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1

Analysis of vector wind change with respect to time for Cape Kennedy, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multivariate analysis was used to determine the joint distribution of the four variables represented by the components of the wind vector at an initial time and after a specified elapsed time is hypothesized to be quadravariate normal; the fourteen statistics of this distribution, calculated from 15 years of twice-daily rawinsonde data are presented by monthly reference periods for each month from 0 to 27 km. The hypotheses that the wind component changes with respect to time is univariate normal, that the joint distribution of wind component change with respect to time is univariate normal, that the joint distribution of wind component changes is bivariate normal, and that the modulus of vector wind change is Rayleigh are tested by comparison with observed distributions. Statistics of the conditional bivariate normal distributions of vector wind at a future time given the vector wind at an initial time are derived. Wind changes over time periods from 1 to 5 hours, calculated from Jimsphere data, are presented. Extension of the theoretical prediction (based on rawinsonde data) of wind component change standard deviation to time periods of 1 to 5 hours falls (with a few exceptions) within the 95 percentile confidence band of the population estimate obtained from the Jimsphere sample data. The joint distributions of wind change components, conditional wind components, and 1 km vector wind shear change components are illustrated by probability ellipses at the 95 percentile level.

Adelfang, S. I.

1978-01-01

2

Analysis of vector wind change with respect to time for Cape Kennedy, Florida: Wind aloft profile change vs. time, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind vector change with respect to time at Cape Kennedy, Florida, is examined according to the theory of multivariate normality. The joint distribution of the four variables represented by the components of the wind vector at an initial time and after a specified elapsed time is hypothesized to be quadravariate normal; the fourteen statistics of this distribution, calculated from fifteen years of twice daily Rawinsonde data are presented by monthly reference periods for each month from 0 to 27 km. The hypotheses that the wind component changes with respect to time is univariate normal, the joint distribution of wind component changes is bivariate normal, and the modulus of vector wind change is Rayleigh, has been tested by comparison with observed distributions. Statistics of the conditional bivariate normal distributions of vector wind at a future time given the vector wind at an initial time are derived. Wind changes over time periods from one to five hours, calculated from Jimsphere data, are presented.

Adelfang, S. I.

1977-01-01

3

Vector wind profile gust model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology was developed for the derivation and analysis of small scale perturbations in Jimsphere wind profiles. Gusts in various wavelength bands have been derived from these perturbations; the probability distribution of gust components and associated gust length has been shown to be accurately represented by a gamma distribution. Theoretical and observed distributions of component gust vary significantly with season, altitude, and wavelength range. The results of this study provide the basis for a vector wind model for Cape Kennedy, Florida.

Adelfang, S. I.; Evans, B. A.

1980-01-01

4

Vector wind profile gust model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work towards establishing a vector wind profile gust model for the Space Transportation System flight operations and trade studies is reported. To date, all the statistical and computational techniques required were established and partially implemented. An analysis of wind profile gust at Cape Kennedy within the theoretical framework is presented. The variability of theoretical and observed gust magnitude with filter type, altitude, and season is described. Various examples are presented which illustrate agreement between theoretical and observed gust percentiles. The preliminary analysis of the gust data indicates a strong variability with altitude, season, and wavelength regime. An extension of the analyses to include conditional distributions of gust magnitude given gust length, distributions of gust modulus, and phase differences between gust components has begun.

Adelfang, S. I.

1979-01-01

5

Wind Vectors for Hurricane Erin (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This visualization shows wind vectors for Hurricane Erin on September 10, 2001. Wind direction and speed are represented by the direction and speed of moving arrows, respectively. This animation represents a single measurement taken by the SeaWinds instrument on the QuikSCAT satellite, taken at 14:27:00 UTC on September 10, 2001. The WMS version of this animation which is available through the SVS Image Server (http:--aes.gsfc.nasa.gov) presents this animation with a different timestamp for each frame in order to more easily present the images as an animation. It should be noted that each frame really has a time stamp of 2001-09-10 14:27:00 UTC.

Sokolowsky, Eric; Shirah, Greg; Halverson, Jeff

2004-02-11

6

SSM/I and ECMWF Wind Vector Comparison  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wentz was the first to convincingly show that satellite microwave radiometers have the potential to measure the oceanic wind vector. The most compelling evidence for this conclusion was the monthly wind vector maps derived solely from a statistical analysis of Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) observations. In a qualitative sense, these maps clearly showed the general circulation over the world's oceans. In this report we take a closer look at the SSM/I monthly wind vector maps and compare them to European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) wind fields. This investigation leads both to an empirical comparison of SSM/I calculated wind vectors with ECMWF wind vectors, and to an examination of possible reasons that the SSM/I calculated wind vector direction would be inherently more reliable at some locations than others.

Wentz, Frank J.; Ashcroft, Peter D.

1996-01-01

7

Wind Streak Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2 September 2004 This pair of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images shows changes in dark wind streak patterns that occurred between 5 April 1999 (image M00-00534) and 17 August 2004 (image R20-00901). Unlike the spaghetti-like streak patterns made by dust devils, these streaks all begin on their upwind ends as tapered forms that fan outward in the downwind direction, and they all indicate winds that blew from the same direction. In both cases, winds blew from the southeast (lower right) toward the northwest (upper left). These streaks and the small pedestal craters found among them occur in the Memnonia region of Mars near 5.9oS, 162.2oW. The 400 meter scale bar is about 437 yards long. Sunlight illuminates each scene from the upper left.

2004-01-01

8

Wind Streak Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-358, 12 May 2003

Mars is a dynamic planet. This pair of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) pictures, taken 2 Mars years apart, show changes in dark streak patterns caused by wind movement of dust. The top picture was taken in July 1999, the bottom one in March 2003. The pair of images are in Tharsis near 9.5oS, 128.5oW. Sunlight illuminates both from the upper left.

2003-01-01

9

Polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean wind vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the theory of polarimetric passive remote sensing of wind-generated sea surfaces and the potential application of polarimetric radiometry to ocean wind remote sensing. Theoretical polarimetric emission coefficients of small- scale sea surfaces are evaluated using the small perturbation method (SPM). The SPM is derived to second order and applied to the Stokes vectors of thermal emission from

S. H. Yueh; R. Kwok; F. K. Li; S. V. Nghiem; W. J. Wilson; J. A. Kong

1994-01-01

10

Polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean wind vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the theory of polarimetric passive remote sensing of wind-generated sea surfaces and the potential application of polarimetric radiometry to ocean wind remote sensing. Theoretical polarimetric emission coefficients of small-scale sea surfaces are evaluated using the small perturbation method (SPM). The SPM is derived to second order and applied to the Stokes vectors of thermal emission from random

S. H. Yueh; R. Kwok; F. K. Li; S. V. Nghiem; W. J. Wilson; J. A. Kong

1994-01-01

11

Evaluation of wind vectors observed by QuikSCAT\\/SeaWinds using ocean buoy data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind vectors observed by QuikSCAT\\/SeaWinds are compared with wind and wave data from offshore moored buoys. Effects of oceanographic and atmospheric parameters on the scatterometry are also assessed by using the buoy data. The QuikSCAT\\/SeaWinds Standard Wind Data Products (Level 2B) were collocated with the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), National Data Buoy Center (NDBC), and Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) buoys.

Naoto Ebuchi

2001-01-01

12

Evaluation of WindSat wind vector performance with respect to QuikSCAT estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WindSat instrument was launched on January 6, 2003 as part of a risk reduction effort to assess the potential of using spaceborne fully polarimetric radiometry to measure the marine wind vector. Microwave radiometry on the Special Sensor Microwave\\/Imager onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites has long provided wind speed measurements. Fully polarimetric radiometry offers the additional possibility of

Frank M. Monaldo

2006-01-01

13

Rapid Temporal Changes of Midtropospheric Winds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The statistical distribution of the magnitude of the vector wind change over 0.25-, 1-, 2-. and 4-h periods based on data from October 1995 through March 1996 over central Florida is presented. The wind changes at altitudes from 6 to 17 km were measured using the Kennedy Space Center 50-MHz Doppler radar wind profiler. Quality controlled profiles were produced every 5 min for 112 gates, each representing 150 m in altitude. Gates 28 through 100 were selected for analysis because of their significance to ascending space launch vehicles. The distribution was found to be lognormal. The parameters of the lognormal distribution depend systematically on the time interval. This dependence is consistent with the behavior of structure functions in the f(exp 5/3) spectral regime. There is a small difference between the 1995 data and the 1996 data, which may represent a weak seasonal effect.

Merceret, Francis J.

1997-01-01

14

The MISR Cloud Motion Vector Product: 10 years of height resolved, cloud-track winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By utilizing multiple camera views and fast image matching algorithms to identify common features and determine feature motion, the MISR instrument on NASA’s Terra satellite has now collected 10 years of height-resolved, cloud-track, vector winds using a single, globally consistent algorithm. MISR cloud-track winds are packaged within the new MISR Cloud Motion Vector product, reported on mesoscale domains of 70.4 km × 70.4 km and referenced to stereoscopically derived heights above the earth ellipsoid with a nominal precision of 230 m. Importantly, from the standpoint of climate research, the stereo height assignment and wind retrieval are largely insensitive to instrument calibration changes and independent of a priori assumptions because the product algorithms depend only on patterns of observed brightness variability. We will describe comparisons with other wind observations, including geostationary cloud drift winds, raob winds, and scatterometer surface winds that demonstrate the quality of the MISR winds. We will also show the coverage and resolution advantages that MISR provides relative to these other datasets. Additionally, we will analyze agreement and discrepancies between MISR winds and reanalysis winds.

Mueller, K.; Garay, M. J.; Jovanovic, V.; Moroney, C.; Wu, D. L.; Diner, D. J.

2010-12-01

15

Study of wind change for the development of loads reduction techniques for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind change statistics are analyzed for Vandenberg AFB, California (VAFB) and Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC). Means and standard deviations of wind component change and vector wind change modulus within 3-9 and 9-16 km altitude bands are tabulated. The contribution to 3.5 hr wind component change by wind perturbations in various wavelength bands is evaluated. Probability distributions of maximum 3.5 hr wind change in an altitude band are presented and a model for wind change at a specified altitude is tested with data derived from six data bases from VAFB and Santa Monica, California.

Adelfang, S. I.

1987-01-01

16

Wind Speed Forecasting Based on Support Vector Machine with Forecasting Error Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach of a mean hourly wind speed forecasting in wind farm is proposed in this paper. It applies support vector regression as well as forecasting error estimation. Firstly, support vector regression is applied to the mean hourly wind speed forecasting. Secondly, a support vector classifier is trained to estimate the forecasting error. Finally, the forecasting results can tailor themselves

Guo-Rui Ji; Pu Han; Yong-Jie Zhai

2007-01-01

17

Vector wind, horizontal divergence, wind stress and wind stress curl from SEASAT-SASS at one degree resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional data obtained in 1983 are contrasted with SEASAT-A scatterometer and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data to show how observations at a single station can be extended to an area of about 150,000 square km by means of remotely sensed data obtained in nine minutes. Superobservations at a one degree resolution for the vector winds were estimated along with their standard deviations. From these superobservations, the horizontal divergence, vector wind stress, and the curl of the wind stress can be found. Weather forecasting theory is discussed and meteorological charts of the North Pacific Ocean are presented. Synoptic meteorology as a technique is examined.

Pierson, W. J., Jr.; Sylvester, W. B.; Salfi, R. E.

1984-01-01

18

Operational land cover change detection using change vector analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research study introduces the use of a change detection and classification algorithm that relies on the change vector analysis (CVA) method. Its implementation aims to ensure adequate response to operational production needs and allow optimized data processing over extended and environmentally complex areas. Automatic change class labelling relies on the use of a (3n+2)?dimensional feature space, where n denotes

C. C. Kontoes

2008-01-01

19

Designing Scatterometer Constellations for Sampling Global Ocean Vector Winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid temporal variations in ocean vector winds make it impossible to obtain synoptic global snapshots of winds and wind stress from a single spaceborne sensor. Even when multiple sensors are present, the peculiarities of the resulting space-time sampling pattern require that significant smoothing in space and time be performed to limit spatially and temporally inhomogeneous error characteristics in the merged data. Based on the collected common experience in its member states, the World Meteorological Organization collects requirements for spatio-temporal sampling in meteorological applications such as global and regional Numerical Weather Prediction, nowcasting, and climate. An additional concern, when constructing data sets from sun-synchronous missions, is that undersampling of diurnal and sub-diurnal variability may result in aliasing of the climate data record. Indeed, examination of climatologies constructed from different satellite missions, such as NASA's QuikSCAT and EUMETSAT's ASCAT scatterometers, show systematic differences that cannot be explained as being due solely to unresolved incoherent diurnal and sub-diurnal variability. Some of these differences, especially in the tropics, are probably explained by systematic diurnal and sub-diurnal variations. Other differences may be due to the difficulty of cross-calibrating sun-synchronous satellites with different local times. Forthcoming satellite missions may offer the possibility of overcoming or mitigating the space-time sampling and calibration challenges using multiple coordinated platforms. In the next decade, there is an expectation that ocean vector winds will be measured simultaneously by multiple satellites from the European community, India, China, and the United States. The coordination and suitable merging of the data from these satellites to produce a climate data record will be a challenge to the ocean vector winds community. In this presentation, we use climatologies constructed from multiple missions (NASA's QuikSCAT and SeaWinds on ADEOS-2, EUMETSAT's ASCAT, ISRO's OSCAT) that have overlapped over significant times to assess the impact of platform sampling and calibration characteristics on constructing consistent climatologies. We also extend the statistical simulation studies by Schlax et al. (2001) to include the effects of diurnal and sub-diurnal variations. Using these methods, we will examine a variety of potential platform configurations for future planned missions and assess their potential for producing a consistent ocean vector wind climate data record.

Rodriguez, E.; Chelton, D. B.; Stoffelen, A.; Schlax, M.

2012-12-01

20

Wind direction change criteria for wind turbine design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for estimating the root mean square (rms) value of the wind direction change, Delta Theta (tau) = theta (tau + tau) - Theta (tau), that occurs over the swept area of wind turbine rotor systems. An equation is also given for the rms value of the wind direction change that occurs at a single point in

W. C. Cliff

1979-01-01

21

Characteristics of the Yamase Winds over Oceans around Japan Observed by the Scatterometer-Derived Ocean Surface Vector Winds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yamase is the name for local northeasterly winds that blow from the Pacific Ocean to the east coasts of Hokkaido, and the Tohoku District from May to August. They are cool and moist winds accompanied by low-level clouds. In the present study, we investigate the Yamase winds over the oceans around Japan, using ocean surface vector winds observed by a

Hiroshi TAKAI; Hiroshi KAWAMURA; Osamu ISOGUCHI

2006-01-01

22

Numerical study of 1-D, 3-vector component, thermally-conductive MHD solar wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present study, transient, 1-dimensional, 3-vector component MHD equations are used to simulate steady and unsteady, thermally conductive MHD solar wind expansions between the solar surface and 1 AU (astronomical unit). A variant of SIMPLE numerical method was used to integrate the equations. Steady state solar wind properties exhibit qualitatively similar behavior with the known Weber-Davies Solutions. Generation of Alfven shock, in addition to the slow and fast MHD shocks, was attempted by the boundary perturbations at the solar surface. Property changes through the disturbance were positively correlated with the fast and slow MHD shocks. Alfven shock was, however, not present in the present simulations.

Han, S.; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.

1993-01-01

23

Winds of Change on Uranus?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Voyager 2 flew by Uranus in 1986, it detected discrete cloud features whose motions yielded the first reliable determination of atmospheric rotation periods. These, with measurements of the magnetic field's 17.24-hr period, allowed a first estimate of Uranus' zonal wind profile (Smith et al. 1986, Science 233, 43). Features were only measured in the southern hemisphere, and the profile was assumed to be zonally symmetric and temporally stable. Now, HST imaging of Uranus in 1994 (Zellner et al. 1994, BAAS 26, 1163) has revealed several discrete cloud features, allowing the first measurements of wind velocities since the Voyager Encounter. Because the images were taken to search for faint satellites, the disk of Uranus was over-exposed in most of the images. However, three useful 12-sec images of Uranus were obtained through the F791W filter (7826 Angstroms, FWHM=1205 Angstroms) on 14 August 1994. In the images, Uranus' 3.7-arcsec diameter extended over 80 Planetary Camera pixels. The velocities for the two HST features (-47 +/- 49 m/s at latitude -23.5deg +/- 1deg ; +38 +/- 39 m/s at latitude -35.2deg +/- 1deg ) do not appear to match velocities of Voyager features near those latitudes (closer to 30 m/s and 140 m/s respectively), suggesting either a change or more complex structure in the zonal wind profile. Current theoretical work suggests that Uranus may have an asymmetric and time-variable zonal wind profile (Dowling et al. 1997, in preparation), unlike the profiles seen on other giant planets which are both zonally symmetric and stable with time. The HST velocities reported here may be the first observational hint of changing winds on Uranus. Additional HST images of Uranus optimized for zonal wind measurements are planned for Summer 1997. If Uranus' variable winds are confirmed, they may be indicative of unusual atmospheric dynamics created by the 98deg tilt of the planet's rotation axis. This analysis was supported by internal MIT research funds.

Hammel, H. B.

1997-07-01

24

Measuring the 3-D wind vector with a weight-shift microlight aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates whether the 3-D wind vector can be measured reliably from a highly transportable and low-cost weight-shift microlight aircraft. Therefore we draw up a transferable procedure to accommodate flow distortion originating from the aircraft body and -wing. This procedure consists of the analysis of aircraft dynamics and seven successive calibration steps. For our aircraft the horizontal wind components receive their greatest single amendment (14 %, relative to the initial uncertainty) from the correction of flow distortion magnitude in the dynamic pressure computation. Conversely the vertical wind component is most of all improved (31 %) by subsequent steps considering the 3-D flow distortion distribution in the flow angle computations. Therein the influences of the aircraft's trim (53 %), as well as changes in the aircraft lift (16 %) are considered by using the measured lift coefficient as explanatory variable. Three independent lines of analysis are used to evaluate the quality of the wind measurement: (a) A wind tunnel study in combination with the propagation of sensor uncertainties defines the systems input uncertainty to ?0.6 m s-1 at the extremes of a 95 % confidence interval. (b) During severe vertical flight manoeuvres the deviation range of the vertical wind component does not exceed 0.3 m s-1. (c) The comparison with ground based wind measurements yields an overall operational uncertainty (root mean square error) of ?0.4 m s-1 for the horizontal and ?0.3 m s-1 for the vertical wind components. No conclusive dependence of the uncertainty on the wind magnitude (<8 m s-1) or true airspeed (ranging from 23-30 m s-1) is found. Hence our analysis provides the necessary basis to study the wind measurement precision and spectral quality, which is prerequisite for reliable Eddy-Covariance flux measurements.

Metzger, S.; Junkermann, W.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Schmid, H. P.; Foken, T.

2011-07-01

25

Measuring the 3-D wind vector with a weight-shift microlight aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates whether the 3-D wind vector can be measured reliably from a highly transportable and low-cost weight-shift microlight aircraft. Therefore we draw up a transferable procedure to accommodate flow distortion originating from the aircraft body and -wing. This procedure consists of the analysis of aircraft dynamics and seven successive calibration steps. For our aircraft the horizontal wind components receive their greatest single amendment (14%, relative to the initial uncertainty) from the correction of flow distortion magnitude in the dynamic pressure computation. Conversely the vertical wind component is most of all improved (31%) by subsequent steps considering the 3-D flow distortion distribution in the flow angle computations. Therein the influences of the aircraft's aeroelastic wing (53%), as well as sudden changes in wing loading (16%) are considered by using the measured lift coefficient as explanatory variable. Three independent lines of analysis are used to evaluate the quality of the wind measurement: (a) A wind tunnel study in combination with the propagation of sensor uncertainties defines the systems input uncertainty to ?0.6 m s-1 at the extremes of a 95% confidence interval. (b) During severe vertical flight manoeuvres the deviation range of the vertical wind component does not exceed 0.3 m s-1. (c) The comparison with ground based wind measurements yields an overall operational uncertainty (root mean square deviation) of ?0.4 m s-1 for the horizontal and ?0.3 m s-1 for the vertical wind components. No conclusive dependence of the uncertainty on the wind magnitude (<8 m s-1) or true airspeed (ranging from 23-30 m s-1) is found. Hence our analysis provides the necessary basis to study the wind measurement precision and spectral quality, which is prerequisite for reliable eddy-covariance flux measurements.

Metzger, S.; Junkermann, W.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Schmid, H. P.; Foken, T.

2011-02-01

26

Fault diagnosis of direct-drive wind turbine based on support vector machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fault diagnosis method of direct-drive wind turbine based on support vector machine (SVM) and feature selection is presented. The time-domain feature parameters of main shaft vibration signal in the horizontal and vertical directions are considered in the method. Firstly, in laboratory scale five experiments of direct-drive wind turbine with normal condition, wind wheel mass imbalance fault, wind wheel aerodynamic imbalance fault, yaw fault and blade airfoil change fault are carried out. The features of five experiments are analyzed. Secondly, the sensitive time-domain feature parameters in the horizontal and vertical directions of vibration signal in the five conditions are selected and used as feature samples. By training, the mapping relation between feature parameters and fault types are established in SVM model. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is verified through experimental data. The results show that the proposed method is effective in identifying the fault of wind turbine. It has good classification ability and robustness to diagnose the fault of direct-drive wind turbine.

An, X. L.; Jiang, D. X.; Li, S. H.; Chen, J.

2011-07-01

27

Single-Vector Calibration of Wind-Tunnel Force Balances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method of calibrating a wind-tunnel force balance involves the use of a unique load application system integrated with formal experimental design methodology. The Single-Vector Force Balance Calibration System (SVS) overcomes the productivity and accuracy limitations of prior calibration methods. A force balance is a complex structural spring element instrumented with strain gauges for measuring three orthogonal components of aerodynamic force (normal, axial, and side force) and three orthogonal components of aerodynamic torque (rolling, pitching, and yawing moments). Force balances remain as the state-of-the-art instrument that provide these measurements on a scale model of an aircraft during wind tunnel testing. Ideally, each electrical channel of the balance would respond only to its respective component of load, and it would have no response to other components of load. This is not entirely possible even though balance designs are optimized to minimize these undesirable interaction effects. Ultimately, a calibration experiment is performed to obtain the necessary data to generate a mathematical model and determine the force measurement accuracy. In order to set the independent variables of applied load for the calibration 24 NASA Tech Briefs, October 2003 experiment, a high-precision mechanical system is required. Manual deadweight systems have been in use at Langley Research Center (LaRC) since the 1940s. These simple methodologies produce high confidence results, but the process is mechanically complex and labor-intensive, requiring three to four weeks to complete. Over the past decade, automated balance calibration systems have been developed. In general, these systems were designed to automate the tedious manual calibration process resulting in an even more complex system which deteriorates load application quality. The current calibration approach relies on a one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) methodology, where each independent variable is incremented individually throughout its full-scale range, while all other variables are held at a constant magnitude. This OFAT approach has been widely accepted because of its inherent simplicity and intuitive appeal to the balance engineer. LaRC has been conducting research in a "modern design of experiments" (MDOE) approach to force balance calibration. Formal experimental design techniques provide an integrated view to the entire calibration process covering all three major aspects of an experiment; the design of the experiment, the execution of the experiment, and the statistical analyses of the data. In order to overcome the weaknesses in the available mechanical systems and to apply formal experimental techniques, a new mechanical system was required. The SVS enables the complete calibration of a six-component force balance with a series of single force vectors.

Parker, P. A.; DeLoach, R.

2003-01-01

28

Combined Active and Passive Microwave Sensing of Ocean Surface Wind Vector from TRMM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From TRMM, ocean surface wind speeds are operationally derived from the passive TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI); however, this paper presents a new wind vector (speed and direction) measurement technique using the combined active/passive microwave measurements of TMI and the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR). The PR surface echo is used to infer winds in three narrow swaths centered along the satellite sub-track and at the edges of the PR swath. Along the satellite sub-track, the average backscatter (sigma-0) of the PR is used to infer wind speed in a manner similar to that used by radar altimeters (e.g., Topex/Poseidon). Near the swath edges, the backscatter responds to both the magnitude and direction of the surface wind and wind scatterometer retrieval techniques are used (e.g., QuikSCAT). Normally multiple azimuth looks are required to measure the wind vector; but in our technique, we use the passive estimate of wind speed and the measured sigma-0 at incidence angles greater than 15 degrees to derive wind direction. The PR wind retrieval algorithm uses a relationship between ocean sigma-0 and the surface wind vector known as the geophysical model function. For PR, this empirical relationship is developed using collocated PR backscatter with TMI wind speeds and surface wind vectors from the QuikSCAT scatterometer. Comparisons are presented between retrieved PR winds and near-simultaneous surface truth from in situ "buoys" and remotely sensed QuikSCAT satellite measurements. The accuracy of the PR/TMI wind vector retrieval is assessed using a statistical analysis of these comparisons.

Soisuvarn, S.; Kasparis, T.

2002-05-01

29

The accuracy of preliminary WindSat vector wind measurements: comparisons with NDBC buoys and QuikSCAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two preliminary, six-month long global WindSat vector wind datasets are validated using buoys and QuikSCAT measurements. Buoy comparisons yield speed and direction root mean square accuracies of 1.4 m\\/s and 25° for the \\

Michael H. Freilich; Barry A. Vanhoff

2006-01-01

30

Fine tuning support vector machines for short-term wind speed forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate forecasting of wind speed is critical to the effective harvesting of wind energy and the integration of wind power into the existing electric power grid. Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM), a powerful technique that is widely applied in a variety of classification and function estimation problems, carries great potential for the application of short-term wind speed forecasting. In this

Junyi Zhou; Jing Shi; Gong Li

2011-01-01

31

Vector Wind and Vector Wind Shear Models 0 to 27 Km Altitude for Cape Kennedy, Florida, and Vandenberg AFB, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The techniques are presented to derive several statistical wind models. The techniques are from the properties of the multivariate normal probability function. Assuming that the winds can be considered as bivariate normally distributed, then (1) the wind ...

O. E. Smith

1976-01-01

32

Vector-borne diseases, development & climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector-borne diseases are feared to extend their range in a future where global warming has occurred. There is considerable concern about scourges such as malaria re-invading currently temperate regions and reaching into higher altitudes in Africa. In this paper we examine the various factors thought to determine potential infectivity of malaria, and its actual outbreak in the context of a

Richard S. J. Tol; Hadi Dowlatabadi

2001-01-01

33

Vector-Borne Diseases, Development & Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector-borne diseases are feared to extend their range in a future where global warming has occurred. There is considerable\\u000a concern about scourges such as malaria re-invading currently temperate regions and reaching into higher altitudes in Africa.\\u000a In this paper we examine the various factors thought to determine potential infectivity of malaria, and its actual outbreak\\u000a in the context of a

Richard S. J. Tol; Hadi Dowlatabadi

2001-01-01

34

High-resolution passive polarimetric microwave mapping of ocean surface wind vector fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retrieval of ocean surface wind fields in both one and two dimensions is demonstrated using passive polarimetric microwave imagery obtained from a conical-scanning airborne polarimeter. The retrieval method is based on an empirical geophysical model function (GMF) for ocean surface thermal emission and an adaptive maximum likelihood (ML) wind vector estimator. Data for the GMF were obtained using the

Jeffrey R. Piepmeier; Albin J. Gasiewski

2001-01-01

35

The Dependence of Ocean Surface Emissivity on Wind Vector as Measured with TMR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global TMR brightness temperature observations at 18, 21, and 37 GHz have been colocated with near-simultaneous SeaWinds wind vector data as well as with a monthly SST climatological product. The combined data allow us to study the dependence of ocean surface emissivity, at each frequency, upon both wind speed and direction. Results show a clear two-branch wind speed dependence; weak and linear below 6 m/s with an abrupt increase in sensitivity above that point. Our analysis also shows that the nadir-view ocean surface emissivity depends on the angle between the wind direction and TMR's antenna polarization orientation.

Tran, N.; Vandemark, D.; Ruf, C.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

36

Relationship between wind vectors and L-band radar cross sections examined using PALSAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between ocean wind vectors and L-band normalized radar cross sections (NRCS) is examined using the Phased-Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). We used PALSAR ScanSAR images with a wide range of incidence angles from 17deg to 43deg. More than 6,000 match-ups, each consisting of the NRCS, incidence angles, wind speeds and wind directions, were collected. The NRCS exhibits

Osamu Isoguchi; Masanobu Shimada

2007-01-01

37

Estimating daily wind speed under climate change  

SciTech Connect

A semi-empirical downscaling approach is presented to estimate spatial and temporal statistical properties of local daily mean wind speed under global climate change. The present semi-empirical downscaling method consists of two elements. Since general circulation models (GCMs) are able o reproduce the features of the present atmospheric general circulation quite correctly, the first element represents the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere. The second element is a link between local wind speed and large-scale circulation pattern (CP). The linkage is expressed by a stochastic model conditioned on CP types. Parameters of the linkage model are estimated using observed data series; then this model is utilized with GCM-generated CP type data corresponding to a 2 x CO{sub 2} scenario. Under the climate of Nebraska the lognormal distribution is the best two-parameter distribution to describe daily mean wind speed. The space-time variability of wind speed is described by a transformed multivariate autoregressive (AR) process, and the linkage between local wind and large-scale circulation is expressed as a conditional AR process, i.e. the autoregressive parameters depend on the actual daily CP type. The basic tendency of change under 2 x CO{sub 2} climate is a considerable increase of wind speed from the beginning of summer to the end of winter and a somewhat smaller wind decrease in spring. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Bogardi, I. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Matyasovszky, I. [Eotvos Lorand Univ., Budapest (Hungary)] [Eotvos Lorand Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

1996-09-01

38

Measurement of oceanic wind vector using satellite microwave radiometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of retrieving both wind speed and direction from microwave radiometer measurements of the ocean is studied using Special Sensor Microwave\\/Imager (SSM\\/I) measurements collocated with buoy reports from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC). A physically based algorithm is used to retrieve the wind speed. The RMS difference between the SSM\\/I and buoy wind speed is 1.6 m\\/s for

Frank J. Wentz

1992-01-01

39

An operational satellite scatterometer for wind vector measurements over the ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance requirements and design characteristics of a microwave scatterometer wind sensor for measuring surface winds over the oceans on a global basis are described. Scatterometer specifications are developed from user requirements of wind vector measurement range and accuracy, swath width, resolution cell size and measurement grid spacing. A detailed analysis is performed for a baseline fan-beam scatterometer design, and its performance capabilities for meeting the SeaSat-A user requirements. Various modes of operation are discussed which will allow the resolution of questions concerning the effects of sea state on the scatterometer wind sensing ability and to verify design boundaries of the instrument.

Grantham, W. L.; Bracalente, E. M.; Jones, W. L.; Schrader, J. H.; Schroeder, L. C.; Mitchell, J. L.

1975-01-01

40

Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10° more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

Griffiths, P. G.; Webb, R. H.; Fisher, M.; Muth, A.

2009-01-01

41

Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes are occurring more rapidly on a global scale and are having significant effects on vector-borne diseases. History is invaluable as a pointer to future risks, but direct extrapolation is no longer possible because the climate is changing. Researchers are therefore embracing computer simulation models and global change scenarios to explore the risks. Credible ranking of the extent to which different vector-borne diseases will be affected awaits a rigorous analysis. Adaptation to the changes is threatened by the ongoing loss of drugs and pesticides due to the selection of resistant strains of pathogens and vectors. The vulnerability of communities to the changes in impacts depends on their adaptive capacity, which requires both appropriate technology and responsive public health systems. The availability of resources in turn depends on social stability, economic wealth, and priority allocation of resources to public health.

Sutherst, Robert W.

2004-01-01

42

Sensorless vector control of induction machines for variable-speed wind energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensorless vector-control strategy for an induction generator in a grid-connected wind energy conversion system is presented. The sensorless control system is based on a model reference adaptive system (MRAS) observer to estimate the rotational speed. In order to tune the MRAS observer and compensate for the parameter variation and uncertainties, a separate estimation of the speed is obtained from

Roberto Cárdenas; Rubén Peña

2004-01-01

43

Vector controlled induction machines for stand-alone wind energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the system and control structures for vector controlled induction generators used for variable speed, wind energy conversion (WEC) systems. The paper focuses on WEC systems feeding an isolated load or weak grid since for such systems the generated voltage and power flow must be regulated by the WEC system itself and the control structures are not trivial.

R. S. Pena; R. J. Cardenas; G. M. Asher; J. C. Clare

2000-01-01

44

A Vector Control for Grid-connected Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and synchronous generator are mostly applied for wind power generation due to high efficiently for wind energy capture. An inverter system is required to control wind turbine speed and power factor in those generators. The inverter rating of the synchronous generator equals to generator rating. However, DFIG has the advantage that the inverter rating is about 25% to the generator rating. The paper describes a vector control of DFIG inter-connected to power line. The performance of proposed vector control is examined using power system simulation software PSCAD/EMTDC for the DFIG inter-connected to 6.6kv distribution line. The results show good dynamic responses and high accuracy to the stator active power control and the stator reactive power control.

Kai, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yuji; Kaneda, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Daichi; Tanaka, Akio

45

Wind Power Production and Climate Change--a Modeling Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies using Global Climate Models (GCMs) for several climate change scenarios are inconclusive as to the sign of the change in surface wind speeds. Some regions may experience a net increase in boundary layer winds, while other areas observe a decrease. Areas within the U.S. that are most susceptible to climate change also contain substantial wind resources (for example,

J. M. Freedman; K. Waight; P. P. Duffy

2008-01-01

46

Integration of space vector pulse width modulation controlled STATCOM with wind farm connected to multimachine power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, dynamic and transient characteristics of a multimachine power system connected with two wind farms composed of fixed speed wind turbine generator systems (WTGS) are analyzed. At each wind farm the terminal one space vector pulse width modulation controlled voltage source converter based static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is considered to be connected. The capacitor bank capacity of fixed

S. M. Muyeen; Hany. M. Hasanien; Rion Takahashi; Toshiaki Murata; Junji Tamura

2009-01-01

47

Integrating the ASCAT Observations into a Climate Data Record of Ocean Vector Winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean surface vector winds have been continuously observed from space since 1991, starting with the ERS scatterometer, followed later by a series of other scatterometers. These measurements have been proved extremely useful for improving the skill of numerical weather forecasts. With a timeseries extending now to more than 20 years, these measurements can provide great insight into the climate variability of surface wind patterns. Integrating all the measurements from different sensors into a continuous and accurate timeseries suitable for climate analysis is however a challenging task. An essential requirement for this purpose is the consistency among wind retrievals from different sensors at all wind speed ranges. Here we present our methodology for creating a Climate Data Record of ocean vector winds. We first started with reprocessing the QuikSCAT wind measurements for the whole mission (1999-2009) by using a new Geophysical Model Function (GMF) specifically redeveloped for improving retrievals at high wind speeds. The new GMF Ku-2011 (Ricciardulli and Wentz, 2011) was developed using wind retrievals from the WindSat radiometer as calibration for the scatterometer backscatter ratio. WindSat wind speeds are believed to be accurate for winds up to at least 35 m/s (Meissner and Wentz, 2009). In order to continue the timeseries after the end of the QuikSCAT mission, we focused on developing a new GMF for the European scatterometer ASCAT, which started in 2007 and is planned to continue for several years. The motivation behind redeveloping the GMF, rather than using the operational one, is based on the necessity of a consistent methodology to reduce biases when combining QuikSCAT with ASCAT in a Climate Data Record. The new ASCAT GMF was developed calibrating the backscatter ratio to the wind speeds from the SSM/I and WindSat radiometers. A preliminary version of the RSS ASCAT winds has been recently produced. Here we will discuss the validation of these retrievals versus in situ observations and winds from other satellite missions. Particular emphasis will be on the comparison with the QuikSCAT retrievals during the overlapping period (2007-2009), in terms of overall consistency at all wind speed ranges and careful analysis of any regional bias. One important feature to keep in mind is the temporal gap in the local observing time of the two scatterometers (about 3-4 hours). This temporal gap can give raise to regional biases and diurnal aliasing in the merged timeseries if the diurnal cycle of ocean winds is not properly accounted for. An additional check for consistency and any potential temporal drift in the QuikSCAT and ASCAT timeseries is done by comparing them with the wind speed timeseries from the SSM/I and SSMIS radiometers. Once we ascertain the feasibility of merging QuikSCAT and ASCAT measurements with the required climate-quality accuracy, the Climate Data Record can be extended back in time to 1991 by using the same methodology for the European scatterometers ERS-1 and 2. This intercalibrated data set would then provide two decades of global ocean vector winds, suitable for climate research.

Ricciardulli, Lucrezia; Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank

2013-04-01

48

Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis.  

PubMed Central

Current evidence suggests that inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability have a direct influence on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. This evidence has been assessed at the continental level in order to determine the possible consequences of the expected future climate change. By 2100 it is estimated that average global temperatures will have risen by 1.0-3.5 degrees C, increasing the likelihood of many vector-borne diseases in new areas. The greatest effect of climate change on transmission is likely to be observed at the extremes of the range of temperatures at which transmission occurs. For many diseases these lie in the range 14-18 degrees C at the lower end and about 35-40 degrees C at the upper end. Malaria and dengue fever are among the most important vector-borne diseases in the tropics and subtropics; Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the USA and Europe. Encephalitis is also becoming a public health concern. Health risks due to climatic changes will differ between countries that have developed health infrastructures and those that do not. Human settlement patterns in the different regions will influence disease trends. While 70% of the population in South America is urbanized, the proportion in sub-Saharan Africa is less than 45%. Climatic anomalies associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon and resulting in drought and floods are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. They have been linked to outbreaks of malaria in Africa, Asia and South America. Climate change has far-reaching consequences and touches on all life-support systems. It is therefore a factor that should be placed high among those that affect human health and survival.

Githeko, A. K.; Lindsay, S. W.; Confalonieri, U. E.; Patz, J. A.

2000-01-01

49

Evaluation of ocean surface vector winds observed by QuikSCAT\\/seawinds and ADEOS-II\\/seawind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean surface vector winds observed by QuikSCAT\\/SeaWinds and ADEOS-II\\/SeaWinds are evaluated by comparison with wind and wave data from the NDBC (National Data Buoy Center), TAO (Tropical Atmosphere and Ocean)\\/TRITON (Triangle Trans-Ocean buoy Network), PIRATA (Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic), and JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) buoys in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Gulf of Mexico, and seas

Naoto Ebuchi; Hans C. Graber; Michael J. Caruso

2004-01-01

50

Noise model based ?-support vector regression with its application to short-term wind speed forecasting.  

PubMed

Support vector regression (SVR) techniques are aimed at discovering a linear or nonlinear structure hidden in sample data. Most existing regression techniques take the assumption that the error distribution is Gaussian. However, it was observed that the noise in some real-world applications, such as wind power forecasting and direction of the arrival estimation problem, does not satisfy Gaussian distribution, but a beta distribution, Laplacian distribution, or other models. In these cases the current regression techniques are not optimal. According to the Bayesian approach, we derive a general loss function and develop a technique of the uniform model of ?-support vector regression for the general noise model (N-SVR). The Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method is introduced to solve N-SVR. Numerical experiments on artificial data sets, UCI data and short-term wind speed prediction are conducted. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique. PMID:24874183

Hu, Qinghua; Zhang, Shiguang; Xie, Zongxia; Mi, Jusheng; Wan, Jie

2014-09-01

51

Vector control strategy for small-scale grid-connected PMSG wind turbine converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to find an innovative, high efficiency, practical and low cost control system structure with an optimized control strategy for small-scale grid-connected wind turbine with direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). This research adopts the sensorless vector control strategy based on phase-locked loop (PLL) for PMSG control, and the grid-side inverter control strategy is based

Chunxue Wen; Guojie Lu; Peng Wang; Zhengxi Li; Xiongwei Liu; Zaiming Fan

2011-01-01

52

Forecasting of wind speed with least squares support vector machine based on genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate short-term wind speed forecasting is very important to improve the security and stability of power grid and to reduce the running cost. In this paper, a method based on Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was proposed to the short-term forecasting. In order to avoid the blindness and inaccuracy of Parameter selection, Genetic algorithm is used to select the

Li Ran; Ke Yong-qin; Zhang Xiao-qian

2011-01-01

53

A vector auto-regressive model for onshore and offshore wind synthesis incorporating meteorological model information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of wind power production in the electricity portfolio is striving to meet ambitious targets set, for example by the EU, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020. Huge investments are now being made in new offshore wind farms around UK coastal waters that will have a major impact on the GB electrical supply. Representations of the UK wind field in syntheses which capture the inherent structure and correlations between different locations including offshore sites are required. Here, Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) models are presented and extended in a novel way to incorporate offshore time series from a pan-European meteorological model called COSMO, with onshore wind speeds from the MIDAS dataset provided by the British Atmospheric Data Centre. Forecasting ability onshore is shown to be improved with the inclusion of the offshore sites with improvements of up to 25% in RMS error at 6 h ahead. In addition, the VAR model is used to synthesise time series of wind at each offshore site, which are then used to estimate wind farm capacity factors at the sites in question. These are then compared with estimates of capacity factors derived from the work of Hawkins et al. (2011). A good degree of agreement is established indicating that this synthesis tool should be useful in power system impact studies.

Hill, D.; Bell, K. R. W.; McMillan, D.; Infield, D.

2014-05-01

54

Vegetation change detection for urban areas based on extended change vector analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study sought to develop a modified change vector analysis(CVA) using normalized multi-temporal data to detect urban vegetation change. Because of complex change in urban areas, modified CVA application based on NDVI and mask techniques can minify the effect of non-vegetation changes and improve upon efficiency to a great extent. Moreover, drawing from methods in Polar plots, the extended CVA technique measures absolute angular changes and total magnitude of perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) and two of Tasseled Cap indices (greenness and wetness). Polar plots summarized change vectors to quantify and visualize both magnitude and direction of change, and magnitude is applied to determine change pixels through threshold segmentation while direction is applied as pixel's feature to classifying change pixels through supervised classification. Then this application is performed with Landsat ETM+ imageries of Wuhan in 2002 and 2005, and assessed by error matrix, which finds that it could detect change pixels 95.10% correct, and could classify change pixels 91.96% correct in seven change classes through performing supervised classification with direction angles. The technique demonstrates the ability of change vectors in multiple biophysical dimensions to vegetation change detection, and the application can be trended as an efficient alternative to urban vegetation change detection and classification.

Yu, Hui; Jia, Yonghong

2006-10-01

55

Theory and Measurement of Oceanic Wind Vector Using a Dual-Frequency Microwave Airborne Radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-surface wind speed and direction create a rough ocean surface consisting of a variety of waves and foam. Consequently, the microwave emissivity of the ocean surface is not only a function of the sea skin temperature and salinity but also of the surface roughness and foam distribution. A sensitive microwave radiometer can measure the surface emissivity (brightness temperature) variations and the data can be used to infer the near-surface wind speed and direction. This paper examines the inferred wind vector measurements from data taken by an airborne dual-frequency microwave radiometer using real ocean and atmospheric measurements. Furthermore, the inferred wind vector is computed using both ocean surface and atmospheric models specific to the parameters of this radiometer. The experimental and theoretical results are compared. An expression for the total brightness temperature observed by an airborne radiometer viewing the ocean is derived. The effects of the cosmic background radiation, the atmosphere, the rough ocean surface, and the radiometer's antenna power patterns are included. Atmospheric emission is calculated by a unique radiative transfer equation (RTE) algorithm. The rough ocean surface is modeled as a two -scale surface. Unlike many two-scale formulations, this one allows for the small-scale roughness to be similar to the incident electromagnetic wavelength which is necessary to model the capillary-ultragravity wave region more realistically. In addition, a realistic surface slope profile is incorporated into the large-scale features. New developments for the complex dielectric properties of sea water at microwave frequencies and the sea skin temperature measurements are incorporated into this model. A suite of atmospheric and oceanographic measurements were taken during a 1993 remote sensing experiment of the ocean surface. The in situ wind vector measurements are compared with the experimental and theoretical brightness temperature results. This comparison shows that this microwave radiometer can measure the wind vector for certain atmospheric and oceanic conditions. Furthermore, both theory and measurements produce an upwind/downwind asymmetry in the brightness temperatures results. This feature has recently been measured by passive microwave radiometers. The comparison may provide some insight into the small-scale features.

Jacobson, Mark Duane

56

3D visualization of solar wind ion data from the Chang'E-1 exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chang'E-1 (abbreviation CE-1), China's first Moon-orbiting spacecraft launched in 2007, carried equipment called the Solar Wind Ion Detector (abbreviation SWID), which sent back tens of gigabytes of solar wind ion differential number flux data. These data are essential for furthering our understanding of the cislunar space environment. However, to fully comprehend and analyze these data presents considerable difficulties, not only because of their huge size (57 GB), but also because of their complexity. Therefore, a new 3D visualization method is developed to give a more intuitive representation than traditional 1D and 2D visualizations, and in particular to offer a better indication of the direction of the incident ion differential number flux and the relative spatial position of CE-1 with respect to the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon. First, a coordinate system named Selenocentric Solar Ecliptic (SSE) which is more suitable for our goal is chosen, and solar wind ion differential number flux vectors in SSE are calculated from Geocentric Solar Ecliptic System (GSE) and Moon Center Coordinate (MCC) coordinates of the spacecraft, and then the ion differential number flux distribution in SSE is visualized in 3D space. This visualization method is integrated into an interactive visualization analysis software tool named vtSWIDs, developed in MATLAB, which enables researchers to browse through numerous records and manipulate the visualization results in real time. The tool also provides some useful statistical analysis functions, and can be easily expanded.

