-02-01

79

Hollow-sphere nanocapsules containing intentionally trapped magnetic nanoparticles and defined anticancer drugs provide a powerful magnetic vector under moderate gradient magnetic fields, and enable the nanocapsules to penetrate into the midst of tumors and allow a controlled on-off switchable release of the anticancer drug cargo by remotely applied Radio Frequency (RF) magnetic field. This imageable smart drug delivery system is compact

Seong Deok Kong

2010-01-01

80

Representation and visualization of vector field topology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and numerical simulations produce vast amounts of high resolution multivariate data. Techniques that use computer graphics for visualizing scalar fields are relatively well developed, but direct visualization methods are inadequate for gaining insight into complex vector and tensor fields. This thesis discusses methods for applying the theory of vector field topology from dynamical systems to analyze and visualize vector fields and the physical structure of fluid flows. The 2D work generates representations of velocity field topology by locating, characterizing' and connecting critical points in a 2D domain. In 2D, time-dependent flows, correspondences between instantaneous topology skeletons are identified and computer graphics used to display surface representations. In 3D flows, the critical points and curves of skin friction topology provide a basis for generating stream surfaces that provide insight into the 3D structure of flow separations. 3D critical points are identified and depicted using geometric icons to represent their eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Methods for the refinement, tessellation, clipping and display of surfaces defined by adjacent tangent curves are also discussed. In combination, these analysis and visualization techniques are effective and efficient at providing insight into the vector field topology in a data set. The methods are applicable to vector fields in general, but this work focuses on velocity fields from separated flows because vector field topology in these problems is very intimately tied to our physical understanding of these systems.

Helman, James Lowell

1998-12-01

81

Imaging vector fields using Line Integral Convolution

Imaging vector fields has applications in science, art, image processing and special effects. An effective new approach is to use linear and curvilinear filtering techniques to locally blur textures along a vector field. This approach builds on several previous texture generation and filtering techniques. It is, however, unique because it is local, one-dimensional and independent of any predefined geometry or texture. The technique is general and capable of imaging arbitrary two- and three-dimensional vector fields. The local one-dimensional nature of the algorithm lends itself to highly parallel and efficient implementations. Furthermore, the curvilinear filter is capable of rendering detail on very intricate vector fields. Combining this technique with other rendering and image processing techniques -- like periodic motion filtering -- results in richly informative and striking images. The technique can also produce novel special effects.

Cabral, B.; Leedom, L.C.

1993-03-01

82

Screening vector field modifications of general relativity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A screening mechanism for conformal vector-tensor modifications of general relativity is proposed. The conformal factor depends on the norm of the vector field and makes the field to vanish in high dense regions, whereas drives it to a non-null value in low density environments. Such process occurs due to a spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism and gives rise to both the screening of fifth forces as well as Lorentz violations. The cosmology and local constraints are also computed.

Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Delvas Fróes, André Luís; Mota, David F.

2013-10-01

83

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical currents flowing in the solar plasma generate a magnetic field, which is detected in the SOLAR ATMOSPHERE by spectroscopic and polarization measurements (SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD: INFERENCE BY POLARIMETRY). The SOLAR WIND carries the magnetic field into interplanetary space where it can be measured directly by instruments on space probes....

Schüssler, M.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

84

HMI Magnetic Field Data Products

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft will begin observing the solar photospheric magnetic field continuously after commissioning in early 2009. This paper describes the HMI magnetic processing pipeline and the expected data products that will be available. The full disk line-of-sight magnetic field will be available every minute with 1" resolution. Comparable vector measurements collected over a three-minute time interval will ordinarily be averaged for at least 10 minutes before inversion. Useful Quick Look products for forecasting purposes will be available a few minutes after observation. Final products will be computed within 36 hours and made available through the SDO Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC). Three kinds of magnetic data products have been defined - standard, on-demand, and on-request. Standard products, such as frequently updated synoptic charts, are made all the time on a fixed cadence. On-demand products, such as high cadence full-disk disambiguated vector magnetograms, will be generated whenever a user asks for them. On-request products, such as high-resolution time series of MHD model solutions, will be generated as resources allow. This paper describes the observations, magnetograms, synoptic and synchronic products, and field model calculations that will be produced by the HMI magnetic pipeline.

Hoeksema, J.; Hmi, M. T.

2008-05-01

85

Magnetic field observations in Comet Halley's coma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the encounter with Comet Halley, the magnetometer (MISCHA) aboard the Vega 1 spacecraft observed an increased level of magnetic field turbulence, resulting from an upstream bow wave. Both Vega spacecraft measured a peak field strength of 70-80 nT and observed draping of magnetic field lines around the cometary obstacle. An unexpected rotation of the magnetic field vector was observed, which may reflect either penetration of magnetic field lines into a diffuse layer related to the contact surface separating the solar-wind and cometary plasma, or the persistence of pre-existing interplanetary field structures.

Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye. G.; Styashkin, V. A.; Russell, C. T.

1986-05-01

86

The HMI Magnetic Field Pipeline

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) will provide frequent full-disk magnetic field data after launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), currently scheduled for fall 2009. 16 megapixel line-of-sight magnetograms (Blos) will be recorded every 45 seconds. A full set of polarized filtergrams needed to determine the vector magnetic field requires 90 seconds. Quick-look data will be available within a few minutes of observation. Quick-look space weather and browse products must have identified users, and the list currently includes full disk magnetograms, feature identification and movies, 12-minute disambiguated vector fields in active region patches, time evolution of AR indices, synoptic synchronic frames, potential and MHD model results, and 1 AU predictions. A more complete set of definitive science data products will be offered about a day later and come in three types. "Pipeline” products, such as full disk vector magnetograms, will be computed for all data on an appropriate cadence. A larger menu of "On Demand” products, such as Non-Linear Force Free Field snapshots of an evolving active region, will be produced whenever a user wants them. Less commonly needed "On Request” products that require significant project resources, such as a high resolution MHD simulation of the global corona, will be created subject to availability of resources. Further information can be found at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center web page, jsoc.stanford.edu

Hoeksema, Jon Todd; Liu, Y.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P.; HMI Science Team

2009-05-01

87

Enhancement of dielectronic recombination in crossed electric and magnetic fields

Dielectronic recombination (DR) from a continuum of finite bandwidth in Ba atoms has been studied in electric fields of 0-5 V/cm and magnetic fields of 0-240 G for both B(vector sign)(parallel sign)E(vector sign) and B(vector sign)(perpendicular sign)E(vector sign). In electric fields of {>=}0.1 V/cm, the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field increases the integrated DR rate by up to 60%, with the peak enhancement moving towards higher magnetic fields as the electric field is increased. The general behavior of the enhancement for B(vector sign)(perpendicular sign)E(vector sign)--as well its absence for B(vector sign)(parallel sign)E(vector sign) is in agreement with theoretical expectations. A simple model is presented to provide insight into the results, and reasons for its shortcomings are presented.

Klimenko, Victor; Ko, Lung; Gallagher, T. F. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA (United States)

2003-07-01

88

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of the magnetic field lines of Earth uses a bar magnet, iron filings, and a compass. The site explains how to measure the magnetic field of the Earth by measuring the direction a compass points from various points on the surface. There is also an explanation of why the north magnetic pole on Earth is actually, by definition, the south pole of a magnet.

Barker, Jeffrey

89

Measurement of magnetization of an obliquely deposited film by using 3-dimensional vector VSM

An obliquely deposited film was experimentally analyzed using a three-dimensional vector vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Since the M-H loops of the magnetization components orthogonal to the applied field change their signs when the applied field direction crosses the easy or hard direction, detailed information about the magnetic anisotropy can be obtained from the behaviour of the magnetization components. Analysis reveals

N. Matsubara; F. Sai

1991-01-01

90

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The above animations represent two typical bar magnets each with a North and South pole. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. The color of the arrows represents the magnitude of the field with magnitude increasing as the color changes from blue to green to red to black. You may drag either magnet and double-click anywhere inside the animation to add a magnetic field line, and mouse-down to read the magnitude of the magnetic field at that point.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

91

Prehomogeneous vector spaces and field extensions

Summary Letk be an infinite field of characteristic not equal to 2, 3, 5. In this paper, we construct a natural map from the set of orbits of certain prehomogeneous vector spaces to the set of isomorphism classes of Galois extensions ofk which are splitting fields of equations of certain degrees, and prove that the inverse image of this map

David J. Wright; Akihiko Yukie

1992-01-01

92

Compound Poisson Vector Fields: Applications in Astronomy.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristic function of the joint distribution of a random vector field at two points in space is derived from a representation of the field as the moving average of a homogeneous Poisson point process in an n-dimensional space. This model is used ...

A. H. Marcus

1969-01-01

93

Vector Potential and Stored Energy of a Quadrupole Magnet Array

The vector potential, magnetic field and stored energy of a quadrupole magnet array are derived. Each magnet within the array is a current sheet with a current density proportional to the azimuthal angle 2{theta} and the longitudinal periodicity (2m-1){pi}/L. Individual quadrupoles within the array are oriented in a way that maximizes the field gradient The array does not have to be of equal spacing and can be of a finite size, however when the array is equally spaced and is of infinite size the solution can be simplified. We note that whereas, in a single quadrupole magnet with a current density proportional to cos2{theta} the gradient is pure, such purity is not preserved in a quadrupole array.

Caspi, S.

1999-03-15

94

Magnetic Field Problem: Mesuring Current in Wire

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A wire carrying an unknown current is shown above. An external magnetic field that has constant magnitude and direction is applied to the top half of the simulation (The gray rectangle is at the boundary for your reference). In addition, there is the magnetic field produced by the current in the wire. The direction arrows show the vector sum of these two fields. (The color of the direction arrows represents the magnitude of the field as before.) Observe the force vector and the force/length in the yellow message box in the lower left hand corner.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

95

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the visible matter in the Universe is ionized so that cosmic magnetic fields are quite easy to generate and, due to the lack of magnetic monopoles, hard to destroy. Magnetic fields have been measured in or around practically all celestial objects, either by in situ measurements of spacecrafts or by the electromagnetic radiation of embedded cosmic rays, gas, or dust. The Earth, the Sun, solar planets, stars, pulsars, the Milky Way, nearby galaxies, more distant (radio) galaxies, quasars, and even intergalactic space in clusters of galaxies have significant magnetic fields, and even larger volumes of the Universe may be permeated by "dark" magnetic fields. Information on cosmic magnetic fields has increased enormously as the result of the rapid development of observational methods, especially in radio astronomy. In the Milky Way, a wealth of magnetic phenomena was discovered, which are only partly related to objects visible in other spectral ranges. The large-scale structure of the Milky Way's magnetic field is still under debate. The available data for external galaxies can well be explained by field amplification and ordering via the dynamo mechanism. The measured field strengths and the similarity of field patterns and flow patterns of the diffuse ionized gas give strong indication that galactic magnetic fields are dynamically important. They may affect the formation of spiral arms, outflows, and the general evolution of galaxies. In spite of our increasing knowledge on magnetic fields, many important questions on the origin and evolution of magnetic fields, their first occurrence in young galaxies, or the existence of large-scale intergalactic fields remained unanswered. The present upgrades of existing instruments and several planned radio astronomy projects have defined cosmic magnetism as one of their key science projects.

Beck, Rainer; Wielebinski, Richard

96

There is no observational support to the hypothesis of the most large-scale homogeneous magnetic field in the Universe. The best upper limit is given by interpretation of the Faraday rotation from the extragalactic radio sources. However the magnetic fields can be generated in the clusters of galaxies by a turbulence in the wakes of moving galaxies. These fields have an

A. A. Ruzmajkin

1991-01-01

97

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Clicking on the different links below will produce different magnetic fields in the box above. The wires (perpendicular to the screen) or coils (in and out of the screen) are not visible, but you can determine what they are from the field. You can also click on a point to read off the magnetic field at that place.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

98

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage is part of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Windows to the Universe program. It describes the nature and configuration of magnetic fields, which are the result of moving electric charges, including how they cause magnetic objects to orient themselves along the direction of the magnetic force points, which are illustrated as lines. Magnetic field lines by convention point outwards at the north magnetic pole and inward at the south magnetic pole. The site features text, scientific illustrations and an animation. Text and vocabulary are selectable for the beginning, intermediate, or advanced reader.

Universe, Windows T.

1997-12-03

99

Melatonin and magnetic fields.

There is public health concern raised by epidemiological studies indicating that extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields generated by electric power distribution systems in the environment may be hazardous. Possible carcinogenic effects of magnetic field in combination with suggested oncostatic action of melatonin lead to the hypothesis that the primary effects of electric and magnetic fields exposure is a reduction of melatonin synthesis which, in turn, may promote cancer growth. In this review the data on the influence of magnetic fields on melatonin synthesis, both in the animals and humans, are briefly presented and discussed. PMID:12019358

Karasek, Michal; Lerchl, Alexander

2002-04-01

100

Optical currents in vector fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of phase relations and the degree of mutual coherence of superimposing waves in the arrangements of twowave superposition on the characteristics of the microparticle's motion has been analyzed. The prospects of studying temporal coherence using the proposed approach are made. For the first time, we have shown experimentally the possibility of diagnostics the optical currents in liquids caused by polarization characteristics of an optical field alone, using test metallic particles of nanoscale.

Angelsky, O. V.; Gorsky, M. P.; Maksimyak, P. P.; Maksimyak, A. P.; Hanson, S. G.; Zenkova, C. Y.

2011-09-01

101

Magnetic vectoring of magnetically responsive nanoparticles within the murine peritoneum

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNPs) might be candidates for pro-drug formulations for intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of ovarian cancer. We conducted feasibility experiments in an i.p. human ovarian carcinoma xenograft model to determine whether MNPs can be effectively vectored within this environment. Our initial results based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicate that i.p.-injected ˜15 nm magnetite-based MNPs can in fact migrate toward NdFeB magnets externally juxtaposed to the peritoneal cavity above the xenografts growing in the anterior abdominal wall. MNP localization to the tumor/peri-tumoral environment occurs. Further development of this MNP pro-drug strategy is underway.

Klostergaard, Jim; Bankson, James; Auzenne, Edmond; Gibson, Don; Yuill, William; Seeney, Charles E.

2007-04-01

102

Toroidal Plasma Containment with Rotating Magnetic Field.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental investigations were conducted on a toroidal plasma with alternating pinch- and theta-pinch magnetic fields as well as with a theta-pinch and with a screw pinch. For the alternating pinch, the resultant magnetic vector is rotating, so that the...

D. E. Brown H. G. Loos

1966-01-01

103

Full vector model for magnetization in sediments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments provide a continuous record of past geomagnetic field variations. Although it is theoretically possible to get both the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field from sediment records, the mechanism is not fully understood. Previous workers have postulated that flocculation plays an important role in detrital remanent magnetism (DRM). Flocs are porous, loose and highly fragile aggregates of microscopic clay particles and their behavior in a viscous medium is likely to be different than single particles of magnetic minerals. In order to understand the role of flocculation in sediment magnetization, we carried out a set of redeposition experiments at different field intensities and a quasi-constant field inclination of 45°. We present here a simple numerical model of flocculation, incorporating both magnetic and hydrodynamic torques to explain the experimental data. At small floc sizes DRM acquisition is likely to be non-linear in field strengths comparable to the Earth's, but the sediments may be able to record the directions accurately. With increasing floc sizes sediments may retain a record of the intensity that is linearly related to the applied field or a direction parallel to the applied field, but are unlikely to do both at the same time. Also, the majority of the magnetic particles in the sediments may not be contributing significantly towards the net DRM and any bulk normalizing parameter may be unsuitable if the depositional environment has changed over the depositional period.

Mitra, Ritayan; Tauxe, Lisa

2009-09-01

104

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An internal potential function was created using the averaged MGS vector data released by Mario Acuna for altitudes from 95 to 209 km above the Martian geoid, all longitudes, and latitudes from 87 degrees south to 78 degrees north. Even with some gaps in coverage it is found that a consistent internal potential function can be derived up to spherical harmonic terms of n = 65 using all three components of the data. Weighting the data according to the standard errors given, the model fits to 7-8 nT rms. The energy density spectrum of the harmonics is seen to peak near n = 39 with a value of 7 J/cu km and fall off to less than 0.5 J/cu km below n = 15 and above n = 55. Contour maps of the X (north) component drawn for 100 km altitude show the strongly anomalous region centered at 60 degrees S latitude and 180 degrees longitude, as well as the alternating east-west trends already observed by other groups. Maps of the other components show the anomalous region, but not the east-west trends. The dichotomy is also maintained with much weaker anomalies bounding the northern plains. The results herein as as well as those of others is limited by the sparse low-altitude data coverage as well as the accuracy of the observations in the face of significant spacecraft fields. Work by Connerney and Acuna have mitigated these sources somewhat, but the design of the spacecraft did not lend itself to accurate observations. Recent results reported by David Mitchell of the ER group have shown that the field observations are significantly influenced by the solar wind with the possibility that the present results may only reflect that portion of the internal field visible above 95 km altitude. Depending on the solar wind, the anomaly field may be shielded or distorted to produce spurious results. The spectrum we have obtained so far may only see the stronger portion of the signal with a significant weaker component hidden. Measurements of crustal anomalies versus relative ages of source bodies combined with later absolute dating of Martian geologic units could lead to a quantitative constraint on the thermal history of the planet, i.e. the time when convective dynamo generation ceased in the core. Determination of directions of magnetization of anomaly sources as a function of age combined with the expectation that the Martian dynamo field was roughly aligned with the rotation axis would lead to a means of investigating polar wandering for Mars. Preliminary analysis of two magnetic anomalies in the northern polar region has yielded paleomagnetic pole positions near 50 N, 135 W, about 30 degrees north of Olympus Mons. This location is roughly consistent with the orientation of the planet expected theoretically prior to the formation of the Tharsis region. In the future, more accurate observations of the vector field at the lowest possible altitudes would significantly improve our understanding of Martian thermal history, polar wandering, and upper crustal evolution. Mapping potential resources (e.g., iron-rich source bodies) for future practical use would also be a side benefit. Additional information is contained in the original abstract.

Cain, J. C.; Ferguson, B.; Mozzoni, D.; Hood, L.

2000-07-01

105

A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

Krienin, Frank (Shoreham, NY)

1990-01-01

106

Flow Volumes for Interactive Vector Field Visualization

Flow volumes are the volumetric equivalent of stream lines. They provide more information about the vector field being visualized than do stream lines or ribbons. Presented is an efficient method for producing flow volumes, composed of transparently rendered tetrahedra, for use in an interac- tive system. The problems of rendering, subdivision, sort- ing,compositing artifacts, and user interaction are dealt with.

Nelson L. Max; Barry G. Becker; Roger Crawfis

1993-01-01

107

Bayesian Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

This paper presents a new approach to the estimation of two-dimensional motion vectorfields from time-varying images. The approach is stochastic, both in its formulation andin the solution method. The formulation involves the specification of a deterministicstructural model, along with stochastic observation and motion field models. Two motionmodels are proposed: a globally smooth model based on vector Markov random fieldsand a

Janusz Konrad; Eric Dubois

1992-01-01

108

Facial feature detection using distance vector fields

A novel method for eye and mouth detection and eye center and mouth corner localization, based on geometrical information is presented in this paper. First, a face detector is applied to detect the facial region, and the edge map of this region is calculated. The distance vector field of the face is extracted by assigning to every facial image pixel

Stylianos Asteriadis; Nikos Nikolaidis; Ioannis Pitas

2009-01-01

109

Flow volumes for interactive vector field visualization

Flow volumes are the volumetric equivalent of stream lines. They provide more information about the vector field being visualized than do stream lines or ribbons. Presented is an efficient method for producing flow volumes, composed of transparently rendered tetrahedra, for use in an interactive system. The problems of rendering, subdivision, sorting, rendering artifacts, and user interaction are dealt with.

Max, N.; Becker, B.; Crawfis, R.

1993-04-06

110

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are present in all astrophysical media. However, many models and interpretations of observations often ignore them, because magnetic fields are difficult to handle and because they produce complicated morphological features. Here we will comment on the basic intuitive properties, which even if not completely true, provide a first guiding insight on the physics of a particular astrophysical problem. These magnetic properties are not mathematically demonstrated here. How magnetic fields evolve and how they introduce dynamical effects are considered, also including a short comment on General Relativity Magnetohydrodynamics. In a second part we consider some audacious and speculative matters. They are answers to three questions: a) How draw a cube without lifting the pencil from the paper so that when the pen passes through the same side do in the same direction? B) Are MILAGRO anisotropies miraculous? C) Do cosmic magnetic lenses exist?. The last two questions deal with issues related with the interplay between magnetic fields and cosmic ray propagation.

Florido, E.; Battaner, E.

2010-12-01

111

The conclusions drawn regarding the structure, behavior and composition of the Uranian magnetic field and magnetosphere as revealed by Voyager 2 data are summarized. The planet had a bipolar magnetotail and a bow shock wave which was observed 23.7 Uranus radii (UR) upstream and a magnetopause at 18.0 UR. The magnetic field observed can be represented by a dipole offset

N. F. Ness; M. H. Acuna; K. W. Behannon; L. F. Burlaga; J. E. P. Connerney; R. P. Lepping

1986-01-01

112

THE INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD

A new analysis of magnetic and concurrent plasma data collected from the ; space probes Pionecr 5, Explorer 10, and Mariner 2 yields a new model of the ; interplanetary magnetic field. It is hypothesized that the observed ; interplanetary field F\\/sub i\\/ is due to motion of the magnetometer relative to a ; negatively charged rotating sun from which

V. A. BAILEY

1963-01-01

113

Most of the visible matter in the Universe is in a plasma state, or more specifically is composed of ionized or partially ionized gas permeated by magnetic fields. Thanks to recent advances on the theory and detection of cosmic magnetic fields there has been a worldwide growing interest in the study of their role on the formation of astrophysical sources

Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino; Dal Pino

2006-01-01

114

In situ preparation of magnetic nonviral gene vectors and magnetofection in vitro

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nonviral gene vectors were in situ prepared in the presence of ferrous salts and hyperbranched poly(ethylenimine)s (HPEI) with different molecular weights. HPEI, one of the most promising nonviral vectors, was not only utilized as the nanoreactor and stabilizer to prepare magnetic nanoparticles, but also skillfully used as a base supplier to avoid introducing alkali hydroxide or ammonia. Magnetic nonviral gene vectors with various magnetite contents and saturation magnetizations were obtained by changing the weight ratio of HPEI to FeSO4·7H2O and the molecular weight of HPEI. MTT assays suggested that the resulting magnetite/HPEI gene vectors had lower cytotoxicity compared with pure HPEI. The magnetite/HPEI nonviral gene vectors were used for magnetofection. It was found that the luciferase expression level mediated by magnetite/HPEI in COS-7 cells under a magnetic gradient field was approximately 13-fold greater than that of standard HPEI transfection.

Shi, Yunfeng; Zhou, Linzhu; Wang, Ruibin; Pang, Yan; Xiao, Wangchuan; Li, Huiqin; Su, Yue; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Bangshang; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue; Gu, Hongchen

2010-03-01

115

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The magnetic field of the Earth is contained in a region called the magnetosphere. The magnetosphere prevents most of the particles from the sun, carried in solar wind, from hitting the Earth. This site, produced by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), uses text, scientific illustrations,and remote imagery to explain the occurrence and nature of planetary magnetic fields and magnetospheres, how these fields interact with the solar wind to produce phenomena like auroras, and how magnetic fields of the earth and other planets can be detected and measured by satellite-borne magnetometers.

116

Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model displays the field lines and field vectors of a dipole located at the origin and oriented along the z-axis. Users can compute the field line passing through a point by dragging the a marker within the 3D view. Users can also visualize the field vectors in a plane passing though the center of the dipole. The Magnetic Dipole Field 3D Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticDipole3D.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models.

Christian, Wolfgang

2012-08-11

117

Efficient morse decompositions of vector fields.

Existing topology-based vector field analysis techniques rely on the ability to extract the individual trajectories such as fixed points, periodic orbits, and separatrices that are sensitive to noise and errors introduced by simulation and interpolation. This can make such vector field analysis unsuitable for rigorous interpretations. We advocate the use of Morse decompositions, which are robust with respect to perturbations, to encode the topological structures of a vector field in the form of a directed graph, called a Morse connection graph (MCG). While an MCG exists for every vector field, it need not be unique. Previous techniques for computing MCG's, while fast, are overly conservative and usually results in MCG's that are too coarse to be useful for the applications. To address this issue, we present a new technique for performing Morse decomposition based on the concept of tau-maps, which typically provides finer MCG's than existing techniques. Furthermore, the choice of tau provides a natural tradeoff between the fineness of the MCG's and the computational costs. We provide efficient implementations of Morse decomposition based on tau-maps, which include the use of forward and backward mapping techniques and an adaptive approach in constructing better approximations of the images of the triangles in the meshes used for simulation.. Furthermore, we propose the use of spatial tau-maps in addition to the original temporal tau-maps. These techniques provide additional trade-offs between the quality of the MCGs and the speed of computation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique with various examples in the plane and on surfaces including engine simulation data sets. PMID:18467759

Chen, Guoning; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Laramee, Robert S; Zhang, Eugene

118

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently reported curl-free vector potential observation (Varma et al 2012 Eur. Phys. J. D 66 38) in relation to a system of charged particles in a magnetic field points to the existence of a new state of the electron—a quantum modulated state—which arises through a scattering-induced transition across Landau levels. This quantum modulated state has been shown to account for some very unusual effects on the macro-scale, which are distinct from the ones which can be understood in terms of a ‘classical electron’ and also from the ones which can be understood in terms of a ‘quantum electron’ on the micro-scale characterized by the Planck quantum. This quantum modulated state has been shown to account for the observation of a static curl-free vector potential on the macro-scale alluded to above, as well as other matter wave manifestations on the macro-scale. The macro-scale curl-free vector potential observation differs fundamentally from the corresponding micro-scale effect—the well-known Aharonov-Bohm effect. These two effects—on the macro-scale and the macro-scale—are compared and contrasted to each other here in their manner of detection of the static curl-free vector potential. Such a comparative study helps gain a deeper understanding of the nature of the quantum modulated state and the macro-scale matter wave it represents.

Varma, Ram K.

2012-10-01

119

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review current ideas on the origin of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We begin by summarizing observations of magnetic fields at cosmological redshifts and on cosmological scales. These observations translate into constraints on the strength and scale magnetic fields must have during the early stages of galaxy formation in order to seed the galactic dynamo. We examine mechanisms for the generation of magnetic fields that operate prior during inflation and during subsequent phase transitions such as electroweak symmetry breaking and the quark-hadron phase transition. The implications of strong primordial magnetic fields for the reionization epoch as well as the first generation of stars are discussed in detail. The exotic, early-Universe mechanisms are contrasted with astrophysical processes that generate fields after recombination. For example, a Biermann-type battery can operate in a proto-galaxy during the early stages of structure formation. Moreover, magnetic fields in either an early generation of stars or active galactic nuclei can be dispersed into the intergalactic medium.

Widrow, Lawrence M.; Ryu, Dongsu; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Tsagas, Christos G.; Treumann, Rudolf A.

2012-05-01

120

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will introduce students to the idea of magnetic field lines--a concept they have probably encountered but may not fully grasp. Completing this activity and reading the corresponding background information should enable students to understand

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

121

Magnetic field dosimeter development

In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

1980-09-01

122

Magnetic field confinement for magnetically levitated vehicles

A magnetically levitated vehicle adapted for movement along a guide way, comprising: a passenger compartment; first and second primary magnet means secured on the vehicle to produce a magnetic field having a magnetic flux density extending outward from the primary magnet means, to support the vehicle above and spaced from the guide way; and a plurality of confining magnets disposed on the vehicle to confine the magnetic flux extending outward from the primary magnet means and to reduce the strength of the primary magnetic field in the passenger compartment; wherein the primary magnet means has a capacity to produce a primary magnetic field having a maximum strength of at least 200 gauss in the passenger compartment, and the confining magnets maintain the strength of the primary magnetic field in the passenger compartment below 5 gauss.

Proise, M.

1993-05-25

123

The past several years have seen dramatic developments in the study of planetary magnetic fields, including a wealth of new data, mainly from the Galilean satellites and Mars, together with major improvements in our theoretical modeling effort of the dynamo process believed responsible for large planetary fields. These dynamos arise from thermal or compositional convection in fluid regions of large

David J. Stevenson

2003-01-01

124

Magnetic Multipole Field Model

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Magnetic Multipole Field Model shows the field of a magnetic dipole or quadrupole with little compasses that indicate direction and relative field strength. A slider changes the angular orientation of the dipole and a movable compass shows the magnetic field direction and magnitude. Compass values can be recorded into a data table and analyzed using a built-in data analysis tool. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Magnetic Multipole Field model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_MagneticMultipoleField.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne; Franciscouembre

2010-02-14

125

Magnetic Field Measurement System

A magnetic field measurement system was designed, built and installed at MAX Lab, Sweden for the purpose of characterizing the magnetic field produced by Insertion Devices (see Figure 1). The measurement system consists of a large granite beam roughly 2 feet square and 14 feet long that has been polished beyond laboratory grade for flatness and straightness. The granite precision coupled with the design of the carriage yielded minimum position deviations as measured at the probe tip. The Hall probe data collection and compensation technique allows exceptional resolution and range while taking data on the fly to programmable sample spacing. Additional flip coil provides field integral data.

Kulesza, Joe; Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Waterman, Dave; Blomqvist, K. Ingvar [Advanced Design Consulting USA, 126 Ridge Road, P.O. Box 187, Lansing, NY 14882 (United States); Dunn, Jonathan Hunter [MAX-lab, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2007-01-19

126

Magnetic Field Problem: Current

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A cross section of a circular wire loop carrying an unknown current is shown above. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. The color of the arrows represents the magnitude of the field with magnitude increasing as the color changes from blue to green to red to black. You can double-click in the animation to add magnetic field lines, click-drag the center of the loop to reposition it, and click-drag the top or bottom of the loop to change its size.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

127

On the nonintegrability of magnetic field lines

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove the existence of a magnetic field created by a planar configuration of piecewise rectilinear wires which is not holomorphically integrable when considered as a vector field in C3. This is a counterexample to the S. Stefanescu conjecture (1986) in the holomorphic setting. In particular the method of the proof gives an easy way of showing that the corresponding real vector field does not admit a real polynomial first integral which provides also an alternative way of contradicting the Stefanescu conjecture in the polynomial setting.

Mahdi, Adam; Valls, Claudia

2013-05-01

128

Crustal magnetic field of Mars

The equivalent source dipole technique is used to model the three components of the Martian lithospheric magnetic field. We use magnetic field measurements made on board the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. Different input dipole meshes are presented and evaluated. Because there is no global, Earth-like, inducing magnetic field, the magnetization directions are solved for together with the magnetization intensity. A

B. Langlais; M. E. Purucker; M. Mandea

2004-01-01

129

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized emission traces turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 ?G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 ?G). Such fields are dynamically important, e.g. they can drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields which can be regular or anisotropic random, generated from isotropic random fields by compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields of 10-15 ?G strength are generally found in interarm regions and follow the orientation of adjacent gas spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions of starburst galaxies. Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of several spiral galaxies reveal large-scale patterns, which are signatures of regular fields generated by a mean-field dynamo. However, in most spiral galaxies observed so far the field structure is more complicated. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are an excellent tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium. Ordered magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos around edge-on galaxies, out to large distances from the plane, with X-shaped patterns. Future observations of polarized emission at high frequencies, with the EVLA, the SKA and its precursors, will trace galactic magnetic fields in unprecedented detail. Low-frequency telescopes (e.g. LOFAR and MWA) are ideal to search for diffuse emission and small RMs from weak interstellar and intergalactic fields.

