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[Malassezia and its presumed association with skin diseases in dogs].  


Malassezia pachydermatis is the major species in Malassezia isolated from dogs, and there is a presumably Malassezia-associated skin disease,"Malassezia dermatitis" in the dog. The skin lesion is characterized by relatively demarcated erythema with some scaling at the sebum-rich areas, in which lichenification and hyperpigmentation could be involved in the chronic stage. The clinical features suggest that it corresponds to seborrheic dermatitis in humans. Hence, it might be possible to identify essential pathogenesis of the disease by clarifying its differences in humans and animals as a shared disease. PMID:23470954

Nagata, Masahiko



Expression of Human ?1-Antitrypsin in Mice and Dogs Following AAV6 Vector-mediated Gene Transfer to the Lungs  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the potential of lung-directed gene therapy for ?1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency using an adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6) vector containing a human AAT (hAAT) complementary DNA (cDNA) delivered to the lungs of mice and dogs. The results in normal and immune-deficient mice showed that hAAT concentrations were much higher in lung fluid than in plasma, and therapeutic levels were obtained even in normal mice. However, in normal mice an immune response against the vector and/or transgene limited long-term gene expression. An AAV6 vector expressing a marker protein verified that AAV6 vectors efficiently transduced lung cells in dogs. Delivery of AAV6-hAAT resulted in low levels of hAAT in dog serum but therapeutic levels in the lung that persisted for at least 58 days to 4 months in three immunosuppressed dogs. Expression in the serum was not detectable after 45 days in one nonimmune suppressed dog. A lymphoproliferative response to AAV capsid but not to hAAT was detected even after immunosuppression. These results in mice and dogs show the feasibility of expression of therapeutic levels of AAT in the lungs after AAV vector delivery, and advocate for approaches to prevent cellular immune responses to AAV capsid proteins for persistence of gene expression in humans.

Halbert, Christine L; Madtes, David K; Vaughan, Andrew E; Wang, Zejing; Storb, Rainer; Tapscott, Stephen J; Miller, A Dusty



Fibrosarcomas at presumed sites of injection in dogs: characteristics and comparison with non-vaccination site fibrosarcomas and feline post-vaccinal fibrosarcomas.  


Fifteen fibrosarcomas, surgically excised from presumed sites of injection in dogs, and 10 canine fibrosarcomas excised from sites not used for injection were histologically and immunohistochemically compared with 20 feline post-vaccinal fibrosarcomas. Canine fibrosarcomas from presumed injection sites were of grade I (3), of grade II (4) and grade III (8). Two fibrosarcomas from non-injection sites were of grade I, four of grade II and four of grade III. Feline samples were classified as grade I (2), grade II (4) and grade III (14). All fibrosarcomas from presumed injection sites of both species showed lymphocytic inflammatory infiltration located at the tumour periphery, while two canine fibrosarcomas from non-injection sites showed perivascular inflammatory infiltration within the neoplasm. All samples were immunohistochemically examined for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, muscle specific actin and desmin expression. All tumours were positive for vimentin. Ten canine fibrosarcomas from presumed injection sites and all feline samples contained cells consistent with a myofibroblastic immunophenotype. Aluminium deposits were detected in eight canine fibrosarcomas from presumed injection sites and 11 feline post-vaccinal fibrosarcomas by the aurintricarboxylic acid method. The present study identifies distinct similarities between canine fibrosarcomas from presumed injection sites and feline post-vaccinal fibrosarcomas, suggesting the possibility of the development of post-injection sarcomas not only in cats, but also in dogs. PMID:12887620

Vascellari, M; Melchiotti, E; Bozza, M A; Mutinelli, F



What is presumed when we presume consent?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The organ donor shortfall in the UK has prompted calls to introduce legislation to allow for presumed consent: if there is no explicit objection to donation of an organ, consent should be presumed. The current debate has not taken in account accepted meanings of presumption in law and science and the consequences for rights of ownership that would arise

Barbara K Pierscionek



Long-term follow-up of foamy viral vector-mediated gene therapy for canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency.  


The development of leukemia following gammaretroviral vector-mediated gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) has emphasized the need for long-term follow-up in animals treated with hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. In this study, we report the long-term follow-up (4-7 years) of four dogs with canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD) treated with foamy viral (FV) vector-mediated gene therapy. All four CLAD dogs previously received nonmyeloablative conditioning with 200 cGy total body irradiation followed by infusion of autologous, CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells transduced by a FV vector expressing canine CD18 from an internal Murine Stem Cell Virus (MSCV) promoter. CD18(+) leukocyte levels were >2% following infusion of vector-transduced cells leading to ongoing reversal of the CLAD phenotype for >4 years. There was no clinical development of lymphoid or myeloid leukemia in any of the four dogs and integration site analysis did not reveal insertional oncogenesis. These results showing disease correction/amelioration of disease in CLAD without significant adverse events provide support for the use of a FV vector to treat children with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) in a human gene therapy clinical trial. PMID:23531552

Bauer, Thomas R; Tuschong, Laura M; Calvo, Katherine R; Shive, Heather R; Burkholder, Tanya H; Karlsson, Eleanor K; West, Robert R; Russell, David W; Hickstein, Dennis D



[Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome].  


Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome is a macular hemorrhagic choroiditis of the young adult. The etiology of this syndrome is uncertain, but can be correlated with some positive reactions to histoplasmosis. The study was carried out on 12 patients, each of them was investigated by functional and objective ocular examinations, laboratory tests, fluorescein angiography and ultrasound examinations. The clinical signs of this syndrome of presumed ocular histoplasmosis were: macular focal lesions, subretinian hemorrhages, detachment of the retinal neurosensorial layer, presence of disseminated choroiditis scars and subretinian neovascularization. The correct evaluation of the choriocapillary perfusion is helpful to institute a proper therapy. PMID:15341107

Seceleanu, Andreea; C?lug?ru, M; Kaucsar, Emese; C?lug?ru, D



Lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of human neural progenitor cells for ex vivo gene therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) hold great potential as an ex vivo system for delivery of therapeutic proteins to the central nervous system. When cultured as aggregates, termed neurospheres, hNPC are capable of significant in vitro expansion. In the current study, we present a robust method for lentiviral vector-mediated gene delivery into hNPC that maintains the differentiation and proliferative properties

Elizabeth E. Capowski; Bernard L. Schneider; Allison D. Ebert; Corey R. Seehus; Jolanta Szulc; Romain Zufferey; Patrick Aebischer; Clive N. Svendsen



Presumed paranormal linkage of rings.  


Examples are presented in the SORRAT experiments of: (1) presumed paranormally linked human aortic rings and their teleportation into a sealed, glass globe; (2) videographed experiments with Joe Nuzum, paragnost, while in a trancelike state, accomplishing linkage of a class ring on his finger to one key of several held in a researcher's hand; and (3) in a different experiment linking two rubber bands of several which were held in a researcher's hand. X-ray and MRI studies tend to confirm the genuineness of these mind-over-matter psychosomatic effects. Further linkage experiments are described including videographed linking and delinking of rubber bands, and a videographed linking and delinking of a gold seamless ring and brass nut. It is speculated that these experiments illustrate some degree of conscious, volititional control and might have analogous and overlooked aspects and possibilities in human biology and nature, and that these are overripe areas for intensive parapsychiatric investigation. PMID:7843875

Schwarz, B E



Viral vector-mediated blockade of the endocrine stress-response modulates non-spatial memory  

PubMed Central

Stress results in the release of glucocorticoids (GCs) which, at high levels, impair hippocampus-dependent tasks. Estrogen is neurotrophic and can rescue stress-induced memory impairments. Here we report the use of a viral-vector to overexpress a chimeric gene (ER/GR) that converts the deleterious effects of glucocorticoids into beneficial estrogenic effects. A short immobilization stress regimen was sufficient to impair non-spatial memory. In contrast, viral vector-mediated overexpression of ER/GR in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus protected against stress-induced impairments of non-spatial memory. These data add to the growing evidence that increasing estrogenic signaling can protect against the impairing effects of stress on non-spatial memory.

Ferguson, Deveroux; Lin, Sophia; Sapolsky, Robert



Baculovirus vector-mediated transfer of NIS gene into colon tumor cells for radionuclide therapy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the feasibility of radionuclide therapy of colon tumor cells by baculovirus vector-mediated transfer of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene. METHODS: A recombinant baculovirus plasmid carrying the NIS gene was constructed, and the viruses (Bac-NIS) were prepared using the Bac-to-Bac system. The infection efficiency in the colon cancer cell line SW1116 of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing baculovirus (Bac-GFP) at different multiplicities of infection (MOI) with various concentrations of sodium butyrate was determined by flow cytometry. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay was also conducted after infection of SW1116 cells with Bac-NIS. Iodine uptake of Bac-NIS infected SW1116 cells and inhibition of this uptake by sodium perchlorate was examined, and the effect of Bac-NIS-mediated 131I in killing tumor cells was evaluated by cell colony formation tests. RESULTS: Infection and transgene expression in SW1116 with Bac-GFP were significantly enhanced by sodium butyrate, as up to 72% of SW1116 cells were infected with the virus at MOI of 400 and sodium butyrate at 0.5 mmol/L. No obvious cytotoxicity was observed under these conditions. Infection of SW1116 with Bac-NIS allowed uptake of 131I in these tumor cells, which could be inhibited by sodium perchlorate. The viability of SW1116 cells infected with Bac-NIS was significantly lower than with Bac-GFP, suggesting that NIS gene-mediated 131I uptake could specifically kill tumor cells. CONCLUSION: Baculovirus vector-mediated NIS gene therapy is a potential approach for treatment of colon cancer.

Yin, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Xiang; Wu, Hai-Fei; Li, Biao; Zhang, Yi-Fan



Effects of herpes simplex virus vector-mediated enkephalin gene therapy on bladder overactivity and nociception.  