Zhang, Tian; Sun, Yankui; Tang, Zesheng

2011-10-01

57

Wind driven changes in the ocean carbon sink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate the historical ocean carbon sink over 1871 to 2010 using an ocean biogeochemical model driven with observed wind forcing. We focus on the influence of wind and mesoscale eddy changes on the net surface CO2 flux, which are most significant after 1950. The observed wind changes act to reduce the annual ocean carbon sink by 0.009 to 0.023 Pg yr-1 decade-1 over 1950 to 2010, and are consistent with previous studies covering only the latter part of the 20th century. The response of the ocean circulation and the carbon cycle to wind changes is sensitive to the parameterization of mesoscale eddies in our coarse resolution simulations. With a variable eddy transfer coefficient, eddy activity in the Southern Ocean increases in response to intensifying historical winds, partially compensating for direct wind-driven circulation changes. Thus with a variable eddy transfer coefficient the response to wind changes is about 2.5 times smaller than when using a constant coefficient. Finally, we show by comparing six reanalyses over 1980 to 2010 that estimated historical wind trends differ significantly. Through simulations forced with these reanalysis winds we show that the influence of historical wind changes on ocean carbon uptake is highly uncertain and depends on the choice of surface wind forcing product.

Swart, N. C.; Fyfe, J. C.; Saenko, O. A.; Eby, M.

2014-06-01

58

The potential of QuikSCAT and WindSat observations for the estimation of sea surface wind vector under severe weather conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physics of remote sensing sea surface measurements is still poorly understood under severe weather conditions. Wind vector algorithms are usually developed for non-precipitating atmospheres and for wind speeds less than 20 m\\/s. In this study, we analyze observations from the QuikSCAT Ku-band scatterometer collocated with the WindSat full polarimetric microwave radiometer to estimate the potential of these two instruments

Y. Quilfen; C. Prigent; B. Chapron; A. A. Mouche; N. Houti

2007-01-01

59

A Theoretical Framework for Unsupervised Change Detection Based on Change Vector Analysis in the Polar Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses unsupervised change detection by proposing a proper framework for a formal definition and a theoretical study of the change vector analysis (CVA) technique. This framework, which is based on the representation of the CVA in polar coordinates, aims at: 1) introducing a set of formal definitions in the polar domain (which are linked to the properties of

Francesca Bovolo; Lorenzo Bruzzone

2007-01-01

60

Stator winding fault diagnosis in three-phase synchronous and asynchronous motors, by the extended Park's vector approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of the extended Park's vector approach (EPVA) for diagnosing the occurrence of stator winding faults in operating three-phase synchronous and asynchronous motors. The major theoretical principles related with the EPVA are presented and it is shown how stator winding faults can be effectively diagnosed by the use of this noninvasive approach. Experimental results, obtained in

S. M. A. Cruz; A. J. Marques Cardoso

2000-01-01

61

vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The word vector comes from the Latin term vehere, to carry. In Biology, a vector is an agent which carries disease, such as a mosquito carrying infected blood from one patient to the next. In physics, a vector is a quantity which has both a magnitude and a direction associated with it. The most commonly used example of vectors in everyday life is velocity. When you drive your car, your speedometer tells you the speed of your car, but it doesn't tell you where you are going. The combination of both where you are going and how fast you are going there is your car's velocity.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

62

The effect of the arbitrary level assignment of satellite cloud motion wind vectors on wind analyses in the pre-thunderstorm environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of satellite-derived cloud motion vectors on SESAME rawinsonde wind fields was studied in two separate cases. The effect of wind and moisture gradients on the arbitrary assignment of the satellite data is assessed to coordinate surfaces in a severe storm environment marked by strong vertical wind shear. Objective analyses of SESAME rawinsonde winds and combined winds are produced and differences between these two analyzed fields are used to make an assessment of coordinate level choice. It is shown that the standard method of arbitrarily assigning wind vectors to a low level coordinate surface yields systematic differences between the rawinsonde and combined wind analyses. Arbitrary assignment of cloud motions to the 0.9 sigma surface produces smaller differences than assignment to the 825 mb pressure surface. Systematic differences occur near moisture discontinuities and in regions of horizontal and vertical wind shears. The differences between the combined and SESAME wind fields are made smallest by vertically interpolating cloud motions to either a pressure or sigma surface.

Peslen, C. A.; Koch, S. E.; Uccellini, L. W.

1985-01-01

63

The effect of the arbitrary level assignment of satellite cloud motion wind vectors on wind analyses in the pre-thunderstorm environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of satellite-derived cloud motion vectors on SESAME rawinsonde wind fields was studied in two separate cases. The effect of wind and moisture gradients on the arbitrary assignment of the satellite data is assessed to coordinate surfaces in a severe storm environment marked by strong vertical wind shear. Objective analyses of SESAME rawinsonde winds and combined winds are produced and differences between these two analyzed fields are used to make an assessment of coordinate level choice. It is shown that the standard method of arbitrarily assigning wind vectors to a low level coordinate surface yields systematic differences between the rawinsonde and combined wind analyses. Arbitrary assignment of cloud motions to the 0.9 sigma surface produces smaller differences than assignment to the 825 mb pressure surface. Systematic differences occur near moisture discontinuities and in regions of horizontal and vertical wind shears. The differences between the combined and SESAME wind fields are made smallest by vertically interpolating cloud motions to either a pressure or sigma surface.

Peslen, C. A.; Koch, S. E.; Uccellini, L. W.

1986-01-01

64

Change detection and classification in brain MR images using change vector analysis.  

PubMed

The automatic detection of longitudinal changes in brain images is valuable in the assessment of disease evolution and treatment efficacy. Most existing change detection methods that are currently used in clinical research to monitor patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases--such as Alzheimer's--focus on large-scale brain deformations. However, such patients often have other brain impairments, such as infarcts, white matter lesions and hemorrhages, which are typically overlooked by the deformation-based methods. Other unsupervised change detection algorithms have been proposed to detect tissue intensity changes. The outcome of these methods is typically a binary change map, which identifies changed brain regions. However, understanding what types of changes these regions underwent is likely to provide equally important information about lesion evolution. In this paper, we present an unsupervised 3D change detection method based on Change Vector Analysis. We compute and automatically threshold the Generalized Likelihood Ratio map to obtain a binary change map. Subsequently, we perform histogram-based clustering to classify the change vectors. We obtain a Kappa Index of 0.82 using various types of simulated lesions. The classification error is 2%. Finally, we are able to detect and discriminate both small changes and ventricle expansions in datasets from Mild Cognitive Impairment patients. PMID:22256148

Simões, Rita; Slump, Cornelis

2011-01-01

65

Combining TOPEX and SeaWinds Data to Refine Models for Ocean Surface Emissivity: Wind Vector Signatures at 18, 21 and 37 GHz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TOPEX Microwave Radiometer (TMR) brightness temperature observations at 18, 21, and 37 GHz have been collocated with near-simultaneous SeaWinds wind vector data as well as with a monthly SST climatological product. The combined data set allows us to study the dependence of ocean surface emissivity (at each frequency) upon both wind speed. Results show clear two-branch wind speed dependence; weak and linear below 6 m/s with an abrupt increase in sensitivity above that point. The analysis also shows that the zenith-directed ocean surface emissivity is polarization dependent above wind speeds of 5-6 m/s with an azimuthal variation related to the wind direction. This last result accords with recent polarimetric radiometer observations collected from aircraft. Implications of these observations to water vapor retrieval algorithms, nadir-viewing polarimetry, and ocean emission modeling will be discussed.

Vandemark, D.; Tran, N.; Ruf, C.; Vandemark, Douglas (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

66

Corrigendum to "Measuring the 3-D wind vector with a weight-shiftmicrolight aircraft" published in Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1421-1444, 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates whether the 3-D wind vector can be measured reliably from a highly transportable and low-cost weight-shift microlight aircraft. We draw up a transferable procedure to accommodate flow distortion originating from the aircraft body and -wing. This procedure consists of the analysis of aircraft dynamics and seven successive calibration steps. For our aircraft the horizontal wind components receive their greatest single amendment (14 %, relative to the initial uncertainty) from the correction of flow distortion magnitude in the dynamic pressure computation. Conversely the vertical wind component is most of all improved (31 %) by subsequent steps considering the 3-D flow distortion distribution in the flow angle computations. Therein the influences of the aircraft's trim (53 %), as well as changes in the aircraft lift (16 %) are considered by using the measured lift coefficient as explanatory variable. Three independent lines of analysis are used to evaluate the quality of the wind measurement: (a) A wind tunnel study in combination with the propagation of sensor uncertainties defines the systems input uncertainty to ?0.6 m s-1 at the extremes of a 95 % confidence interval. (b) During severe vertical flight manoeuvres the deviation range of the vertical wind component does not exceed 0.3 m s-1. (c) The comparison with ground based wind measurements yields an overall operational uncertainty (root mean square error) of ?0.4 m s-1 for the horizontal and ?0.3 m s-1 for the vertical wind components. No conclusive dependence of the uncertainty on the wind magnitude (<8 m s-1) or true airspeed (ranging from 23-30 m s-1) is found. Hence our analysis provides the necessary basis to study the wind measurement precision and spectral quality, which is prerequisite for reliable Eddy-Covariance flux measurements.

Metzger, S.; Junkermann, W.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Schmid, H. P.; Foken, T.

2011-07-01

67

Impact of short interval SMS digital data on wind vector determination for a severe local storms area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of 5 minute interval SMS-2 visible digital image data in analyzing severe local storms is examined using wind vectors derived from cloud tracking on time lapsed sequence of geosynchronous satellite images. The cloud tracking areas are located in the Central Plains, where on 6 May 1975, hail-producing thunderstorms occurred ahead of a well defined dry line. The results demonstrate that satellite-derived wind vectors and their associated divergence fields complement conventional meteorological analyses in describing the conditions preceding severe local storm development.

Peslen, C. A.

1979-01-01

68

Wind Power Production and Climate Change--a Modeling Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies using Global Climate Models (GCMs) for several climate change scenarios are inconclusive as to the sign of the change in surface wind speeds. Some regions may experience a net increase in boundary layer winds, while other areas observe a decrease. Areas within the U.S. that are most susceptible to climate change also contain substantial wind resources (for example, California and the Great Plains). The next few decades under a changing climate may also see greater variation in seasonal and annual wind speeds, making long-term planning for air quality and wind energy purposes problematic. Thus, the purpose of this presentation is to show preliminary results from a regional-scale study focusing on the effects of climate change on wind in the boundary layer. Under the sponsorship of the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), simulations of future-climate (2040-2060) wind speeds in the surface layer were performed in in order to estimate affects upon wind power production under the IPCC A2 greenhouse gas emissions scenario. Output from high-resolution (50 km) global climate simulations conducted at LLNL for the Department of Energy (DOE) National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded North American Regional Climate Change Prediction Project (NARCCAP) was used to initialize AWS Truewind's Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) model. Simulations covering the entire state of California, with a grid size of 15 km, and "inner nests" with finer resolution (4.0 km) in the Tehachapi Pass and other wind resource regions were performed. We present the results of these simulations and will discuss the implications for future wind energy resource assessment, air dispersion applications, and energy balance consequences.

Freedman, J. M.; Waight, K.; Duffy, P. P.

2008-12-01

69

Methods of reducing wind power changes from large turbine arrays  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses methods of reducing the WECS generation change through selection of the wind turbine model for each site, selection of an appropriate siting configuration, and wind array controls. An analysis of wind generation change from an echelon and a farm for passage of a thunderstorm is presented to establish the factors concerning the wind turbine model and siting configuration that contribute to these variations. Detailed simulation results indicate more precisely how these factors can be exploited to minimize the WECS generation changes observed. Reduction of the wind generation change over ten minutes is shown to reduce the increase in spinning reserve, unloadable generation and load following requirements on unit commitment when significant WECS generation is present and the farm penetration constraint is satisfied. Controls on the blade pitch angle of all wind turbines in an array or a battery control are shown to reduce both the wind generation change out of an array and the effective farm penetration in anticipation of a storm so that the farm penetration constraint may be satisfied.

Schlueter, R.; Dorsey, J.; Lotfalian, M.; Park, G.; Shayanfar, M.

1983-06-01

70

Solar Wind Change Exchange from the Magnetosheath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the results of a long (approximately 100 ks) XMM-Newton observation designed to observe solar wind charge exchange emission (SWCX) from Earth's magnetosheath. By luck, the observation took place during a period of minimal solar wind flux so the SWCX emission was also minimal. Never-the-less, there is a significant if not stunning correlation between the observed O VIII count rate and our model for magnetosheath emission. We also report on the observed O VII and O VII emission.

Snowden, Steve

2008-01-01

71

World Wind Tools Reveal Environmental Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Originally developed under NASA's Learning Technologies program as a tool to engage and inspire students, World Wind software was released under the NASA Open Source Agreement license. Honolulu, Hawaii based Intelesense Technologies is one of the companies currently making use of the technology for environmental, public health, and other monitoring applications for nonprofit organizations and Government agencies. The company saved about $1 million in development costs by using the NASA software.

2012-01-01

72

The influence of virus-induced changes in plants on aphid vectors: insights from luteovirus pathosystems.  

PubMed

Plant virus infection can alter the suitability of host plants for their aphid vectors. Most reports indicate that virus-infected plants are superior hosts for vectors compared to virus-free plants with respect to vector growth rates, fecundity and longevity. Some aphid vectors respond preferentially to virus-infected plants compared to virus-free ones, while others avoid infected plants that are inferior hosts. Thus, it appears vectors can exploit changes in host plant quality associated with viral infection. Enhanced vector performance and preference for virus-infected plants might also be advantageous for viruses by promoting their spread and possibly enhancing their fitness. Our research has focused on two of the most important luteoviruses that infect wheat (Barley yellow dwarf virus), or potato (Potato leafroll virus), and their respective aphid vectors, the bird-cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The work has demonstrated that virus infection of host plants enhances the life history of vectors. Additionally, it has shown that virus infection alters the concentration and relative composition of volatile organic compounds in host plants, that apterae of each vector species settle preferentially on virus-infected plants, and that such responses are mediated by volatile organic compounds. The findings also indicate that plants respond heterogeneously to viral infection and as a result different plant parts change in attractiveness to vectors during infection and vector responses to virus-infected plants are dynamic. Such dynamic responses could enhance or reduce the probability of virus acquisition by individual aphids searching among plants. Finally, our work indicates that compared to non-viruliferous aphids, viruliferous ones are less or not responsive to virus-induced host plant volatiles. Changes in vector responsiveness to plants after vectors acquire virus could impact virus epidemiology by influencing virus spread. The potential implications of these findings for virus ecology and epidemiology are discussed. PMID:21549769

Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

2011-08-01

73

Effects of changing atmospheric conditions on wind turbine performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric boundary layer is well known as a dynamic, hard-to-predict environment. Some large scale trends are clear, for example a switch from stable nighttime stratification to convective conditions during the day. In comparison, other effects, such as changes in shear, turbulence and wind veer are less obvious and can be influenced by terrain and synoptic conditions as well as the diurnal cycle. Wind turbines are designed to operate almost continuously for 20 years or more, and so must work reliably and produce predictable amounts of power in very variable wind conditions. Using data from the observations on turbines at the National Wind Technology Center and other sites, together with simulations of turbine performance at different fidelities, we show some of the ways in which turbine performance and loads are affected by changes in the atmosphere. We compare and contrast our results with some of the methods frequently used in the wind industry to predict turbine power output, and discuss how the wind resource assessment process could be improved to account for variations in the atmosphere. Finally we highlight combinations of conditions that may be particularly advantageous or challenging for the wind turbines we have studied.

Clifton, A.; Fleming, P.; Kilcher, L.; Lundquist, J. K.

2012-12-01

74

Validation of QuikSCAT wind vectors by dropwindsonde data from Dropwindsonde Observations for Typhoon Surveillance Near the Taiwan Region (DOTSTAR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of 10 m wind vectors derived from the QuikSCAT satellite near tropical cyclones is validated against soundings from 457 GPS dropwindsondes deployed by Dropwindsonde Observations for Typhoon Surveillance Near the Taiwan Region (DOTSTAR) during 2003-2007. To maximize the database, the surface to 40 m wind speed in the dropwindsondes is averaged and interpolated to the 10 m wind

Kun-Hsuan Chou; Chun-Chieh Wu; Po-Hsiung Lin; Sharanya Majumdar

2010-01-01

75

Climate change. Climate change and wind intensification in coastal upwelling ecosystems.  

PubMed

In 1990, Andrew Bakun proposed that increasing greenhouse gas concentrations would force intensification of upwelling-favorable winds in eastern boundary current systems that contribute substantial services to society. Because there is considerable disagreement about whether contemporary wind trends support Bakun's hypothesis, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature on upwelling-favorable wind intensification. The preponderance of published analyses suggests that winds have intensified in the California, Benguela, and Humboldt upwelling systems and weakened in the Iberian system over time scales ranging up to 60 years; wind change is equivocal in the Canary system. Stronger intensification signals are observed at higher latitudes, consistent with the warming pattern associated with climate change. Overall, reported changes in coastal winds, although subtle and spatially variable, support Bakun's hypothesis of upwelling intensification in eastern boundary current systems. PMID:24994651

Sydeman, W J; García-Reyes, M; Schoeman, D S; Rykaczewski, R R; Thompson, S A; Black, B A; Bograd, S J

2014-07-01

76

Mercury Space Capsule- Winds of Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Langley technician checks the Mercury full-scale capsule model prior to testing in the 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel in 1959 at NASA Langley Research Center, Much of the research and development of the Mercury program was conducted at Langley. Originally built in the early 1930s to test full-scale aircraft, the '30 by 60' tested many of the bombers and fighter planes used in World War II. Although it was retired in October 1995, the '30 by 60' is one of NASAs largest wind tunnels and is a National Historic Landmark. Many of the tests on the late 1980s and early 1990s were free-flight tests of dynamically scaled models in the test section. This technique allowed researchers to measure and assess flight characteristics as well as evaluate control options.

1959-01-01

77

Wind velocity-change (gust rise) criteria for wind turbine design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed-form equation is derived for root mean square (rms) value of velocity change (gust rise) that occurs over the swept area of wind turbine rotor systems and an equation for rms value of velocity change that occurs at a single point in space. These formulas confirm the intuitive assumption that a large system will encounter a less severe environment

W. C. Cliff; G. H. Fichtl

1978-01-01

78

Wind erosion in the central Ebro Basin under changing land use management. Field experiments with a portable wind tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agricultural landscape in the semi-arid central Ebro Basin is changing from dry farming towards land abandonment. This study aims to describe quantitatively the influence of this land use change onto wind erosion susceptibility in this region. Additionally, the effects of tillage operations on wind erosion rates were evaluated. A portable wind tunnel was used to assess the relative sediment

W. Fister; J. B. Ries

2009-01-01

79

Effect of Wind Speed Changes on Grid Power Quality at Various Levels of Wind Electric Penetration -A Laboratory Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a laboratory study of the effect of wind speed changes on grid power quality parameters such as voltage, frequency, power factor and harmonics at different penetration levels of grid connected wind electric generator (WEG). Linear and gust changes of wind speed are considered in the analysis besides a constant value. The analysis is done on a three

V. Vanitha; N. Devarajan

80

Water Vapor Winds and Their Application to Climate Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The retrieval of satellite-derived winds and moisture from geostationary water vapor imagery has matured to the point where it may be applied to better understanding longer term climate changes that were previously not possible using conventional measurements or model analysis in data-sparse regions. In this paper, upper-tropospheric circulation features and moisture transport covering ENSO periods are presented and discussed. Precursors and other detectable interannual climate change signals are analyzed and compared to model diagnosed features. Estimates of winds and humidity over data-rich regions are used to show the robustness of the data and its value over regions that have previously eluded measurement.

Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lerner, Jeffrey A.

2000-01-01

81

Analysis of the Viking Lander 1 surface wind vector for sols 45 to 375  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Viking Lander 1 wind sensor data during the period between sols 45 and 375 were corrected. During this period, the heating element of the quadrant sensor which provided the primary signal used for determining wind direction had failed, but both hot film wind sensors were functioning normally. The wind speed and direction corrections are explained.

Leovy, C. B.

1984-01-01

82

Methods of recording rapid wind changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of our research was to determine the rapid changes of air currents which impose varying stresses on the wings of airplanes. We attempted to express in figures the turbulence of the air, which perhaps plays some role in the behavior of airplanes in flight, as well as in the realization of certain methods of gliding flight. This is the reason which led us to conceive and develop the experimental equipment (hot-wire anemometer) described herein.

Magnan, A

1932-01-01

83

Combining Climatic Projections and Dispersal Ability: A Method for Estimating the Responses of Sandfly Vector Species to Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Background In the Old World, sandfly species of the genus Phlebotomus are known vectors of Leishmania, Bartonella and several viruses. Recent sandfly catches and autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis hint on spreading tendencies of the vectors towards Central Europe. However, studies addressing potential future distribution of sandflies in the light of a changing European climate are missing. Methodology Here, we modelled bioclimatic envelopes using MaxEnt for five species with proven or assumed vector competence for Leishmania infantum, which are either predominantly located in (south-) western (Phlebotomus ariasi, P. mascittii and P. perniciosus) or south-eastern Europe (P. neglectus and P. perfiliewi). The determined bioclimatic envelopes were transferred to two climate change scenarios (A1B and B1) for Central Europe (Austria, Germany and Switzerland) using data of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM. We detected the most likely way of natural dispersal (“least-cost path”) for each species and hence determined the accessibility of potential future climatically suitable habitats by integrating landscape features, projected changes in climatic suitability and wind speed. Results and Relevance Results indicate that the Central European climate will become increasingly suitable especially for those vector species with a current south-western focus of distribution. In general, the highest suitability of Central Europe is projected for all species in the second half of the 21st century, except for P. perfiliewi. Nevertheless, we show that sandflies will hardly be able to occupy their climatically suitable habitats entirely, due to their limited natural dispersal ability. A northward spread of species with south-eastern focus of distribution may be constrained but not completely avoided by the Alps. Our results can be used to install specific monitoring systems to the projected risk zones of potential sandfly establishment. This is urgently needed for adaptation and coping strategies against the emerging spread of sandfly-borne diseases.

Fischer, Dominik; Moeller, Philipp; Thomas, Stephanie M.; Naucke, Torsten J.; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

2011-01-01

84

Will the Winds of Change Bring a Growth Model?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the top questions about the No Child Left Behind Act, both before and after its passage, was "why isn't adequate yearly progress based on growth rather than just on year-to-year snapshots?" Now, three years into the implementation of this sweeping federal education law, the winds of change are blowing in Washington, and the use of growth…

Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan

2005-01-01

85

Evaluation of turbulent magnetic energy spectra in the three-dimensional wave vector domain in the solar wind  

SciTech Connect

Using four-point measurements of the CLUSTER spacecraft, the energy distribution of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is determined directly in the three-dimensional wave vector domain in the range 3 x 10{sup -4} rad/km < k < 3 x 10{sup -3} rad/km. The analysis method takes account of a regular tetrahedron configuration of CLUSTER and the Doppler effect. The energy distribution in the flow rest frame is anisotropic, characterized by two distinct extended structures perpendicular to the mean magnetic field and furthermore perpendicular to the flow direction. The three-dimensional distribution is averaged around the direction of the mean magnetic field direction, and then is further reduced to one-dimensional distributions in the wave number domain parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. The one-dimensional energy spectra are characterized by the power law with the index -5/3 and furthermore very close energy density between parallel and perpendicular directions to the mean magnetic field at the same wave numbers. Though the distributions and the spectra are not covered in a wide range of wave vectors, our measurements suggest that the solar wind fluctuation is anisotropic in the three-dimensional wave vector space. It is, however, rather isotropic when reduced into the parallel and perpendicular wave vector geometries due to the second anisotropy imposed by the flow direction.

Gary, S Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Narita, Y [UNIV OF BRAUNSCHWEIG; Glassmeier, K H [UNIV OF BRAUNSCHWEIG; Goldstein, M L [NGSFC; Safraoui, F [NGSFC; Treumann, R A [UNIV. MUNICH

2009-01-01

86

Vector Voyage!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use vector analysis to understand the concept of dead reckoning. Students will use vectors to plot their course based on a time and speed. They will then correct the positions with vectors representing winds and currents.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

87

Vector Voyage!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use vector analysis to understand the concept of dead reckoning. Students will use vectors to plot their course based on a time and speed. They will then correct the positions with vectors representing winds and currents.

White, Jeff; Lippis, Matt; Axelrad, Penny; Yowell, Janet; Zarske, Malinda S.

2004-01-01

88

Climate change and threat of vector-borne diseases in India: are we prepared?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unequivocal that climate change is happening and is likely to expand the geographical distribution of several vector-borne\\u000a diseases, including malaria and dengue etc. to higher altitudes and latitudes. India is endemic for six major vector-borne\\u000a diseases (VBD) namely malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and visceral leishmaniasis. Over the\\u000a years, there has been reduction in the incidence of

Ramesh C. Dhiman; Sharmila Pahwa; G. P. S. Dhillon; Aditya P. Dash

2010-01-01

89

Characterization of ASCAT measurements based on buoy and QuikSCAT wind vector observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new scatterometer Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT) onboard MetOp-A satellite provides surface wind speed and direction over global ocean with a spatial resolution of 25 km square over two swaths of 550 km widths. The accuracy of ASCAT wind retrievals is determined through various comparisons with moored buoys. The comparisons indicate that the remotely sensed wind speeds and directions agree well

A. Bentamy; D. Croize-Fillon; C. Perigaud

2008-01-01

90

MONITORING VEGETATION REGENERATION AND DEFORESTATION USING CHANGE VECTOR ANALYSIS: MT. ST. HELENS STUDY AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sophisticated method for monitoring land-cover change in a highly disturbed landscape involved change vector analysis of multitemporal Kauth-Thomas transformation data. Landsat TM data acquired after the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens (1986 and 1996) were analyzed in this study. Topographic effects from the rugged terrain were removed by regressing a generated hillshade image against each band to estimate

Kristopher Kuzera

91

Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator  

DOEpatents

A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee (Scotia, NY) [Scotia, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya (Rexford, NY) [Rexford, NY

2008-04-22

92

Effect of wind turbine generator model and siting on wind power changes out of large WECS arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of reducing the WECS generation change through selection of the wind turbine model for each site, selection of an appropriate siting configuration, and wind array controls are discussed. An analysis of wind generation change from an echelon and a farm for passage of a thunderstorm is presented. Reduction of the wind generation change over ten minutes is shown to reduce the increase in spinning reserve, unloadable generation and load following requirements on unit commitment when significant WECS generation is present and the farm penetration constraint is satisfied. Controls on the blade pitch angle of all wind turbines in an array or a battery control are shown to reduce both the wind generation change out of an array and the effective farm penetration in anticipation of a storm so that the farm penetration constraint may be satisfied.

Schleuter, R. A.; Park, G. L.; Lotfalian, M.; Dorsey, J.; Shayanfar, H.

1981-01-01

93

Changing climate and changing vector-borne disease distribution: the example of Dirofilaria in Europe.  

PubMed

Climatic changes, together with an increase in the movement of dogs across Europe, have caused an increase in the geographical range of Dirofilaria infections. The present paper is focuses on northeastern European countries, where survey data have shown an increase of Dirofilaria repens infections both in animals and humans. A growing degree day-based forecast model has been developed to predict the occurrence. The model is based on evidence that there is a threshold of 14 °C below which Dirofilaria development will not proceed in mosquitoes, there is a requirement of 130 growing degree-days (GDDs) for larvae to reach infectivity, and there is a maximum life expectancy of 30 days for a mosquito vector. The output of this model predicted that the summer temperatures (with peaks in August) are sufficient to facilitate extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria even at latitudes of 56 °N and longitudes of 39 °E. Despite the fact that both Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens have the same temperature requirement for extrinsic incubation in mosquitoes, empirical data has shown that D. repens is the main cause of dirofilarial infections in both humans and animals. Clinical signs are absent in most canine infections with D. repens. Furthermore, diagnosis is problematic and in-clinic serological tests, such as those for D. immitis, do not exist. Therefore, most infections go undiagnosed, allowing the infection to spread undetected. PMID:21300439

Genchi, Claudio; Mortarino, Michele; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Traldi, Giorgio; Genchi, Marco

2011-03-22

94

Impacts of past and future climate change on wind energy resources in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The links between climate change and trends in wind energy resources have important potential implications for the wind energy industry, and have received significant attention in recent studies. We have conducted two studies that provide insights into the potential for climate change to affect future wind power production. In one experiment, we projected changes in power capacity for a hypothetical

J. R. McCaa; A. Wood; S. Eichelberger; K. Westrick

2009-01-01

95

Absolute and relative measurement of the sea surface wind vector by an airborne altimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot needs operational information about wind over sea as well as wave height to provide safety of hydroplane landing on water. Near-surface wind speed and direction can be obtained with an airborne microwave scatterometer, a radar designed for measuring the scatter characteristics of a surface. Mostly narrow-beam antennas are applied for such wind measurement. Unfortunately, a microwave narrow-beam antenna

Alexei Nekrassov; J. Pereira Osorio

2002-01-01

96

Measurement of the sea surface wind vector by an airborne altimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot needs operational information about wind over sea as well as wave height to provide safety of hydroplane landing on water. Near-surface wind speed and direction can be obtained with an airborne microwave scatterometer, radar designed for measuring the scatter characteristics of a surface. Mostly narrow-beam antennas are applied for such wind measurement. Unfortunately, a microwave narrow-beam antenna has

Alexei Nekrassov

2002-01-01

97

Attraction of the cutaneous leishmaniasis vector Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) to host odour components in a wind tunnel  

PubMed Central

Background Laboratory studies of host-seeking olfactory behaviour in sandflies have largely been restricted to the American visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. In comparison, almost nothing is known about the chemical ecology of related species, which transmit American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), due in part to difficulties in raising these insects in the laboratory. Understanding how ACL vectors locate their hosts will be essential to developing new vector control strategies to combat this debilitating disease. Methods This study examined host-odour seeking behaviour of the ACL vector Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) (=Lutzomyia neivai) using a wind tunnel olfactometer. The primary aim was to determine whether field-collected female N. neivai would respond to host odours in the laboratory, thereby eliminating the need to maintain colonies of these insects for behavioural experiments. Responses to two key host odour components, 1-octen-3-ol and lactic acid, and a commercially-available mosquito lure (BG-Lure™) were assessed and compared relative to an air control. We also tested whether trials could be conducted outside of the normal evening activity period of N. neivai without impacting on fly behaviour, and whether the same flies could be used to assess baseline responses to air without affecting responses to octenol, thereby reducing the number of flies required for experiments. Results Octenol was found to both activate host-seeking behaviour and attract female N. neivai in the wind tunnel, while lactic acid elicited weaker responses of activation and attractiveness under identical conditions. The BG-Lure did not activate or attract N. neivai under test conditions. Further experiments showed that sandfly behaviour in the wind tunnel was not affected by time of day, such that experiments need not be restricted to nocturnal hours. Moreover, using the same flies to measure both baseline responses to air and attraction to test compounds did not affect odour-seeking behaviour. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that N. neivai taken from the field are suitable for use in laboratory olfactometer experiments. It is hoped this work will facilitate further research into chemical ecology of this species, and other ACL vectors.

2012-01-01

98

Application of Spherical Statistics to Change Vector Analysis of Landsat Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to develop a modified change vector analysis (CVA) using normalized multidate data from Landsat TM to examine spruce–fir ecosystems. The introduction of the balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae) to the Great Smoky Mountains in the late 1950s resulted in widespread mortality of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), prompting the need for research on disturbance and regeneration. Drawing from

Thomas R Allen; John A Kupfer

2000-01-01

99

Changes in measured vector magnetic fields when transformed into heliographic coordinates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes that occur in measured magnetic fields when they are transformed into a heliographic coordinate system are investigated. To carry out this investigation, measurements of the vector magnetic field of an active region that was observed at 1\\/3 the solar radius from disk center are taken, and the observed field is transformed into heliographic coordinates. Differences in the calculated

M. J. Hagyard

1987-01-01

100

Change-vector analysis in multitemporal space: A tool to detect and categorize land-cover change processes using high temporal-resolution satellite data  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of change vectors in the multitemporal space, applied to multitemporal local area coverage imagery obtained by the Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer on NOAA-9 and NOAA-11 orbiting platforms, clearly reveals the nature and magnitude of land-cover change in a region of West Africa. The change vector compares the difference in the time-trajectory of a biophysical indicator, such as the normalized difference vegetation index, for two successive time periods, such as hydrological years. In establishing the time-trajectory, the indicator is composited for each pixel in a registered multidate image sequence. The change vector is simply the vector difference between successive time-trajectories, each represented as a vector in a multidimensional measurement space. The length of the change vector indicates the magnitude of the interannual change, while its direction indicates the nature of the change. A principal components analysis of change vectors for a Sudanian-Sahelian region in West Africa shows four major classes of change magnitude and four general contrasting types of change. Scene-specific changes, such as reservoir water level storage changes, are also identified. The technique is easily extended to other biophysical parameters, such as surface temperature, and can incorporate noneuclidean distance measures. Change vector analysis is being developed for application to the land-cover change product to be produced using NASA's Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument, scheduled for flight in 1998 and 2000 on EOS-AM and -PM platforms.

Lambin, E.F. (Joint Research Center, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Remote Sensing Applications); Strahler, A.H. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Geography)

1994-05-01

101

Successful malaria elimination strategies require interventions that target changing vector behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background The ultimate long-term goal of malaria eradication was recently placed back onto the global health agenda. When planning for this goal, it is important to remember why the original Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP), conducted with DDT-based indoor residual spraying (IRS), did not achieve its goals. One of the technical reasons for the failure to eliminate malaria was over reliance on a single intervention and subsequently the mosquito vectors developed behavioural resistance so that they did not come into physical contact with the insecticide. Hypothesis and how to test it Currently, there remains a monolithic reliance on indoor vector control. It is hypothesized that an outcome of long-term, widespread control is that vector populations will change over time, either in the form of physiological resistance, changes in the relative species composition or behavioural resistance. The potential for, and consequences of, behavioural resistance was explored by reviewing the literature regarding vector behaviour in the southwest Pacific. Discussion Here, two of the primary vectors that were highly endophagic, Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis, virtually disappeared from large areas where DDT was sprayed. However, high levels of transmission have been maintained by Anopheles farauti, which altered its behaviour to blood-feed early in the evening and outdoors and, thereby, avoiding exposure to the insecticides used in IRS. This example indicates that the efficacy of programmes relying on indoor vector control (IRS and long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets [LLINs]) will be significantly reduced if the vectors change their behaviour to avoid entering houses. Conclusions Behavioural resistance is less frequently seen compared with physiological resistance (where the mosquito contacts the insecticide but is not killed), but is potentially more challenging to control programmes because the intervention effectiveness cannot be restored by rotating the insecticide to one with a different mode of action. The scientific community needs to urgently develop systematic methods for monitoring behavioural resistance and then to work in collaboration with vector control programmes to implement monitoring in sentinel sites. In situations where behavioural resistance is detected, there will be a need to target other bionomic vulnerabilities that may exist in the larval stages, during mating, sugar feeding or another aspect of the life cycle of the vector to continue the drive towards elimination.

2013-01-01

102

Polarimetric Ku-Band Scatterometer for High Accuracy, Large Swath Global Wind Vector Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the past, wind measurements from space using fan-beam antennas, such as Seasat Scatterometer (SASS-1), ERS-1 &2, and NASA scatterometer (NSCAT), required up to six large stick-like antennas and suffered a nadir gap of up to 400 km. In the near future, a spinning pencil-beam scatterometer system is to be used for the SeaWinds scatterometer on QuikSCAT (QSCAT) and on ADEOS-2 (SeaWinds). This scatterometer, though offering wind measurements in the nadir region, still suffers from degraded performance in the nadir and outer swath. The purpose of this paper is to present an advanced polarimetric spinning pencil-beam scatterometer system, which can significantly improve the wind performance across the entire swath. The polarimetric scatterometer simultaneously measures co-polarized backscatter and the polarimetric correlation of co- and cross-polarized radar returns from the ocean surface. The advantage over the conventional scatterometer system is that, while the co-polarization radar returns are even function of the wind direction, the polarimetric correlation is an odd function of wind direction due to the reflection symmetry of the wind roughened surface. Therefore, this polarimetric scatterometer system can provide additional, equivalent measurements at azimuth angle 45degree away from the corresponding co-polarization measurements. The combined co-polarization and correlation measurements enable good wind performance across the whole swath to be obtained. In this paper, we will first present the theoretical formulation of all of the key components required for designing a polarimetric scatterometer. Then, we show that good wind performance can be achieved by a slight improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the current QSCAT/SeaWinds design. We then present the predicated wind performance using computer simulation based on a model function for the co-polarized backscatter obtained from actual spaceborne scatterometer data and an estimated model function for the polarimetric correlation based on the asymmetry observed in backscatter data. Finally, we will show that, aside from ocean applications, this polarimetric scatterometer can also be used for ice and land applications.

Tsai, Wu-Yang; Nghiem, Son V.; Huddleston, James; Spencer, Michael; Stiles, Bryan; West, Richard

2000-01-01

103

Wind erosion and long period climate change on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind deflation and deposition are powerful agents of surface change on Mars. Erosion is sensitive to surface pressure, so feedback between orbit variations and pressure can enhance the sensitivity of erosion rates to orbital parameters. We use statistics derived from a 1 Cyr integration of the spin axis of Mars, coupled with 3- D general circulation models (GCMs) at a variety of orbital conditions and pressures, to explore this feedback. We also employ a seasonally resolved 1-D energy balance model to illuminate the characteristics of the long-term atmospheric evolution, wind erosion, and deposition over one billion years, for the current conditions and those of early Mars. We find that seasonal polar cycles have a critical influence on the ability for the regolith to release CO2 at high obliquities, and find that the atmospheric CO2 decreases slightly at high obliquities due to the cooling effect of polar deposits at latitudes where seasonal caps form. At low obliquity, the formation of massive, permanent polar caps depends critically on the values of the frost albedo and frost emissivity. Using our 1-D model matched to the NASA Ames GCM results, we find that permanent caps only form at obliquities <10 degrees. We also find that wind erosion in the GCM is associated with two factors: cap edge winds, and strong cross-equator solstice flows. Both of these processes are influenced by topography, producing an asymmetry in the erosion pattern between the north and the south. Our 1-D erosion model, excluding solstice winds, produces erosion rates of 5 × 10-6 m yr-1 in the north and 6 × 10 -7 m yr-1 in the south, which increase by an order of magnitude in an early 40 mbar atmosphere. The stability of these erosion patterns over geological time indicates that the lowland regions of Mars are continuously eroded, and that wind is capable of eroding substantial sediment deposits that may have otherwise been preserved. Our results suggest that low- lying areas most likely to collect astrobiologically interesting sediments may be the least likely places to preserve them, and our search strategies should be adjusted accordingly.

Armstrong, John Charles

2003-11-01

104

Vector Control of Front-End Converters for Variable-Speed Wind–Diesel Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel power-balance control method for a wind-diesel generation feeding an isolated grid. The system is based on a variable-speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) connected to an ac load using a power converter. An energy storage system (ESS), connected to the ac load using an additional converter, is used to balance the power generated by the

Roberto Cárdenas; Rubén Peña; Marcelo Pérez; Jon Clare; Greg Asher; Fernando Vargas

2006-01-01

105

Buoy perspective of a high-resolution global ocean vector wind analysis constructed from passive radiometers and active scatterometers (1987-present)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study used 126 buoy time series as a benchmark to evaluate a satellite-based daily, 0.25-degree gridded global ocean surface vector wind analysis developed by the Objectively Analyzed airs-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) project. The OAFlux winds were produced from synthesizing wind speed and direction retrievals from 12 sensors acquired during the satellite era from July 1987 onward. The 12 sensors included scatterometers (QuikSCAT and ASCAT), passive microwave radiometers (AMSRE, SSMI and SSMIS series), and the passive polarimetric microwave radiometer from WindSat. Accuracy and consistency of the OAFlux time series are the key issues examined here. A total of 168,836 daily buoy measurements were assembled from 126 buoys, including both active and archive sites deployed during 1988-2010. With 106 buoys from the tropical array network, the buoy winds are a good reference for wind speeds in low and mid-range. The buoy comparison shows that OAFlux wind speed has a mean difference of -0.13 ms-1 and an RMS difference of 0.71 ms-1, and wind direction has a mean difference of -0.55 degree and an RMS difference of 17 degrees. Vector correlation of OAFlux and buoy winds is of 0.9 and higher over almost all the sites. Influence of surface currents on the OAFlux/buoy mean difference pattern is displayed in the tropical Pacific, with higher (lower) OAFlux wind speed in regions where wind and current have the opposite (same) sign. Improved representation of daily wind variability by the OAFlux synthesis is suggested, and a decadal signal in global wind speed is evident.

Yu, Lisan; Jin, Xiangze

2012-11-01

106

Superpixel-Based Unsupervised Change Detection Using Multi-Dimensional Change Vector Analysis and Svm-Based Classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel superpixel-based approach is introduced for unsupervised change detection using remote sensing images. The proposed approach contains three steps: 1) Superpixel segmentation. The simple linear iterative cluster (SLIC) algorithm is applied to obtain lattice-like homogenous superpixels. To avoid discordances of the superpixel boundaries obtained from bi-temporal images, the two images are firstly fused using principle component analysis. And then, the SLIC algorithm is applied on the first three principle components, which contain the main information of the two images. 2) For each superpixel, which is considered as the basic unit of the image space, the multi-dimensional change vector is computed from spectral, textural and structural features. 3) The superpixels are classified into two type: changed and unchanged through two progressive classification processes. The superpixels are firstly cataloged into three types: changed, unchanged and undefined by thresholding the change vectors and a voting process. And then the undefined superpixels are further classified into two classes: changed and unchanged, using a SVM-based classifier, which is trained by the derived changed and unchanged superpixels from the former step. The experiment using Indonesia data set has confirmed that the proposed approach is able to detect the changes automatically, by exploiting multiple change features.

Wu, Z.; Hu, Z.; Fan, Q.

2012-07-01

107

State changes arising from wind transport in drylands (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of soil transport due to wind has been increasingly understood as a crucial aspect of ecosystem evolution in drylands. Aeolian processes impact vegetation structure, topographic characteristics, and soil properties, and aeolian transport drives important feedbacks that give rise to multiple stable states. Here, we outline the results of several field and modeling experiments that show the critical interactions that occur amongst wind, vegetation, and soils. Measurements of transport, fallout radionuclide tracing, deposition, and vegetation growth shows clearly that aeolian transport can result in significant alteration of a variety of ecosystem and soil factors. Moreover, changes to vegetation and soils from land use, invasive species, and climate change impact aeolian transport. Both simplistic and sophisticated modeling approaches indicate that transport can produce multiple stable states in dryland ecosystems, and thus can participate in large-scale reorganization of soils and vegetation. These results also indicate that manipulation of aeolian transport might provide the opportunity to step some drylands back from critical thresholds and begin the process of recovery from unwanted ecosystem states.

Okin, G. S.; D'Odorico, P.

2013-12-01

108

Impact to Space Shuttle Vehicle Trajectory on Day of Launch from change in Low Frequency Winds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle utilizes atmospheric winds on day of launch to develop throttle and steering commands to best optimize vehicle performance while keeping structural loading on the vehicle within limits. The steering commands and resultant trajectory are influenced by both the high and low frequency component of the wind. However, the low frequency component has a greater effect on the ascent design. Change in the low frequency wind content from the time of trajectory design until launch can induce excessive loading on the vehicle. Wind change limits have been derived to protect from launching in an environment where these temporal changes occur. Process of developing wind change limits are discussed followed by an observational study of temporal wind change in low frequency wind profiles at the NASA's Kennedy Space Center area are presented.

Decker, Ryan K.; Puperi, Daniel; Leach, Richard

2007-01-01

109

Projected Future Distributions of Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in North America under Climate Change Scenarios  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease kills approximately 45 thousand people annually and affects 10 million people in Latin America and the southern United States. The parasite that causes the disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, can be transmitted by insects of the family Reduviidae, subfamily Triatominae. Any study that attempts to evaluate risk for Chagas disease must focus on the ecology and biogeography of these vectors. Expected distributional shifts of vector species due to climate change are likely to alter spatial patterns of risk of Chagas disease, presumably through northward expansion of high risk areas in North America. Methodology/Principal Findings We forecast the future (2050) distributions in North America of Triatoma gerstaeckeri and T. sanguisuga, two of the most common triatomine species and important vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in the southern United States. Our aim was to analyze how climate change might affect the future shift of Chagas disease in North America using a maximum entropy algorithm to predict changes in suitable habitat based on vector occurrence points and predictive environmental variables. Projections based on three different general circulation models (CCCMA, CSIRO, and HADCM3) and two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2) were analyzed. Twenty models were developed for each case and evaluated via cross-validation. The final model averages result from all twenty of these models. All models had AUC >0.90, which indicates that the models are robust. Our results predict a potential northern shift in the distribution of T. gerstaeckeri and a northern and southern distributional shift of T. sanguisuga from its current range due to climate change. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study provide baseline information for monitoring the northward shift of potential risk from Chagas disease in the face of climate change.

Garza, Miroslava; Feria Arroyo, Teresa Patricia; Casillas, Edgar A.; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor; Rivaldi, Chissa-Louise; Sarkar, Sahotra

2014-01-01

110

Regional and seasonal response of a West Nile virus vector to climate change  

PubMed Central

Climate change will affect the abundance and seasonality of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors, altering the risk of virus transmission to humans. Using downscaled general circulation model output, we calculate a WNV vector's response to climate change across the southern United States using process-based modeling. In the eastern United States, Culex quinquefasciatus response to projected climate change displays a latitudinal and elevational gradient. Projected summer population depressions as a result of increased immature mortality and habitat drying are most severe in the south and almost absent further north; extended spring and fall survival is ubiquitous. Much of California also exhibits a bimodal pattern. Projected onset of mosquito season is delayed in the southwestern United States because of extremely dry and hot spring and summers; however, increased temperature and late summer and fall rains extend the mosquito season. These results are unique in being a broad-scale calculation of the projected impacts of climate change on a WNV vector. The results show that, despite projected widespread future warming, the future seasonal response of C. quinquefasciatus populations across the southern United States will not be homogeneous, and will depend on specific combinations of local and regional conditions.

Morin, Cory W.; Comrie, Andrew C.

2013-01-01

111

Community-based dengue vector control: experiences in behavior change in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines  

PubMed Central

Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne disease in the Philippines, especially in Metropolitan Manila where communities are socially and economically diverse, and city governments struggle to provide basic services such as continuously available, piped water supply to residents. We examined responses to introducing water container management to control dengue vectors in two diverse communities in Masagana City: Village A (gated community) and Village B (informal settlers community). The roll out of the intervention was carried out by the study team, dengue control personnel and local health workers (BHWs). A behavioural change framework was used to describe the community responses to the introduction of a new vector control intervention - household water container management. Although, the desired outcome was not achieved during the study's timeline, observation on processes of behaviour change underscored the importance of understanding the social nature of the urban communities, often overlooked structures when dengue control program and researchers introduce new dengue control interventions.