Beck, Rainer

2012-05-01

130

Aromaticity is indispensable for explaining a variety of chemical behaviors, including reactivity, structural features, relative energetic stabilities, and spectroscopic properties. When interpreted as the spatial delocalization of ?-electrons, it represents the driving force for the stabilization of many planar molecular structures. A delocalized electron system is sensitive to an external magnetic field; it responds with an induced magnetic field having a particularly long range. The shape of the induced magnetic field reflects the size and strength of the system of delocalized electrons and can have a large influence on neighboring molecules. In 2004, we proposed using the induced magnetic field as a means of estimating the degree of electron delocalization and aromaticity in planar as well as in nonplanar molecules. We have since tested the method on aromatic, antiaromatic, and nonaromatic compounds, and a refinement now allows the individual treatment of core-, ?-, and ?-electrons. In this Account, we describe the use of the induced magnetic field as an analytical probe for electron delocalization and its application to a large series of uncommon molecules. The compounds include borazine; all-metal aromatic systems Al(4)(n-); molecular stars Si(5)Li(n)(6-n); electronically stabilized planar tetracoordinate carbon; planar hypercoordinate atoms inside boron wheels; and planar boron wheels with fluxional internal boron cluster moieties. In all cases, we have observed that planar structures show a high degree of electron delocalization in the ?-electrons and, in some examples, also in the ?-framework. Quantitatively, the induced magnetic field has contributions from the entire electronic system of a molecule, but at long range the contributions arising from the delocalized electronic ?-system dominate. The induced magnetic field can only indirectly be confirmed by experiment, for example, through intermolecular contributions to NMR chemical shifts. We show that calculating the induced field is a useful method for understanding any planar organic or inorganic system, as it corresponds to the intuitive Pople model for explaining the anomalous proton chemical shifts in aromatic molecules. Indeed, aromatic, antiaromatic, and nonaromatic molecules show differing responses to an external field; that is, they reduce, augment, or do not affect the external field at long range. The induced field can be dissected into different orbital contributions, in the same way that the nucleus-independent chemical shift or the shielding function can be separated into component contributions. The result is a versatile tool that is particularly useful in the analysis of planar, densely packed systems with strong orbital contributions directly atop individual atoms. PMID:21848282

Islas, Rafael; Heine, Thomas; Merino, Gabriel

2011-08-17

131

Tangential vector finite elements for electromagnetic field computation

One approach to eliminating spurious modes in the finite-element solution of the vector wave equation is the use of tangential vector finite elements. With tangential vector finite elements, only the tangential components of the vector field are made continuous across the element boundaries. Edge-elements are the simplest example of tangential vector finite elements. However, edge-elements provide only the lowest-order of

J. F. Lee; D. K. Sun; Z. J. Cendes

1991-01-01

132

Validate Mapping of Internal Lunar Magnetic Field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a global mapping of vector lunar magnetic field based on new method of separation of internal and external fields using inversion. The magnetic measurements collected during the lifetime of Lunar Prospector (LP) extended mission during 1999 were strongly disturbed by the solar wind, a period which coincided with a maximum of the 23 cycle activity. The multi scale wavelength external fields were analyzed using spherical harmonic transform. The external field determined by inversion was then removed from each magnetic field component for each half orbit. To map the vector magnetic crustal anomalies, all LP magnetometer data collected at low altitudes in the three different lunar environments: (1) geomagnetic tail (2) solar wind (3) geomagnetic sheath, were processed using this new approach. The results obtained using these selection criteria allow us to get a global coverage of the lunar surface by the vector magnetic field at variable spacecraft low altitudes. To validate our mapping we have developed and applied a method based on properties of potential fields functions. This method can be used to determine both horizontal North and East components using only vertical component. The validate lunar internal magnetic measurements obtained at variable spacecraft altitudes was then continued to a common altitude of 30 km using non linear inverse methods. This mapping confirm firstly the nature of the crustal sources of lunar magnetic field and clearly shows that the strongest concentrations of anomalies are associated with of high albedo and/or located antipodal to large young basins (Orientale, Serenitatis, Imbrium, and Crisium) of age about 3.9 Ga.

Berguig, M. C.; Hamoudi, M.; LeMouël, J. L.; Cohen, Y.

2012-04-01

133

Magnetic field annihilators: invisible magnetization at the magnetic equator

Some distributions of magnetization give rise to magnetic fields that vanish everywhere above the surface, rendering these distributions of magnetization completely invisible. They are the annihilators of the magnetic inverse problem. Known examples are the infinite sheet with constant magnetization and the spherical shell of constant susceptibility magnetized by an arbitrary internal field. Here, we show that remarkably more interesting

S. Maus; V. Haak

2003-01-01

134

Visualizing Non-Linear Vector Field Topology

We present our results on the visualization of non-linear vector eld topology. The underlying mathemat- ics is done in Cliord algebra, a system describing geometry by extending the usual vector space by a multiplication of vectors. We started with the observation that all known algorithms for vector eld topology are based on piecewise linear or bilinear approximation and that these

Gerik Scheuermann; Heinz Kr; Martin Menzel; Alyn P. Rockwood

135

This paper extends the theory of the air-gap magnetic field in permanent-magnet (PM) brushless motors. Scalar and vector potential solutions to the field equations are brought together to unify many of the important practical methods already in use. The theory admits a more general representation of the magnetization vector than has been previously assumed, including both the radial and tangential

K. F. Rasmussen; J. H. Davies; T. J. E. Miller; M. I. McGelp; M. Olaru

2000-01-01

136

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alternating current (ac) magnetic field from perpendicular magnetic recording head was imaged by using our developed frequency-modulated magnetic force microscopy (FM-MFM), which uses the frequency modulation of cantilever oscillation caused by applying ac magnetic field to a mechanically oscillated cantilever. The amplitude and phase signals (or orthogonal X and Y signals) of the ac magnetic field can be obtained separately by using the FM-MFM technique incorporated with a lock-in amplifier. A signal transformation technique to characterize the AC magnetic field source for frequency modulated magnetic force microscopy was proposed. Two-dimensional vector analysis together with the magnetization vector rotation of the perpendicular recording head was demonstrated using the FM-MFM method combined with the signal transformation algorithm. By taking advantage of this technique, the present method opens a possibility to stroboscopic analyze the AC magnetic field source and gives a very useful feedback for the development of advanced magnetic recording heads.

Li, Zhenghua; Hatakeyama, Kodai; Egawa, Genta; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi

2012-05-01

137

Vector field models of inflation and dark energy

We consider several new classes of viable vector field alternatives to the inflaton and quintessence scalar fields. Spatial vector fields are shown to be compatible with the cosmological anisotropy bounds if only slightly displaced from the potential minimum while dominant, or if driving an anisotropic expansion with nearly vanishing quadrupole today. The Bianchi I model with a spatial field and

Tomi S. Koivisto; David F. Mota

2008-01-01

138

Direct volume visualization of three-dimensional vector fields

Current techniques for direct volume visualization offer only the ability to examine scalar fields. However most scientific explorations require the examination of vector and possibly tensor fields as well as numerous scalar fields. This paper describes an algorithm to directly render three-dimensional scalar and vector fields. The algorithm uses a combination of sampling and splatting techniques, that are extended to

Roger Crawfis; Nelson L. Max

1992-01-01

139

Nonlinear Dynamics of Magnetic Buoyancy Instabilities in a Magnetic Shear Field

In order to reveal the emerging mechanism of the solar coronal magnetic loops, we investigated the influence of the magnetic shear on the magnetic buoyancy instabilities using two dimensional MHD simulations. The TVD scheme is used to calculate the MHD equations. The linear stability analysis reveals that the angle between the wavevector and the magnetic field vector at the top

K. Kusano; K. Moriyama; T. Miyoshi

1997-01-01

140

Magnetic Field Measurements in Beam Guiding Magnets

Electromagnets used as beam guiding elements in particle accelerators and colliders require very tight tole-rances on their magnetic fields and on their alignment along the particle path. This article describes the methods and equipment used for magnetic measurements in beam transport magnets. Descriptions are given of magnetic resonance techniques, various induction coil methods, Hall generator measurements, the fluxgate magnetometer as

K. N. Henrichsen

1998-01-01

141

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper verifies experimentally validity of the dynamic vector simulators for self-excited hybrid-field synchronous motors (SelE-HFSMs) that have rotor field by both permanent magnet and diode-shorted field winding. The dynamic vector simulators in form of vector block diagrams was originally proposed by the author and have attractive features and usefulness. Its validity has been confirmed in sense of consistency with the associated dynamic mathematical models, but not from viewpoints of experiments using actual SelE-HFSMs. This paper verifies experimentally the validity.

Shinnaka, Shinji

142

Slow decay of magnetic fields in open Friedmann universes

Magnetic fields in Friedmann universes can experience superadiabatic growth without departing from conventional electromagnetism. The reason is the relativistic coupling between vector fields and spacetime geometry, which slows down the decay of large-scale magnetic fields in open universes, compared to that seen in perfectly flat models. The result is a large relative gain in magnetic strength that can lead to astrophysically interesting B fields, even if our Universe is only marginally open today.

Barrow, John D. [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Tsagas, Christos G. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

2008-05-15

143

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Heliospheric Magnetic Field (HMF) is the physical framework in which energetic particles and cosmic rays propagate. Changes in the large scale structure of the magnetic field lead to short- and long term changes in cosmic ray intensities, in particular in anti-phase with solar activity. The origin of the HMF in the corona is well understood and inner heliospheric observations can generally be linked to their coronal sources. The structure of heliospheric magnetic polarities and the heliospheric current sheet separating the dominant solar polarities are reviewed here over longer than a solar cycle, using the three dimensional heliospheric observations by Ulysses. The dynamics of the HMF around solar minimum activity is reviewed and the development of stream interaction regions following the stable flow patterns of fast and slow solar wind in the inner heliosphere is described. The complex dynamics that affects the evolution of the stream interaction regions leads to a more chaotic structure of the HMF in the outer heliosphere is described and discussed on the basis of the Voyager observations. Around solar maximum, solar activity is dominated by frequent transients, resulting in the interplanetary counterparts of Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). These produce a complex aperiodic pattern of structures in the inner heliosphere, at all heliolatitudes. These structures continue to interact and evolve as they travel to the outer heliosphere. However, linking the observations in the inner and outer heliospheres is possible in the case of the largest solar transients that, despite their evolutions, remain recognizably large structures and lead to the formation of Merged Interaction Regions (MIRs) that may well form a quasi-spherical, "global" shell of enhanced magnetic fields around the Sun at large distances. For the transport of energetic particles and cosmic rays, the fluctuations in the magnetic field and their description in alternative turbulent models remains a very important research topic. These are also briefly reviewed in this paper.

Balogh, André; Erdõs, Géza

2013-06-01

144

Casimir effect of massive vector fields

We study the Casimir effect due to a massive vector field in a system of two parallel plates made of real materials, in an arbitrary magnetodielectric background. The plane waves satisfying the Proca equations are classified into transverse modes and longitudinal modes which have different dispersion relations. Transverse modes are further divided into type I and type II corresponding to TE and TM modes in the massless case. For general magnetodielectric media, we argue that the correct boundary conditions are the continuities of H{sub ||}, {phi}, A, and {partial_derivative}{sub x}A{sub x}, where x is the direction normal to the plates. Although there are type I transverse modes that satisfy all the boundary conditions, it is impossible to find type II transverse modes or longitudinal modes that satisfy all the boundary conditions. To circumvent this problem, type II transverse modes and longitudinal modes have to be considered together. We call the contribution to the Casimir energy from type I transverse modes TE contribution, and the contribution from the superposition of type II transverse modes and longitudinal modes TM contribution. Their massless limits give, respectively, the TE and TM contributions to the Casimir energy of a massless vector field. The limit where the plates become perfectly conducting is discussed in detail. For the special case where the background has a unity refractive index, it is shown that the TM contribution to the Casimir energy can be written as a sum of contributions from two different types of modes, corresponding to type II discrete modes and type III continuum modes discussed by Barton and Dombey [G. Barton and N. Dombey, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 162, 231 (1985).]. For general background, this splitting does not work. The limit where both plates become infinitely permeable and the limit where one plate becomes perfectly conducting and one plate becomes infinitely permeable are also investigated.

Teo, L. P. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500, Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2010-11-15

145

Casimir effect of massive vector fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the Casimir effect due to a massive vector field in a system of two parallel plates made of real materials, in an arbitrary magnetodielectric background. The plane waves satisfying the Proca equations are classified into transverse modes and longitudinal modes which have different dispersion relations. Transverse modes are further divided into type I and type II corresponding to TE and TM modes in the massless case. For general magnetodielectric media, we argue that the correct boundary conditions are the continuities of H?, ?, A, and ?xAx, where x is the direction normal to the plates. Although there are type I transverse modes that satisfy all the boundary conditions, it is impossible to find type II transverse modes or longitudinal modes that satisfy all the boundary conditions. To circumvent this problem, type II transverse modes and longitudinal modes have to be considered together. We call the contribution to the Casimir energy from type I transverse modes TE contribution, and the contribution from the superposition of type II transverse modes and longitudinal modes TM contribution. Their massless limits give, respectively, the TE and TM contributions to the Casimir energy of a massless vector field. The limit where the plates become perfectly conducting is discussed in detail. For the special case where the background has a unity refractive index, it is shown that the TM contribution to the Casimir energy can be written as a sum of contributions from two different types of modes, corresponding to type II discrete modes and type III continuum modes discussed by Barton and Dombey [G. Barton and N. Dombey, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.)APNYA60003-4916 162, 231 (1985).10.1016/0003-4916(85)90162-9]. For general background, this splitting does not work. The limit where both plates become infinitely permeable and the limit where one plate becomes perfectly conducting and one plate becomes infinitely permeable are also investigated.

Teo, L. P.

2010-11-01

146

Poynting Vector Analysis of Synchronous Generators Using Field Simulations

The Poynting vector has been used to gain an understanding of energy flow in rotating electrical machines. Previous studies of energy flow in rotating electrical machines have used the Poynting vector in crude formulas to obtain a qualitative picture. In this paper, we present a study based on numerically calculated fields and quantities entering the Poynting vector. We obtained a

Urban Lundin; Björn Bolund; Mats Leijon

2007-01-01

147

This letter is a response to an article by Savitz and Kaune, EHP 101:76-80. W-L wire code was applied to data from a 1988 Denver study, and an association was reported between high W-L wire code and childhood cancer. This author discusses several studies and provides explanations which weakens the argument that classification error resulted in an appreciable reduction in the association between W-L high wire code and childhood cancer. In conclusion, the fact that new wire code is only weakly correlated with magnetic field measurements (in the same manner as the original W-L wire code) suggests that the newly reported stronger association with childhood cancer is likely due to factors other than magnetic fields. Differential residential mobility and differential residential age are two possible explanations and are suggestive that the reported association may be false.

Jones, T.L.

1993-10-01

148

Local deformations of ferrogels induced by uniform magnetic fields

In this work we present anisotropic light scattering measurements of local deformation in systems composed by a dispersion of nanometric magnetic particles in a polymer gel, or ferrogel, in the presence of uniform magnetic fields. Two experimental configurations were used in which the scattering vector q was parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic induction B. We have seen that the

Alvaro V. Teixeira; Pedro Licinio

2005-01-01

149

Simplest magnetometer configuration scheme to measure magnetic field gradient tensor

Due to geomagnetic anomaly strength can't be separated from magnetic field data, underwater vehicle localization based on geomagnetic anomaly needs vehicle draft depth information. For this localization method, we conclude that the simplest configuration be seven single-axis vector magnetometers to measure magnetic dipole gradients. The essential conditions and optimal measurement matrix of magnetic gradient tensor are analyzed, and a kind

Huang Yu; Sun Feng; Hao Yan-ling

2010-01-01

150

Magnetization reversal in ultrashort magnetic field pulses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the switching properties of a thin magnetic film subject to an ultrashort, laterally localized magnetic field pulse, obtained by numerical investigations. The magnetization distribution in the film is calculated on a grid assuming Stoner-like coherent rotation within the grid square size. Perpendicularly and in-plane magnetized films exhibit a magnetization reversal due to a 4ps magnetic field pulse. Outside the central region the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period. In this area the evolution of the magnetization during the field pulse does not depend strongly on magnetic damping and/or pulse shape. However, the final magnetization distribution is affected by the magnetic damping. Although the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period, the time needed for the relaxation of the magnetization to the equilibrium state is rather large. The influence of the different magnetic anisotropy contributions and the magnetic damping parameter enters into the magnetization reversal process. Comparing the case of perpendicular anisotropy with different kinds of in-plane anisotropies, a principal difference is found due to the symmetry of the shape anisotropy with respect to the anisotropy in question.

Bauer, M.; Lopusnik, R.; Fassbender, J.; Hillebrands, B.

2000-08-01

151

Note on an Apparent Highly-Sheared Magnetic Field Structure.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using vector magnetograms and a force-free model, the magnetic field structure of the active solar region BBR 18474 of 1982 July 15, and 1982 July 16 was investigated. Comparison of the azimuths of the current-free model of the magnetic field structure in...

J. Linke G. Bachmann

1989-01-01

152

Scalar Magnetic Field Distribution Function Approach to MHD Turbulence

Lattice Boltzmann (LB) representations are mesoscopic algorithms that exploit a simple collide-stream scheme that is ideal for parallelization -- even for non-periodic boundary conditions. Moreover, in LB one can enforce to machine accuracy. Typically one has introduced a vector distribution function for the magnetic field to account for the asymmetry tensor in the magnetic field evolution as opposed to the

Tao Wang; George Vahala; Linda Vahala

2009-01-01

153

On the Computation of Integral Curves in Adaptive Mesh Refinement Vector Fields

Integral curves, such as streamlines, streaklines, pathlines, and timelines, are an essential tool in the analysis of vector field structures, offering straightforward and intuitive interpretation of visualization results. While such curves have a long-standing tradition in vector field visualization, their application to Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulation results poses unique problems. AMR is a highly effective discretization method for a variety of physical simulation problems and has recently been applied to the study of vector fields in flow and magnetohydrodynamic applications. The cell-centered nature of AMR data and discontinuities in the vector field representation arising from AMR level boundaries complicate the application of numerical integration methods to compute integral curves. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to alleviate these problems and show its application to streamline visualization in an AMR model of the magnetic field of the solar system as well as to a simulation of two incompressible viscous vortex rings merging.

Deines, Eduard; Weber, Gunther H.; Garth, Christoph; Van Straalen, Brian; Borovikov, Sergey; Martin, Daniel F.; Joy, Kenneth I.

2011-06-27

154

Height variation of the magnetic field in sunspot umbrae

We present the results of investigations of the magnetic field structure in four regularly shaped sunspots. The longitudinal magnetic fields and brightness were measured in the line Fe I lambda 525.3 nm by means of the double magnetograph of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. All three components of the magnetic field vector were reconstructed from the line-of-sight component. The vertical gradient

O. S. Gopasyuk

2001-01-01

155

Magnetic Field Analysis of a Permanent-Magnet Induction Generator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The permanent-magnet induction generator (PMIG) is a new type of induction machine that has a permanent-magnet rotor inside a squirrel-cage rotor. In this paper, a new technique for the magnetic field analysis of the PMIG is proposed. The proposed technique is based on the PMIG's equivalent circuit and the two-dimensional finite-element analysis (2D-FEA). To execute the 2D-FEA, the phasors of primary and secondary currents are calculated from the equivalent circuit, and the input data for the 2D-FEA is found by converting these phasors into the space vectors. As a result, the internal magnetic fields of the PMIG can be easily analyzed without complicated calculations.

Tsuda, Toshihiro; Fukami, Tadashi; Kanamaru, Yasunori; Miyamoto, Toshio

156

Magnetic Field Problem: Current and Magnets

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The above animations represent two typical bar magnets each with a North and South pole. The arrows represent the direction of the magnetic field. A wire is placed between the magnets and a current that comes out of the page can be turned on.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

157

Magnetic Field Issues in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging depend on the capability of the available hardware. Specifically, for the main magnet configuration, using derivative constraints, we can create a static magnetic field with reduced levels of inhomogeneity over a prescribed imaging volume. In the gradient coil, the entire design for the axial elliptical coil, and the mathematical foundation for the transverse elliptical coil

Labros Spiridon Petropoulos

1993-01-01

158

Integrated semiconductor magnetic field sensors

Recent developments in integrated silicon magnetic devices are reviewed, with particular attention given to integrated Hall plates, magnetic field-effect transistors, vertical and lateral bipolar magnetotransistors, magnetodiodes, and current-domain magnetometers. Also described are current developments in integrated magnetic field sensors based on III-V semiconductors and bulk Hall-effect devices. The discussion also covers magnetic device modeling and the incorporation of magnetic devices

H. P. Baltes; R. S. Popovic

1986-01-01

159

A topology simplification method for 2D vector fields

Topology analysis of plane, turbulent vector fields results in visual clutter caused by critical points indicating vortices of finer and finer scales. A simplification can be achieved by merging critical points within a prescribed radius into higher order critical points. After building clusters containing the singularities to merge, the method generates a piecewise linear representation of the vector field in

Xavier Tricoche; Gerik Scheuermann; Hans Hagen

2000-01-01

160

The Curl of a Vector Field: Beyond the Formula

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It has been widely acknowledged that there is some discrepancy in the teaching of vector calculus in mathematics courses and other applied fields. The curl of a vector field is one topic many students can calculate without understanding its significance. In this paper, we explain the origin of the curl after presenting the standard mathematical…

Burch, Kimberly Jordan; Choi, Youngna

2006-01-01

161

Vector Field Path Following for Miniature Air Vehicles

In this paper, a method for accurate path following for miniature air vehicles is developed. The method is based on the notion of vector fields, which are used to generate desired course inputs to inner-loop attitude control laws. Vector field path following control laws are developed for straight-line paths and circular arcs and orbits. Lyapunov stability arguments are used to

Derek R. Nelson; D. Blake Barber; Timothy W. Mclain; Randal W. Beard

2007-01-01

162

Examples of non-conjugated holomorphic vector fields and foliations

We consider germs of holomorphic vector fields near the origin of C2 with a saddle-node singularity, and the induced singular foliations. In a previous article we described the invariants addressing the analytical classification of these vector fields. They split into three parts: a formal, an orbital and a tangential component. For a fixed formal class, the orbital invariant (associated to

Loc Teyssier

2004-01-01

163

Glyphs for Visualizing Uncertainty in Vector Fields

Environmental data have inherent uncertainty which is often ignored in visualization. Meteorological stations and doppler radars, including their time series averages, have a wealth of uncertainty information that traditional vector visualization methods such as meteorological wind barbs and arrow glyphs simply ignore. We have developed a new vector glyph to visualize uncertainty in winds and ocean currents. Our approach is

Craig M. Wittenbrink; Alex Pang; Suresh K. Lodha

1996-01-01

164

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past several years have seen dramatic developments in the study of planetary magnetic fields, including a wealth of new data, mainly from the Galilean satellites and Mars, together with major improvements in our theoretical modeling effort of the dynamo process believed responsible for large planetary fields. These dynamos arise from thermal or compositional convection in fluid regions of large radial extent. The relevant electrical conductivities range from metallic values to values that may be only about 1% or less that of a typical metal, appropriate to ionic fluids and semiconductors. In all planets, the Coriolis force is dynamically important, but slow rotation may be more favorable for a dynamo than fast rotation. The maintenance and persistence of convection appears to be easy in gas giants and ice-rich giants, but is not assured in terrestrial planets because the quite high electrical conductivity of iron-rich cores guarantees a high thermal conductivity (through the Wiedemann-Franz law), which allows for a large core heat flow by conduction alone. In this sense, high electrical conductivity is unfavorable for a dynamo in a metallic core. Planetary dynamos mostly appear to operate with an internal field ~(2??/?)1/2 where ? is the fluid density, ? is the planetary rotation rate and ? is the conductivity (SI units). Earth, Ganymede, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and maybe Mercury have dynamos, Mars has large remanent magnetism from an ancient dynamo, and the Moon might also require an ancient dynamo. Venus is devoid of a detectable global field but may have had a dynamo in the past. The presence or absence of a dynamo in a terrestrial body (including Ganymede) appears to depend mainly on the thermal histories and energy sources of these bodies, especially the convective state of the silicate mantle and the existence and history of a growing inner solid core. Induced fields observed in Europa and Callisto indicate the strong likelihood of water oceans in these bodies.

Stevenson, David J.

2003-03-01

165

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe K-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) was used as vector magnetometry to measure the magnetization rotation while field cycling Gd/Fe multilayer antidot arrays through a hysteresis loop. The measured XMCD hysteresis curves were then compared quantitatively with micromagnetic calculations to reconstruct the microscopic magnetization configurations. The best fit reveals the existence of three types of characteristic domains: two that rotate coherently during magnetization reversal and one that is strongly pinned. The behavior is explained by a simple three-domain energy model, including a phenomenological ansatz for a shape-induced demagnetization energy contribution.

Lee, D. R.; Choi, Y.; You, C.-Y.; Lang, J. C.; Haskel, D.; Srajer, G.; Metlushko, V.; Ilic, B.; Bader, S. D.

2002-12-01

166

Magnetic field contribution to the Lorentz model.

The classical Lorentz model of dielectric dispersion is based on the microscopic Lorentz force relation and Newton's second law of motion for an ensemble of harmonically bound electrons. The magnetic field contribution in the Lorentz force relation is neglected because it is typically small in comparison with the electric field contribution. Inclusion of this term leads to a microscopic polarization density that contains both perpendicular and parallel components relative to the plane wave propagation vector. The modified parallel and perpendicular polarizabilities are both nonlinear in the local electric field strength. PMID:16783441

Oughstun, Kurt E; Albanese, Richard A

2006-07-01

167

Vector optical fields with bipolar symmetry of linear polarization.

We focus on a new kind of vector optical field with bipolar symmetry of linear polarization instead of cylindrical and elliptical symmetries, enriching members of family of vector optical fields. We design theoretically and generate experimentally the demanded vector optical fields and then explore some novel tightly focusing properties. The geometric configurations of states of polarization provide additional degrees of freedom assisting in engineering the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications such as lithography, optical trapping, and material processing. PMID:24104851

Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Si, Yu; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

2013-09-15

168

Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

1996-08-06

169

Vector field editing and periodic orbit extraction using Morse decomposition.

Design and control of vector fields is critical for many visualization and graphics tasks such as vector field visualization, fluid simulation, and texture synthesis. The fundamental qualitative structures associated with vector fields are fixed points, periodic orbits, and separatrices. In this paper, we provide a new technique that allows for the systematic creation and cancellation of fixed points and periodic orbits. This technique enables vector field design and editing on the plane and surfaces with desired qualitative properties. The technique is based on Conley theory, which provides a unified framework that supports the cancellation of fixed points and periodic orbits. We also introduce a novel periodic orbit extraction and visualization algorithm that detects, for the first time, periodic orbits on surfaces. Furthermore, we describe the application of our periodic orbit detection and vector field simplification algorithms to engine simulation data demonstrating the utility of the approach. We apply our design system to vector field visualization by creating data sets containing periodic orbits. This helps us understand the effectiveness of existing visualization techniques. Finally, we propose a new streamline-based technique that allows vector field topology to be easily identified. PMID:17495336

Chen, Guoning; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Laramee, Robert S; Pilarczyk, Pawel; Zhang, Eugene

170

Evolution of twisted magnetic fields

The magnetic field of the solar corona evolves quasistatically in response to slowly changing photospheric boundary conditions. The magnetic topology is preserved by the low resistivity of the solar atmosphere. We show that a magnetic flux coordinate system simplifies the problem of calculating field evolution with invariant topology. As an example, we calculate the equilibrium of a thin magnetic flux tube with small twist per unit length.

Zweibel, E.G.; Boozer, A.H.

1985-02-01

171

Fundamental length hypothesis and new concept of gauge vector field

Through an analysis of quantum field theory with ``fundamental length'' l[1-10], a new concept of gauge vector field is determined. The electromagnetic field is considered in detail. The new electromagnetic potential turns out to be a 5-vector associated with the De Sitter group SO(4,1). The extra fifth component, called tau-photon, similar to the scalar and longitudinal photons, does not correspond

Vladimir G. Kadyshevsky

1978-01-01

172

Visualizing vector fields using line integral convolution and dye advection

We present local and global techniques to visualizethree-dimensional vector field data. Using the Line IntegralConvolution (LIC) method to image the globalvector field, our new algorithm allows the user to introducecolored "dye" into the vector field to highlightlocal flow features. A fast algorithm is proposed thatquickly recomputes the dyed LIC images. In addition,we introduce volume rendering methods that can mapthe LIC

Han-Wei Shent; Christopher R. Johnsont; Kwan-Liu Mat

1996-01-01

173

Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

Miller, G.

1987-12-01

174

Stellar atmospheres with magnetic field

It is proposed that the most probable configuration of the magnetic field in the atmosphere of an Ap star is an almost force-free, poloidal field, close to a low-order multipole. Such a magnetic field can not change the structure of the atmosphere to any great extent, but the vertical component of the Lorentz force can decrease the effective gravity by

K. Stepien

1980-01-01

175

Microprobe for Measuring Magnetic Fields

The Hall effect has been widely utilized to measure magnetic fields. The relatively simple geometry of a Hall element suggested the use of such a device on a microscale as a probe to examine magnetic fields of small structures. Hall probes are described which were constructed with a sensitive area about 10×10 ?. Fields of less than 0.01 gauss were

D. D. Roshon Jr.

1962-01-01

176

Magnetic fields in galactic jets

The jet region of M87 is discussed to illustrate the astrophysical observations of radio sources, with note made of magnetic field phenomena contributing to radio frequency emissions. The jet appearing in M87 has been modelled as a continuous supersonic flow of plasma embedded in a self-consistent, ordered magnetic field. The field has both parallel and helical components, and may work

A. Ferrari

1982-01-01

177

Protogalactic evolution and magnetic fields

We show that the relatively strong magnetic fields ($\\\\ge 1 \\\\mu$G) in high\\u000aredshift objects can be explained by the combined action of an evolving\\u000aprotogalactic fluctuation and electrodynamic processes providing the magnetic\\u000aseed fields. Three different seed field mechanisms are reviewed and\\u000aincorporated into a spherical \\

Harald Lesch; Masashi Chiba

1994-01-01

178

Protogalactic evolution and magnetic fields

We show that the relatively strong magnetic fields (>=1muG) in high redshift objects can be explained by the combined action of an evolving protogalactic fluctuation and electrodynamic processes providing the magnetic seed fields. Three different seed field mechanisms are reviewed and incorporated into a spherical \\

H. Lesch; M. Chiba

1995-01-01

179

Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

1981-01-21

180

MIT Physics 8.02: Vector Fields Visualizations - Cross Product of Two Vectors

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive three-dimensional animation that illustrates the concept of vector cross product. Users set angle theta from zero to 360 degrees, and then rotate a vector through the angle. An animated hand automatically points in the proper direction according to the Right Hand Rule. No mathematics is introduced. This item is part of a collection of visualizations developed by the MIT TEAL project to supplement an introductory course in calculus-based electricity and magnetism. Lecture notes, labs, and presentations are also available as part of MIT's Open Courseware Repository: MIT Open Courseware: Electricity and Magnetism

2010-03-31

181

Height variation of the magnetic field in sunspot umbrae

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of investigations of the magnetic field structure in four regularly shaped sunspots. The longitudinal magnetic fields and brightness were measured in the line Fe I lambda 525.3 nm by means of the double magnetograph of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. All three components of the magnetic field vector were reconstructed from the line-of-sight component. The vertical gradient of the magnetic field and beam angle of the magnetic field lines were calculated. Their values were 0.03 mT/km and 29(0) , respectively. The inference was derived that the beam angle of the magnetic lines and the vertical gradient of the magnetic field must always correspond to each other. Conclusions which follow from this result are briefly discussed.