We previously reported the effects of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector-mediated enkephalin on bladder overactivity and pain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of vHPPE (E1G6-ENK), a newly engineered replication-deficient HSV vector encoding human preproenkephalin (hPPE). vHPPE or control vector was injected into the bladder wall of female rats 2 weeks prior to the following studies. A reverse-transcription PCR study showed high hPPE transgene levels in L6 dorsal root ganglia innervating the bladder in the vHPPE group. The number of freezing behaviors, which is a nociceptive reaction associated with bladder pain, was also significantly lower in the vHPPE group compared with the control group. The number of L6 spinal cord c-fos-positive cells and the urinary interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 levels after resiniferatoxin (RTx) administration into the bladder of the vHPPE group were significantly lower compared with those of the control vector-injected group. In continuous cystometry, the vHPPE group showed a smaller reduction in intercontraction interval after RTx administration into the bladder. This antinociceptive effect was antagonized by naloxone hydrochloride. Thus, the HSV vector vHPPE encoding hPPE demonstrated physiological improvement in visceral pain induced by bladder irritation. Gene therapy may represent a potentially useful treatment modality for bladder hypersensitive disorders such as bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:23316929

Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Goins, William F; Goss, James R; Nishizawa, Osamu; de Groat, William C; Wolfe, Darren; Krisky, David M; Glorioso, Joseph C; Yoshimura, Naoki



Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer and RNA silencing technology in neuronal dysfunctions.  


Lentiviral-mediated gene transfer in vivo or in cultured mammalian neurons can be used to address a wide variety of biological questions, to design animal models for specific neurodegenerative pathologies, or to test potential therapeutic approaches in a variety of brain disorders. Lentiviruses can infect nondividing cells, thereby allowing stable gene transfer in postmitotic cells such as mature neurons. An important contribution has been the use of inducible vectors: the same animal can thus be used repeatedly in the doxycycline-on or -off state, providing a powerful mean for assessing the function of a gene candidate in a disorder within a specific neuronal circuit. Furthermore, lentivirus vectors provide a unique tool to integrate siRNA expression constructs with the aim to locally knockdown expression of a specific gene, enabling to assess the function of a gene in a very specific neuronal pathway. Lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of short hairpin RNA results in persistent knockdown of gene expression in the brain. Therefore, the use of lentiviruses for stable expression of siRNA in brain is a powerful aid to probe gene functions in vivo and for gene therapy of diseases of the central nervous system. In this chapter, I review the applications of lentivirus-mediated gene transfer in the investigation of specific gene candidates involved in major brain disorders and neurodegenerative processes. Major applications have been in polyglutamine disorders, such as synucleinopathies and Parkinson's disease, or in investigating gene function in Huntington's disease, dystonia, or muscular dystrophy. Recently, lentivirus gene transfer has been an invaluable tool for evaluation of gene function in behavioral disorders such as drug addiction and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or in learning and cognition. PMID:20225033

Dreyer, Jean-Luc



Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer and RNA silencing technology in neuronal dysfunctions.  


Lentiviral-mediated gene transfer in vivo or in cultured mammalian neurons can be used to address a wide variety of biological questions, to design animals models for specific neurodegenerative pathologies, or to test potential therapeutic approaches in a variety of brain disorders. Lentiviruses can infect non-dividing cells, thereby allowing stable gene transfer in post-mitotic cells such as mature neurons. An important contribution has been the use of inducible vectors: the same animal can thus be used repeatedly in the doxycycline-on or -off state, providing a powerful mean for assessing the function of a gene candidate in a disorder within a specific neuronal circuit. Furthermore, lentivirus vectors provide a unique tool to integrate siRNA expression constructs with the aim to locally knockdown expression of a specific gene, enabling to assess the function of a gene in a very specific neuronal pathway. Lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of short hairpin RNA results in persistent knockdown of gene expression in the brain. Therefore, the use of lentiviruses for stable expression of siRNA in brain is a powerful aid to probe gene functions in vivo and for gene therapy of diseases of the central nervous system. In this chapter I review the applications of lentivirus-mediated gene transfer in the investigation of specific gene candidates involved in major brain disorders and neurodegenerative processes. Major applications have been in polyglutamine disorders, such as synucleinopathies and Parkinson's disease, or in investigating gene function in Huntington's disease, dystonia, or muscular dystrophy. Recently, lentivirus gene transfer has been an invaluable tool for evaluation of gene function in behavioral disorders such as drug addiction and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or in learning and cognition. PMID:20862616

Dreyer, Jean-Luc



Viral vector-mediated gene transfer of neurotrophins to promote regeneration of the injured spinal cord.  


Injuries to the adult mammalian spinal cord often lead to severe damage to both ascending (sensory) pathways and descending (motor) nerve pathways without the perspective of complete functional recovery. Future spinal cord repair strategies should comprise a multi-factorial approach addressing several issues, including optimalization of survival and function of spared central nervous system neurons in partial lesions and the modulation of trophic and inhibitory influences to promote and guide axonal regrowth. Neurotrophins have emerged as promising molecules to augment neuroprotection and neuronal regeneration. Although intracerebroventricular, intrathecal and local protein delivery of neurotrophins to the injured spinal cord has resulted in enhanced survival and regeneration of injured neurons, there are a number of drawbacks to these methods. Viral vector-mediated transfer of neurotrophin genes to the injured spinal cord is emerging as a novel and effective strategy to express neurotrophins in the injured nervous system. Ex vivo transfer of neurotrophic factor genes is explored as a way to bridge lesions cavities for axonal regeneration. Several viral vector systems, based on herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, lentivirus, and moloney leukaemia virus, have been employed. The genetic modification of fibroblasts, Schwann cells, olfactory ensheathing glia cells, and stem cells, prior to implantation to the injured spinal cord has resulted in improved cellular nerve guides. So far, neurotrophic factor gene transfer to the injured spinal cord has led to results comparable to those obtained with direct protein delivery, but has a number of advantages. The steady advances that have been made in combining new viral vector systems with a range of promising cellular platforms for ex vivo gene transfer (e.g., primary embryonic neurons, Schwann cells, olfactory ensheating glia cells and neural stem cells) holds promising perspectives for the development of new neurotrophic factor-based therapies to repair the injured nervous system. PMID:14699980

Hendriks, William T; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Blits, Bas; Boer, Gerard J; Verhaagen, Joost



Lymphocyte transformation in presumed ocular histoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a

J. P. Ganley; G. J. Nemo; G. W. Comstock; J. A. Brody



Immunophenotyping in presumed ocular histoplasmosis like retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cases of presumed ocular histoplasmosis like retinopathy are presented. A detailed immunological assessment was carried out on the patients and a control group: lymphocyte immunophenotyping; flow cytometric analysis; HLA typing and T cell receptor variable region (TCR V region) expression were assessed. Analysis of TCR V region expression revealed no significant preferential expression. HLA typing also failed to reveal

P R Hodgkins; I H Chisholm; M J Absolon; A R Elkington; J L Smith



Lymphocyte transformation in presumed ocular histoplasmosis  

SciTech Connect

Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a higher mean response than the other two groups to pokeweed mitogen but not to phytohemagglutinin and had higher mean counts per minute to the specific antigens Toxoplasma gondii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M battery, and M gaus, but not to Candida albicans. These data would suggest that individuals with the disciform lesion of presumed ocular histoplasmosis have a hyperreactive cellular immune response; this response may play an important role in the development of the disciform.

Ganley, J.P.; Nemo, G.J.; Comstock, G.W.; Brody, J.A.



Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in India.  


The authors report a case series of presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) from India. Patients with progressive diminution of vision and having subretinal neovascularisation (SRNVM) were evaluated thoroughly to look for signs of POHS. Three patients had features suggestive of POHS, which to the best of the authors' knowledge is the first case series reported from India. This study shows that patients with clinical features suggestive of POHS do exist in India. A thorough fundus examination of young adults with supposedly idiopathic SRNVM may help to uncover more cases of POHS in India. PMID:17763129

Sinha, Rajesh; Raju, S; Garg, S P; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Talwar, Dinesh


[Is being licked by dogs not dirty?].  


Being licked by pet dogs is frequently a common advice in articles for the uninitiated. An overview is given about the special antibacterial and wound healing properties of human and canine saliva. New developments in the human area are presumably assigned to dog saliva. Because of the presence of a quite different mouth flora including various potential zoonotic pathogens, it is strictly not advised to let dogs lick the wounds or face of the human. PMID:23025205

Overgaauw, Paul; van Knapen, Frans



Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma.

Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))



Taxomyces andreanae: a presumed paclitaxel producer demystified?  


The 1990s brought an abundance of reports on paclitaxel-producing endophytes, initially heralded as a discovery having tremendous implications for cancer therapy. As the vision of large-scale fermentation tanks producing vast quantities of relatively inexpensive paclitaxel and novel taxanes has faded and has been replaced by controversial silence, we carried out an in-depth investigation of Taxomyces andreanae - the very first presumed endophytic synthesizer of the diterpenoid. On one hand, metabolic profiling by means of chromatographic, spectroscopic and immunoenzymatic techniques predominant in literature was taken up. On the other, the experimental procedure was brought to an alternative, previously unattempted level aiming at revealing the genetic background of paclitaxel biosynthesis in the endophyte. The profound PCR-based screening for taxadiene synthase (TXS) - a gene unique to the formation of the primary taxane-skeleton, as well as phenylpropanoyl transferase (BAPT) encoding for the catalyst of the final acylation of the core structure rendering the ultimate efficacy of the drug, confirmed the molecular blueprint for paclitaxel biosynthesis to be an inherent genetic trait of the endophyte. However, as the thorough metabolic analysis of Taxomyces andreanae commercial isolate brought no confirmation of endophytic paclitaxel production even after considerable up-scaling endeavors, we postulate that proclaiming the strain "a fungus factory for Taxol" might have been premature. PMID:19809969

Staniek, Agata; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Kayser, Oliver



The use of retroviral vectors for gene therapy-what are the risks? A review of retroviral pathogenesis and its relevance to retroviral vector-mediated gene delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer has been central to the development of gene therapy. Retroviruses have several distinct advantages over other vectors, especially when permanent gene transfer is the preferred outcome. The most important advantage that retroviral vectors offer is their ability to transform their single stranded RNA genome into a double stranded DNA molecule that stably integrates into the target

Donald S Anson



Effect of herpes simplex virus vector-mediated interleukin-4 gene therapy on bladder overactivity and nociception.  