Espino, Fe

2012-01-01

112

Simulation Research of Fuzzy-PID Synthesis Yaw Vector Control System of Wind Turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancing the stability and robust of yawing system effectively, carrying out the simulation research of fuzzy-PID synthesis control. Designing the yawing vector control system with the synthesis controller of fuzzy-PID, modeling the system with Matlab simulation software, and taking simulation test. Comparing the simulation curves with common PID control and fuzzy PID subsection control, the result indicate that the fuzzy-PID

PIAO HAIGUO; WANG ZHIXIN

113

The predicted impact of possible climatic change on virus-vector nematodes in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data extracted from surveys of plant-parasitic nematodes in Great Britain allowed relatively detailed maps of the geographical distribution of various longidorid and trichodorid virus-vector nematode species to be produced. These distributions are related to long-term monthly mean temperature. Recently published figures for climate change were applied to the distribution data. A potential increase in nematode associated problems due to climate

R. Neilson; B. Boag

1996-01-01

114

Magnetotail Changes in Relation to the Solar Wind Magnetic Field and Magnetospheric Substorms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substorm activity is known to be associated with changes in the solar wind parameters and the magnetotail configuration. In this paper we investigate whether the magnetotail changes occur only as a consequence of substorms or also as a direct consequence of changes in the solar wind paxameters. Using data from several satellites (Ogo 5, ATS 1, Imp 4, Explorer 33

MICHEL P. AUBRYAND; Robert L. McPherron

1971-01-01

115

Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis  

PubMed Central

Ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. As key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis causing heart worm disease (HW) in Italy is discussed on the basis of retrospective historical reports until the 90's and later on until 2009. For long time, D. immitis has been considered mainly present along the Po River Valley and northward areas, while L. infantum in south-central Italy and Sicily and Sardinia. Comparison of current available and historical data (up to 1989) confirms that HW and CanL, although with different prevalence rates, have been changing their distribution patterns in Italy as a result of many biological and ecological factors, including those related to vector distribution and introduction of new species (e.g. the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, a competent vector of D. immitis). New autochthonous foci of HW in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia and Calabria regions) have recently been reported. Although analysing retrospective data may represent a difficult task, the "paradigm" about the dual distribution of HW and CanL in northern and southern Italy cannot yet be considered valid. The research needs for managing HW and CanL in previously uninfected areas are discussed.

Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Genchi, Claudio

2009-01-01

116

Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels. This model was examined relative to two mosquito vectors, both competent carriers of dengue fever, a viral, vector-borne disease. Models which incorporate public health considerations can enable decision makers to take proactive steps to mitigate the impacts and adapt to the changing environmental conditions. In this paper we provide a snapshot of our climate initiative and some examples relative to our public health practice work in vector-borne diseases to illustrate how integrated decision support could be of assistance to regional and local communities worldwide.

Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

2011-12-01

117

Changing photospheric vector magnetic fields associated with a B4.2-class solar flare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations have provided evidence that the solar photospheric magnetic fields could have rapid and permanent changes in both longitudinal and transverse components associated with large (X- or M-class) solar flares. However, few observations have been reported about small flares. In this paper we find the observational evidence of changing photospheric vector magnetic fields associated with a B4.2-class flare obtained with the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope (SMFT) installed at Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS) of Nation Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Yu; Shen, Yuandeng

2013-07-01

118

Impacts of past and future climate change on wind energy resources in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The links between climate change and trends in wind energy resources have important potential implications for the wind energy industry, and have received significant attention in recent studies. We have conducted two studies that provide insights into the potential for climate change to affect future wind power production. In one experiment, we projected changes in power capacity for a hypothetical wind farm located near Kennewick, Washington, due to greenhouse gas-induced climate change, estimated using a set of regional climate model simulations. Our results show that the annual wind farm power capacity is projected to decrease 1.3% by 2050. In a wider study focusing on wind speed instead of power, we analyzed projected changes in wind speed from 14 different climate simulations that were performed in support of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). Our results show that the predicted ensemble mean changes in annual mean wind speeds are expected to be modest. However, seasonal changes and changes predicted by individual models are large enough to affect the profitability of existing and future wind projects. The majority of the model simulations reveal that near-surface wind speed values are expected to shift poleward in response to the IPCC A2 emission scenario, particularly during the winter season. In the United States, most models agree that the mean annual wind speed values will increase in a region extending from the Great Lakes southward across the Midwest and into Texas. Decreased values, though, are predicted across most of the western United States. However, these predicted changes have a strong seasonal dependence, with wind speed increases over most of the United States during the winter and decreases over the northern United States during the summer.

McCaa, J. R.; Wood, A.; Eichelberger, S.; Westrick, K.

2009-12-01

119

QBO cycle identified by changes in height profile of the zonal winds: new regularities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical wind profiles in the equatorial atmosphere for 1953 2003 have been examined to study the regularities of the wind reversal in quasi-biennial oscillations (QBO) cycle. The detail analysis of rotation in the stratospheric wind profiles reveals that the quiet periods alternate with active periods, characterized by strong disturbing winds. The stage with the easterly winds above 20 30 hPa and westerly winds lower this layer (Stage 1) always starts in solstice months and can last during 3 4, 9 10, or 15 16 months with no essential changes in the wind profile. Then, the disturbing winds are developed in layer below 20 30 hPa during the nearest equinox. It takes 20 21 months for next 7 stages and the wind profile with the easterly winds above and westerly winds below 20 30 hPa (Stage 1) is formed again in solstice. Accordingly, the full cycle of the wind evolution takes 24, 30, or 36 months depending on duration of the Stage 1. It is shown that stages with the disturbing winds (2, 4, 6, and 8) have maximum intensity around the equinox seasons. There is a definite connection between development of the disturbing winds and the temperature variations in layer of the maximal ozone content (20 30 hPa).

Gabis, I.; Troshichev, O. A.

2005-01-01

120

Climate Change and Risk of Leishmaniasis in North America: Predictions from Ecological Niche Models of Vector and Reservoir Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundClimate change is increasingly being implicated in species' range shifts throughout the world, including those of important vector and reservoir species for infectious diseases. In North America (México, United States, and Canada), leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is autochthonous in México and Texas and has begun to expand its range northward. Further expansion to the north may be facilitated

Camila González; Ophelia Wang; Stavana E. Strutz; Constantino González-Salazar; Víctor Sánchez-Cordero; Sahotra Sarkar

2010-01-01

121

Modeling and space vector control of a novel multilevel matrix converter for variable-speed wind power generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel multilevel matrix converter is developed to efficiently transfer energy between a three-phase variable-speed generator of a wind turbine and a three-phase ac utility network. Optimizing the energy transfer efficiency at light load is critical in variable-speed wind generators. Laboratory experiment suggests that converter efficiency at light load may be increased via soft-switching and multilevel switching techniques. The new converter includes the advantages of multilevel converters, such as reduced harmonic content, increased power handling capability without additional switching loss, and high efficiency at low machine voltages. It also features the characteristics of conventional matrix converters, such as space vector control and improved efficiency via auxiliary resonant commutation soft-switching techniques. Similar to a conventional matrix converter, the novel multilevel matrix converter uses a nine-switch matrix with four-quadrant switches to connect input phases at one side of the converter with output phases at the other side of the converter. However, the switches of the new converter are configured differently from those used in the conventional matrix converter. Each switch of the new converter is a cell that resembles a full-bridge inverter topology and can assume three voltage levels while used. Semiconductor devices in a switch cell are always clamped to a known constant do voltage of a capacitor. This is a typical characteristic of multilevel converters where device voltage stresses are reduced by clamping the main transistor voltages to low levels. With reduced voltage stresses, switching frequency can be increased to allow for reduced size of filter magnetics. Unlike conventional matrix converter, the multilevel matrix converter uses inductors on both input and output sides of the converter. This symmetry allows for both step up and step down operations. Each switch cell features double the power handling capability compared to the four-quadrant switches used in a conventional matrix converter. This increase in power handling capability is due to the doubling of the number of devices in a multilevel matrix converter switch cell. Scaling up the power handling capability is accomplished by cascading more than one switch cell per branch. Control of the new converter is achieved through space vector modulation in which three-phase ac voltages are transformed to the d-q reference frame and compared with a set of space vectors prior to modulation. Since it has 19683 different switching combinations, control can be difficult and complex. Nevertheless, the multilevel matrix converter has been modeled and controlled through simulation. Simulation results show the possibility of operating the converter to produce the desired voltage waveforms with universal input and output power factors and maintain constant capacitor voltages simultaneously. Also in this dissertation is the derivation of an analytical averaged equivalent circuit model of a PWM converter. This model reveals how dominant loss mechanisms vary with converter operating point. The model is based on the operational characteristics of power diodes and IGBTs. Laboratory experiments support the derived model and confirm that IGBT current tailing and diode reverse-recovery are indeed the most critical losses in a PWM converter. These losses are more significant at light load, hence reducing the energy capture capability of converters used in wind generation. The results suggest that multilevel conversion, which has been employed in the novel multilevel matrix converter, could improve the low-wind converter efficiency.

Al-Naseem, Osama Abdulrahman

122

OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE OF CHANGING PHOTOSPHERIC VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELDS ASSOCIATED WITH SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations have provided evidence that the solar photospheric magnetic fields could have rapid and permanent changes in both longitudinal and transverse components associated with major flares. As a result, the Lorentz force (LF) acting on the solar photosphere and solar interior could be perturbed, and the change of LF is always nearly in the downward direction. However, these rapid and permanent changes have not been systematically investigated, yet, using vector magnetograms. In this paper, we analyze photospheric vector magnetograms covering five flares to study the evolution of photospheric magnetic fields. In particular, we investigate two-dimensional spatial distributions of the changing LF. Around the major flaring polarity inversion line, the net change of the LF is directed downward in an area of {approx}10{sup 19} cm{sup 2} for X-class flares. For all events, the white-light observations show that sunspots darken in this location after flares, and magnetic fields become more inclined, which is consistent with the ideas put forward by Hudson et al. and Fisher et al., and observations.

Su, J. T.; Jing, J.; Wang, H. M. [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Mao, X. J.; Wang, X. F.; Zhang, H. Q.; Deng, Y. Y.; Guo, J.; Wang, G. P., E-mail: sjt@bao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2011-06-01

123

Quantifying changes in the bone microarchitecture using Minkowski-functionals and scaling vectors: a comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease leading to de-mineralization and increased risk of fracture. The two major factors that determine the biomechanical competence of bone are the degree of mineralization and the micro-architectural integrity. Today, modern imaging modalities exist that allow to depict structural details of trabecular bone tissue. Recently, non-linear techniques in 2D and 3D based on the scaling vector method (SVM) and the Minkowski functionals (MF) have been introduced, which show excellent performance in predicting bone strength and fracture risk. However, little is known about the performance of the various parameters with respect to monitoring structural changes due to progression of osteoporosis or as a result of medical treatment. We test and compare the two methodologies using realistic two-dimensional simulations of bone structures, which model the effect of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the local change of relative bone density. Different realizations with slightly varying control parameters are considered. Our results show that even small changes in the trabecular structures, which are induced by variation of a control parameter of the system, become discernible by applying both the MF and the locally adapted scaling vector method. The results obtained with SVM are superior to those obtained with the Minkowski functionals. An additive combination of both measures drastically increases the sensitivity to slight changes in bone structures. These findings may be especially important for monitoring the treatment of patients, where the early recognition of (drug-induced) changes in the trabecular structure is crucial.

Raeth, Christoph W.; Mueller, Dirk; Link, Thomas M.; Boehm, Holger; Monetti, Roberto

2006-03-01

124

Things Fall Apart: Topology Change From Winding Tachyons  

SciTech Connect

We argue that closed string tachyons drive two spacetime topology changing transitions--loss of genus in a Riemann surface and separation of a Riemann surface into two components. The tachyons of interest are localized versions of Scherk-Schwarz winding string tachyons arising on Riemann surfaces in regions of moduli space where string-scale tubes develop. Spacetime and world-sheet renormalization group analyses provide strong evidence that the decay of these tachyons removes a portion of the spacetime, splitting the tube into two pieces. We address the fate of the gauge fields and charges lost in the process, generalize it to situations with weak flux backgrounds, and use this process to study the type 0 tachyon, providing further evidence that its decay drives the theory sub-critical. Finally, we discuss the time-dependent dynamics of this topology-changing transition and find that it can occur more efficiently than analogous transitions on extended supersymmetric moduli spaces, which are limited by moduli trapping.

Adams, A.

2005-02-04

125

Perspectives on the public health implications of global climate change and the epidemiology of vector-borne disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is becoming an increasing concern among the public health community. Some researchers believe the earth is rapidly undergoing changes in temperature, sea level, population movement, and extreme weather phenomenon. With these geographic, meteorological, and social changes come increased threats to human health. One of these threats is the spread of vector-borne infectious diseases. The changes mentioned above

Jennifer Rinderknecht

2009-01-01

126

Possible Impacts of Climate Change on Wind Gust under Downscaled Future Climate Conditions over Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overarching purpose of this study was to project changes in the occurrence frequency and magnitude of future wind gust events under downscaled future climate conditions over Ontario, Canada. Wind gust factors were employed to simulate hourly/daily wind gust based on hourly/daily wind speed. Regression-based downscaling methods were used to downscale future hourly/daily wind speed to each of the 14 selected cities in Ontario for eight GCM models with IPCC SRES A2 and B1 scenarios. The wind gust simulation models were then applied using downscaled future GCM wind speed data to project changes in occurrence frequency and intensity of the future hourly/daily wind gust events. Downscaling transfer functions and wind gust simulation models were validated using a cross-validation scheme and comparing data distributions and extreme-event frequencies derived from downscaled GCM control runs and observations over a comparative time period 1961-2000. The results showed that the models for all variables used in the study performed well. By comparing the current-past averaged conditions, the occurrence frequency and intensity of future wind gust events in the study area are projected to increase. The modeled results from this study found that the frequency and intensity of future wind gust events are projected to significantly increase under a changing climate in this century. This talk will introduce the research project and outline the modeling exercise and verification process. The major findings on future wind gust projections from the study will be summarized in the presentation as well. One of the major conclusions from the study is that the procedures used in the study are useful for climate change impact analysis on future wind gusts. The implication of the significant increases in future wind gust risks would be useful to be considered when revising engineering infrastructure design standards and developing adaptation strategies and policies.

Shouquan Cheng, Chad; Li, Guilong

2010-05-01

127

Oceanic Response to Changes in the Latitude of the Southern Hemisphere Subpolar Westerly Winds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oceanic response to imposed changes in the latitude of the subpolar westerly winds (SWWs) over the Southern Ocean is assessed in a global ocean model. The latitude changes are achieved by applying a zonally uniform zonal wind stress anomaly that is quasi-sinusoidal in latitude, with a positive (negative) band to the south (north) of about 508S. This form of

Peter R. Oke; Matthew H. England

2004-01-01

128

The Ocean's Abyssal Mass Flux Sustained Primarily By the Wind: Vector Correlation of Time Series in Upper and Abyssal Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Wunsch has recently noted (2002), use of the term "thermohaline circulation" is muddled. The term is used with at least seven inconsistent meanings, among them abyssal circulation, the circulation driven by density and pressure differences in the deep ocean, the global conveyor, and at least four others. The use of a single term for all these concepts can create an impression that an understanding exists whereby in various combinations the seven meanings have been demonstrated to mean the same thing. But that is not the case. A particularly important consequence of the muddle is the way in which abyssal circulation is sometimes taken to be driven mostly or entirely by temperature and density differences, and equivalent to the global conveyor. But in fact the distinction between abyssal and upper-layer circulation has not been measured. To find out whether available data justifies a distinction between the upper-layer and abyssal circulations, this study surveyed velocity time series obtained by deep current meter moorings. Altogether, 114 moorings were identified, drawn from about three dozen experiments worldwide over the period 1973-1996, each of which deployed current meters in both the upper (2003750) layers. For each pair of current meters, the Kundu and Crosby measures of vector correlation were estimated, as well as coherences for periods from 10 to 60 days. In the North Atlantic, for example, Kundu vector correlation (50-day window): 0.48 +/- .03 Crosby vector correlation (absolute value, 50 day window): 0.46 +/- .07 Coherence at 60 days: .36 +/- .07 - at 30 days: 0.40 +/- .06 - at 10 days: 0.22 +/- .05 Most figures for the South Atlantic, Pacific and Southern Oceans are similar. Those obtained in the Indian Ocean or near the Equator are somewhat different. The statistics obtained here are consistent with the work of Wunsch (1997), and tend to confirm Wunsch's result that current velocities at depth are linked with those in the upper layers. Energetics of the circulation that do not take this into account are making an unjustifiable approximation of the physics. These results do not tell us whether time averaged flow on longer time scales might permit distinction of upper layer and abyssal flow components. Some intriguing corollaries do follow. First, the abyssal circulation is not identically the same thing as a global conveyor belt driven by temperature and density differences. Rather, as Wunsch noted (2002), the ocean's mass flux is sustained primarily by the wind. We may add that these wind patterns are about as robust as the temperature differences between equator and pole; this major driver of circulation is not a frail phenomenon. Second, the classical notion of a level of no motion that is also a constant-density surface, an LNM, is inconsistent with the results presented here. Such an LNM would wall off the upper layer circulation from the lower, and as they are not walled off, there can be no such LNM. Third, wind stress is being transmitted down column, presumably to the sea floor.

Hancock, L. O.

2003-12-01

129

Dynamics of Sylvatic Chagas Disease Vectors in Coastal Ecuador Is Driven by Changes in Land Cover  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease is a serious public health problem in Latin America where about ten million individuals show Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Despite significant success in controlling domiciliated triatomines, sylvatic populations frequently infest houses after insecticide treatment which hampers long term control prospects in vast geographical areas where vectorial transmission is endemic. As a key issue, the spatio-temporal dynamics of sylvatic populations is likely influenced by landscape yet evidence showing this effect is rare. The aim of this work is to examine the role of land cover changes in sylvatic triatomine ecology, based on an exhaustive field survey of pathogens, vectors, hosts, and microhabitat characteristics' dynamics. Methodology and Principal Findings The study was performed in agricultural landscapes of coastal Ecuador as a study model. Over one year, a spatially-randomized sampling design (490 collection points) allowed quantifying triatomine densities in natural, cultivated and domestic habitats. We also assessed infection of the bugs with trypanosomes, documented their microhabitats and potential hosts, and recorded changes in landscape characteristics. In total we collected 886 individuals, mainly represented by nymphal stages of one triatomine species Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. As main results, we found that 1) sylvatic triatomines had very high T. cruzi infection rates (71%) and 2) densities of T. cruzi-infected sylvatic triatomines varied predictably over time due to changes in land cover and occurrence of associated rodent hosts. Conclusion We propose a framework for identifying the factors affecting the yearly distribution of sylvatic T. cruzi vectors. Beyond providing key basic information for the control of human habitat colonization by sylvatic vector populations, our framework highlights the importance of both environmental and sociological factors in shaping the spatio-temporal population dynamics of triatomines. A better understanding of the dynamics of such socio-ecological systems is a crucial, yet poorly considered, issue for the long-term control of Chagas disease.

Grijalva, Mario J.; Teran, David; Dangles, Olivier

2014-01-01

130

Surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Germany: trends and challenges in the view of disease emergence and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing epidemiology of vector-borne diseases represents a growing threat to human health. Contemporary surveillance\\u000a systems have to adapt to these changes. We describe temporal trends and geographic origins of vector-borne diseases in Germany\\u000a with regard to strengths of existing disease surveillance and to areas marked for improvement. We focused on hantavirus infection\\u000a (endemic in Germany), chikungunya fever (recently emerging

Andreas Jansen; Christina Frank; Judith Koch; Klaus Stark

2008-01-01

131

Potential Influence of Climate Change on Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases: A Review and Proposed Research Plan  

PubMed Central

Background Because of complex interactions of climate variables at the levels of the pathogen, vector, and host, the potential influence of climate change on vector-borne and zoonotic diseases (VBZDs) is poorly understood and difficult to predict. Climate effects on the nonvector-borne zoonotic diseases are especially obscure and have received scant treatment. Objective We described known and potential effects of climate change on VBZDs and proposed specific studies to increase our understanding of these effects. The nonvector-borne zoonotic diseases have received scant treatment and are emphasized in this paper. Data sources and synthesis We used a review of the existing literature and extrapolations from observations of short-term climate variation to suggest potential impacts of climate change on VBZDs. Using public health priorities on climate change, published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we developed six specific goals for increasing understanding of the interaction between climate and VBZDs and for improving capacity for predicting climate change effects on incidence and distribution of VBZDs. Conclusions Climate change may affect the incidence of VBZDs through its effect on four principal characteristics of host and vector populations that relate to pathogen transmission to humans: geographic distribution, population density, prevalence of infection by zoonotic pathogens, and the pathogen load in individual hosts and vectors. These mechanisms may interact with each other and with other factors such as anthropogenic disturbance to produce varying effects on pathogen transmission within host and vector populations and to humans. Because climate change effects on most VBZDs act through wildlife hosts and vectors, understanding these effects will require multidisciplinary teams to conduct and interpret ecosystem-based studies of VBZD pathogens in host and vector populations and to identify the hosts, vectors, and pathogens with the greatest potential to affect human populations under climate change scenarios.

Mills, James N.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Khan, Ali S.

2010-01-01

132

Change vector analysis to categorise land cover change processes using the tasselled cap as biophysical indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous extraction of wood and the conversion of forest to small- and large-scale agricultural parcels is rapidly changing\\u000a the land cover of the mount Cameroon region. The changes occur at varying spatial scales most often not more than 2ha for\\u000a the small-scale subsistence farms and above 10ha for the extensive agricultural plantations of cocoa and palm. Given the importance

Rene Ngamabou Siwe; Barbara Koch

2008-01-01

133

Change vector analysis to categorise land cover change processes using the tasselled cap as biophysical indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The continuous extraction of wood,and the conversion of forest to small- and large-scale agricul- tural parcels is rapidly changing the land cover of the mount,Cameroon,region. The changes,occur,at varying spatial scales most often not more,than 2ha for the small-scale subsistence farms and above 10ha for the extensive agricultural plantations of cocoa and palm. Given the importance,of land use and land

Rene Ngamabou; Barbara Koch

134

Pressure distribution on a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter in the transition-speed range. [wind tunnel tests to measure pressure distribution on body and wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel with a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter configuration to obtain detailed pressure measurements on the body and on the wing in the transition-speed range. The vectored-thrust jet exhaust induced a region of negative pressure coefficients on the lower surface of the wing and on the bottom of the fuselage. The location of the jet exhaust relative to the wing was a major factor in determining the extent of the region of negative pressure coefficients.

Mineck, R. E.; Margason, R. J.

1974-01-01

135

The impact of climate change on the U.S. wind energy resource  

SciTech Connect

The growing need for low-carbon emitting electricity sources has resulted in rapid growth in the wind power industry. The size and steadiness of the offshore wind resource has attracted growing investment in the planning of offshore wind turbine installations. Decisions about the location and character of wind farms should be made with an eye not only to present but also future wind resource, which may change as increasing carbon dioxide forces reductions in the poleward temperature gradient, and thus potentially in the mean tropospheric westerly winds. I propose to use the new North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program climate projections to estimate the change of the wind power resource under various carbon dioxide loading scenarios and for a range of climate models. We will compare our assessment with both our assessment based on the IPCC AR4 model runs, to explore the extent to which improved model resolution changes the prediction for the wind power resource, and with present day estimates from reanalysis and scatterometer winds.

Daniel Kirk-Davidoff; Daniel Barrie

2013-03-19

136

Solar cycle changes in the high latitude solar wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the solar wind velocity during the period 1971-79 using the technique of interplanetary scintillation are discussed. The average wind speed was faster than 500 km/s at latitudes above 30 deg for most of 1973-77. The fast polar stream, observed to become much narrower in 1978-79 is examined. The narrowing of the polar streams coincided with the emergence of sunspots at midlatitudes, with the start of the new solar cycle, and with a corresponding contraction of the polar coronal holes. The theory that the solar magnetic field controls the large scale structure of the solar wind is discussed in relation to the results.

Rickett, B. J.; Coles, W. A.

1980-01-01

137

Supervised change detection in VHR images using contextual information and support vector machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study an effective solution to deal with supervised change detection in very high geometrical resolution (VHR) images. High within-class variance as well as low between-class variance that characterize this kind of imagery make the detection and classification of ground cover transitions a difficult task. In order to achieve high detection accuracy, we propose the inclusion of spatial and contextual information issued from local textural statistics and mathematical morphology. To perform change detection, two architectures, initially developed for medium resolution images, are adapted for VHR: Direct Multi-date Classification and Difference Image Analysis. To cope with the high intra-class variability, we adopted a nonlinear classifier: the Support Vector Machines (SVM). The proposed approaches are successfully evaluated on two series of pansharpened QuickBird images.

Volpi, Michele; Tuia, Devis; Bovolo, Francesca; Kanevski, Mikhail; Bruzzone, Lorenzo

2013-02-01

138

Changes in wind regime around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, northwestern Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind stress may significantly change plant damage by aerial pollutants. However, almost no information exists on pollution-induced changes in wind regime around the strong emission sources. Wind speed, measured in industrial barrens adjacent to the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk (Kola Peninsula, NW Russia), was two to three times as high as in the slightly polluted and nearly unpolluted forests. The ratio between the maximum wind velocity within 30 s and the average velocity of that time interval showed no temporal variation, thus characterising the wind regime. This ratio was highest in unpolluted forests, suggesting the predominance of gusty winds; in industrial barrens the maximum wind speed was only slightly higher than the average value. Since topography did not explain the spatial variation in wind regime, I conclude that my data represent the first direct evidence for distinct changes in wind regime caused by pollution-induced habitat deterioration. The results suggest that initial (partly pollution-induced) forest disturbance causes secondary effects (like increased snow evaporation, followed by soil freezing and plant damage) that may enhance further disturbance in a positive feedback fashion.

Kozlov, M. V.

2002-05-01

139

Wind-stress feedback amplification of abrupt millennial-scale climate changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of changes in surface wind-stress on the properties (amplitude and period) and domain of existence of thermohaline millennial oscillations is studied by means of a coupled model of intermediate complexity set up in an idealized spherical sector geometry of the Atlantic basin. Using the atmospheric CO2 concentration as the control parameter, bifurcation diagrams of the model are built to show that the influence of wind-stress changes on glacial abrupt variability is threefold. First, millennial-scale oscillations are significantly amplified through wind-feedback-induced changes in both northern sea ice export and oceanic heat transport. Changes in surface wind-stress more than double the amplitude of the strong warming events that punctuate glacial abrupt variability obtained under prescribed winds in the model. Second, the average duration of both stadials and interstadials is significantly lengthened and the temporal structure of observed variability is better captured under interactive winds. Third, the generation of millennial-scale oscillations is shown to occur for significantly colder climates when wind-stress feedback is enabled. This behaviour results from the strengthening of the negative temperature-advection feedback associated with stronger northward oceanic heat transport under interactive winds.

Arzel, Olivier; England, Matthew H.

2013-02-01

140

Combining Climatic Projections and Dispersal Ability: A Method for Estimating the Responses of Sandfly Vector Species to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn the Old World, sandfly species of the genus Phlebotomus are known vectors of Leishmania, Bartonella and several viruses. Recent sandfly catches and autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis hint on spreading tendencies of the vectors towards Central Europe. However, studies addressing potential future distribution of sandflies in the light of a changing European climate are missing.MethodologyHere, we modelled bioclimatic envelopes using

Dominik Fischer; Philipp Moeller; Stephanie M. Thomas; Torsten J. Naucke; Carl Beierkuhnlein

2011-01-01

141

Wind shear measuring on board an airliner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A measurement technique which continuously determines the wind vector on board an airliner during takeoff and landing is introduced. Its implementation is intended to deliver sufficient statistical background concerning low frequency wind changes in the atmospheric boundary layer and extended knowledge about deterministic wind shear modeling. The wind measurement scheme is described and the adaptation of apparatus onboard an A300 airbus is shown. Preliminary measurements made during level flight demonstrate the validity of the method.

Krauspe, P.

1984-01-01

142

Impact of assimilation of INSAT cloud motion vector (CMV) wind for the prediction of a monsoon depression over Indian Ocean using a mesoscale model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study utilized the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5), to assimilate the INSAT-CMV (Indian National Satellite System-Cloud Motion Vector) wind observations using analysis nudging to improve the prediction of a monsoon depression which occurred over the Arabian Sea, India during 14 September 2005 to 17 September 2005. NCEP-FNL analysis has been utilized as the initial and lateral boundary conditions and two sets of numerical experiments were designed to reveal the impact of assimilation of satellite-derived winds. The model was integrated from 14 September 2005 00 UTC to 17 September 2005 00 UTC, with just the NCEP FNL analysis in the NOFDDA run. In the FDDA run, the NCEP FNL analysis fields were improved by assimilating the INSAT-CMV (wind speed and wind direction) as well as QuickSCAT sea surface winds during the 24 hour pre-forecast period (14 September 2005 00 UTC to 15 September 2005 00 UTC) using analysis nudging. The model was subsequently run in the free forecast mode from 15 September 2005 00 UTC to 17 September 2005 12 UTC. The simulated sea level pressure field from the NOFDDA run reveals a relatively stronger system as compared to the FDDA run. However, the sea level pressure fields corresponding to the FDDA run are closer to the analysis. The simulated lower tropospheric winds from both experiments reveal a well-developed cyclonic circulation as compared to the analysis.

Xavier, V. F.; Chandrasekar, A.; Singh, Devendra

2006-12-01

143

Estimated Effects of Projected Climate Change on the Basic Reproductive Number of the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes scapularis  

PubMed Central

Background: The extent to which climate change may affect human health by increasing risk from vector-borne diseases has been under considerable debate. Objectives: We quantified potential effects of future climate change on the basic reproduction number (R0) of the tick vector of Lyme disease, Ixodes scapularis, and explored their importance for Lyme disease risk, and for vector-borne diseases in general. Methods: We applied observed temperature data for North America and projected temperatures using regional climate models to drive an I. scapularis population model to hindcast recent, and project future, effects of climate warming on R0. Modeled R0 increases were compared with R0 ranges for pathogens and parasites associated with variations in key ecological and epidemiological factors (obtained by literature review) to assess their epidemiological importance. Results: R0 for I. scapularis in North America increased during the years 1971–2010 in spatio-temporal patterns consistent with observations. Increased temperatures due to projected climate change increased R0 by factors (2–5 times in Canada and 1.5–2 times in the United States), comparable to observed ranges of R0 for pathogens and parasites due to variations in strains, geographic locations, epidemics, host and vector densities, and control efforts. Conclusions: Climate warming may have co-driven the emergence of Lyme disease in northeastern North America, and in the future may drive substantial disease spread into new geographic regions and increase tick-borne disease risk where climate is currently suitable. Our findings highlight the potential for climate change to have profound effects on vectors and vector-borne diseases, and the need to refocus efforts to understand these effects. Citation: Ogden NH, Radojevi? M, Wu X, Duvvuri VR, Leighton PA, Wu J. 2014. Estimated effects of projected climate change on the basic reproductive number of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis. Environ Health Perspect 122:631–638;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307799

Radojevic?, Milka; Wu, Xiaotian; Duvvuri, Venkata R.; Leighton, Patrick A.; Wu, Jianhong

2014-01-01

144

Analyticity constraints on the strangeness changing vector current and applications to ??K??? and ??K????  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss matrix elements of the strangeness changing vector current using their relation, due to analyticity, with ?K scattering in the P-wave. We take into account experimental phase-shift measurements in the elastic channel as well as results, obtained by the LASS collaboration, on the details of inelastic scattering, which show the dominance of two quasi-two-body channels at medium energies. The associated form factors are shown to be completely determined, up to one flavor symmetry breaking parameter, imposing boundary conditions at t=0 from chiral and flavor symmetries and at t?? from QCD. We apply the results to the ??K??? and ??K???? amplitudes and compare the former to recent high statistics results from B factories.

Moussallam, B.

2008-02-01

145

Scatterometer Ocean Surface Winds Provide Observational Evidence for Changes in the Hadley Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent evidence suggests that the tropics have expanded over the last few decades by a very rough 1 degree per decade. This is considered to be an atmospheric response to the observed tropical ocean warming trend (e.g. Quan et al., 2004). If continued, the expansion of the tropics (the Hadley cell) could have a substantial impact on water resources and the ecology of the sub-tropics. Until now, the understanding of the mechanisms that govern the changing width of the tropics has been confined to models and proxies (e.g. Johanson and Fu, 2009; Hu and Fu 2007 (OLR); Lu et al. 2007 (precipitation /evaporation estimates) because of the unavailability of systematic observations of the large-scale circulation. Ocean surface vector winds, derived from scatterometer observations, provide for the first time an accurate depiction of the large-scale circulation and allow the study of the Hadley cell evolution through analysis of its surface branch. The launch of NASA's QuikSCAT in 1999 marked the beginning of routine global observations of the surface winds and provided a consistent 10-year record. The launches of ASCAT on METOP in 2006 and the ISRO's OceanSAT-2 in 2010 will assure the continuation of the climate data record of near-surface winds over the oceans. In this study we use the observations from QuikSCAT. We determine the extent of the Hadley cell as defined by the subtropical zero-crossing of the zonally-averaged zonal wind component (the separation between the midlatitude westerlies and the easterly winds in the tropics). We study the time series of 1-year running averages, 260 in total and offset from each other by two weeks. Our preliminary studies revealed a couple of interesting results: - The first half of the 10-year record shows two distinct cycles in the width of the Hadley cell while the later part of the record shows a steady increase in that width, as has been shown by others. The magnitude of the width-increase is very close to what has been reported by others (~1 deg/decade, both south and north, for a total of about 2 deg/decade). - The two cycles in the 1999-2004 time period are likely a reflection of the modulation of the Hadley cell by the La Nina(1999)/El Nino (2002) events that dominated this period - Segregating the data by ocean basins show rather different evolution of the Pacific Hadley cell versus that in the Atlantic. - Analyzing the time series of 3-month running averages reveals the seasonal variation of the extent and the width of the Hadley cell. It indicates a trend for pole-ward expansion of the northern Hadley cell branch during the boreal winter. This result is consistent with an earlier finding by Quan et al. (2004) that the winter Hadley cell has been increasing in intensity since 1950. Next, we look into a more detailed analysis to relate these preliminary findings to a more in-depth investigation of the relation between the Hadley cell strength and the El Nino/ La Nina episodes. In the future we will relate the scatterometer-defined Hadley cell characteristics and tendencies to such from precipitation observations.

Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Haddad, Z.; Rodriguez, E.; Stiles, B. W.; Turk, F. J.; Seo, E.

2012-12-01

146

20% Wind Energy - Diversifying Our Energy Portfolio and Addressing Climate Change (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This brochure describes the R&D efforts needed for wind energy to meet 20% of the U.S. electrical demand by 2030. In May 2008, DOE published its report, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, which presents an in-depth analysis of the potential for wind energy in the United States and outlines a potential scenario to boost wind electric generation from its current production of 16.8 gigawatts (GW) to 304 GW by 2030. According to the report, achieving 20% wind energy by 2030 could help address climate change by reducing electric sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 825 million metric tons (20% of the electric utility sector CO2 emissions if no new wind is installed by 2030), and it will enhance our nation's energy security by diversifying our electricity portfolio as wind energy is an indigenous energy source with stable prices not subject to fuel volatility. According to the report, increasing our nation's wind generation could also boost local rural economies and contribute to significant growth in manufacturing and the industry supply chain. Rural economies will benefit from a substantial increase in land use payments, tax benefits and the number of well-paying jobs created by the wind energy manufacturing, construction, and maintenance industries. Although the initial capital costs of implementing the 20% wind scenario would be higher than other generation sources, according to the report, wind energy offers lower ongoing energy costs than conventional generation power plants for operations, maintenance, and fuel. The 20% scenario could require an incremental investment of as little as $43 billion (net present value) more than a base-case no new wind scenario. This would represent less than 0.06 cent (6 one-hundredths of 1 cent) per kilowatt-hour of total generation by 2030, or roughly 50 cents per month per household. The report concludes that while achieving the 20% wind scenario is technically achievable, it will require enhanced transmission infrastructure, streamlined siting and permitting regimes, improved reliability and operability of wind systems, and increased U.S. wind manufacturing capacity. To meet these challenges, the DOE Wind Energy Program will continue to work with industry partners to increase wind energy system reliability and operability and improve manufacturing processes. The program also conducts research to address transmission and grid integration issues, to better understand wind resources, to mitigate siting and environmental issues, to provide information to industry stakeholders and policy makers, and to educate the future generations.

Not Available

2008-05-01

147

On Equatorial Pacific Surface Wind Changes around 1977: NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis versus COADS Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note compares equatorial Pacific surface wind changes around 1977 in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) observations. Significant discrepancies are found in wind changes over the equatorial central and eastern Pacific. In the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, the easterlies weakened over the eastern equatorial Pacific, while the southerlies strengthened over the north equatorial central Pacific. As a

Renguang Wu; Shang-Ping Xie

2003-01-01

148

Tangential discontinuities in the solar wind - Correlated field and velocity changes and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional Helios plasma and field data are used to investigate the relative changes in direction of the velocity and magnetic field vectors across tangential discontinuities (TDs) in the solar wind at solar distances of 0.29-0.50 AU. It is found for TDs with large Delta-v and (Delta-B)/B that Delta-v and Delta-B are closely aligned with each other, in agreement with the unexpected results of previous studies of TDs observed at 1 AU and beyond. It is shown that this effect probably results from the destruction by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of TDs for which Delta-v and Delta-B are not aligned. The observed decrease in the number of interplanetary discontinuities with increasing solar distance may be associated with the growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with decreasing Alfven speed.

Neugebauer, M.; Alexander, C. J.; Schwenn, R.; Richter, A. K.

1986-01-01

149

[Impact of changes in the environment on vector-transmitted diseases].  

PubMed

We have defined the relationship between infectious diseases and environmental conditions and considered the development of this relationship to its current situation, where human intervention is occurring more often and is becoming more aggressive. The increase in the transport of freight and passengers by air has allowed parasite vectors to spread quickly and easily over large distances. Every country can now be reached from any other country within a couple of days. Usually, foreign species are unable to establish themselves and to persist in the new environment; but the recent arrival of Aedes albopictus in Albania, Italy and the Americas is a cause for concern. Demographic pressure has increased the need for land and the exploitation of new areas leads to large changes in the vegetation. The classic example of this man-made damage is the destruction of tropical forest in Western Africa, but the destruction of herbaceous vegetation, such as papyrus, in East Africa, could also have serious epidemiological consequences. Streams and rivers have been managed for power production and irrigation. The use of dams, both large and small, and the culture of rice in paddy-fields produces large expanses of water which are suitable breeding grounds for mosquitoes and snails, the vectors of human diseases such as malaria and schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. They are, however, of lesser importance in Asia and the Americas. Urbanization imposes a set of very similar structures on a specific rural environment. The effect of these two factors on each other determines the pathologies associated with each town. The suburban area is a specific environment where both urban and rural diseases occur and are made worse by poor hygiene conditions (waste, sewage, etc.). However, not all man-made changes to the environment cause a deterioration in public health. Urban and agricultural development projects must consider these issues and should use medical and environmental studies to avoid causing epidemic-prone conditions or spreading endemic diseases. Currently, most studies are limited to listing the specific diseases in the target area and very few attempt to assess the possible consequences of changing the environment. Forecasting the consequences of changes in environmental management is of great importance, but it requires the development of multi-disciplinary teams in the field who must be involved in the planning and implementation of the projects. PMID:9410453

Mouchet, J; Carnevale, P

1997-01-01

150

Cytoplasmic pH dynamics in maize pulvinal cells induced by gravity vector changes.  

PubMed

In maize (Zea mays) and other grasses, changes in orientation of stems are perceived by pulvinal tissue, which responds to the stimulus by differential growth resulting in upward bending of the stem. The amyloplast-containing bundle sheath cells are the sites of gravity perception, although the initial steps of gravity perception and transmission remain unclear. In columella cells of Arabidopsis roots, we previously found that cytoplasmic pH (pH(c)) is a mediator in early gravitropic signaling (A.C. Scott, N.S. Allen [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1291-1298). The question arises whether pH(c) has a more general role in signaling gravity vector changes. Using confocal ratiometric imaging and the fluorescent pH indicator carboxy seminaphtorhodafluor acetoxymethyl ester acetate, we measured pH(c) in the cells composing the maize pulvinus. When stem slices were gravistimulated and imaged on a horizontally mounted confocal microscope, pH(c) changes were only apparent within the bundle sheath cells, and not in the parenchyma cells. After turning, cytoplasmic acidification was observed at the sides of the cells, whereas the cytoplasm at the base of the cells where plastids slowly accumulated became more basic. These changes were most apparent in cells exhibiting net amyloplast sedimentation. Parenchyma cells and isolated bundle sheath cells did not show any gravity-induced pH(c) changes although all cell types responded to external stimuli in the predicted way: Propionic acid and auxin treatments induced acidification, whereas raising the external pH caused alkalinization. The results suggest that pH(c) has an important role in the early signaling pathways of maize stem gravitropism. PMID:11553740

Johannes, E; Collings, D A; Rink, J C; Allen, N S

2001-09-01

151

Cytoplasmic pH dynamics in maize pulvinal cells induced by gravity vector changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In maize (Zea mays) and other grasses, changes in orientation of stems are perceived by pulvinal tissue, which responds to the stimulus by differential growth resulting in upward bending of the stem. The amyloplast-containing bundle sheath cells are the sites of gravity perception, although the initial steps of gravity perception and transmission remain unclear. In columella cells of Arabidopsis roots, we previously found that cytoplasmic pH (pH(c)) is a mediator in early gravitropic signaling (A.C. Scott, N.S. Allen [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1291-1298). The question arises whether pH(c) has a more general role in signaling gravity vector changes. Using confocal ratiometric imaging and the fluorescent pH indicator carboxy seminaphtorhodafluor acetoxymethyl ester acetate, we measured pH(c) in the cells composing the maize pulvinus. When stem slices were gravistimulated and imaged on a horizontally mounted confocal microscope, pH(c) changes were only apparent within the bundle sheath cells, and not in the parenchyma cells. After turning, cytoplasmic acidification was observed at the sides of the cells, whereas the cytoplasm at the base of the cells where plastids slowly accumulated became more basic. These changes were most apparent in cells exhibiting net amyloplast sedimentation. Parenchyma cells and isolated bundle sheath cells did not show any gravity-induced pH(c) changes although all cell types responded to external stimuli in the predicted way: Propionic acid and auxin treatments induced acidification, whereas raising the external pH caused alkalinization. The results suggest that pH(c) has an important role in the early signaling pathways of maize stem gravitropism.

Johannes, E.; Collings, D. A.; Rink, J. C.; Allen, N. S.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

2001-01-01

152

Cytoplasmic pH Dynamics in Maize Pulvinal Cells Induced by Gravity Vector Changes1[w  

PubMed Central

In maize (Zea mays) and other grasses, changes in orientation of stems are perceived by pulvinal tissue, which responds to the stimulus by differential growth resulting in upward bending of the stem. The amyloplast-containing bundle sheath cells are the sites of gravity perception, although the initial steps of gravity perception and transmission remain unclear. In columella cells of Arabidopsis roots, we previously found that cytoplasmic pH (pHc) is a mediator in early gravitropic signaling (A.C. Scott, N.S. Allen [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1291–1298). The question arises whether pHc has a more general role in signaling gravity vector changes. Using confocal ratiometric imaging and the fluorescent pH indicator carboxy seminaphtorhodafluor acetoxymethyl ester acetate, we measured pHc in the cells composing the maize pulvinus. When stem slices were gravistimulated and imaged on a horizontally mounted confocal microscope, pHc changes were only apparent within the bundle sheath cells, and not in the parenchyma cells. After turning, cytoplasmic acidification was observed at the sides of the cells, whereas the cytoplasm at the base of the cells where plastids slowly accumulated became more basic. These changes were most apparent in cells exhibiting net amyloplast sedimentation. Parenchyma cells and isolated bundle sheath cells did not show any gravity-induced pHc changes although all cell types responded to external stimuli in the predicted way: Propionic acid and auxin treatments induced acidification, whereas raising the external pH caused alkalinization. The results suggest that pHc has an important role in the early signaling pathways of maize stem gravitropism.

Johannes, Eva; Collings, David A.; Rink, Jochen C.; Allen, Nina Stromgren

2001-01-01

153

Preliminary Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on the UK Onshore Wind Energy Resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind power is currently the fastest growing renewable technology and will play a significant role in constraining the extent of climate change. However, the very fact that its ‘fuel source’ is driven by the climate may leave it exposed as climate changes over the coming decades. In this preliminary assessment, the potential for changes in climate to affect the significant

Gareth P. Harrison; Lucy C. Cradden; John P. Chick

2008-01-01

154

Perspective—riding the wind: managing new product development in an age of change  

Microsoft Academic Search

New product development (NPD) has never been more challenging or rewarding than it is today. With the dawning of the new millennium, new product developers now find themselves in an “age of change,” the likes of which the world has never known. The rate of change is numbing, if not stupefying for many business people. With the winds of change

Chuck Tomkovick; Christopher Miller

2000-01-01

155

Changes in wind speed and extremes in Beijing during 1960-2008 based on homogenized observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily observations of wind speed at 12 stations in the Greater Beijing Area during 1960-2008 were homogenized using the Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization method. The linear trends in the regional mean annual and seasonal (winter, spring, summer and autumn) wind speed series were -0.26, -0.39, -0.30, -0.12 and -0.22 m s-1 (10 yr)-1, respectively. Winter showed the greatest magnitude in declining wind speed, followed by spring, autumn and summer. The annual and seasonal frequencies of wind speed extremes (days) also decreased, more prominently for winter than for the other seasons. The declining trends in wind speed and extremes were formed mainly by some rapid declines during the 1970s and 1980s. The maximum declining trend in wind speed occurred at Chaoyang (CY), a station within the central business district (CBD) of Beijing with the highest level of urbanization. The declining trends were in general smaller in magnitude away from the city center, except for the winter case in which the maximum declining trend shifted northeastward to rural Miyun (MY). The influence of urbanization on the annual wind speed was estimated to be about -0.05 m s-1 (10 yr)-1 during 1960-2008, accounting for around one fifth of the regional mean declining trend. The annual and seasonal geostrophic wind speeds around Beijing, based on daily mean sea level pressure (MSLP) from the ERA-40 reanalysis dataset, also exhibited decreasing trends, coincident with the results from site observations. A comparative analysis of the MSLP fields between 1966-1975 and 1992-2001 suggested that the influences of both the winter and summer monsoons on Beijing were weaker in the more recent of the two decades. It is suggested that the bulk of wind in Beijing is influenced considerably by urbanization, while changes in strong winds or wind speed extremes are prone to large-scale climate change in the region.