Gopasyuk, O. S.

2001-12-01

182

The Sun's global magnetic field.

Our present-day understanding of solar and stellar magnetic fields is discussed from both an observational and theoretical viewpoint. To begin with, observations of the Sun's large-scale magnetic field are described, along with recent advances in measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic fields on other stars. Following this, magnetic flux transport models used to simulate photospheric magnetic fields and the wide variety of techniques used to deduce global coronal magnetic fields are considered. The application and comparison of these models to the Sun's open flux, hemispheric pattern of solar filaments and coronal mass ejections are then discussed. Finally, recent developments in the construction of steady-state global magnetohydrodynamic models are considered, along with key areas of future research. PMID:22665897

Mackay, Duncan H

2012-07-13

183

Wave-Vector Dependence of Magnetic-Turbulence Spectra in the Solar Wind

Using four-point measurements of the Cluster spacecraft, the energy distribution was determined for magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind directly in the three-dimensional wave-vector domain in the range |k|{<=}1.5x10{sup -3} rad/km. The energy distribution exhibits anisotropic features characterized by a prominently extended structure perpendicular to the mean field preferring the ecliptic north direction and also by a moderately extended structure parallel to the mean field. From the three-dimensional energy distribution wave vector anisotropy is estimated with respect to directions parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, and the result suggests the dominance of quasi-two-dimensional turbulence toward smaller spatial scales.

Narita, Y.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Sahraoui, F.; Goldstein, M. L. [Institut fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstrasse 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Geospace Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

2010-04-30

184

The GGS/POLAR magnetic fields investigation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetometer on the POLAR Spacecraft is a high precision instrument designed to measure the magnetic fields at both high and low altitudes in the polar magnetosphere in 3 ranges of 700, 5700, and 47000 nT. This instrument will be used to investigate the behavior of fieldaligned current systems and the role they play in the acceleration of particles, and it will be used to study the dynamic fields in the polar cusp, magnetosphere, and magnetosheath. It will measure the coupling between the shocked magnetosheath plasma and the near polar cusp magnetosphere where much of the solar wind magnetosphere coupling is thought to take place. Moreover, it will provide measurements critical to the interpretation of data from other instruments. The instrument design has been influenced by the needs of the other investigations for immediately useable magnetic field data and high rate (100+vectors s-1) data distributed on the spacecraft. Data to the ground includes measurements at 10 vectors per second over the entire orbit plus snapshots of 100 vectors per second data. The design provides a fully redundant instrument with enhanced measurement capabilities that can be used when available spacecraft power permits.

Russell, C. T.; Snare, R. C.; Means, J. D.; Pierce, D.; Dearborn, D.; Larson, M.; Barr, G.; Le, G.

1995-02-01

185

Microwave Measurements of Coronal Magnetic Field

Magnetic field measurements of the solar corona using microwave observation are reviewed. The solar corona is filled with highly ionised plasma and magnetic field. Moving charged particles interact with magnetic field due to Lorentz force. This results in gyration motion perpendicular to the magnetic field and free motion along the magnetic field. Circularly polarized electro-magnetic waves interact with gyrating electrons

K. Shibasaki

2006-01-01

186

Generalized Gauge Principle in Electrodynamics of Scalar and Vector Fields.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The model of the spinor electrodynamics is extended to the case of bosonic fields. The model is based on the gauge invariance principle which incorporates a new universal parameter - the fundamental length. The scalar and vector electrodynamics equations ...

M. D. Mateev M. V. Chizhov

1980-01-01

187

Adjoint vector fields and differential operators on representation spaces

Let $G$ be a semisimple algebraic group with Lie algebra $\\\\g$. In 1979, J. Dixmier proved that any vector field annihilating all $G$-invariant polynomials on $\\\\g$ lies in the $\\\\bbk[\\\\g]$-module generated by the \\

Dmitri I. Panyushev

2008-01-01

188

Evolution of primordial magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we briefly summarise the main phases which determine the dynamical evolution of primordial magnetic fields in the early universe. On the one hand, strong fields undergo damping due to excitations of plasma fluctuations, and, on the other hand, weak magnetic fields will be strongly amplified by the small-scale dynamo in a turbulent environment. We find that, under reasonable assumptions concerning the efficiency of a putative magnetogenesis era during cosmic phase transitions, surprisingly strong magnetic fields 10-13-10-11 G on comparatively small scales 100 pc -10 kpc may survive to prior to structure formation. Additionally, any weak magnetic field will be exponentially amplified during the collapse of the first minihalos until they reach equipartition with the turbulent kinetic energy. Hence, we argue that it seems possible for cluster magnetic fields to be entirely of primordial origin.

Banerjee, R.

2013-06-01

189

The measurement of flow obtained using continuous wave Doppler ultrasound is formulated as a directional projection of a flow vector field. When a continuous ultrasound wave bounces against a flowing particle, a signal is backscattered. This signal obtains a Doppler frequency shift proportional to the speed of the particle along the ultrasound beam. This occurs for each particle along the beam, giving rise to a Doppler velocity spectrum. The first moment of the spectrum provides the directional projection of the flow along theultrasound beam. Signals reflected from points further away from the detector will have lower amplitude than signals reflected from points closer to the detector. The effect is very much akin to that modeled by the attenuated Radon transform in emission computed tomography.A least-squares method was adopted to reconstruct a 2D vector field from directional projection measurements. Attenuated projections of only the longitudinal projections of the vector field were simulated. The components of the vector field were reconstructed using the gradient algorithm to minimize a least-squares criterion. This result was compared with the reconstruction of longitudinal projections of the vector field without attenuation. Ifattenuation is known, the algorithm was able to accurately reconstruct both components of the full vector field from only one set of directional projection measurements. A better reconstruction was obtained with attenuation than without attenuation implying that attenuation provides important information for the reconstruction of flow vector fields.This confirms previous work where we showed that knowledge of the attenuation distribution helps in the reconstruction of MRI diffusion tensor fields from fewer than the required measurements. In the application of ultrasound the attenuation distribution is obtained with pulse wave transmission computed tomography and flow information is obtained with continuous wave Doppler.

Huang, Qiu; Peng, Qiyu; Huang, Bin; Cheryauka, Arvi; Gullberg, Grant T.

2008-05-15

190

Electric field vector characterization of terahertz surface plasmons

We demonstrate the ability to characterize independently the vector components of the electric field associated with terahertz surface plasmons. This is accomplished via electro-optic sampling, using an electro-optic crystal placed in close proximity to a corrugated metal foil. The individual electric field vector components are measured using two separate ZnTe crystals. Since ZnTe exhibits isotropic dielectric properties, all of the

Ajay Nahata; Wenqi Zhu

2007-01-01

191

Almost Hermitian manifolds admitting holomorphically planar conformal vector fields

. We classify and characterize an almost Hermitian manifold M admitting a holomorphically planar conformal vector (HPCV) field (a generalization of a closed conformal vector field) V . We show that if V is nowhere vanishing and strictly non-geodesic, then it is homothetic and almost analytic. If, in addition,M satisfies Gray’s first condition, then M is Kaehler. For a semi-Kaehler manifold

Amalendu Ghosh; Ramesh Sharma

2006-01-01

192

Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.

Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer

193

Measurements of magnetic field alignment

The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

1987-11-06

194

Origin of cosmic magnetic fields.

We calculate, in the free Maxwell theory, the renormalized quantum vacuum expectation value of the two-point magnetic correlation function in de Sitter inflation. We find that quantum magnetic fluctuations remain constant during inflation instead of being washed out adiabatically, as usually assumed in the literature. The quantum-to-classical transition of super-Hubble magnetic modes during inflation allow us to treat the magnetic field classically after reheating, when it is coupled to the primeval plasma. The actual magnetic field is scale independent and has an intensity of few×10(-12)??G if the energy scale of inflation is few×10(16)??GeV. Such a field accounts for galactic and galaxy cluster magnetic fields. PMID:23971556

Campanelli, Leonardo

2013-08-06

195

Robust Morse decompositions of piecewise constant vector fields.

In this paper, we introduce a new approach to computing a Morse decomposition of a vector field on a triangulated manifold surface. The basic idea is to convert the input vector field to a piecewise constant (PC) vector field, whose trajectories can be computed using simple geometric rules. To overcome the intrinsic difficulty in PC vector fields (in particular, discontinuity along mesh edges), we borrow results from the theory of differential inclusions. The input vector field and its PC variant have similar Morse decompositions. We introduce a robust and efficient algorithm to compute Morse decompositions of a PC vector field. Our approach provides subtriangle precision for Morse sets. In addition, we describe a Morse set classification framework which we use to color code the Morse sets in order to enhance the visualization. We demonstrate the benefits of our approach with three well-known simulation data sets, for which our method has produced Morse decompositions that are similar to or finer than those obtained using existing techniques, and is over an order of magnitude faster. PMID:21747131

Szymczak, Andrzej; Zhang, Eugene

2012-06-01

196

Animation of orthogonal texture patterns for vector field visualization.

This paper introduces orthogonal vector field visualization on 2D manifolds: a representation by lines that are perpendicular to the input vector field. Line patterns are generated by line integral convolution (LIC). This visualization is combined with animation based on motion along the vector field. This decoupling of the line direction from the direction of animation allows us to choose the spatial frequencies along the direction of motion independently from the length scales along the LIC line patterns. Vision research indicates that local motion detectors are tuned to certain spatial frequencies of textures, and the above decoupling enables us to generate spatial frequencies optimized for motion perception. Furthermore, we introduce a combined visualization that employs orthogonal LIC patterns together with conventional, tangential streamline LIC patterns in order to benefit from the advantages of these two visualization approaches. In addition, a filtering process is described to achieve a consistent and temporally coherent animation of orthogonal vector field visualization. Different filter kernels and filter methods are compared and discussed in terms of visualization quality and speed. We present respective visualization algorithms for 2D planar vector fields and tangential vector fields on curved surfaces, and demonstrate that those algorithms lend themselves to efficient and interactive GPU implementations. PMID:18467751

Bachthaler, Sven; Weiskopf, Daniel

197

We consider the propagation of visible radiation from quasars located at cosmological distances in intergalactic space, taking pseudoscalar-photon mixing into account. We assume that the intergalactic magnetic field is uncorrelated in the wave vector space such that the two point correlation function shows a power dependence on the magnitude of the wave vector. This leads to correlated magnetic field in

Nishant Agarwal; Pavan K. Aluri; Pankaj Jain; Udit Khanna; Prabhakar Tiwari

2011-01-01

198

Magnetic Field Problem: Measuring Current

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A cross section of two circular wire loops carrying the exact same current is shown above (position given in centimeters and magnetic field given in milli-Tesla). You can click-drag to read the magnitude of the magnetic field.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-03-03

199

Nonperturbative solution for BLOCH electrons in constant magnetic fields.

A general theoretical approach for the nonperturbative Bloch solution of Schrödinger's equation in the presence of a constant magnetic field is presented. Using a singular gauge transformation based on a lattice of magnetic flux lines, an equivalent quantum system with a periodic vector potential is obtained. For rational magnetic fields this system forms a magnetic superlattice for which Bloch's theorem then applies. Extensions of the approach to particles with spin and many-body systems and connections to the theory of magnetic translation groups are discussed. PMID:12906615

Trellakis, A

2003-08-01

200

Equatorial Pacific magnetic anomalies identified from vector aeromagnetic data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been challenging to identify magnetic anomalies due to seafloor spreading in the equatorial Pacific. Here we show that Project Magnet vector aeromagnetic profiles from the equatorial Pacific record magnetic anomalies due to seafloor spreading much more clearly than do shipboard total intensity profiles. The anomalies are reliably recorded at wavelengths between ~20 and ~150 km in the vertical and east components, which have high coherence, differ in phase by ~90°, and resemble synthetic magnetic anomaly profiles. From an analysis of a single near-equatorial vector aeromagnetic profile we infer that the magnetic lineations strike ~8°-10° counter-clockwise of north and that magnetic anomaly 7 is located ~400 km further east than previously estimated. The newly estimated location of anomaly 6 is consistent with a tentative estimate by Wilson from a low-amplitude shipboard magnetic profile. Because the skewness of profiles over the seafloor formed near the paleoequator changes rapidly with paleolatitude and paleostrike, a skewness analysis of these data may provide useful bounds on the location of Pacific Plate paleomagnetic poles, and indicate that this seafloor has had little, if any, northward motion relative to the spin axis since it formed.

Horner-Johnson, Benjamin C.; Gordon, Richard G.

2003-11-01

201

Unveiling locally linearly polarized vector fields with broken axial symmetry

We explore how the focusing of axial-symmetry-broken vector fields is associated with a sector aperture whose apex coincides with the field axis. Its focused field is azimuthally split into a pair of orthogonal right- and left-handed circularly polarized partial rings which are rotated by angles of {+-}{pi}/2 with respect to the input vector field carrying no orbital angular momentum (OAM) and no spin angular momentum (SAM), respectively. Each member of the pair of partial rings carries not only the opposite OAM but also the opposite SAM. We unveil the underlying physics behind such an effect.

Wang Xilin; Lou Kai; Chen Jing; Gu Bing; Li Yongnan [School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Weak Light Nonlinear Photonics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang Huitian [School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Weak Light Nonlinear Photonics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2011-06-15

202

An internal potential function was created using the averaged MGS vector data released by Mario Acuna for altitudes from 95 to 209 km above the Martian geoid, all longitudes, and latitudes from 87 degrees south to 78 degrees north. Even with some gaps in coverage it is found that a consistent internal potential function can be derived up to spherical

J. C. Cain; B. Ferguson; D. Mozzoni; L. Hood

2000-01-01

203

Visualization of vector fields using seed LIC and volume rendering.

Line Integral Convolution (LIC) is a powerful texture-based technique for visualizing vector fields. Due to the high computational expense of generating the 3D textures and the difficulties of effectively displaying the result, LIC has most commonly been used to depict vector fields in 2D or over a surface in 3D. Here, we propose new methods for more effective volume visualization of three-dimensional vector fields using LIC: 1) We present a fast method for computing volume LIC textures that exploits the sparsity of the input texture. 2) We propose the use of a shading technique, called limb darkening, to reveal the depth relations among the field lines. The shading effect is obtained simply by using appropriate transfer functions and, therefore, avoids using expensive shading techniques. 3) We demonstrate how two-field visualization techniques can be used to enhance the visual information describing a vector field. The volume LIC textures are rendered using texture-based rendering techniques, which allows interactive exploration of a vector field. PMID:15527049

Helgeland, Anders; Andreassen, Oyvind

204

For solar and heliospheric physics, energy release mechanism of solar flares and onset of CMEs are one of the most the most important issues. Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope (SMART) in Hida observatory Kyoto University aims to investigate the relation between the solar flares and photospheric vector magnetic field. Full disk high resolution H-alpha images as well as and photospheric

K. Otsuji; S. Nagata; S. Ueno; R. Kitai; G. Kimura; Y. Nakatani; T. Ishii; S. Morita; K. Shibata

2009-01-01

205

The Magnetic Field of Solar Chromospheric Spicules

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suitable diagnostic tool for investigating the magnetism of the solar chromosphere is the observation and theoretical modeling of the Hanle and Zeeman effects in solar spicules. In our presentation we highlighted the great scientific interest of this new diagnostic window by showing how the magnetic field vector can be inferred from spectropolarimetric observations of solar chromospheric spicules in several spectral lines, such as those of the 10830 Å and 5876 Å multiplets of neutral helium. Our off-limb spectropolarimetric observations of the He I 10830 Å multiplet were obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) attached to the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife), while those of the 5876 Å multiplet resulted from observations with the Zurich Imaging Polarimeter (ZIMPOL) at the Gregory Coudé Telescope of the Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno. The application of a Stokes profiles inversion technique led to the following conclusion. In quiet Sun spicules the magnetic field vector at a height of about 2000 km above the solar visible ``surface" has a typical strength of the order to 10 G and is inclined by approximately 35° with respect to the solar local vertical direction. In spicules observed close to active regions the strength of the magnetic field was of the order of 50 G. The two figures below show the off-limb Stokes profiles of the He I 5876 Å multiplet observed in a quiet region (upper figure) and close to an active region (lower figure). Note that in both cases Stokes U is non-zero, which is the observational signature of the Hanle effect of an inclined magnetic field. The change of sign in Stokes U along the spatial direction of the spectrograph's slit can be explained by variations in the azimuth of the magnetic field vector. Interestingly, while the Stokes V profiles corresponding to the observed quiet region are caused by the alignment-to-orientation transfer mechanism (see, e.g., page 607 of Landi Degl'Innocenti & Landolfi 2004), that observed in the spicules close to the active region is dominated by the longitudinal Zeeman effect. The interested reader will find more information in the papers by Trujillo Bueno et al. (2005) and by Ramelli et al. (2006).

Trujillo Bueno, J.; Ramelli, R.; Merenda, L.; Bianda, M.

2007-05-01

206

Two-dimensional Magnetic Properties Of Silicon Steel Sheet Under Rotating Field

rbstract We have studied the new concept regard on rotational magnetic properties which is called twoimensional rotational magnetic properties. It is measured making use of the vector relation between magnetic field trength H and magnetic flux density B. ntroduction The evaluation of magnetic properties in materials is very important to develop he highly efficient electrical machine and apparatus. Also the

M. Enokizono; T. Todaka; S. Kanao; J. Sievert

1993-01-01

207

Magnetic field in a finite toroidal domain

The magnetic field structure in a domain surrounded by a closed toroidal magnetic surface is analyzed. It is shown that ergodization of magnetic field lines is possible even in a regular field configuration (with nonvanishing toroidal component). A unified approach is used to describe magnetic fields with nested toroidal (possibly asymmetric) flux surfaces, magnetic islands, and ergodic field lines.

Ilgisonis, V. I.; Skovoroda, A. A., E-mail: skovorod@nfi.kiae.r [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

208

THEORY OF CHARGED VECTOR MESONS INTERACTING WITH THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

It is shown that starting from the usual canonical formalism for the ; electromagnetic interaction of a charged vector meson with arbitrary magnetic ; moment one is ied to a set of rules for Feynman diagrams, which appears to ; contain terms that are both infinite and noncovariant. These difficulties, ; however, can be circumvented by introducing a xi -limiting

T. D. Lee; C. N. Yang

1962-01-01

209

Photon magnetic moment and vacuum magnetization in an asymptotically large magnetic field

We consider the effect of the photon radiative correction on the vacuum energy in a superstrong magnetic field. The notion of a photon anomalous magnetic moment is analyzed and its connection with the quasiparticle character of the electromagnetic radiation is established. In the infrared domain the magnetic moment turns out to be a vector with two orthogonal components in correspondence with the cylindrical symmetry imposed by the external field. The possibility of defining such quantity in the high energy limit is studied as well. Its existence suggests that the electromagnetic radiation is a source of magnetization to the whole vacuum and thus its electron-positron zero-point energy is slightly modified. The corresponding contribution to the vacuum magnetization density is determined by considering the individual contribution of each vacuum polarization eigenmode in the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian. A paramagnetic response is found in one of them, whereas the remaining ones are diamagnetic. Additional issues concerning the transverse pressures are analyzed.

Villalba-Chavez, Selym [Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, 8010, Graz (Austria)

2010-05-15

210

VECTUM. Irregular 2D Velocity Vector Field Plotting Package

VECTUM is a NCAR Graphics based package, for generating a plot of an irregular 2D velocity vector field. The program reads an ASCII database of x, y, u, v, data pairs and produces a plot in Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) format. The program also uses an ASCII parameter file for controlling annotation details such as the plot title, arrowhead style, scale of vectors, windowing, etc. Simple geometry (i.e. lines, arcs, splines) can be defined to be included with the velocity vectors. NCAR Graphics drivers can be used to display the CGM file into PostScript, HPGL, HDF, etc, output.

McClurg, F.R.; Mousseau, V.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-05-04

211

Magnetic fields and scintillator performance

Experimental data have shown that the light output of a scintillator depends on the magnitude of the externally applied magnetic fields, and that this variation can affect the calorimeter calibration and possibly resolution. The goal of the measurements presented here is to study the light yield of scintillators in high magnetic fields in conditions that are similar to those anticipated for the LHC CMS detector. Two independent measurements were performed, the first at Fermilab and the second at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University.

Green, D.; Ronzhin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Hagopian, V. [Florida State Univ., Tallahasse, FL (United States)

1995-06-01

212

A vector oriented control for a magnetically levitated shaft

Considering the nonlinear model of Active Magnetic Bearings, a new means of nonlinear control is presented which treats variables as rotating vectors in the control plane, specially the unbalance. It became easy to cancel out the effect of this perturbation in a rotating reference. Therefore, the rotor can rotate around any desired point, particularly the geometric center or the center of gravity. Simulations illustrate the efficacy of this control law.

De Miras, J.; Charara, A. [UTC, Compiegne (France)

1998-07-01

213

Magnetic resonance velocity vector mapping in aortic aneurysms

We used magnetic resonance imaging with cine velocity vector mapping to study blood flow patterns in the thoracic aorta of patients with aortic aneurysms. Spin-echo images of the thoracic aorta were acquired in orthogonal and oblique planes. Cine phase-shift velocity maps were then acquired in selected aortic planes, with velocity encoded in two orthogonal directions. The two-directional velocity data were

R. H. Mohiaddin; H. G. Bogren; G. Z. Yang; P. J. Kilner; D. N. Firmin

1994-01-01

214

Revealing the Magnetic Field Configuration in M17-SO1

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present near-infrared imaging polarimetry of the silhouette young stellar object M17-SO1. When the continuum and the scattering components are separated, the 2.17-?m Br? image reveals the absorptive polarization vectors (i.e., magnetic field lines) exiting the mid-plane of the circumstellar envelope at relatively wide angles. Such a configuration may imply a slightly pulled-in, co-rotating frozen-in poloidal magnetic field.

Fujiyoshi, T.; Yamashita, T.; Sako, S.; Hough, J. H.; Lucas, P. W.

2011-11-01

215

Project MAGNET high-level vector survey data reduction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1951, the U.S. Navy, under its Project MAGNET program, has been continuously collecting vector aeromagnetic survey data to support the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency's world magnetic and charting program. During this forty-year period, a variety of survey platforms and instrumentation configurations have been used. The current Project MAGNET survey platform is a Navy Orion RP-3D aircraft which has been specially modified and specially equipped with a redundant suite of navigational positioning, attitude, and magnetic sensors. A review of the survey data collection procedures and calibration and editing techniques applied to the data generated by this suite of instrumentation will be presented. Among the topics covered will be the determination of its parameters from the low-level calibration maneuvers flown over geomagnetic observatories.

Coleman, Rachel J.

1992-06-01

216

Computation of Surface Integrals of Curl Vector Fields

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a way of computing a surface integral when the vector field of the integrand is a curl field. Presented in some advanced calculus textbooks such as [1], the technique, as the author experienced, is simple and applicable. The computation is based on Stokes' theorem in 3-space calculus, and thus provides not only a means to…

Hu, Chenglie

2007-01-01

217

Pattern forced geophysical vector field segmentation based on Clifford FFT

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vector field segmentation is gaining increasing importance in geophysics research. Existing vector field segmentation methods usually can only handle the statistical characteristics of the original data. It is hard to integrate the patterns forced by certain geophysical phenomena. In this paper, a template matching method is firstly constructed on the foundation of the Clifford Fourier Transformation (CFT). The geometric meanings of both inner and outer components can provide more attractive information about the similarities between original vector field and template data. A composed similarity field is constructed based on the coefficients fields. After that, a modified spatial consistency preserving K-Means cluster algorithm is proposed. This algorithm is applied to the similarity fields to extract the template forced spatial distribution pattern. The complete algorithm for the overall processing is given and the experiments of ENSO forced global ocean surface wind segmentation are configured to test our method. The results suggest that the pattern forced segmentation can extract more latent information that cannot be directly measured from the original data. And the spatial distribution of ENSO influence on the surface wind field is clearly given in the segmentation result. All the above suggest that the method we proposed provides powerful and new thoughts and tools for geophysical vector field data analysis.

Yuan, Linwang; Yu, Zhaoyuan; Luo, Wen; Yi, Lin; Hu, Yong

2013-10-01

218

Magnetic resonance imaging of time-varying magnetic fields from therapeutic devices.

While magnetic resonance imaging of static magnetic fields generated by external probes has been previously demonstrated, there is an unmet need to image time-varying magnetic fields such as those generated by transcranial magnetic stimulators and radiofrequency hyperthermia probes. A method to image such time-varying magnetic fields is introduced in this study. This article presents the theory behind the method and provides proof of concept by imaging time-varying magnetic fields generated by a figure-eight coil inside simple phantoms over a range of frequencies and intensities using a 7T small animal MRI scanner. The method was able to reconstruct the three-dimensional components of the oscillating magnetic field vector. PMID:23355446

Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Bhatia, Vivek; Prem-Kumar, Krishan; Ulfarsson, Magnus

2013-01-28

219

Improvement of cardiac CT reconstruction using local motion vector fields.

The motion of the heart is a major challenge for cardiac imaging using CT. A novel approach to decrease motion blur and to improve the signal to noise ratio is motion compensated reconstruction which takes motion vector fields into account in order to correct motion. The presented work deals with the determination of local motion vector fields from high contrast objects and their utilization within motion compensated filtered back projection reconstruction. Image registration is applied during the quiescent cardiac phases. Temporal interpolation in parameter space is used in order to estimate motion during strong motion phases. The resulting motion vector fields are during image reconstruction. The method is assessed using a software phantom and several clinical cases for calcium scoring. As a criterion for reconstruction quality, calcium volume scores were derived from both, gated cardiac reconstruction and motion compensated reconstruction throughout the cardiac phases using low pitch helical cone beam CT acquisitions. The presented technique is a robust method to determine and utilize local motion vector fields. Motion compensated reconstruction using the derived motion vector fields leads to superior image quality compared to gated reconstruction. As a result, the gating window can be enlarged significantly, resulting in increased SNR, while reliable Hounsfield units are achieved due to the reduced level of motion artefacts. The enlargement of the gating window can be translated into reduced dose requirements. PMID:19097853

Schirra, Carsten Oliver; Bontus, Claas; van Stevendaal, Udo; Dössel, Olaf; Grass, Michael

2008-12-19

220

Magnetic field structure of Mercury

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently planet Mercury—an unexplored territory in our solar system—has been of much interest to the scientific community due to recent flybys of the spacecraft MESSENGER that discovered its intrinsic stationary and large-scale dipole like magnetic field structure with an intensity of ˜300nT confirming Mariner 10 observations. In the present study, with the observed constraint of Mercury's atmospheric magnetic field structure, internal magnetic field structure is modeled as a solution of magnetic diffusion equation. In this study, Mercury's internal structure mainly consists of a stable stratified fluid core and the convective mantle. For simplicity, magnetic diffusivity in both parts of the structure is considered to be uniform and constant with a value represented by a suitable averages. It is further assumed that vigorous convection in the mantle disposes of the electric currents leading to a very high diffusivity in that region. Thus, in order to satisfy observed atmospheric magnetic field structure, Mercury's most likely magnetic field structure consists of a solution of MHD diffusion equation in the core and a combined multipolar (dipole and quadrupole like magnetic field structures embedded in the uniform field) solution of a current free like magnetic field structure in the mantle and in the atmosphere. With imposition of appropriate boundary conditions at the core-mantle boundary for the first two diffusion eigen modes, in order to satisfy the observed field structure, present study puts the constraint on Mercury's core radius to be ˜2000km.From the estimated magnetic diffusivity and the core radius, it is also possible to estimate the two diffusion eigen modes with their diffusion time scales of ˜8.6 and 3.7 billion years respectively suggesting that the planet inherits its present-day magnetic field structure from the solar Nebula. It is proposed that permanency of such a large-scale magnetic field structure of the planet is attained during Mercury's early evolutionary history of heavy bombardments by the asteroids and comets supporting the giant impact hypothesis for the formation of Mercury.

Hiremath, K. M.

2012-04-01

221

Cosmic Magnetic Fields – An Overview

\\u000a Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion\\u000a on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys\\u000a of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds’ staffs get at times

Richard Wielebinski; Rainer Beck

2010-01-01

222

Magnetic Pumping in Spatially Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic pumping by major-radius oscillation of a toroidal plasma can be made more practical by introducing a major-radius range within which the vertical-field gradient is sufficiently great so that major-radius perturbations are marginally stable or, be...

H. P. Furth R. A. Ellis

1972-01-01

223

Simulations of Photospheric Magnetic Fields

We have run plots of artificial data, which mimic solar magnetograms, through standard algorithms to critique several results reported in the literature. In studying correlation algorithms, we show that the differences in the profiles for the differential rotation of the photospheric magnetic field stem from different methods of averaging. We verify that the lifetimes of small magnetic features, or of

A. A. Smith; H. B. Snodgrass

1999-01-01

224

Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)|

Stewart, Gay B.

2000-01-01

225

Magnetic Field Waves at Uranus.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed research efforts funded by the UDAP grant to the BRI involve the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. This is a collaborative venture bringing together investigators at the BRI, Southwest Research Institute (Sw...