We investigated the effects of replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) on bladder overactivity and nociception. HSV vector expressing murine interleukin-4 (S4IL4) or the control vector expressing ?-galactosidase (SHZ) were injected to the rat bladder wall. At 1 week after viral injection, in cystometry performed under urethane anesthesia, the S4IL4-treated group did not show the intercontraction intervals reduction during intravesical administration of 10?nM resiniferatoxin (RTx). At 2 weeks after viral injection, behavioral studies were performed on vector-injected animals in an awakened state. Freezing behavior induced by 3??M RTx, administered for 1?min into the bladder, was significantly suppressed in the S4IL4 group compared with the SHZ group. Murine IL-4 levels examined by ELISA were significantly increased in bladder and bladder afferent dorsal root ganglia at 2 weeks after viral injection. The expression of IL-1? and IL-2 and bladder inflammatory responses were significantly suppressed in the RTx-irritated bladder of S4IL4-injected rats. These results indicate that HSV vector-mediated interleukin-4 expression in the bladder and bladder afferent pathways reduces the inflammatory response, bladder overactivity and nociceptive behavior induced by bladder irritation in the rat model. Therefore, IL-4 gene therapy could be a new strategy for treating urinary frequency and/or bladder pain. PMID:22402319

Oguchi, T; Funahashi, Y; Yokoyama, H; Nishizawa, O; Goins, W F; Goss, J R; Glorioso, J C; Yoshimura, N



Human immunodeficiency virus vector-mediated intra-articular expression of angiostatin inhibits progression of collagen-induced arthritis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the feasibility of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vector-mediated local expression of angiostatin in the treatment of murine collagen-induced arthritis in a mouse model generated by immunization with bovine type II collagen and Freund’s complete adjuvant. The HIV vector containing the murine angiostatin expression unit (HIV-angiostatin) was injected into right knee joints after arthritis development; the HIV vector

Ko Kato; Koichi Miyake; Tsutomu Igarashi; Shinichi Yoshino; Takashi Shimada



Intratumoral delivery of vector mediated IL2 in combination with vaccine results in enhanced T cell avidity and anti-tumor activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic IL-2 is currently employed in the therapy of several tumor types, but at the price of often severe toxicities. Local\\u000a vector mediated delivery of IL-2 at the tumor site may enhance local effector cell activity while reducing toxicity. To examine\\u000a this, a model using CEA-transgenic mice bearing established CEA expressing tumors was employed. The vaccine regimen was a\\u000a s.c.

Chie Kudo-Saito; Charlie T. Garnett; Elizabeth K. Wansley; Jeffrey Schlom; James W. Hodge



Cooperative effects of adenoviral vector-mediated interleukin 12 gene therapy with radiotherapy in a preclinical model of metastatic prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the potential benefits of combining adenoviral vector mediated in situ interleukin-12 (AdmIL-12) gene therapy with radiation therapy (XRT) to enhance therapeutic efficacy. In a metastatic mouse prostate cancer cell line, 178-2 BMA, AdmIL-12+XRT demonstrated enhanced therapeutic activities in vitro as determined by clonogenic survival, apoptosis, and mIL-12 levels. At the molecular level, increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-?

T Fujita; T L Timme; K Tabata; K Naruishi; N Kusaka; M Watanabe; E Abdelfattah; J X Zhu; C Ren; G Yang; A Goltsov; H Wang; M T Vlachaki; B S Teh; E B Butler; T C Thompson



Pathological features of polyneuropathy in three dogs.  


Canine polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder characterized by a dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. The etiology of the disease is diverse; it may occur in cases of infectious, immune-mediated, or hereditary conditions or in association with endocrinopathy, neoplasm, or chemical intoxication. It is often difficult to determine the etiology through clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate pathological differences among three canine polyneuropathy cases with each presumably having a different etiology. Cases included a 13-month-old female border collie (Dog No.1), a 21-month-old male chihuahua (Dog No.2) and an 11-year-old male beagle (Dog No.3). Clinical examinations revealed hindlimb ataxia and sensory loss in Dog No.1, forelimb paralysis and vertebral pain in Dog No.2, and paddling-gait and hypothyroidism in Dog No.3. Histopathologically, axonal swelling and pale myelin were observed in Dog No.1. Giant axons mimicking giant axonal neuropathy were obvious in Dog No.2. Dog No.3 showed atrophic axons and severe interstitial edema. Distributions of peripheral nerve lesions coincided with respective clinical symptoms. According to their clinical and pathological features, Dogs No.1 and No.2 were suspected of hereditary polyneuropathy, while Dog No.3 seemed to have hypothyroidism-associated polyneuropathy. As each case demonstrated unique pathological features, different pathogeneses of peripheral nerve dysfunction were suggested. PMID:23123885

Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ide, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Mizue; Inagaki, Takehiko; Tamura, Shinji; Saito, Miyoko; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki



Adeno-associated virus vector-mediated expression and constitutive secretion of galanin suppresses limbic seizure activity.  


Theoretically, gene therapy techniques offer an attractive alternative treatment option for intractable, focal epilepsies. Although logical gene therapy targets include excitatory and inhibitory receptors, variable viral vector tropism interjects an uncertainty as to the direction of change, seizure suppression, or seizure sensitization. To circumvent this therapeutic liability, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been constructed where the gene product is constitutively secreted from the transduced cell. Using AAV vectors, the fibronectin secretory signal sequence (FIB) was placed in front of the coding sequence for green fluorescent protein or the active portion of the neuroactive peptide galanin (GAL). Subsequent studies showed that these vectors supported expression and constitutive secretion of these gene products from transfected cells in vitro. More importantly, upon transduction in vivo, AAV-FIB-GAL vectors significantly attenuated focal seizure sensitivity, and this seizure attenuation could be controlled in vivo by using a tetracycline-regulated promoter. The expression and constitutive secretion of green fluorescent protein, or the expression of GAL alone, exerted no effect on focal seizure sensitivity. Moreover, unilateral infusion of the AAV-FIB-GAL vectors into the hippocampus prevented kainic acid-induced hilar cell death. With regard to limbic seizures, bilateral infusion of AAV-FIB-GAL vectors into the piriform cortex prevented both behavioral and localized electrographic seizure activity after the peripheral administration of kainic acid. Also, when rats were electrically kindled to class V seizure activity, subsequent infusion of AAV-FIB-GAL proved capable of significantly elevating the seizure initiation threshold. Thus, these studies clearly demonstrate the anti-seizure effectiveness of AAV vector-mediated expression and constitutive secretion of galanin. PMID:19332324

McCown, Thomas J



20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2012-04-01 true Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219.24 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but...



Clinical Predictors of Early Embolic Recurrence in Presumed Cardioembolic Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We determined clinical predictive factors of in-hospital embolic recurrence in presumed cardioembolic stroke patients by means of multivariate analysis based on clinical and neuroimaging prognostic variables assessed within 48 h of stroke onset. Methods: Data of 347 consecutive patients with presumed cardioembolic stroke included in a prospective stroke registry were collected. Demographic characteristics, clinical events, and outcome in the

Adriŕ Arboix; Luis García-Eroles; Montserrat Oliveres; Juan B. Massons; Cecilia Targa



Dogs and Preventing Dog Bites  


... how do you prevent one? Use Your Dog Manners When we say to use your "dog manners," we don't mean you should eat off ... you can also have some equally good dog manners. That means taking certain steps every time you ...


10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit to an may presume that an investment in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal...



Spectrum of Liver Histology in Presumed Decompensated Alcoholic Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:In presumed decompensated alcoholic liver disease (ALD; liver decompensation, heavy alcohol intake, and negative results of noninvasive screening for other causes), liver biopsy is often performed to assess severity of liver injury and to rule out other liver diseases.AIM:The aim of the study is to describe the spectrum of liver histology in such patients.METHODS:We reviewed all patients with presumed decompensated

David A. Elphick; Asha K. Dube; Elaine McFarlane; Jayne Jones; Dermot Gleeson



Suppression of collagen-induced arthritis by intra-articular lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of Toll-like receptor 7 short hairpin RNA gene.  


Knockdown of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is a novel therapeutic strategy in treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the effects of lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of TLR7 short hairpin RNA gene (Lt.shTLR7) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). After being immunized on days 0 and 7, Sprague-Dawley rats received intra-articular (i.a.) injection of Lt.shTLR7 or scramble control vector on days 7 and 10. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by measuring ankle circumferences, articular index, and radiographic and histological scores on killing on day 16. Microvessel densities, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations and T-cell numbers within the synovial tissues were measured. Moreover, VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in culture supernatants from TLR7-transfected synovial fibroblasts (SFs) stimulated with imiquimod or endogenous ligands were examined. There were significant reduction in ankle circumferences, articular indexes, and radiographic and histological scores. Microvessel densities, VEGF concentrations, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 levels and T-cell densities within synovial tissues were significantly lower. Induction of VEGF, IL-1? and IL-6 production from stimulated SFs was significantly suppressed. Taken together, these data demonstrate the effects of i.a. lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of shTLR7 RNA gene on inhibition of CIA, and implicate the manipulation of TLR7 as a potential therapeutic strategy in RA patients. PMID:22089492

Chen, S-Y; Shiau, A-L; Li, Y-T; Lin, Y-S; Lee, C-H; Wu, C-L; Wang, C-R



Benign masses in the pericardium of two dogs.  