Li, Zhen; Yan, Zhongwei; Tu, Kai; Liu, Weidong; Wang, Yingchun

2011-03-01

156

Wind transport near the poles of Mars: Timescales of changes in deposition and erosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Movement of sediment into and out of polar deposits is closely linked to the polar volatile budget and to changes in wind systems over the course of astronomically induced climate cycles. The present observations of the morphology of polar layered deposits, mantling sediments, dune fields, and variable surface features are the basis of inferences on the efficacy of polar sediment transport mechanisms. The time scales of formation of these features vary from days to perhaps 10(exp 6) yr, and latitudinal banding of dune fields near the poles may have been formed on timescales of 10(exp 7) yr. Orientations of intracrater dunes, dune crests, and wind streaks have been measured for latitudes -45 to -90 to compare features of likely different timescales of formation with models of wind flow from the south polar region. There is a complex variation with latitude of the indicated wind directions and of the efficacy of the resultant winds in orienting dune fields that suggests influence of frost cover on the ability of winds to move sediment in the spring and fall. Because of changes in the relative effectiveness of spring and fall winds expected with progression of the season of perihelion, the latitudinal variation in transport efficiency may mean that sediments at different latitudes dominantly respond to wind erosion and transport at different times during the perihelion cycle.

Thomas, Peter C.

1992-01-01

157

Climate Change, Vector-borne Disease and Interdisciplinary Research: Social Science Perspectives on an Environment and Health Controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, the science of climate change’s theoretical impacts on vector-borne disease has generated controversy\\u000a related to its methodological validity and relevance to disease control policy. Critical social science analysis, drawing\\u000a on science and technology studies and the sociology of social movements, demonstrates consistency between this controversy\\u000a and the theory that climate change is serving as a

Ben W. Brisbois; S. Harris Ali

158

Multispectral MRI segmentation of age related white matter changes using a cascade of support vector machines.  

PubMed

White matter changes (WMC) are the focus of intensive research and have been linked to cognitive impairment and depression in the elderly. Cumbersome manual outlining procedures make research on WMC labor intensive and prone to subjective bias. We present a fast, fully automated method for WMC segmentation using a cascade of reduced support vector machines (SVMs) with active learning. Data of 102 subjects was used in this study. Two MRI sequences (T1-weighted and FLAIR) and masks of manually outlined WMC from each subject were used for the image analysis. The segmentation framework comprises pre-processing, classification (training and core segmentation) and post-processing. After pre-processing, the model was trained on two subjects and tested on the remaining 100 subjects. The effectiveness and robustness of the classification was assessed using the receiver operating curve technique. The cascade of SVMs segmentation framework outputted accurate results with high sensitivity (90%) and specificity (99.5%) values, with the manually outlined WMC as reference. An algorithm for the segmentation of WMC is proposed. This is a completely competitive and fast automatic segmentation framework, capable of using different input sequences, without changes or restrictions of the image analysis algorithm. PMID:22921728

Damangir, Soheil; Manzouri, Amirhossein; Oppedal, Ketil; Carlsson, Stefan; Firbank, Michael J; Sonnesyn, Hogne; Tysnes, Ole-Bjørn; O'Brien, John T; Beyer, Mona K; Westman, Eric; Aarsland, Dag; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Spulber, Gabriela

2012-11-15

159

Widespread land surface wind decline in the Northern Hemisphere partly attributed to land surface changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decline of surface wind observed in many regions of the world is a potential source of concern for wind power electricity generation. It is also suggested as the main cause of decreasing pan evaporation. In China, a persistent and significant decrease of monsoon winds was observed in all seasons. Surface wind declines were also evidenced in several regions of the world (U.S., Australia, several European countries). Except over China, no clear explanation was given for the wind decrease in the regions studied. Whether surface winds decrease is due to changes in the global atmospheric circulation or its variability, in surface processes or to observational trends has therefore not been elucidated. The identification of the drivers of such a decline requires a global investigation of available surface and upper-air wind data, which has not been conducted so far. Here we use global datasets of in-situ wind measurements that contain surface weather stations wind data (hourly or three-hourly data acquisition time step) and rawinsonde vertical wind data profiles (monthly time step) prepared by the NCAR. A set of 822 worldwide surface stations with continuous wind records was selected after a careful elimination of stations with obvious breaks and large gaps. This dataset mostly covers the Northern mid latitudes over the period 1979-2008. Using this data set, we found that annual mean wind speeds have declined at 73% of the surface stations over the past 30 years. In the Northern Hemisphere, positive wind trends are found only in a few places. In Europe, Central Asia, Eastern Asia and in North America the annual mean surface wind speed has decreased on average at a rate of -2.9, -5.9, -4.2, and -1.8 %/decade respectively, i.e. a decrease of about 10% in 30 years and up to about 20% in Central Asia. These results are robust to changes in the station selection method and parameters. By contrast, upper-air winds observed from rawinsondes, geostrophic winds deduced from pressure gradients, and modeled winds from weather re-analyses do not exhibit any comparable stilling trends than at surface stations. For instance, large-scale circulation changes captured in the most recent European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast re-analysis (ERA-interim) can only explain only up to 10-50% of the wind stilling, depending on the region. In addition, a significant amount of the slow-down could originate from a generalized increase in surface roughness, due for instance to forest growth and expansion, and urbanization. This hypothesis, which could explain up to 60% of the decline, is supported by remote sensing observations and theoretical calculations combined with meso-scale model simulations. For future wind power energy resource, the part of wind decline due to land cover changes is easier to cope with than that due to global atmospheric circulation slow down.

Thepaut, J.; Vautard, R.; Cattiaux, J.; Yiou, P.; Ciais, P.

2010-12-01

160

Zoom in at African country level: potential climate induced changes in areas of suitability for survival of malaria vectors  

PubMed Central

Background Predicting anopheles vectors’ population densities and boundary shifts is crucial in preparing for malaria risks and unanticipated outbreaks. Although shifts in the distribution and boundaries of the major malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis) across Africa have been predicted, quantified areas of absolute change in zone of suitability for their survival have not been defined. In this study, we have quantified areas of absolute change conducive for the establishment and survival of these vectors, per African country, under two climate change scenarios and based on our findings, highlight practical measures for effective malaria control in the face of changing climatic patterns. Methods We developed a model using CLIMEX simulation platform to estimate the potential geographical distribution and seasonal abundance of these malaria vectors in relation to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity). The model yielded an eco-climatic index (EI) describing the total favourable geographical locations for the species. The EI values were classified and exported to a GIS package. Using ArcGIS, the EI shape points were clipped to the extent of Africa and then converted to a raster layer using Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method. Generated maps were then transformed into polygon-based geo-referenced data set and their areas computed and expressed in square kilometers (km2). Results Five classes of EI were derived indicating the level of survivorship of these malaria vectors. The proportion of areas increasing or decreasing in level of survival of these malaria vectors will be more pronounced in eastern and southern African countries than those in western Africa. Angola, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, South Africa and Zambia appear most likely to be affected in terms of absolute change of malaria vectors suitability zones under the selected climate change scenarios. Conclusion The potential shifts of these malaria vectors have implications for human exposure to malaria, as recrudescence of the disease is likely to be recorded in several new areas and regions. Therefore, the need to develop, compile and share malaria preventive measures, which can be adapted to different climatic scenarios, remains crucial.

2014-01-01

161

Evaluation of High-Resolution Ocean Surface Vector Winds Measured by QuikSCAT Scatterometer in Coastal Regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SeaWinds scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT covers approximately 90% of the global ocean under clear and cloudy condition in 24 h, and the standard data product has 25-km spatial resolution. Such spatial resolution is not sufficient to resolve small-scale processes, especially in coastal oceans. Based on range-compressed normalized backscatter and a modified wind retrieval algorithm, a coastal wind dataset at 12.5-km resolution was produced. Even with larger error, the high-resolution winds, in medium to high strength, would still be useful over coastal ocean. Using measurements from moored buoys from the National Buoy Data Center, the high-resolution QuikSCAT wind data are found to have similar accuracy as standard data in the open ocean. The accuracy of both high- and standard-resolution winds, particularly in wind directions, is found to degrade near shore. The increase in error is likely caused by the inadequacy of the geophysical model function/ambiguity removal scheme in addressing coastal conditions and light winds situations. The modified algorithm helps to bring the directional accuracy of the high-resolution winds to the accuracy of the standard-resolution winds in near-shore regions, particularly in the nadir and far zones across the satellite track.

Tang, Wenqing; Liu, W. Timothy; Stiles, Bryan W.

2004-01-01

162

An appraisal of the full geomagnetic vector in wind-blown sediments - does it have a future? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in the relative paleointensity (RPI) studies of the loess and paleosol deposits of China demonstrate the applicability of the technique in some sections. The PRI record of the Lingtai section (Pan et al., 2001) is mostly comparable to the reference curves of Valet et al. (2005) and Channel et al. (2009). Climate driven chemical alterations of remnant magnetization signal is additionally suggested as an explanation to the intervals of dissimilarities. The newest results of Yang et al. (2012) reveal more complex situations. At the Baoji section, where pedogenesis is relatively weak, the RPI results might possibly suggest a reflection of global paleointensity variations. The record from the Xifeng section, where pedogenesis is stronger, does not reveal any interpretable results. Studies of the Luochuan section suggest that chemical remnant magnetization is strongly linked to the pedogenesis process implying serious constrains on the interpretation of the high resolution paleomagnetic records from the paleosol and the underlying loess intervals (Liu and Zhang, 2013). At the same time, recent paleomagnetic and mineral magnetic investigations indicate that the Alaskan loess is an excellent geomagnetic direction recorder in the upper Matuyama and Brunhes epoch (Evans et al., 2011). The fine structure of the geomagnetic field can be accurately evaluated for the intervals, which are reliably dated with modern techniques (Jensen, 2013). The strong magnetic signal carried by magnetite from the igneous rock sources overwrites complexities caused by the pedogenesis process, therefore our newly obtained Alaskan geomagnetic record is the first candidate for both reliable paleointensity data set from the wind-blown sediments and the fine structure of the full geoomagnetic vector (inclination, declination, RPI). High resolution geochronology and high latitude position of the Alaskan loess help resolving the fine features of the geomagnetic excursions which are present in the record. Example of the Alaska loess magnetic record (Gold Hill section) to illustrate the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary interval. Lithological column darker layers represent soils. Inclination, declination, normalized RPI parameters are compared to SINT-2000 (Valet et al., 2005). Inclination and declination are from Evans et al. (2011); lithological column is from Jensen et al. (2011).

Kravchinsky, V. A.

2013-12-01

163

Supervised Change Detection in VHR Images Using Support Vector Machines and Contextual Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the recent challenges in environmental studies is how to include and exploit multitemporal information from multispectral very high resolution (VHR) images. This problem is also known as change detection (CD). Nowadays, many approaches, both supervised and unsupervised, are known and the selection of the method depends strongly on the application, the scope of the study and on available time. In the present research an accurate multiclass supervised method based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) for multitemporal remotely sensed image classification is proposed. SVM is a method issued from the statistical learning theory, known for its good generalization abilities and its performance when dealing with high dimensional spaces. Moreover, its sparse solution provides a final model depending only on a few patterns with an associated nonzero weights (support vectors), and resulting in an optimal regularized complexity. The final decision is obtained with a linear separation of data in an induced kernel feature space, corresponding to a nonlinear classification in the input space. When dealing with CD in VHR imagery, misclassified patterns are often caused by the high variance of the information at pixel level, caused by noise and by the influence of the high spatial resolution. Considering a precise coregistration, the variance at object level is high both in space and in time. The usefulness of adding such information is in smoothing, following an object based or a texture based criteria, the interclass variance and increasing the intraclass variance. By adding such information the classifier can better perform when predicting the class of pixels, because of the neighborhood information that was intrinsically extrapolated by the filtering. In the proposed approach, the behavior of mathematical morphology and morphological profiles obtained with different parameters are studied in a CD setting. The series of features are extracted both on the multispectral images and on the panchromatic images covering the scene at different time. Finally, the model is developed by directly applying multitemporal classification on the multitemporal image, looking for both stable and changed classes. Accurate multiclass CD with VHR optical imagery is a very powerful tool when analyzing city sprawl evolution and urbanization regimes, or when the resolution of the images allows a fine analysis of a multitemporal phenomenon (natural hazards, post catastrophe assessment, risk maps…). The real case study deals with a multitemporal image issued from two QuickBird scenes of the city of Zurich, Switzerland. This work is supported by the SNFS Project No. 200021-126505 "KernelCD".

Volpi, Michele; Kanevski, Mikhail

2010-05-01

164

Application of Automatic Method to Estimating High-Level Cloud Motion Wind in Operational System and the Characteristics of the Resultant Wind Vectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to apply the automatic method for calculating the high-level cloud motion winds to the operational system at the Meteorological Satellite Center (MSC), the improvement of the algorithm for calculating the high-level wind was carried out, and the ...

T. Ohshima

1988-01-01

165

Downscaling of precipitation for climate change scenarios: A support vector machine approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe Climate impact studies in hydrology often rely on climate change information at fine spatial resolution. However, general circulation models (GCMs), which are among the most advanced tools for estimating future climate change scenarios, operate on a coarse scale. Therefore the output from a GCM has to be downscaled to obtain the information relevant to hydrologic studies. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach is proposed for statistical downscaling of precipitation at monthly time scale. The effectiveness of this approach is illustrated through its application to meteorological sub-divisions (MSDs) in India. First, climate variables affecting spatio-temporal variation of precipitation at each MSD in India are identified. Following this, the data pertaining to the identified climate variables (predictors) at each MSD are classified using cluster analysis to form two groups, representing wet and dry seasons. For each MSD, SVM- based downscaling model (DM) is developed for season(s) with significant rainfall using principal components extracted from the predictors as input and the contemporaneous precipitation observed at the MSD as an output. The proposed DM is shown to be superior to conventional downscaling using multi-layer back-propagation artificial neural networks. Subsequently, the SVM-based DM is applied to future climate predictions from the second generation Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM2) to obtain future projections of precipitation for the MSDs. The results are then analyzed to assess the impact of climate change on precipitation over India. It is shown that SVMs provide a promising alternative to conventional artificial neural networks for statistical downscaling, and are suitable for conducting climate impact studies.

Tripathi, Shivam; Srinivas, V. V.; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

2006-11-01

166

Mars Pathfinder Landing Site: Evidence for a Change in Wind Regime from Lander and Orbiter Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface features related to the wind are observed in the vicinity of the Mars Pathfinder (MPR landing site data from the lander and in data from orbit by the Viking Orbiter and Mars Global Surveyor missions. Features seen from the surface include wind tails associated with small rocks, barchanoid duneforms, ripplelike patterns, and ventifact flutes cut into some rocks. Features seen from orbit include wind tails associated with impact craters, ridges inferred to be duneforms, and modified crater rims interpreted to have been eroded and mantled by windblown material. The orientations of these features show two prevailing directions. One is inferred to represent winds from the northeast, which is consistent with strongest winds predicted by a general circulation model to occur during the Martian northern winter under current conditions. A second wind blowing from the ESE was responsible for modifying the crater rims and cutting some of the ventifacts. The two wind regimes could reflect a change in climate related to Mars' obliquity or some other, unknown factor. Regardless of the cause, the MPF area has been subjected to a complex pattern of winds and supply of small particles, and the original surface formed by sedimentary processes from Tiu and Ares Vallis flooding events has been modified by repeated burial and exhumation.

Greeley, Ronald; Kraft, Michael D.; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Bridges, Nathan T.

2000-01-01

167

Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Expert opinion was elicited to undertake a qualitative risk assessment to estimate the current and future risks to the European Union (EU) from five vector-borne viruses listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. It was predicted that climate change will increase the risk of incursions of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Rift

A. B R O UW; V. R AMNIAL; L. KELLY; R. K O S M ID

168

Evaluation of high-resolution ocean surface vector winds measured by QuikSCAT scatterometer in coastal regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SeaWinds scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT covers approximately 90% of the global ocean under clear and cloudy condition in 24 h, and the standard data product has 25-km spatial resolution. Such spatial resolution is not sufficient to resolve small-scale processes, especially in coastal oceans. Based on range-compressed normalized backscatter and a modified wind retrieval algorithm, a coastal wind dataset at 12.5-km

Wenqing Tang; W. Timothy Liu; Bryan W. Stiles

2004-01-01

169

Changes in the abundance and distribution of upland breeding birds at an operational wind farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule No evidence for sustained declines in abundance or re?distribution of two key upland bird species on a wind farm site in the first three years of operation.Aims To describe changes in the abundance and distribution of birds on an upland wind farm during the first three years of operation.Methods Surveys to map the distribution of breeding birds were conducted

David J. T. Douglas; Paul E. Bellamy

2011-01-01

170

Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind Changes during the Last Glacial Maximum: Paleo-data Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the strength and position of Southern Hemisphere westerly winds during the last glacial cycle have been invoked to explain glacial-interglacial climate fluctuations. However, neither paleo models nor paleodata agree on the magnitude, or even the sign, of the change in wind strength and latitude during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), compared to the recent past. This study synthesizes paleo-environmental data that have been used to infer changes in winds during the LGM compared with the late Holocene. These compilations include changes in terrestrial moisture, dust deposition, and ocean productivity, along with summaries of previously published information on sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and ocean dynamics in the Southern Hemisphere. Our compilations of terrestrial moisture from 94 sites and dust deposition from 87 sites show generally drier conditions for the LGM between 0 and 40°S, with wetter conditions along the west coasts and drying along the east coasts of continents. LGM dust deposition rates ranged from 2 to 4.5 times higher over the Southern Ocean and about 13 times higher over the Antarctic continent. For the oceans, reconstructed changes in SSTs show maximum cooling (>4°C) in the modern-day Subantarctic Zone, coincident with a region of enhanced export production during the LGM compared with today. We find that any hypothesis of LGM wind and climate change needs to provide a plausible explanation for increased moisture on the west coast of continents, cooler temperatures and higher productivity in the Subantarctic Zone, and reductions in Agulhas leakage around southern Africa. Our comparison suggests that an overall strengthening, an equatorward displacement, or no change at all in winds could all be interpreted as consistent with observations. If a single cause related to the southern westerlies is sought for all the evidence presented, then an equatorward displacement or strengthening of the winds would be consistent with the largest proportion of the data evidence. However, other processes, such as weakening or poleward shifts in winds, a weakened hydrological cycle, extended sea-ice cover, and changed buoyancy fluxes, cannot be ruled out as potential explanations of observed changes in moisture, surface temperature, and productivity. We contend that resolving the position and strength of westerly winds during the LGM remains elusive based on data reconstructions alone. However, we believe that these data reconstructions of environmental conditions can be used in conjunction with model simulations to identify which processes best represent westerly wind conditions during the LGM.

Kohfeld, Karen; Graham, Robert; De Boer, Agatha; Sime, Louise; Wolff, Eric; Le Quéré, Corinne; Bopp, Laurent

2013-04-01

171

Improving the textural characterization of trabecular bone structure to quantify its changes: the locally adapted scaling vector method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the recently introduced scaling vector method (SVM) to improve the textural characterization of oriented trabecular bone structures in the context of osteoporosis. Using the concept of scaling vectors one obtains non-linear structural information from data sets, which can account for global anisotropies. In this work we present a method which allows us to determine the local directionalities in images by using scaling vectors. Thus it becomes possible to better account for local anisotropies and to implement this knowledge in the calculation of the scaling properties of the image. By applying this adaptive technique, a refined quantification of the image structure is possible: we test and evaluate our new method using realistic two-dimensional simulations of bone structures, which model the effect of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the local change of relative bone density. The partial differential equations involved in the model are solved numerically using cellular automata (CA). Different realizations with slightly varying control parameters are considered. Our results show that even small changes in the trabecular structures, which are induced by variation of a control parameters of the system, become discernible by applying the locally adapted scaling vector method. The results are superior to those obtained by isotropic and/or bulk measures. These findings may be especially important for monitoring the treatment of patients, where the early recognition of (drug-induced) changes in the trabecular structure is crucial.

Raeth, Christoph W.; Mueller, Dirk; Boehm, Holger F.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Link, Thomas M.; Monetti, Roberto

2005-04-01

172

Changes in monthly values of ocean surface winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected from ships, remote-sensing satellites, and numerical re-analysis indicate that on average the wind speed at the ocean surface has increased in recent decades. The magnitude of reported trends vary in different studies based on dataset, data coverage, and method used. Observations of the ocean surface by satellites, namely altimeter and SSM/I, provide a reasonable long dataset with global coverage. This well calibrated and validated dataset is analysed for linear trends for regional mean time series and mean time series for each calendar month over the period of 1991-2008. The data indicate that the observed global trend is not uniformly distributed and can be linked to a signi_cant uptrend in regional average time series across equatorial regions and the Southern Ocean. When analysing trends for each calendar month, only the Southern Ocean showed a consistent increase in surface winds for at least three continuous months. Although altimeter trends are consistently stronger than trends from SSM/I, this study shows that when normalised by the global average the two datasets feature similar characteristics. For example, trends form regional average time series are typically 1.3-2.0 times the global average trend. Differences exist when looking at absolute trend estimates and therefore the true trend at the near surface remains inconclusive for some regions. The data also showed that in the month of May, one of largest uptrend was found across the North Indian Ocean which may indicate a shift in onset time of the monsoon season.

Zieger, Stefan; Babanin, Alexander; Young, Ian

2013-04-01

173

Winds of Change: How Black Holes May Shape Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provide evidence for powerful winds blowing away from the vicinity of a supermassive black hole in a nearby galaxy. This discovery indicates that "average" supermassive black holes may play an important role in the evolution of the galaxies in which they reside. For years, astronomers have known that a supermassive black hole grows in parallel with its host galaxy. And, it has long been suspected that material blown away from a black hole - as opposed to the fraction of material that falls into it -- alters the evolution of its host galaxy. A key question is whether such "black hole blowback" typically delivers enough power to have a significant impact. Powerful relativistic jets shot away from the biggest supermassive black holes in large, central galaxies in clusters like Perseus are seen to shape their host galaxies, but these are rare. What about less powerful, less focused galaxy-scale winds that should be much more common? "We're more interested here in seeing what an "average"-sized supermassive black hole can do to its galaxy, not the few, really big ones in the biggest galaxies," said Dan Evans of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who presented these results at the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society meeting in Kona, Hawaii. Evans and his colleagues used Chandra for five days to observe NGC 1068, one of the nearest and brightest galaxies containing a rapidly growing supermassive black hole. This black hole is only about twice as massive as the one in the center of our Galaxy, which is considered to be a rather ordinary size. The X-ray images and spectra obtained using Chandra's High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) showed that a strong wind is being driven away from the center of NGC 1068 at a rate of about a million miles per hour. This wind is likely generated as surrounding gas is accelerated and heated as it swirls toward the black hole. A portion of the gas is pulled into the black hole, but some of it is blown away. High energy X-rays produced by the gas near the black hole heat the ouflowing gas, causing it to glow at lower X-ray energies. This Chandra study by Evans and his colleagues is much deeper than previous X-ray observations. It allowed them to make a high-definition map of the cone-shaped volume lit up by the black hole and its winds. By combining measurement of the velocity of the clouds with estimates of the density of the gas, Evans and his colleagues showed that each year several times the mass of the Sun is being deposited out to large distances, about 3,000 light years from the black hole. The wind may carry enough energy to heat the surrounding gas and suppress extra star formation. "We have shown that even these middle-of-the-road black holes can pack a punch," said Evans. "I think the upshot is that these black holes are anything but ordinary." Further Chandra HETGS studies of other nearby galaxies will examine the impact of other AGN outflows, leading to improvements in our understanding of the evolution of both galaxies and black holes. "In the future, our own Galaxy's black hole may undergo similar activity, helping to shut down the growth of new stars in the central region of the Milky Way," said Evans. These new results provide a key comparison to previous work performed at Georgia State University and the Catholic University of America with the Hubble Space Telescope's STIS instrument. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. More information, including images and other multimedia, can be found at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

2010-03-01

174

Estimated Effects of Projected Climate Change on the Basic Reproductive Number of the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes scapularis.  

PubMed

Background: The extent to which climate change may affect human health by increasing risk from vector-borne diseases has been under considerable debate.Objectives: We quantified potential effects of future climate change on the basic reproduction number (R0) of the tick vector of Lyme disease, Ixodes scapularis, and explored their importance for Lyme disease risk, and for vector-borne diseases in general.Methods: We applied observed temperature data for North America and projected temperatures using regional climate models to drive an I. scapularis population model to hindcast recent, and project future, effects of climate warming on R0. Modeled R0 increases were compared with R0 ranges for pathogens and parasites associated with variations in key ecological and epidemiological factors (obtained by literature review) to assess their epidemiological importance.Results: R0 for I. scapularis in North America increased during the years 1971-2010 in spatio-temporal patterns consistent with observations. Increased temperatures due to projected climate change increased R0 by factors (2-5 times in Canada and 1.5-2 times in the United States), comparable to observed ranges of R0 for pathogens and parasites due to variations in strains, geographic locations, epidemics, host and vector densities, and control efforts.Conclusions: Climate warming may have co-driven the emergence of Lyme disease in northeastern North America, and in the future may drive substantial disease spread into new geographic regions and increase tick-borne disease risk where climate is currently suitable. Our findings highlight the potential for climate change to have profound effects on vectors and vector-borne diseases, and the need to refocus efforts to understand these effects.Citation: Ogden NH, Radojevi? M, Wu X, Duvvuri VR, Leighton PA, Wu J. 2014. Estimated effects of projected climate change on the basic reproductive number of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis. Environ Health Perspect 122:631-638;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307799. PMID:24627295

Ogden, Nicholas H; Radojevic, Milka; Wu, Xiaotian; Duvvuri, Venkata R; Leighton, Patrick A; Wu, Jianhong

2014-06-01

175

In-flight performance and preliminary observational results of Solar Wind Ion Detectors (SWIDs) on Chang'E-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SWIDs (Solar Wind Ion Detectors, SWID-A and SWID-B) are two of the scientific instruments on Chang'E-1, the first Chinese lunar mission. SWIDs utilize top-hat electrostatic analyzer to measure the low energy (<20 keV/q) ion distribution of solar wind and the plasma environment around the Moon. SWIDs consist of two identical instruments with two perpendicular fan shaped field-of-views of 180°×6°. The preliminary observational results of SWIDs show that SWIDs were sufficient to measure the basic characteristics of the Moon-plasma interaction. A typical event about the Moon and solar wind interaction is discussed in this paper. Another new observational result near the Moon reported in this paper is the double proton beams coupled with a single alpha beam in solar wind. This is the first double ion beams event reported near the Moon. The double ion beams appeared having relatively anisotropic characteristics due to the interaction between solar wind and the Moon.

Kong, L. G.; Wang, S. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Zhang, A. B.; Zhu, G. W.; Yu, D. J.; Ren, Q. Y.; Reme, H.; Aoustin, C.; Zhang, X. G.; Feng, Y. B.; Zeng, L.

2012-03-01

176

Impact of land use change on wind erosion and dust emission: scenarios from the central US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There will be significant changes in land cover and land use throughout the central United States in the coming years, particularly due to changes in US rangeland/farm policy and an increasing exploitation of land-intensive sustainable energy sources. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of these land use and land cover changes to alter wind erosion and dust emission from these highly erodible lands. Two models were inter-calibrated and then applied to investigate the effects of these changes: the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) and the Wind Erosion MOdel (WEMO). WEPS was developed to evaluate the effects of different cropland management systems, whereas WEMO was designed to quantify differences in wind erosion in rangeland ecosystems. We find that conversion of rangelands, even when the soil surface was disturbed, are lower than those expected from conversion to any of the crop management systems evaluated. These results indicate that policy and economic forces that shape land use decision making can have impact on wind erosion and, importantly, emission of dust with local and regional consequences.

Tatarko, J.; Okin, G. S.; Herrick, J.; Li, J.

2010-12-01

177

Navigational Vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a high school instructional unit that features nine lessons relating to vectors. Users build understanding of vector properties as they learn airplane navigation. Problem-based learning activities include reading real-time weather maps, tracking airplanes flying in U.S. skies, calculating vector components, analyzing effects of wind velocity, and completing training similar to a private pilot certification program. The unit culminates with a pilot flight test. Participants also have access to help from experts at the Polaris Career Center. Comprehensive teacher guides, student guides , reference materials, and assessments are included. This resource was developed by the Center for Innovation in Science and Engineering Education (CIESE). Participation is cost-free with teacher registration.

2008-12-10

178

Spatial Orientation and Balance Control Changes Induced by Altered Gravito-Inertial Force Vectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventeen healthy and eight vestibular deficient subjects were exposed to an interaural centripetal acceleration of 1 G (resultant 45 deg roll tilt of 1.4 G) on a 0.8 meter radius centrifuge for a period of 90 minutes in the dark. The subjects sat with head fixed upright, except every 4 of 10 minutes when instructed to rotate their head so that their nose and eyes pointed towards a visual point switched on every 3 to 5 seconds at random places (within +/- 30 deg) in the Earth horizontal plane. Motion sickness caused some subjects to limit their head movements during significant portions of the 90 minute period, and led three normal subjects to stop the test earlier. Eye movements, including directed saccades for subjective Earth- and head-referenced planes, were recorded before, during, and immediately after centrifugation using electro-oculography. Postural stability measurements were made before and within ten minutes after centrifugation. In normal subjects, postural sway and multisegment body kinematics were gathered during an eyes-closed head movement cadence (sway-referenced support platform), and in response to translational/rotational platform perturbations. A significant increase in postural sway, segmental motion amplitude and hip frequency was observed after centrifugation. This effect was short-lived, with a recovery time of several postural test trials. There were also asymmetries in the direction of post-centrifugation center of sway and head tilt which depended on the subject's orientation during the centrifugation adaptation period (left ear or right ear out). To delineate the effect of the magnitude of the gravito-inertial vector versus its direction during the adaptive centrifugation period, we tilted eight normal subjects in the roll axis at a 45 deg angle in the dark for 90 minutes without rotational motion. Their postural responses did not change following the period of tilt. Based on verbal reports, normal subjects overestimated roll-tilt during 90 minutes of both tilt and centrifugation stimuli. Subjective estimates of head-horizontal, provided by directed saccades, revealed significant errors after approximately 30 minutes that tended to increase only in the group who underwent centrifugation. Immediately after centrifugation, subjects reported feeling tilted on average 10 degrees in the opposite direction, which was in agreement with the direction of their earth-directed saccades. In vestibular deficient (VD) subjects, postural sway was measured using a sway-referenced or earth-fixed support surface, and with or without a head movement sequence. 'Me protocol was selected for each patient during baseline testing, and corresponded to the most challenging condition in which the patient was able to maintain balance with eyes closed. Bilaterally VD subjects showed no postural decrement after centrifugation, while unilateral VD subjects had varying degrees of decrement. Unilateral VD subjects were tested twice; they underwent centrifugation both with right ear out and left ear out. Their post-centrifuation center of sway shifted at right angles depending on the centrifuge GIF orientation. Bilateral VD subjects bad shifts as well, but no consistent directional trend. VD subjects underestimated roll-tilt during centrifugation, These results suggest that orientation of the gravito-inertial vector and its magnitude arc both used by the central nervous system for calibration of multiple orientation systems. A change in the background gravito-inertial force (otolith input) can rapidly initiate postural and perceptual adaptation in several sensorimotor systems, independent of a structured visual surround.

Kaufman, Galen D.; Wood, Scott J.; Gianna, Claire C.; Black, F. Owen; Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

179

SeaWinds Scatterometer Wind Vector Retrievals Within Hurricanes Using AMSR and NEXRAD to Perform Corrections for Precipitation Effects: Comparison of AMSR and NEXRAD Retrievals of Rain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The opportunity provided by satellite scatterometers to measure ocean surface winds in strong storms and hurricanes is diminished by the errors in the received backscatter (SIGMA-0) caused by the attenuation, scattering and surface roughening produced by heavy rain. Providing a good rain correction is a very challenging problem, particularly at Ku band (13.4 GHz) where rain effects are strong. Corrections to the scatterometer measurements of ocean surface winds can be pursued with either of two different methods: empirical or physical modeling. The latter method is employed in this study because of the availability of near simultaneous and collocated measurements provided by the MIDORI-II suite of instruments. The AMSR was designed to measure atmospheric water-related parameters on a spatial scale comparable to the SeaWinds scatterometer. These quantities can be converted into volumetric attenuation and scattering at the Ku-band frequency of SeaWinds. Optimal estimates of the volume backscatter and attenuation require a knowledge of the three dimensional distribution of reflectivity on a scale comparable to that of the precipitation. Studies selected near the US coastline enable the much higher resolution NEXRAD reflectivity measurements evaluate the AMSR estimates. We are also conducting research into the effects of different beam geometries and nonuniform beamfilling of precipitation within the field-of-view of the AMSR and the scatterometer. Furthermore, both AMSR and NEXRAD estimates of atmospheric correction can be used to produce corrected SIGMA-0s, which are then input to the JPL wind retrieval algorithm.

Weissman, David E.; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla; Callahan, Philip

2006-01-01

180

Changes in the wind stress variation with the warm pool SST increase over the western Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Pacific warm pool is conventionally defined as an area where SST is higher than 28C. SST values exhibits a simple thermodynamic energy balance between evaporative heat loss and radiative energy input. Ocean dynamics in the warm-pool act on the eastward expansion of warm SST through equatorial wave-induced zonal advection, and it also plays a key role to maintain the warm-pool SST through the poleward Ekman transport at the surface layer. The strong east-west migration of the warm-pool in the equatorial western Pacific is closely linked to surface current variation driven by the ENSO-related surface winds. Anomalous easterly (westerly) trade winds force the thermocline depth. The trade winds also induce the Ekman upwelling associated the Coriolis effects, which brings the cold water to surface layer in the eastern Pacific. Recent studies have suggested that the warm-pool SST is increasing over the last century. Warmer SST may change surface winds, which in turn change ocean currents connecting the western tropical Pacific Ocean with the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. In this study, we examine long-term changes in the center of the wind stress with the SST increase in the warm-pool region for the period 1950-2011. The SSTs are obtained from the Hadley Centre SST dataset, ERSST (Extended Reconstructed SST v3b), SODA (Simple Ocean Data Assimilation, version 2.2.4) data set.

Lee, Yoon-Kyoung; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Kwon, MinHo; Moon, Byung-Kwon

2014-05-01

181

Histomorphometric analysis of the temporal bone after change of direction of force vector of mandible: an experimental study in rabbits  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study aimed at performing a histological evaluation of the response of temporal bone tissue to a change of direction of the force vector of the mandible in relation to the base of the skull. Material and methods Adult rabbits were assigned into four groups with two control and four experimental animals in each group. Experimental animals underwent surgery, which resulted in a change of direction of the force vector on the right temporomandibular joint. Samples were collected after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days for histological analysis. Results In the two-way analysis of variance, the effect of group and time was statistically significant (p<0.001). Additionally, a statistically significant interaction between group and time was observed (p<0.001). Control animals showed normal growth and development of the temporal region. In the experimental group, the change in direction of the force vector of the mandible induced significant changes in the temporal bone, with a bone modeling process, which suggests growth of this cranial structure. Conclusions The methodology used in this experiment allows us to conclude that the change in direction of the force vector of the mandible in relation to the skull base induces remodeling and modeling processes in the temporal bone. The resumption of normal oral functions after bone healing of the mandibular fracture appears to increase cell activation in the remodeling and modeling of the temporal bone structure. The observation of areas of temporal bone modeling shows the relevance of further investigation on the correlation between the joint structures and craniofacial growth and development.

PURICELLI, Edela; PONZONI, Deise; MUNARETTO, Jessica Cerioli; CORSETTI, Adriana; LEITE, Mauro Gomes Trein

2012-01-01

182

Characteristic Study of Vector-controlled Direct-driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator in Wind Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advance of power electronics, direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generators have drawn increased interest to wind turbine manufacturers due to its advantages over other variable-speed wind turbines. This article studies permanent magnet synchronous generator characteristics under the general d-q control strategy in the rotor-flux-oriented frame so as to benefit the development of advanced permanent magnet synchronous generator control technology.

Shuhui Li; Timothy A. Haskew; Eduard Muljadi; Cristina Serrentino

2009-01-01

183

An Ill Wind? Climate Change, Migration, and Health  

PubMed Central

Background: Climate change is projected to cause substantial increases in population movement in coming decades. Previous research has considered the likely causal influences and magnitude of such movements and the risks to national and international security. There has been little research on the consequences of climate-related migration and the health of people who move. Objectives: In this review, we explore the role that health impacts of climate change may play in population movements and then examine the health implications of three types of movements likely to be induced by climate change: forcible displacement by climate impacts, resettlement schemes, and migration as an adaptive response. Methods: This risk assessment draws on research into the health of refugees, migrants, and people in resettlement schemes as analogs of the likely health consequences of climate-related migration. Some account is taken of the possible modulation of those health risks by climate change. Discussion: Climate-change–related migration is likely to result in adverse health outcomes, both for displaced and for host populations, particularly in situations of forced migration. However, where migration and other mobility are used as adaptive strategies, health risks are likely to be minimized, and in some cases there will be health gains. Conclusions: Purposeful and timely policy interventions can facilitate the mobility of people, enhance well-being, and maximize social and economic development in both places of origin and places of destination. Nevertheless, the anticipated occurrence of substantial relocation of groups and communities will underscore the fundamental seriousness of human-induced climate change.

Barnett, Jon

2012-01-01

184

Wind River Changes Its Course: The St. Stephens Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes changes in instructional methods, in techniques of social grouping, and in teacher sensitivity to the cultural and experiential differences that the Shoshoni and Arapaho children bring to the classroom. All have increased attendance and achievement in this reservation school. (IRT)

Reilly, Robert T.

1980-01-01

185

Thrust Vectoring of a Continuous Rotating Detonation Engine by Changing the Local Injection Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thrust vectoring ability of a continuous rotating detonation engine is numerically investigated, which is realized via increasing local injection stagnation pressure of half of the simulation domain compared to the other half. Under the homogeneous injection condition, both the flow-field structure and the detonation wave propagation process are analyzed. Due to the same injection condition along the inlet boundary, the outlines of fresh gas zones at different moments are similar to each other. The main flow-field features under thrust vectoring cases are similar to that under the baseline condition. However, due to the heterogeneous injection system, both the height of the fresh gas zone and the pressure value of the fresh gas in the high injection pressure zone are larger than that in the low injection pressure zone. Thus the average pressure in half of the engine is larger than that in the other half and the thrust vectoring adjustment is realized.

Liu, Shi-Jie; Lin, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Ming-Bo; Liu, Wei-Dong

2011-09-01

186

Titan's rotation reveals an internal ocean and changing zonal winds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cassini radar observations of Saturn's moon Titan over several years show that its rotational period is changing and is different from its orbital period. The present-day rotation period difference from synchronous spin leads to a shift of ???0.36?? per year in apparent longitude and is consistent with seasonal exchange of angular momentum between the surface and Titan's dense superrotating atmosphere, but only if Titan's crust is decoupled from the core by an internal water ocean like that on Europa.

Lorenz, R. D.; Stiles, B. W.; Kirk, R. L.; Allison, M. D.; Del, Marmo, P. P.; Iess, L.; Lunine, J. I.; Ostro, S. J.; Hensley, S.

2008-01-01

187

Wind speed distribution changes with height at selected weather stations. [USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten-year records of hourly wind speed observations at 15 selected weather stations have been smoothed to correct for observer bias. Records were adjusted to a constant, final anemometer height over level airfield terrain at nine stations where the anemometer was moved during the period of record. The anemometer adjustment scheme is described for each location, since the anemometer exposure change

Reed

1978-01-01

188

Winds of Change: Charting the Course for IT in the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 2005, the author, the retiring president of EDUCAUSE, was asked to be the keynote speaker at the EDUCAUSE Western Regional Conference. The conference theme was "Winds of Change: Charting the Course for Technology in Challenging Times." What that brought to his mind was the era of the great sailing ships of the eighteenth and…

Hawkins, Brian L.

2007-01-01

189

Multipolar development of vector potential for parallel wires. Application to the study of eddy currents effects in transformer windings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method for solving two-dimensional electromagnetic problems is presented. First, the classical multipolar development is adapted to translation unvarying systems. Second, the link between imaginary parts of the complex Poynting vector and complex power is clarified. Then, using both extensions, a simple expression for complex power of any two-dimensional device is derived. To validate these methods, two devices subjected

J. P. Keradec; E. Laveuve; J. Roudet

1991-01-01

190

Climate change and the spread of vector-borne diseases: using approximate Bayesian computation to compare invasion scenarios for the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola in Italy.  

PubMed

Bluetongue (BT) is a commonly cited example of a disease with a distribution believed to have recently expanded in response to global warming. The BT virus is transmitted to ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, and it has been hypothesized that the emergence of BT in Mediterranean Europe during the last two decades is a consequence of the recent colonization of the region by Culicoides imicola and linked to climate change. To better understand the mechanism responsible for the northward spread of BT, we tested the hypothesis of a recent colonization of Italy by C. imicola, by obtaining samples from more than 60 localities across Italy, Corsica, Southern France, and Northern Africa (the hypothesized source point for the recent invasion of C. imicola), and by genotyping them with 10 newly identified microsatellite loci. The patterns of genetic variation within and among the sampled populations were characterized and used in a rigorous approximate Bayesian computation framework to compare three competing historical hypotheses related to the arrival and establishment of C. imicola in Italy. The hypothesis of an ancient presence of the insect vector was strongly favoured by this analysis, with an associated P ? 99%, suggesting that causes other than the northward range expansion of C. imicola may have supported the emergence of BT in southern Europe. Overall, this study illustrates the potential of molecular genetic markers for exploring the assumed link between climate change and the spread of diseases. PMID:23496796

Mardulyn, Patrick; Goffredo, Maria; Conte, Annamaria; Hendrickx, Guy; Meiswinkel, Rudolf; Balenghien, Thomas; Sghaier, Soufien; Lohr, Youssef; Gilbert, Marius

2013-05-01

191

Cardiac vectors in the healthy human fetus: developmental changes assessed by magnetocardiography and realistic approximations of the volume conductor  

PubMed Central

This study sought to characterize the developmental changes of three measures used to describe the morphology of the fetal cardiac vector: QRS peak-amplitude, QRS duration and QRS time-amplitude integral. To achieve this objective, we rely on a recently developed methodology for fetal cardiac vector estimation, using multichannel fetal magnetocardiographic (fMCG) recordings and realistic approximations of the volume conductors obtained from free-hand ultrasound imaging. Fetal magnetocardiographic recordings and 3D ultrasound images were obtained from 23 healthy, uncomplicated pregnancies for a total of 77 recordings performed at gestational ages between 22 weeks and 37 weeks. We report the developmental changes of the cardiac vector parameters with respect to gestational age and estimated fetal weight, as well as their dependence on the estimated ventricular mass derived from cardiac dimensions measured with M-mode ultrasound. The normative values can be used along with the cardiac time intervals reported by previous fMCG studies to assist future clinical studies investigating conditions that affect fetal cardiac function.

Tao, R; Popescu, EA; Drake, WB; Popescu, M

2014-01-01

192

Climate Change and Risk of Leishmaniasis in North America: Predictions from Ecological Niche Models of Vector and Reservoir Species  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is increasingly being implicated in species' range shifts throughout the world, including those of important vector and reservoir species for infectious diseases. In North America (México, United States, and Canada), leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is autochthonous in México and Texas and has begun to expand its range northward. Further expansion to the north may be facilitated by climate change as more habitat becomes suitable for vector and reservoir species for leishmaniasis. Methods and Findings The analysis began with the construction of ecological niche models using a maximum entropy algorithm for the distribution of two sand fly vector species (Lutzomyia anthophora and L. diabolica), three confirmed rodent reservoir species (Neotoma albigula, N. floridana, and N. micropus), and one potential rodent reservoir species (N. mexicana) for leishmaniasis in northern México and the United States. As input, these models used species' occurrence records with topographic and climatic parameters as explanatory variables. Models were tested for their ability to predict correctly both a specified fraction of occurrence points set aside for this purpose and occurrence points from an independently derived data set. These models were refined to obtain predicted species' geographical distributions under increasingly strict assumptions about the ability of a species to disperse to suitable habitat and to persist in it, as modulated by its ecological suitability. Models successful at predictions were fitted to the extreme A2 and relatively conservative B2 projected climate scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080 using publicly available interpolated climate data from the Third Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report. Further analyses included estimation of the projected human population that could potentially be exposed to leishmaniasis in 2020, 2050, and 2080 under the A2 and B2 scenarios. All confirmed vector and reservoir species will see an expansion of their potential range towards the north. Thus, leishmaniasis has the potential to expand northwards from México and the southern United States. In the eastern United States its spread is predicted to be limited by the range of L. diabolica; further west, L. anthophora may play the same role. In the east it may even reach the southern boundary of Canada. The risk of spread is greater for the A2 scenario than for the B2 scenario. Even in the latter case, with restrictive (contiguous) models for dispersal of vector and reservoir species, and limiting vector and reservoir species occupancy to only the top 10% of their potential suitable habitat, the expected number of human individuals exposed to leishmaniasis by 2080 will at least double its present value. Conclusions These models predict that climate change will exacerbate the ecological risk of human exposure to leishmaniasis in areas outside its present range in the United States and, possibly, in parts of southern Canada. This prediction suggests the adoption of measures such as surveillance for leishmaniasis north of Texas as disease cases spread northwards. Potential vector and reservoir control strategies—besides direct intervention in disease cases—should also be further investigated.