C. W. Smith M. L. Goldstein R. P. Lepping W. H. Mish H. K. Wong

1991-01-01

226

Thermometers in Low Magnetic Fields

In this article the effect of low amplitude DC magnetic fields on different types of thermometers is discussed. By means of\\u000a a precision water-cooled electromagnet, the effect of a magnetic field on platinum resistance thermometers, thermistors, and\\u000a type T, J, and K thermocouples was investigated, while thermometers were thermally stabilized in thermostatic baths. Four\\u000a different baths were used for temperatures

G. Gersak; S. Begus

2010-01-01

227

Theorem on magnet fringe field

Transverse particle motion in particle accelerators is governed almost totally by non-solenoidal magnets for which the body magnetic field can be expressed as a series expansion of the normal (b{sub n}) and skew (a{sub n}) multipoles, B{sub y} + iB{sub x} = {summation}(b{sub n} + ia{sub n})(x + iy){sup n}, where x, y, and z denote horizontal, vertical, and longitudinal (along the magnet) coordinates. Since the magnet length L is necessarily finite, deflections are actually proportional to ``field integrals`` such as {bar B}L {equivalent_to} {integral} B(x,y,z)dz where the integration range starts well before the magnet and ends well after it. For {bar a}{sub n}, {bar b}{sub n}, {bar B}{sub x}, and {bar B}{sub y} defined this way, the same expansion Eq. 1 is valid and the ``standard`` approximation is to neglect any deflections not described by this expansion, in spite of the fact that Maxwell`s equations demand the presence of longitudinal field components at the magnet ends. The purpose of this note is to provide a semi-quantitative estimate of the importance of {vert_bar}{Delta}p{sub {proportional_to}}{vert_bar}, the transverse deflection produced by the ion-gitudinal component of the fringe field at one magnet end relative to {vert_bar}{Delta}p{sub 0}{vert_bar}, the total deflection produced by passage through the whole magnet. To emphasize the generality and simplicity of the result it is given in the form of a theorem. The essence of the proof is an evaluation of the contribution of the longitudinal field B{sub x} from the vicinity of one magnet end since, along a path parallel to the magnet axis such as path BC.

Wei, Jie [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Talman, R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Nuclear Studies

1995-12-31

228

Attitude determination and stabilization of a spherically symmetric rigid body in a magnetic field

Observation and stabilization problems for a rigid body rotating about its mass centre in a time-periodic magnetic field is considered. The moment of the applied forces about the mass centre is a vector product of the field and the vector of control. The only measurement is of the field and its time derivatives in the body co-ordinates. The model describes

Georgi V. Smirnov

2001-01-01

229

Improved magnetic field analysis of induction motor models

This paper presents an improved magnetic field analysis for induction motor models. In the analysis with the conventional numerical modeling of magnetic materials, the vector relations between the flux density and the field intensity under a rotating field cannot be expressed exactly. In this paper, the authors derived the tensor magnetic reluctivity from the data measured with two-dimensional measurement method. This expression is applied to analyze a three-phase induction motor model core. The examples show that the calculated results obtained by the new method are different from those of the conventional modeling.

Enokizono, Masato; Sadanaga, Yuichiro [Oita Univ. (Japan)

1998-09-01

230

Is the solar chromospheric magnetic field force-free?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use observations of the Na I lambda 5896 spectral line, made with the Stokes Polarimeter at Mees Solar Observatory, to measure the chromospheric vector magnetic field in NOAA active region 7216. We compute the magnetic field from observations of the Stokes parameters at six wavelengths within this spectral line using a derivative method and calculate the height dependence of the net Lorentz force in the photosphere and low chromosphere. We conclude that the magnetic field is not force-free in the photosphere, but becomes force-free roughly 400 km above the photosphere.

Metcalf, Thomas R.; Jiao, Litao; McClymont, Alexander N.; Canfield, Richard C.; Uitenbroek, Han

1995-01-01

231

Complex magnetic fields in an active region

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution observations of the full Stokes vector in Fe\\sc i spectral lines around 5250 Angstroms obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma with the ZIMPOL I Stokes polarimeter in a complex active region reveal the presence of anomalously shaped Stokes profiles indicating the coexistence of at least two magnetic components within the same spatial resolution element. These Stokes profiles have been analyzed with an inversion code based on a 3-component atmospheric model with two magnetic and one field-free component. The fits to the observations in a magnetic region that resembles a small penumbra reveal the presence of a horizontal magnetic field component with an average field strength of /line{B}=840 G, a mean filling factor of /line?=0.12, and an average temperature /line{T}=5400 K at log {tau_ {5000}}=-1.5 embedded in the main ``penumbral'' magnetic field that has /line{B}=1500 G, /line?=0.56, and /line{T}=4900 K. The horizontal component exhibits a mean outflow of 2.7 km s(-1) which is mainly due to the Evershed flow. In a region where there are strong downflows up to 7 km s(-1) , we infer the possible presence of a shock front whose height changes along the slit. The height variation can be explained by a change of the gas pressure at the base of the photosphere below the shock front as proposed by Thomas & Montesinos (1991). Small plages with field strengths below 900 G have been observed in the vicinity of some pores. Finally, we present a puzzling field structure at the boundary between two adjacent pores. Ambiguous results suggest that although the inversion code is able to successfully invert even very complex Stokes profiles, we are far from a complete description of the field structure in complex magnetic regions. We warn that magnetograms and fits to data involving only a single magnetic component may hide the true complexity of the magnetic structure in at least some parts of active regions.

Bernasconi, P. N.; Keller, C. U.; Solanki, S. K.; Stenflo, J. O.

1998-01-01

232

Vector field statistical analysis of kinematic and force trajectories.

When investigating the dynamics of three-dimensional multi-body biomechanical systems it is often difficult to derive spatiotemporally directed predictions regarding experimentally induced effects. A paradigm of 'non-directed' hypothesis testing has emerged in the literature as a result. Non-directed analyses typically consist of ad hoc scalar extraction, an approach which substantially simplifies the original, highly multivariate datasets (many time points, many vector components). This paper describes a commensurately multivariate method as an alternative to scalar extraction. The method, called 'statistical parametric mapping' (SPM), uses random field theory to objectively identify field regions which co-vary significantly with the experimental design. We compared SPM to scalar extraction by re-analyzing three publicly available datasets: 3D knee kinematics, a ten-muscle force system, and 3D ground reaction forces. Scalar extraction was found to bias the analyses of all three datasets by failing to consider sufficient portions of the dataset, and/or by failing to consider covariance amongst vector components. SPM overcame both problems by conducting hypothesis testing at the (massively multivariate) vector trajectory level, with random field corrections simultaneously accounting for temporal correlation and vector covariance. While SPM has been widely demonstrated to be effective for analyzing 3D scalar fields, the current results are the first to demonstrate its effectiveness for 1D vector field analysis. It was concluded that SPM offers a generalized, statistically comprehensive solution to scalar extraction's over-simplification of vector trajectories, thereby making it useful for objectively guiding analyses of complex biomechanical systems. PMID:23948374

Pataky, Todd C; Robinson, Mark A; Vanrenterghem, Jos

2013-07-31

233

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Aogashima Island, a volcanic island located in the southernmost part of the Izu Seven Islands Chain, vector magnetic anomalies were obtained in a helicopter-borne magnetic survey. The purpose of this study was to understand the volcanic structure of Aogashima Island in order to mitigate future disasters. Commonly, to obtain the magnetic structure of a volcanic island, total intensity anomalies (TIA) have been used, even though they have intrinsic errors that have not been evaluated correctly. Because the total intensity magnetic anomaly (TIA) is not a physical value, it does not satisfy Maxwell's Equations, Laplace's Equation, etc., and so TIA is not suitable for any physical analyses. In addition, it has been conventionally assumed that TIA is the same as the projected total intensity anomaly vector (PTA) for analyses of TIA. However, the effect of the intrinsic error (?T=TIA-PTA) on the analysis results has not been taken into account. To avoid such an effect, vector magnetic anomalies were measured so that a reliable analysis of Aogashima Island magnetization could be carried out. In this study, we evaluated the error in TIA and used vector anomalies to avoid this erroneous effect, in the process obtaining reliable analysis results for 3D, vector magnetization distributions. An area of less than 1 A/m magnetization was found in the south-west part of Aogashima Island at the depth of 1-2km. Taking the location of fumarolic activity into consideration, the lower-magnetization area was expected to be the source of that fumarolic activity of Aogashima Island.

Isezaski, Nobuhiro; Matsuo, Jun

2009-02-01

234

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A magnetic resonance system is disclosed. The system includes a transceiver having a multichannel receiver and a multichannel transmitter, where each channel of the transmitter is configured for independent selection of frequency, phase, time, space, and magnitude, and each channel of the receiver is configured for independent selection of space, time, frequency, phase and gain. The system also includes a magnetic resonance coil having a plurality of current elements, with each element coupled in one to one relation with a channel of the receiver and a channel of the transmitter. The system further includes a processor coupled to the transceiver, such that the processor is configured to execute instructions to control a current in each element and to perform a non-linear algorithm to shim the coil.

2010-09-21

235

Using four-point measurements of the CLUSTER spacecraft, the energy distribution of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is determined directly in the three-dimensional wave vector domain in the range 3 x 10{sup -4} rad/km < k < 3 x 10{sup -3} rad/km. The analysis method takes account of a regular tetrahedron configuration of CLUSTER and the Doppler effect. The energy distribution in the flow rest frame is anisotropic, characterized by two distinct extended structures perpendicular to the mean magnetic field and furthermore perpendicular to the flow direction. The three-dimensional distribution is averaged around the direction of the mean magnetic field direction, and then is further reduced to one-dimensional distributions in the wave number domain parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. The one-dimensional energy spectra are characterized by the power law with the index -5/3 and furthermore very close energy density between parallel and perpendicular directions to the mean magnetic field at the same wave numbers. Though the distributions and the spectra are not covered in a wide range of wave vectors, our measurements suggest that the solar wind fluctuation is anisotropic in the three-dimensional wave vector space. It is, however, rather isotropic when reduced into the parallel and perpendicular wave vector geometries due to the second anisotropy imposed by the flow direction.

Gary, S Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Narita, Y [UNIV OF BRAUNSCHWEIG; Glassmeier, K H [UNIV OF BRAUNSCHWEIG; Goldstein, M L [NGSFC; Safraoui, F [NGSFC; Treumann, R A [UNIV. MUNICH

2009-01-01

236

Modeling and vector control of planar magnetic levitator

The authors designed and implemented a magnetically levitated stage with large planar motion capability. This planar magnetic levitator employs four novel permanent-magnet linear motors. Each motor generates vertical force for suspension against gravity, as well as horizontal force for drive. These linear levitation motors can be used as building blocks in the general class of multi-degree-of-freedom motion stages. In this paper, the authors discuss electromechanical modeling and real-time vector control of such a permanent-magnet levitator. They describe the dynamics in a dq frame introduced to decouple the forces acting on the magnetically levitated moving part, namely, the platen. A transformation similar to the Blondel-Park transformation is derived for commutation of the stator phase currents. The authors provide test results on step responses of the magnetically levitated stage. It shows 5-nm rms positioning noise in x and y, which demonstrates the applicability of such stages in the next-generation photolithography in semiconductor manufacturing.

Kim, W. [SatCon Technology Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States); Trumper, D.L.; Lang, J.H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1998-11-01

237

Detecting tubular structures via direct vector field singularity characterization.

The initial step of vessel segmentation in 3D is the detection of vessel centerlines. The proposed methods in literature are either dependent on vessel radius and/or have low response at vessel bifurcations. In this paper we propose a 3D tubular structure detection method that removes these two drawbacks. The proposed method exploits the observations on the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix as is done in literature, yet it employs a direct 3D vector field singularity characterization. The Gradient Vector Flow vector field is used and the eigenvalues of its Jacobian are exploited in computing a parameter free vesselness map. Results on phantom and real patient data exhibit robustness to scale, high response at vessel bifurcations, and good noise/non-vessel structure suppression. PMID:21097293

Cabuk, Aytekin D; Alpay, Erdenay; Acar, Burak

2010-01-01

238

Poynting vectors and electric field distributions in simple dielectric gratings

The authors discuss, with illustrations drawn from the simple example of a dielectric grating under total internal reflection illumination, the use of electric field, energy density and Poynting vector as tools for understanding phenomena associated with dielectric gratings. The electric field has greatest direct observational interest, and exhibits patterns of nodes and antinodes that are both expected and intuitive. The energy density, though not directly linked with photoelectric response, has readily understood global patterns. The Poynting vector has more elaborate structure, involving patterns of curls, but the patterns are sensitive to small changes in illumination angle or groove depth. Plots of Poynting vectors may not be as useful for dielectric structures as they are for metals.

Shore, B.W.; Feit, M.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Li, L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

1996-02-07

239

MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.

Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation.

JAIN, A.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; LOUIE, W.; MARONE, A.; THOMAS. R.; WANDERER, P.

2004-10-03

240

Magnetic fields in neutron stars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims at studying how magnetic fields affect the observational properties and the long-term evolution of isolated neutron stars, which are the strongest magnets in the universe. The extreme physical conditions met inside these astronomical sources complicate their theoretical study, but, thanks to the increasing wealth of radio and X-ray data, great advances have been made over the last years. A neutron star is surrounded by magnetized plasma, the so-called magnetosphere. Modeling its global configuration is important to understand the observational properties of the most magnetized neutron stars, magnetars. On the other hand, magnetic fields in the interior are thought to evolve on long time-scales, from thousands to millions of years. The magnetic evolution is coupled to the thermal one, which has been the subject of study in the last decades. An important part of this thesis presents the state-of-the-art of the magneto-thermal evolution models of neutron stars during the first million of years, studied by means of detailed simulations. The numerical code here described is the first one to consistently consider the coupling of magnetic field and temperature, with the inclusion of both the Ohmic dissipation and the Hall drift in the crust.

Viganò, Daniele

2013-09-01

241

A non-linear coupled 3D model for magnetic field and electric circuit equations

The authors propose a 3-D numerical model in which the magnetic field and electric circuit equations in the absence of eddy currents are solved simultaneously. To consider the magnetic equations, use is made of a magnetic vector potential formulation with the gauge condition (A.w=0) which makes it possible to reduce the number of unknowns. To take into account the magnetic

F. Piriou; A. Razek

1992-01-01

242

Vibrating H3+ in a Uniform Magnetic Field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential energy surfaces are obtained for singlet H3+ in magnetic fields of up to 2350 T. The magnetic interaction was treated by first-order perturbation theory and the interaction terms computed ab initio. They were then fitted to a functional form and added to a recent, highly accurate adiabatic potential energy surface. In its most stable orientation, the molecule is arranged such that the magnetic field vector is in the molecular plane. The most stable configuration is no longer D3h as in the field-free case, but C2v, though the stabilization energy is extremely small, of the order of 0.01 cm-1 for a 2350 T field. Finally, we have calculated, for a range of magnetic field strengths and orientations, all the vibrational eigenvalues that are below the barrier to linearity in the field-free case.

Medel Cobaxin, Héctor; Alijah, Alexander

2013-10-01

243

Morse theory for vector fields and the Witten Laplacian

In this paper we informally review some recent developments on the analytical approach to Morse-type inequalities for vector fields. Throughout this work we focus on the main ideas of this approach and emphasize the application of the theory to concrete examples.

Enciso, Alberto [Depto. de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Peralta-Salas, Daniel [Depto. de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

2009-05-06

244

Visualization of higher order singularities in vector fields

Presents an algorithm for the visualization of vector field topology based on Clifford algebra. It allows the detection of higher-order singularities. This is accomplished by first analysing the possible critical points and then choosing a suitable polynomial approximation, because conventional methods based on piecewise linear or bilinear approximation do not allow higher-order critical points and destroy the topology in such

Gerik Scheuermann; Hans Hagen; H. Kruger; M. Menzel; A. Rockwood

1997-01-01

245

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetic field data in the solar ecliptic reference system are presented in graphical form. Hourly averages of field intensities, latitude and longitude of the field vector, and variances are shown for Bartel's solar rotation from 1852 to 1865.

F. Mariani N. F. Ness C. Irace

1975-01-01

246

Magnetically-Responsive Nanoparticles for Vectored Delivery of Cancer Therapeutics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose that physical targeting of therapeutics to tumors using magnetically-responsive nanoparticles (MNPs) will enhance intratumoral drug levels compared to free drugs in an effort to overcome tumor resistance. We evaluated the feasibility of magnetic enhancement of tumor extravasation of systemically-administered MNPs in human xenografts implanted in the mammary fatpads of nude mice. Mice with orthotopic tumors were injected systemically with MNPs, with a focused magnetic field juxtaposed over the tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging and scanning electron microscopy both indicated successful tumor localization of MNPs. Next, MNPs were modified with poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG) and their clearance compared by estimating signal attenuation in liver due to iron accumulation. The results suggested that PEG substitution could retard the rate of MNP plasma clearance, which may allow greater magnetically-enhanced tumor localization. We propose that this technology is clinically scalable to many types of both superficial as well as some viscerable tumors with existing magnetic technology.

Klostergaard, Jim; Bankson, James; Woodward, Wendy; Gibson, Don; Seeney, Charles

2010-12-01

247

Black holes and magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exact mechanism of formation of highly relativistic jets from galactic nuclei and microquasars remains unknown but most accepted models involve a central black hole and a strong external magnetic field. This idea is based on assumption that the black hole rotates and the magnetic field threads its horizon. Magnetic torques provide a link between the hole and the surrounding plasma which then becomes accelerated. We first review our work on black holes immersed in external stationary vacuum (electro)magnetic fields in both test-field approximation and within exact general-relativistic solutions. A special attention will be paid to the Meissner-type effect of the expulsion of the flux of external axisymmetric stationary fields across rotating (or charged) black holes when they approach extremal states. This is a potential threat to any electromagnetic mechanism launching the jets at the account of black-hole rotation because it inhibits the extraction of black-hole rotational energy. We show that the otherwise very useful "membrane viewpoint of black holes" advocated by Thorne, Price and Macdonald does not represent an adequate formalism in the context of the field expulsion from extreme black holes. After briefly summarizing the results for black holes in magnetic fields in higher dimensions - the expulsion of stationary axisymmetric fields was demonstrated to occur also for extremal black-hole solutions in string theory and Kaluza-Klein theory - we shall review astrophysically relevant axisymmetric numerical simulations reported recently by Gammie, Komissarov, Krolik and others. Although the field expulsion has not yet been observed in these time-dependent simulations, they may still be too far away from the extreme limit at which the black-hole Meissner effect should show up. We mention some open problems which, according to our view, deserve further investigation.

Bi?ák, Ji?í; Karas, Vladimír; Ledvinka, Tomáš

2007-04-01

248

Simulations of magnetic fields in the cosmos

The origin of large-scale magnetic fields in clusters of galaxies remains controversial. The intergalactic magnetic field within filaments should be less polluted by magnetised outflows from active galaxies than magnetic fields in clusters. Therefore, filaments may be a better laboratory to study magnetic field amplification by structure formation than galaxy clusters, which typically host many more active galaxies. We present

M. Brüggen; M. Hoeft

2006-01-01

249

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rigorous solutions of the Maxwell equations describing propagation invariant optical fields are presented in general; the elements for their specific applications to the Bessel, Mathieu and Weber families are also provided. Electric and magnetic transverse modes, and several polarization state solutions, are constructed; the connections between them are explicitly established. Their respective energy densities and Poynting vectors are also evaluated, in order to exhibit their propagation invariant nature. The experience with Bessel beams allows us to recognize that vector modes exhibit new and important features compared with the corresponding scalar fields; the results of this work constitute a first step towards the analysis of the dynamical properties of vector Mathieu and Weber beams.

Volke-Sepulveda, Karen; Ley-Koo, Eugenio

2006-10-01

250

Indoor localization using magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing hallways with different kinds of pillars, doors and elevators. All in all, this dissertation contributes the following: 1) provides a framework for understanding the presence of ambient magnetic fields indoors and utilizing them to solve the indoor localization problem; 2) develops an application that is independent of the user and the smart phones and 3) requires no other infrastructure since it is deployed on a device that encapsulates the sensing, computing and inferring functionalities, thereby making it a novel contribution to the mobile and pervasive computing domain.

Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

251

Image Anisotropic Diffusion Based on Gradient Vector Flow Fields

\\u000a In this paper, the gradient vector flow fields are introduced in the image anisotropic diffusion, and the shock filter, mean\\u000a curvature flow and Perona-Malik equation are reformulated respectively in the context of this flow fields. Many advantages\\u000a over the original models can be obtained, such as numerical stability, a large capture range, and computational simplification\\u000a etc. In addition, the fairing

Hongchuan Yu; Chin-seng Chua

2004-01-01

252

Holomorphically planar conformal vector fields on contact metric manifolds

We study holomorphically planar conformal vector fields (HPCV) on contact metric manifolds under some curvature conditions.\\u000a In particular, we have studied HPCV fields on (i) contact metric manifolds with pointwise constant ?-sectional curvature (under this condition M is either K-contact or V is homothetic), (ii) Einstein contact metric manifolds (in this case M becomes K contact), (iii) contact metric manifolds with parallel Ricci

Amalendu Ghosh

2010-01-01

253

Quantum tunneling across a static potential barrier in a static magnetic field is very sensitive to an analytical form of the potential barrier. Depending on that, the oscillatory structure of the modulus of the wave function can be formed in the direction of tunneling. Due to an underbarrier interference, the probability of tunneling through a higher barrier can be larger than through a lower one. For some barriers the quantum interference of underbarrier cyclotron paths results in a strong enhancement of tunneling. This occurs in the vicinity of the certain magnetic field and is referred to as Euclidean resonance. This strongly contrasts to the Wentzel, Kramers, and Brillouin type tunneling which occurs with no magnetic field.

Ivlev, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and NanoCenter, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States) and Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi 78000 Mexico

2006-05-15

254

Thermalization in external magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the AdS/CFT framework meson thermalization in the presence of a constant external magnetic field in a strongly coupled gauge theory has been studied. In the gravitational description the thermalization of mesons corresponds to the horizon formation on the flavour D7-brane which is embedded in the AdS 5 × S 5 background in the probe limit. The apparent horizon forms due to the time-dependent change in the baryon number chemical potential, the injection of baryons in the gauge theory. We will numerically show that the thermalization happens even faster in the presence of the magnetic field on the probe brane. We observe that this reduction in the thermalization time sustains up to a specific value of the magnetic field.

Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Ebrahim, Hajar

2013-03-01

255

Total angular momentum waves for scalar, vector, and tensor fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most calculations in cosmological perturbation theory, including those dealing with the inflationary generation of perturbations, their time evolution, and their observational consequences, decompose those perturbations into plane waves (Fourier modes). However, for some calculations, particularly those involving observations performed on a spherical sky, a decomposition into waves of fixed total angular momentum (TAM) may be more appropriate. Here we introduce TAM waves—solutions of fixed total angular momentum to the Helmholtz equation—for three-dimensional scalar, vector, and tensor fields. The vector TAM waves of given total angular momentum can be decomposed further into a set of three basis functions of fixed orbital angular momentum, a set of fixed helicity, or a basis consisting of a longitudinal (L) and two transverse (E and B) TAM waves. The symmetric traceless rank-2 tensor TAM waves can be similarly decomposed into a basis of fixed orbital angular momentum or fixed helicity, or a basis that consists of a longitudinal (L), two vector (VE and VB, of opposite parity), and two tensor (TE and TB, of opposite parity) waves. We show how all of the vector and tensor TAM waves can be obtained by applying derivative operators to scalar TAM waves. This operator approach then allows one to decompose a vector field into three covariant scalar fields for the L, E, and B components and symmetric-traceless-tensor fields into five covariant scalar fields for the L, VE, VB, TE, and TB components. We provide projections of the vector and tensor TAM waves onto vector and tensor spherical harmonics. We provide calculational detail to facilitate the assimilation of this formalism into cosmological calculations. As an example, we calculate the power spectra of the deflection angle for gravitational lensing by density perturbations and by gravitational waves. We comment on an alternative approach to cosmic microwave background fluctuations based on TAM waves. An accompanying paper will work out three-point functions in terms of TAM waves and their relation to the usual Fourier-space bispectra. Our work may have applications elsewhere in field theory and in general relativity.

Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc; Jeong, Donghui

2012-12-01

256

Instability of anisotropic cosmological solutions supported by vector fields.

Models with vector fields acquiring a nonvanishing vacuum expectation value along one spatial direction have been proposed to sustain a prolonged stage of anisotropic accelerated expansion. Such models have been used for realizations of early time inflation, with a possible relation to the large scale cosmic microwave background anomalies, or of the late time dark energy. We show that, quite generally, the concrete realizations proposed so far are plagued by instabilities (either ghosts or unstable growth of the linearized perturbations) which can be ultimately related to the longitudinal vector polarization present in them. Phenomenological results based on these models are therefore unreliable. PMID:19392187

Himmetoglu, Burak; Contaldi, Carlo R; Peloso, Marco

2009-03-17

257

Computation approach for CMB bispectrum from primordial magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed calculation of our previous short paper [M. Shiraishi, D. Nitta, S. Yokoyama, K. Ichiki, and K. Takahashi, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 82, 121302 (2010).10.1103/PhysRevD.82.121302] in which we have investigated a constraint on the magnetic field strength through comic microwave background temperature bispectrum of vector modes induced from primordial magnetic fields. By taking into account full angular dependence of the bispectrum with spin spherical harmonics and Wigner symbols, we explicitly show that the cosmic microwave background bispectrum induced from the statistical-isotropic primordial vector fluctuations can be also described as an angle-averaged form in the rotationally invariant way. We also study the cases with different spectral indices of the power spectrum of the primordial magnetic fields.

Shiraishi, Maresuke; Nitta, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takahashi, Keitaro

2011-06-01

258

Configurational sensitivity of multipoint magnetic field measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational calibration model which can access the error budget for these measurements at all system levels is reported. The model is parametric since the total error contribution can be treated as an error function for the derived quantity, dependent on the various error sources. The possible measurement errors for the derived quantities to be critical at current mission specifications are found. Typical hard error sources, which are likely to remain following standard interspacecraft calibration, are identified. Orbit strategy, in particular, imposes constraints at the four spacecraft level. The sensitivity of the error functions to spacecraft configuration is investigated. The determination of the vector curl of the magnetic field is taken as a model measurement and the role of the divergence of the field for this quantity is discussed.

Dunlop, M. W.; Balogh, A.; Southwood, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Neubauer, F. M.

1990-05-01

259

The vector potential and stored energy of thin cosine (n{theta}) helical wiggler magnet

Expressions for pure multipole field components that are present in helical devices have been derived from a current distribution on the surface of an infinitely thin cylinder of radius R. The strength of such magnetic fields varies purely as a Fourier sinusoidal series of the longitudinal coordinate Z in proportion to cos(n{theta}- {omega}{sub m}z), where {omega}{sub m} = (2m-1){pi}/L, L denotes the half-period and m = 1, 2, 3 etc. As an alternative to describing such field components as given by the negative gradient of a scalar potential function (Appendix A), one of course can derive these same fields as the curle of a vector potential function {rvec A}--specifically one for which {nabla} {times} {nabla} {times} {rvec A} = 0 and {nabla}{center_dot}{rvec A} = 0. It is noted that we seek a divergence-free vector that exhibits continuity in any of its components across the interface r = R, a feature that is free of possible concern when applying Stokes` theorem in connection with this form of vector potential. Alternative simpler forms of vector potential, that individually are divergence-free in their respective regions (r < R and r > R), do not exhibit full continuity on r = R and whose curl evaluations provide in these respective regions the correct components of magnetic field are not considered here. Such alternative forms must differ merely by the gradient of scalar functions that with the divergence-free property are required to be ``harmonic`` ({nabla}{sup 2}{Psi} = 0).

Caspi, S.

1995-12-01

260

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ayu Trough is a divergent margin, located at the boundary of the Philippine Sea and the Caroline Plates. Previous attempts to resolve the magnetic lineations of this region using total magnetic field have not been successful because it represents a case of east-west spreading center situated near the magnetic equator. The difficulty is compounded by the fact that the Ayu Trough is an ultra-slow-spreading center, which exhibits a complex history of evolution. As an attempt to get around the inherent ambiguity of total field measurement, a shipboard three-component magnetometer was employed during our recent cruise to the Ayu Trough along with proton precession magnetometer. This study examines the vector magnetic data collected in the south part of the Ayu Trough and compares them with tectonic features identified from other geophysical measurements. First, the magnetic field due to the ship was removed from the measured field. We then subtracted the International Geomagnetic Reference Field and the diurnal variation recorded at Guam observatory from our measurement. The amplitude of the north-south component anomalies is substantially less than that of other anomalies, which suggests that the general strike of magnetic lineations in this region is north-south. The magnetic boundary and their strike were estimated by assuming that the magnetic sources are two-dimensional. On the basis of its tectonic structure and interpretation of the total field anomaly pattern, the Ayu Trough can be divided into two sections with distance from the axis: the exterior (> 100 km from the axis) which shows evidence of rifted margin and the interior (< 100 km from the axis) which exhibits the characteristics of seafloor spreading. The vector magnetic anomaly appears to be useful in determining major boundaries, such as those between the exterior and interior sections in our area. Within the interior section of the Ayu Trough, however, the discrimination of magnetic boundaries was less successful. The lack of consistency of estimated strikes between track lines suggests that the seafloor spreading within the interior section of Ayu Trough did not occur as two-dimensional process, but instead was three-dimensional.

Kim, S.; Lee, S.

2001-12-01

261

Photospheric Magnetic Field: Quiet Sun

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar photosphere is the layer in which the magnetic field has been most reliably and most often measured. Zeeman- and Hanle-effect based probes have revealed many details of a rich variety of structures and dynamic processes, but the number of open and debated questions has remained large. The magnetic field in the quiet Sun has maintained a particularly large number of secrets and has been a topic of a particularly lively debate as new observations and analysis techniques have revealed new and often unexpected aspects of its organization, physical structure and origin.

Solanki, S. K.

2009-06-01

262

Low-frequency fluctuations in plasma magnetic fields

It is shown that even a non-magnetized plasma with temperature T sustains zero-frequency magnetic fluctuations in thermal equilibrium. Fluctuations in electric and magnetic fields, as well as in densities, are computed. Four cases are studied: a cold, gaseous, isotropic, non-magnetized plasma; a cold, gaseous plasma in a uniform magnetic field; a warm, gaseous plasma described by kinetic theory; and a degenerate electron plasma. For the simple gaseous plasma, the fluctuation strength of the magnetic field as a function of frequency and wavenumber is calculated with the aid of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This calculation is done for both collisional and collisionless plasmas. The magnetic field fluctuation spectrum of each plasma has a large zero-frequency peak. The peak is a Dirac {delta}-function in the collisionless plasma; it is broadened into a Lorentzian curve in the collisional plasma. The plasma causes a low frequency cutoff in the typical black-body radiation spectrum, and the energy under the discovered peak approximates the energy lost in this cutoff. When the imposed magnetic field is weak, the magnetic field were vector fluctuation spectra of the two lowest modes are independent of the strength of the imposed field. Further, these modes contain finite energy even when the imposed field is zero. It is the energy of these modes which forms the non-magnetized zero-frequency peak of the isotropic plasma. In deriving these results, a simple relationship between the dispersion relation and the fluctuation power spectrum of electromagnetic waves if found. The warm plasma is shown, by kinetic theory, to exhibit a zero-frequency peak in its magnetic field fluctuation spectrum as well. For the degenerate plasma, we find that electric field fluctuations and number density fluctuations vanish at zero frequency; however, the magnetic field power spectrum diverges at zero frequency.

Cable, S.; Tajima, T.

1992-02-01

263

Collapsing Neutron Stars Driven by Critical Magnetic Fields and Exploding Bose-Einstein Condensates

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Bose-Einstein condensate of a neutral vector boson bearing an anomalous magnetic moment is suggested as a model for ferromagnetic origin of magnetic fields in neutron stars. The vector particles are assumed to arise from parallel spin-paired neutrons. A negative pressure perpendicular to the external field B is acting on this condensate, which for large densities, compress the system, and may produce a collapse. An upper bound of the magnetic fields observable in neutron stars is given. In the the non-relativistic limit, the analogy with the behavior of exploding Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) for critical values of the magnetic field is briefly discussed.