Two miniature Schnauzer dogs were treated for pericardial masses. In one dog the mass consisted of necrotic fat that was attached to the apex of the pericardium by a pedicle. No obvious communication with the abdomen was present. The second dog had a peritoneopericardial hernia associated with a chronic cystic haematoma. In each case the mass was presumed to have arisen following congenital displacement of the omentum into the pericardium. The pericardial mass was removed and subtotal pericardectomy performed in both dogs. Recovery was complete in each case. PMID:10330551

Simpson, D J; Hunt, G B; Church, D B; Beck, J A



Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome and linear streak lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five cases of subretinal neovascular membranes in the macula associated with punched out chorioretinal scars and linear streaks were seen in five Dutch patients. Clinically the fundus lesions are consistent with those of presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) seen in the United States of America. Cutaneous serological testing for histoplasmin reactivity was negative in the three patients tested. Of special

F G Bottoni; A F Deutman; A L Aandekerk



Systemic responses of preterm newborns with presumed or documented bacteremia  

PubMed Central

Aim To compare the frequency of elevated concentrations of inflammation-related proteins in the blood of infants born before the 28th week of gestation who had documented bacteremia to those who had presumed (antibiotic-treated but culture-negative) bacteremia to those who neither. Methods The subjects of this study are the 868 infants born at 14 institutions for whom information about protein measurements on at least two of the three protocol days (days 1, 7, and 14) was available and who did not have Bell stage 3 necrotizing enterocolitis or isolated bowel perforation, which were strongly associated with bacteremia in this sample. Results Newborns with presumed early (week 1) bacteremia had elevated concentrations of only a few inflammation-related proteins, while those who had presumed late (weeks 2–4) bacteremia did not have any elevations. In contrast, newborns who had documented early bacteremia had a moderately strong signal, while those who had documented late bacteremia had a stronger signal with more protein concentrations elevated on two separate occasions a week apart. Conclusions Culture-confirmed early and late bacteremia are accompanied/followed by systemic inflammatory responses not seen with presumed early and late bacteremia.

Leviton, Alan; O'Shea, T. Michael; Bednarek, Francis J.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Dammann, Olaf



Osteosarcoma — presumed lymph node metastases in two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients with osteosarcoma of a lower limb and presumed lymph node metastases are described. The metastases presented in both children as palpable masses, one in the inguinal region and the other in the pelvis. One was visible on plain radiography; both were demonstrated on computed tomography and bone scintigraphy. The inguinal mass was present at the first examination and

Ruth English; Claire Dicks-Mireaux; Marian Malone; Rosemary Scott



In vivo replication-deficient adenovirus vector-mediated transduction of the cytosine deaminase gene sensitizes glioma cells to 5-fluorocytosine.  


Viral vector-mediated transfer of chemosensitization genes represents a promising new approach to the treatment of cancer. Previous reports have demonstrated that transfection of the bacterial cytosine deaminase (cd) gene into mammalian cells can sensitize them to the otherwise nontoxic nucleoside, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC). We now report that a replication-deficient adenovirus vector that transduces the cd gene (Ad.CMV-cd) highly sensitizes 9L gliosarcoma cells to 5-FC, and that gene transduction is associated with a potent bystander effect that is not dependent on direct cell-to-cell contact. Stereotactic injection of Ad.CMV-cd into established rat gliomas, followed by systemic administration of 5-FC in vivo, results in prolongation of survival. PMID:8919593

Dong, Y; Wen, P; Manome, Y; Parr, M; Hirshowitz, A; Chen, L; Hirschowitz, E A; Crystal, R; Weichselbaum, R; Kufe, D W; Fine, H A



Basidiomycosis: Schizophyllum commune osteomyelitis in a dog.  


A six-year-old female Labrador retriever dog was suffering from osteomyelitis in her hindlimb. A puncture wound caused by a rotted bamboo stick was presumed as the source of infection. The dog suffered from pre-existing aortic stenosis, but otherwise exhibited no significant abnormality in her systemic conditions excluding claudication of the left hindlimb. The results of cytology and pathological examinations of biopsy samples revealed the diagnosis of mycotic osteomyelitis in this dog. Mycological and DNA tests showed the pathogen as the mushroom Schizophyllum commune. Antibiotic sensitivity testing also revealed susceptibility to itraconazole, which was used to successfully treat the dog. This is a rare case of canine basidiomycosis with S. commune as the etiologic agent. PMID:19057147

Tanaka, Hiroji; Takizawa, Kayoko; Baba, Osamu; Maeda, Takeshi; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Shinya, Kyoko; Kosuge, Junko



Optimized adeno-associated viral vector-mediated striatal DOPA delivery restores sensorimotor function and prevents dyskinesias in a model of advanced Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Viral vector-mediated gene transfer utilizing adeno-associated viral vectors has recently entered clinical testing as a novel tool for delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain. Clinical trials in Parkinson’s disease using adeno-associated viral vector-based gene therapy have shown the safety of the approach. Further efforts in this area will show if gene-based approaches can rival the therapeutic efficacy achieved with the best pharmacological therapy or other, already established, surgical interventions. One of the strategies under development for clinical application is continuous 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine delivery. This approach has been shown to be efficient in restoring motor function and reducing established dyskinesias in rats with a partial lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine projection. Here we utilized high purity recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors serotype 5 coding for tyrosine hydroxylase and its co-factor synthesizing enzyme guanosine-5'-triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1, delivered at an optimal ratio of 5 : 1, to show that the enhanced 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine production obtained with this optimized delivery system results in robust recovery of function in spontaneous motor tests after complete dopamine denervation. We found that the therapeutic efficacy was substantial and could be maintained for at least 6 months. The tyrosine hydroxylase plus guanosine-5'-triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 treated animals were resistant to developing dyskinesias upon peripheral l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine drug challenge, which is consistent with the interpretation that continuous dopamine stimulation resulted in a normalization of the post-synaptic response. Interestingly, recovery of forelimb use in the stepping test observed here was maintained even after a second lesion depleting the serotonin input to the forebrain, suggesting that the therapeutic efficacy was not solely dependent on dopamine synthesis and release from striatal serotonergic terminals. Taken together these results show that vector-mediated continuous 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine delivery has the potential to provide significant symptomatic relief even in advanced stages of Parkinson’s disease.

Carlsson, Thomas; Cederfjall, Erik Ahlm; Carta, Manolo; Kirik, Deniz



Successful management of presumed Candida endogenous endophthalmitis with oral voriconazole  

PubMed Central

Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis is most commonly caused by Candida species and usually occurs in patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and renal insufficiency. Voriconazole, a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent, attains therapeutically significant concentrations in the vitreous cavity after systemic administration. We report, the successful management of presumed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis in a patient with multiple diseases and unstable systemic status with oral voriconazole. Though fungal endophthalmitis has been successfully treated with a combination of intravenous and intravitreal voriconazole, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report in ophthalmic literature (Medline Search) on the treatment of fungal endophthalmitis with only the oral route of administration of voriconazole.

Biju, Raju; Sushil, Daniel; Georgy, Nainan K



Accuracy of presumed uveal melanoma diagnosis before alternative therapy.  

PubMed Central

AIMS/BACKGROUND--This study was performed to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy rate of non-invasive tests in patients with presumed uveal melanomas scheduled to be treated with either irradiation or cyclochoroidectomy. METHODS--One hundred consecutive patients who had non-invasive tests followed by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as prior alternative treatment were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS--In 86 cases the diagnosis of uveal melanoma was confirmed on FNAB. In five cases false negative results were obtained. In nine patients a diagnosis other than a uveal melanoma was made on the basis of cytopathology. No significant morbidity and no evidence of tumour spread occurred. CONCLUSION--In presumed uveal melanomas eligible for treatment with alternative therapies, the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive tests is not as good as with larger tumours that require enucleation. Fine needle aspiration biopsy data resulted in correct management of 9% of cases that were thought to have uveal melanomas on non-invasive tests, but had other lesions on cytopathological evaluation. Images

Char, D H; Miller, T



Dog Fights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v.…

Taylor, Kelley R.



Successful management of presumed Candida endogenous endophthalmitis with oral voriconazole.  


Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis is most commonly caused by Candida species and usually occurs in patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and renal insufficiency. Voriconazole, a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent, attains therapeutically significant concentrations in the vitreous cavity after systemic administration. We report, the successful management of presumed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis in a patient with multiple diseases and unstable systemic status with oral voriconazole. Though fungal endophthalmitis has been successfully treated with a combination of intravenous and intravitreal voriconazole, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report in ophthalmic literature (Medline Search) on the treatment of fungal endophthalmitis with only the oral route of administration of voriconazole. PMID:19574701

Biju, Raju; Sushil, Daniel; Georgy, Nainan K


CRIPTO3, a presumed pseudogene, is expressed in cancer.  


Cripto is a cell surface protein highly expressed in certain solid tumors, and overexpression of Cripto protein is oncogenic. Cripto-1 protein is encoded by CRIPTO1 gene. CRIPTO3, a presumed pseudogene, has an open reading frame with six amino acid differences from Cripto-1. We show that CRIPTO3 mRNA is the CRIPTO message expressed in many cancer samples. A CRIPTO3 SAGE tag was found in several cancer SAGE libraries, while the CRIPTO1 tag was found in ES cell libraries. In vitro experiments indicate both Cripto-1 and Cripto-3 proteins are functional in the Nodal-dependent signal pathway. Our data indicate that CRIPTO3 is an expressed gene, particularly in certain cancers, and suggest a potentially novel mechanism of oncogenesis through activation of a retrogene. PMID:18835250

Sun, Chao; Orozco, Olivia; Olson, Dian L; Choi, Eugene; Garber, Ellen; Tizard, Rich; Szak, Suzanne; Sanicola, Michele; Carulli, John P



Lentiviral vector-mediated stable expression of sTNFR-Fc in human macrophage and neuronal cells as a potential therapy for neuroAIDS  

PubMed Central

Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection frequently causes neurologic disease, which is the result of viral replication and activation of macrophages and microglia in the CNS, and subsequent secretion of high levels of neurotoxic products, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). We therefore hypothesized that a soluble TNF-? antagonist might have potential utility as a neuroprotective effecter molecule, and conducted proof-of-concept studies to test this hypothesis. Methods To develop novel therapeutics for the treatment of neuroAIDS, we constructed and characterized a soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR)-Fc fusion protein with the goal of neutralizing TNF-?, and tested the stability of expression of this gene following delivery by a lentiviral vector. Results High-titer lentiviral vectors were prepared, allowing efficient transduction of macrophage/glial and neuronal cell lines, as well as primary rat cerebellar neurons. Efficient, stable secretion of sTNFR-Fc was demonstrated in supernatants from transduced cell lines over 20 passages, using both western blot and ELISA. Biological activity of the secreted sTNFR-Fc was confirmed by TNF-specific in vitro protein binding and functional blocking assays. Finally, the secreted protein was shown to protect neuronal cells from TNF-?, HIV-1 Tat-, and gp120-mediated neurotoxicity. Conclusions These results demonstrate that lentiviral vector mediated expression of sTNFR-Fc may have potential as a novel therapy for neuroAIDS.