Gonzalez, Camila; Wang, Ophelia; Strutz, Stavana E.; Gonzalez-Salazar, Constantino; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor; Sarkar, Sahotra

2010-01-01

193

Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a large scale blended arrow advanced supersonic transport model having variable cycle engines and vectoring exhaust nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in a full-scale tunnel to determine the performance and static stability and control characteristics of a large-scale model of a blended-arrow advanced supersonic transport configuration incorporating variable-cycle engines and vectoring exhaust nozzles. Configuration variables tested included: (1) engine mode (cruise or low-speed), (2) engine exit nozzle deflection, (3) leading-edge flap geometry, and (4) trailing-edge flap deflection. Test variables included values of C sub micron from 0 to 0.38, values of angle of attack from -10 degrees to 30 degrees, values of angle of sideslip, from -5 degrees to 5 degrees, and values of Reynolds number, from 3.5 million to 6.8 million.

Parlett, L. P.; Shivers, J. P.

1976-01-01

194

The Nazca-South America Euler vector and its rate of change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present velocities relative to the South American plate for five GPS stations on the Nazca plate and use these measurements to estimate the modern Euler vector. We find a pole at 55.8°N, 92.5°W with a rotation rate of 0.60 °/Myr. Because the GPS station at Easter Island appears to be moving at approximately 6.6 mm/yr relative to the other Nazca stations, we repeat our analysis with this station excluded from the inversion to obtain a second and preferred result (called CAP10) with a pole at 61.0°N, 94.4°W and a rate of 0.57 °/Myr. We compare these results with published finite rotation vectors and infer that during the past 10-20 Myrs, the Nazca-South America rotation rate has decelerated by 0.04°-0.06 °/Myr 2.

Kendrick, Eric; Bevis, Michael; Smalley, Robert; Brooks, Benjamin; Vargas, Rodrigo Barriga; Lauría, Eduardo; Fortes, Luiz Paulo Souto

2003-06-01

195

Wind-driven changes in Southern Ocean residual circulation, ocean carbon reservoirs and atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of idealized wind-driven circulation changes in the Southern Ocean on atmospheric CO2 and the ocean carbon inventory is investigated using a suite of coarse-resolution, global coupled ocean circulation and biogeochemistry experiments with parameterized eddy activity and only modest changes in surface buoyancy forcing, each experiment integrated for 5,000 years. A positive correlation is obtained between the meridional overturning or residual circulation in the Southern Ocean and atmospheric CO2: stronger or northward-shifted westerly winds in the Southern Hemisphere result in increased residual circulation, greater upwelling of carbon-rich deep waters and oceanic outgassing, which increases atmospheric pCO2 by ˜20 ?atm; weaker or southward-shifted winds lead to the opposing result. The ocean carbon inventory in our model varies through contrasting changes in the saturated, disequilibrium and biogenic (soft-tissue and carbonate) reservoirs, each varying by O(10-100) PgC, all of which contribute to the net anomaly in atmospheric CO2. Increased residual overturning deepens the global pycnocline, warming the upper ocean and decreasing the saturated carbon reservoir. Increased upwelling of carbon- and nutrient-rich deep waters and inefficient biological activity results in subduction of unutilized nutrients into the ocean interior, decreasing the biogenic carbon reservoir of intermediate and mode waters ventilating the Northern Hemisphere, and making the disequilibrium carbon reservoir more positive in the mode waters due to the reduced residence time at the surface. Wind-induced changes in the model carbon inventory are dominated by the response of the global pycnocline, although there is an additional abyssal response when the peak westerly winds change their latitude, altering their proximity to Drake Passage and changing the depth extent of the southward return flow of the overturning: a northward shift of the westerly winds isolates dense isopycnals, allowing biogenic carbon to accumulate in the deep ocean of the Southern Hemisphere, while a southward shift shoals dense isopycnals that outcrop in the Southern Ocean and reduces the biogenic carbon store in the deep ocean.

Lauderdale, Jonathan M.; Garabato, Alberto C. Naveira; Oliver, Kevin I. C.; Follows, Michael J.; Williams, Richard G.

2013-10-01

196

Uncovering spider silk nanocrystalline variations that facilitate wind-induced mechanical property changes.  

PubMed

Spider major ampullate (MA) silk varies in mechanical properties when spun in different environments. Amino acid compositional changes induced by variations in MaSp1 and MaSp2 expression, and various biochemical and physiological glandular processes induce silk property variability. Quantifying the contributions of these mechanisms on silk variability may facilitate the development of silk biomimetics. Wind is a medium that induces variations in MA silk mechanics. We exposed the spider Cyclosa mulmeinensis to wind and measured the amino acid composition, tensile mechanics, and crystalline structure of its MA silk using HPLC, tensile tests, and X-ray diffraction. We found the mechanical properties of MA silks from spiders exposed to wind to differ from unexposed spiders. The amino acid compositions did not differ, but X-ray diffraction found a lower crystal density and greater ?-sheet alignment relative to the fiber axis in the silks of spiders exposed to wind. We found no evidence that the mechanical property variations were a product of profound changes to the alignment of the protein within the amorphous region. We conclude that variations in the density and alignment of the crystalline ?-sheets, probably accompanied by some alignment change in the amorphous region as a result of "stretching" during spinning of the silk, probably explains the mechanical property variations that we found across treatment subgroups. As C. mulmeinensis MA silk increases both in strength and elasticity when the spiders are exposed to wind, bioengineers may consider it as a model for the development of high-performance silk biomimetics. PMID:23947397

Blamires, Sean J; Wu, Chao-Chia; Wu, Chung-Lin; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Tso, I-Min

2013-10-14

197

Recent changes in measured wind in the NE Atlantic and variability of correlation with NAO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with wind measurements, recorded since the 1950s, at twelve meteorological stations along a transect near the westernmost European border, between 64° and 44° N. Extreme wind speed tends to decrease sharply near the northern boundary (at Reykjavick), near the middle of the study area (at Shannon and Valentia) and near the southern boundary (at Brest and Cap Ferret), to increase at Thorshavn, with less significant trends at the other stations. Average wind speeds confirm the above tendencies, with an additional increasing speed at Lerwick, Kirkwall, Malin Head, Belle-Ile and Cap Ferret. To compare changes in wind activity, the data have been subdivided into three periods: until 1975, 1976-1992 and 1993-2008. Frequencies have been computed also for the "winter" (October to March) period, per quadrants, and for occurrences exceeding the speed of 15 m s-1. At Reykjavick a recent increase in the frequency of strong winds has occurred from various directions. Between 62° N (Thorshavn) and 59° N (Kirkwall) strong wind has been increasing since 1975. Minor changes can be observed at Stornoway, whereas at Malin Head the greatest increase for southerlies and westerlies is observed during the 1976-1992 period. At Belmullet, the frequency of strong southerlies has almost doubled since 1992, while at Shannon and Valentia it remains quite low. Finally at Brest and Belle-Ile, westerlies are predominant among winds >15 m s-1. Important changes in time and latitude appear in the correlation with the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) index. The highest correlation coefficients, calculated with monthly or seasonal means between the early 1950s and 1975, are observed from between 58° N (Stornoway) and Iceland, whereas low positive coefficients are reported more south. During the period 1976-1992, when increasing NAO index is predominant, positive correlation improves southwards as far as 54° (Belmullet) with some improvement also at Shannon and Valentia, while it remains low or even negative near the French Atlantic coast. Finally in the 1993-2008 period, correlation improves for all the stations south of 54° N (Belmullet), while it weakens more north.

Pirazzoli, P. A.; Tomasin, A.; Ullmann, A.

2010-10-01

198

Climate change effects on Chikungunya transmission in Europe: geospatial analysis of vector's climatic suitability and virus' temperature requirements  

PubMed Central

Background Chikungunya was, from the European perspective, considered to be a travel-related tropical mosquito-borne disease prior to the first European outbreak in Northern Italy in 2007. This was followed by cases of autochthonous transmission reported in South-eastern France in 2010. Both events occurred after the introduction, establishment and expansion of the Chikungunya-competent and highly invasive disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) in Europe. In order to assess whether these outbreaks are indicative of the beginning of a trend or one-off events, there is a need to further examine the factors driving the potential transmission of Chikungunya in Europe. The climatic suitability, both now and in the future, is an essential starting point for such an analysis. Methods The climatic suitability for Chikungunya outbreaks was determined by using bioclimatic factors that influence, both vector and, pathogen. Climatic suitability for the European distribution of the vector Aedes albopictus was based upon previous correlative environmental niche models. Climatic risk classes were derived by combining climatic suitability for the vector with known temperature requirements for pathogen transmission, obtained from outbreak regions. In addition, the longest potential intra-annual season for Chikungunya transmission was estimated for regions with expected vector occurrences. In order to analyse spatio-temporal trends for risk exposure and season of transmission in Europe, climate change impacts are projected for three time-frames (2011–2040, 2041–2070 and 2071–2100) and two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). These climatic projections are based on regional climate model COSMO-CLM, which builds on the global model ECHAM5. Results European areas with current and future climatic suitability of Chikungunya transmission are identified. An increase in risk is projected for Western Europe (e.g. France and Benelux-States) in the first half of the 21st century and from mid-century onwards for central parts of Europe (e.g. Germany). Interestingly, the southernmost parts of Europe do not generally provide suitable conditions in these projections. Nevertheless, many Mediterranean regions will persist to be climatically suitable for transmission. Overall, the highest risk of transmission by the end of the 21st century was projected for France, Northern Italy and the Pannonian Basin (East-Central Europe). This general tendency is depicted in both, the A1B and B1 climate change scenarios. Conclusion In order to guide preparedness for further outbreaks, it is crucial to anticipate risk as to identify areas where specific public health measures, such as surveillance and vector control, can be implemented. However, public health practitioners need to be aware that climate is only one factor driving the transmission of vector-borne disease.

2013-01-01

199

Engineering changes to the 0.1m cryogenic wind tunnel at Southampton University  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The more important changes to the 0.1 m cryogenic wind tunnel since its completion in 1977 are outlined. These include detailed improvements in the fan drive to allow higher speeds, and the provision of a test section leg suitable for use with a magnetic suspension and balance system. The instrumentation, data logging, data reduction and tunnel controls were also improved and modernized. A tunnel performance summary is given.

Goodyer, M. J.

1984-01-01

200

Wind of change: new insights on the ecology and evolution of pollination and mating in wind-pollinated plants  

PubMed Central

Background The rich literature that characterizes the field of pollination biology has focused largely on animal-pollinated plants. At least 10 % of angiosperms are wind pollinated, and this mode of pollination has evolved on multiple occasions among unrelated lineages, and hence this discrepancy in research interest is surprising. Here, the evolution and functional ecology of pollination and mating in wind-pollinated plants are discussed, a theoretical framework for modelling the selection of wind pollination is outlined, and pollen capture and the occurrence of pollen limitation in diverse wind-pollinated herbs are investigated experimentally. Scope and Conclusions Wind pollination may commonly evolve to provide reproductive assurance when pollinators are scarce. Evidence is presented that pollen limitation in wind-pollinated plants may not be as common as it is in animal-pollinated species. The studies of pollen capture in wind-pollinated herbs demonstrate that pollen transfer efficiency is not substantially lower than in animal-pollinated plants as is often assumed. These findings challenge the explanation that the evolution of few ovules in wind-pollinated flowers is associated with low pollen loads. Floral and inflorescence architecture is crucial to pollination and mating because of the aerodynamics of wind pollination. Evidence is provided for the importance of plant height, floral position, and stamen and stigma characteristics in promoting effective pollen dispersal and capture. Finally, it is proposed that geitonogamous selfing may alleviate pollen limitation in many wind-pollinated plants with unisexual flowers.

Friedman, Jannice; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

2009-01-01

201

Winds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning (PBL) scenario, students prepare a presentation for investors showing how their fishing company has a significant advantage because it locates upwelling zones and fishing areas using TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and other satellite data. Prior to launching the PBL, students learn about wind: the topics of air pressure, coriolis effect, upwelling and the role of differential heating on the atmosphere are explored in classroom demonstrations. Materials required include a beaker, coffee grounds, drinking straw, balloon, flashlight, and turntable. The resource includes teacher background information, glossary, assessment rubric, and an appendix introducing problem-based learning.

202

ON THE IMPORTANCE OF SOUTHERN OCEAN CIRCULATION CHANGES INDUCED BY WIND AND SEA ICE ON GLACIAL pCO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant influence of changes in the westerly winds over the Southern Ocean was proposed as a mechanism to explain a large portion of the glacial atmospheric pCO 2 drawdown (Toggweiler et al., 2006). However, additional modelling studies do not confirm the size and even the sign of the impact of southern hemispheric winds on the glacial pCO 2 as

P. Köhler; C. Völker

203

Modeled response of the West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus to changing climate using the dynamic mosquito simulation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate can strongly influence the population dynamics of disease vectors and is consequently a key component of disease ecology. Future climate change and variability may alter the location and seasonality of many disease vectors, possibly increasing the risk of disease transmission to humans. The mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus is a concern across the southern United States because of its role as a West Nile virus vector and its affinity for urban environments. Using established relationships between atmospheric variables (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito development, we have created the Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model (DyMSiM) to simulate Cx. quinquefasciatus population dynamics. The model is driven with climate data and validated against mosquito count data from Pasco County, Florida and Coachella Valley, California. Using 1-week and 2-week filters, mosquito trap data are reproduced well by the model ( P < 0.0001). Dry environments in southern California produce different mosquito population trends than moist locations in Florida. Florida and California mosquito populations are generally temperature-limited in winter. In California, locations are water-limited through much of the year. Using future climate projection data generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research CCSM3 general circulation model, we applied temperature and precipitation offsets to the climate data at each location to evaluate mosquito population sensitivity to possible future climate conditions. We found that temperature and precipitation shifts act interdependently to cause remarkable changes in modeled mosquito population dynamics. Impacts include a summer population decline from drying in California due to loss of immature mosquito habitats, and in Florida a decrease in late-season mosquito populations due to drier late summer conditions.

Morin, Cory W.; Comrie, Andrew C.

2010-09-01

204

Simulated response of the Southern Ocean to wind changes: towards the role of mesoscale eddies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of ocean mesoscale eddies in the Southern Ocean response to recent wind changes is explored with a suite of realistic global ocean simulations at increasing horizontal resolution. Southern Ocean mesoscale eddies are known to be critical in the meridional redistribution of tracers, and are suggested to affect how the Southern Ocean responds to wind changes, takes up heat, and exchanges CO2 with the atmosphere. By employing the ocean general circulation model NEMO-LIM, ocean simulations with horizontal resolutions of 1/2°, 1/4°, and 1/12°, i.e. ranging from non-eddying to eddy-resolving, are performed and compared. In particular, a "two-way" nesting technique is used to refine the ocean grid up to 1/12° in the Southern Ocean. The ocean models are forced with the CORE v.2 atmospheric reanalysis during the period 1948-2007, and companion experiments under a repeated-annual-cycle forcing are used to detect model spurious drifts. First, we assess the effect of explicitly simulated eddies on ocean mean properties. Mesoscale eddies are shown to modify the mixed layer depth and the upper-ocean density, with potential effects on the formation properties of Subantarctic Mode Waters. Second, we explore the role of mesoscale eddies in affecting the ocean circulation sensitivity to the sustained increase of Southern Hemisphere winds during the past decades. Whereas the non-eddying simulations exhibit large increases of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current transport, the 1/4° and 1/12° models are less sensitive to the wind increase, in better agreement with available observations. These results show a clear effect of model resolution on the Southern Ocean response to climate variability and change.

Patara, Lavinia; Böning, Claus; Biastoch, Arne

2013-04-01

205

Opportunities and challenges in assessing climate change impacts on wind energy—a critical comparison of wind speed projections in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climate change is expected to alter the spatial and temporal distribution of surface wind speeds (SWS), with associated impacts on electricity generation from wind energy. However, the predictions for the direction and magnitude of these changes hinge critically on the assessment methods used. Many climate change impact analyses, including those focused on wind energy, use individual climate models and/or statistical downscaling methods rooted in historical observations. Such studies may individually suggest an unrealistically high level of scientific certainty due to the absence of competing projections (over the same region, time period, etc). A new public data archive, the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), allows for a more comprehensive perspective on regional climate change impacts, here applied to three wind farm sites in California. We employ NARCCAP regional climate model data to estimate changes in SWS expected to occur in the mid-21st century at three wind farm regions: Altamont Pass, San Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi Pass. We examined trends in SWS magnitude and frequency using three different global/regional model pairs, focused on model evaluation, seasonal cycle, and long-term trends. Our results, while specific to California, highlight the opportunities and limitations in NARCCAP and other publicly available meteorological data sets for energy analysis, and the importance of using multiple models for climate change impact assessment. Although spatial patterns in current wind conditions agree fairly well among models and with NARR (North American Regional Reanalysis) data, results vary widely at our three sites of interest. This poor performance and model disagreement may be explained by complex topography, limited model resolution, and differences in model physics. Spatial trends and site-specific estimates of annual average changes (1980-2000 versus 2051-71) also differed widely across models. All models predicted changes of < 2% at each site, but the direction of the change varies. However, decreases of < 2% in resources at Altamont Pass are agreed upon by each NARCCAP model used. This lack of model agreement suggests uncertainty in future changes, and a potentially high degree of risk for future investors in wind-generated electricity. More broadly, our study highlights the need for multiple calculation approaches to help distinguish between robust and method-dependent results.

Rasmussen, D. J.; Holloway, T.; Nemet, G. F.

2011-04-01

206

Equatorial thermospheric wind changes during the solar cycle - Measurements at Arequipa, Peru, from 1983 to 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-equatorial thermospheric wind velocities at Arequipa, Peru, are determined over about two-thirds of a solar cycle using Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of Doppler shifts in the nightglow 630-nm emission line. Mean monthly nocturnal variations in the meridional and zonal wind components are calculated from the nightly data to remove short-term (day-to-day) variability as well as any additional changes introduced by the progression of the solar cycle. For most of the years, at the winter solstice, there is a weak (more than 100 m/s) transequatorial flow from the summer to the winter hemisphere in the early and the late night, with essentially zero velocities in between. At the equinoxes, an early-night poleward (southward) flow at solar minimum (1986) is replaced by an equatorward (northward) flow at solar maximum (1989-1990).

Biondi, M. A.; Meriwether, J. W., Jr.; Fejer, B. G.; Gonzalez, S. A.; Hallenbeck, D. C.

1991-01-01

207

Responses of Wind Erosion to Climate-Induced Vegetation Changes on the Colorado Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projected increases in aridity throughout the southwestern United States due to anthropogenic climate change will likely cause reductions in perennial vegetation cover, which leaves soil surfaces exposed to erosion. Accelerated rates of dust emission from wind erosion have large implications for ecosystems and human well-being, yet there is poor understanding of the sources and magnitude of dust emission in a hotter and drier climate. Here we use a two-stage approach to compare the susceptibility of grasslands and three different shrublands to wind erosion on the Colorado Plateau and demonstrate how climate can indirectly moderate the magnitude of aeolian sediment flux through different responses of dominant plants in these communities. First, using results from 20 years of vegetation monitoring, we found perennial grass cover in grasslands declined with increasing mean annual temperature in the previous year, whereas shrub cover in shrublands either showed no change or declined as temperature increased, depending on the species. Second, we used these vegetation monitoring results and measurements of soil stability as inputs into a field-validated wind erosion model and found that declines in perennial vegetation cover coupled with disturbance to biological soil crust resulted in an exponential increase in modeled aeolian sediment flux. Thus the effects of increased temperature on perennial plant cover and the correlation of declining plant cover with increased aeolian flux strongly suggest that sustained drought conditions across the southwest will accelerate the likelihood of dust production in the future on disturbed soil surfaces.; Perennial grasses and all perennial vegetation canopy cover (top panel) and modeled aeolian sediment flux (bottom panel) at five wind speeds (15.0, 17.5, 20.0, 22.5, and 25.0 ms-1) in relationship to mean annual temperature in the previous year in perennial grasslands across the Colorado Plateau, USA.

Munson, S. M.; Belnap, J.; Okin, G. S.

2012-12-01

208

Changes in vector species composition and current vector biology and behaviour will favour malaria elimination in Santa Isabel Province, Solomon Islands  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009, Santa Isabel Province in the Solomon Islands embarked on a malaria elimination programme. However, very little is known in the Province about the anopheline fauna, which species are vectors, their bionomics and how they may respond to intensified intervention measures. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data on the malaria vectors and to ascertain the possibility of successfully eliminating malaria using the existing conventional vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN). Methods Entomological surveys were undertaken during October 2009. To determine species composition and distribution larval surveys were conducted across on the whole island. For malaria transmission studies, adult anophelines were sampled using human landing catches from two villages - one coastal and one inland. Results Five Anopheles species were found on Santa Isabel: Anopheles farauti, Anopheles hinesorum, Anopheles lungae, Anopheles solomonis, and Anopheles nataliae. Anopheles hinesorum was the most widespread species. Anopheles farauti was abundant, but found only on the coast. Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis were not found. Anopheles farauti was the only species found biting in the coastal village, it was incriminated as a vector in this study; it fed early in the night but equally so indoors and outdoors, and had a low survival rate. Anopheles solomonis was the main species biting humans in the inland village, it was extremely exophagic, with low survival rates, and readily fed on pigs. Conclusion The disappearance of the two major vectors, An. punctulatus and An. koliensis, from Santa Isabel and the predominance of An. hinesorum, a non-vector species may facilitate malaria elimination measures. Anopheles farauti was identified as the main coastal vector with An. solomonis as a possible inland vector. The behaviour of An. solomonis is novel as it has not been previously found biting humans in any numbers. Both species appear to be short-lived, a characteristic that will limit their transmission potential. The early night feeding behaviour and a degree of outdoor biting seen in An. farauti and particularly in An. solomonis will require that their response to IRS and LLIN be closely monitored. In coastal villages, where large, favourable breeding sites allow for high numbers of An. farauti may require the addition of larval control to achieve elimination.

2011-01-01

209

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE On Equatorial Pacific Surface Wind Changes around 1977: NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis versus COADS Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note compares equatorial Pacific surface wind changes around 1977 in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) observations. Significant discrepancies are found in wind changes over the equatorial central and eastern Pacific. In the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, the easterlies weakened over the eastern equatorial Pacific, while the southerlies strengthened over the north equatorial central Pacific. As a

RENGUANG WU; SHANG-PING XIE

210

Potential impacts of climate change on the ecology of dengue and its mosquito vector the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases. We examine the potential impacts of climate change on the transmission and maintenance dynamics of dengue, a resurging mosquito-vectored infectious disease. In particular, we project changes in dengue season length for three cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL and Lubbock, TX. These cities are located on the edges of the range of the Asian tiger mosquito within the United States of America and were chosen as test cases. We use a disease model that explicitly incorporates mosquito population dynamics and high-resolution climate projections. Based on projected changes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1fi (higher) and B1 (lower) emission scenarios as simulated by four global climate models, we found that the projected warming shortened mosquito lifespan, which in turn decreased the potential dengue season. These results illustrate the difficulty in predicting how climate change may alter complex systems.

Erickson, R. A.; Hayhoe, K.; Presley, S. M.; Allen, L. J. S.; Long, K. R.; Cox, S. B.

2012-09-01

211

THE ABRUPT CHANGES IN THE PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC AND LORENTZ FORCE VECTORS DURING SIX MAJOR NEUTRAL-LINE FLARES  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the abrupt photospheric magnetic changes associated with six major flares using 12 minute, 0.''5 pixel{sup -1} vector magnetograms from NASA's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite. The six major flares occurred near the main magnetic neutral lines of four active regions, NOAA 11158, 11166, 11283, and 11429. During all six flares the neutral-line field vectors became stronger and more horizontal, in each case almost entirely due to strengthening of the horizontal field components parallel to the neutral line. In all six cases the neutral-line pre-flare fields were more vertical than the reference potential fields, and collapsed abruptly and permanently closer to potential-field tilt angles during every flare, implying that the relaxation of magnetic stress associated with non-potential tilt angles plays a major role during major flares. The shear angle with respect to the reference potential field did not show such a pattern, demonstrating that flare processes do not generally relieve magnetic stresses associated with photospheric magnetic shear. The horizontal fields became significantly and permanently more aligned with the neutral line during the four largest flares, suggesting that the collapsing field is on average more aligned with the neutral line than the pre-flare neutral-line field. The vertical Lorentz force had a large, abrupt, permanent downward change during each of the flares, consistent with loop collapse. The horizontal Lorentz force changes acted mostly parallel to the neutral line in opposite directions on each side, a signature of the fields contracting during the flare, pulling the two sides of the neutral line toward each other. The greater effect of the flares on field tilt than on shear may be explained by photospheric line-tying.

Petrie, G. J. D. [National Solar Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2012-11-01

212

A wind-tunnel boundary-layer study of the effects of a surface roughness change: Rough to smooth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes imposed on mean velocities and turbulence statistics in the lower atmosphere by an abrupt change in surface roughness, from very rough to smooth, were modelled in a wind tunnel. The influence of a change in the effective surface level, which often accompanies such a variation in surface roughness, was also studied. A deep, turbulent flow was generated upstream

P. J. Mulhearn

1978-01-01

213

National Assessment of Shoreline Change: A GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the sandy shorelines of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, and often are surrounded by communities that consist of valuable real estate. Development is increasing despite the fact that coastal infrastructure may be repeatedly subjected to flooding and erosion. As a result, the demand for accurate information regarding past and present shoreline changes is increasing. Working with researchers from the University of Hawaii, investigators with the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project have compiled a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and shoreline-change rates for the islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii. No widely accepted standard for analyzing shoreline change currently exists. Current measurement and rate-calculation methods vary from study to study, precluding the combination of study results into statewide or regional assessments. The impetus behind the National Assessment was to develop a standardized method for measuring changes in shoreline position that is consistent from coast to coast. The goal was to facilitate the process of periodically and systematically updating the measurements in an internally consistent manner. A detailed report on shoreline change for Kauai, Maui, and Oahu that contains a discussion of the data presented here is available and cited in the Geospatial Data section of this report.

Romine, Bradley M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Genz, Ayesha S.; Barbee, Matthew M.; Dyer, Matthew; Anderson, Tiffany R.; Lim, S. Chyn; Vitousek, Sean; Bochicchio, Christopher; Richmond, Bruce M.

2012-01-01

214

The National Assessment of Shoreline Change:A GIS Compilation of Vector Shorelines and Associated Shoreline Change Data for the Sandy Shorelines of the California Coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive data clearinghouse of digital vector shorelines and shoreline change rates for the sandy shoreline along the California open coast. These data, which are presented herein, were compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Beach erosion is a chronic problem along many open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information including rates and trends of shoreline migration. There is also a critical need for shoreline change data that is consistent from one coastal region to another. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates of shorelines and shoreline change rates can be made at a National Scale. This data compilation for open-ocean, sandy shorelines of the California coast is one in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeast Atlantic Coast (Morton et al., 2004; Morton et al., 2005) and will eventually cover Washington, Oregon, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. Short- and long-term shoreline change evaluations are determined by comparing the positions of three historical shorelines digitized from maps, with a modern shoreline derived from LIDAR (light detection and ranging) topographic surveys. Historical shorelines generally represent the following time-periods: 1850s-1880s, 1920s-1930s, and late 1940s-1970s. The most recent shoreline is from data collected between 1997 and 2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated by linear regression using all four shorelines. Short-term rates of change are end-point rate calculations using the two most recent shorelines. Please refer to our full report on shoreline change of the California coastline at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1219/ for additional information regarding methods and results (Hapke et al., 2006). Data in this report are organized into downloadable layers by region (Northern, Central and Southern California) and are provided as vector datasets with metadata. Vector shorelines may represent a compilation of data from one or more sources and these sources are included in the dataset metadata. This project employs the Environmental Systems Research Institute's (ESRI) ArcGIS as it's GIS mapping tool and contains several data layers (shapefiles) that are used to create a geographic view of the California Coast. These vector data form a basemap comprised of polygon and line themes that include a U.S. coastline (1:80,000), U.S. cities, and state boundaries.

Hapke, Cheryl J; Reid, David

2006-01-01

215

Use of near-infrared spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machine to determine quality change of tomato juice*  

PubMed Central

Near-infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy combined with least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was investigated to study the quality change of tomato juice during the storage. A total of 100 tomato juice samples were used. The spectrum of each tomato juice was collected twice: the first measurement was taken when the tomato juice was fresh and had not undergone any changes, and the second measurement was taken after a month. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to examine a potential capability of separating juice before and after the storage. The soluble solid content (SSC) and pH of the juice samples were determined. The results show that changes in certain compounds between tomato juice before and after the storage period were obvious. An excellent precision was achieved by LS-SVM model compared with discriminant partial least-squares (DPLS), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and discriminant analysis (DA) models, with 100% of a total accuracy. It can be found that NIR spectroscopy coupled with LS-SVM, DPLS, SIMCA, and DA can be used to control the quality change of tomato juice during the storage.

Xie, Li-juan; Ying, Yi-bin

2009-01-01

216

Massachusetts shoreline change project: a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the 2013 update  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identifying the rates and trends associated with the position of the shoreline through time presents vital information on potential impacts these changes may have on coastal populations and infrastructure, and supports informed coastal management decisions. This report publishes the historical shoreline data used to assess the scale and timing of erosion and accretion along the Massachusetts coast from New Hampshire to Rhode Island including all of Cape Cod, Martha’s Vineyard, Nantucket and the Elizabeth Islands. This data is an update to the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management Shoreline Change Project. Shoreline positions from the past 164 years (1845 to 2009) were used to compute the shoreline change rates. These data include a combined length of 1,804 kilometers of new shoreline data derived from color orthophoto imagery collected in 2008 and 2009, and topographic lidar collected in 2007. These new shorelines have been added to previously published historic shoreline data from the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management and the U.S. Geological Survey. A detailed report containing a discussion of the shoreline change data presented here and a summary of the resulting rates is available and cited at the end of the Introduction section of this report.

Smith, Theresa L.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Thieler, E. Robert

2013-01-01

217

Wind Disturbance Produced Changes in Tree Species Assemblage in the Peruvian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind disturbance has been a frequently overlooked abiotic cause of mass tree mortality in the Amazon basin. In the Peruvian Amazon these wind disturbances are produced by meteorological events such as convective systems. Downbursts for example produce short term descendent wind speeds that can be in excess of 30 m s-1. These are capable of producing tree blowdowns which have been reported to be as large as 33 km2 in the Amazon basin. We used the chronosequence of Landsat Satellite imagery to find and locate where these blowdowns have occurred in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon. Spectral Mixture Analysis was used to estimate the proportion landcover of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), soil and shade in each pixel. The change in NPV was calculated by subtracting the NPV signal in the Landsat image prior to the blowdown occurrence, from the image following the disturbance. Our prior research has established a linear relationship between tree mortality and change in NPV. It is hypothesized that these mass tree mortality events result in changes in the tree species assemblage of affected forests. Here we present preliminary tree species assemblage data from two sites in the Peruvian Amazon near Iquitos, Peru. The site (ALP) at the Allpahuayo Mishana reserve (3.945 S, 73.455 W) is 30 km south of Iquitos, Peru, and hosts the remnants of a 50 ha blowdown that occurred in either 1992 or 1993. Another site (NAPO) on the Napo river about 60 km north of Iquitos, is the location of an approximately 300 ha blowdown that occurred in 1998. At each site, a 3000 m x 10 m transect encompassing non disturbed and disturbed areas was installed, and trees greater than 10 cm diameter at breast height were measured for diameter, height and were identified to the species. Stem density of trees with diameter at breast height > 10 cm, and tree height appear to be similar both inside and outside the blowdown affected areas of the forests at both sites. At the ALP and NAPO sites the most dramatic change in the tree species assemblage has been a three and an eleven fold increase in the pioneer tree family, Cecropiaceae, respectively. This preliminary data suggests that wind disturbance is capable of producing large shifts in the tree species assemblage of affected Amazon forests.

Rifai, S. W.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Ramirez, F.; Tello, R.; Alegria Muñoz, W.

2010-12-01

218

Kinetic Monte Carlo studies of the effects of Burgers vector changes on the reaction kinetics of one-dimensionally gliding interstitial clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of one-dimensionally diffusing interstitial clusters (dislocation loops) are used to gain insight into their role in microstructure evolution under irradiation. The simulations investigate the changes in reaction kinetics of these defects as a function of changes in the Burgers vector and variation in the size and density of randomly or periodically distributed sinks. In this paper

Howard L. Heinisch; Bachu N. Singh; Stanislav I. Golubov

2000-01-01

219

Risk maps for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, in Canada now and with climate change  

PubMed Central

Background Lyme disease is the commonest vector-borne zoonosis in the temperate world, and an emerging infectious disease in Canada due to expansion of the geographic range of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. Studies suggest that climate change will accelerate Lyme disease emergence by enhancing climatic suitability for I. scapularis. Risk maps will help to meet the public health challenge of Lyme disease by allowing targeting of surveillance and intervention activities. Results A risk map for possible Lyme endemicity was created using a simple risk algorithm for occurrence of I. scapularis populations. The algorithm was calculated for each census sub-division in central and eastern Canada from interpolated output of a temperature-driven simulation model of I. scapularis populations and an index of tick immigration. The latter was calculated from estimates of tick dispersion distances by migratory birds and recent knowledge of the current geographic range of endemic I. scapularis populations. The index of tick immigration closely predicted passive surveillance data on I. scapularis occurrence, and the risk algorithm was a significant predictor of the occurrence of I. scapularis populations in a prospective field study. Risk maps for I. scapularis occurrence in Canada under future projected climate (in the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s) were produced using temperature output from the Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model 2 with greenhouse gas emission scenario enforcing 'A2' of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Conclusion We have prepared risk maps for the occurrence of I. scapularis in eastern and central Canada under current and future projected climate. Validation of the risk maps provides some confidence that they provide a useful first step in predicting the occurrence of I. scapularis populations, and directing public health objectives in minimizing risk from Lyme disease. Further field studies are needed, however, to continue validation and refinement of the risk maps.

Ogden, Nicholas H; St-Onge, Laurie; Barker, Ian K; Brazeau, Stephanie; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Charron, Dominique F; Francis, Charles M; Heagy, Audrey; Lindsay, L Robbin; Maarouf, Abdel; Michel, Pascal; Milord, Francois; O'Callaghan, Christopher J; Trudel, Louise; Thompson, R Alex

2008-01-01

220

Response of Saturn’s Magnetosphere to Changes in the Solar Wind: 3D Global MHD Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Saturn, both the external (the solar wind) and the internal (the planet’s rotation and internal plasma source) conditions play an important role in affecting the global configuration and dynamics of the magnetosphere. In this study, we use three-dimensional MHD simulations to investigate responses of kronian magnetosphere to changes in the solar wind during one solar rotation. In our simulations, we use idealized time-dependent solar wind conditions with characters typical of those seen at Saturn’s orbit during one solar rotation. We will discuss how Saturn’s global magnetosphere, in particular the global convection and current systems, responds under different solar wind conditions. We will also evaluate the relative importance of the solar wind speed and the IMF orientation in influencing dynamics of Saturn’s magnetosphere.

Jia, X.; Hansen, K. C.; Ridley, A. J.; de Zeeuw, D.; Zieger, B.; Gombosi, T. I.

2009-12-01

221

Electrostatic Solitary Waves in the Solar Wind: Evidence for Instability at Solar Wind Current Sheets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A strong spatial association between bipolar electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and magnetic current sheets (CSs) in the solar wind is reported here for the first time. This association requires that the plasma instabilities (e.g., Buneman, electron two stream) which generate ESWs are preferentially localized to solar wind CSs. Distributions of CS properties (including shear angle, thickness, solar wind speed, and vector magnetic field change) are examined for differences between CSs associated with ESWs and randomly chosen CSs. Possible mechanisms for producing ESW-generating instabilities at solar wind CSs are considered, including magnetic reconnection.

Malaspina, David M.; Newman, David L.; Wilson, Lynn Bruce; Goetz, Keith; Kellogg, Paul J.; Kerstin, Kris

2013-01-01

222

Response of Saturn's Current Sheet Structure to Changes in the Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure and IMF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using our global MHD model of Saturn’s magnetosphere, we investigate the location, shape and motion of Saturn’s current sheet under a variety of situations. Our global MHD model self consistently treats the entire magnetosphere and includes magnetospheric plasma sources from a major disk-like source from Enceladus and the rings and a secondary toroidal plasma source from Titan. The model produces solutions which are not constrained to be symmetric therefore the results are quite useful in trying to extend previous models that have been generated using Cassini data. Because we can carefully control the inputs to our MHD model, we do not have to worry about separating variations due to local time, varying upstream conditions, spacecraft motion or changes in the mass loading rate that often make interpreting the data complicated. We will present results for both steady state, as well as time varying solar wind conditions. Simulations with constant solar wind conditions allow us to study the effect that upsteam dynamic pressure has on both the shape and size of the current sheet. In addition, we will present results from simulations that include sudden changes in the solar wind dynamics pressure as well as the IMF direction. These simulations will allow us to study the current sheet response and to look for features such as current sheet flapping. Our previous studies have shown that the current sheet in our model does in fact reproduce the “bowl-like” behavior expect at most local times. However, at dusk, the current sheet is often quite warped. We will examine the cause of this warping and under what conditions it occurs.

Hansen, K. C.; Jia, X.; Gombosi, T. I.

2010-12-01

223

Numerical modeling on air quality in an urban environment with changes of the aspect ratio and wind direction.  

PubMed

Due to heavy traffic emissions within an urban environment, air quality during the last decade becomes worse year by year and hazard to public health. In the present work, numerical modeling of flow and dispersion of gaseous emissions from vehicle exhaust in a street canyon were investigated under changes of the aspect ratio and wind direction. The three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model which was numerically solved using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The diffusion flow field in the atmospheric boundary layer within the street canyon was studied for different aspect ratios (W/H=1/2, 3/4, and 1) and wind directions (?=90°, 112.5°, 135°, and 157.5°). The numerical models were validated against wind tunnel results to optimize the turbulence model. The numerical results agreed well with the wind tunnel results. The simulation demonstrated that the minimum concentration at the human respiration height within the street canyon was on the windward side for aspect ratios W/H=1/2 and 1 and wind directions ?=112.5°, 135°, and 157.5°. The pollutant concentration level decreases as the wind direction and aspect ratio increase. The wind velocity and turbulence intensity increase as the aspect ratio and wind direction increase. PMID:23192299

Yassin, Mohamed F

2013-06-01

224

Wind Tunnel Test of an RPV with Shape-Change Control Effector and Sensor Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of novel control effector concepts have recently emerged that may enable new approaches to flight control. In particular, the potential exists to shift the composition of the typical aircraft control effector suite from a small number of high authority, specialized devices (rudder, aileron, elevator, flaps), toward larger numbers of smaller, less specialized, distributed device arrays. The concept envisions effector and sensor networks composed of relatively small high-bandwidth devices able to simultaneously perform a variety of control functions using feedback from disparate data sources. To investigate this concept, a remotely piloted flight vehicle has been equipped with an array of 24 trailing edge shape-change effectors and associated pressure measurements. The vehicle, called the Multifunctional Effector and Sensor Array (MESA) testbed, was recently tested in NASA Langley's 12-ft Low Speed wind tunnel to characterize its stability properties, control authorities, and distributed pressure sensitivities for use in a dynamic simulation prior to flight testing. Another objective was to implement and evaluate a scheme for actively controlling the spanwise pressure distribution using the shape-change array. This report describes the MESA testbed, design of the pressure distribution controller, and results of the wind tunnel test.

Raney, David L.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Sloan, Adam R.; Barnwell, William G.; Lion, S. Todd; Hautamaki, Bret A.

2004-01-01

225

The ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events and solar wind dynamic pressure changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observations of vortical flow patterns in the dayside auroral ionosphere are discussed in terms of two alternative mechanisms: (1) the time-dependent magnetic reconnection in 'flux transfer events' (FTEs); and (2) the action of solar wind dynamic pressure changes at the magnetopause. It is argued that the ionospheric flow signature of an FTE should be a twin vortex, with the mean flow velocity in the central region of the pattern being equal to the velocity of the pattern as a whole. On the other hand, the pulse of enhanced or reduced dynamic pressure is also expected to produce a twin vortex, but with the central plasma flow being generally different in speed from (and almost orthogonal to) the motion of the whole pattern. It is found that, while none of the events discussed here are consistent with the theories of the effects of the dynamic pressure changes, all are well explained in terms of the ionospheric signatures of FTEs.

Lockwood, M.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Sandholt, P. E.; Lepping, R. P.

1990-01-01

226

Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases: Getting A Grip on Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pathogens that are transmitted by arthropods to humans kill millions of people a year and have long been identified as systems likely affected by climate change. Despite this, there has been a long controversy of how to evaluate the responses of these infectious disease systems to climatic conditions so that meaningful programmatic dcisions can be made. We briefly review the rationale for overall expectations, using them to identify both the temporal and spatial resolution needed for decision making and then discuss progress to date, using the world global malaria eradication program as an example.

Glass, G. E.; Ellis, H.

2011-12-01

227

A Change of Inertia-Supporting the Thrust Vector Control of the Space Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is America's next launch vehicle. To utilize the vehicle more economically, heritage hardware from the Space Transportation System (STS) will be used when possible. The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) actuators could possibly be used in the core stage of the SLS. The dynamic characteristics of the SRB actuator will need to be tested on an Inertia Load Stand (ILS) that has been converted to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The inertia on the pendulum of the ILS will need to be changed to match the SSME inertia. In this testing environment an SRB actuator can be tested with the equivalent resistence of an SSME.

Dziubanek, Adam J.

2012-01-01

228

Time-course changes in left ventricular myocardial deformation in STZ-induced rabbits on velocity vector imaging  

PubMed Central

Objectives To clarify the time-course changes in left ventricular myocardial deformation using velocity vector imaging and to provide insights into our understanding of the cardiac pathophysiology in diabetes mellitus. Methods Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into either the control group (n?=?10) or the diabetes mellitus (DM) group (induced with STZ, n?=?20). For the myocardial deformation studies, echocardiography and syngo-vector velocity imaging (VVI) were performed at baseline and after 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks in all of the rabbits. The left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate were measured. For histomorphological study of the heart structure, 2 of the STZ-induced rabbits were killed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed. Results At 2 weeks, the global longitudinal strain (GLS), systolic strain rate (GLSRs), and diastolic strain rate (GLSRd) were significantly lower in the DM group compared with the control group (-18.16% versus -24.00%, -1.86 s-1 versus -2.49 s-1, 1.93 s-1 versus 2.42 s-1, respectively, P?

2014-01-01

229

Physclips: Vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an introduction to vectors. It includes topics such as magnitude and direction, components, unit vectors, vectors in three dimensions, vector addition and subtraction, and scalar and vector products. Animations, still images, graphs, and diagrams are used to illustrate important concepts. This tutorial is part of the PhysClips collection of web-based resources on introductory mechanics, electricity, and magnetism.

Wolfe, Joe

2009-01-20

230

The Structural Changes of Tropical Cyclones Upon Interaction with Vertical Wind Shear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4) provided a unique opportunity to observe the distributions and document the roles of important atmospheric factors that impact the development of the core asymmetries and core structural changes of tropical cyclones embedded in vertical wind shear. The state-of-the-art instruments flown on the NASA DC-8 and ER-2, in addition to those on the NOAA aircraft, provided a unique set of observations that documented the core structure throughout the depth of the tropical cyclone. These data have been used to conduct a combined observational and modeling study using a state-of-the-art, high- resolution mesoscale model to examine the role of the environmental vertical wind shear in producing tropical cyclone core asymmetries, and the effects on the structure and intensity of tropical cyclones.The scientific objectives of this study were to obtain in situ measurements that would allow documentation of the physical mechanisms that influence the development of the asymmetric convection and its effect on the core structure of the tropical cyclone.

Ritchie, Elizabeth A.

2003-01-01

231

The solar wind interactions with lunar magnetic anomalies: A case study of the Chang'E-2 plasma data near the Serenitatis antipode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first and preliminary results on the near-Moon plasma environment, based on the spectrogram data obtained with the Solar Wind Ion Detector (SWID) onboard Chang'E-2 from 4 lunar orbits on 10-11 Oct 2010. These orbits, at a constant altitude of ~100 km, approach gradually the Lunar Magnetic Anomaly (LMA) at the Serenitatis antipode. The data reveal tentatively a region with decrement in proton density and enhancement in temperature. The near coincidence of this region with the Serenitatis antipode probably suggests the presence of a mini-magnetosphere associated with the LMA, which effectively shields and heats the incident Solar Wind (SW) protons.

Wang, X.-Q.; Cui, J.; Wang, X.-D.; Liu, J.-J.; Zhang, H.-B.; Zuo, W.; Su, Y.; Wen, W.-B.; Rème, H.; Dandouras, I.; Aoustin, C.; Li, C.-L.; Ouyang, Z.-Y.

2012-09-01

232

The Solar Wind interactions with Lunar Magnetic Anomalies: A case study of the Chang'E-2 plasma data near the Serenitatis antipode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the first and preliminary results on the near-Moon plasma environment, based on the spectrogram data obtained with the Solar Wind Ion Detector (SWID) onboard Chang'E-2 from four lunar orbits on 10-11 Oct 2010. These orbits, at a constant altitude of ˜100 km, approach gradually the Lunar Magnetic Anomaly (LMA) at the Serenitatis antipode. The data reveal tentatively a region with decrement in proton density and enhancement in temperature. The near coincidence of this region with the Serenitatis antipode probably suggests the presence of a minimagnetosphere associated with the LMA, which effectively shields and heats the incident Solar Wind (SW) protons.

Wang, X.-Q.; Cui, J.; Wang, X.-D.; Liu, J.-J.; Zhang, H.-B.; Zuo, W.; Su, Y.; Wen, W.-B.; Rème, H.; Dandouras, I.; Aoustin, C.; Wang, M.; Tan, X.; Shen, J.; Wang, F.; Fu, Q.; Li, C.-L.; Ouyang, Z.-Y.