Pérez Rojas, H.; Pérez Martínez, A.; Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J.

264

Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields

Research on small-scale and large-scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields during 1987-1990 is reviewed, focusing on observational studies. Particular attention is given to the new techniques, which include the correlation tracking of granules, the use of highly Zeeman-sensitive infrared spectral lines and multiple lines to deduce small-scale field strength, the application of long integration times coupled with good seeing conditions to study weak fields, and the use of high-resolution CCD detectors together with computer image-processing techniques to obtain images with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Synoptic observations of large-scale fields during the sunspot cycle are also discussed. 101 refs.

Sheeley, N.R., Jr. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

265

Absolute magnetic helicity and the cylindrical magnetic field

The different magnetic helicities conserved under conditions of perfect electrical conductivity are expressions of the fundamental property that every evolving fluid surface conserves its net magnetic flux. This basic hydromagnetic point unifies the well known Eulerian helicities with the Lagrangian helicity defined by the conserved fluxes frozen into a prescribed set of disjoint toroidal tubes of fluid flowing as a permanent partition of the entire fluid [B. C. Low, Astrophys. J. 649, 1064 (2006)]. This unifying theory is constructed from first principles, beginning with an analysis of the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of fluids, separating the ideas of fluid and magnetic-flux tubes and removing the complication of the magnetic vector potential's free gauge from the concept of helicity. The analysis prepares for the construction of a conserved Eulerian helicity, without that gauge complication, to describe a 3D anchored flux in an upright cylindrical domain, this helicity called absolute to distinguish it from the well known relative helicity. In a version of the Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation, the evolving field at any instant is a unique superposition of a writhed, untwisted axial flux with a circulating flux of field lines all closed and unlinked within the cylindrical domain. The absolute helicity is then a flux-weighted sum of the writhe of that axial flux and its mutual linkage with the circulating flux. The absolute helicity is also conserved if the frozen-in field and its domain are continuously deformed by changing the separation between the rigid cylinder-ends with no change of cylinder radius. This hitherto intractable cylindrical construction closes a crucial conceptual gap for the fundamentals to be complete at last. The concluding discussion shows the impact of this development on our understanding of helicity, covering (i) the helicities of wholly contained and anchored fields; (ii) the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of field evolution; (iii) twist as a topological property of solenoidal fields versus the linkage properties of open and closed discrete curves treated by Gauss, Caligarneau, Berger, and Prior; and (iv) the change of absolute helicity by resistive diffusion. These are important hydromagnetic properties of twisted magnetic fields in the million-degree hot, highly conducting corona of the Sun.

Low, B. C. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 80307 (United States)

2011-05-15

266

Vector measurements of the current induced effective fields in Ta/CoFeB/MgO heterostructures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin magnetic heterostructures exhibit a variety of rich physics owing to the strong effects from the interfaces. Power efficient current induced magnetization switching and domain nucleation, fast current driven domain wall motion have been observed in ultrathin Co or CoFeB layer sandwiched between a heavy metal (Pt, Ta) and an oxide. Most of the current (or voltage) induced effects in these systems can be represented by the ``effective magnetic fields'', which illustrate the strength and direction of the torque exerted on the magnetic moments. A comprehensive understanding of the effective fields is key to the development of magnetic nano-devices aimed for memory and logic applications. We have studied the current induced effective field vector in TaCoFeBMgO heterostructure to reveal the underlying physics of the interaction between the magnetic moments and current in such structure. A low current lock-in detection scheme is used to evaluate the effective field vector. The CoFeB layer is perpendicularly magnetized owing to the interface magnetic anisotropy of CoFeBMgO. We find that the effective field is very sensitive to the thickness of the Ta and CoFeB layers. The effective field even changes its direction when the Ta layer thickness is varied, indicating that there are competing effects that contribute to the effective field generation. We discuss our results in light of the spin Hall effect and an effect due to Rashba-like Hamiltonian. (Acknowledgment: FIRST program)

Hayashi, Masamitsu

2013-03-01

267

Magnetic Field from Loops Model

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJSMagnetic Field from Loops model computes the B-field created by an electric current through a straight wire, a closed loop, and a solenoid. Users can adjust the vertical position of the slice through the 3D field. The Magnetic Field from Loops model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ntnu_MagneticFielfFromLoops.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for classical mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2008-11-17

268

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new dynamic mathematical model and new block diagrams for a newly emerging class of salient-pole hybrid-field synchronous motors (HFSM) that have rotor field by both permanent magnet and winding. The proposed new mathematical model has the following completeness and generality. 1) It consists of three consistent basic equations such as circuit, torque and energy-transmission equations. 2) It deals with pole saliency and contains non-saliency as a special case. 3) It is a dynamic model and contains static one as a special case. 4) It is established in the general reference frame including stator and rotor reference frames as special cases. The proposed new block diagrams using vector signals for salient-pole HFSM is established based on the new model. It has the following attractive features. 1) It succeeds in realizing clear configurations with physically meaningful vector signals, which are helpful for understanding motor electromagnetic mechanism and useful for designing controllers for the salient-pole HFSM. 2) Vector signals utilized as transfer signals between blocks are defined in the general reference frame. Consequently, the vector-signal block diagrams in the frame can be directly and easily reduced to the ones in such a specific frame as stator and rotor frames. 3) It is compact. Two typical and compact but sufficiently general vector-signal block diagrams are newly presented.

Shinnaka, Shinji

269

Summary form only given. The equilibrium magnetization distribution and its stability in small magnetic particles is one of the old standing problems in the theory of micromagnetism. In a renewed attempt to describe the particle magnetization ground state the authors suggest a simple analytical approach for the description of zero-field magnetization vector distributions in soft magnetic disks, which allows one

K. L. Metlov; K. Yu. Guslienko

2002-01-01

270

Magnetic field generation in Galactic molecular clouds

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the magnetic field which is generated by turbulent motions of a weakly ionized gas. Galactic molecular clouds give us an example of such a medium. As in the Kazantsev-Kraichnan model we assume a medium to be homogeneous and a neutral gas velocity field to be isotropic and ? correlated in time. We take into consideration the presence of a mean magnetic field, which defines a preferred direction in space and eliminates isotropy of magnetic field correlators. Evolution equations for the anisotropic correlation function are derived. Isotropic cases with zero mean magnetic field as well as with small mean magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that stationary bounded solutions exist only in the presence of the mean magnetic field for the Kolmogorov neutral gas turbulence. The dependence of the magnetic field fluctuations amplitude on the mean field is calculated. The stationary anisotropic solution for the magnetic turbulence is also obtained for large values of the mean magnetic field.

Istomin, Ya. N.; Kiselev, A.

2013-10-01

271

FIELD CHARACTERIZATION OF XFEL QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS

A rotating coil setup for magnetic field characterization and fiducialization of XFEL quadrupole magnets is pre- sented. The instrument allows measurement of the rel- ative position of the magnetic axis with accuracy better than 1 ?m and measurement of weak magnetic error field components. Tests and evaluation based on a FLASH quadrupole magnet are presented together with a discus- sion

A. Hedqvist; H. Danared; F. Hellberg; J. Pfluger

272

EXPLORER 10 MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS

Magnetic field measurements made by means of Explorer 10 over geocentric ; distances of 1.8 to 42.6R\\/sub e\\/ on March 25experiment on the same satellite are ; referenced in interpretations. The close-in data are consistent with the ; existence of a very weak ring current below 3R\\/sub e\\/ along the trajectory, but ; alternative explanations for the field deviations are

J. P. Heppner; N. F. Ness; C. S. Scearce; T. L. Skillman

1963-01-01

273

Magnetic fields in extragalactic jets

Observations indicate that jets (i.e., charged particle beams) are emitted from the central black hole sources of active galactic nuclei and quasars. Magnetic fields are produced in e(-)-p or e(-)-e(+)-p jets when electrons (and positrons) are slowed with respect to protons in the jets. Interaction with an ambient interstellar gas or external radiation field can cause such drift velocities. Calculations

William K. Rose

1987-01-01

274

Magnetic fields in extragalactic jets

Observations indicate that jets are emitted from the central black hole sources of active galactic nuclei and quasars. Magnetic fields are produced in e--p or e--e+-p jets when electrons and positrons are slowed with respect to protons in the jets. Interaction with an ambient interstellar gas or external radiation field can cause such drift velocities. In this paper calculations for

William K. Rose

1987-01-01

275

The somatosensory evoked magnetic fields

Averaged magnetoencephalography (MEG) following somatosensory stimulation, somatosensory evoked magnetic field(s) (SEF), in humans are reviewed. The equivalent current dipole(s) (ECD) of the primary and the following middle-latency components of SEF following electrical stimulation within 80–100 ms are estimated in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), the posterior bank of the central sulcus, in the hemisphere contralateral to the

Ryusuke Kakigi; Minoru Hoshiyama; Motoko Shimojo; Daisuke Naka; Hiroshi Yamasaki; Shoko Watanabe; Jing Xiang; Kazuaki Maeda; Khanh Lam; Kazuya Itomi; Akinori Nakamura

2000-01-01

276

Magnetic Field Issues in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging depend on the capability of the available hardware. Specifically, for the main magnet configuration, using derivative constraints, we can create a static magnetic field with reduced levels of inhomogeneity over a prescribed imaging volume. In the gradient coil, the entire design for the axial elliptical coil, and the mathematical foundation for the transverse elliptical coil have been presented. Also, the design of a self-shielded cylindrical gradient coil with a restricted length has been presented. In order to generate gradient coils adequate for head imaging without including the human shoulders in the design, asymmetric cylindrical coils in which the gradient center is shifted axially towards the end of a finite cylinder have been introduced and theoretical as well as experimental results have been presented. In order to eliminate eddy current effects in the design of the non-shielded asymmetric gradient coils, the self-shielded asymmetric cylindrical gradient coil geometry has been introduced. Continuing the development of novel geometries for the gradient coils, the complete set of self-shielded cylindrical gradient coils, which are designed such that the x component of the magnetic field varies linearly along the three traditional gradient axes, has been presented. In order to understand the behavior of the rf field inside a dielectric object, a mathematical model is briefly presented. Although specific methods can provide an indication of the rf behavior inside a loosely dielectric object, finite element methodology is the ultimate approach for modeling the human torso and generating an accurate picture for the shape of the rf field inside this dielectric object. For this purpose we have developed a 3D finite element model, using the Coulomb gauge condition as a constraint. Agreement with the heterogeneous multilayer planar model has been established, while agreement with theoretical results from the spherical model and experimental results from the cylindrical model at 170 M H z is very good and provides an encouraging sign for using this finite element approach for modeling the rf inside the human body. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Petropoulos, Labros Spiridon

277

Advances in Magnetic Field Sensors

The most important milestone in the field of magnetic sensors was when AMR sensors started to replace Hall sensors in many applications where the greater sensitivity of AMRs was an advantage. GMR and SDT sensors finally found applications. We also review the development of miniaturization of fluxgate sensors and refer briefly to SQUIDs, resonant sensors, GMIs, and magnetomechanical sensors.

Pavel Ripka; Michal Janosek

2010-01-01

278

Random Field Effect in Magnets.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to explore the consequences of random field effects we have carried out a series of neutron scattering experiments on three prototypical diluted Ising magnets. The systems studied are Rb sub 2 Co sub 7 Mg sub 3 F sub 4 which is a model two dimens...

R. J. Birgeneau

1982-01-01

279

Magnetic Field Waves at Uranus.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research efforts funded by the Uranus Data Analysis Program (UDAP) grant to the Bartol Research Institute (BRI) involved the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. Upstream wave studies are motivated as a study of the phy...

C. W. Smith M. L. Goldstein R. P. Lepping W. H. Mish H. K. Wong

1994-01-01

280

The solar active region magnetic field and energetics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by increasingly more advanced solar observations, we recently develop a method of coronal magnetic field extrapolation, especially for an active region (sunspot region). Based on a more complex variational principle, the principle of minimum (energy) dissipation rate (MDR), we adopt and solve a more complex equation governing the coronal magnetic field that is non-force-free in general. We employ the vector magnetograms from multiple instruments, including Hinode, NSO, and HSOS, and particularly observations at both photospheric and chromospheric levels for one active region. We discuss our results in the context of quantitative characterization of active region magnetic energy and magnetic topology. These quantitative analyses aid in better understanding and developing prediction capability of the solar activity that is largely driven by the solar magnetic field.

Hu, Qiang; Deng, Na; Choudhary, Debi P.; Dasgupta, B.; Su, Jiangtao

2011-08-01

281

Optically synthesized electric and magnetic fields for ultracold neutral atoms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultracold atoms hold great promise in simulating essential models in condensed matter physics. One apparent limitation is the charge neutrality of the atoms, preventing access to a rich source of physics, for example, electrons in magnetic fields. We have circumvented this limitation by generating an effective vector potential with an optical coupling between internal states of the atoms. We have made the first experimental realization of synthetic electric and magnetic fields for ultracold neutral atoms, through the temporal and spatial variation of the vector potential. In our system, we use a two-photon Raman coupling to dress a rubidium 87 Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), where the momentum difference between two Raman beams results in the modified energy-momentum dispersion of the dressed state, leading to the effective vector potential. We have created a synthetic magnetic field evidenced by the appearance of vortices in the BEC; this field is stable in the laboratory frame and allows for adding optical lattices with ease. Our optical approach is not subject to the limitations of rotating systems; with a suitable lattice configuration, it should be able to create sufficiently large synthetic magnetic fields in the quantum-Hall regime. [Y.-J. Lin, R. L. Compton, K. Jimenez-Garcia, J. V. Porto, and I. B. Spielman, Nature, 462, 628 (2009).

Lin, Yu-Ju

2010-03-01

282

Optically synthesized magnetic fields for ultracold neutral atoms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultracold atoms hold great promise in simulating essential models in condensed matter physics. One apparent limitation is the charge neutrality of the atoms, which prevents access to a rich source of physics, for example, electrons in magnetic fields. We have circumvented this limitation by generating an effective vector potential with an optical coupling between internal states of the atoms. We have experimentally realized a synthetic magnetic field for ultracold neutral atoms, through the spatial variation of the effective vector potential. In our system, we use a two-photon Raman coupling to dress a rubidium 87 Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), where the momentum difference between two Raman beams results in the modified energy-momentum dispersion of the dressed state, leading to an effective vector potential. We have created a synthetic magnetic field evidenced by the appearance of vortices in the BEC; this field is stable in the laboratory frame and allows for adding optical lattices with ease. Our optical approach is not subject to technical limitations of rotating systems, including the metastable nature of the rotating state, the limited maximum rotating velocity and the difficulty of applying stable rotating optical lattices. In our approach, with a suitable lattice configuration, it should be able to create sufficiently large synthetic magnetic fields in the quantum-Hall regime. Work done in collaboration with, Robert Compton, Karina Jimenez-Garcia, James Porto, and Ian Spielman, Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and University of Maryland.

Lin, Yu-Ju

2010-03-01

283

NMR imaging in the earth's magnetic field.

The most important and very expensive part of a magnetic resonance imaging set-up is the magnet, which is capable of generating a constant and highly homogeneous magnetic field. Here a new MR imaging technique without the magnet is introduced. This technique uses the earth's magnetic field instead of a magnetic field created by a magnet. This new method has not yet reached the stage of medical application, but the first images obtained by MRIE (magnetic resonance imaging in the earth's field) show that the resolution is close to that expected based on sensitivity estimations. PMID:2233218

Stepisnik, J; Erzen, V; Kos, M

1990-09-01

284

Separation of magnetic field lines

The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2012-11-15

285

Active Region Magnetic Fields. I. Plage Fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations taken with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter (ASP) in active-region plages and study the frequency distribution of the magnetic field strength (B), inclination with respect to vertical ( gamma ), azimuthal orientation ( chi ), and filling factor (f). The most common values at disk center are B = 1400 G, gamma < 10 deg, no preferred east-west orientation, and f = 15%. At disk center, there is a component of weak (<1000 G), more horizontal fields that corresponds to arching field lines connecting footpoints of different polarities. The center-to-limb variation (CLV) of the field strength shows that, close to the limb ( mu = 0.3), the field strength is reduced to 800 G from its disk-center value. This can be interpreted as a gradient of B with height in solar plages of around -3 G km-1. From this CLV study, we also deduce that magnetic field lines remain vertical for the entire range of heights involved. A similar analysis is performed for structures found in active regions that show a continuous distribution of azimuths (resembling sunspots) but that do not have a darkening in continuum. These "azimuth centers" show slightly larger values of B than normal plages, in particular at their magnetic center. Filling factors are also larger on average for these structures. The velocities in the magnetic component of active regions have been studied for both averaged Stokes profiles over the entire active region and for the spatially resolved data. The averaged profiles (more representative of high filling factor regions) do not show any significant mean velocities. However, the spatial average of Doppler velocities derived from the spatially resolved profiles (i.e., unweighted by filling factor) show a net redshift at disk center of 200 m s-1. The spatially resolved velocities show a strong dependence on filling factor. Both mean velocities and standard deviations are reduced when the filling factor increases. This is interpreted as a reduction of the p-mode amplitude within the magnetic component. Strong evidence for velocities transverse to the magnetic field lines has been found. Typical rms values are between 200 and 300 m s-1, depending on the filling factor. The possible importance of these transverse motions for the dynamics of the upper atmospheric layers is discussed. The asymmetries of the Stokes profiles and their CLV have been studied. The averaged Stokes V profiles show amplitude and area asymmetries that are positive at disk center and become negative at the limb. Both asymmetries, and for the two Fe I lines, are maximized away from disk center. The spatially resolved amplitude asymmetries show a clear dependence on filling factor: the larger the filling factor, the smaller the amplitude asymmetry. On the other hand, the area asymmetry is almost independent of the filling factor. The only observed dependence is the existence of negative area-asymmetry profiles at disk center for filling factors smaller than 0.2. Around 20% of the observed points in a given plage have negative area asymmetry. The amplitude asymmetry of Stokes V is, on the other hand, always positive. The amplitude asymmetries of the linear polarization profiles are observed to have the same sign as the Stokes V profiles. Similarly, the same CLV variation of the linear polarization amplitude asymmetries as for Stokes V has been found. The scenarios in which this similarity can exist are studied in some detail.

Martinez Pillet, V.; Lites, B. W.; Skumanich, A.

1997-01-01

286

Structural properties of a vector hollow Gaussian beam in the far-field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate description of the vector hollow Gaussian beam (HGB) in the far-field is a sum of two orthogonal terms: the TE and TM terms. The TE term denotes the electric field transverse to the propagation axis, and the TM term the associated magnetic field transverse to the propagation axis. The structural properties of a vector HGB, which are related to the energy flux distributions of the HGB and its TE and TM terms, are investigated in the far-field. The analytical expressions for the ratios of the powers of the TE and TM terms to that of the HGB are presented without any approximation. The contributions of the powers of the TE and TM terms to the power of the HGB are determined by the f-parameter and the beam order. The analytical formulae of the far-field divergence angles of the TE term, the TM term, and the HGB, which are defined by the second-order moment of the energy flux, are derived. The divergence angles depend on the f-parameter and the beam order. A relation among the divergence angles of the TE term, the TM term, and the HGB are also presented. The influences of the f-parameter and the beam order on the structural properties of a vector HGB are numerically examined in the far-field.

Zhou, Guoquan

2011-07-01

287

Electron dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.

This review explores the dynamics of two-dimensional electrons in magnetic potentials that vary on scales smaller than the mean free path. The physics of microscopically inhomogeneous magnetic fields relates to important fundamental problems in the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity, spintronics and graphene physics and spins out promising applications which will be described here. After introducing the initial work done on electron localization in random magnetic fields, the experimental methods for fabricating magnetic potentials are presented. Drift-diffusion phenomena are then described, which include commensurability oscillations, magnetic channelling, resistance resonance effects and magnetic dots. We then review quantum phenomena in magnetic potentials including magnetic quantum wires, magnetic minibands in superlattices, rectification by snake states, quantum tunnelling and Klein tunnelling. The third part is devoted to spintronics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This covers spin filtering by magnetic field gradients and circular magnetic fields, electrically induced spin resonance, spin resonance fluorescence and coherent spin manipulation. PMID:21393794

Nogaret, Alain

2010-06-04

288

New techniques in 3D scalar and vector field visualization

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have recently developed several techniques for volume visualization of scalar and vector fields, all of which use back-to-front compositing. The first renders volume density clouds by compositing polyhedral volume cells or their faces. The second is a ``splatting`` scheme which composites textures used to reconstruct the scalar or vector fields. One version calculates the necessary texture values in software, and another takes advantage of hardware texture mapping. The next technique renders contour surface polygons using semi-transparent textures, which adjust appropriately when the surfaces deform in a flow, or change topology. The final one renders the ``flow volume`` of smoke or dye tracer swept out by a fluid flowing through a small generating polygon. All of these techniques are applied to a climate model data set, to visualize cloud density and wind velocity.

Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Becker, B.

1993-05-05

289

High-quality animation of 2D steady vector fields.

Simulators for dynamic systems are now widely used in various application areas and raise the need for effective and accurate flow visualization techniques. Animation allows us to depict direction, orientation, and velocity of a vector field accurately. This paper extends a former proposal for a new approach to produce perfectly cyclic and variable-speed animations for 2D steady vector fields (see [1] and [2]). A complete animation of an arbitrary number of frames is encoded in a single image. The animation can be played using the color table animation technique, which is very effective even on low-end workstations. A cyclic set of textures can be produced as well and then encoded in a common animation format or used for texture mapping on 3D objects. As compared to other approaches, the method presented in this paper produces smoother animations and is more effective, both in memory requirements to store the animation, and in computation time. PMID:15382694

Lefer, Wilfrid; Jobard, Bruno; Leduc, Claire

290

Although only a small part of available energy in the universe is invested in magnetic fields, they are responsible for most of the continual violent activity in the cosmos. There is a single, generic explanation for the ability of bodies as different as a dense, cold planet and a tenuous hot galactic disk to generate a magnetic field. The explanation, first worked out for the earth, comes from the discipline of magnetohydrodynamics. The cosmos is filled with fluids capable of carrying electric currents. The magnetic fields entrained in these fluids are stretched and folded by the fluid motion, gaining energy in the process. In other words, the turbulent fluids function as dynamos. However, the dynamo mechanism by itself cannot account for the exceptionally strong field of some stars. Because of such gaps in information, the rival hypothesis that there are primordial fields cannot be disproved. The balance of evidence, however, indicates that the planets, sun, most stars and the galaxy function as colossal dynamos. (SC)

Parker, E.N.

1983-08-01

291

Behavior of magnetic liquids in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

The authors present experimental results from the investigation of the behavior of certain magnetic liquids differeing in the degree of stability in inhomogenous magnetic fields. The growth of holding presure of sealing step at rest is reviewed and the increase of effective viscosity in inhomogeneous magnetic fields is studied. The behaviors of magnetic liquids in an inhomogeneous magnetic field are sensitive to structural changes caused by the field. Significant differences are demonstrated between magnetic liquids with the same saturation magnetization but different particle size distribution.

Anton, I.; Bika, D.; Potents, I.; Vekash, L.

1986-01-01

292

Massive neutrinos and magnetic fields in the early universe

Primordial magnetic fields and massive neutrinos can leave an interesting signal in the CMB temperature and polarization. We perform a systematic analysis of general perturbations in the radiation-dominated universe, accounting for any primordial magnetic field and including leading-order effects of the neutrino mass. We show that massive neutrinos qualitatively change the large-scale perturbations sourced by magnetic fields, but that the effect is much smaller than previously claimed. We calculate the CMB power spectra sourced by inhomogeneous primordial magnetic fields, from before and after neutrino decoupling, including scalar, vector and tensor modes, and consistently modeling the correlation between the density and anisotropic stress sources. In an appendix we present general series solutions for the possible regular primordial perturbations.

Shaw, J. Richard; Lewis, Antony [Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15

293

Identification Of Swirling Flow In 3-D Vector Fields

An algorithm for identifying the center of swirlingflow in 3-D discretized vector fields has beendeveloped. The algorithm is based on critical pointtheory and has been implemented as a visualizationtool within pV3, a package for visualizing 3-Dtransient data. The scheme works with griddingsupported by pV3: structured meshes as well asunstructured grids composed of tetrahedra,polytetrahedral strips, hexahedra, pyramids, and\\/orprism cells. The results

David Sujudi; Robert Haimes

1995-01-01

294

Optical currents in coherent and partially coherent vector fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of computer simulation of spatial distribution of the Poynting vector and illustrate motion of microparticles in spatially inhomogeneously polarized fields. The influence of phase relations and the degree of mutual coherence of superposing waves in the arrangements of two-wave and four-wave superposition on the characteristics of microparicle's motion has been analyzed. The prognosis of prospects of the study of temporal coherence using the proposed approach is made.

Angelsky, O. V.; Maksimyak, P. P.; Zenkova, C. Yu.; Gorsky, M. P.; Gorodynska, N. V.

2010-09-01

295

Texture splats for 3D vector and scalar field visualization

Volume Visualization is becoming an important tool for understanding large 3D datasets. A popular technique for volume rendering is known as splatting. With new hardware architectures offering substantial improvements in the performance of rendering texture mapped objects, we present textured splats. An ideal reconstruction function for 3D signals is developed which can be used as a texture map for a splat. Extensions to the basic splatting technique are then developed to additionally represent vector fields.

Crawfis, R.A.; Max, N.

1993-04-06

296

Investigating Tx coils and magnetic field Rx sensor configurations for underwater geo-location

In this work, new configurations of magnetic field transmitter coils (Tx) and receiver sensors (Rx) are studied for underwater (UW) geo-locations. The geo-location system, based on low frequency magnetic fields, uses measured vector magnetic fields at a given set of points in space. It contains an active pulsed direct current transmitter, tri-axial field receivers, and a global positioning system unit

Fridon Shubitidze; Alex Bijamov; Gregory Schultz; Jon Miller; Irma Shamatava

2011-01-01

297

We use the AdS-CFT correspondence to calculate CFT correlation functions of vector and spinor fields. The connection between the AdS and boundary fields is properly treated via a Dirichlet boundary value problem.

W. Mück; K. S. Viswanathan

1998-01-01

298

SQUID-Detected Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Microtesla Magnetic Fields

We describe studies of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of liquid samples at room temperature in microtesla magnetic fields. The nuclear spins are prepolarized in a strong transient field. The magnetic signals generated by the precessing spins, which range in frequency from tens of Hz to several kHz, are detected by a low-transition temperature dc

R. McDermott; N. Kelso; S. K. Lee; M. MöBetale; M. Mück; W. Myers; B. ten Haken; H. C. Seton; A. H. Trabesinger; A. Pines; J. Clarke

2004-01-01

299

Two dimensional frustrated magnets in high magnetic field

Frustrated magnets in high magnetic field have a long history of offering beautiful surprises to the patient investigator. Here we present the results of extensive classical Monte Carlo simulations of a variety of models of two dimensional magnets in magnetic field, together with complementary spin wave analysis. Striking results include (i) a massively enhanced magnetocaloric effect in antiferromagnets bordering on

L. Seabra; N. Shannon; P. Sindzingre; T. Momoi; B. Schmidt; P. Thalmeier

2009-01-01

300

Plasma motions in the magnetic field of a sunspot. I. Observations in photospheric lines.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields and plasma motions in the umbrae of four regularly shaped sunspots are studied. Observations of longitudinal magnetic fields and velocity fields were made with the double magnetograph of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in the Fe I lines ??525.3 and 512.4 nm. The correlation between the velocity fields in both lines is 0.83 - 0.94, the velocities measured in the ?525.3 nm line are by a factor of 1.55 higher on the average. A major distinction between the longitudinal magnetic field and the velocity field was found. All three vector components of the magnetic and velocity fields are reconstructed from their line-of-sight components. The average angle between both field vectors is found to be 65°. The conclusion is drawn that plasmas in sunspot umbrae move predominantly across magnetic field lines.

Gopasyuk, S. I.; Gopasyuk, O. S.

301

Behavioral effects of electric and magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two sets of behavioral studies were conducted. In the first, three procedures were used to determine how aversive a 100 kV/m 60-Hz electric field is for a rat. Each of the procedures enabled rats to respond in order to reduce exposure to the field. The rats did reduce exposure slightly with one, but not with the other two, whereas they reduced their exposure to moderate illumination in all three procedures. The results show that while the procedures were appropriate for assessing stimulus aversiveness, 100 kV/m is not a generally aversive stimulus for the rat. It was previously reported that immediately after exposure for 30 minutes to a horizontal 60-Hz, 5 x 10(exp -5)T field combined with a total static field of 2.61 x 10(exp -5)T, the rate of lever pressing by rats increased during the DRL component of a multiple fixed ratio, DRL schedule of food reinforcement. This project failed to confirm those observations in an experiment that duplicated the behavioral baseline and the magnetic field exposure conditions, with the exception that the total DC vector was greater in these experiments than it was in others.

Laties, V. G.

1992-04-01

302

Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Based on Earth's Magnetic Field

This article describes both the setup and the use of a system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the Earth's magnetic field. Phase instability caused by temporal fluctuations of Earth's field can be successfully improved by using a reference signal from a separate Earth's field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer\\/magnetometer. In imaging, it is important to correctly determine the phase

Ales Mohoric; Gorazd Planinsic; Miha Kos; Andrej Duh; Janez Stepisnik

2004-01-01

303

Transient horizontal magnetic fields in solar plage regions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims:We report the discovery of isolated, small-scale emerging magnetic fields in a plage region with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode. Methods: Spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out with a cadence of 34 s for the plage region located near disc center. The vector magnetic fields are inferred by Milne-Eddington inversion. Results: The observations reveal widespread occurrence of transient, spatially isolated horizontal magnetic fields. The lateral extent of the horizontal magnetic fields is comparable to the size of photospheric granules. These horizontal magnetic fields seem to be tossed about by upflows and downflows of the granular convection. We also report an event that appears to be driven by the magnetic buoyancy instability. We refer to buoyancy-driven emergence as type 1 and convection-driven emergence as type 2. Although both events have magnetic field strengths of about 600 G, the filling factor of type 1 is a factor of two larger than that of type 2. Conclusions: Our finding suggests that the granular convection in the plage regions is characterized by a high rate of occurrence of granular-sized transient horizontal fields.

Ishikawa, R.; Tsuneta, S.; Ichimoto, K.; Isobe, H.; Katsukawa, Y.; Lites, B. W.; Nagata, S.; Shimizu, T.; Shine, R. A.; Suematsu, Y.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.

2008-04-01

304

Magnetic field induced lattice ground states from holography

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the holographic field theory dual of a probe SU(2) Yang-Mills field in a background (4 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically Anti-de Sitter space. We find a new ground state when a magnetic component of the gauge field is larger than a critical value. The ground state forms a triangular Abrikosov lattice in the spatial directions perpendicular to the magnetic field. The lattice is composed of superconducting vortices induced by the condensation of a charged vector operator. We perform this calculation both at finite temperature and at zero temperature with a hard wall cutoff dual to a confining gauge theory. The study of this state may be of relevance to both holographic condensed matter models as well as to heavy ion physics. The results shown here provide support for the proposal that such a ground state may be found in the QCD vacuum when a large magnetic field is present.