Dog Bite Prevention  


... addition, consider asking your physician if post-exposure rabies prophylaxis is necessary. Dogs are wonderful companions. By ... your dog healthy. Have your dog vaccinated against rabies and preventable infectious diseases. Parasite control and overall ...


PBS-Nova: Dogs And More Dogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nova website, designed to accompany a television Feature Program on the world of Dogs, asks "How and why did man's best friend evolve from wolves, and why are dogs so remarkably diverse today?" The site showcases a slide show on working dogs and an interactive matching game entitled, Dogs Around the World. Also included at this website are a Teacher's Guide, a Links and Books page, and an Inquiry Article about Dog diversity. Additionally, this site links to the TV program transcript and to a recent " discussion with biologist and dog expert Ray Coppinger."


Evaluation of Coccidioides antigen detection in dogs with coccidioidomycosis.  


Antigen detection has been reported to be a promising method for rapid diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in humans. Coccidioides antigen detection has not been previously reported in dogs with coccidioidomycosis and was evaluated in 60 cases diagnosed based on detection of anti-Coccidioides antibodies at titers of 1:16 or more in serum. Controls included dogs with presumed histoplasmosis or blastomycosis, other fungal infections, or nonfungal diseases and healthy dogs. Urine and serum specimens were tested using an enzyme immunoassay for Coccidioides galactomannan antigen. Antibody testing was performed at commercial veterinary reference laboratories. Antigen was detected in urine or serum of 12 of 60 (20.0%), urine only in 2 of 57 (3.5%), and serum only in 11 of 58 (19.0%) dogs with coccidioidomycosis. Antigen was detected in the urine of 3 of 43 (7.0%) and serum of 1 of 37 (2.7%) dogs with histoplasmosis or blastomycosis but not in 13 dogs with other fungal infections (serum, 9; urine, 13), 41 dogs with nonfungal diseases (urine, 41; serum, 18), or healthy dogs (serum, 21; urine, 21). Detection of antigen was an insensitive method for diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in dogs in which the diagnosis was based primarily upon detection of antibodies at titers of 1:16 or higher, and the highest sensitivity was in serum. PMID:22278324

Kirsch, Emily J; Greene, Russell T; Prahl, Annalisa; Rubin, Stanley I; Sykes, Jane E; Durkin, Michelle M; Wheat, Lawrence J



Combined Use of Carboxyl-Directed Protein Pegylation and Vector-Mediated Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Delivery System Optimizes Brain Uptake of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Following Intravenous Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Peptide drug delivery to the brain requires optimization of (a) plasma pharmacokinetics and (b) blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. In the present studies, plasma pharmacokinetics are improved with protein pegylation and BBB transport is facilitated with the use of vector-mediated drug delivery using the OX26 monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the rat transferrin receptor, which undergoes receptor-mediated transcytosis through the BBB

William M. Pardridge; Dafang Wu; Toshiyasu Sakane



Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vector-Mediated Delivery of Woodchuck-Specific Genes for Alpha Interferon (IFN ) and IFN : IFN  but Not IFN  Reduces Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus Replication in Chronic Infection In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha interferon (IFN-) and IFN- are able to suppress hepadnavirus replication. The intrahepatic expression of high levels of IFN may enhance the antiviral activity. We investigated the effects of woodchuck- specific IFN- (wIFN-) and IFN-(wIFN-) on woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) replication in vivo by helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vector-mediated gene transfer. The expression of biologically active IFNs was demonstrated in vitro

Melanie Fiedler; Florian Rodicker; Valentina Salucci; Mengji Lu; Luigi Aurisicchio; Uta Dahmen; Li Jun; Olaf Dirsch; Brigitte M. Putzer; Fabio Palombo; Michael Roggendorf



Two successive necrotic lesions secondary to presumed loxosceles envenomation.  


Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) envenomations with subsequent necrotic skin lesions occur infrequently, and systemic loxoscelism is rarer still. We report a case of 2 successive developing necrotic lesions, each on adjacent medial aspects of the legs, secondary to presumed Loxosceles envenomation. A 31-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented to the emergency department with 2, large, necrotic lesions, 1 on each medial thigh. They had progressed over the course of 1 month from small blisters to large necrotic lesions with eschar. He underwent surgical debridement without skin grafting with no further complications. Bites from recluse spiders that progress to necrosis usually present as single lesions. The differential diagnoses for a necrotic skin lesion is large. The presence of more than 1 lesion argues against Loxosceles envenomation; however, in the absence of underlying infection, systemic diseases, immunodeficiency, or malignancy, the diagnosis must be considered if the case presents in an endemic area. Brown recluse spiders rarely bite multiple times, thus confounding the diagnosis of an already nonspecific clinical finding. PMID:23352313

Tarullo, David B; Jacobsen, Ryan C; Algren, D Adam



Infectious endotheliitis: a rare case of presumed mycotic origin  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report an interesting case of infectious endotheliitis of presumed mycotic origin. Methods A case report of a 56-year-old male farmer who sought medical attention after a month-long evolution of irritative symptoms in his right eye, accompanied by visual acuity (VA) impairment. The patient received topical and oral broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment with no improvement before being referred to a cornea specialist, where he was found to have VA of 20/150 and was noted on biomicroscopy to have endothelial feathery coalescent lesions. The patient was admitted to the hospital for an aqueous humor sample and intravenous voriconazole. Results The microbiological studies did not isolate any micro-organisms. However, clinical evidence of improvement was confirmed after 5 days of antimycotic intravenous therapy. Complete clinical resolution was achieved at 1 month after treatment completion with oral voriconazole, as evidenced by VA of 20/20 and disappearance of endothelial lesions. Conclusion Endothelial involvement by fungi is a rare condition. In this case, no microbes were isolated, but the characteristic morphology of the lesions, the history of onychomycosis, and the spectacular response to voriconazole turn this case into a valid presumptive diagnosis.

Zapata, Luis Fernando; Paulo, Jose David; Restrepo, Carlos A; Velasquez, Luis Fernando; Montoya, Andres E Toro; Zapata, Melissa A



Pharmacokinetics and blood-brain barrier transport of [3H]-biotinylated phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide conjugated to a vector-mediated drug delivery system.  


Antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (PS-ODNs) are potential neuropharmaceuticals should these agents be made transportable through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. The present studies report on attempts to enhance brain uptake of systemically administered 3'-biotinylated PS-ODN (bio-PS-ODN) by conjugation to a complex of streptavidin (SA) and the OX26 monoclonal antibody to the rat transferrin receptor. This antibody undergoes receptor-mediated transcytosis through the BBB and the OX26/SA conjugate mediates BBB transport of biotinylated therapeutics. The brain uptake of unconjugated [3H]-bio-PS-ODN approximated that of [14C]sucrose, a plasma volume marker that is not significantly transported through the BBB. Conjugation of [3H]-bio-PS-ODN to the OX26/SA vector resulted in a marked increase in BBB transport and the permeability-surface area (PS) product of the conjugate was 4.0 microliters/min/g. However, when the bio-PS-ODN/OX26-SA conjugate was injected intravenously in anesthetized rats, the BBB PS product of the conjugate was reduced 23-fold to a value of 0.173 +/- 0.006 microliters/min/g. The marked inhibition of vector-mediated transport of the bio-PS-ODN after intravenous injection was due to avid plasma protein binding of PS-ODNs, as has been demonstrated with protein binding assays and internal carotid artery perfusion studies. In conclusion, although PS-ODNs have the advantage of increased metabolic stability and resistance to endonucleases in vivo, the BBB transport of antisense PS-ODN therapeutics conjugated to the brain drug delivery vector OX26/SA is markedly attenuated due to plasma protein-binding effects. PMID:8558431

Wu, D; Boado, R J; Pardridge, W M



Transport of human recombinant brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through the rat blood-brain barrier in vivo using vector-mediated peptide drug delivery.  


The blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in anesthetized rats was examined in the present studies using vector-mediated peptide drug delivery. Following tritiation, the BDNF was biotinylated via a disulfide linker and was coupled to a covalent conjugate of neutral avidin (NLA), which binds the biotinylated peptide with a high affinity, and the murine OX26 monoclonal antibody to the rat transferrin receptor. Owing to the abundance of transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelium, the OX26 monoclonal antibody undergoes receptor-mediated transcytosis through the BBB, and the NLA-OX26 conjugate transports biotinylated peptide therapeutics through the BBB. The present studies show that while unconjugated BDNF was not transported through the BBB in vivo, the conjugation of biotinylated BDNF to the NLA-OX26 vector resulted in a marked increase in the brain delivery of BDNF, as defined by measurements of the percentage of the injected dose (ID) delivered per gram of brain. Although BDNF was not transported through the BBB in vivo, this cationic peptide was avidly bound by isolated human brain capillaries via a low-affinity, high-capacity system that was inhibited by protamine and by serum protein binding of BDNF. In conclusion, these studies show that the delivery of unconjugated BDNF to brain is nil owing to the combined effects of negligible BBB transport and rapid systemic clearance of intravenous administered BDNF. The brain delivery of BDNF may be augmented by conjugation of BDNF to BBB drug delivery vectors, such as the NLA-OX26 conjugate. PMID:8058646

Pardridge, W M; Kang, Y S; Buciak, J L



Genetic modification of mouse bone marrow by lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of hypoxanthine-Guanine phosphoribosyltransferase short hairpin RNA confers chemoprotection against 6-thioguanine cytotoxicity.  