2012-12-01

233

Impact of WRF Physics and Grid Resolution on Low-level Wind Prediction: Towards the Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Future Wind Power  

SciTech Connect

The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is used in short-range simulations to explore the sensitivity of model physics and horizontal grid resolution. We choose five events with the clear-sky conditions to study the impact of different planetary boundary layer (PBL), surface and soil-layer physics on low-level wind forecast for two wind farms; one in California (CA) and the other in Texas (TX). Short-range simulations are validated with field measurements. Results indicate that the forecast error of the CA case decreases with increasing grid resolution due to the improved representation of valley winds. Besides, the model physics configuration has a significant impact on the forecast error at this location. In contrast, the forecast error of the TX case exhibits little dependence on grid resolution and is relatively independent of physics configuration. Therefore, the occurrence frequency of lowest root mean square errors (RMSEs) at this location is used to determine an optimal model configuration for subsequent decade-scale regional climate model (RCM) simulations. In this study, we perform two sets of 20-year RCM simulations using the data from the NCAR Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations; one set models the present climate and the other simulates the future climate. These RCM simulations will be used to assess the impact of climate change on future wind energy.

Chin, H S; Glascoe, L; Lundquist, J; Wharton, S

2010-02-24

234

Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis.

Fernandez, Maria Soledad; Santini, Maria Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Perez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomon, Oscar Daniel

2013-01-01

235

Two Models Switched Predictive Pitch Control for Wind Turbine Based on Improved Incremental SVR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model predictive control arithmetic was used for wind turbine pitch control, whose nonlinear model was identified by support vector regression (SVR). But the model of wind turbine could be changed in fieldwork, so incremental learning algorithm was adopted for SVR online identification. In order to shorten the calculation time of SVR online identification, the improved sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm

Lin Yonggang; Li Wei; Cui Baoling; Liu Hongwei

2006-01-01

236

Vector reconstruction from firing rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a number of systems including wind detection in the cricket, visual motion perception and coding of arm movement direction in the monkey and place cell response to position in the rat hippocampus, firing rates in a population of tuned neurons are correlated with a vector quantity. We examine and compare several methods that allow the coded vector to be

Emilio Salinas; L. F. Abbott

1994-01-01

237

Spatially-Explicit Simulation Modeling of Ecological Response to Climate Change: Methodological Considerations in Predicting Shifting Population Dynamics of Infectious Disease Vectors  

PubMed Central

Poikilothermic disease vectors can respond to altered climates through spatial changes in both population size and phenology. Quantitative descriptors to characterize, analyze and visualize these dynamic responses are lacking, particularly across large spatial domains. In order to demonstrate the value of a spatially explicit, dynamic modeling approach, we assessed spatial changes in the population dynamics of Ixodes scapularis, the Lyme disease vector, using a temperature-forced population model simulated across a grid of 4 × 4 km cells covering the eastern United States, using both modeled (Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) 3.2.1) baseline/current (2001–2004) and projected (Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5; 2057–2059) climate data. Ten dynamic population features (DPFs) were derived from simulated populations and analyzed spatially to characterize the regional population response to current and future climate across the domain. Each DPF under the current climate was assessed for its ability to discriminate observed Lyme disease risk and known vector presence/absence, using data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Peak vector population and month of peak vector population were the DPFs that performed best as predictors of current Lyme disease risk. When examined under baseline and projected climate scenarios, the spatial and temporal distributions of DPFs shift and the seasonal cycle of key questing life stages is compressed under some scenarios. Our results demonstrate the utility of spatial characterization, analysis and visualization of dynamic population responses—including altered phenology—of disease vectors to altered climate.

Dhingra, Radhika; Jimenez, Violeta; Chang, Howard H.; Gambhir, Manoj; Fu, Joshua S.; Liu, Yang; Remais, Justin V.

2014-01-01

238

Econometric analysis of the changing effects in wind strength and significant wave height on the probability of casualty in shipping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses econometric models to measure the effect of significant wave height and wind strength on the probability of casualty and tests whether these effects changed. While both effects are in particular relevant for stability and strength calculations of vessels, it is also helpful for the development of ship construction standards in general to counteract increased risk resulting from

Sabine Knapp; Shashi Kumar; Yuri Sakurada; Jiajun Shen

2011-01-01

239

Using bi-directional soil spectral reflectance to model soil surface changes induced by rainfall and wind-tunnel abrasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve wind erosion model calculations across several spatial and temporal scales simultaneously, there is a requirement for a non-invasive approach that can be used rapidly to assess changes in the compositional and structural nature of a soil surface in time and space. Remote sensing allows consideration of the processes controlling erodibility on the same spatial continuum to avoid time-consuming

Adrian Chappell; Ted M. Zobeck; Gillian Brunner

2006-01-01

240

Sea'S Examination of Windpower in 1952: Change of a Wind Power Mill from Direct Current to Alternating Current Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wind power mill built in 1942 in Denmark is described. Various factors influencing the amount of electricity supplied by the mill are indicated. An experiment is described for changing the mill so that it could produce alternating current to be channele...

J. Juul

1974-01-01

241

Combined Wind Vector and Sea State Impact on Ocean Nadir-Viewing Ku- and C-Band Radar Cross-Sections  

PubMed Central

The authors report the first results in studying the polarization anisotropy of the microwave backscatter from nadir observations provided by Jason-1 altimeter in both Ku- and C-band. A small but clear wind direction signal for wind speeds above 6 m/s is revealed. These azimuthal variations of radar cross-section increase with increasing wind speed up to 14 m/s. The signatures then level off at higher winds. These results extend, for the first time, recent theoretical improved scattering approximation, and point some similarities between scattering and emission mechanisms at nadir. The observed directional effect can thus be interpreted as a signature of the curvature anisotropy of wind-generated short-scale waves. Sensitivities to both wind speed and sea state are also reported in the present analysis.

Tran, Ngan; Chapron, Bertrand

2006-01-01

242

Transient and Steady-State Simulation Study of Decoupled d-q Vector Control in PWM Converter of Variable Speed Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable-speed wind turbines are attractive to the high performance and are commonly used by the wind turbine industry today. They are based on variable-speed operation with pitch control using either a direct driven synchronous generator (without gearbox) or a doubly-fed induction generator. For both, there is an AC\\/DC\\/AC PWM converter that is used for wind turbine control and grid interface.

Shuhui LiandTimothy; T. A. Haskew

2007-01-01

243

How did the solar wind structure change around the solar maximum? From interplanetary scintillation observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations from the second Ulysses fast latitude scan show that the global structure of solar wind near solar maximum is much more complex than at solar minimum. Soon after solar maximum, Ulysses observed a polar coronal hole (high speed) plasma with magnetic polarity of the new solar cycle in the Northern Hemisphere. We analyze the solar wind structure at and

K. Fujiki; M. Kojima; M. Tokumaru; T. Ohmi; A. Yokobe; K. Hayashi; D. J. McComas; H. A. Elliott

2003-01-01

244

Assessment and Analysis of QuikSCAT Vector Wind Products for the Gulf of Mexico: A Long-Term and Hurricane Analysis  

PubMed Central

The northern Gulf of Mexico is a region that has been frequently impacted in recent years by natural disasters such as hurricanes. The use of remote sensing data such as winds from NASA's QuikSCAT satellite sensor would be useful for emergency preparedness during such events. In this study, the performance of QuikSCAT products, including JPL's latest Level 2B (L2B) 12.5 km swath winds, were evaluated with respect to buoy-measured winds in the Gulf of Mexico for the period January 2005 to February 2007. Regression analyses indicated better accuracy of QuikSCAT's L2B DIRTH, 12.5 km than the Level 3 (L3), 25 km wind product. QuikSCAT wind data were compared directly with buoy data keeping a maximum time interval of 20 min and spatial interval of 0.1° (?10 km). R2 values for moderate wind speeds were 0.88 and 0.93 for L2B, and 0.75 and 0.89 for L3 for speed and direction, respectively. QuikSCAT wind comparisons for buoys located offshore were better than those located near the coast. Hurricanes that took place during 2002-06 were studied individually to obtain regressions of QuikSCAT versus buoys for those events. Results show QuikSCAT's L2B DIRTH wind product compared well with buoys during hurricanes up to the limit of buoy measurements. Comparisons with the National Hurricane Center (NHC) best track analyses indicated QuikSCAT winds to be lower than those obtained by NHC, possibly due to rain contamination, while buoy measurements appeared to be constrained at high wind speeds. This study has confirmed good agreement of the new QuikSCAT L2B product with buoy measurements and further suggests its potential use during extreme weather conditions in the Gulf of Mexico.

Sharma, Neha; D'Sa, Eurico

2008-01-01

245

Statistical-dynamical downscaling for wind energy potentials: Evaluation and applications to decadal hindcasts and climate change projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach for the regionalisation of wind energy output (Eout) over Europe with special focus on Germany is proposed. SDD uses an extended circulation weather type (CWT) analysis on global daily MSLP fields with the central point being located over Germany. 77 weather classes based on the associated circulation weather type and the intensity of the geostrophic flow are identified. Representatives of these classes are dynamical downscaled with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM. By using weather class frequencies of different datasets the simulated representatives are recombined to probability density functions (PDFs) of near-surface wind speed and finally to Eout of a sample wind turbine for present and future climate. This is performed for reanalysis, decadal hindcasts and long-term future projections. For evaluation purposes results of SDD are compared to wind observations and to simulated Eout of purely dynamical downscaling (DD) methods. For the present climate SDD is able to simulate realistic PDFs of 10m-wind speed for most stations in Germany. The resulting spatial Eout patterns are similar to DD simulated Eout. In terms of decadal hindcasts results of SDD are similar to DD simulated Eout over Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, and Benelux, for which high correlations between annual Eout timeseries of SDD and DD are detected for selected hindcasts. Lower correlation is found for other European countries. It is demonstrated that SDD can be used to downscale the full ensemble of the MPI-ESM decadal prediction system. Long-term climate change projections in SRES scenarios of ECHAM5/MPI-OM as obtained by SDD agree well to results of other studies using DD methods, with increasing Eout over Northern Europe and a negative trend over Southern Europe. Despite some biases it is concluded that SDD is an adequate tool to assess regional wind energy changes in large model ensembles.

Pinto, Joaquim G.; Reyers, Mark; Mömken, Julia

2014-05-01

246

Southern Westerly Wind belt and Carbon dioxide changes during the Antarctic Cold Reversal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last glacial period, the SWW belt was north of 41°S and shifted poleward from the last deglaciation to the Holocene. However, there is no clear evidence for the timing and amplitude of the SWW belt latitudinal shift during the deglaciation and a better understanding of the links between CO2 and the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation during deglaciation may then help us infer the consequences of the recent changes in the winds on future atmospheric CO2. Deglacial pollen record from the marine core MD07-3088 located in southern Chilean coast shows for the first time at 46°S a prominent cold-wet period highlighted by the abrupt expansion of Magellanic moorland vegetation synchronous with the ACR. This cold-wet period illustrates an interruption of the deglacial southward shift of the SWW belt that slightly re-expanded northwards. This crucial result "a northward return of SWW belt during the ACR" imposes a rapid southward shift of the SWW belt at the onset of the deglaciation. Such a rapid southward shift is strengthened by a glacial to deglacial climate simulation showing an abrupt response of the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation to a progressive collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Thus the SWW belt changes during the last deglaciation support rapid transfer mechanisms from the North Atlantic to the Southern Hemisphere through a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. A hold or northward return of the SWW belt during the ACR, could be responsible of a decrease in the Southern Ocean upwelling and thus a reduced outgassing of deep water-water CO2 as shown by the deglacial CO2 plateau measured in Antarctic ice-cores. Such observations represent important inputs to better understand the links between CO2 and the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation and their potential outcome for the future.

Montade, V.; Combourieu Nebout, N.; Kagayema, M.; Kissel, C.; Siani, G.; Michel, E.

2012-04-01

247

Response of currents in Earth's and Saturn's dayside magnetopause to a sudden change in the solar wind density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the effect of a solar wind dynamic pressure pulse on the magnetospheric and ionospheric dynamics is studied, it is usually difficult to detect the effect of a sudden change in the density against the background of the other varying solar wind parameters, which often play a most pronounced role. Cases in which the solar wind plasma density gradient dominated in the dynamics of the different parameters of an interplanetary medium and its magnetic field are considered in this work. Variations in the Earth's dayside magnetopause current caused by a change in the solar wind ion density are presented for two such cases (February 11 and January 11, 1997) based on the method developed by us previously. Variations in the dayside magnetopause current for collisions of the magnetosphere with corotating interacting flows in January 2004, studied in detail by us previously, are also presented for Saturn. The estimates are comparable with the current values in the transitional three-dimensional current systems of Saturn that were previously calculated by us.

Belenkaya, E. S.

2014-05-01

248

Using Eulerian and Lagrangian Approaches to Investigate Wind-Driven Changes in the Southern Ocean Abyssal Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study uses a global ocean eddy-permitting climate model to explore the export of abyssal water from the Southern Ocean and its sensitivity to projected twenty-first-century poleward-intensifying Southern Ocean wind stress. The authors investigate the abyssal flow pathways and transport using a combination of Lagrangian and Eulerian techniques. In an Eulerian format, the equator- and poleward flows within similar abyssal density classes are increased by the wind stress changes, making it difficult to explicitly diagnose changes in the abyssal export in a meridional overturning circulation framework. Lagrangian particle analyses are used to identify the major export pathways of Southern Ocean abyssal waters and reveal an increase in the number of particles exported to the subtropics from source regions around Antarctica in response to the wind forcing. Both the Lagrangian particle and Eulerian analyses identify transients as playing a key role in the abyssal export of water from the Southern Ocean. Wind-driven modifications to the potential energy component of the vorticity balance in the abyss are also found to impact the Southern Ocean barotropic circulation.

Spence, Paul; van Sebille, Erik; Saenko, Oleg; England, Matthew

2014-05-01

249

Analysis of Change in the Wind Speed Ratio according to Apartment Layout and Solutions  

PubMed Central

Apartment complexes in various forms are built in downtown areas. The arrangement of an apartment complex has great influence on the wind flow inside it. There are issues of residents' walking due to gust occurrence within apartment complexes, problems with pollutant emission due to airflow congestion, and heat island and cool island phenomena in apartment complexes. Currently, the forms of internal arrangements of apartment complexes are divided into the flat type and the tower type. In the present study, a wind tunnel experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation were performed with respect to internal wind flows in different apartment arrangement forms. Findings of the wind tunnel experiment showed that the internal form and arrangement of an apartment complex had significant influence on its internal airflow. The wind velocity of the buildings increased by 80% at maximum due to the proximity effects between the buildings. The CFD simulation for relaxing such wind flows indicated that the wind velocity reduced by 40% or more at maximum when the paths between the lateral sides of the buildings were extended.

Hyung, Won-gil; Kim, Young-Moon; You, Ki-Pyo

2014-01-01

250

Climate change and altitudinal structuring of malaria vectors in south-western Cameroon: their relation to malaria transmission.  

PubMed

An entomological survey was conducted in Cameroon between October 2004 and September 2005, in nine localities targeted for malaria vector control based on adult productivity and variability. Mosquitoes were collected by human-landing catches (HLCs) and pyrethrum spray catches. A total of 12 500 anophelines were collected and dissected: Anopheles gambiae s.l. (56.86%), An. funestus s.l. (32.57%), An. hancocki (9.38%), and An. nili (1.18%). Applying PCR revealed that specimens of the An. funestus group were An. funestus s.s. and An. gambiae complex were mostly An. melas and An. gambiae s.s. of the M and S molecular forms with the M forms being the most predominant. The natural distribution patterns of Anopheles species were largely determined by altitude with some species having unique environmental tolerance limits. A human blood index (HBI) of 99.05% was recorded. Mean probability of daily survival of the malaria vectors was 0.92, with annual mean life expectancy of 21.9 days and the expectation of infective life was long with a mean of 7.4 days. The high survival rates suggest a high vector potential for the species. This information enhances the development of a more focused and informed vector control intervention. PMID:20346477

Tanga, M C; Ngundu, W I; Judith, N; Mbuh, J; Tendongfor, N; Simard, Frédéric; Wanji, S

2010-07-01

251

Impact of climate change upon vector born diseases in Europe and Africa using ENSEMBLES Regional Climate Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate variability is an important component in determining the incidence of a number of diseases with significant human\\/animal health and socioeconomic impacts. The most important diseases affecting health are vector-borne, such as malaria, Rift Valley Fever and including those that are tick borne, with over 3 billion of the world population at risk. Malaria alone is responsible for at least

Cyril Caminade; Andy Morse

2010-01-01

252

Changing Snow Cover and Stream Discharge in the Western United States - Wind River Range, Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earlier onset of springtime weather has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack has important implications for the management of water resources. We studied ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover products, 40 years of stream discharge and meteorological station data and 30 years of snow-water equivalent (SWE) SNOw Telemetry (SNOTEL) data in the Wind River Range (WRR), Wyoming. Results show increasing air temperatures for.the 40-year study period. Discharge from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades. Changes in streamflow may be related to increasing air temperatures which are probably contributing to a reduction in snow cover, although no trend of either increasingly lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. And SWE on 1 April does not show an expected downward trend from 1980 to 2009. The extent of snow cover derived from the lowest-elevation zone of the WRR study area is strongly correlated (r=0.91) with stream discharge on 1 May during the decade of the 2000s. The strong relationship between snow cover and streamflow indicates that MODIS snow-cover maps can be used to improve management of water resources in the drought-prone western U.S.

Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Barton, Jonathan S.; Riggs, George A.

2011-01-01

253

A Spatio-temporal Description of the Abrupt Changes in the Photospheric Magnetic and Lorentz-Force Vectors During the 15 February 2011 X2.2 Flare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active region NOAA 11158 produced the first X-class flare of Solar Cycle 24, an X2.2 flare at 01:44 UT on 15 February 2011. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite produces 12-minute, 0.5'' pixel-1 vector magnetograms. Here we analyze a series of these data covering a 12-hour interval centered at the time of this flare. We describe the spatial distributions of the photospheric magnetic changes associated with the flare, including the abrupt changes in the field vector, vertical electric current and Lorentz-force vector acting on the solar interior. We also describe these parameters' temporal evolution. The abrupt magnetic changes were concentrated near the neutral line and in two neighboring sunspots. Near the neutral line, the field vectors became stronger and more horizontal during the flare and the shear increased. This was due to an increase in strength of the horizontal field components near the neutral line, most significant in the horizontal component parallel to the neutral line but the perpendicular component also increased in strength. The vertical component did not show a significant, permanent overall change at the neutral line. The increase in field strength at the neutral line was accompanied by a compensating decrease in field strength in the surrounding volume. In the two sunspots near the neutral line the integrated azimuthal field abruptly decreased during the flare but this change was permanent in only one of the spots. There was a large, abrupt, downward vertical Lorentz-force change acting on the solar interior during the flare, consistent with results of past analyses and recent theoretical work. The horizontal Lorentz force acted in opposite directions along each side of neutral line, with the two sunspots at each end subject to abrupt torsional forces relaxing their magnetic twist. These shearing forces were consistent with a contraction of field and decrease of shear near the neutral line, whereas the field itself became more sheared as a result of the field collapsing towards the neutral line from the surrounding volume. The Lorentz forces acting on the atmospheric volume above the photosphere were equal and opposite.

Petrie, G. J. D.

2013-10-01

254

Changing vessel routes could significantly reduce the cost of future offshore wind projects.  

PubMed

With the recent emphasis on offshore wind energy Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) has become one of the main frameworks used to plan and manage the increasingly complex web of ocean and coastal uses. As wind development becomes more prevalent, existing users of the ocean space, such as commercial shippers, will be compelled to share their historically open-access waters with these projects. Here, we demonstrate the utility of using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to support siting decisions within a CMSP framework. In this study, we assume that large-scale offshore wind development will take place in the US Mid-Atlantic within the next decades. We then evaluate whether building projects nearshore or far from shore would be more cost-effective. Building projects nearshore is assumed to require rerouting of the commercial vessel traffic traveling between the US Mid-Atlantic ports by an average of 18.5 km per trip. We focus on less than 1500 transits by large deep-draft vessels. We estimate that over 29 years of the study, commercial shippers would incur an additional $0.2 billion (in 2012$) in direct and indirect costs. Building wind projects closer to shore where vessels used to transit would generate approximately $13.4 billion (in 2012$) in savings. Considering the large cost savings, modifying areas where vessels transit needs to be included in the portfolio of policies used to support the growth of the offshore wind industry in the US. PMID:24794388

Samoteskul, Kateryna; Firestone, Jeremy; Corbett, James; Callahan, John

2014-08-01

255

The more things change, the more they stay the same: The statistics of wind direction fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study of turbulence, most attention has been given to the components of the velocity field, and their properties at different scales. However, the relation between the different components, i.e., the direction of the velocity vector, has received less consideration by the turbulence community. Directional statistics play an important role in climatological models, and are of interest to those

Eric van Doorn; Brindesh Dhruva; Katepalli R. Sreenivasan

1998-01-01

256

Winds of change: How will windstorms and forest harvesting affect C cycling in northern MN under different climate scenarios?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest managers struggle to manage timber resources while integrating the complex interactions that exist among disturbances with the novel conditions produced by a changing climate. To help forest managers better integrate climate change and disturbance projections into their forest management plans, we are using a forest landscape disturbance and succession model (LANDIS-II, Century extension) to project carbon sequestration in northern Minnesota under multiple climate change, management and disturbance scenarios. The model was calibrated and validated using empirical estimates of aboveground productivity and net ecosystem exchange. Our simulations suggest that windstorms will decrease tree biomass and soil organic matter and will increase dead C, resulting in an overall decrease in total C and C sink strength under the GFDL A1FI climate scenario. However the direct effects of climate change on C via altered production and heterotrophic respiration were larger than the impacts of wind. In contrast, forest harvesting will remain the dominant determinant of C dynamics under A1FI, even under management scenarios of more selective logging and longer rotation periods. Recovery from historic (late 1800s and early 1900s) disturbance - clearcut logging and wildfire - remain an important, though declining, driver of long-term C dynamics. Our research results will inform regional planning efforts and help forest managers evaluate the relative importance of disturbances (e.g. wind) and forest harvesting under a changing climate.

Lucash, M. S.; Scheller, R. M.; Gustafson, E.; Sturtevant, B.

2013-12-01

257

Econometric analysis of the changing effects in wind strength and significant wave height on the probability of casualty in shipping.  

PubMed

This study uses econometric models to measure the effect of significant wave height and wind strength on the probability of casualty and tests whether these effects changed. While both effects are in particular relevant for stability and strength calculations of vessels, it is also helpful for the development of ship construction standards in general to counteract increased risk resulting from changing oceanographic conditions. The authors analyzed a unique dataset of 3.2 million observations from 20,729 individual vessels in the North Atlantic and Arctic regions gathered during the period 1979-2007. The results show that although there is a seasonal pattern in the probability of casualty especially during the winter months, the effect of wind strength and significant wave height do not follow the same seasonal pattern. Additionally, over time, significant wave height shows an increasing effect in January, March, May and October while wind strength shows a decreasing effect, especially in January, March and May. The models can be used to simulate relationships and help understand the relationships. This is of particular interest to naval architects and ship designers as well as multilateral agencies such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that establish global standards in ship design and construction. PMID:21376925

Knapp, Sabine; Kumar, Shashi; Sakurada, Yuri; Shen, Jiajun

2011-05-01

258

Charm changing weak hadronic decays of triplet (C=1) baryons emitting axial-vector mesons including factorizable and pole contributions  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the weak nonleptonic decays of {lambda}{sub c}{sup +}, {xi}{sub c}{sup +}, and {xi}{sub c}{sup 0} into the octet baryons (J{sup P}=1/2{sup +}) and axial-vector mesons (J{sup P}=1{sup +}) employing the factorization scheme for W-emission diagrams and the pole model for W-exchange contributions. Determining the baryon-baryon transition form factors in the nonrelativistic quark model and incorporating the constraints of heavy quark symmetry, we predict their branching ratios and asymmetry parameters.

Sharma, Arvind; Verma, R. C. [Department of Physics, College of Engineering and Management, Kapurthala-144601 (India); Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002 (India)

2009-11-01

259

Sea level changes induced by local winds on the west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of atmospheric pressure and local wind to sea level variability at Goa (West coast of India) for the period 2007-2008 is investigated. Sea level data from a tide gauge are compared with measured local surface meteorological as well as oceanographic data. Multilinear regression analysis is used to resolve the dependence of sea level on various forcing parameters. The multilinear regression analysis performed over approx. 2-year data shows that the local surface meteorological data and water temperature account for the sea level variability only up to 6%. The accounted sea level variability increases to 25%, when the local wind and the surface currents obtained from satellite altimetry in the near vicinity of the study area are incorporated in the regression analysis. The contribution of local wind increases substantially when the regression is performed over a 2-month duration, and it is variable within the year. During the summer monsoon season (May-September), the sea level variability attributable to wind is up to 47% and 75%, respectively, for 2007 and 2008; however, it reduces to <20% during the winter monsoon (November-February) season. A significant part of the variability observed in sea level remains unaccounted for and is attributed to remote forcing.

Mehra, Prakash; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Prabhudesai, R. G.; Joseph, Antony; Shaw, Andrew G. P.; Somayajulu, Y. K.; Cipollini, Paolo

2010-08-01

260

The changing wind structure of the WR/LBV star in HD 5980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HD 5980 is an extraordinary system of massive stars that is located in the Small Magellanic Cloud. It contains an eclipsing binary {P=19.3 d} consisting of a luminous blue variable {LBV} and its Wolf-Rayet {WR} companion. The LBV underwent a major eruptive event in 1994 during which its bolometric luminosity increased by a factor of 5 and it is currently approaching its minimum state of activity. The primary objective of this proposal is to determine the wind velocity and mass-loss rate of the LBV in its current state. With these observations and our earlier observations and analyses, HD 5980 offers the unprecedented opportunity of deriving all the fundamental parameters of an LBV system throughout its activity cycle, parameters which are required in order to constrain the sources of the instabilities that lead to the eruptive phenomena. To accomplish these goals, we request 2 HST orbits to observe HD 5980 with STIS in order to obtain one set of FUV MAMA and CCD spectra at the eclipse, when the LBV occults its WR companion.The study of HD 5980 and the UV spectrum that we propose to acquire are relevant to a broad range of problems including wind-wind collision phenomena, the formation of circumstellar structures powered by stellar winds and the evolution of supernova progenitors.;

Koenigsberger, Gloria

2012-07-01

261

Hazard of extreme wind gusts to buildings in Australia and its sensitivity to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a preliminary study on hazard modeling, estimation, and mapping of extreme wind gusts for consideration of buildings and infrastructure in Australia. Buildings and infrastructure provide essential support for the quality of life and are the founding blocks for social and economic development. Typically the design service life of buildings is around 50 years and that of infrastructure

X. Wang

2009-01-01

262

Wind Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Jack Cermak, Director of Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Laboratory, developed the first wind tunnel to simulate the changing temperatures, directions and velocities of natural winds. In this work, Cermak benefited from NASA technology related to what is known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL).

1983-01-01

263

Assessment and Analysis of QuikSCAT Vector Wind Products for the Gulf of Mexico: A Long-Term and Hurricane Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern Gulf of Mexico is a region that has been frequently impacted in recent years by natural disasters such as hurricanes. The use of remote sensing data such as winds from NASA's QuikSCAT satellite sensor would be useful for emergency preparedness during such events. In this study, the performance of QuikSCAT products, including JPL's latest Level 2B (L2B) 12.5

Neha Sharma; Eurico D’Sa

2008-01-01

264

Bottom pressure changes around Antarctica and wind-driven meridional flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatially-averaged bottom pressure anomalies near Antarctica (south of 60°S) calculated from GRACE data are well correlated with those produced by the ECCO project using least-squares optimization methods to fit an ocean model to most available data. Both GRACE and ECCO results indicate mass exchange primarily between the Southern Ocean and the Pacific and the importance of zonal wind stress to

Rui M. Ponte; Katherine J. Quinn

2009-01-01

265

Thermal and Pressure Characterization of a Wind Tunnel Force Balance Using the Single Vector System. Experimental Design and Analysis Approach to Model Pressure and Temperature Effects in Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel research at NASA Langley Research Center s 31-inch Mach 10 hypersonic facility utilized a 5-component force balance, which provided a pressurized flow-thru capability to the test article. The goal of the research was to determine the interaction effects between the free-stream flow and the exit flow from the reaction control system on the Mars Science Laboratory aeroshell during planetary entry. In the wind tunnel, the balance was exposed to aerodynamic forces and moments, steady-state and transient thermal gradients, and various internal balance cavity pressures. Historically, these effects on force measurement accuracy have not been fully characterized due to limitations in the calibration apparatus. A statistically designed experiment was developed to adequately characterize the behavior of the balance over the expected wind tunnel operating ranges (forces/moments, temperatures, and pressures). The experimental design was based on a Taylor-series expansion in the seven factors for the mathematical models. Model inversion was required to calculate the aerodynamic forces and moments as a function of the strain-gage readings. Details regarding transducer on-board compensation techniques, experimental design development, mathematical modeling, and wind tunnel data reduction are included in this paper.

Lynn, Keith C.; Commo, Sean A.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Parker, Peter A,

2011-01-01

266

Response of the Earth's Magnetosphere to Changes in the Solar Wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar wind couples to the magnetosphere via dynamic pressure and electric field. Pressure establishes the size and shape of the system, while the electric field transfers energy, mass, and momentum to the magnetosphere. When the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is antiparallel to the dayside magnetic field, magnetic reconnection connects the IMF to the dipole field. Solar wind transport of the newly opened field lines to the nightside creates an internal convection system. These open field lines must ultimately be closed by reconnection on the nightside. For many decades, it was thought that a magnetospheric substorm was the process for accomplishing this and that all magnetic activity was a consequence of substorms. It is now recognized that there are a variety of modes of response of the magnetosphere to the solar wind. In this paper, we briefly describe these modes and the conditions under which they occur. They include substorms, pseudo-breakups, poleward boundary intensifications (PBI), steady magnetospheric convection (SMC), sawtooth injection events, magnetic storms, high-intensity long-duration continuous AE activities (HILDCAAs), and storm-time activations. There are numerous explanations for these different phenomena, some of which do not involve magnetic reconnection. However, we speculate that it is possible to interpret each mode in terms of differences in the way magnetic reconnection occurs on the nightside.

McPherron, Robert L.; Weygand, James M.; Hsu, Tung-Shin

2007-01-01

267

Cloning vector  

DOEpatents

A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

1994-12-27

268

WindSAT Data Analysis for Cal/Val.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We investigated the accuracy, capabilities and limitations of surface wind vectors from the first release of WindSAT passive microwave radiometer data using atmospheric boundary layer models and comparisons with NASA QuikSCAT scatterometers winds. Our met...

R. A. Brown R. C. Foster

2008-01-01

269

Ionospheric traveling convection vortices observed near the polar cleft - A triggered response to sudden changes in the solar wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of 20-second resolution magnetometer data from an array of temporary stations operated around Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland, during the summer of 1986 shows the signatures of localized ionospheric traveling convection vortices. An example of an isolated event of this kind observed near 08 local time is presented in detail. This event consists of a twin vortex pattern of convection consistent with the presence of two field-aligned current filaments separated by about 600 km in the east-west direction. This system of currents is observed to move westward (tailward) past the array of stations at about 4 km/sec. The event is associated with relative quiet time ionospheric convection and occurs during an interval of northward IMF. It is, however, associated with a large fluctuation in both the Z and Y components of the IMF and with a large sudden decrease in the solar wind number density. The propagation of the system is inconsistent with existing models of FTE current systems, but nevertheless appears to be related to a readjustment of the magnetopause boundary to a sudden change in the solar wind dynamic pressure and/or to a change in reconnection brought about by a sudden reorientation of the IMF.

Friis-Christensen, E.; Vennerstrom, S.; Mchenry, M. A.; Clauer, C. R.

1988-01-01

270

The effects of changing winds and temperatures on the oceanography of the Ross Sea in the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ross Sea is critically important in regulating Antarctic sea ice and is biologically productive, which makes changes in the region's physical environment of global concern. We examined the effects of projected changes in atmospheric temperatures and winds on aspects of the ocean circulation likely important to primary production using a high-resolution sea ice-ocean-ice shelf model of the Ross Sea. The modeled summer sea-ice concentrations decreased by 56% by 2050 and 78% by 2100. The duration of shallow mixed layers over the continental shelf increased by 8.5 and 19.2 days in 2050 and 2100, and the mean summer mixed layer depths decreased by 12 and 44%. These results suggest that the annual phytoplankton production in the future will increase and become more diatomaceous. Other components of the Ross Sea food web will likely be severely disrupted, creating significant but unpredictable impacts on the ocean's most pristine ecosystem.

Smith, Walker O.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.

2014-03-01

271

Late Holocene changes in precipitation in northwest Tasmania and their potential links to shifts in the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate projections of future climate changes in regions susceptible to drought depend on a good understanding of past climate changes and the processes driving them. In the absence of longer term instrumental data, paleoclimate data are needed. In this study we develop a precipitation reconstruction for Rebecca Lagoon (41°11'S, 144°41'E), northwest Tasmania. First, the relationship between scanning reflectance spectroscopy measurements of sediment cores in the visible spectrum (380-730 nm) and instrumental precipitation record (1912-2009) was used to develop a model to reconstruct precipitation back in time. Results showed that the ratio of reflectance between 660 and 670 nm (i.e., reflectance at 660 nm/reflectance at 670 nm; a measure of pigment diagenesis) was significantly related to annual precipitation. A calibration model was developed (R = - 0.56, pauto < 0.001, RMSEP = 43.0 mm yr- 1, 5 year triangular filtered data, calibration period 1912-2009). Second, this calibration-in-time model was used to reconstruct late Holocene precipitation changes over the last ~ 3000 years. This showed relatively dry conditions from ca. 3100-2800 cal yr BP, wet conditions from ca. 2800-2400 cal yr BP, dry conditions from ca. 2400-2000 calyr BP, and variable conditions after this. Relatively wet conditions occurred from ca. 500 cal yr BP to the late AD 1800 s (ca. 50 cal. yr BP). The precipitation reconstruction indicates that conditions were relatively dry for the 20th century compared to the last ~ 3000 years. In particular, the dry period measured in recent decades is one of the most intense in at least the last 500 years. As precipitation in this region is primarily driven by the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, these changes are discussed in terms of shifts in westerly wind strength and/or position.

Saunders, K. M.; Kamenik, C.; Hodgson, D. A.; Hunziker, S.; Siffert, L.; Fischer, D.; Fujak, M.; Gibson, J. A. E.; Grosjean, M.

2012-07-01

272

Climate change effects on mitigation measures: The case of extreme wind events and Philippines’ biofuel plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuel production has increased dramatically over the past decade, among other to mitigate climate change. However, climate change vulnerability may currently not be sufficiently accounted for in national biofuel strategies, hence neglecting a possible link between mitigation and adaptation to climate change. To the best of our knowledge this potential link has received very little attention in the literature. One

Per M. Stromberg; Miguel Esteban; Alexandros Gasparatos

273

Wind turbine wake aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed

L. J. Vermeer; J. N. Sørensen; A. Crespo

2003-01-01

274

Coherent Doppler Lidar for Boundary Layer Studies and Wind Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis outlines the development of a vector retrieval technique, based on data assimilation, for a coherent Doppler LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). A detailed analysis of the Optimal Interpolation (OI) technique for vector retrieval is presented. Through several modifications to the OI technique, it is shown that the modified technique results in significant improvement in velocity retrieval accuracy. These modifications include changes to innovation covariance portioning, covariance binning, and analysis increment calculation. It is observed that the modified technique is able to make retrievals with better accuracy, preserves local information better, and compares well with tower measurements. In order to study the error of representativeness and vector retrieval error, a lidar simulator was constructed. Using the lidar simulator a thorough sensitivity analysis of the lidar measurement process and vector retrieval is carried out. The error of representativeness as a function of scales of motion and sensitivity of vector retrieval to look angle is quantified. Using the modified OI technique, study of nocturnal flow in Owens' Valley, CA was carried out to identify and understand uncharacteristic events on the night of March 27th 2006. Observations from 1030 UTC to 1230 UTC (0230 hr local time to 0430 hr local time) on March 27 2006 are presented. Lidar observations show complex and uncharacteristic flows such as sudden bursts of westerly cross-valley wind mixing with the dominant up-valley wind. Model results from Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS RTM) and other in-situ instrumentations are used to corroborate and complement these observations. The modified OI technique is used to identify uncharacteristic and extreme flow events at a wind development site. Estimates of turbulence and shear from this technique are compared to tower measurements. A formulation for equivalent wind speed in the presence of variations in wind speed and direction, combined with shear is developed and used to determine wind energy content in presence of turbulence.

Choukulkar, Aditya

275

LARGE CHANGES IN LOESS GEOCHEMISTRY AND HIGH LATITUDE WIND REGIMES DURING THE LAST TWO MILLION YEARS, CENTRAL ALASKA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice wedge casts and thermokarst deposits near the base of 80-m-high loess cliffs at Gold Hill record a cycle of transient climate cooling and permafrost formation followed by an interval of climate warming and permafrost degradation about two million years ago (Beget et al., 2008). Ice wedge casts and thermokarst features occur below the PA tephra (ca. 2.02 myr) but formed after the Reunion paleomagnetic excursion (ca. 2.14 myr), suggesting the Alaskan cold interval was correlative with marine isotope stage 77, a time of significant global glaciation and cooling. The subsequent period of ice wedge thawing records warmer conditions, probably during marine isotope stage 76. Magnetic susceptibility profiling of the 2 MA Alaskan loess reveals glacial-interglacial cycles similar to those seen in late Pleistocene loess. However, new geochemical data from the 2 MA loess shows that it was significantly more calcareous then late Pleistocene loess and contains numerous calcareous concretions, some weighing as much as several kg. For most of the past two million years the loess geochemistry indicates winds came dominantly from the south and southwest carrying non-calcarous silts derived from glaciation of the Alaska Range, with only a minor eolian contribution from the calcareous-rich silts of the Yukon River. The calcareous loess deposits that formed 2.1 MA record eolian silt transport from the Yukon River and the calcareous Brooks Range to the north. The loess record shows that an interval characterized by a major shift in the atmospheric circulation regime from one dominated by southerly winds from the northern Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Alaska to one dominated by northerly winds from the Chuckchi Sea and western Arctic Ocean areas occurred ca. 2.1 MA. At least one additional interval of calcareous loess deposition also occurs in mid-Pleistocene time, and records another large but transient change in high latitude atmospheric circulation at ca. 0.4-0.5 MA.

Keskinen, M. J.; Beget, J. E.

2009-12-01

276

Fractional Factorial Experiment Designs to Minimize Configuration Changes in Wind Tunnel Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper serves as a tutorial to introduce the wind tunnel research community to configuration experiment designs that can satisfy resource constraints in a configuration study involving several variables, without arbitrarily eliminating any of them from the experiment initially. The special case of a configuration study featuring variables at two levels is examined in detail. This is the type of study in which each configuration variable has two natural states - 'on or off', 'deployed or not deployed', 'low or high', and so forth. The basic principles are illustrated by results obtained in configuration studies conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility and in the ViGYAN Low Speed Tunnel in Hampton, Virginia. The crucial role of interactions among configuration variables is highlighted with an illustration of difficulties that can be encountered when they are not properly taken into account.

DeLoach, Richard; Cler, Daniel L.; Graham, Albert B.

2002-01-01

277

Changing Climate and Wind Patterns Revealed in Indiana's Fair Oaks Dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fair Oak Dunes (FOD) cover over 1100 square miles in north-central Indiana. Careful study of dune morphology reveals three types of dunes in regards to their size. The first order forms are compound parabolic dunes that reach over five miles in length and have the apex of parabola pointing in a southwesterly direction. The spacing between these dunes is three to five miles. The second order dune ridges are compound parabolic dunes that range in size from one to three miles in length with spacing of about one mile between the ridges. Both, the second order and the third order dunes have the apex of parabola pointing in northeasterly direction, opposite of the first order dunes. The third order dune ridges are simple parabolic dunes that reach up to half mile in length and are 25 to 30 feet tall in western part to over 45 feet in the eastern part of the FOD. All dunes are fixed by lush vegetation. Preliminary grain size analyses indicate that north part of FOD has coarser sand (0.283 mm) than southern part (0.197 mm), while eastern part (0.271 mm) is coarser than the western part (0.223 mm). This grain size distribution is in accordance with initial interpretation of dune morphology. Strong northeasterly winds associated with anticyclone were prevalent in early dune formation about 14,000 years ago near the end of last glacial. The finest particles were blown south and southwest from the source area which was north and east of the present dunes. Cyclonic southwesterly winds become dominant in Holocene and caused a reworking of the original large dunes into smaller forms as well as removal of some of the finest particles back to the original source to the northeast. Limited vertical dune profiles indicate that below the 5 feet of bioturbated surface layer are alternating light layers (3 to 5 inch thick) and dark laminae (1-2 inches thick). Dark laminae consist of quartz grains with `hairy' surfaces covered with reddish iron oxides or clays. They contain twice as much silt fraction and are more indurated and resistant to weathering than light layers separating them. Are these alternating layers depositional or postdepositional structures? Depositional origin would indicate episodes of drier climate and strong winds creating light, coarser layers while dark laminae would be indication of wet climate and weak winds transporting only dust particles. Postdepositional origin would indicate formation of "dissipation structures" created by soil water translocation of fines during humid climate. Many of the questions about timing of original dunes and their later transformation as well as timing of dark laminae and light layers within the dunes will hopefully be answered by OSL dating.

Kilibarda, Z.

2004-12-01

278

Decades-long changes of the interstellar wind through our solar system.  

PubMed

The journey of the Sun through the dynamically active local interstellar medium creates an evolving heliosphere environment. This motion drives a wind of interstellar material through the heliosphere that has been measured with Earth-orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft for 40 years. Recent results obtained by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer mission during 2009-2010 suggest that neutral interstellar atoms flow into the solar system from a different direction than found previously. These prior measurements represent data collected from Ulysses and other spacecraft during 1992-2002 and a variety of older measurements acquired during 1972-1978. Consideration of all data types and their published results and uncertainties, over the three epochs of observations, indicates that the trend for the interstellar flow ecliptic longitude to increase linearly with time is statistically significant. PMID:24009386

Frisch, P C; Bzowski, M; Livadiotis, G; McComas, D J; Moebius, E; Mueller, H-R; Pryor, W R; Schwadron, N A; Sokó?, J M; Vallerga, J V; Ajello, J M

2013-09-01

279

Vectors, Change of Basis and Matrix Representation: Onto-Semiotic Approach in the Analysis of Creating Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study, the onto-semiotic approach was employed to analyse the mathematical notion of different coordinate systems, as well as some situations and university students' actions related to these coordinate systems in the context of multivariate calculus. This study approaches different coordinate systems through the process of change of…

Montiel, Mariana; Wilhelmi, Miguel R.; Vidakovic, Draga; Elstak, Iwan

2012-01-01

280

Changes in the Observing System Contributing To Perceived Changes in Large Scale Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean surface wind observations have transitioned from purely in situ systems to satellite dominated systems. Reanalyses treat satellite winds as physically identical to in situ winds (albeit with different error characteristics). However, there are systematic differences between satellite and in situ winds. Prior work has shown that this wind observing system change causes trends in latent heat flux that are consistent with trends in analyses, both in spatial pattern and magnitude. These physical differences have also been confirmed in comparisons of research vessel and scatterometer winds (May and Bourassa, 2011), and have been shown to be quite large on weather time scales (Kara et al. 2007). For the published example for 0Z on January 1, 2005, the change in wind shear (U10 - Usfc) was modified by from -15% to +10%, and the monthly average was changed by from -10% to +5%. The differences do to waves and currents are examined herein. The vector differences in seasonal averages are determined from the modern data record, and used to infer systematic changes from the purely in situ system to a satellite-based system. These differences are examined in terms of biases to long term changes in Walker circulation and Hadley circulation. While the changes in wind speed are small compared to the wind speed, they are substantial in comparison to long term trends.

Bourassa, M. A.

2012-12-01

281

Medical Education in the Anatomical Sciences: The Winds of Change Continue to Blow  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At most institutions, education in the anatomical sciences has undergone several changes over the last decade. To identify the changes that have occurred in gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses, directors of these courses were asked to respond to a survey with questions pertaining to total course…

Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

2009-01-01

282

The National Assessment of Shoreline Change: A GIS Compilation of Vector Cliff Edges and Associated Cliff Erosion Data for the California Coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive data clearinghouse of digital vector cliff edges and associated rates of cliff retreat along the open-ocean California coast. These data, which are presented herein, were compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Cliff erosion is a chronic problem along many coastlines of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information including rates and trends of coastal cliff retreat. There is also a critical need for these data to be consistent from one region to another. One objective of this work is to a develop standard, repeatable methodology for mapping and analyzing cliff edge retreat so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates of cliff edge position and associated rates of erosion can be made at a national scale. This data compilation for open-ocean cliff edges for the California coast is a separate, yet related study to Hapke and others, 2006 documenting shoreline change along sandy shorelines of the California coast, which is itself one in a series that includes the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeast Atlantic coast (Morton and others, 2004; Morton and Miller, 2005). Future reports and data compilations will include coverage of the Northeast U.S., the Great Lakes, Hawaii and Alaska. Cliff edge change is determined by comparing the positions of one historical cliff edge digitized from maps with a modern cliff edge derived from topographic LIDAR (light detection and ranging) surveys. Historical cliff edges for the California coast represent the 1920s-1930s time-period; the most recent cliff edge was delineated using data collected between 1998 and 2002. End-point rate calculations were used to evaluate rates of erosion between the two cliff edges. Please refer to our full report on cliff edge erosion along the California coastline at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1133/ for additional information regarding methods and results (Hapke and others, 2007). Data in this report are organized into downloadable layers by region (Northern, Central and Southern California) and are provided as vector datasets with accompanying metadata. Vector cliff edges may represent a compilation of data from one or more sources and the sources used are included in the dataset metadata. This project employs the Environmental Systems Research Institute's (ESRI) ArcGIS as it's Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping tool and contains several data layers (shapefiles) that are used to create a geographic view of the California coast. The vector data form a basemap comprising polygon and line themes that include a U.S. coastline (1:80,000), U.S. cities, and state boundaries.