Bu, Yan-Yan; Erdmenger, Johanna; Shock, Jonathan P.; Strydom, Migael

2013-03-01

305

Magnetic field of atrial depolarization.

The isomagnetic maps of normal subjects and patients with right and left atrial overloading were recorded to determine the characteristic features of the magnetic field of atrial depolarization. The isomagnetic maps examined in this study indicated the instantaneous current source, which specifically localizes the current sources due to the right and left atria, respectively. The magnetic field recorded with a second derivative gradiometer clearly detected the cardiac current source from the right atrium, which is located close to the anterior chest wall, thus this method improved the diagnostic sensitivity for right atrial overloading. In patients with left atrial overloading, the isomagnetic map showed multiple dipoles due to the right and left atria, respectively, which are difficult to be detected by the electrocardiogram or isopotential map. These results suggest that the magnetocardiogram provides useful information on the current source to supplement information obtained by the conventional electrocardiogram. PMID:2978585

Takeuchi, A; Watanabe, K; Katayama, M; Nomura, M; Nakaya, Y; Mori, H

306

A mapping between one frame from an image sequence and the preceding or following frame can be represented as a displacement vector field. In most situations, the mere gray value variations do not provide sufficient information in order to estimate such a displacement vector field. Supplementary constraints are necessary, for example the postulate that a displacement vector field varies smoothly

Hans-Hellmut Nagel; Wilfried Enkelmann

1986-01-01

307

Anisotropic Magnetism in Field-Structured Composites

Magnetic field-structured-composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g. rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chain-like particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheet-like particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCS of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material.

Anderson, Robert A.; Martin, James E.; Odinek, Judy; Venturini, Eugene

1999-06-24

308

Studies on Somatosensory Evoked Magnetic Fields.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spatiotemporal patterns of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields to stimulation of upper and lower limb nerves were examined in healthy humans. The studies summarized here provide the first magnetic field maps over the primary foot projection area after li...

J. Huttunen

1987-01-01

309

Luminescence in applied magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal complexes and solids were synthesized and subjected to photoexcitation measurements under the influence of externally applied magnetic fields. The photoluminescence of complexes of rhodium (I) and iridium (I) displayed both field induced emission bands and a many fold shortening of the excited state lifetime. Both the decay rates and the induced emission band intensities showed a quadratic dependence on the applied field. A several fold shortening of the phosphorescence from the octaphosphitoplatinum (II) anion under an applied field (50 T) was also observed. Spectroscopic studies of several bis (N-heterocyclic) complexes of copper (I) were also concluded and complete group theoretic assignments of the charge transfer excited states were made. The technique of Thermal Modulation was perfected and applied to the study of the exited states of transition metal complexes with near degenerate emitting states.

Crosby, G. A.

1989-08-01

310

The photospheric vector magnetic fields, Ha and soft X-ray images of AR 7321 were simultaneously observed with the Solar Flare Telescope at Mitaka and the Soft X-ray Telescope of Yohkoh on October 26, 1992, when there was no important activity in this region. Taking the observed photospheric vector magnetic fields as the boundary condition, 3D magnetic fields above the photosphere

Huaning Wang; Yihua Yan; Takashi Sakurai; Mei Zhang

2000-01-01

311

Simulations of Photospheric Magnetic Fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have run plots of artificial data, which mimic solar magnetograms, through standard algorithms to critique several results reported in the literature. In studying correlation algorithms, we show that the differences in the profiles for the differential rotation of the photospheric magnetic field stem from different methods of averaging. We verify that the lifetimes of small magnetic features, or of small patterns of these features in the large-scale background field, are on the order of months, rather than a few days. We also show that a meridional flow which is cycle dependent creates an artifact in the correlation-determined magnetic rotation which looks like a torsional oscillation; and we compare this artifact to the torsional patterns that have been reported. Finally, we simulate the time development of a large-scale background field created solely from an input of artifical, finite-lifetime 'sunspot' bipoles. In this simulation, we separately examine the effects of differential rotation, meridional flow and Brownian motion (random walk, which we use rather than diffusion), and the inclination angles of the sunspot bipoles (Joy's law). We find, concurring with surface transport equation models, that a critical factor for producing the patterns seen on the Sun is the inclination angle of the bipolar active regions. This work was supported by NSF grant 9416999.

Smith, A. A.; Snodgrass, H. B.

1999-05-01

312

Field Concentrator Based Resonant Magnetic Sensor

A novel resonant magnetic sensor based on the combination of a mechanical resonator and a magnetic field concentrator with two gaps is reported. In contrast to previous Lorentz force based resonant magnetic sensors, a high sensitivity is achieved without modulated driving current and complex feedback electronics. Furthermore, compared to magnetic moment based resonant magnetic sensors, the new concept requires no

S. Brugger; P. Simon; O. Paul

2006-01-01

313

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique using vector Slepian harmonics and vector Slepian multipole fields is presented for a general treatment of the inverse problem of high numerical aperture focusing. A prescribed intensity distribution or electric field distribution in the focal volume is approximated using numerical optimization and the corresponding illuminating field at the entrance pupil is constructed. Three examples from the recent literature are chosen to illustrate the method.

Jahn, Kornél; Bokor, Nándor

2013-02-01

314

Color Superconducting Matter in a Magnetic Field

We investigate the effect of a magnetic field on cold dense quark matter using an effective model with four-Fermi interactions. We find that the gap parameters representing the predominant pairing between the different quark flavors show oscillatory behavior as a function of the magnetic field. We point out that due to electric and color neutrality constraints the magnetic fields as strong as presumably existing inside magnetars might induce significant deviations from the gap structure at a zero magnetic field.

Fukushima, Kenji [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Warringa, Harmen J. [Department of Physics, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2008-01-25

315

Numerical Simulation In Magnetic Drug Targeting. Magnetic Field Source Optimization

\\u000a This paper presents numerical simulation model and results on magnetic drug targeting therapy. The study aims at investigating\\u000a the aggregate blood - magnetic carrier flow interaction with an external magnetic field. Another objective was finding the\\u000a optimal magnetic field source configuration that provides for flows that best assist in magnetic drug targeting. In order\\u000a to evaluate the effects we used

A. Dobre; A. M. Morega

316

Magnetic field gradient measurement on magnetic cards using magnetic force microscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field gradients of magnetic stripe cards, which are developed for classifying magnetic particles used in magnetic particle inspections, have been measured using a magnetic force microscope (MFM). The magnetic force exerted on a MFM probe by the stray field emanating from the card was measured to determine the field gradients. The results are in good agreement with the field gradients estimated from the magnetizing field strengths used in the encoding process. .

Lo, C. C. H.; Leib, J.; Jiles, D. C.; Chedister, W. C.

2002-05-01

317

Magnetic fields in the early Universe

This review concerns the origin and the possible effects of magnetic fields in the early Universe. We start by providing the reader with a short overview of the current state of the art of observations of cosmic magnetic fields. We then illustrate the arguments in favor of a primordial origin of magnetic fields in the galaxies and in the clusters

Dario Grasso; Hector R. Rubinstein

2001-01-01

318

Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data

We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C (Canada); Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Tevzadze, Alexander G. [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, 1 Chavchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi, GE-0128 (Georgia); Sethi, Shiv K. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Pandey, Kanhaiya [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Ratra, Bharat [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

2010-10-15

319

Penetration of plasma across a magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility to investigate the plasma penetration across an externally applied magnetic field. In experiment, a short-pulse laser ablates a polyethylene laser target, producing a plasma which interacts with an external magnetic field. The mechanism which allows the plasma to penetrate the applied magnetic field in experiment will be discussed.

Plechaty, C.; Presura, R.; Wright, S.; Neff, S.; Haboub, A.

2009-08-01

320

Magnetic field reversals in the Milky Way

Radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies have tremendously enhanced our knowledge of their global magnetic field distributions. Recent theoretical developments in the area of dynamos have also helped in the interpretation of magnetic field data in spiral galaxies. When it comes to the magnetic field in the Milky Way galaxy, our position in the Milky Way's galactic disk hinders our

J. P. Vallee

1996-01-01

321

Transmission line magnetic fields; Measurements and calculations

Recent controversy over 60 Hz magnetic fields has heightened public awareness of overhead transmission lines. As a result, there is increasing motivation to study the magnetic fields form transmission lines. The most cost effective means to conduct research into transmission line magnetic fields is with computer or reduced-scale line models. However, from the standpoint of public perception and acceptance, it

B. A. Clairmont; G. B. Johnson; J. H. Dunlap

1992-01-01

322

Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

Kahniashvili, Tina; Tevzadze, Alexander G.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Pandey, Kanhaiya; Ratra, Bharat

2010-10-01

323

Non--LTE line formation in the presence of magnetic fields

The equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium in the presence of a magnetic field are presented. A general difference equation scheme for solving the vector transfer equation in Stokes parameters, allowing for arbitrary variations of the magnetic field and other quantities, is described. The solution of the Stokes non--LTE problem for Ca II by the complete linearization method is

L. H. Auer; J. N. Heasley; L. L. House

1977-01-01

324

Numerical magnetic field analysis and signal processing for fault diagnostics of electrical machines

Numerical magnetic field analysis is used for predicting the performance of an induction motor and a slip-ring generator having different faults implemented in their structure. Virtual measurement data provided by the numerical magnetic field analysis are analysed using modern signal processing techniques to get a reliable indication of the fault. Support vector machine based classification is applied to fault diagnostics.

S. Pöyhönen; M. Negrea; P. Jover; A. Arkkio; H. Hyötyniemi

2003-01-01

325

The Topology and Behavior of Magnetic Fields Emerging at the Solar Photosphere

The nature of flux emerging through the surface layers of the Sun is examined in the light of new high-resolution magnetic field observations from the Hinode space mission. The combination of vector magnetic field data and visible-light imaging from Hinode support the hypothesis that active region filaments are created as a result of an emerging, twisted flux system. The observations

B. W. Lites

2009-01-01

326

One of the primary objectives of the Double Star mission is the accurate measurement of the magnetic field vector along the orbits of the two spacecraft. The magnetic field is an essential parameter for the understanding of space plasma processes and is also required for the effective interpretation of data from the other instruments on the spacecraft. We present the

C. Carr; P. Brown; T. L. Zhang; J. Gloag; T. Horbury; E. Lucek; W. Magnes; H. O'Brien; T. Oddy; U. Auster; P. Austin; O. Aydogar; A. Balogh; W. Baumjohann; T. Beek; H. Eichelberger; K.-H. Fornacon; E. Georgescu; K.-H. Glassmeier; M. Ludlam; R. Nakamura; I. Richter

2005-01-01

327

The finite element modeling of static and stationary electric and magnetic fields

A finite-element method is described for computing static and stationary electric and magnetic fields directly in terms of the electric or magnetic field strength. In this way the use of (vector) potentials is avoided and a much higher accuracy is achieved with the same computational effort. The curl equation is supplemented with the electromagnetic compatibility relations and a problem is

Ioan E. Lager; Gerrit Mur

1996-01-01

328

Isoperimetric problems for the helicity of vector fields and the Biot-Savart and curl operators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The helicity of a smooth vector field defined on a domain in three-space is the standard measure of the extent to which the field lines wrap and coil around one another. It plays important roles in fluid mechanics, magnetohydrodynamics, and plasma physics. The isoperimetric problem in this setting is to maximize helicity among all divergence-free vector fields of given energy, defined on and tangent to the boundary of all domains of given volume in three-space. The Biot-Savart operator starts with a divergence-free vector field defined on and tangent to the boundary of a domain in three-space, regards it as a distribution of electric current, and computes its magnetic field. Restricting the magnetic field to the given domain, we modify it by subtracting a gradient vector field so as to keep it divergence-free while making it tangent to the boundary of the domain. The resulting operator, when extended to the L2 completion of this family of vector fields, is compact and self-adjoint, and thus has a largest eigenvalue, whose corresponding eigenfields are smooth by elliptic regularity. The isoperimetric problem for this modified Biot-Savart operator is to maximize its largest eigenvalue among all domains of given volume in three-space. The curl operator, when restricted to the image of the modified Biot-Savart operator, is its inverse, and the isoperimetric problem for this restriction of the curl is to minimize its smallest positive eigenvalue among all domains of given volume in three-space. These three isoperimetric problems are equivalent to one another. In this paper, we will derive the first variation formulas appropriate to these problems, and use them to constrain the nature of any possible solution. For example, suppose that the vector field V, defined on the compact, smoothly bounded domain ?, maximizes helicity among all divergence-free vector fields of given nonzero energy, defined on and tangent to the boundary of all such domains of given volume. We will show that (1) |V| is a nonzero constant on the boundary of each component of ? (2) all the components of ?? are tori; and (3) the orbits of V are geodesics on ??. Thus, among smooth simply connected domains, none are optimal in the above sense. In principal, one could have a smooth optimal domain in the shape, say, of a solid torus. However, we believe that there are no smooth optimal domains at all, regardless of topological type, and that the true optimizer looks like the singular domain presented in this paper, which we can think of either as an extreme apple, in which the north and south poles have been pressed together, or as an extreme solid torus, in which the hole has been shrunk to a point. A computational search for this singular optimal domain and the helicity-maximizing vector field on it is at present under way, guided by the first variation formulas in this paper.

Cantarella, Jason; Deturck, Dennis; Gluck, Herman; Teytel, Mikhail

2000-08-01

329

Evolution of normal pulsar magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results and new progress of the origin and evolution of pulsar magnetic fields are reviewed. Lots of models about how such strong magnetic fields were generated, mainly two kinds of structures were proposed for initial magnetic fields: fields confined in the cores and fields confined in the crusts of neutron stars. No consensus has been reached on whether the magnetic fields decay or not, despite some observational evidence for the evolution of magnetic fields. The discrepancy between characteristic ages and kinematic ages indicates that the magnetic fields decay exponentially. On the other hand, the braking indices of several young pulsars and the comparison between pulsar characteristic ages and the ages of associated supernova remnants suggest that the magnetic fields of young pulsars grow like a power-law. Pulsar population synthesis is one of the most important methods to investigate the evolution of magnetic fields. Many simulations show that if magnetic fields do decay exponentially, the e-folding decay time should be 100 Myr or longer. The numerical calculations of the Ohmic decay in the crust indicate that the scenario of exponential decay is oversimple, and the evolution could be divided into four possible phases approximately: exponential decay, no decay, power-law decay and exponential decay again. The model of magnetic fields expulsion induced by spin-down suggests that the magnetic fields decay only in a period between 107yr and 108yr.

Sun, Xiaohui; Han, Jinlin

2002-06-01

330

Parahydrogen-induced polarization at zero magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use symmetry arguments and simple model systems to describe the conversion of the singlet state of parahydrogen into an oscillating sample magnetization at zero magnetic field. During an initial period of free evolution governed by the scalar-coupling Hamiltonian HJ, the singlet state is converted into scalar spin order involving spins throughout the molecule. A short dc pulse along the z axis rotates the transverse spin components of nuclear species I and S through different angles, converting a portion of the scalar order into vector order. The development of vector order can be described analytically by means of single-transition operators, and it is found to be maximal when the transverse components of I are rotated by an angle of +/-?/2 relative to those of S. A period of free evolution follows the pulse, during which the vector order evolves as a set of oscillating coherences. The imaginary parts of the coherences represent spin order that is not directly detectable, while the real parts can be identified with oscillations in the z component of the molecular spin dipole. The dipole oscillations are due to a periodic exchange between Iz and Sz, which have different gyromagnetic ratios. The frequency components of the resulting spectrum are imaginary, since the pulse cannot directly induce magnetization in the sample; it is only during the evolution under HJ that the vector order present at the end of the pulse evolves into detectable magnetization.

Butler, Mark C.; Kervern, Gwendal; Theis, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah P.; Ganssle, Paul J.; Blanchard, John W.; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

2013-06-01

331

Density and Magnetic Field Structure in the Plasmasphere: Comparison Between CLUSTER Data and Models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CLUSTER mission provides high time resolution four-point measurements of the plasmasphere near perigee. This allows to study the geometry and orientation of its overall density structure and magnetic field distribution. We present several CLUSTER plasmasphere crossings for which we compute the four-point spatial gradient of the electron density (WHISPER data) and of the magnetic field strength (FGM data), and we compare the direction of both gradients with the local field vector. We compare our CLUSTER results with models of the density and of the magnetic field inside the plasmasphere. We discuss in particular the density and magnetic field distribution along and transverse to field lines.

Darrouzet, F.; de Keyser, J.; Décréau, P. M.; Gallagher, D. L.; Denton, R. E.; Dunlop, M. W.

2008-12-01

332

Activity recognition using a mixture of vector fields.

The analysis of moving objects in image sequences (video) has been one of the major themes in computer vision. In this paper, we focus on video-surveillance tasks; more specifically, we consider pedestrian trajectories and propose modeling them through a small set of motion/vector fields together with a space-varying switching mechanism. Despite the diversity of motion patterns that can occur in a given scene, we show that it is often possible to find a relatively small number of typical behaviors, and model each of these behaviors by a "simple" motion field. We increase the expressiveness of the formulation by allowing the trajectories to switch from one motion field to another, in a space-dependent manner. We present an expectation-maximization algorithm to learn all the parameters of the model, and apply it to trajectory classification tasks. Experiments with both synthetic and real data support the claims about the performance of the proposed approach. PMID:23193235

Nascimento, Jacinto C; Figueiredo, Mário A T; Marques, Jorge S

2012-11-10

333

MIT Physics 8.02: Vector Field Diagram and Field Line Applet

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet was designed to enhance understanding of electric field lines. By "drawing" lines from simulated charges on a color-coded field, the learner can explore vector field diagrams and form concepts about strength/direction of field lines. Sign and ratio of charge can be changed. This activity is appropriate for introductory and algebra-based physics classes. It is part of a larger collection of NSF-funded physics animations and simulations for use in the interactive classroom.

Belcher, John

2006-11-13

334

A bayesian hierarchical factorization model for vector fields.

Factorization-based techniques explain arrays of observations using a relatively small number of factors and provide an essential arsenal for multi-dimensional data analysis. Most factorization models are, however, developed on general arrays of scalar values. For a class of practical data arising from observing spatial signals including images, it is desirable for a model to consider general observations, e.g., handling a vector field and non-exchangeable factors, e.g., handling spatial connections between the columns and the rows of the data. In this paper, a probabilistic model for factorization is proposed. We adopt Bayesian hierarchical modeling and treat the factors as latent random variables. A Markov structure is imposed on the distribution of factors to account for the spatial connections. The model is designed to represent vector arrays sampled from fields of continuous domains. Therefore, a tailored observation model is developed to represent the link between the factor product and the data. The proposed technique has been shown effective in analyzing optical flow fields computed on both synthetic images and real-life videoclips. PMID:23893727

Li, Jun; Tao, Dacheng

2013-07-24

335

Vector magnetogram and dopplergram observation of magnetic flux emergence and its explanation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 23 28 August 1988, at the Huairou Solar Observation Station of Beijing Observatory, the full development process of the region HR 88059 was observed. It emerged near the center of the solar disk and formed a medium active region. A complete series of vector magnetograms and photospheric and chromospheric Dopplergrams was obtained. From an analysis of these data, combined with some numerical simulations, the following conclusions can be drawn. (1) The emergence of new magnetic flux from enhanced networks followed by sunspot formation is an interesting physical process which can be simply described by MHD numerical simulation. The phenomena accompanying it occur according to a definite law summarized by Zwaan (1985). The condition for gas cooling and sunspot formation seems to be transverse field strength > 50 G together with longitudinal field strength > 700 G. For a period of 4 to 5 hours, the orientation of the transverse field shows little change. The configuration of field lines may be derived from vector magnetograms. The arch filament system can be recognized as an MHD shock. (2) New opposite bipolar features emerge within the former bipolar field with an identical strength which will develop a sunspot group complex. Also, arch filament systems appear there located in the position of flux emergence. The neutral line is often pushed aside and curved, leading to faculae heating and the formation of a current sheet. In spite of complicated Dopplergrams, the same phenomena occur at the site of flux emergence as usual: upward flow appears at the location of the emerging and rapidly varying flux near the magnetic neutral line, and downdraft occurs over large parts of the legs of the emerging flux tubes. The age of magnetic emerging flux (or a sunspot) can be estimated in terms of transverse field strengths: when 50 G < transverse field < 200 G, the longitudinal magnetogram and Dopplergram change rapidly, which indicates a rigourously emerging magnetic flux. When the transverse field is between 200 and 400 G, the area concerned is in middle age, and some of the new flux is still emerging there. When the transverse field > 400 G, the variation of the longitudinal magnetogram slows down and the emerging arch becomes relatively stable and a photospheric Evershed flow forms at the penumbra of the sunspot.

Hongqi, Zhang; Mutao, Song

1992-03-01

336

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the concept of magnetofection, we prepared lipid shell microbubbles loaded with highly positively charged iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles through electrostatic and matrix affinity interactions. These magnetic microbubbles showed strong ultrasound contrast. When the magnetic microbubbles were mixed with plasmid DNA encoding a reporter gene, gene delivery to HeLa cells was achieved only when ultrasound was applied. Gene transfer efficiency strongly depended on the application of a gradient magnetic field. Treatment of HeLa cells with the microbubbles and ultrasound resulted in strong concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects, whereas ultrasound alone, lipid microbubbles alone, magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic microbubbles alone did not significantly affect cell viability. These magnetic microbubbles could be used as magnetically targeted diagnostic agents for real-time ultrasound imaging or for cancer therapy, therapy of vascular thrombosis and gene therapy.

Vlaskou, Dialechti; Pradhan, Pallab; Bergemann, Christian; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hensel, Karin; Schmitz, Georg; Plank, Christian; Mykhaylyk, Olga

2010-12-01

337

Comparing 2D vector field visualization methods: a user study.

We present results from a user study that compared six visualization methods for two-dimensional vector data. Users performed three simple but representative tasks using visualizations from each method: 1) locating all critical points in an image, 2) identifying critical point types, and 3) advecting a particle. Visualization methods included two that used different spatial distributions of short arrow icons, two that used different distributions of integral curves, one that used wedges located to suggest flow lines, and line-integral convolution (LIC). Results show different strengths and weaknesses for each method. We found that users performed these tasks better with methods that: 1) showed the sign of vectors within the vector field, 2) visually represented integral curves, and 3) visually represented the locations of critical points. Expert user performance was not statistically different from nonexpert user performance. We used several methods to analyze the data including omnibus analysis of variance, pairwise t-tests, and graphical analysis using inferential confidence intervals. We concluded that using the inferential confidence intervals for displaying the overall pattern of results for each task measure and for performing subsequent pairwise comparisons of the condition means was the best method for analyzing the data in this study. These results provide quantitative support for some of the anecdotal evidence concerning visualization methods. The tasks and testing framework also provide a basis for comparing other visualization methods, for creating more effective methods and for defining additional tasks to further understand the tradeoffs among the methods. In the future, we also envision extending this work to more ambitious comparisons, such as evaluating two-dimensional vectors on two-dimensional surfaces embedded in three-dimensional space and defining analogous tasks for three-dimensional visualization methods. PMID:15631129

Laidlaw, David H; Kirby, Robert M; Jackson, Cullen D; Davidson, J Scott; Miller, Timothy S; da Silva, Marco; Warren, William H; Tarr, Michael J

338

This study assessed the concept of whether delivery of magnetic nanobeads (MNBs)/adenoviral vectors (Ad)–encoded hVEGF gene (AdhVEGF) could regenerate ischaemically damaged hearts in a rat acute myocardial infarction model under the control of an external magnetic field. Adenoviral vectors were conjugated to MNBs with the Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin linker. In vitro transduction efficacy of MNBs/Ad–encoded luciferase gene (Adluc) was compared with Adluc alone in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under magnetic field stimulation. In vivo, in a rat acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model, MNBs/AdhVEGF complexes were injected intravenously and an epicardial magnet was employed to attract the circulating MNBs/AdhVEGF complexes. In vitro, compared with Adluc alone, MNBs/Adluc complexes had a 50-fold higher transduction efficiency under the magnetic field. In vivo, epicardial magnet effectively attracted MNBs/AdhVEGF complexes and resulted in strong therapeutic gene expression in the ischemic zone of the infarcted heart. When compared to other MI-treated groups, the MI-M+/AdhVEGF group significantly improved left ventricular function (p<0.05) assessed by pressure-volume loops after 4 weeks. Also the MI-M+/AdhVEGF group exhibited higher capillary and arteriole density and lower collagen deposition than other MI-treated groups (p<0.05). Magnetic targeting enhances transduction efficiency and improves heart function. This novel method to improve gene therapy outcomes in AMI treatment offers the potential into clinical applications.

Ou, Lailiang; Wang, Weiwei; Delyagina, Evgenya; Lux, Cornelia; Sorg, Heiko; Riehemann, Kristina

2012-01-01

339

Crustal Magnetic Fields of Terrestrial Planets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field measurements are very valuable, as they provide constraints on the interior of the telluric planets and Moon. The Earth possesses a planetary scale magnetic field, generated in the conductive and convective outer core. This global magnetic field is superimposed on the magnetic field generated by the rocks of the crust, of induced (i.e. aligned on the current main field) or remanent (i.e. aligned on the past magnetic field). The crustal magnetic field on the Earth is very small scale, reflecting the processes (internal or external) that shaped the Earth. At spacecraft altitude, it reaches an amplitude of about 20 nT. Mars, on the contrary, lacks today a magnetic field of core origin. Instead, there is only a remanent magnetic field, which is one to two orders of magnitude larger than the terrestrial one at spacecraft altitude. The heterogeneous distribution of the Martian magnetic anomalies reflects the processes that built the Martian crust, dominated by igneous and cratering processes. These latter processes seem to be the driving ones in building the lunar magnetic field. As Mars, the Moon has no core-generated magnetic field. Crustal magnetic features are very weak, reaching only 30 nT at 30-km altitude. Their distribution is heterogeneous too, but the most intense anomalies are located at the antipodes of the largest impact basins. The picture is completed with Mercury, which seems to possess an Earth-like, global magnetic field, which however is weaker than expected. Magnetic exploration of Mercury is underway, and will possibly allow the Hermean crustal field to be characterized. This paper presents recent advances in our understanding and interpretation of the crustal magnetic field of the telluric planets and Moon.

Langlais, Benoit; Lesur, Vincent; Purucker, Michael E.; Connerney, Jack E. P.; Mandea, Mioara

2010-05-01

340

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the abrupt photospheric magnetic changes associated with six major flares using 12 minute, 0farcs5 pixel-1 vector magnetograms from NASA's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite. The six major flares occurred near the main magnetic neutral lines of four active regions, NOAA 11158, 11166, 11283, and 11429. During all six flares the neutral-line field vectors became stronger and more horizontal, in each case almost entirely due to strengthening of the horizontal field components parallel to the neutral line. In all six cases the neutral-line pre-flare fields were more vertical than the reference potential fields, and collapsed abruptly and permanently closer to potential-field tilt angles during every flare, implying that the relaxation of magnetic stress associated with non-potential tilt angles plays a major role during major flares. The shear angle with respect to the reference potential field did not show such a pattern, demonstrating that flare processes do not generally relieve magnetic stresses associated with photospheric magnetic shear. The horizontal fields became significantly and permanently more aligned with the neutral line during the four largest flares, suggesting that the collapsing field is on average more aligned with the neutral line than the pre-flare neutral-line field. The vertical Lorentz force had a large, abrupt, permanent downward change during each of the flares, consistent with loop collapse. The horizontal Lorentz force changes acted mostly parallel to the neutral line in opposite directions on each side, a signature of the fields contracting during the flare, pulling the two sides of the neutral line toward each other. The greater effect of the flares on field tilt than on shear may be explained by photospheric line-tying.

Petrie, G. J. D.

2012-11-01

341

We analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the abrupt photospheric magnetic changes associated with six major flares using 12 minute, 0.''5 pixel{sup -1} vector magnetograms from NASA's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite. The six major flares occurred near the main magnetic neutral lines of four active regions, NOAA 11158, 11166, 11283, and 11429. During all six flares the neutral-line field vectors became stronger and more horizontal, in each case almost entirely due to strengthening of the horizontal field components parallel to the neutral line. In all six cases the neutral-line pre-flare fields were more vertical than the reference potential fields, and collapsed abruptly and permanently closer to potential-field tilt angles during every flare, implying that the relaxation of magnetic stress associated with non-potential tilt angles plays a major role during major flares. The shear angle with respect to the reference potential field did not show such a pattern, demonstrating that flare processes do not generally relieve magnetic stresses associated with photospheric magnetic shear. The horizontal fields became significantly and permanently more aligned with the neutral line during the four largest flares, suggesting that the collapsing field is on average more aligned with the neutral line than the pre-flare neutral-line field. The vertical Lorentz force had a large, abrupt, permanent downward change during each of the flares, consistent with loop collapse. The horizontal Lorentz force changes acted mostly parallel to the neutral line in opposite directions on each side, a signature of the fields contracting during the flare, pulling the two sides of the neutral line toward each other. The greater effect of the flares on field tilt than on shear may be explained by photospheric line-tying.

Petrie, G. J. D. [National Solar Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2012-11-01

342

Nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus for pulsed high magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus for experiments in pulsed high magnetic fields is described. The magnetic field pulses created together with various magnet coils determine the requirements such an apparatus has to fulfill to be operated successfully in pulsed fields. Independent of the chosen coil it is desirable to operate the entire experiment at the highest possible bandwidth such that a correspondingly large temporal fraction of the magnetic field pulse can be used to probe a given sample. Our apparatus offers a bandwidth of up to 20 MHz and has been tested successfully at the Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden, even in a very fast dual coil magnet that has produced a peak field of 94.2 T. Using a medium-sized single coil with a significantly slower dependence, it is possible to perform advanced multi-pulse nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. As an example we discuss a Carr-Purcell spin echo sequence at a field of 62 T.

Meier, Benno; Kohlrautz, Jonas; Haase, Jürgen; Braun, Marco; Wolff-Fabris, Frederik; Kampert, Erik; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas; Wosnitza, Joachim

2012-08-01

343

Near Field Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots Under Magnetic Field

We present the basic steps for the study of the linear near field absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots under magnetic field of variable orientation. We show that the application of the magnetic field alone is sufficient to induce -increasing the spot illuminated by the near field probe- interesting features to the absorption spectra.

Anna Zora; Constantinos Simserides; Georgios Triberis

2005-01-01

344

Near Field Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots Under Magnetic Field

We present the basic steps for the study of the linear near field absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots under magnetic field of variable orientation. We show that the application of the magnetic field alone is sufficient to induce -increasing the spot illuminated by the near field probe- interesting features to the absorption spectra.