We have recently developed a novel and highly efficient strategy that exclusively uses the purine analog 6-thioguanine (6TG) for both pretransplantation conditioning and post-transplantation chemoselection of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-deficient bone marrow (BM). In a mouse BM transplantation model, combined 6TG preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection consistently achieved >95% engraftment of HPRT-deficient donor BM and long-term reconstitution of histologically and immunophenotypically normal hematopoiesis in both primary and secondary recipients, without significant toxicity and in the absence of any other cytotoxic conditioning regimen. To translate this strategy for combined 6TG conditioning and chemoselection into a clinically feasible approach, it is necessary to develop methods for genetic modification of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to render them HPRT-deficient and thus 6TG-resistant. Here we investigated a strategy to reduce HPRT expression and thereby confer protection against 6TG myelotoxicity to primary murine BM cells by RNA interference (RNAi). Accordingly, we constructed and validated a lentiviral gene transfer vector expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) that targets the murine HPRT gene. Our results showed that lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of HPRT-targeted shRNA could achieve effective and long-term reduction of HPRT expression. Furthermore, in both an established murine cell line as well as in primary murine BM cells, lentiviral transduction with HPRT-targeted shRNA was associated with enhanced resistance to 6TG cytotoxicity in vitro. Hence this represents a translationally feasible method to genetically engineer HSC for implementation of 6TG-mediated preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection. PMID:23769104

Hacke, K; Treger, J A; Bogan, B T; Schiestl, R H; Kasahara, N



Dogs catch human yawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that

Ramiro M. Joly-Mascheroni; Atsushi Senju; Alex J. Shepherd



Cat and Dog Bites  


MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...


Plasma immunoreactive proopiomelanocortin peptides and cortisol in normal dogs and dogs with Cushing's syndrome: diurnal rhythm and responses to various stimuli.  


We have studied the diurnal rhythm of pars distalis and pars intermedia-type immunoreactive (IR)-POMC peptides and cortisol in 3 normal dogs and 1 dog with Cushing's syndrome and have documented the responses to a variety of agents in 42 dogs with Cushing's disease, 2 of which were known or presumed to have pars intermedia tumors and another of which had both pars distalis and pars intermedia adenomas, and in 20 dogs with adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome. The normal dogs did not have a diurnal plasma POMC peptide rhythm; the dog with Cushing's disease appeared to have a similar number of secretory episodes of increased amplitude. Plasma POMC peptides and cortisol in animals with Cushing's disease did not suppress normally with low dose dexamethasone. Five animals with Cushing's disease did suppress with high dose dexamethasone, the dog with dual adenomas suppressed only partially, and 1 dog with a pars intermedia adenoma did not suppress at all. The response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia was similar in normal dogs and 4 dogs with Cushing's disease, but 3 animals with adrenal tumors did not respond. The response to metyrapone was normal in 6 dogs with Cushing's disease and, surprisingly, in 1 with adrenal tumor. Arginine vasopressin stimulated POMC peptide secretion in normal and 6 Cushing's dogs, as well as alpha MSH, a pars intermedia-type POMC peptide, in a dog presumed to have a pars intermedia tumor. Ovine CRF stimulated pars distalis-type POMC peptide secretion in normal dogs and 17 dogs with Cushing's disease, but not in 15 dogs with adrenal tumor; IR-alpha MSH was unaffected. TRH appeared to stimulate IR-ACTH in normal animals, but not in those with Cushing's disease. Dopamine had no apparent effect in 2 normal and 1 Cushing's dogs. Initial plasma disappearance t1/2 values of IR-ACTH and lipotropin were 22-27 min. In summary, responses in normal and Cushing's dogs were generally what would be predicted from previous human and animal studies, but some of those in animals with pars intermedia tumors and even in normal dogs were different from what had been anticipated. Canine Cushing's syndrome provides an interesting model for an uncommon human disorder. PMID:3126032

Orth, D N; Peterson, M E; Drucker, W D



Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Vector-Mediated Expression of Nerve Growth Factor Protects Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons from Peroxide Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor ? subunit (?-NGF) transgene delivery and expression by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors was examined in a cell culture model of neuroprotection from hydrogen peroxide toxicity. Replication-competent (tk? K mutant background) and replication-defective (ICP4?;tk? S mutant background) vectors were engineered to contain the murine ?-NGF cDNA under transcriptional control of either the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter (HCMV IEp) (e.g., KHN and SHN) or the latency-active promoter 2 (LAP2) (e.g., KLN and SLN) within the viral thymidine kinase (tk) locus. Infection of rat B103 and mouse N2A neuronal cell lines, 9L rat glioma cells, and Vero cells with the KHN or SHN vectors resulted in the production of ?-NGF-specific transcripts and ?-NGF protein reaching a maximum at 3 days postinfection (p.i.). NGF protein was released into the culture media in amounts ranging from 10.83 to 352.86 ng/ml, with the highest levels being achieved in B103 cells, and was capable of inducing neurite sprouting of PC-12 cells. The same vectors produced high levels of NGF in primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures at 3 days. In contrast to HCMV IEp-mediated expression, the LAP2-NGF vectors showed robust expression in primary DRG neurons at 14 days. The neuroprotective effect of vector produced NGF was assessed by its ability to inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced neuron toxicity in primary DRG cultures. Consistent with the kinetics of vector-mediated NGF expression, HCMV-NGF vectors were effective in abrogating the toxic effects of peroxide at 3 but not 14 days p.i. whereas LAP2-NGF vector transduction inhibited apoptosis in DRG neurons at 14 days p.i. but was ineffective at 3 days p.i. Similar kinetics of NGF expression were observed with the KHN and KLN vectors in latently infected mouse trigeminal ganglia, where high levels of ?-NGF protein expression were detected at 4 wks p.i. only from the LAP2; HCMV-NGF-driven expression peaked at 3 days but could not be detected during HSV latency at 4 weeks. Together, these results indicate that (i) NGF vector-infected cells produce and secrete mature, biologically active ?-NGF; (ii) vector-synthesized NGF was capable of blocking peroxide-induced apoptosis in primary DRG cultures; and (iii) the HCMV-IEp functioned to produce high levels of NGF for several days; but (iv) only the native LAP2 was capable of long-term expression of a therapeutic gene product in latently infected neurons in vivo.

Goins, William F.; Lee, Kevin A.; Cavalcoli, James D.; O'Malley, Mark E.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Fink, David J.; Glorioso, Joseph C.



Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs

Enik? Kubinyi; Borbála Turcsán; Ádám Miklósi



A comparison of dog–dog and dog–human play behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the popular literature, it is often assumed that a single conceptual framework can be applied to both dog–dog and dog–human interactions, including play. We have, through three studies, tested the hypothesis that dog–dog and dog–human play are motivationally distinct. In an observational study of dogs being walked by their owners (N=402), dogs which were walked together, and had opportunities

Nicola J. Rooney; John W. S. Bradshaw; Ian H. Robinson



Man-Made Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of the domestic dog are discussed in relation to the hunting and nurturing behavioral patterns of man and the social canids. While it is accepted that the wolf was the progenitor of the dog the possibility that other species of canid were tamed and interbred with early domestic dogs is not disputed. A description is given of the

Juliet Clutton-Brock



Aetiological study of the presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo investigate whether presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in the Netherlands is caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and whether other risk factors might play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome.METHODS23 patients were clinically diagnosed as having presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome based on the following criteria: peripapillary atrophy, punched out lesions, a macular disciform lesion or scar in one eye without

J. V. Ongkosuwito; L. M. Kortbeek; A. van der Lelij; E. W. Molicka; A. Kijlstra; M D de Smet; M. S. A. van Suttorp-Schulten



20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721 Section 404.721 Employees...404.721 Evidence to presume a person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but evidence of death is needed, we will...



The Influence of Presumed Media Influence on Women’s Desire to Be Thin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of magazine use on the desire to be thin within the theoretical framework of presumed influence. Structural equation modeling supported the hypothesis that reading beauty and fashion magazines increased the drive for thinness both directly and indirectly. The indirect pathway included the perceived prevalence of the thin ideal in mass media, the presumed influence of

Sung-Yeon Park



Congenital esophageal hiatal hernia in the Chinese shar-pei dog.  


Esophageal hiatal hernia was diagnosed in 11 young Chinese Shar-Pei dogs between October 1985 and July 1991. The dogs ranged in age from 2 to 11 months and included 3 females and 8 males. The most common clinical signs were regurgitation, vomiting, and hypersalivation. Physical examination was normal in 6 dogs; abnormal physical examination findings in the other 5 dogs included fever, dehydration, hypersalivation, and pulmonary wheezes and crackles. Laboratory evaluation was significant only for neutrophilia in 5 dogs. A diagnosis of hiatal hernia was made on the basis of survey thoracic radiographic and/or barium esophagram findings of displacement of the esophagogastric junction and stomach into the thoracic cavity; the diagnosis was confirmed by surgery in 9 dogs and at necropsy in 2 dogs. Megaesophagus (n = 7), gastroesophageal reflux (n = 4), and esophageal hypomotility (n = 1) were additional findings in some dogs. Aspiration pneumonia was diagnosed in 7 of the dogs. Medical therapies formulated for the therapy of presumed reflux esophagitis generally failed to resolve the clinical signs associated with the hiatal hernia. Hiatal herniae were surgically repaired in 9 of the Shar-Peis by various combinations of diaphragmatic crural apposition, fixation of the esophagus to the diaphragmatic crus (esophagopexy), and left fundic tube gastropexy. Eight of the animals survived surgery, six of which have been asymptomatic since surgery (19 to 36 months). The megaesophagus, esophageal hypomotility, and bronchopneumonia resolved in all of these dogs. PMID:8246209

Callan, M B; Washabau, R J; Saunders, H M; Kerr, L; Prymak, C; Holt, D


Service dog selection tests: Effectiveness for dogs from animal shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assistance dogs are trained to help people with various physical and mental handicaps. These dogs are selected using a test comprising several behavioral components. Anecdotal reports have shown that only about 50% of the dogs so selected successfully complete training and become assistance dogs. Traditionally training centers had used puppies, but recently some trainers have begun to use dogs from

Emily Weiss; Gary Greenberg



Dogs catch human yawns.  