Hapke, Cheryl J; Reid, David; Borrelli, Mark

2007-01-01

283

Vector carpets  

SciTech Connect

Previous papers have described a general method for visualizing vector fields that involves drawing many small ``glyphs`` to represent the field. This paper shows how to improve the speed of the algorithm by utilizing hardware support for line drawing and extends the technique from regular to unstructured grids. The new approach can be used to visualize vector fields at arbitrary surfaces within regular and unstructured grids. Applications of the algorithm include interactive visualization of transient electromagnetic fields and visualization of velocity fields in fluid flow problems.

Dovey, D.

1995-03-22

284

Quadraphonic Wind  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how the extent of various wind speeds changes in each of the four quadrants around a hurricane. Learners use data from the 'present' location of Hurricane Bill (2009) to plot the distance of various wind speeds that extend from the center of the storm. This resource includes brief background information about hurricanes and forecasting as well as an explanation of the Hurricane Bill data used in this activity and how small increases in wind speed can cause increased potential for damage.

Service, National W.

2012-12-18

285

A review of thrust-vectoring schemes for fighter applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a review of thrust vectoring schemes for advanced fighter applications. Results are presented from wind tunnel and system integration studies on thrust vectoring nozzle concepts. Vectoring data are presented from wind tunnel tests of axisymmetric C-D (convergent-divergent) and nonaxisymmetric wedge, C-D, single ramp and USB (upper-surface blowing) nozzle concepts. Results from recent airframe/nozzle integration studies on the impact of thrust vectoring on weight, cooling and performance characteristics are discussed. This review indicates that the aircraft designer has, at his disposal, a wide range of thrust vectoring schemes which offer potential for added or improved aircraft capability.

Berrier, B. L.; Re, R. J.

1978-01-01

286

Vector thrust induced lift effects for several ejector exhaust locations on a V/STOL wind tunnel model at forward speed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results and analysis of aerodynamic force data obtained from a small scale model of a V/STOL research vehicle in a low speed wind tunnel are presented. The analysis of the data includes the evaluation of aerodynamic-propulsive lift performance when operating twin ejector nozzles with thrust deflected. Three different types of thrust deflector systems were examined: 90 deg downward deflected nozzle, 90 deg slotted nozzle with boundary layer control, and an externally blown flap configuration. Several nozzle locations were tested, including over and underwing positions. The interference lift of the nacelle and model due to jet exhaust thrust is compared and results show that 90 deg turned nozzles located over the wing (near the trailing edge) produce the largest interference lift increment for an untrimmed aircraft, and that the slotted nozzle located under the wing near the trailing edge (in conjunction with a BLC flap) gives a comparable interference lift in the trimmed condition. The externally blown flap nozzle produced the least interference lift and significantly less total lift due to jet thrust effects.

Sharon, A. D.

1975-01-01

287

Circular Conditional Autoregressive Modeling of Vector Fields*  

PubMed Central

As hurricanes approach landfall, there are several hazards for which coastal populations must be prepared. Damaging winds, torrential rains, and tornadoes play havoc with both the coast and inland areas; but, the biggest seaside menace to life and property is the storm surge. Wind fields are used as the primary forcing for the numerical forecasts of the coastal ocean response to hurricane force winds, such as the height of the storm surge and the degree of coastal flooding. Unfortunately, developments in deterministic modeling of these forcings have been hindered by computational expenses. In this paper, we present a multivariate spatial model for vector fields, that we apply to hurricane winds. We parameterize the wind vector at each site in polar coordinates and specify a circular conditional autoregressive (CCAR) model for the vector direction, and a spatial CAR model for speed. We apply our framework for vector fields to hurricane surface wind fields for Hurricane Floyd of 1999 and compare our CCAR model to prior methods that decompose wind speed and direction into its N-S and W-E cardinal components.

Modlin, Danny; Fuentes, Montse; Reich, Brian

2013-01-01

288

Changes in thermospheric temperature induced by high-speed solar wind streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During high-speed stream (HSS) events the solar wind speed increases, and the cross polar cap potential increases, leading to increased Joule heating at high latitudes. The heat input at high latitudes heats the polar regions, which then conducts to lower latitudes, producing global heating. The heating occurs during the risetime of the cross polar cap potential and throughout the period of high cross polar cap potential as seen in our simulation. These simulations are performed using the Utah State University global thermosphere model driven by Joule heating rates that are consistent with electric fields observed by DMSP-15 observations of HSS events. Cooling occurs as the cross polar cap potential decreases and continues for several days after the cross polar cap potential has returned to background values. Polar cap ionospheric observations are compared to model simulations of heating and cooling, providing evidence that the thermospheric model is capturing the HSS energy input and the post-HSS multiday return to pre-HSS conditions. The HSS heating can be as high as 100 K (as seen from both the model and the data) at high latitudes, with a corresponding, but lower, global increase in thermospheric temperature.

Gardner, Larry; Sojka, Jan J.; Schunk, Robert W.; Heelis, Rod

2012-12-01

289

Statistical downscaling of sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region: diagnosing the impact of climate change from the IPSL-CM4 model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key aspect of the ocean circulation off Peru-Chile is the wind-driven upwelling of deep, cold, nutrient-rich waters that promote a rich marine ecosystem. It has been suggested that global warming may be associated with an intensification of upwelling-favorable winds. However, the lack of high-resolution long-term observations has been a limitation for a quantitative analysis of this process. In this study, we use a statistical downscaling method to assess the regional impact of climate change on the sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region as simulated by the global coupled general circulation model IPSL-CM4. Taking advantage of the high-resolution QuikSCAT wind product and of the NCEP reanalysis data, a statistical model based on multiple linear regressions is built for the daily mean meridional and zonal wind at 10 m for the period 2000-2008. The large-scale 10 m wind components and sea level pressure are used as regional circulation predictors. The skill of the downscaling method is assessed by comparing with the surface wind derived from the ERS satellite measurements, with in situ wind observations collected by ICOADS and through cross-validation. It is then applied to the outputs of the IPSL-CM4 model over stabilized periods of the pre-industrial, 2 × CO2 and 4 × CO2 IPCC climate scenarios. The results indicate that surface along-shore winds off central Chile (off central Peru) experience a significant intensification (weakening) during Austral winter (summer) in warmer climates. This is associated with a general decrease in intra-seasonal variability.

Goubanova, K.; Echevin, V.; Dewitte, B.; Codron, F.; Takahashi, K.; Terray, P.; Vrac, M.

2011-04-01

290

Direct active and reactive power control of DFIG for wind energy generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new direct power control (DPC) strategy for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy generation system. The strategy is based on the direct control of stator active and reactive power by selecting appropriate voltage vectors on the rotor side. It is found that the initial rotor flux has no impact on the changes of the

Lie Xu; Phillip Cartwright

2006-01-01

291

Holocene changes in a park-forest vegetation mosaic in the Wind River Range, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The modern mod-elevation vegetation of the Rocky Mountains is a mosaic of conifer forests and open parks dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), grasses, and other herbs. It is not known how this pattern originated or how sensitive the balance between forest and park is to disturbance. Using pollen from sediments of five small ponds in Fish Creek Park, WY (elev. 2700 m), I reconstructed the last 8000 yrs of changes in the park-forest mosaic in an are about 16 km[sup 2]. Surface samples collected from 52 ponds in the Fish Creek Park area and from forest and park sites in Wyoming and Colorado indicate that park and forest pollen assemblages can be distinguished using multivariate statistical methods and conifer:herb pollen ratios. Fossil pollen from the five sediment cores shows that the distribution of the two vegetation types on the landscape has changed through the Holocene, and that the changes in vegetation are gradual. Past changes from park to forest have apparently occurred much more slowly than changes from forest to park, suggesting that areas subjected to recent clearcutting may remain unforested for centuries.

Lynch, E.A. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States))

1994-06-01

292

Electrical Wind Force-Driven and Dislocation-Templated Amorphization in Phase-Change Nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase-change materials undergo rapid and reversible crystalline-to-amorphous structural transformation and are being used for nonvolatile memory devices. However, the transformation mechanism remains poorly understood. We have studied the effect of electrical pulses on the crystalline-to-amorphous phase change in a single-crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) nanowire memory device by in situ transmission electron microscopy. We show that electrical pulses produce dislocations in crystalline GST, which become mobile and glide in the direction of hole-carrier motion. The continuous increase in the density of dislocations moving unidirectionally in the material leads to dislocation jamming, which eventually induces the crystalline-to-amorphous phase change with a sharp interface spanning the entire nanowire cross section. The dislocation-templated amorphization explains the large on/off resistance ratio of the device.

Nam, Sung-Wook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Lo, Yu Chieh; Qi, Liang; Li, Ju; Lu, Ye; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Jung, Yeonwoong; Nukala, Pavan; Agarwal, Ritesh

2012-06-01

293

Winds of Change in New York City's Public Schools: Can Chancellor Macchiarola Set a New Course?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many New Yorkers have given up on the public schools and on the chance for reform. However, the school system's new chancellor, Frank Macchiarola, seems to have both the necessary commitment to change and the administrative skills. Interim evaluations have been made of his performance, with the following results: (1) Staff Performance--good work…

Seeley, David S.

1979-01-01

294

Medical Education In the Anatomical Sciences: The Winds of Change Continue to Blow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a follow up survey identifying the changes over a decade in medical curriculum. Directors of medical schools responded to questions pertaining to total course hours, lab hours, lecture hours, lab is integrated or stand alone, and laboratory experience. Outcomes of differences over time are discussed.

Dr. Jennifer M McBride (Cleveland Clinic, Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Surgery)

2009-11-01

295

Hot gas ingestion test results of a two-poster vectored thrust concept with flow visualization in the NASA Lewis 9- x 15-foot low speed wind tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 9.2 percent scale Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) hot gas ingestion model was designed and built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MCAIR) and tested in the Lewis Research Center 9 x 15 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). Hot gas ingestion, the entrainment of heated engine exhaust into the inlet flow field, is a key development issure for advanced short takeoff and vertical landing aircraft. Flow visualization from the Phase 1 test program, which evaluated the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques, is covered. The Phase 2 test program evaluated the hot gas ingestion phenomena at higher temperatures and used a laser sheet to investigate the flow field. Hot gas ingestion levels were measured for the several forward nozzle splay configurations and with flow control/life improvement devices (LIDs) which reduced the hot gas ingestion. The model support system had four degrees of freedom - pitch, roll, yaw, and vertical height variation. The model support system also provided heated high-pressure air for nozzle flow and a suction system exhaust for inlet flow. The test was conducted at full scale nozzle pressure ratios and inlet Mach numbers. Test and data analysis results from Phase 2 and flow visualization from both Phase 1 and 2 are documented. A description of the model and facility modifications is also provided. Headwind velocity was varied from 10 to 23 kn. Results are presented over a range of nozzle pressure ratios at a 10 kn headwind velocity. The Phase 2 program was conducted at exhaust nozzle temperatures up to 1460 R and utilized a sheet laser system for flow visualization of the model flow field in and out of ground effects. The results reported are for nozzle exhaust temperatures up to 1160 R. These results will contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, the total pressure recovery, the inlet temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane contours, the model airframe heating, and the location of the ground flow separation.

Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.; Strock, Thomas W.

1990-01-01

296

Changes in the High-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron-Density Profiles in Response to Solar-Wind Perturbations During Large Magnetic Storms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latest results from an investigation to establish links between solar-wind and topside-ionospheric parameters will be presented including a case where high-latitude topside electron-density Ne(h) profiles indicated dramatic rapid changes in the scale height during the main phase of a large magnetic storm (Dst < -200 nT). These scale-height changes suggest a large heat input to the topside ionosphere at this time. The topside profiles were derived from ISIS-1 digital ionograms obtained from the NASA Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDA Web). Solar-wind data obtained from the NASA OMNIWeb database indicated that the magnetic storm was due to a magnetic cloud. This event is one of several large magnetic storms being investigated during the interval from 1965 to 1984 when both solar-wind and digital topside ionograms, from either Alouette-2, ISIS-1, or ISIS-2, are potentially available.

Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph; Osherovich, Vladimir; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Arbacher, Becca

2011-01-01

297

Changes in the High-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron-Density Profiles in Response to Solar-Wind Perturbations During Large Magnetic Storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest results from an investigation to establish links between solar-wind and topside-ionospheric parameters will be presented including a case where high-latitude topside electron-density Ne(h) profiles indicated dramatic rapid changes in the scale height during the main phase of a large magnetic storm (Dst < -200 nT). These scale-height changes suggest a large heat input to the topside ionosphere at this time. The topside profiles were derived from ISIS-1 digital ionograms obtained from the NASA Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb). Solar-wind data obtained from the NASA OMNIWeb database indicated that the magnetic storm was due to a magnetic cloud. This event is one of several large magnetic storms being investigated during the interval from 1965 to 1984 when both solar-wind and digital topside ionograms, from either Alouette-2, ISIS-1, or ISIS-2, are potentially available.

Benson, R. F.; Fainberg, J.; Osherovich, V. A.; Truhlik, V.; Wang, Y.; Arbacher, R. T.

2011-12-01

298

Linking Inuit knowledge and meteorological station observations to understand changing wind patterns at Clyde River, Nunavut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connecting indigenous and scientific observations and knowledge has received much attention in the Arctic, not least in the\\u000a area of climate change. On some levels, this connection can be established relatively easily, linking observations of similar\\u000a phenomena or of various effects stemming from the same cause. Closer examinations of specific environmental parameters, however,\\u000a can lead to far more complex and

Shari Gearheard; Matthew Pocernich; Ronald Stewart; Joelie Sanguya; Henry P. Huntington

2010-01-01

299

Mapping the Sun's Atmosphere Into Interplanetary Space: How Recent Changes in the Solar Dynamo are Affecting the Solar Wind Around Us (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photospheric magnetic field provides the key boundary conditions for the interplanetary medium, including the solar wind plasma and the interplanetary magnetic field. Thus any changes in the solar interior that affect either the emergence, dispersion, and decay of active region magnetic fields, or the evolution of the quiet Sun fields, can have locally measurable effects. Each solar cycle for

J. G. Luhmann; C. O. Lee; J. T. Hoeksema

2009-01-01

300

New techniques in 3D scalar and vector field visualization  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have recently developed several techniques for volume visualization of scalar and vector fields, all of which use back-to-front compositing. The first renders volume density clouds by compositing polyhedral volume cells or their faces. The second is a ``splatting`` scheme which composites textures used to reconstruct the scalar or vector fields. One version calculates the necessary texture values in software, and another takes advantage of hardware texture mapping. The next technique renders contour surface polygons using semi-transparent textures, which adjust appropriately when the surfaces deform in a flow, or change topology. The final one renders the ``flow volume`` of smoke or dye tracer swept out by a fluid flowing through a small generating polygon. All of these techniques are applied to a climate model data set, to visualize cloud density and wind velocity.

Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Becker, B.

1993-05-05

301

Changes in soil CO2 efflux of organic calcaric soils due to disturbance by wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disturbances such as windthrow or insect infestations are supposed to have a significant influence on the soil carbon balance of affected forests. Increasing soil temperatures and changes in the soil moisture regime, caused by the removed tree layer, are expected to change soil CO2 efflux, also known as soil respiration. Beside an anticipated stimulation of the carbon mineralization, the main part of root allocated CO2 is offset due to the blown down trees. On mountain forest sites of the Northern Limestone Alps, where highly active organic soils above calcareous parent material are characteristic (Folic Histosols and Rendzic Leptosols), an increase of the mineralization rate of carbon may contribute to enormous humus losses. Serious site degradation can be the consequence, especially on south exposed slopes where extreme climatic conditions occur. The present study tries to give insights to disturbance induced changes in temporal and spatial behaviour of soil respiration for a montane mountain forest located in the Northern Limestone Alps of Upper Austria. Soil respiration, soil temperature and volumetric water content were measured on two windthrow areas (blow down dates were 2007 and 2009 respectively) as well as in an adjacent mature mixed forest during the vegetation periods of 2010 and 2011. Soil respiration in both years was mainly driven by soil temperature, which explained up to 90 % of the concerning temporal variation. Volumetric water content had a significant influence as additional temporal driver. After removing the temperature trend, significant differences in basal soil respiration rates were found for the disturbance area and the forest stand. Inter seasonal declines in soil respiration were ascertained for the mature stand as well as for the recent windthrow. Particular decreases are related to drought stress in summer 2011 and a proceeded decomposition of labile soil carbon components at the windthrow site. An interaction between soil type and stratum showed a distinctive decrease in the soil CO2 efflux pattern for organic soils by comparing the recent and old disturbance areas. Such a downward trend was also detected on the more recently disturbed area in the consecutive years. These findings support the assumption that carbon mineralization can account for excessive losses in soil organic carbon after forest disturbance, whereas organic humus soils are supposed to be particularly vulnerable. This study is part of the INTERREG Bayern-Österreich 2007 -2013 project 'SicAlp - Standortssicherung im Kalkalpin' which is funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and national funding.

Mayer, M.; Katzensteiner, K.

2012-04-01

302

Amazonian malaria: Asymptomatic human reservoirs, diagnostic challenges, environmentally-driven changes in mosquito vector populations, and the mandate for sustainable control strategies  

PubMed Central

Across the Americas and the Caribbean, nearly 561,000 slide-confirmed malaria infections were reported officially in 2008. The nine Amazonian countries accounted for 89% of these infections; Brazil and Peru alone contributed 56% and 7% of them, respectively. Local populations of the relatively neglected parasite P. vivax, which currently accounts for 77% of the regional malaria burden, are extremely diverse genetically and geographically structured. At a time when malaria elimination is placed on the public health agenda of several endemic countries, it remains unclear why malaria proved so difficult to control in areas of relatively low levels of transmission such as the Amazon Basin. We hypothesize that asymptomatic parasite carriage and massive environmental changes that affect vector abundance and behavior are major contributors to malaria transmission in epidemiologically diverse areas across the Amazon Basin. Here we review available data supporting this hypothesis and discuss their implications for current and future malaria intervention policies in the region. Given that locally generated scientific evidence is urgently required to support malaria control interventions in Amazonia, we briefly describe the aims of our current field-oriented malaria research in rural villages and gold-mining enclaves in Peru and a recently opened agricultural settlement in Brazil.

da Silva-Nunes, Monica; Moreno, Marta; Conn, Jan E.; Gamboa, Dionicia; Abeles, Shira; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

2012-01-01

303

Assessing climate change impacts on the near-term stability of the wind energy resource over the United States  

PubMed Central

The energy sector comprises approximately two-thirds of global total greenhouse gas emissions. For this and other reasons, renewable energy resources including wind power are being increasingly harnessed to provide electricity generation potential with negligible emissions of carbon dioxide. The wind energy resource is naturally a function of the climate system because the “fuel” is the incident wind speed and thus is determined by the atmospheric circulation. Some recent articles have reported historical declines in measured near-surface wind speeds, leading some to question the continued viability of the wind energy industry. Here we briefly articulate the challenges inherent in accurately quantifying and attributing historical tendencies and making robust projections of likely future wind resources. We then analyze simulations from the current generation of regional climate models and show, at least for the next 50 years, the wind resource in the regions of greatest wind energy penetration will not move beyond the historical envelope of variability. Thus this work suggests that the wind energy industry can, and will, continue to make a contribution to electricity provision in these regions for at least the next several decades.

Pryor, S. C.; Barthelmie, R. J.

2011-01-01

304

Pollen, wind and fire: how to investigate genetic effects of disturbance-induced change in forest trees.  

PubMed

Understanding the consequences of habitat disturbance on mating patterns although pollen and seed dispersal in forest trees has been a long-standing theme of forest and conservation genetics. Forest ecosystems face global environmental pressures from timber exploitation to genetic pollution and climate change, and it is therefore essential to comprehend how disturbances may alter the dispersal of genes and their establishment in tree populations in order to formulate relevant recommendations for sustainable resource management practices and realistic predictions of potential adaptation to climate change by means of range shift or expansion (Kremer et al. 2012). However, obtaining reliable evidence of disturbance-induced effects on gene dispersal processes from empirical evaluation of forest tree populations is difficult. Indeed, tree species share characteristics such as high longevity, long generation time and large reproductive population size, which may impede the experimenter's ability to assess parameters at the spatial and time scales at which any change may occur (Petit and Hampe 2006). It has been suggested that appropriate study designs should encompass comparison of populations before and after disturbance as well as account for demonstrated variation in conspecific density, that is, the spatial distribution of mates, and forest density, including all species and relating to alteration in landscape openness (Bacles & Jump 2011). However, more often than not, empirical studies aiming to assess the consequences of habitat disturbance on genetic processes in tree populations assume rather than quantify a change in tree densities in forests under disturbance and generally fail to account for population history, which may lead to inappropriate interpretation of a causal relationship between population genetic structure and habitat disturbance due to effects of unmonitored confounding variables (Gauzere et al. 2013). In this issue, Shohami and Nathan (2014) take advantage of the distinctive features of the fire-adapted wind-pollinated Aleppo pine Pinus halepensis (Fig. 1) to provide an elegant example of best practice. Thanks to long-term monitoring of the study site, a natural stand in Israel, Shohami and Nathan witnessed the direct impact of habitat disturbance, here taking the shape of fire, on conspecific and forest densities and compared pre- and postdisturbance mating patterns estimated from cones of different ages sampled on the same surviving maternal individuals (Fig. 2). This excellent study design is all the more strong that Shohami and Nathan took further analytical steps to account for confounding variables, such as historical population genetic structure and possible interannual variation in wind conditions, thus giving high credibility to their findings of unequivocal fire-induced alteration of mating patterns in P. halepensis. Most notably, the authors found, at the pollen pool level, a disruption of local genetic structure which, furthermore, they were able to attribute explicitly to enhanced pollen-mediated gene immigration into the low-density fire-disturbed stand. This cleverly designed research provides a model approach to be followed if we are to advance our understanding of disturbance-induced dispersal and genetic change in forest trees. PMID:24372751

Bacles, Cecile F E

2014-01-01

305

Wind turbine  

DOEpatents

A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

Cheney, Jr., Marvin C. (Glastonbury, CT)

1982-01-01

306

Three-Dimensional Wind Profiling of Offshore Wind Energy Areas With Airborne Doppler Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique has been developed for imaging the wind field over offshore areas being considered for wind farming. This is accomplished with an eye-safe 2-micrometer wavelength coherent Doppler lidar installed in an aircraft. By raster scanning the aircraft over the wind energy area (WEA), a three-dimensional map of the wind vector can be made. This technique was evaluated in 11 flights over the Virginia and Maryland offshore WEAs. Heights above the ocean surface planned for wind turbines are shown to be within the marine boundary layer, and the wind vector is seen to show variation across the geographical area of interest at turbine heights.

Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Cowen, Larry J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Grant, Michael S.

2014-01-01

307

Three-dimensional wind profiling of offshore wind energy areas with airborne Doppler lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique has been developed for imaging the wind field over offshore areas being considered for wind farming. This is accomplished with an eye-safe 2-?m wavelength coherent Doppler lidar installed in an aircraft. By raster scanning the aircraft over the wind energy area (WEA), a three-dimensional map of the wind vector can be made. This technique was evaluated in 11 flights over the Virginia and Maryland offshore WEAs. Heights above the ocean surface planned for wind turbines are shown to be within the marine boundary layer, and the wind vector is seen to show variation across the geographical area of interest at turbine heights.

Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Cowen, Larry J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Grant, Michael S.

2014-01-01

308

Wind farm and solar park effects on plant-soil carbon cycling: uncertain impacts of changes in ground-level microclimate.  

PubMed

Global energy demand is increasing as greenhouse gas driven climate change progresses, making renewable energy sources critical to future sustainable power provision. Land-based wind and solar electricity generation technologies are rapidly expanding, yet our understanding of their operational effects on biological carbon cycling in hosting ecosystems is limited. Wind turbines and photovoltaic panels can significantly change local ground-level climate by a magnitude that could affect the fundamental plant-soil processes that govern carbon dynamics. We believe that understanding the possible effects of changes in ground-level microclimates on these phenomena is crucial to reducing uncertainty of the true renewable energy carbon cost and to maximize beneficial effects. In this Opinions article, we examine the potential for the microclimatic effects of these land-based renewable energy sources to alter plant-soil carbon cycling, hypothesize likely effects and identify critical knowledge gaps for future carbon research. PMID:24132939

Armstrong, Alona; Waldron, Susan; Whitaker, Jeanette; Ostle, Nicholas J

2014-06-01

309

A piecewise linear model for detecting climatic trends and their structural changes with application to mesosphere/lower thermosphere winds over Collm, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A piecewise linear model is developed to detect climatic trends and their structural changes in time series with a priori unknown number and positions of breakpoints (BPs). The departure (i.e., the initial noise term) of trends from time series is allowed to be interpreted by the first- and second-order autoregressive models. The goodness of fit of candidate models, if the residuals are accepted as normally distributed white noise, is evaluated using the Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The uncertainties of all trend parameters are estimated using the Monte-Carlo method. The model is applied to the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) winds obtained at Collm, Germany, during 1960-2007. A persistent increase after ˜1980 of the zonal prevailing wind is observed in all seasons and hence in the zonal annual mean based on the primary models. Trends of the meridional prevailing wind are different for different seasons. Several major trend BPs are identified in the annual mean zonal and meridional winds according to BIC. However, in view of the large wind variability before the late 1970s, alternative models are considered. This provides four additional minor breaks. In some cases, the initial noise must be further interpreted by autoregressive models, suggesting that other unidentified factors may also play a role.

Liu, R. Q.; Jacobi, Ch.; Hoffmann, P.; Stober, G.; Merzlyakov, E. G.

2010-11-01

310

Wind Electric Power Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wind power station is described in which the structure on which the rotors are mounted may tilt as wind speed changes so that the rotors leave the vertical plane to anticipate increased wind speeds. The power station may have pulse generators located in...

H. Honnef

1974-01-01

311

Roles of surface wind, NDVI and snow cover in the recent changes in Asian dust storm occurrence frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the recent variations in dust outbreak during the period from 1996 to 2007 over the Asian dust source regions. The Asian dust source regions were divided into four sub-regions; S1, Taklamakan; S2, Gobi; S3, Inner Mongolia-Manchuria; and S4, Loess, and the WMO SYNOP observation and satellite data were employed to analyze the features of recently changed dust outbreak frequencies (DOFs). There was no particular variation in region S1, but the recent spatiotemporal variations in DOFs over S2-S4 were well characterized by a severe and widespread increase in 2001-2002, and significant decreasing in 2003-2004 over the most source regions, with a steadily increasing trend again during 2005-2007. Seasonal features showed that the highest DOFs occurred in March-April before 2002, but was delayed by a month toward April-May during the next five years because of the shift in the month of highest strong wind-speed frequencies (SWFs). A secondary peak of DOF was also found, occurring in October-November since the year 2000. Over all the source regions, the primary controlling factor for explaining the spatiotemporal DOF patterns was the SWF, with a pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.66-0.76. Other secondary controlling factors varied from region to region. For example, the DOFs observed in region S2-S3 showed relatively greater sensitivity to the snow-cover fraction, and region S4 showed a better correlation with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) than the other regions. Other recent significant changes in DOFs over the Asian dust source regions and their causes are also discussed in this study.

Lee, Jong-Jae; Kim, Cheol-Hee

2012-11-01

312

Controlling Compressor Vane Flow Vectoring Angles at Transonic Speeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to control flow separation angles from compressor inlet guide vanes with a Coanda-type actuator is demonstrated using both wind tunnel experiments and finite element simulations. Vectoring angles up to 40 degrees from the uncontrolled baseline state were measured with helium schlieren visualization at transonic Mach numbers ranging from 0.1 to 0.6, and with airfoil chord Reynolds numbers ranging from 89,000 to 710,000. The magnitude of the vectoring angle is shown to depend upon the geometry of the trailing edge, and actuator slot size, and the momentum flux coefficient. Under certain conditions the blowing has no effect on the vectoring angle indicating that the Coanda effect is not present. DNS simulations with the finite element method investigated the effects of geometry changes and external flow. Continuous control of the vectoring angle is demonstrated, which has important implications for application to rotating machinery. The technique is shown to reduce the stall flow coefficient by 15 percent in an axial flow compressor.

Munson, Matthew; Rempfer, Dietmar; Williams, David; Acharya, Mukund

2003-11-01

313

Dengue Vectors and their Spatial Distribution  

PubMed Central

The distribution of dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, is affected by climatic factors. In addition, since their life cycles are well adapted to the human environment, environmental changes resulting from human activity such as urbanization exert a great impact on vector distribution. The different responses of Ae. aegypti and Ae albopictus to various environments result in a difference in spatial distribution along north-south and urban-rural gradients, and between the indoors and outdoors. In the north-south gradient, climate associated with survival is an important factor in spatial distribution. In the urban-rural gradient, different distribution reflects a difference in adult niches and is modified by geographic and human factors. The direct response of the two species to the environment around houses is related to different spatial distribution indoors and outdoors. Dengue viruses circulate mainly between human and vector mosquitoes, and the vector presence is a limiting factor of transmission. Therefore, spatial distribution of dengue vectors is a significant concern in the epidemiology of the disease. Current technologies such as GIS, satellite imagery and statistical models allow researchers to predict the spatial distribution of vectors in the changing environment. Although it is difficult to confirm the actual effect of environmental and climate changes on vector abundance and vector-borne diseases, environmental changes caused by humans and human behavioral changes due to climate change can be expected to exert an impact on dengue vectors. Longitudinal monitoring of dengue vectors and viruses is therefore necessary.

Higa, Yukiko

2011-01-01

314

Statistical Correction for Short-term Wind Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainty of wind speed forecasts from Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) is a main source of errors in wind power forecasts. Despite increased accuracy of wind power forecasts in the last years, large wind power forecast errors still occur due to local weather and/or synoptic systems that either develop locally or that are phase-shifted relative to the forecast. The main error sources of NWP are, amongst others, inaccurate initial and/or lateral boundary conditions and inadequate representation of local forcing. Wind measurements in the WMEP program and the wind field forecasts of DWD-LM(German Weather Service - Local Model) in 2004 and from Sept. to Dec. of 2006 are used for correcting DWD-LM wind forecasts. In order to remove systematic error, phase error, or local-scale error in wind forecasts, three kinds of methods, bias correction, phase correction and Cressman technique are applied. Using bias increments changing with wind direction, the wind forecasts are modified. After bias correction, RMSE ( Root Mean Square Error ) of corrected forecasts decrease 0.1m/s to 0.4m/s. Diurnal or seasonal change of bias is also important. In addition, with optimum phase-shift vectors, the phase-shift correction is applied. It reduces the RMSE about 0.1m/s to 0.5m/s at different time steps. Moreover, statistical Cressman correction increments were obtained by Cressman technique and used to correct wind forecasts. After Cressman correction, the RMSE of wind forecasts decreases 0.1m/s to 0.2m/s. The results show that bias correction, phase correction and Cressman scheme do, to some extent, improve wind speed forecasts. That contributes to the improvement of wind power forecasts. As part of the new EU-project "SafeWind", we are continuing that study with NWP-data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and wind speed observations over Europe.

Jiang, J.; Tambke, J.; Heinemann, D.

2009-04-01

315

Wind Tubes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create and experiment with wind tubes. These tubes are a playful and inventive way to explore the effect that moving air has on objects. Construction uses everyday materials such as a fan and embroidery hoops. Itâs fun to make things fly out of or float in the tubes, and to adjust the tubes to change the way the objects fly. The activity requires a significant amount of time and resources to build and may require adult help in construction. Experimentation with the wind tubes is engaging for a wide age range of learners.

Exploratorium

2012-12-14

316

Relating high-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron-Density-Profile changes to Solar-Wind Parameters During Large Magnetic Storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten large magnetic storms (Dst < -100 nT) where high-latitude topside electron-density profiles Ne(h) could be obtained from Alouette/ISIS topside-sounder data, and where solar-wind data were available, were investigated. The former were obtained from the NASA Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) and the latter were obtained from the NASA OMNIWeb database. Large Ne(h) changes were observed during the storms in all cases. In some cases large topside Ne(h) gradients were observed between adjacent ionograms (separated by ~ ½ minute) and even within a single ionogram (profiles separated by < 10 s). The changes in the winter profiles have a clear relationship with the solar-wind velocity Vsw in that the topside Ne(h) increases with increasing Vsw during nighttime and decreases with increasing Vsw during daytime.

Benson, R. F.; Fainberg, J.; Osherovich, V.; Truhlik, V.; Wang, Y.; Bilitza, D.; Lam, H.

2012-12-01

317

MPPT Control of Wind Generation Systems Based on Estimated Wind Speed Using SVR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel algorithm for wind-speed estimation in wind-power generation systems is proposed, which is based on the theory of support-vector regression (SVR). The inputs of the SVR wind-speed estimator are chosen as the wind-turbine power and rotational speed. During the offline training, a specified model, which relates the inputs to the output, is obtained. Then, the wind

Ahmed G. Abo-Khalil; Dong-Choon Lee

2008-01-01

318

Vector Addition Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vector Addition model allows the user to practice vector addition of two vectors in two dimensions. You are given the magnitude and direction of the two vectors, and your goal is to fill in the nine values in the table (showing the x-component, y-component, and length) of the two vectors, and the resultant vector that is the sum of the first two vectors. The Vector Addition was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_vector_addition.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-04-25

319

Effects of sea state on offshore wind resourcing in Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore resource assessment relies on estimating wind speeds at turbine hub height using observations typically made at substantially lower height. The methods used to adjust from observed wind speeds to hub height can impact resource estimation. The importance of directional sea state is examined, both as seasonal averages and as a function of the diurnal cycle. A General Electric 3.6 MW offshore turbine is used as a model for a power production. Including sea state increases or decreases seasonally averaged power production by roughly 1%, which is found to be an economically significant change. These changes occur because the sea state modifies the wind shear (vector wind difference between the buoy height and the moving surface) and therefore the extrapolation from the observation to hub height is affected. These seemingly small differences in capacity can alter profits by millions of dollars depending upon the size of the farm and fluctuations in price per kWh throughout the year. A 2% change in capacity factor can lead to a 10 million dollar difference from total kWh produced from a wind farm of 100 3.6MW turbines. These economic impacts can be a deciding factor in determining whether a resource is viable for development. Modification of power output due to sea states are shown for seasonal and diurnal time scales. Three regions are examined herein: West Florida, East Florida, and Nantucket Sound. The average capacity after sea state is included suggests areas around Florida could provide substantial amounts of wind power throughout three-fourths of the calendar year. At certain times of day winter average produced capacity factors in West Florida can be up to 45% more than in summer when sea state is included. Nantucket Sound capacity factors are calculated for comparison to a region near a planned United States offshore wind farm. This study provides evidence to suggest including sea state in offshore wind resource assessment causes economically significant differences for offshore wind power siting.

Collier, Cristina

320

Deglacial changes of the southern margin of the southern westerly winds revealed by terrestrial records from SW Patagonia (52°S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the ongoing discussion regarding synchrony or bipolar asynchrony of paleoclimate events has centered on the timing and structure of the last glacial termination in the southern mid- latitudes, in particular the southwestern Patagonian region (50°-55°S). Its location adjacent to the Drake Passage and near the southern margin of the southern westerly winds (SWW) allows examining the postulated links between the Southern Ocean-SWW coupled system and atmospheric CO2 variations through the last glacial termination. Results from two sites located in the Última Esperanza area (52°S) allow us to infer SWW-driven changes in hydrologic balance during this critical time interval. These findings indicate peatland development under temperate/wet conditions between 14,600 and 14,900 cal yr BP, followed by cooling and a lake transgressive phase that led to a shallow lake during the early part of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR, 13,600-14,600 cal yr BP), followed in turn by a deeper lake and modest warming during Younger Dryas time (YD, ˜11,800-13,000 cal yr BP), superseded by terrestrialization and forest expansion at the beginning of the Holocene. We propose that the SWW (i) strengthened and shifted northward during ACR time causing a precipitation rise in northwestern and southwestern Patagonia coeval with mid- and high-latitude cooling and a halt in the deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise; (ii) shifted southward during YD time causing a precipitation decline/increase in NW/SW Patagonia, respectively, high-latitude warming, and invigorated CO2 release from the Southern Ocean; (iii) became weaker between ˜10,000 and 11,500 cal yr BP causing a precipitation decline throughout Patagonia, concurrent with peak mid- and high-latitude temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

Moreno, P. I.; Villa-Martínez, R.; Cárdenas, M. L.; Sagredo, E. A.

2012-05-01

321

An oilspill trajectory analysis model with a variable wind deflection angle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The oilspill trajectory movement algorithm consists of a vector sum of the surface drift component due to wind and the surface current component. In the U.S. Geological Survey oilspill trajectory analysis model, the surface drift component is assumed to be 3.5% of the wind speed and is rotated 20 degrees clockwise to account for Coriolis effects in the Northern Hemisphere. Field and laboratory data suggest, however, that the deflection angle of the surface drift current can be highly variable. An empirical formula, based on field observations and theoretical arguments relating wind speed to deflection angle, was used to calculate a new deflection angle at each time step in the model. Comparisons of oilspill contact probabilities to coastal areas calculated for constant and variable deflection angles showed that the model is insensitive to this changing angle at low wind speeds. At high wind speeds, some statistically significant differences in contact probabilities did appear. ?? 1982.

Samuels, W. B.; Huang, N. E.; Amstutz, D. E.

1982-01-01

322

Modeling the role of environmental variables on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of weather and climate on malaria transmission has attracted considerable attention in recent years, yet uncertainties around future disease trends under climate change remain. Mathematical models provide powerful tools for addressing such questions and understanding the implications for interventions and eradication strategies, but these require realistic modeling of the vector population dynamics and its response to environmental variables. Methods Published and unpublished field and experimental data are used to develop new formulations for modeling the relationships between key aspects of vector ecology and environmental variables. These relationships are integrated within a validated deterministic model of Anopheles gambiae s.s. population dynamics to provide a valuable tool for understanding vector response to biotic and abiotic variables. Results A novel, parsimonious framework for assessing the effects of rainfall, cloudiness, wind speed, desiccation, temperature, relative humidity and density-dependence on vector abundance is developed, allowing ease of construction, analysis, and integration into malaria transmission models. Model validation shows good agreement with longitudinal vector abundance data from Tanzania, suggesting that recent malaria reductions in certain areas of Africa could be due to changing environmental conditions affecting vector populations. Conclusions Mathematical models provide a powerful, explanatory means of understanding the role of environmental variables on mosquito populations and hence for predicting future malaria transmission under global change. The framework developed provides a valuable advance in this respect, but also highlights key research gaps that need to be resolved if we are to better understand future malaria risk in vulnerable communities.

2012-01-01

323

Solar Wind Magnetic Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

Smith, E. J.

1995-01-01

324

Vectors: Tip to Tail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will learn the characteristics and appropriate use of vectors. They will find the magnitude and direction of vectors, they will add and subtract vectors and use an interactive website to practice what they have learned.

Linamen, Sharon

2012-07-23

325

DSCOVR High Time Resolution Solar Wind Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), previously known as Triana, spacecraft is expected to be launched in late 2014. It will carry a fluxgate magnetometer, Faraday Cup solar wind detector and a top-hat electron electrostatic analyzer. The Faraday Cup will provide an unprecedented 10 vectors/sec time resolution measurement of the solar wind proton and alpha reduced distribution functions. Coupled with the 40 vector/sec vector magnetometer measurements, the identification of specific wave modes in the solar wind will be possible for the first time. The science objectives and data products of the mission will be discussed.

Szabo, Adam

2012-01-01

326

DSCOVR High Time Resolution Solar Wind Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), previously known as Triana, spacecraft is expected to be launched in late 2014. It will carry a fluxgate magnetometer, Faraday Cup solar wind detector and a top-hat electron electrostatic analyzer. The Faraday Cup will provide an unprecedented 10 vectors/sec time resolution measurement of the solar wind proton and alpha reduced distribution functions. Coupled with the 40 vector/sec vector magnetometer measurements, the identification of specific wave modes in the solar wind will be possible for the first time. The science objectives and data products of the mission will be discussed.

Szabo, A.

2012-12-01

327

Winds of Change: The Physics of Accretion, Ejection, and X-ray Variability in GRS1915+105  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last twenty years, even as multiwavelength observations of black hole X-ray binaries have led to major advances, the microquasar GRS 1915+105 has continually challenged our understanding of the physics of accretion and ejection. With its relativistic jets, ionized winds, and myriad states of rapid, extreme variability, this remarkable black hole has been alternately seen as the black sheep of X-ray binaries and a Rosetta stone for black hole astrophysics. In this talk, I will present our efforts to use a decade of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of GRS 1915+105 to shed light on the processes that regulate its erratic behavior. I will highlight in particular the role of accretion disk winds on time scales ranging from seconds to years. Drawing on recent results, I will discuss the broader implications of these massive winds for the physics of inflows and outflows around black holes.

Neilsen, Joseph

2013-04-01

328

Polarizing Michelson Interferometer for Measuring Thermospheric Winds.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Polarizing Atmospheric Michelson Interferometer, PAMI, a new version of the Wide Angle Michelson Interferometer, is used to measure winds in the thermosphere. In the polarizing instrument, the optical path difference is changed simply by rotating a polarizing filter external to the interferometer. This allows a very simple scanning mechanism. PAMI's general behavior has been modeled in terms of Mueller matrices providing a framework for the analysis of partial polarization states within the Michelson Interferometer (MI). A field instrument based on the above concept was designed and built. PAMI is similar to other instruments such as WAMDII (Shepherd et al., 1985) that measure thermospheric winds and temperatures, retaining the benefits of high light throughput, while offering advantages including lower cost, simplicity, and portability. PAMI was constructed from readily available components wherever possible to facilitate replacement. The instrument is highly sensitive and thus is designed to be used for field measurements at locations far from city lights. Results are shown from the AIDA observation campaign in Puerto Rico (17^circ57 ^'0^{ ''}N, 66^ circ52^'42 ^{''}W) where coordinated observations were made by PAMI along with other optical and radio measurements during April and May 1989. Intensities of the green line layer at 95 km were compared to those observed by several other instruments. For example, MORTI (Mesopause Oxygen Rotational Temperature Imager), a co-located instrument which was looking at the 94 km 867.6 nm molecular oxygen emission. MORTI and PAMI emission rates were found to show the same trends. PAMI intensities were also compared to two green-line photometers. In these comparisons the trends in observed emission rates were the same for all three instruments. On the brightest night recorded during April, the zenith emission rate reached over 400 Rayleighs; emission enhancements were sometimes related to auroral events. During the observing period of April 4 to April 11, 1989, most of the observations of the 95 km airglow were after midnight where the winds were found to be generally towards the north east at about 50 to 100 m/s. During auroral activity this wind vector always turned counterclockwise, towards the west. During the nights of May 2 and May 6 these wind vectors follow a wave-like variation in magnitude and direction. It is concluded that auroral activity changes the global circulation in a way that sometimes transports increased amounts of oxygen atoms over Arecibo. Wind comparisons were made with a Fabry-Perot interferometer operating at the same time at the Arecibo observatory, 60 km away. The agreement was generally good, with some differences in detail, in some cases, for the eastward wind component.

Bird, John C.

329

Harnessing Wind  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the ways that engineers study and harness the wind. They learn about the different kinds of winds and how to measure wind direction. In addition, they learn how air pressure creates winds and how engineers design and test wind turbines to harness renewable wind energy.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

330

Wind Shear and Its Effects on Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wind shear has been responsible for several major accidents and many incidents during landing and take off. In aviation terms, wind changes that cause flight path deviations (wind shear) are mainly those occurring over distances between about 150 and 3000...

A. A. Woodfield

1994-01-01

331

Wind onset and withdrawal of Asian summer monsoon and their simulated performance in AMIP models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study defines the concepts of wind onset and wind withdrawal to describe the abrupt seasonal variations of wind direction and circulation of the Asian monsoon. The patterns of wind onset and withdrawal show that the earliest wind onset in the tropical monsoon regions is found over equator around 70°-100°E and the southernmost South China Sea (SCS) and western Kalimantan, and the wind withdrawal shows a southward progression in tropics compared to the wind onset. A notable temporal boundary is found around 25°N in the subtropical western North Pacific (WNP), which may be related to the northward advance and southward retreat of the western Pacific subtropical high. The angle amplitudes of wind vectors in wind onset and withdrawal have distinct regional differences in Asian monsoon regions. Since the process of monsoon onset (withdrawal) may include several onsets of different variables without simultaneity, the relationships of the wind onset and withdrawal with the abrupt change of other variables (e.g. reversal of zonal wind, reversal of meridional wind, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), precipitation) are investigated. The results indicate that the temporal discrepancies in different monsoon regions confirmed the asynchronous onsets. It also implies that the wind onset might be a good omen for monsoon precipitation in most regions since it is slightly earlier than rainy season onset. Seven Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) models from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) are validated against observations mentioned above. Generally, the simulations of the multi-model ensemble mean are better than any individual model results. And the simulations of wind withdrawal are better than those of wind onset. For wind onset, IAP-FGOALS-1.0g, MIROC3.2 (medres) and MPI-ECHAM5 simulate reasonably well. For wind retreat, most models can capture the behaviors in tropics. However, there are still some discrepancies in a few models to simulate the dates of sudden change of monsoon wind direction. Moreover, most of models cannot reproduce the onset and withdrawal of both rainfall and OLR. The relationship between these discrepancies and the shortcomings of precipitation simulation is crucial for further investigating in the future.

Li, Jianping; Zhang, Li

2009-06-01

332

Wind-Tunnel Investigations on a Changed Mustang Profile with Nose Flap Force and Pressure-Distribution Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements are described which were taken in the large wind tunnel of the AVA on a rectangular wing "Mustang 2" with nose flap of a chord of 10 percent. Besides force measurements the results of pressure-distribution measurements are given and compared with those on the same profile "without" nose flap.

Krueger, W.