Anna Zora; Constantinos Simserides; Georgios Triberis

2004-01-01

345

The origins of lunar crustal magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is devoted to understanding the origins of lunar crustal magnetism. We wish to understand the processes which have created and modified the crustal magnetic field distribution that we observe today, and to determine whether the Moon ever had an active magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Previously, our only measurements of lunar magnetic fields came from the Explorer 35 and Apollo missions. Data coverage was incomplete, but sufficient to establish some systematics of the crustal field distribution. With new data from the Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer instrument on Lunar Prospector, we have generated the first completely global maps of the lunar crustal fields. We use measurements of electrons magnetically reflected above the lunar surface, which we then correct for the effects of electrostatic fields (which also reflect electrons), and convert to estimates of surface magnetic fields. The resulting global map shows that impact basins and craters (especially the youngest) generally have low magnetic fields, suggesting impact demagnetization, primarily by shock effects. A secondary signature of some large lunar basins (especially older ones) is the presence of a more localized central magnetic anomaly. Meanwhile, the largest regions of strong crustal fields lie antipodal to young large impact basins, suggesting shock remanent magnetization due to a combination of antipodal focussing of seismic energy and/or ejecta and plasma compression of ambient magnetic fields. Smaller regions of strong magnetic fields are sometimes associated with basin ejecta, and basin and crater ejecta terranes have the strongest average fields outside of the antipodal regions. This implies that impact-generated magnetization may extend beyond the antipodal regions. The antipodal, non-antipodal, and central basin magnetic fields, as well as returned samples, can all be used to estimate the lunar magnetic field history and place constraints on a possible lunar dynamo. All of these quantities provide evidence for stronger magnetic fields early in the Moon's history, and thereby suggest the existence of an ancient core dynamo.

Halekas, Jasper S.

346

Field induced magnetic order in the frustrated magnet gadolinium gallium garnet

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gd3Ga5O12, (GGG), has an extraordinary magnetic phase diagram, where no long range order is found down to 25 mK despite ?CW approx2 K. However, long range order is induced by an applied field of around 1 T. Motivated by recent theoretical developments and the experimental results for a closely related hyperkagome system, we have performed neutron diffraction measurements on a single crystal sample of GGG in an applied magnetic field. The measurements reveal that the H - T phase diagram of GGG is much more complicated than previously assumed. The application of an external field at low T results in an intensity change for most of the magnetic peaks which can be divided into three distinct sets: ferromagnetic, commensurate antiferromagnetic, and incommensurate antiferromagnetic. The ferromagnetic peaks (e.g. (112), (440) and (220)) have intensities that increase with the field and saturate at high field. The antiferromagnetic reflections have intensities that grow in low fields, reach a maximum at an intermediate field (apart from the (002) peak which shows two local maxima) and then decrease and disappear above 2 T. These AFM peaks appear, disappear and reach maxima in different fields. We conclude that the competition between magnetic interactions and alternative ground states prevents GGG from ordering in zero field. It is, however, on the verge of ordering and an applied magnetic field can be used to crystallise ordered components. The range of ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) propagation vectors found reflects the complex frustration in GGG.

Petrenko, O. A.; Balakrishnan, G.; McK Paul, D.; Yethiraj, M.; McIntyre, G. J.; Wills, A. S.

2009-01-01

347

Magnetic field seeding by galactic winds

The origin of intergalactic magnetic fields is still a mystery and several scenarios have been proposed so far: among them, primordial phase transitions, structure-formation shocks and galactic outflows. In this work, we investigate how efficiently galactic winds can provide an intense and widespread `seed' magnetization. This may be used to explain the magnetic fields observed today in clusters of galaxies

Serena Bertone; Corina Vogt; Torsten Enßlin

2006-01-01

348

Invited Safety of Strong, Static Magnetic Fields

Issues associated with the exposure of patients to strong, static magnetic fields during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are reviewed and discussed. The history of human exposure to magnetic fields is reviewed, and the contra- dictory nature of the literature regarding effects on human health is described. In the absence of ferromagnetic for- eign bodies, there is no replicated scientific study

John F. Schenck

2000-01-01

349

Intergalactic Magnetic Fields from Quasar Outflows

Outflows from quasars inevitably pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM) with magnetic fields. The short-lived activity of a quasar leaves behind an expanding magnetized bubble in the IGM. We model the expansion of the remnant quasar bubbles and calculate their distribution as a function of size and magnetic field strength at different redshifts. We generically find that by a redshift z~3,

Steven R. Furlanetto; Abraham Loeb

2001-01-01

350

Magnetic fields in Local Group dwarf irregulars

Aims: We wish to clarify whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in typically low-mass dwarf galaxies and to assess the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the Universe. Methods: We performed a search for radio emission and magnetic fields in an unbiased sample of 12 Local Group (LG) irregular and dwarf irregular galaxies with the 100-m

K. T. Chyzy; M. Wezgowiec; R. Beck; D. J. Bomans

2011-01-01

351

Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

2011-01-01

352

Baking a magnetic-field display

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copy machine developer powder is an alternative for creating permanent displays of magnetic fields. A thin layer of developer powder on a sheet of paper placed over a magnet can be baked in the oven, producing a lasting image of a magnetic field.

Cavanaugh, Terence; Cavanaugh, Catherine

1998-02-01

353

Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In…

Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

2011-01-01

354

Cluster magnetic fields from galactic outflows

We performed cosmological, magnetohydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters, exploring the possibility that the origin of the magnetic seed fields is galactic outflows during the starburst phase of galactic evolution. To do this, we coupled a semi-analytical model for magnetized galactic winds as suggested by Bertone, Vogt & Enßlin to our cosmological simulation. We

J. Donnert; K. Dolag; H. Lesch; E. Müller

2009-01-01

355

Sub arcsec evolution of solar magnetic fields

Context: .The evolution of the concentrated magnetic field in flux tubes is one challenge of the nowadays Solar physics which requires time sequence with high spatial resolution. Aims: .Our objective is to follow the properties of the magnetic concentrations during their life, in intensity (continuum and line core), magnetic field and Doppler velocity. Methods: .We have observed solar region NOAA

Th. Roudier; J. M. Malherbe; J. Moity; S. Rondi; P. Mein; Ch. Coutard

2006-01-01

356

An Extraordinary Magnetic Field Map of Mars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new global map of the magnetic field of Mars, with an order of magnitude improved sensitivity to crustal magnetization, is derived from Mars Global Surveyor mapping orbit magnetic field data. With this comes greatly improved spatial resolution and geologic intrpretation.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.

2004-03-01

357

New Synoptic Measurements of Umbral Magnetic Fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apparent cyclic and secular changes of sunspot umbral intensities and magnetic field strengths have been reported for many decades. Monthly measurements since 1998 show changes that have been interpreted as a decline in sunspot vigor that, if continued, may lead to very few visible sunspots in forthcoming cycles (Livingston, Penn, and Svalgaard 2012, ApJ 757, L8). This dramatic notion is controversial (e.g. Nagovitsyn, Pevtsov, and Livingston 2012, ApJ 758, L20), and additional observational evidence is needed based on a minimum of interpretational steps and selection effects. The SOLIS vector spectromagnetograph has recorded photospheric spectra around 630.2 nm over the full solar disk daily since late 2003 with spatial and spectral pixel dimensions of about one arc second and 2.3 pm. We fit the unpolarized intensity spectra in sunspots with a simple Zeeman triplet model using a single field strength, which works well if the field strength exceeds about 2 kG and the individual spectra are not affected by strong Doppler and/or Zeeman variations. The derived total field strengths may be compared with independent spectrograph-based measurements from NSO, Hinode/SP, and Mt. Wilson and with filter-based measurements from SoHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. NSO plans to implement this reduction for all suitable archived SOLIS spectra and to continue daily umbral field strength measurements as cycle 24 proceeds. Preliminary comparisons show good agreements in some cases and systematic differences in others.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Apparent cyclic and secular changes of sunspot umbral intensities and magnetic field strengths have been reported for many decades. Monthly measurements since 1998 show changes that have been interpreted as a decline in sunspot vigor that, if continued, may lead to very few visible sunspots in forthcoming cycles (Livingston, Penn, and Svalgaard 2012, ApJ 757, L8). This dramatic notion is controversial (e.g. Nagovitsyn, Pevtsov, and Livingston 2012, ApJ 758, L20), and additional observational evidence is needed based on a minimum of interpretational steps and selection effects. The SOLIS vector spectromagnetograph has recorded photospheric spectra around 630.2 nm over the full solar disk daily since late 2003 with spatial and spectral pixel dimensions of about one arc second and 2.3 pm. We fit the unpolarized intensity spectra in sunspots with a simple Zeeman triplet model using a single field strength, which works well if the field strength exceeds about 2 kG and the individual spectra are not affected by strong Doppler and/or Zeeman variations. The derived total field strengths may be compared with independent spectrograph-based measurements from NSO, Hinode/SP, and Mt. Wilson and with filter-based measurements from SoHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. NSO plans to implement this reduction for all suitable archived SOLIS spectra and to continue daily umbral field strength measurements as cycle 24 proceeds. Preliminary comparisons show good agreements in some cases and systematic differences in others.

Harvey, J. W.; Hughes, A.; Marble, A.; Livingston, W. C.; Pevtsov, A.; SOLIS Team

2013-07-01

358

Graphical interactive generation of gravity and magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity and magnetic observation surveys aimed to the exploration of Earth subsurface are nowadays increasingly growing, due to their superior cost-effectiveness. They can be applied to a great variety of applications, ranging in scale from archaeological and engineering site investigations up to regional and global crust studies of Earth. In potential fields analysis, many algorithms, designed to extract quantitative subsurface information, do exist. Before using these methods on real data and in order to verify their effectiveness, they are usually tested on synthetic data. However, due to synthetic calculation complexity, magnetic and gravimetric sources are often replaced with simple geometrical primitives (spheres, cylinders or prisms) very far from being representative of real geological sources. A suite of MATLABs procedures called GamField is presented that greatly simplifies the graphical windows interactive construction of complex 3-D distributions of Cartesian prisms for gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling. The package can be used to compute a large variety of synthetic fields aimed at testing the quality of several interpretation techniques. Unlike already published PC-based codes, that compute either a magnetic or gravity field, GamField permits the combined calculation of both fields, their gradients and the magnetic vector components, through a graphical interactive 3-D approach in the construction of generic sources. GamField is maintained by the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) and can be freely downloaded.

Pignatelli, A.; Nicolosi, I.; Carluccio, R.; Chiappini, M.; von Frese, R. R.

2011-12-01

359

Higher dimensional black holes in external magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a Harrison transformation to higher dimensional asymptotically flat black hole solutions, which puts them into an external magnetic field. First, we magnetize the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metric in arbitrary spacetime dimension n >= 4. The thus generated exact solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations describes a static black hole immersed in a Melvin ``fluxbrane'', and generalizes previous results by Ernst for the case n = 4. The magnetic field deforms the shape of the event horizon, but the total area (as a function of the mass) and the thermodynamics remain unaffected. The amount of flux through a one-dimensional loop on the horizon exhibits a maximum for a finite value of the magnetic field strength, and decreases for larger values. In the Aichelburg-Sexl ultrarelativistic limit, the magnetized black hole becomes an impulsive gravitational wave propagating in the Melvin background. Furthermore, we discuss possible applications of a similar Harrison transformation to rotating black objects. This enables us to magnetize the Myers-Perry hole and the (dipole) Emparan-Reall ring at least in the special case when the vector potential is parallel to a nonrotating Killing field. In particular, dipole rings may be held in equilibrium even when their spin vanishes, thus demonstrating (infinite) non-uniqueness of magnetized static uncharged black holes in five dimensions. Physical properties of such rings are discussed.

Ortaggio, Marcello

2005-05-01

360

Construction of solar-wind-like magnetic fields.

Fluctuations in the solar wind fields tend to not only have velocities and magnetic fields correlated in the sense consistent with Alfvén waves traveling from the Sun, but they also have the magnitude of the magnetic field remarkably constant despite their being broadband. This Letter provides, for the first time, a method for constructing fields with nearly constant magnetic field, zero divergence, and with any specified power spectrum for the fluctuations of the components of the field. Every wave vector, k, is associated with two polarizations; the relative phases of these can be chosen to minimize the variance of the field magnitude while retaining the "random" character of the fields. The method is applied to a case with one spatial coordinate that demonstrates good agreement with observed time series and power spectra of the magnetic field in the solar wind, as well as with the distribution of the angles of rapid changes ("discontinuities"), thus showing a deep connection between two seemingly unrelated issues. It is suggested that using this construction will lead to more realistic simulations of solar wind turbulence and of the propagation of energetic particles. PMID:23368180

Roberts, D Aaron

2012-12-04

361

Construction of Solar-Wind-Like Magnetic Fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluctuations in the solar wind fields tend to not only have velocities and magnetic fields correlated in the sense consistent with Alfvén waves traveling from the Sun, but they also have the magnitude of the magnetic field remarkably constant despite their being broadband. This Letter provides, for the first time, a method for constructing fields with nearly constant magnetic field, zero divergence, and with any specified power spectrum for the fluctuations of the components of the field. Every wave vector, k, is associated with two polarizations; the relative phases of these can be chosen to minimize the variance of the field magnitude while retaining the “random” character of the fields. The method is applied to a case with one spatial coordinate that demonstrates good agreement with observed time series and power spectra of the magnetic field in the solar wind, as well as with the distribution of the angles of rapid changes (“discontinuities”), thus showing a deep connection between two seemingly unrelated issues. It is suggested that using this construction will lead to more realistic simulations of solar wind turbulence and of the propagation of energetic particles.

Roberts, D. Aaron

2012-12-01

362

Worldline approach to vector and antisymmetric tensor fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The N = 2 spinning particle action describes the propagation of antisymmetric tensor fields, including vector fields as a special case. In this paper we study the path integral quantization on a one-dimensional torus of the N = 2 spinning particle coupled to spacetime gravity. The action has a local N = 2 worldline supersymmetry with a gauged U(1) symmetry that includes a Chern-Simons coupling. Its quantization on the torus produces the one-loop effective action for a single antisymmetric tensor. We use this worldline representation to calculate the first few Seeley-DeWitt coefficients for antisymmetric tensor fields of arbitrary rank in arbitrary dimensions. As side results we obtain the correct trace anomaly of a spin 1 particle in four dimensions as well as exact duality relations between differential form gauge fields. This approach yields a drastic simplification over standard heat-kernel methods. It contains on top of the usual proper time a new modular parameter implementing the reduction to a single tensor field. Worldline methods are generically simpler and more efficient in perturbative computations than standard QFT Feynman rules. This is particularly evident when the coupling to gravity is considered.

Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Benincasa, Paolo; Giombi, Simone

2005-04-01

363

Rotating magnetic beacons magnetic field strength size in SAGD

Rotation magnetic beacons magnetic field strength is very important to drill parallel horizontal twin wells in steam assisted\\u000a gravity drainage (SAGD). This paper analyzes a small magnet with a diameter of 25.4 mm. At each end, there is a length of\\u000a 12.6 mm with permanent magnet, and in the middle, there is a length of 78mm with magnetic materials. The

Bing Tu; Desheng Li; Enhuai Lin; Bin Luo; Jian He; Lezhi Ye; Jiliang Liu; Yuezhong Wang

2010-01-01

364

Measurements of velocity field in the Fe I lambda 527.0 nm and Mg I lambda 517.3 nm lines and longitudinal magnetic field in the Fe I lambda 525.3 nm line over the umbrae of four spots were used to study the structure of both fields. We reconstructed all three components of both the magnetic and velocity field vectors from their

O. S. Gopasyuk

2000-01-01

365

An Improved Engineering Model of Vector Magnetic Properties of Grain-Oriented Electrical Steels

This paper presents an improved magnetic reluctivity model for vector magnetic properties of anisotropic electrical steel sheet based on Chua-type model using Fourier series expansion of measured B and H waveforms in the viewpoint of engineering application. In the modeling, B-spline surface interpolation is adopted to obtain smooth approximation of measured data. The accuracy of the proposed magnetic reluctivity model

Yanli Zhang; Young Hwan Eum; Dexin Xie; Chang Seop Koh

2008-01-01

366

Unique topological characterization of braided magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a topological flux function to quantify the topology of magnetic braids: non-zero, line-tied magnetic fields whose field lines all connect between two boundaries. This scalar function is an ideal invariant defined on a cross-section of the magnetic field, and measures the average poloidal magnetic flux around any given field line, or the average pairwise crossing number between a given field line and all others. Moreover, its integral over the cross-section yields the relative magnetic helicity. Using the fact that the flux function is also an action in the Hamiltonian formulation of the field line equations, we prove that it uniquely characterizes the field line mapping and hence the magnetic topology.

Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.

2013-01-01

367

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a measurement of the energy distribution in the four-dimensional (4-D) frequency and wave vector domain of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind. The measurement makes use of the wave telescope technique that has been developed particularly for multispacecraft data analysis. We review briefly the theoretical background and then present a numerical test using synthetic data; the technique is then applied to magnetic field data obtained while the Cluster spacecraft was in the solar wind. The energy distribution is determined in the flow rest frame in the frequency range below 0.2 rad/s and the wave number range below 0.0015 rad/km, corrected for the Doppler shift. We find the following properties in the energy distribution in the rest frame: (1) a double anisotropy in the wave vector domain associated with the mean magnetic field and the flow directions, (2) a symmetric distribution with respect to the sign of wave vector, and (3) no evidence for a linear dispersion relation in the frequency and wave number domain. Since the flow direction in the analyzed time interval is close to the normal direction to the bow shock, the anisotropy may well be associated with the bow shock. These results suggest that the solar wind is in a state of well-developed strong turbulence and justifies the theoretical picture of quasi-two-dimensional turbulence that obtains in the presence of a (relatively) strong DC magnetic field. However, the fluctuations are not axisymmetric around the mean field and the energy distribution is extended in the perpendicular direction to the flow or shock normal. Anisotropy associated with the boundary is reminiscent of previously reported magnetosheath turbulence. This study opens a way to investigate solar wind turbulence in the full 4-D frequency and wave vector space.

Narita, Y.; Sahraoui, F.; Goldstein, M. L.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

2010-04-01

368

Boston University Physics Applets: Magnetic Field Demonstration

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is an interactive physics simulation that explores magnetic fields. The user can add currents coming into or out of a simulated grid, and see the fields created. There is also a selection of pre-created fields, including bar magnets, loops, opposing magnets, and coils in uniform fields. Double-clicking on any point displays the full loop created by the magnetic field. This item is part of a larger collection of introductory physics simulations developed by the author. This is part of a collection of similar simulation-based student activities.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-08-23

369

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The word vector comes from the Latin term vehere, to carry. In Biology, a vector is an agent which carries disease, such as a mosquito carrying infected blood from one patient to the next. In physics, a vector is a quantity which has both a magnitude and a direction associated with it. The most commonly used example of vectors in everyday life is velocity. When you drive your car, your speedometer tells you the speed of your car, but it doesn't tell you where you are going. The combination of both where you are going and how fast you are going there is your car's velocity.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

370

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies.

Lubell, Martin S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

371

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

Lubell, M.S.

1994-10-25

372

Near-Field Magnetic Dipole Moment Analysis.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the data analysis technique used for magnetic testing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Excellent results have been obtained using this technique to convert a spacecraft s measured magnetic field data into its respective...

P. K. Harris

2003-01-01

373

Constant Current Source for Stable Magnetic Fields.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electronic control system for stabilization of currents in magnetic fields is described. Three superimposed control stages with different characteristics provide optimum elimination of all interfering factors. The use of electrostatic and magnetic shie...

K. Weyand

1976-01-01

374

THE EARTH'S YOUNG MAGNETIC FIELD

Invisible lines of magnetic force enclose our planet in what scientists call adipolarmagneticfield. Today these lines go from magnetic south to magnetic north, which are offset a few degrees from the geographic poles. Some minerals, like magnetite, can \\

Trevor Major

375

Worldline approach to vector and antisymmetric tensor fields II

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the worldline description of vector and antisymmetric tensor fields coupled to gravity to the massive case. In particular, we derive a worldline path integral representation for the one-loop effective action of a massive antisymmetric tensor field of rank p (a massive p-form) whose dynamics is dictated by a standard Proca-like lagrangian coupled to a background metric. This effective action can be computed in a proper time expansion to obtain the corresponding Seeley-DeWitt coefficients a0, a1, a2. The worldline approach immediately shows that these coefficients are derived from the massless ones by the simple shift D?D+1, where D is the spacetime dimension. Also, the worldline representation makes it simple to derive exact duality relations. Finally, we use such a representation to calculate the one-loop contribution to the graviton self-energy due to both massless and massive antisymmetric tensor fields of arbitrary rank, generalizing results already known for the massless spin 1 field (the photon).

Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Benincasa, Paolo; Giombi, Simone

2005-10-01

376

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many structural and dynamical features of the ionized and neutral upper atmosphere are strongly organized by the geomagnetic field, and several magnetic coordinate systems have been developed to exploit this organization. Quasi-Dipole coordinates are appropriate for calculations involving horizontally stratified phenomena like height-integrated currents, electron densities, and thermospheric winds; Modified Apex coordinates are appropriate for calculations involving electric fields and magnetic field-aligned currents. The calculation of these coordinates requires computationally expensive tracing of magnetic field lines to their apexes. Interpolation on a precomputed grid provides faster coordinate conversions, but requires the overhead of a sufficiently fine grid, as well as finite differencing to obtain coordinate base vectors. In this paper, we develop a compact and robust representation of the transformation from geodetic to Quasi-Dipole (QD), Apex, and Modified Apex coordinates, by fitting the QD coordinates to spherical harmonics in geodetic longitude and latitude. With this representation, base vectors may be calculated directly from the expansion coefficients. For an expansion truncated at order 6, the fitted coordinates deviate from the actual coordinates by a maximum of 0.4°, and typically by 0.1°. The largest errors occur in the equatorial Atlantic region. Compared to interpolation on a pre-computed grid, the spherical harmonic representation is much more compact and produces smooth base vectors. An algorithm for efficiently and concurrently computing scalar and vector spherical harmonic functions is provided in the appendix. Computer code for producing the expansion coefficients and evaluating the fitted coordinates and base vectors is included in the auxiliary material.

Emmert, J. T.; Richmond, A. D.; Drob, D. P.

2010-08-01

377

Dayside induced magnetic field in the ionosphere of Mars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) onboard the Mars Express spacecraft has occasionally displayed surprising features. One such feature is the occurrence of a series of broadband, low-frequency echoes at equally spaced delay times after the sounder transmitter pulse. The interval between the echoes has been shown to be at the cyclotron period of electrons orbiting in the local magnetic field. The electrons are believed to be accelerated by the large voltages applied to the antenna by the sounder transmitter. Measurements of the period of these "electron cyclotron echoes" provide a simple technique for determining the magnitude of the magnetic field near the spacecraft. These measurements are particularly useful because Mars Express carries no magnetometer, so this is the only method available for measuring the magnetic field magnitude. Using this technique, results are presented showing the large scale structure of the draped field inside the magnetic pile-up boundary. The magnitude of the draped field is shown to vary from about 40 nT at a solar zenith angle of about 25°, to about 25 nT at a solar zenith angle of 90°. The results compare favorably with similar results from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. A fitting technique is developed to derive the vector direction and magnitude of the draped magnetic field in cases where the spacecraft passes through regions with significant variation in the crustal field. The magnetic field directions are consistent with current knowledge of the draping geometry of the magnetic field around Mars.

Akalin, F.; Morgan, D. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kirchner, D. L.; Brain, D. A.; Modolo, R.; Acuña, M. H.; Espley, J. R.

2010-03-01

378

Arc Discharges in a Curved Magnetic Field.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment on arc discharges in hydrogen in a curved magnetic field is described. For a few milliseconds the discharge current flowed between two electrodes along the field lines of a toroidal magnetic field over an angle of 258 deg. The plasma was not...

F. C. Schueller

1974-01-01

379

Is the intergalactic magnetic field primordial?

We consider the various methods used to constrain the possible field strength of the present day intergalactic field and findB0(G)-10 as a probable upper bound. It is suggested that the observed intergalactic magnetic field might not be primordial in origin but rather the result of magnetic flux leakage from galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

Martin Beech

1985-01-01

380

Intergalactic magnetic field and galactic WARPS

An alternative explanation of galactic warps is proposed, in which the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) is responsible for these structures. The model predicts that, to be efficient, the magnetic field must have a direction not much different from 45 deg with the galactic plane. The required values of the field strength are uncertain, of about 10 nG, higher values being

E. Battaner; E. Florido; M. L. Sanchez-Saavedra

1990-01-01

381

Fiber Bragg Grating Magnetic Field Sensor

In this paper we demonstrate experimentally a magnetic field sensor using a fiber Bragg grating. The shift in the Bragg condition as a result of strain applied on the fiber mounted on a nickel base by the magnetic field gives an indirect measure of the field. The proposed method overcomes the need for long fiber lengths required in methods such

K. V. Madhav; K. Ravi Kumar; T. Srinivas; S. Asokan

2006-01-01

382

Is the intergalactic magnetic field primordial?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various methods used to constrain the possible field strength of the present day intergalactic field are considered, and Bzero (G) less than 10 to the -10th is found as a probable upper bound. It is suggested that the observed intergalactic magnetic field might not be primordial in origin but rather the result of magnetic flux leakage from galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

Beech, M.

1985-11-01

383

Static uniform magnetic fields and amoebae

Three species of potentially pathogenic amoebae were exposed to 71 and 106.5 mT from constant homogeneous magnetic fields and examined for inhibition of population growth. The number of amoebae for three species was significantly less than controls after a 72 h exposure to the magnetic fields when the temperature was 20 C or above. Axenic cultures, i.e., cultures grown without bacteria, were significantly affected after only 24 h. In 20 of 21 tests using the three species, the magnetic field significantly inhibited the growth of amoebae. In one test in which the temperature was 20 C for 48 h, exposure to the magnetic field was not inhibitory. Final numbers of magnetic field-exposed amoebae ranged from 9 to 72% lower than the final numbers of unexposed controls, depending on the species. This research may lead to disinfection strategies utilizing magnetic fields for surfaces on which pathogenic amoebae may proliferate.

Berk, S.G.; Srikanth, S.; Mahajan, S.M.; Ventrice, C.A. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

1997-03-01

384

Extraterrestrial Magnetic Fields: Achievements and Opportunities

The major scientific achievements associated with the measurement of magnetic fields in space over the past decade and a half are reviewed. Aspects of space technology relevant to magnetic-field observations are discussed, including the different types of magnetometers used and how they operate, problems arising from spacecraft-generated magnetic fields and the appropriate countermeasures that have been developed and on-board processing

EDWARD J. SMITHAND; Charles Sonett

1976-01-01

385

Modeling solar force-free magnetic fields

A class of nonlinear force-free magnetic fields is presented, described in terms of the solutions to a second-order, nonlinear ordinary differential equation. These magnetic fields are three-dimensional, filling the infinite half-space above a plane where the lines of force are anchored. They model the magnetic fields of the sun over active regions with a striking geometric realism. The total energy

B. C. Low; Y. Q. Lou

1990-01-01

386

Unsteady wandering magnetic field lines, turbulence and laboratory flux ropes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe earth bound laboratory experiment investigations of patchy, unsteady, bursty, patchy magnetic field structures that are unifying features of magnetic reconnection and turbulence in helio, space and astro physics. Macroscopic field lines occupy cross sectional areas, fill up three dimensional (3D) volumes as flux tubes. They contain mass with Newtonian dynamics that follow magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) equations of motion. Flux rope geometry can be ubiquitous in laminar reconnection sheet geometries that are themselves unstable to formation of secondary "islands" that in 3D are really flux ropes. Flux ropes are ubiquitous structures on the sun and the rest of the heliosphere. Understanding the dynamics of flux ropes and their mutual interactions offers the key to many important astrophysical phenomena, including magnetic reconnection and turbulence. We describe laboratory investigations on RSX, where 3D interaction of flux ropes can be studied in great detail. We use experimental probes inside the the flux ropes to measure the magnetic and electric fields, current density, density, temperatures, pressure, and electrostatic and vector plasma potentials. Macroscopic magnetic field lines, unsteady wandering characteristics, and dynamic objects with structure down to the dissipation scale length can be traced from data sets in a 3D volume. Computational approaches are finally able to tackle simple 3D systems and we sketch some intriguing simulation results that are consistent with 3D extensions of typical 2D cartoons for magnetic reconnection and turbulence.

Intrator, T.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Liu, D.; Pulliam, D.; Lazarian, A.

2011-12-01

387

Induced Magnetic Anisotropy of Ferrofluid Frozen in Magnetic Fields

The magnetization process of a ferrofluid whose carrier fluid is paraffin was investigated in the temperature range from 77 K to 300 K, as a function of the cooling field intensity and freezing rate. Phase transitions between the liquid and solid states can be simulated by using the ferrofluids as a magnetic probe. A uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was induced by

N. Inaba; H. Miyajima; S. Taketomi; S. Chikazumi

1989-01-01

388

Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

Plank, Gernot; Haagmans, Roger; Floberghagen, Rune; Menard, Yvon

2013-04-01

389

Five years of magnetic field management

The extensive publicity of epidemiological studies inferring correlation between 60 Hz magnetic fields and childhood leukemia prompted world wide research programs that have as a goal to determine if low frequency magnetic fields represent any risk for the general population, children or utility workers. While supporting this research effort through EPRI, Con Edison embarked on a technical research program aimed to: characterize magnetic fields as to intensity and variation in time; and investigate practical means to manage these magnetic fields through currently known methods. The final goal of these research projects is to establish viable methods to reduce magnetic field intensity to desired values at reasonable distances from the sources. This goal was pursued step by step, starting with an inventory of the main sources of magnetic fields in substations, distribution and transmission facilities and generating plants. The characterization of the sources helped to identify typical cases and select specific cases, far practical applications. The next step was to analyze the specific cases and develop design criteria for managing the magnetic fields in new installations. These criteria included physical arrangement of equipment based oil calculation of magnetic fields, cancellation effect, desired maximum field intensity at specific points and shielding with high magnetic permeability metals (mu-metal and steel). This paper summarizes the authors` experiences and shows the results of the specific projects completed in recent years.

Durkin, C.J.; Fogarty, R.P.; Halleran, T.M.; Mark, Dr. D.A.; Mukhopadhyay, A.

1995-01-01

390

Quark matter in a strong magnetic field

The effect of a strong magnetic field on the stability and gross properties of bulk as well as quasibulk quark matter is investigated using the conventional MIT bag model. Both the Landau diamagnetism and the paramagnetism of quark matter are studied. How the quark hadron phase transition is affected by the presence of a strong magnetic field is also investigated. The equation of state of strange quark matter changes significantly in a strong magnetic field. It is also shown that the thermal nucleation of quark bubbles in a compact metastable state of neutron matter is completely forbidden in the presence of a strong magnetic field. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Chakrabarty, S. [Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, District: Nadia, West Bengal 741 235 (India)]|[Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

1996-07-01

391

Two dimensional frustrated magnets in high magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frustrated magnets in high magnetic field have a long history of offering beautiful surprises to the patient investigator. Here we present the results of extensive classical Monte Carlo simulations of a variety of models of two dimensional magnets in magnetic field, together with complementary spin wave analysis. Striking results include (i) a massively enhanced magnetocaloric effect in antiferromagnets bordering on ferromagnetic order, (ii) a route to an m = 1/3 magnetization plateau on a square lattice, and (iii) a cascade of phase transitions in a simple model of AgNiO2.