This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation. PMID:18682357

Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J



Dog-human and dog-dog interactions of 260 dog-owning households in a community in Cheshire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the nature and frequency of the contacts that occur between dogs, and between dogs and people, by means of a questionnaire survey of 260 dog-owning households in a community in Cheshire, uk. The contacts were highly variable and were affected by the size, sex and age of the dog, individual dog behaviours, human behaviours and human preferences

C. Westgarth; G. L. Pinchbeck; J. W. S. Bradshaw; S. Dawson; R. M. Gaskell; R. M. Christley



How two word-trained dogs integrate pointing and naming.  


Two word-trained dogs were presented with acts of reference in which a human pointed, named objects, or simultaneously did both. The question was whether these dogs would assume co-reference of pointing and naming and thus pick the pointed-to object. Results show that the dogs did indeed assume co-reference of pointing and naming in order to determine the reference of a spoken word, but they did so only when pointing was not in conflict with their previous word knowledge. When pointing and a spoken word conflicted, the dogs preferentially fetched the object by name. This is not surprising since they are trained to fetch objects by name. However, interestingly, in these conflict conditions, the dogs fetched the named objects only after they had initially approached the pointed-to object. We suggest that this shows that the word-trained dogs interpret pointing as a spatial directive, which they integrate into the fetching game, presumably assuming that pointing is relevant to finding the requested object. PMID:22526689

Grassmann, Susanne; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael



Impact of presumed consent for organ donation on donation rates: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the impact of a system of presumed consent for organ donation on donation rates and to review data on attitudes towards presumed consent. Design Systematic review. Data sources Studies retrieved by online searches to January 2008 of Medline, Medline In-Process, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, HMIC, PAIS International, and OpenSIGLE. Studies reviewed Five studies comparing donation rates before and after the introduction of legislation for presumed consent (before and after studies); eight studies comparing donation rates in countries with and without presumed consent systems (between country comparisons); 13 surveys of public and professional attitudes to presumed consent. Results The five before and after studies represented three countries: all reported an increase in donation rates after the introduction of presumed consent, but there was little investigation of any other changes taking place concurrently with the change in legislation. In the four best quality between country comparisons, presumed consent law or practice was associated with increased organ donation—increases of 25-30%, 21-26%, 2.7 more donors per million population, and 6.14 more donors per million population in the four studies. Other factors found to be important in at least one study were mortality from road traffic accidents and cerebrovascular causes, transplant capacity, gross domestic product per capita, health expenditure per capita, religion (Catholicism), education, public access to information, and a common law legal system. Eight surveys of attitudes to presumed consent were of the UK public. These surveys varied in the level of support for presumed consent, with surveys conducted before 2000 reporting the lowest levels of support (28-57%). The most recent survey, in 2007, reported that 64% of respondents supported a change to presumed consent. Conclusion Presumed consent alone is unlikely to explain the variation in organ donation rates between countries. Legislation, availability of donors, organisation and infrastructure of the transplantation service, wealth and investment in health care, and public attitudes to and awareness of organ donation may all play a part, but their relative importance is unclear. Recent UK surveys show support for presumed consent, though with variation in results that may reflect differences in survey methods.



Rabies in the dog.  


The presenting signs are described of 19 dogs that were observed from the time of presentation until death. Rabies was confirmed by laboratory tests in each case. Vicious behaviour was seen in only six dogs. Paralytic signs and/or abnormal behaviour--the so-called "dumb" rabies--were more frequent. Six of the dogs had received Flury strain LEP vaccination. Intense conjunctival congestion was an important diagnostic feature. PMID:605488

Minor, R



Microsoft Academic Search

BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long

R. Playter; M. Buehler; M. Raibert



Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected dogs after antibiotic treatment.  

PubMed Central

In specific-pathogen-free dogs experimentally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick exposure, treatment with high doses of amoxicillin or doxycycline for 30 days diminished but failed to eliminate persistent infection. Although joint disease was prevented or cured in five of five amoxicillin- and five of six doxycycline-treated dogs, skin punch biopsies and multiple tissues from necropsy samples remained PCR positive and B. burgdorferi was isolated from one amoxicillin- and two doxycycline-treated dogs following antibiotic treatment. In contrast, B. burgdorferi was isolated from six of six untreated infected control dogs and joint lesions were found in four of these six dogs. Serum antibody levels to B. burgdorferi in all dogs declined after antibiotic treatment. Negative antibody levels were reached in four of six doxycycline- and four of six amoxicillin-treated dogs. However, in dogs that were kept in isolation for 6 months after antibiotic treatment was discontinued, antibody levels began to rise again, presumably in response to proliferation of the surviving pool of spirochetes. Antibody levels in untreated infected control dogs remained high.

Straubinger, R K; Summers, B A; Chang, Y F; Appel, M J



The impact of presumed consent laws and institutions on deceased organ donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article purports to advance the literature on the impact of presumed consent laws on deceased donation rates by examining\\u000a the interactions between a presumed consent legal regime and other customs and institutions, using data on health expenditure,\\u000a death rates caused by cerebro vascular diseases, motor vehicle accidents and homicides, legislation, legal systems, family\\u000a consent, civil rights and liberties and

F?rat Bilgel



Dogs that bite.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To study the circumstances of dog bites and identify risk factors. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey and case note review of victims of dog bites referred between 1982 and 1989. SETTING--One referral based regional plastic surgery unit. PATIENTS--146 consecutive patients referred for primary treatment of dog bites, for whom current addresses were available for 133, 107 (81%) of whom returned the questionnaire. RESULTS--The male to female ratio was 74:72; 79 (54%) patients were aged below 15 years. The commonest dogs producing bites were Staffordshire bull terriers (15 cases), Jack Russell terriers (13), medium sized mongrels (10), and Alsatians (nine). 82 of 96 (85%) dogs were male. 29 of 47 (62%) adults were bitten at home and 45 of 60 (75%) children at a friend's, neighbour's, or relative's house. 91 of 107 (85%) bites occurred in the dog's home. Bites occurred during playing with 13 (12%), petting 14 (13%), or waking 16 (15%) dogs. 45 (42%) bites were judged as unprovoked. 32 bites were identified as severe and 11 attacks as sustained. CONCLUSIONS--Most victims are bitten by male dogs which they either own or have had frequent contact with, and the bite occurs in the dog's home.

Shewell, P C; Nancarrow, J D



Service dogs. Final rule.  


The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans. PMID:22950145



The in vitro and in vivo treatment effects of overexpressed lentiviral vector-mediated human BMP2 gene in the femoral bone marrow stromal cells of osteoporotic rats.  


This study aimed to compare the treatment effects of lentiviral vector-mediated hBMP2 which was overexpressed in the femoral bone marrow stromal cells of osteoporotic rats through genetic infection in vitro and in vivo. Comparison of the two transgenic effects may be crucial to determining the lentivirus infection method to be used. Following a comparison of the rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) in osteoporotic (MSCs OVX) and normal (MSCs CON) groups, the lentiviral vector-mediated human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2), which overexpressed the BMSCs of osteoporotic rats in vitro (rBMSCs in OE group), was constructed. The osteogenic ability in the overexpressed (OE) group was then compared to that of the MSCs CON. The rBMSCs in the OE group (transplants of genetic infection in vitro) and the lentivirus-containing solution (injected material of genetic infection in vivo) were injected into the femurs. The treatment effect of each group was compared via bone mineral density (BMD) and bone histomorphometry. The hBMP2-modified osteoporosis rBMSCs formed by genetic infection in vitro (n=7) had an ameliorated treatment effect on the femur as compared to that of the in vivo (n=7) (BMD: 0.315 vs. 0.19 g/cm2, P<0.01; bone histomorphometry: For bone trabeculars (Tb.Ar/T.Ar): 0.301 vs. 0.114, P<0.01; for trabecular thickness (Tb.Th): 43.54 vs. 21.39 µm, P<0.01; for trabecular separation (Tb.Sp): 115.7 vs. 304.87 µm, P<0.01). The results showed that the treatment effects of osteoporotic rBMSCs on local osteoporosis performed by genetic infection were improved in vitro as compared to those in vivo. PMID:24068163

Zhao, Bing; Wang, Qiang; Tao, Tianzun; Li, Juan; Lin, Qingyuan



Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog

Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny



Rabies in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presenting signs are described of 19 dogs that were observed from the time of presentation until death. Rabies was confirmed by laboratory tests in each case. Vicious behaviour was seen in only six dogs. Paralytic signs and\\/or abnormal behaviour--the so-called \\

R Minor



Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.|

Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.



[Raising fighting dogs].  


Some experience is reported, referring to court trials of accidents involving members of the so-called "fighting dog" breeds. Analysis of the situation makes obvious that many breeders and owners of these or similar dogs demonstrate an irresponsible attitude, thereby fostering breed standards which should be corrected. A future solution of this problem and of others could only be brought about by a law, which would regulate companion animal breeding and ownership. A ban on special breeds or their integration into a "Dangerous animals act" seems for now to be feasible for breeds only which are explicitly standard-bred for aggressiveness against man. Responsible dog breeding and ownership is postulated in order to avoid a growing aversion against dogs in society, which certainly contributed to the stagnation of the dog population in the FRG during the last years. PMID:2351054

Wegner, W



The Discourse of Dog Fighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay, we discuss dog fighting as a blood sport with a history embedded in the status-driven display of masculinity, power and violence. Based on published reports and interviews with those living and working in dog fighting neighborhoods, we show that the contemporary cultural knowledge of dog fighting is a discourse with multiple meanings: for those who pit dogs

Linda Kalof; Carl Taylor



Ultrasonographic characteristics of the cisterna chyli in eight dogs and four cats.  