1947-01-01

333

Comparison of the response of doubly fed and fixed-speed induction generator wind turbines to changes in network frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronous and fixed-speed induction generators release the kinetic energy of their rotating mass when the power system frequency is reduced. In the case of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines, their control system operates to apply a restraining torque to the rotor according to a predetermined curve with respect to the rotor speed. This control system is not based

J. Ekanayake; N. Jenkins

2004-01-01

334

Experimental investigation of change of energy of infragavity waves in dependence on spectral characteristics of an irregular wind waves in coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An infragravity waves are long waves with periods of 20 - 300 s. Most essential influence of infragarvity waves on dynamic processes is in a coastal zone, where its energy can exceed the energy of wind waves. From practical point of view, the infragravity waves are important, firstly, due to their influence on sand transport processes in a coastal zone. For example, interacting with group structure of wind waves the infragravity waves can define position of underwater bars on sandy coast. Secondly, they are responsible on formation of long waves in harbors. Main source of infragravity waves is wave group structure defined by sub-nonlinear interactions of wind waves (Longuet-Higgins, Stewart, 1962). These infragravity waves are bound with groups of wind waves and propagate with wave group velocity. Another type of infragravity waves are formed in a surf zone as a result of migration a wave breaking point (Symonds, et al., 1982). What from described above mechanisms of formation of infragravity waves prevails, till now it is unknown. It is also unknown how energy of infragravity waves depends on energy of input wind waves and how it changes during nonlinear wave transformation in coastal zone. In our work on the basis of the analysis of data of field experiment and numerical simulation a contribution of infragravity waves in total wave energy in depending on integral characteristics of an irregular wave field in the conditions of a real bathymetry was investigated. For analysis the data of field experiment "Shkorpilovtsy-2007" (Black sea) and data of numerical modeling of Boussinesq type equation with extended dispersion characteristics (Madsen et al., 1997) were used. It was revealed that infragravity waves in a coastal zone are defined mainly by local group structure of waves, which permanently changes due to nonlinearity, shoaling and breaking processes. Free infragravity waves appearing after wave breaking exist together with bound infragravity waves. There are no clear total dependences of energy of infrragravity waves from energy of wind waves and mean period of infragravity waves from mean period of wind waves. But significant wave height of infragravity waves depends on relative water depth (wave height of wind waves divided on water depth). There are different types of this dependence for breaking and non-breaking waves. The influence of peak period, significant wave height and directional spreading of initial wave spectrum on these dependences are discussed. The peculiarities of spectra of infragravity waves for non-breaking, breaking and multibreaking wind waves are shown. This work is supported by the RFBR, project 12-05-00965. References: Longuet-Higgins, M. S., R. W. Stewart, 1962. Radiation stress and mass transport in gravity waves, with an application to surf beats. J. Fluid Mech., 13, pp. 481-504. Symonds G., D.A. Huntley, A.J. Bowen, 1982. Two dimensional surf beat: long wave generation by a time-varying breakpoint. J. of Geoph. Res., 87(C), pp.492-498. Madsen P.A., Sorensen O.R., Shaffer H.A. 1997. Surf zone dynamics simulated by a Boussinesq type model. Coastal Engineering, 32, p. 255-287.

Saprykina, Yana; Divinskii, Boris

2013-04-01

335

Guelph Physics Tutorials: Vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers a straightforward tutorial on the fundamentals of vector operations. It is an illustrated guide to vector subtraction/addition, vector resolution, and multiplication of two vectors. It could serve as textbook supplementation or as content support for science teachers.

2008-08-15

336

Vector-Borne Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online encyclopedia article discusses vector-borne diseases. It defines vectors as the transmitters of disease-causing organisms that carry the pathogens from one host to another. The article reviews the biological range of vectors, the transmission and types of vector-borne diseases, patterns of occurrence and existing control measures.

Artsob, Harvey; Health, Encyclopedia O.

337

Treatment combining RU486 and Ad5IL12 vector attenuates the growth of experimentally formed prostate tumors and induces changes in the sentinel lymph nodes of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tumor immune responses are first generated and metastases often begin in tumor sentinel lymph nodes (TSLN). Therefore, it is important to promote tumor immunity within this microenvironment. Mifepristone (RU486) treatment can interfere with cortisol signaling that can lead to suppression of tumor immunity. Here, we assessed whether treatment with RU486 in conjunction with an intratumor injection of Ad5IL-12 vector

Claudia Raja Gabaglia; Alexandra DeLaney; Jennifer Gee; Ramesh Halder; Frank L Graham; Jack Gauldie; Eli E Sercarz; Todd A Braciak

2010-01-01

338

Association of anthropogenic land use change and increased abundance of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius pallescens in a rural landscape of Panama.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic disturbance is associated with increased vector-borne infectious disease transmission in wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate how disturbance of a tropical forest landscape impacts abundance of the triatomine bug Rhodnius pallescens, a vector of Chagas disease, in the region of the Panama Canal in Panama. Rhodnius pallescens was collected (n = 1,186) from its primary habitat, the palm Attalea butyracea, in five habitat types reflecting a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. There was a high proportion of palms infested with R. pallescens across all habitat types (range = 77.1-91.4%). Results show that disturbed habitats are associated with increased vector abundance compared with relatively undisturbed habitats. Bugs collected in disturbed sites, although in higher abundance, tended to be in poor body condition compared with bugs captured in protected forest sites. Abundance data suggests that forest remnants may be sources for R. pallescens populations within highly disturbed areas of the landscape. PMID:21212205

Gottdenker, Nicole L; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azäel; Carroll, C Ronald

2011-01-01

339

Transmitting Vector Geospatial Data across the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmitting geospatial data via the Internet has become commonplace, and relies upon a raster data model that proves efficient\\u000a for imagery, orthophotography, and satellite data products. Internet transmission of vector geospatial data remains a challenge.\\u000a The content and geometry of vector data change with resolution, and this aspect of scale-dependence must be accounted for\\u000a in transmitting vector data across the

Barbara P. Buttenfield

2002-01-01

340

Continuous measurements of air change rates in an occupied house for 1 year: the effect of temperature, wind, fans, and windows.  

PubMed

A year-long investigation of air change rates in an occupied house was undertaken to establish the effects of temperature, wind velocity, use of exhaust fans, and window-opening behavior. Air change rates were calculated by periodically injecting a tracer gas (SF(6)) into the return air duct and measuring the concentration in 10 indoor locations sequentially every minute by a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Temperatures were also measured outdoors and in the 10 indoor locations. Relative humidity (RH) was measured outdoors and in five indoor locations every 5 min. Wind speed and direction in the horizontal plane were measured using a portable meteorological station mounted on the rooftop. Use of the thermostat-controlled attic fan was recorded automatically. Indoor temperatures increased from 21 degrees C in winter to 27 degrees C in summer. Indoor RH increased from 20% to 70% in the same time period. Windows were open only a few percent of the time in winter but more than half the time in summer. About 4600 hour-long average air change rates were calculated from the measured tracer gas decay rates. The mean (SD) rate was 0.65 (0.56) h(-1). Tracer gas decay rates in different rooms were very similar, ranging only from 0.62 to 0.67 h(-1), suggesting that conditions were well mixed throughout the year. The strongest influence on air change rates was opening windows, which could increase the rate to as much as 2 h(-1) for extended periods, and up to 3 h(-1) for short periods of a few hours. The use of the attic fan also increased air change rates by amounts up to 1 h(-1). Use of the furnace fan had no effect on air change rates. Although a clear effect of indoor-outdoor temperature difference could be discerned, its magnitude was relatively small, with a very large temperature difference of 30 degrees C (54 degrees F) accounting for an increase in the air change rate of about 0.6 h(-1). Wind speed and direction were found to have very little influence on air change rates at this house. PMID:12087436

Wallace, L A; Emmerich, S J; Howard-Reed, C

2002-07-01

341

Wind direction variability in Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding wind direction (WD) variability better is important for several reasons. Air pollution models need information about how variable wind direction is in different conditions (Davies and Thomson 1999). Accurate predictions of dispersion are important for human health and safety and allow for adaptation planning (Nagle et al. 2011). Other applications include horizontal diffusion, efficiency and fatigue of wind machines and air-sea interaction (Mahrt 2011). Most studies of wind direction variability have focused on nocturnal conditions because of greater variability in light winds. Modelling WD variability in transition periods when both mean wind speed and variance of the wind components are in a state of change can, however, also be very challenging and has not been the focus of earlier studies. The evening transitioning to the nocturnal boundary layer can play an important role in the diffusion process of pollutants and scalars emitted at surface and transported within the atmosphere. The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign that took place in southern France in June and July 2011 focused on the decaying turbulence of the late afternoon boundary layer and related issues (Lothon et al. 2012). We analyse field measurements from BLLAST to investigate WD variability in the evening transition period. Standard deviations of horizontal wind direction fluctuations in the lowest 60 m of the boundary layer have been examined for dependence on mean wind speed, higher order moments and averaging time. Measurement results are interpreted using measured and idealized probability density functions of horizontal wind vectors. These are also used to develop analytical functions describing how WD variability depends on wind speed, variance and other controlling factors in the atmospheric boundary layer. References: Davies B.M., Thomson D.J., 1999. Comparison of some parameterizations of wind direction variability with observations, Atmospheric Enviroment 33, 4909-4917. Lothon M. et al., 2012. The Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence field experiment, Proc. of the 20th Symposium on Boundary-Layers and Turbulence, 7-13 July, Boston, MA, USA. Mahrt L., 2011. Surface Wind Direction Variability, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 50. 144-152. Nagle J.C., 2011. Adapting to Pollution, Research Roundtable on Climate Change, Adaptation, and Enviromental Law, Northwestern Law Searle Center, Legal and Regulatory Studies 7-18 April, IL, USA.

Nilsson, Erik; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Mahrt, Larry

2014-05-01

342

Intercomparison of ERS-2 and QuikSCAT winds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since June 1999, two satellite scatterometers are operational. The European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2) scatterometer and the NASA Seawind scatterometer onboard the QuikSCAT satellite, provide estimation of surface wind vectors with high spatial and temporal resolutions, using different frequencies and resolution configurations. The paper presents the intercomparison between measurements inferred from the two sensors. On average, the two wind vectors

A. Bentamy; E. Autret; P. Queffeulou; Y. Quilfen

2000-01-01

343

Statistics of wind direction and its increments  

Microsoft Academic Search

has been no comprehensive study of the statistics of wind direction changes or increments. In this paper, we study the statistics of wind direction as well as of the changes in wind direction. In the spirit of Ref. 9, we find that the wind direction can be split into a large- scale drift and small-scale fluctuations around it. We find

Eric van Doorn; Brindesh Dhruva; Katepalli R. Sreenivasan; Victor Cassella

2008-01-01

344

Generic complex vector fields in R2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study what kind of general complex vector fields in R2 one is most likely to encounter and study their singularities. We first construct a dense and open subset of nonvanishing complex vector fields under certain topology, whose elements are called generic complex vector fields. Then we show that a generic complex vector field can be reduced to either the Cauchy-Riemann operator or a Mizohata type operator or a cuspidal operator locally. Finally we note that an integral of any cuspidal operator is of the form (xy+x3,y) locally after coordinates changes.

Le, Anbo

2008-09-01

345

Vector Addition Patterns Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vector Addition Patterns model illustrates the tail-to-tip method of adding vectors. The table at the bottom shows the components and lengths of the vectors. You can also rotate the vectors and trace out some interesting patterns. The Vector Addition Patterns model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_vector_addition_patterns.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-05-02

346

Reduced Vector Preisach Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new vector Preisach model, called the Reduced Vector Preisach model (RVPM), was developed for fast computations. This model, derived from the Simplified Vector Preisach model (SVPM), has individual components that like the SVPM are calculated independently using coupled selection rules for the state vector computation. However, the RVPM does not require the rotational correction. Therefore, it provides a practical alternative for computing the magnetic susceptibility using a differential approach. A vector version, using the framework of the DOK model, is implemented. Simulation results for the reduced vector Preisach model are also presented.

Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

347

Vector-valued wavelets and vector filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce vector-valued multiresolution analysis and vector-valued wavelets for vector-valued signal spaces. We construct vector-valued wavelets by using paraunitary vector filter bank theory. In particular, we construct vector-valued Meyer wavelets that are band-limited. We classify and construct vector-valued wavelets with sampling property. As an application of vector-valued wavelets, multiwavelets can be constructed from vector-valued wavelets. We show

Xiang-Gen Xia; B. W. Suter

1996-01-01

348

Wind Energy Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation on wind energy and technician training. In addition to discussing the larger issues of climate change and the importance of renewable energy sources, the presentation covers wind turbine technology in depth. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Lamorie, John; Schmidt, Michael

2012-09-19

349

Quantifying the respective contribution of wind stress and diabatic forcing to decadal temperature changes and regional sea level trends over 1993-2010 based on ECCO solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1993 and based on satellite altimetry data, sea level trends display a large regional variability. Some regions experience a sea level rise (e.g., the west tropical Pacific Ocean, the subpolar north Atlantic Ocean...) whereas other regions experience a drop (e.g., the east tropical Pacific Ocean, golf of Alaska...). Those sea level trends appear to be steric in nature. Moreover, steric changes appear to be mainly thermosteric, although halosteric effects can reduce or enhance thermosteric changes in some specific regions (Stammer et al., 2013). Understanding and quantifying the processes involved in regional sea level changes are important tasks to better constrain and ascertain the physical processes involved in regional sea level changes and then, to improve predictions to anticipate potential impacts. In this study, we analyze the ocean heat content change and its origin by analyzing Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean estimates (ECCO, Wunsch et al., 2009). We run numerical experiments to estimate and quantify the respective contribution of each atmospheric forcing (e.g., wind stress and diabatic forcing) to heat content change and regional sea level trends.

Llovel, W.; Fukumori, I.; Wang, O.

2013-12-01

350

SEERISK concept: Dealing with climate change related hazards in southeast Europe: A common methodology for risk assessment and mapping focusing on floods, drought, winds, heat wave and wildfire.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southeast Europe is a region that suffers often from natural hazards and has experienced significant losses in the recent past due to extreme weather conditions and their side-effects (cold and heat waves, extreme precipitation leading to floods / flash floods, thunderstorms, extreme winds, drought and wildfires). SEERISK ("Joint Disaster Management Risk Assessment and Preparedness in the Danube macro-region") is a European funded SEE (Southeast Europe) project that aims at the harmonisation and consistency among risk assessment practices undertaken by the partner countries at various levels regarding climate change related disasters. A common methodology for risk assessment has been developed that offers alternatives in order to tackle the problem of limited data. The methodology proposes alternative steps for hazard and vulnerability assessment that, according to the data availability, range from detailed modelling to expert judgement. In the present study the common methodology has been adapted for five hazard types (floods, drought, winds, heat wave and wildfire) that are expected to be affected by climate change in the future and are relevant for the specific study areas. The last step will be the application of the methodology in six different case studies in Hungary, Romania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Slovakia and Serbia followed by field exercises.

Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas

2014-05-01

351

Wind tunnel study on wind and turbulence intensity profiles in wind turbine wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been a rapid development of the wind farms in Japan. It becomes very important to investigate the wind turbine arrangement in wind farm, in order that the wake of one wind turbine does not to interfere with the flow in other wind turbines. In such a case, in order to achieve the highest possible efficiency from the wind, and to install as many as possible wind turbines within a limited area, it becomes a necessity to study the mutual interference of the wake developed by wind turbines. However, there is no report related to the effect of the turbulence intensity of the external flow on the wake behind a wind turbine generated in the wind tunnel. In this paper, the measurement results of the averaged wind profile and turbulence intensity profile in the wake in the wind tunnel are shown when the turbulence intensity of the external wind was changed. The wind tunnel experiment is performed with 500mm-diameter two-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine and the wind velocity in wake is measured by an I-type hot wire probe. As a result, it is clarified that high turbulence intensities enable to the entrainment of the main flow and the wake and to recover quickly the velocity in the wake.

Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Yonekura, Sayaka; Ito, Takafumi; Okawa, Atsushi; Kogaki, Tetsuya

2011-06-01

352

Comparison of analyzed and measured wind speeds in the perspective of oceanic simulations over the Mediterranean basin: Analyses, QuikSCAT and buoy data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface vector wind datasets from different assimilation systems and from scatterometers have been recently made available over the entire Mediterranean basin and for a large spectrum of spatial and temporal resolution. In this work, we compare wind vector analyses, derived from different routine assimilation systems and from blended products, to wind vectors obtained from QuikSCAT satellite sensor and to those

Paolo M. Ruti; Salvatore Marullo; Fabrizio D'Ortenzio; Michel Tremant

2008-01-01

353

Understanding Singular Vectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

matrix yields a surprisingly simple, heuristical approximation to its singular vectors. There are correspondingly good approximations to the singular values. Such rules of thumb provide an intuitive interpretation of the singular vectors that helps explain why the SVD is so…

James, David; Botteron, Cynthia

2013-01-01

354

Male stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) response to CO2 changes with age: evidence from wind tunnel experiments and field collections.  

PubMed

Male stable flies require at least one or more blood meals to reach sexual maturity and are often caught in CO2-baited traps. We tested the hypothesis that young male stable flies (one to three days, one blood feeding session) would be more responsive to CO2 bait than older male stable flies by monitoring the upwind movement of different-aged male stable flies exposed to CO2 using a wind tunnel. The proportion of males moving upwind toward CO2 decreased with age (days), from 49% for males < or = 3 days old, to 4.5% for males > 3 days old. To further test this, we conducted daily sampling of stable fly populations at a beef farm using a CO2-baited cloth trap. We found that days on which a high proportion of males were caught, females were predominantly from early developmental stages, indicating that proportionately more males were caught from field populations made up of younger cohorts. These results were consistent with the wind tunnel experiment patterns. PMID:19263843

Beresford, D V; Sutcliffe, J F

2008-12-01

355

Vector control in developed countries  

PubMed Central

The recent rapid growth of California's population, leading to competition for space between residential, industrial and agricultural interests, the development of its water resources and increasing water pollution provide the basic ingredients of its present vector problems. Within the past half-century, the original mosquito habitats provided by nature have gradually given place to even more numerous and productive habitats of man-made character. At the same time, emphasis in mosquito control has shifted from physical to chemical, with the more recent extension to biological approaches as well. The growing domestic fly problem, continuing despite the virtual disappearance of the horse, is attributable to an increasing amount of organic by-products, stemming from growing communities, expanding industries and changing agriculture. The programme for the control of disease vectors and pest insects and animals directs its major effort to the following broad areas: (1) water management (including land preparation), (2) solid organic wastes management (emphasizing utilization), (3) community management (including design, layout, and storage practices of buildings and grounds), and (4) recreational area management (related to wildlife management). It is apparent that vector control can often employ economics as an ally in securing its objectives. Effective organization of the environment to produce maximum economic benefits to industry, agriculture, and the community results generally in conditions unfavourable to the survival of vector and noxious animal species. Hence, vector prevention or suppression is preferable to control as a programme objective.

Peters, Richard F.

1963-01-01

356

Change vector analysis to categorise land cover change processes using the tasselled cap as biophysical indicator: description: implementing Landsat TM and ETM to detect land cover and land use changes in the mount Cameroon region using the CVA technique with the tasselled cap as biophysical indicator.  

PubMed

The continuous extraction of wood and the conversion of forest to small- and large-scale agricultural parcels is rapidly changing the land cover of the mount Cameroon region. The changes occur at varying spatial scales most often not more than 2ha for the small-scale subsistence farms and above 10ha for the extensive agricultural plantations of cocoa and palm. Given the importance of land use and land cover data in conservation planning, accurate and efficient techniques to provide up-to-date change information are required. A number of techniques for realising the detection of land cover dynamics using remotely sensed imagery have been formulated, tested and assessed with the results varying with respect to the change scenario under investigation, the information required and the imagery applied. In this study the Change Vector Analysis (CVA) technique was implemented on multitemporal multispectral Landsat data from the Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensors to monitor the dynamics of forest change in the mount Cameroon region. CVA was applied to multi-temporal data to compare the differences in the time-trajectory of the tasseled cap greenness and brightness for two successive time periods - 1987 and 2002. The tasseled cap was selected as biophysical indicator because it optimises the data viewing capabilities of vegetation, representing the basic types of land cover - vegetation, soil and water. Classes were created arbitrarily to predict the technique's potential in monitoring forest cover changes in the mount Cameroon region. The efficiency of the technique could not be fully assessed due to the inavailability of sufficient ground truth data. Assessment was based on the establishment of an error matrix of change versus no-change. The overall accuracy was 70%. The technique nevertheless demonstrated immense potentials in monitoring forest cover change dynamics especially when complemented with field studies. PMID:18193332

Siwe, Rene Ngamabou; Koch, Barbara

2008-10-01

357

Raven—Vector Editing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Raven is used to create fully scalable vector art appropriate for logos or t-shirt designs. Unlike the bitmaps you have used\\u000a in previous chapters, Raven uses vectors. A vector is an object defined by points in space, lines connecting those points together, and color that fills the shape in between\\u000a those lines. Vectors are defined mathematically and are drawn in

Mike Peutz

358

Aerodynamics of Spherical Balloon Wind Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary analysis of the response characteristics of spherical balloon wind sensors is presented. It is shown that smoosuperpressure spheres do, not provide accurate detailed wind profiles and that the response characteristics can be improved by the addition of roughness elements. Experimental data show that surface roughness elements on a spherical balloon stabilize the drag force vector and reduce the

James R. Scoggins; Aero-Astrodynamics Labo

1964-01-01

359

Support vector domain description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the use of a data domain description method, inspired by the support vector machine by Vapnik, called the support vector domain description (SVDD). This data description can be used for novelty or outlier de- tection. A spherically shaped decision boundary around a set of objects is constructed by a set of support vectors describing the sphere boundary.

David M. J. Tax; Robert P. W. Duin

1999-01-01

360

Winds of Change: Expanding the Frontiers of Flight. Langley Research Center's 75 Years of Accomplishment, 1917-1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This commemorative volume highlights in pictures and text seventy five years of accomplishments of the Langley Research Center. The introductory matter features wind tunnels and their contribution to the development of aeronautics. A chronological survey details four different periods in Langley's history. The first period, 1917-1939, is subtitled 'Perfecting the Plane' which details Langley's contribution to early aeronautics with examples from specific aircraft. The second period, 1940-1957, focuses on the development of military aircraft during and after World War II. The third period, 1958-1969, tells the story of Langley's involvement with NASA and the satellite and Apollo era. The fourth period, entitled 'Charting New Courses: 1970-1992 and Beyond', treats various new topics from aerospace planes to Mars landing, as well as older topics such as the Space Shuttle and research spinoffs.

Schultz, James

1992-01-01

361

Observed near-surface currents under high wind speeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter current and QuikSCAT wind data, the relationship between the observed near-surface current vectors and surface wind vectors for the northwestern Pacific Ocean under high winds (20-50 m s-1) are obtained with quantitative estimations of near-surface drift ratio (current speed versus wind speed)r(˜2%) and near-surface drift angle? (˜0°-10° to the right of the winds). These estimations keep unchanged after removing the surface geostrophic component. From the SVP drifter current and daily WindSat wind data, the estimated ris still approximately 2%. Three linear regression equations are obtained between the observed near-surface current speeds and the surface wind stress for the high wind range.

Chang, Y.-C.; Chen, G.-Y.; Tseng, R.-S.; Centurioni, L. R.; Chu, Peter C.

2012-11-01

362

Application of satellite surface wind data to ocean wind analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new set of cross-calibrated, multi-satellite ocean surface wind data is described. The principal data set covers the global ocean for the period beginning in 1987 with six-hour and 25-km resolution, and is produced by combining all ocean surface wind speed observations from SSM/I, AMSR-E, and TMI, and all ocean surface wind vector observations from QuikSCAT and SeaWinds. An enhanced variational analysis method (VAM) performs quality control and combines these data with available conventional ship and buoy data and ECMWF analyses. The VAM analyses fit the data used very closely and contain small-scale structures not present in operational analyses. Comparisons with withheld WindSat observations are also shown to be very good. These data sets should be extremely useful to atmospheric and oceanic research, and to air-sea interaction studies.

Atlas, Robert; Ardizzone, Joseph; Hoffman, Ross N.

2008-08-01

363

Comparison of Satellite-Derived Wind Measurements with Other Wind Measurement Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to compare the good data from the Jimsphere launches with the data from the satellite system. By comparing the wind speeds from the Fixed Pedestal System 16 (FPS-16) Radar/Jimsphere Wind System and NASA's 50-MHz Radar Wind Profiler, the validation of winds from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 7 (GOES-7) is performed. This study provides an in situ data quality check for the GOES-7 satellite winds. Comparison was made of the flowfields in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere of case studies of pairs of Jimsphere balloon releases and Radar Wind Profiler winds during Space Shuttle launches. The mean and standard deviation of the zonal component statistics, the meridional component statistics, and the power spectral density curves show good agreement between the two wind sensors. The standard deviation of the u and v components for the STS-37 launch (consisting of five Jimsphere/Radar Wind Profiler data sets) was 1.92 and 1.67 m/s, respectively; for the STS-43 launch (there were six Jimsphere/Wind Profiler data sets) it was 1.39 and 1.44 m/s, respectively. The overall standard deviation was 1.66 m/s for the u component and 1.55 m/s tor the v component, and a standard deviation of 2.27 m/s tor the vector wind difference. The global comparison of satellite with Jimsphere balloon vector winds shows a standard deviation of 3.15 m/s for STS-43 and 4.37 m/s for STS-37. The overall standard deviation of the vector wind was 3.76 m/s, with a root-mean-square vector difference of 4.43 m/s. These data have demonstrated that this unique comparison of the Jimsphere and satellite winds provides excellent ground truth and a frame of reference during testing and validation of satellite data

Susko, Michael; Herman, Leroy

1995-01-01

364

SWE, a comprehensive plasma instrument for the WIND spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar Wind Experiment (SWE) on the WIND spacecraft is a comprehensive, integrated set of sensors which is designed to investigate outstanding problems in solar wind physics. It consists of two Faraday cup (FC) sensors; a vector electron and ion spectrometer (VEIS); a strahl sensor, which is especially configured to study the electron ‘strahl’ close to the magnetic field direction;

K. W. Ogilvie; D. J. Chornay; R. J. Fritzenreiter; F. Hunsaker; J. Keller; J. Lobell; G. Miller; J. D. Scudder; E. C. Sittler; R. B. Torbert; D. Bodet; G. Needell; A. J. Lazarus; J. T. Steinberg; J. H. Tappan; A. Mavretic; E. Gergin

1995-01-01

365

Improved Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in Global Climate Stabilization Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper introduces a technique for digesting geospatial wind-speed data into areally defined--country-level, in this case--wind resource supply curves. We combined gridded wind-vector data for ocean areas with bathymetry maps, country exclusive economi...

A. Lopez D. Heimiller K. Eurek P. Sullivan

2012-01-01

366

Solar wind proton deposition into the Martian atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct impact of solar wind H + with the planet Mars is calculated using a three- dimensional hybrid particle code. The simulation results show a strong dependence on solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field angle with the solar wind velocity vector. The energy fluxes calculated approach the solar EUV heating rates fxom photoelectrons and are found to be

Stephen H. Brecht

1997-01-01

367

Rotations with Rodrigues' vector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.

Piña, E.

2011-09-01

368

Hanford Site peak gust wind speeds  

SciTech Connect

Peak gust wind data collected at the Hanford Site since 1945 are analyzed to estimate maximum wind speeds for use in structural design. The results are compared with design wind speeds proposed for the Hanford Site. These comparisons indicate that design wind speeds contained in a January 1998 advisory changing DOE-STD-1020-94 are excessive for the Hanford Site and that the design wind speeds in effect prior to the changes are still appropriate for the Hanford Site.

Ramsdell, J.V.

1998-09-29

369

Wild Wind  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the difference between global, prevailing and local winds. They make wind vanes out of paper, straws and soda bottles and use them to measure wind direction over time. They analyze their data to draw conclusions about the local prevailing winds.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

370

Wind Whistlers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make wind whistlers, or objects that interact with wind to make different noises. Learners make their whistlers out of a paper plate, yarn, and bells or buttons and then hang them from a tree. Learners listen to the sounds from the whistler interacting with the wind. The activity guide contains questions to explore while using the wind whistlers.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

371

Modification of surface winds near ocean fronts: Effects of Gulf Stream rings on scatterometer (QuikSCAT, NSCAT) wind observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifications to surface winds by currents and sea surface temperature (SST) gradients near frontal boundaries of Gulf Stream rings are analyzed using satellite SST and scatterometer (NASA's Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT), NASA scatterometer (NSCAT)) wind observations. A component of scatterometer wind approximately equal and opposite to the surface current vector is observed and attributed to the fact that scatterometers detect relative

Kyung-Ae Park; Peter Cornillon; Daniel L. Codiga

2006-01-01

372

Wind measurements for non-uniform wind fields from spaceborne scatterometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar backscattering coefficient measurements by spaceborne scatterometers are presently simulated for the case of nonuniform wind fields, by means of a detailed numerical integration of the radar equation. The winds thus estimated are then compared with a nominal field which is defined as the average wind vector over the wind cell. The simulation results obtained for the NASA scatterometer are presented for cases of random wind fields whose spectra are consistent with the Seasat scatterometer sea surface wind spectrum. When the nonuniformity is small, system noise dominates the wind error; wind error degradation is therefore small for both perfect and imperfect coregistration cases. When it is relatively large, however, the wind error degradation persistently increases for both perfect and imperfect coregistrations.

Chi, Chong-Yung; Li, Fuk K.

1987-01-01

373

Winding for the wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical properties and construction of epoxy-impregnated fiber-glass blades for wind turbines are discussed, along with descriptions of blades for the Mod 0A and Mod 5A WECS and design goals for a 4 kW WECS. Multicell structure combined with transverse filament tape winding reduces labor and material costs, while placing a high percentage of 0 deg fibers spanwise in the blades yields improved strength and elastic properties. The longitudinal, transverse, and shear modulus are shown to resist stresses exceeding the 50 lb/sq ft requirements, with constant stress resistance expected until fatigue failure is approached. Regression analysis indicates a fatigue life of 400 million operating cycles. The small WECS under prototype development features composite blades, nacelle, and tower. Rated at 5.7 kW in a 15 mph wind, the machine operates over a speed range of 9-53.9 mph and is expected to produce 16,200 kWh annually in a 10 mph average wind measured at 30 ft.

Weingart, O.

1981-01-01

374

Winding for the wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties and construction of epoxy-impregnated fiber-glass blades for wind turbines are discussed, along with descriptions of blades for the Mod 0A and Mod 5A WECS and design goals for a 4 kW WECS. Multicell structure combined with transverse filament tape winding reduces labor and material costs, while placing a high percentage of 0 deg fibers spanwise in the blades yields improved strength and elastic properties. The longitudinal, transverse, and shear modulus are shown to resist stresses exceeding the 50 lb/sq ft requirements, with constant stress resistance expected until fatigue failure is approached. Regression analysis indicates a fatigue life of 400 million operating cycles. The small WECS under prototype development features composite blades, nacelle, and tower. Rated at 5.7 kW in a 15 mph wind, the machine operates over a speed range of 9-53.9 mph and is expected to produce 16,200 kWh annually in a 10 mph average wind measured at 30 ft.

Weingart, O.

375

A recursive technique for adaptive vector quantization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vector Quantization (VQ) is fast becoming an accepted, if not preferred method for image compression. The VQ performs well when compressing all types of imagery including Video, Electro-Optical (EO), Infrared (IR), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Multi-Spectral (MS), and digital map data. The only requirement is to change the codebook to switch the compressor from one image sensor to another. There are several approaches for designing codebooks for a vector quantizer. Adaptive Vector Quantization is a procedure that simultaneously designs codebooks as the data is being encoded or quantized. This is done by computing the centroid as a recursive moving average where the centroids move after every vector is encoded. When computing the centroid of a fixed set of vectors the resultant centroid is identical to the previous centroid calculation. This method of centroid calculation can be easily combined with VQ encoding techniques. The defined quantizer changes after every encoded vector by recursively updating the centroid of minimum distance which is the selected by the encoder. Since the quantizer is changing definition or states after every encoded vector, the decoder must now receive updates to the codebook. This is done as side information by multiplexing bits into the compressed source data.

Lindsay, Robert A.

1989-01-01

376

Index Sets and Vectorization  

SciTech Connect

Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

Keasler, J A

2012-03-27

377

Surface freshening in the Arctic Ocean's Eurasian Basin: An apparent consequence of recent change in the wind-driven circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian Basin upper ocean was appreciably fresher in 2010 than in 2007–2008Change in salinity due to local melt cannot account for the anomalyObserved fresh water attributed to a 2009 shift in the atmospheric circulation

M.-L. Timmermans; A. Proshutinsky; R. A. Krishfield; D. K. Perovich; J. A. Richter-Menge; T. P. Stanton; J. M. Toole

2011-01-01

378

Solar imaging vector magnetograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes an instrument which has been constructed at the University of Hawaii to make observations of the magnetic field in solar active regions. Detailed knowledge of active region magnetic structures is crucial to understanding many solar phenomena, because the magnetic field both defines the morphology of structures seen in the solar atmosphere and is the apparent energy source for solar flares. The new vector magnetograph was conceived in response to a perceived discrepancy between the capabilities of X ray imaging telescopes to be operating during the current solar maximum and those of existing magnetographs. There were no space-based magnetographs planned for this period; the existing ground-based instruments variously suffered from lack of sensitivity, poor time resolution, inadequate spatial resolution or unreliable sites. Yet the studies of flares and their relationship to the solar corona planned for the 1991-1994 maximum absolutely required high quality vector magnetic field measurements. By 'vector' measurements we mean that the observation attempts to deduce the complete strength and direction of the field at the measurement site, rather than just the line of sight component as obtained by a traditional longitudinal magnetograph. Knowledge of the vector field permits one to calculate photospheric electric currents, which might play a part in heating the corona, and to calculate energy stored in coronal magnetic fields as the result of such currents. Information about the strength and direction of magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere can be obtained in a number of ways, but quantitative data is best obtained by observing Zeeman-effect polarization in solar spectral lines. The technique requires measuring the complete state of polarization at one or more wavelengths within a magnetically sensitive line of the solar spectrum. This measurement must be done for each independent spatial point for which one wants magnetic field data. All the measurements need to be done in a time short compared to the time scale for changes of the solar features being observed. Were it possible, one would want to record all the needed data simultaneously, since temporal variation of atmospheric seeing degrades both the image and the polarization sensitivity. Since the measurements must span four dimensions, two spatial plus polarization and wavelength, we had some freedom to design the instrument to favor some dimensions over others in terms of simultaneity. Our earlier instrument, the Haleakala Stokes Polarimeter, records a range of wavelengths spanning two spectral lines in each reading, but requires two seconds to determine the polarization state and obtains spatial information only by assembling a long sequence of measurements at single locations on the sun. The new instrument sacrifices spectral detail and accuracy in favor of greatly improved imaging characteristics. The scientific goals for this instrument were to measure surface magnetic fields with enough accuracy to permit calculations of photospheric currents, but with a field of view covering an entire typical active region, high spatial resolution, and a fast enough temporal cadence for detecting flare-associated changes in magnetic structures.

Canfield, Richard C.

1993-12-01

379

Adiabatic and nonadiabatic responses of the radiation belt relativistic electrons to the external changes in solar wind dynamic pressure and interplanetary magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By removing the influences of 'magnetopause shadowing' (r0>6.6RE) and geomagnetic activities, we investigated statistically the responses of magnetic field and relativistic (>0.5MeV) electrons at geosynchronous orbit to 201 interplanetary perturbations during 6 years from 2003 (solar maximum) to 2008 (solar minimum). The statistical results indicate that during geomagnetically quiet times (HSYM ?-30nT, and AE<200nT), ~47.3% changes in the geosynchronous magnetic field and relativistic electron fluxes are caused by the combined actions of the enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure (Pd) and the southward turning of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) (?Pd>0.4 nPa, and IMF Bz<0 nT), and only ~18.4% changes are due to single dynamic pressure increase (?Pd >0.4 nPa, but IMF Bz>0 nT), and ~34.3% changes are due to single southward turning of IMF (IMF Bz<0 nT, but |?Pd|<0.4 nPa). Although the responses of magnetic field and relativistic electrons to the southward turning of IMF are weaker than their responses to the dynamic pressure increase, the southward turning of IMF can cause the dawn-dusk asymmetric perturbations that the magnetic field and the relativistic electrons tend to increase on the dawnside (LT~00:00-12:00) but decrease on the duskside (LT~13:00-23:00). Furthermore, the variation of relativistic electron fluxes is adiabatically controlled by the magnitude and elevation angle changes of magnetic field during the single IMF southward turnings. However, the variation of relativistic electron fluxes is independent of the change in magnetic field in some compression regions during the enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure (including the single pressure increases and the combined external perturbations), indicating that nonadiabatic dynamic processes of relativistic electrons occur there. Acknowledgments. This work is supported by NSFC (grants 41074119 and 40604018). Liuyuan Li is grateful to the staffs working for the data from GOES 8-12 satellites and OMNI database in CDAWeb.

Li, L.

2013-12-01

380

Medium Modification of Vector Mesons  

SciTech Connect

The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ?, ? and ? mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

2011-03-01

381

Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus, in a recently re-colonized area of the Senegal River basin and human-induced environmental changes  

PubMed Central

Background Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in tropical Africa. Because of several cycles of drought events that occurred during the 1970s, this species had disappeared from many parts of sahelian Africa, including the Senegal River basin. However, this zone has been re-colonized during the last decade by An. funestus, following the implementation of two dams on the Senegal River. Previous studies in that area revealed heterogeneity at the biological and chromosomal level among these recent populations. Methods Here, we studied the genetic structure of the newly established mosquito populations using eleven microsatellite markers in four villages of the Senegal River basin and compared it to another An. funestus population located in the sudanian domain. Results Our results presume Hardy Weinberg equilibrium in each An. funestus population, suggesting a situation of panmixia. Moreover, no signal from bottleneck or population expansion was detected across populations. The tests of genetic differentiation between sites revealed a slight but significant division into three distinct genetic entities. Genetic distance between populations from the Senegal River basin and sudanian domain was correlated to geographical distance. In contrast, sub-division into the Senegal River basin was not correlated to geographic distance, rather to local adaptation. Conclusions The high genetic diversity among populations from Senegal River basin coupled with no evidence of bottleneck and with a gene flow with southern population suggests that the re-colonization was likely carried out by a massive and repeated stepping-stone dispersion starting from the neighboring areas where An. funestus endured.

2012-01-01

382

Balance of Forces with the Wind (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet tests the balance of the frictional, pressure gradient, and Coriolis forces with the wind. The applet displays vectors for these forces and the wind as the latitude, friction (drag), and pressure gradient are adjusted.

Ackerman, Steve; Whittaker, Tom

383

Large genetic change at small fitness cost in large populations of Drosophila melanogaster selected for wind tunnel flight: rethinking fitness surfaces.  

PubMed

The fitness effects of extreme genetic change by selection were studied in large populations subjected to prolonged, intense selection. Two replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster, with estimated effective sizes 500 < or = Ne < or = 1000, were selected for increased performance in a wind tunnel, selecting on average the fastest 4.5% of flies. The mean apparent flying speed of both lines increased from approximately 2 to 170 cm/sec and continued to respond at diminishing rates, without reaching a plateau, for 100 generations. Competitive fitness tests in generations 50 and 85 showed minimal or no fitness loss in selected lines compared to controls. Sublines relaxed in generations 65 and 85 showed minimal or no regression in apparent flying speed. Hybrid lines, from a cross of selected x control lines in generation 75, responded to reselection saltationally, showing that the chromosomes of the selected lines had been assembled from alleles at many loci, from many different chromosomes in the base population. Thus, major genetic change was achieved, but without the costs usually associated with strong directional selection. Large population size has been interpreted, in opposing models, as either a brake or an accelerator in its effects on long-term change by selection. These results favor the second model, and challenge the concept of rugged fitness surfaces underlying the first model. PMID:8878686

Weber, K E

1996-09-01

384

Forecasting Evaluation of WindSat in the Coastal Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

WindSat has demonstrated that measurements from polarimetric space-based microwave radiometers can be used to retrieve global ocean surface vector winds. Since the date of launch in 2003, substantial incremental improvements have been made to WindSat data processing, calibration, and retrieval algorithms. The retrievals now have higher resolution, improved wind vector ambiguity removal, and enhanced capability to represent high winds. Utilization of WindSat retrievals (wind vectors, total precipitable water, rainrate and sea surface temperature) will be demonstrated in the context of operational weather forecasting applications, especially the monitoring of topographically-forced winds. Examples will be presented from various parts of the world, including inland seas, midlatitude oceans, the tropics, and the United States. We will illustrate retrievals in extreme high- and extreme low-wind regimes, both of which can be problematic. Rain contamination will be addressed. We will include a comparison of WindSat vector maps to corresponding maps from the QuikScat scatterometer. We will discuss how near-realtime data from WindSat is being transitioned to specific offices within the National Weather Service.

Lee, Thomas F.; Bettenhausen, Mike H.; Hawkins, Jeffrey D.; Richardson, Kim; Jedlovec, Gary; Smith, Matt

2012-01-01

385

Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the theme of change. Provides Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and magazines that are resources concerning personal, environmental, historical and social changes. Includes activities centered on change and a subject index. (AEF)

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

386

Wind speed sensorless maximum power point tracking control of variable speed wind energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller for variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) is proposed. The proposed method, without requiring the knowledge of wind speed, air density or turbine parameters, generates at its output the optimum speed command for speed control loop of rotor flux oriented vector controlled machine side converter control system using only the instantaneous active

J. S. Thongam; P. Bouchard; H. Ezzaidi; M. Ouhrouche

2009-01-01

387

Flexi vector cloning.  

PubMed

A protocol for ligation-dependent cloning using the Flexi Vector method in a 96-well format is described. The complete protocol includes PCR amplification of the desired gene to append Flexi Vector cloning sequences, restriction digestion of the PCR products, ligation of the digested PCR products into a similarly digested acceptor vector, transformation and growth of host cells, analysis of the transformed clones, and storage of a sequence-verified clone. The protocol also includes transfer of the sequence-verified clones into another Flexi Vector plasmid backbone. Smaller numbers of cloning reactions can be undertaken by appropriate scaling of the indicated reaction volumes. PMID:18988018

Blommel, Paul G; Martin, Peter A; Seder, Kory D; Wrobel, Russell L; Fox, Brian G

2009-01-01

388

Society for Vector Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed in 1968, the Society for Vector Ecology (SOVE) is dedicated to studying "all aspects of the biology, ecology, and control of arthropod vectors and the interrelationships between the vectors and the disease agents they transmit." Comprised of researchers and operational and extension personnel around the globe, SOVE tracks and studies the biological organisms that transmit diseases. The SOVE Website contains information related to the Society (e.g., mission, history), its publications (journal, newsletter -- both .pdf format), and professional opportunities (conferences, employment). Several dozen links to additional vector ecology resources are provided.

2008-09-12

389

Earthward directed CMEs seen in large-scale coronal magnetic field changes, SOHO LASCO coronagraph and solar wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

One picture of coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation relates these events to the expansion into space of previously closed coronal magnetic fields, often part of the helmet streamer belt. The work described here makes use of the potential field source surface model based on updated synoptic photospheric field maps to study the large-scale coronal field changes. We isolate those field

Yan Li; Janet G. Luhmann; T. Mulligan; J. Todd Hoeksema; C. Nick Arge; S. P. Plunkett; O. C. St. Cyr

2001-01-01

390

Terminal voltage control of a wind turbine driven isolated induction generator using stator oriented field control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the voltage build up process and terminal voltage control in an isolated wind powered induction generator driven by a variable speed wind turbine using stator flux oriented vector control. Here three-phase induction generator is excited using a PWM inverter\\/rectifier connected to a single capacitor on the DC side. Wind powered isolated induction generators have an input, wind,

D. Seyoum; M. F. Rahman; C. Grantham

2003-01-01

391

Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture  

PubMed Central

Bluetongue is a disease of ruminants which reached Denmark in 2007. We present a process-based stochastic simulation model of vector-borne diseases, where host animals are not confined to a central geographic farm coordinate, but can be distributed onto pasture areas. Furthermore vectors fly freely and display search behavior to locate areas with hosts. We also include wind spread of vectors, host movements, and vector seasonality. Results show that temperature and seasonality of vectors determines the period in which an incursion of Bluetongue may lead to epidemic spread in Denmark. Within this period of risk the number of infected hosts is affected by temperature, vector abundance, vector behavior, vectors' ability to locate hosts, and use of pasture. These results indicate that restricted grazing during outbreaks can reduce the number of infected hosts and the size of the affected area. The model can be implemented on other vector-borne diseases of grazing animals.

Graesb?ll, Kaare; B?dker, Rene; En?e, Claes; Christiansen, Lasse E.

2012-01-01

392

The Analysis of Wind Seismic Noise and Algorithms of its Determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main barrier on a way of increase quality of seismic observations is the noise oscillations of a ground owing to influence of parameters variations of an environment, which is exhibited in the broad band record. For a reduction of noise influences changes any of an environment parameter, its variations are noted. It serves for hardware or program compensation of the noise. Nowadays the numerous ways are developed for a noise level reduction made by changes of temperature, magnetic field and atmospheric pressure. It is not so difficult to conduct record-keeping of influence of ground waters level and snow coverage on long and super long periods also. Wind is high-power factor for noise producing. It was multiply noted in the scientific literature. The wind is connected to pressure, but it is not the same. The apart from of a gradient of pressure, on a field of a wind in a surface layer renders influence of the Coriolis force and friction about a surface of ground. Any obstacle, from small-scale (building, trees, wood bands and so on) up to large-scale (range of mountains), standing on a way of air flow, distorts a field of a wind. Therefore, there are zones of a wind strengthening, zone of wind shadow. It forms exposed to the wind and lee-side vortexes. The speed and the direction of the wind are influenced also by non-irregularity of vertical distribution temperature, which makes horizontal flows of an air influencing to underlying layers known as the phenomenon of turbulent viscosity. The wind has a character of a laminar flow only at low speeds. The vortexes formed by strengthening of the wind act quasi-periodic on an underlying surface, the force and period of these effects, including wind impacts in obstacles, grow with strengthening of a wind. It is size the same order, as acceleration created in atmosphere by barometric gradients. A very complex picture of seismic noise for each seismic station is created by outcome of air friction about the earth surface and impacts into obstacles. The influence of a wind direction to seismic noise is not proved. The attempts of searching of this influence came across absence of qualitative data and absence of techniques of determination of a wind operation on oscillations of a ground. It is marked the increase of a noise level with strengthening of a wind only. Any compensation of noise is not made. In the task is illuminated the state of a problem, it is discussed the applicability the existing data and techniques for rese