Seabra, L.; Shannon, N.; Sindzingre, P.; Momoi, T.; Schmidt, B.; Thalmeier, P.

2009-01-01

392

The Magnetic Fields of the Quiet Sun

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reviews our understanding of the magnetic fields observed in the quiet Sun. The subject has undergone a major change during the last decade (quiet revolution), and it will remain changing since the techniques of diagnostic employed so far are known to be severely biased. Keeping these caveats in mind, our work covers the main observational properties of the quiet Sun magnetic fields: magnetic field strengths, unsigned magnetic flux densities, magnetic field inclinations, as well as the temporal evolution on short time-scales (loop emergence), and long time-scales (solar cycle). We also summarize the main theoretical ideas put forward to explain the origin of the quiet Sun magnetism. A final prospective section points out various areas of solar physics where the quiet Sun magnetism may have an important physical role to play (chromospheric and coronal structure, solar wind acceleration, and solar elemental abundances).

Sánchez Almeida, J.; Martínez González, M.

2011-04-01

393

Magnetic field characteristics have been surveyed systematically in six factories with the Multiwave(R) II waveform capture instrument. These six facilities manufactured plastics, pharmaceuticals, cement, liquid air products, aluminum parts, and aluminum-framed filters. The study goals were to survey the physical characteristics of magnetic fields that may be related to biological effects under various interaction mechanisms and to relate those characteristics to the field's sources. From 59 waveform measurements at worker locations near sources, we calculated the extremely low frequency (ELF) and static field magnitudes, their frequency characteristics, and spatial characteristics of the 60Hz component. The RMS vector magnitude of the ELF magnetic field (the usual exposure metric in most studies) had medians ranging from 0.53 to 12.83 microT in the six factories. The static magnetic field magnitudes had medians of 24.2-46.2 microT, which is well below the geomagnetic reference field of 55.0 microT because of shielding from steel structures. The maximum static field was 128.6 microT near a DC motor. The frequency spectra of the most common fields is dominated by 60Hz, and has a median total harmonic distortion equal to 14.8%. The most common higher frequencies are the third, fifth, and second harmonics of 60Hz. However, magnetic fields in these workplaces had many other 60Hz harmonics and non-harmonic frequencies due particularly to electric motors and computer monitors. The 60Hz component magnetic fields have elliptical polarization with median axial ratio of 25.4%. The average proportion of the 60Hz component parallel to the static field vector was 51.5+/-3.0%, which indicates a significant trend towards perpendicular orientation between these two field components. In this survey of only six factories, the Multiwave(R) II measurements documented a wide diversity of complex magnetic field characteristics and non-sinusoidal waveforms. Although these characteristics are important to the various mechanisms postulated to explain biological effects, they are overlooked by the popular exposure assessment methods which only measure the ELF magnitude. Therefore, spot measurements with the Multiwave(R) II or similar waveform capture instruments are necessary for a complete magnetic field exposure assessment. PMID:11108784

Bowman, J D; Methner, M M

2000-12-01

394

Global motion estimation from coarsely sampled motion vector field and the applications

Global motion estimation is a powerful tool widely used in video processing and compression as well as in computer vision areas. We propose a new approach for estimating global motions from coarsely sampled motion vector fields. The proposed method minimizes the fitting error between the input motion vectors and the motion vectors generated from the estimated motion model using the

Yeping Su; Ming-ting Sun; Vincent Hsu

2005-01-01

395

Solar magnetic fields as revealed by Stokes polarimetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational astrophysics started when spectroscopy could be applied to astronomy. Similarly, observational work on stellar magnetic fields became possible with the application of spectro-polarimetry. In recent decades there have been dramatic advances in the observational tools for spectro-polarimetry. The four Stokes parameters that provide a complete representation of partially polarized light can now be simultaneously imaged with megapixel array detectors with high polarimetric precision (10-5 in the degree of polarization). This has led to new insights about the nature and properties of the magnetic field, and has helped pave the way for the use of the Hanle effect as a diagnostic tool beside the Zeeman effect. The magnetic structuring continues on scales orders of magnitudes smaller than the resolved ones, but various types of spectro-polarimetric signatures can be identified, which let us determine the field strengths and angular distributions of the field vectors in the spatially unresolved domain. Here we review the observational properties of the magnetic field, from the global patterns to the smallest scales at the magnetic diffusion limit, and relate them to the global and local dynamos.

Stenflo, J. O.

2013-09-01

396

The only direct measurements of interstellar magnetic field strengths depend on the Zeeman effect, which samples the line-of-sight component B{sub z} of the magnetic vector. In this paper, we use a Bayesian approach to analyze the observed probability density function (PDF) of B{sub z} from Zeeman surveys of H I, OH, and CN spectral lines in order to infer a density-dependent stochastic model of the total field strength B in diffuse and molecular clouds. We find that at n < 300 cm{sup -3} (in the diffuse interstellar medium sampled by H I lines), B does not scale with density. This suggests that diffuse clouds are assembled by flows along magnetic field lines, which would increase the density but not the magnetic field strength. We further find strong evidence for B in molecular clouds being randomly distributed between very small values and a maximum that scales with volume density n as B {proportional_to} n {sup 0.65} for n>300 cm{sup -3}, with an uncertainty at the 50% level in the power-law exponent of about {+-}0.05. This break-point density could be interpreted as the average density at which parsec-scale clouds become self-gravitating. Both the uniform PDF of total field strengths and the scaling with density suggest that magnetic fields in molecular clouds are often too weak to dominate the star formation process. The stochasticity of the total field strength B implies that many fields are so weak that the mass/flux ratio in many clouds must be significantly supercritical. A two-thirds power law comes from isotropic contraction of gas too weakly magnetized for the magnetic field to affect the morphology of the collapse. On the other hand, our study does not rule out some clouds having strong magnetic fields with critical mass/flux ratios.

Crutcher, Richard M. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Wandelt, Benjamin [UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis, boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Heiles, Carl [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Falgarone, Edith [LRA/LERMA, CNRS UMR 8112, Ecole Normale Superieure and Observatoire de Paris, Paris (France); Troland, Thomas H. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

2010-12-10

397

Development of marine magnetic vector measurement system using AUV and deep-towed vehicle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine magnetic survey is one of useful methods in order to investigate the nature of the oceanic crust. Most of the data are, however, intensity of the geomagnetic field without its direction. Therefore we cannot properly apply a physical formula describing the relation between magnetic field and magnetization to analyses of the data. With this problem, Isezaki (1986) developed a shipboard three-component magnetometer which measures the geomagnetic vector at the sea. On the other hand, geophysical surveys near the seafloor have been more and more necessary in order to show the details of the oceanic crust. For instance, development of seabed resources like hydrothermal deposits needs higher resolution surveys compared with conventional surveys at the sea for accurate estimation of abundance of the resources. From these viewpoints, we have been developing a measurement system of the deep-sea geomagnetic vector using AUV and deep-towed vehicle. The measurement system consists of two 3-axis flux-gate magnetometers, an Overhauser magnetometer, an optical fiber gyro, a main unit (control, communication, recording), and an onboard unit. These devices except for the onboard unit are installed in pressure cases (depth limit: 6000m). Thus this measurement system can measure three components and intensity of the geomagnetic field in the deep-sea. In 2009, the first test of the measurement system was carried out in the Kumano Basin using AUV Urashima and towing vehicle Yokosuka Deep-Tow during the R/V Yokosuka YK09-09 cruise. In this test, we sank a small magnetic target to the seafloor, and examined how the system worked. As a result, we successfully detected magnetic anomaly of the target to confirm the expected performance of that in the sea. In 2010, the measurement system was tested in the Bayonnaise Knoll area both using a titanium towing frame during the R/V Bosei-maru cruise and using AUV Urashima during the R/V Yokosuka YK10-17 cruise. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the performance of the system in an actual hydrothermal deposit area for practical applications of that. The Bayonnaise Knoll is a submarine caldera with an outer rim of 2.5-3 km and a floor of 840-920 m, which is located in the Izu-Ogasawara arc. A large hydrothermal deposit, Hakurei deposit lies in the southeast part of the caldera. In the R/V Bosei-maru cruise, we observed three components of magnetic anomalies at depths of 400-570 m along SE-NW and WE tracks across the caldera. In the R/V Yokosuka YK10-17 cruise, we observed three components and intensity of magnetic anomalies at altitudes of 60-100 m around the Hakurei deposit and at depth of 500 m above the caldera. From these tests, we have succeeded in measuring the geomagnetic vector and intensity using the AUV and the deep-towed vehicle, and also have obtained detailed magnetic anomaly in the Hakurei deposit area. We will here present the outlines of the measurement system and the tests in the sea. Note that this study has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT).

Sayanagi, K.; Isezaki, N.; Matsuo, J.; Harada, M.; Kasaya, T.; Nishimura, K.; Baba, H.

2012-04-01

398

\\u000a Everywhere on the Earth there is a natural magnetic field which moves a horizontally free-moving magnetic needle (magnetic\\u000a compass) to magnetic north. The magnetic field is a vector field, i.e., it is described by its magnitude and direction. The\\u000a magnetic field consists of three parts: the main field, a fluctuating field, and a local anomaly field.

Klaus Knödel; FRANZ KÖNIG; GERHARD LANGE; HARALD LINDNER; REINIE MEYER; KLAUS-HENRIK MITTENZWEY; ANDREAS SCHUCK; KNUT SEIDEL; PETER WEIDELT; THOMAS WONIK; DIETER EISENBURGER; RICARDO A. OLEA; HELLFRIED PETZOLD; THOMAS RICHTER

399

PRINCIPLE OF CORRECTION OF ASYMMETRIC MAGNETIC FIELDS IN BENDING MAGNETS

The generation of a high quality electron beam by a race- track microtron (RTM) requires highly precise magnetic fields in the two reversing magnets. At the RTM cascade MAMI (Mainz Microtron), a precision of 10 ?4 for the ver- tical field component By was achieved by symmetrical sur- face coils placed at the upper and lower pole surface in each

F. Hagenbuck; P. Jennewein; K.-H. Kaiser; H.-J. Kreidel; U. Ludwig-Mertin; M. Seidl

2002-01-01

400

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page introduces vectors as an extension of numbers having both magnitude and direction. The initial motivation is to describe velocity but the material includes a general discussion of vector algebra and an application to forces for the inclined plane. The page contains links to a related lesson plan and further opportunities to explore vectors. This is part of the extensive web site "From Stargazers to Starships", that uses space exploration and space science to introduce topics in physics and astronomy. Translations in Spanish and French are available.

Stern, David

2006-07-16

401

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical surveys near the seafloor are very effective methods in order to investigate fine structures of the oceanic crust. Such surveys have increased in researches and developments of the seafloor, and will be more and more necessary in the future. For example, seabed resources like hydrothermal deposits have recently focused attention behind the international situation for natural resources like a competition of resources development. In order to estimate accurate abundance of those resources, the above detailed investigations should be needed because of low resolution of geophysical surveys on the sea and low efficiency of exploratory drilling. From such a viewpoint, we have been developing a measurement system for magnetic explorations using an AUV and a deep-tow system. The magnetic exploration system consists of two 3-axis flux-gate magnetometers, one/two Overhauser magnetometer(s), an optical fiber gyro, a main unit (control, communication, recording), and an onboard unit. These devices except for the onboard unit are installed in pressure cases (depth limit: 6000m). Thus this system can measure three components and total intensity of the geomagnetic field in the deep sea. In 2009, the first test of the magnetic exploration system was carried out in the Kumano Basin using AUV Urashima and towing vehicle Yokosuka Deep-Tow during the R/V Yokosuka YK09-09 cruise. In this test, we sank a small magnetic target to the seafloor, and examined how the system worked. As a result, we successfully detected magnetic anomaly of the target to confirm the expected performance of that in the sea. In 2010, the magnetic exploration system was further tested in the Bayonnaise Knoll area both using a titanium towing frame during the R/V Bosei-maru cruise and using AUV Urashima during the R/V Yokosuka YK10-17 cruise. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the performance of the system in an actual hydrothermal deposit area for practical applications of that. The Bayonnaise Knoll is a submarine caldera with an outer rim of 2.5-3 km and a floor of 840-920 m, which is located in the Izu-Ogasawara arc. A large hydrothermal deposit, Hakurei deposit, lies in the southeast part of the caldera. In the R/V Bosei-maru cruise, we observed three components of magnetic anomalies at depths of 400-570 m along SE-NW and WE tracks across the caldera. In the R/V Yokosuka YK10-17 cruise, we observed three components and total intensity of magnetic anomalies at altitudes of 60-100 m around the Hakurei deposit and at depth of 500 m above the caldera. The analysis of these data is now energetically pushed forward. A 3D gridded data set of the vector magnetic anomaly in the latter cruise was made by solving the Laplace's equation in the areas where observation data were not available, which is the unique procedure for analysis of the vector anomalies. Several magnetization solutions have been so far obtained by successive approximation and inversion methods. We will here present the measurement of the geomagnetic field and analysis of magnetization structure in Bayonnaise Knoll caldera. Note that this study has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT).

Sayanagi, K.; Isezaki, N.; Matsuo, J.; Harada, M.; Kasaya, T.

2011-12-01

402

Magnetic-field effects in non-magnetic glasses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it was found that the multi-component glass a-BaO-Al2O3-SiO2 exhibits unusual magnetic properties at very low temperatures. Thus the question arises whether this is a specialty of that particular glass or a more general phenomenon. We report here on our studies of the magnetic-field dependence of the dielectric properties of the borosilicate glass BK7 which contains only a negligible amount of magnetic impurities. Since this glass also responds sensitively to magnetic fields, our investigations demonstrate that the reaction of glasses to magnetic fields is not caused by magnetic impurities but reflects a more general phenomenon. In addition, we have observed that the variation of the dielectric constant and the loss angle with magnetic field depend on the amplitude of the electric field that is used to measure the glass capacitance. We present the data and discuss possible origins of the magnetic-field phenomena in non-magnetic glasses.

Wohlfahrt, M.; Strehlow, P.; Enss, C.; Hunklinger, S.

2001-12-01

403

Magnetohydrodynamics of the Earth'S Magnetic Field.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of observational and theoretical work pertaining to the origin of planetary magnetic fields is given with special emphasis on the dynamo theory which attempts to explain these fields as arising from magnetohydrodynamic regenerative action. Some p...

G. Venezian

1967-01-01

404

Cosmic Rays in the Earth'S Magnetic Field.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies are presented of the behavior of cosmic rays in the earth's magnetic field. It discusses the theory of motion of charged particles in an idealized field model and presents results of trajectory calculations of asymptotic directions and cutoff rigi...

L. I. Dorman V. S. Smirnov M. I. Tyasto

1973-01-01

405

The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)|

Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David

1989-01-01

406

Tracing magnetic fields with ground state alignment

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational studies of magnetic fields are vital as magnetic fields play a crucial role in various astrophysical processes, including star formation, accretion of matter, transport processes (e.g. transport of heat), and cosmic rays. The existing ways of magnetic field studies have their limitations. Therefore, it is important to explore new effects that can bring information about magnetic field. We identified a process “ground state alignment” as a new way to determine the magnetic field direction in diffuse medium. The consequence of the process is the polarization of spectral lines resulting from scattering and absorption from aligned atomic/ionic species with fine or hyperfine structure. The alignment is due to anisotropic radiation impinging on the atom/ion, while the magnetic field induces precession and realign the atom/ion and therefore the polarization of the emitted or absorbed radiation reflects the direction of the magnetic field. The atoms get aligned at their low levels and, as the life-time of the atoms/ions we deal with is long, the alignment induced by anisotropic radiation is susceptible to extremely weak magnetic fields (1G?B?10-15G). Compared to the upper level Hanle effect, atomic realignment is most suitable for the studies of magnetic field in the diffuse medium, where magnetic field is relatively weak. The corresponding physics of alignment is based on solid foundations of quantum electrodynamics and in a different physical regime the alignment has become a part of solar spectroscopy. In fact, the effects of atomic/ionic alignment, including the realignment in magnetic field, were studied in the laboratory decades ago, mostly in relation to the maser research. Recently, the atomic effect has been already detected in observations from circumstellar medium and this is a harbinger of future extensive magnetic field studies. It is very encouraging that a variety of atoms with fine or hyperfine splitting of the ground or metastable states exhibit the alignment and the resulting polarization degree in some cases exceeds 20%. A unique feature of the atomic realignment is that they can reveal the 3D orientation of magnetic field. In this paper, we shall review the basic physical processes involved in atomic realignment. We shall also discuss its applications to interplanetary, circumstellar and interstellar magnetic fields. In addition, our research reveals that the polarization of the radiation arising from the transitions between fine and hyperfine states of the ground level can provide a unique diagnostics of magnetic fields, including those in the early universe.

Yan, Huirong; Lazarian, A.

2012-08-01

407

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, it is beginning to be shown observationally and theoretically that the existence of the magnetic field is indispensable for active phenomena on the solar surface. In particular, the rotation or helicity of the magnetic field and their temporal variation are considered to be important factors which influence solar activity. In order to confirm this, it is necessary to compute vector components of the magnetic field with a higher accuracy than before. Therefore, we developed two kinds of filter-type magnetographs for the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope (SMART) at Hida observatory, which allow us to observe the polarization components in sunlight with high accuracy. We use a Lyot filter in one of two sets of magnetographs. On the other hand, a tandem-typed Fabry-Perot filter is used in one more set. For these two instruments, we made the following concrete advances. 1. The method of coating of the pre-filters. 2. Special fine-anneal on the main lenses. 3. Highly accurate rotating wave-plate. 4. Simultaneous observation of two kinds of filtergrams which have orthogonally polarized light mutually by using Fabry-Perot channel. 5. Observation in four wavelengths which can suppress various errors. 6. Low apparent Doppler shift in the FOV due to the oblique incidence of the rays to the filters. 7. Large format CCD (large-sized chip, large full-well). 8. High speed data transfer interface between the CCD and PC. In this paper, we report the details of these points, the expected effect of them, and the results of initial measurements.

UeNo, Satoru; Nagata, Shin-ichi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Kurokawa, Hiroki; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

2004-09-01

408

MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE ISOLATED MASSIVE DENSE CLUMP IRAS 20126+4104

We measured polarized dust emission at 350 {mu}m toward the high-mass star-forming massive dense clump IRAS 20126+4104 using the SHARC II Polarimeter, SHARP, at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Most of the observed magnetic field vectors agree well with magnetic field vectors obtained from a numerical simulation for the case when the global magnetic field lines are inclined with respect to the rotation axis of the dense clump. The results of the numerical simulation show that rotation plays an important role on the evolution of the massive dense clump and its magnetic field. The direction of the cold CO 1-0 bipolar outflow is parallel to the observed magnetic field within the dense clump as well as the global magnetic field, as inferred from optical polarimetry data, indicating that the magnetic field also plays a critical role in an early stage of massive star formation. The large-scale Keplerian disk of the massive (proto)star rotates in an almost opposite sense to the clump's envelope. The observed magnetic field morphology and the counterrotating feature of the massive dense clump system provide hints to constrain the role of magnetic fields in the process of high-mass star formation.

Shinnaga, Hiroko; Phillips, Thomas G. [California Institute of Technology Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Novak, Giles [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 633 Clark Street Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Vaillancourt, John E. [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States); Machida, Masahiro N. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kataoka, Akimasa [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tomisaka, Kohji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and Department of Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Davidson, Jacqueline; Houde, Martin [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009, Perth (Australia); Dowell, C. Darren [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-506, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Leeuw, Lerothodi [SETI Institute, 515 North Whisman Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

2012-05-10

409

Magnetic Field Investigations During ROSETTA's Steins Flyby

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent Steins flyby of the ROSETTA spacecraft magnetic field measurements have been made with both, the RPC orbiter magnetometer and the ROMAP lander magnetometer. These combined magnetic field measurements allow a detailed examination of any magnetic signatures caused either directly by the asteroid or indirectly by Steins different modes of interaction with the solar wind. Comparing our measurements with simulation results show that Steins does not possess a significant remanent magnetization. The magnetization is estimated at less than 1 mAm2/kg. This is significantly different from results at Braille and Gaspra.

Glassmeier, K.; Auster, H.; Richter, I.; Motschmann, U.; RPC/ROMAP Teams

2009-05-01

410

Modeling Magnetic Field Topology at Jupiter with the Khurana Magnetic Field Model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore the degree of coupling between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and Jupiter's magnetosphere, we traced magnetic field lines from the polar region of the planet using the Khurana [1997, 2005] magnetic field model. We used a parameterized definition of the Jovian magnetopause created by Joy et al. [2002] that varies with the value of the solar wind dynamic pressure. We searched for field lines that cross the magnetopause and that potentially connect to the interplanetary magnetic field. We further explored the variation on magnetic field structure with local time orientation of Jupiter's dipole (i.e. Central Meridian Longitude) as well as upstream solar wind and IMF conditions.

Cohen, I.; Bagenal, F.

2008-12-01

411

Constrained superfields and supersymmetric magnetic field systems

After Lancaster the authors examine chiral constraints in N = 2 superspace formulation for supersymmetric magnetic field systems. Such odd constraints are connected with the so-called spin-orbit coupling procedure of supersymmetrization. They propose new even constraints for magnetic supersymmetric systems and relate them to the standard procedure enhanced by Witten. These models describing spin-one half particles moving in a plane with a transverse magnetic field are compared and discussed. The cases of a constant magnetic field and of the harmonic oscillator are connected through different correspondences.

Dehin, D.; Hussin, V. (Universite de Liege, Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Institut de Physique au Sart Tilman, Batiment B.5, B-4000 Liege (BE))

1988-01-01

412

Ionospheric electric fields, currents, and resulting magnetic fields variations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis uses an equivalent circuit model to calculate ionospheric electric fields, current densities and introduced magnetic fields variations on the ground. The role of the field aligned current is examined. Using different wind models, we studied the electric field variations with altitude, season and solar activity. The ionospheric eastward electric field changes very little within the whole ionosphere. The southward (equatorward) electric field is large and changes quickly with height in the E region although it is nearly constant in the F region. The prereversal enhancement of the eastward electric field is produced by the F region dynamo. We conclude that the Forbes and Gillette tidal wind can reproduce most features of the Jicamarca experiment and the AE-E and DE-2 satellite observations of the electric fields. The HWM90 empirical wind model failed to produce the observed electric field and it seems the semidiurnal wind in HWM90 is too strong. The field aligned current is located mainly in the E and low F region. The non-coincidence of the geomagnetic and geographic equators has a strong effect on the field aligned current in the equatorial zone. The field aligned currents driven by Forbes' winds for March equinox and December solstice flow mainly from the southern to northern hemisphere in the morning and vice versa in the afternoon at F region heights. The observed magnetic field variations on the ground are well reproduced in our simulations. The field aligned current is the main contributor to the eastward magnetic field component in the equatorial zone. The longitudinal inequality of the northward magnetic field is introduced mainly by the variations of the local magnetic field intensity. The electric field variations have only a minor effect. The northward magnetic field variations with the solar activity are introduced by changes of the E region equatorward electric field and the Hall conductivity.

Du, Junhu

413

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of velocity field in the Fe I ? 527.0 nm and Mg I ? 517.3 nm lines and longitudinal magnetic field in the Fe I ? 525.3 nm line over the umbrae of four spots were used to study the structure of both fields. We reconstructed all three components of both the magnetic and velocity field vectors from their line-of-sight components. The velocities are small in the regions of the Fe I ? 527.0 nm and the Mg I ? 517.3 nm line formation. The average angles between the magnetic field vector and the velocity field vectors calculated from the observations in the Fe I ? 527.0 nm and Mg I ? 517.3 nm are practically the same (540 and 520). The vertical gradient of the magnetic field calculated from the condition divH = 0 and the magnetic field components is approximately -0.03 mT/km. The beam angle and the pitch of the helix of magnetic field lines and the vertical electric current are estimated.

Gopasyuk, O. S.

2000-08-01

414

Magnetic field associated with active electrochemical corrosion

The purpose of this work is to provide a better understanding of the underlying sources of the magnetic field associated with ongoing electrochemical corrosion, to investigate the spatio-temporal information content of the corrosion magnetic field, and to evaluate its potential utility in non-invasive quantification of hidden corrosion. The importance of this work lies in the fact that conventional electrochemical instruments

Afshin Abedi

2000-01-01

415

Coronal Heating and the Photospheric Magnetic Field

Since magnetic field typically plays a role (either active or passive) in coronal heating theories, it may be possible to evaluate these theories by investigating the relationship between the coronal energy budget (the total power requirement of the corona) and measurable properties of the photospheric magnetic field. The X-ray flux is a useful proxy for the total power required to

C. E. Parnell; P. A. Sturrock

1997-01-01

416

Variability and topology of solar magnetic field

Observations of the large scale magnetic field in the photosphere taken at the Wilcox Solar Observatory since 1976 up to 2005 have been analyzed to deduce its latitudinal and longitudinal structures, its differential rotation, and their variability in time. The main results are the following: - The latitudinal structure of the solar magnetic field with a period of polarity change

E. A. Gavryuseva

2006-01-01

417

Astrophysical magnetic fields and nonlinear dynamo theory

The current understanding of astrophysical magnetic fields is reviewed, focusing on their generation and maintenance by turbulence. In the astrophysical context this generation is usually explained by a self-excited dynamo, which involves flows that can amplify a weak ‘seed’ magnetic field exponentially fast. Particular emphasis is placed on the nonlinear saturation of the dynamo. Analytic and numerical results are discussed

Axel Brandenburg; Kandaswamy Subramanian

2005-01-01

418

Coulomb crystals in the magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The body-centered-cubic Coulomb crystal of ions in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is studied using the rigid electron background approximation. The phonon mode spectra are calculated for a wide range of magnetic-field strengths and for several orientations of the field in the crystal. The phonon spectra are used to calculate the phonon contribution to the crystal energy, entropy, specific heat, Debye-Waller factor of ions, and the rms ion displacements from the lattice nodes for a broad range of densities, temperatures, chemical compositions, and magnetic fields. Strong magnetic field dramatically alters the properties of quantum crystals. The phonon specific heat increases by many orders of magnitude. The ion displacements from their equilibrium positions become strongly anisotropic. The results can be relevant for dusty plasmas, ion plasmas in Penning traps, and especially for the crust of magnetars (neutron stars with superstrong magnetic fields B?1014G ). The effect of the magnetic field on ion displacements in a strongly magnetized neutron star crust can suppress the nuclear reaction rates and make them extremely sensitive to the magnetic-field direction.

Baiko, D. A.

2009-10-01

419

Magnetic field decay in model SSC dipoles

The authors have observed that some of our model SSC dipoles have long time constant decays of the magnetic field harmonics with amplitudes large enough to result in significant beam loss, if they are not corrected. The magnets were run at constant current at the SSC injection field level of 0.3 tesla for one to three hours and changes in

W. S. Gilbert; R. F. Althaus; P. J. Barale; R. W. Benjegerdes; M. A. Green; M. I. Green; R. M. Scanlan

1989-01-01

420

Biological effects of high DC magnetic fields

The principal focus of the program is the analysis of magnetic field effects on physiological functions in experimental animals and selected organ and tissue systems. A major research effort has involved the use of electrical recording techniques to detect functional alterations in the cardiovascular, neural, and visual systems during the application of DC magnetic fields. These systems involve ionic conduction

Tenforde

1981-01-01

421

Magnetic fields and the solar corona

Coronal magnetic fields calculated by the methods developed in Paper I (Altschuler and Newkirk, 1969) and the empirical description of the solar corona of November 1966 derived in Paper II (Newkirket al., 1970) are combined in order to investigate what connection exists between the magnetic fields and the density structure of the corona.

Gordon Newkirk; Martin D. Altschuler

1970-01-01

422

Pure phase encode magnetic field gradient monitor

Numerous methods have been developed to measure MRI gradient waveforms and k-space trajectories. The most promising new strategy appears to be magnetic field monitoring with RF microprobes. Multiple RF microprobes may record the magnetic field evolution associated with a wide variety of imaging pulse sequences. The method involves exciting one or more test samples and measuring the time evolution of

Hui Han; Rodney P. MacGregor; Bruce J. Balcom

2009-01-01

423

Efficient Characterization of Magnetic Field Sources

A technique for the estimation of the magnetic field intensity emitted by industrial installations is presented. The method is best-suited for investigation of environmental magnetic field for health purposes. Simulation and measurement case-studies supporting the provided theoretical results are discussed

M. Bertocco; F. Dughiero; C. Greggio; E. Sieni; A. Sona

2006-01-01

424

Magnetic fields, branes, and noncommutative geometry

We construct a simple physical model of a particle moving on the infinite noncommutative 2-plane. The model consists of a pair of opposite charges moving in a strong magnetic field. In addition, the charges are connected by a spring. In the limit of large magnetic field, the charges are frozen into the lowest Landau levels. Interactions of such particles include

Daniela Bigatti; Leonard Susskind

2000-01-01

425

Directional discontinuities in the interplanetary magnetic field

It is shown that the interplanetary magnetic field has different characteristics on different scales, and it is noted that a given physical theory may not be applicable or relevant on all scales. Four scales are defined in terms of time intervals on which the data may be viewed. Many discontinuities in the magnetic-field direction are seen on the mesoscale (˜

Leonard F. Burlaga

1969-01-01

426

Magnetic Fields, Ball Lightning and Campanology

WOODING suggests1 that ball lightning is a plasma vortex ring structure produced by a process similar to the ablation of a solid surface by a high power laser pulse. A plasma vortex ring structure requires a magnetic field; here I present two pieces of evidence to show that a magnetic field is associated with ball lightning, and which may help

A. J. F. Blair

1973-01-01

427

Magnetic field propagation in a stellar dynamo

Numerical simulations of stellar dynamos are reviewed. Dynamic dynamo models solve the nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, magnetohydrodynamic equations for the convective velocity, the thermodynamic variables, and the generated magnetic field in a rotating, spherical shell of ionized gas. When the dynamo operates in the convection zone, the simulated magnetic fields propagate away from the equator in the opposite direction inferred from

Gary A. Glatzmaier

1985-01-01

428

Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's magnetic field has been the bedrock of navigation for centuries. The latest research highlights the uniqueness of magnetic field measurements based on position due to large scale variations as well as localized perturbations. These observable changes in the Earth's magnetic field as a function of position provide distinct information which can be used for navigation. This dissertation describes ground vehicle navigation exploiting variation in Earth's magnetic field using a self-contained navigation system consisting of only a magnetometer and magnetic field maps. In order to achieve navigation, effective calibration enables repeatable magnetic field measurements from different vehicles and facilitates mapping of the observable magnetic field as a function of position. A new modified ellipsoid calibration technique for strapdown magnetometers in large vehicles is described, as well as analysis of position measurement generation comparing a multitude of measurement compositions using existing and newly developed likelihood techniques. Finally, navigation solutions are presented using both a position measurement and direct incorporation of the magnetometer measurements via a particle filter to demonstrate road navigation in three different environments. Emphatically, the results affirm that navigation using magnetic field variation in ground vehicles is viable and achieves adequate performance for road level navigation.

Shockley, Jeremiah A.

429

Space Quantization in a Gyrating Magnetic Field

The nonadiabatic transitions which a sys