Ultrasonography of the cisterna chyli has been used in humans to diagnose increased lymphatic flow or lymph flow obstruction and to guide percutaneous embolization of the thoracic duct via the cisterna chyli. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic characteristics of the dorsal portion of cisterna chyli in dogs and cats with chylous ascites or chylothorax and in a group of healthy dogs and cats. The aorta and the cranial mesenteric artery were used as anatomic landmarks. Ultrasonography was performed before and 2 h after a fatty meal in healthy dogs and cats. The visualized structure was confirmed to be a dilated cisterna chyli at necropsy in a dog with chylous ascites. The confirmed or presumed cisterna chyli was consistently detected using ultrasonography in nonfasted healthy animals and clinically affected animals and appeared as an anechoic tubular structure, without detectable flow, at the right dorsolateral aspect of the aorta. It had a similar ultrasonographic appearance in patients with chyloabdomen and in nonfasted healthy dogs and cats. There was considerable overlap in diameters of the cisterna chyli for affected and healthy animals. The shape and size of the cisterna chyli in an individual animal were variable during the same ultrasound examination and between different examinations. This study demonstrated the appearance of the presumed dorsal portion of the cisterna chyli by ultrasonography and might provide useful preliminary data for further studies into the feasibility of ultrasound-guided injections or aspirations of the cisterna chyli in dogs and cats. PMID:23662920

Etienne, Anne-Laure; Cavrenne, Romain; Gommeren, Kris; Bolen, Géraldine; Busoni, Valeria



Potential variant of multiple endocrine neoplasia in a dog.  


This report describes multiple endocrine neoplasia in a dog, which is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by the presence of two or more neoplasms of different endocrine tissues within a patient. A 14 yr old dog was evaluated for polyuria/polydipsia, polyphagia, and abdominal enlargement. Adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism with concomitant left thyroid enlargement and a presumed abdominal metastatic lesion were diagnosed by an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test, ultrasonography, and computed tomography. Trilostane therapy was initiated and resolved the clinical signs for 2 yr at which time the dog presented with left testicular enlargement. The dog was euthanized and was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, an abdominal mass compatible with a metastatic lymph node, and bilateral interstitial cell testicular adenomas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report to describe the concomitant association of these types of endocrine neoplasms in a dog. The concomitant presence of these neoplasms could represent a potential variant of multiple endocrine neoplasia; however, the presence of the interstitial cell testicular adenomas may have only been an incidental finding. If any of these tumors are diagnosed, veterinarians should perform a thorough clinical assessment to evaluate for the presence of additional endocrine neoplasms or hyperplasia. PMID:22267170

Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Grieco, Valeria; Lodi, Matteo; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Ferro, Elisabetta



41 CFR 301-72.1 - Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation? 301-72.1 Section...carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation? Travel by presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation because it...



Cardiomyopathy in the dog.  


Medical records of 12 dogs determined at necropsy as having had cardiomyopathy and of 5 live dogs with clinical, electrocardiographic and radiographic evidence of the disease were reviewed. Congestive cardiomyopathy was the most common form of the disease, affecting 15 of the 17 dogs. The dogs were primarily of large breeds and ranged in age from 2 to 8 years. Clinical findings included right and left congestive heart failure presenting as pulmonary congestion and edema, pleural effusion, hepatomegaly, and ascites. Thoracic radiographs showed moderate severe enlargement of all cardiac chambers and evidence of congestive heart failure. Atrial fibrillation was the predominant rhythmn; ventricular premature contractions and left ventricular hypertrophy were sometimes noted. At necropsy, biventricular dilation including dilation of the atrioventricular annular rings and accompanying massive atrial dilation was observed. Myocardial contractility was poor and had resulted in dilation of the heart chambers with minimal hypertrophic responses. The atrioventricular valve leaflets and chordae tendinae were usually near normal. Medical treatment included rest, digoxin, and diuretics, Medical or electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm was also attempted. Prognosis for congestive cardiomyopathy is very poor. The average survival time after onset of signs is 6-12 months; 1 dog in our study survived for 20 months. In contrast to congestive cardiomyopathy, the hypertrophic form is rare in the dog. Only two of the dogs studied had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; one case was diagnosed at necropsy and one by angiocardiography. Both had features of idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS) as reported in man. PMID:128794

Tilley, L P; Liu, S K




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.



Skill in expert dogs.  


The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be the case with nonhuman animals. Differences in performance characteristics between expert, advanced, intermediate, and novice dogs competing in the sport of agility were investigated. There were statistically significant differences between dogs of varying competitive levels in speed, motor control, and signal detections suggestive of increasing motor control automaticity in highly skilled, or expert, dogs. The largest sequential motor control difference was between novice and intermediate dogs, d = .96, whereas the largest sequential signal detection difference was between advanced and expert dogs, d = .90. These findings have two significant implications for expertise researchers: first, the observed similarities between dogs and humans may enable dogs to be used as expert models; and second, expertise science and methods may be profitably employed in the future to create more proficient canine workers. PMID:17924802

Helton, William S



Dermatomycosis in dogs.  


During the routine examination of dogs for cutaneous lesions, 205 dogs were screened for fungi other than dermatophytes. Twenty-two dogs (10.8%) revealed the presence of non-dermatophytic fungi suspicious for representing the etiologic agents of the skin lesions. The fungi isolated were Alternaria sp. (2.9%), Penicillium sp. (2.4%), Aspergillus fumigatus (2.0%), Mucor sp. (1.5%), Cladosporium sp. (1.5%) and Fusarium sp. (0.5%). No dermatophyte was isolated in association with these fungi. The incidence of these infections was found to be greater in warm and humid climate. PMID:2710156

Jand, S K; Gupta, M P



Trilostane in dogs.  


Over the last 10 years, trilostane, a competitive inhibitor of steroid synthesis, is being widely used for the treatment of canine hyperadrenocorticism. Trilostane causes a significant but reversible decrease in cortisol production and a concomitant improvement in clinical signs in most dogs with this common condition. Side effects, though infrequent, can be serious: dogs treated with this drug require regular monitoring. This review summarizes current knowledge of the use of this drug with particular emphasis on its efficacy, safety, adverse reactions, and effects on endocrine parameters. Brief mention is made of its other uses in dogs and other species. PMID:20219488

Ramsey, Ian K



Vector-mediated delivery of 125I-labeled beta-amyloid peptide A beta 1-40 through the blood-brain barrier and binding to Alzheimer disease amyloid of the A beta 1-40/vector complex.  


The brain amyloid of Alzheimer disease (AD) may potentially be imaged in patients with AD by using neuroimaging technology and a radiolabeled form of the 40-residue beta-amyloid peptide A beta 1-40 that is enabled to undergo transport through the brain capillary endothelial wall, which makes up the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. Transport of 125I-labeled A beta 1-40 (125I-A beta 1-40) through the BBB was found to be negligible by experiments with both an intravenous injection technique and an internal carotid artery perfusion method in anesthetized rats. In addition, 125I-A beta 1-40 was rapidly metabolized after either intravenous injection or internal carotid artery perfusion. BBB transport was increased and peripheral metabolism was decreased by conjugation of monobiotinylated 125I-A beta 1-40 to a vector-mediated drug delivery system, which consisted of a conjugate of streptavidin (SA) and the OX26 monoclonal antibody to the rat transferrin receptor, which undergoes receptor-mediated transcytosis through the BBB. The brain uptake, expressed as percent of injected dose delivered per gram of brain, of the 125I,bio-A beta 1-40/SA-OX26 conjugate was 0.15 +/- 0.01, a level that is 2-fold greater than the brain uptake of morphine. The binding of the 125I,bio-A beta 1-40/SA-OX26 conjugate to the amyloid of AD brain was demonstrated by both film and emulsion autoradiography performed on frozen sections of AD brain. Binding of the 125I,bio-A beta 1-40/SA-OX26 conjugate to the amyloid of AD brain was completely inhibited by high concentrations of unlabeled A beta 1-40. In conclusion, these studies show that BBB transport and access to amyloid within brain may be achieved by conjugation of A beta 1-40 to a vector-mediated BBB drug delivery system. PMID:7479757

Saito, Y; Buciak, J; Yang, J; Pardridge, W M



28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...



Bimanual technique of subfoveal neovascular membrane removal in presumed ocular histoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a bimanual technique of subfoveal neovascular membrane removal in a patient with presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome. His postoperative vision has improved from 20\\/400 to 20\\/100 at 3 months follow-up. No recurrence of the membrane was noted.

Gholam A. Peyman; Kwang J. Lee; Norman C. Nelson Jr; Patrick E. Ma



Presumed ocular histoplasmosis in the Netherlands—an area without histoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS\\/BACKGROUNDThe syndrome of ocular histoplasmosis is usually prefaced by ‘presumed’ as the aetiology is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of a similar ocular syndrome in the Netherlands where the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum is not endemic.METHODSA retrospective multicentre study in which all patients were included who were diagnosed with a syndrome similar

Maria S A Suttorp-Schulten; Jan G Bollemeijer; Pierre J M Bos; Aniki Rothova



Antimicrobial management of presumed microbial keratitis: guidelines for treatment of central and peripheral ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo determine the quantitative relation between the major risk factors for microbial keratitis of previous ocular surface disease and contact lens wear and central and peripheral infiltration, often associated with ulceration, in order to establish a rational chemotherapeutic management algorithm.METHODSData from 55 patients were collected over a 10 month period. All cases of presumed microbial keratitis where corneal scrapes had

H G B Bennett; J Hay; C M Kirkness; D V Seal; Penny Devonshire



Presumed Perinatal Stroke in a Child with Down Syndrome and Moyamoya Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moyamoya disease describes a cerebral arteriopathy characterized by stenosis or occlusion of the terminal internal carotid and/or the proximal middle cerebral arteries. We report a female child with trisomy 21 and bilateral moyamoya disease who presented, unusually, with a presumed perinatal cerebral infarct. The clinical, radiological, and…

Pysden, Karen; Fallon, Penny; Moorthy, Bhagavatheswaran; Ganesan, Vijeya



Presumed Perinatal Stroke in a Child with Down Syndrome and Moyamoya Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Moyamoya disease describes a cerebral arteriopathy characterized by stenosis or occlusion of the terminal internal carotid and/or the proximal middle cerebral arteries. We report a female child with trisomy 21 and bilateral moyamoya disease who presented, unusually, with a presumed perinatal cerebral infarct. The clinical, radiological, and…

Pysden, Karen; Fallon, Penny; Moorthy, Bhagavatheswaran; Ganesan, Vijeya



Presumed sterile corneal infiltrates and hydrogel lens wear: A case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some corneal infiltrates have been considered hypersensitivity reactions to preservatives.1.2 We present six cases of presumed sterile corneal infiltrates related to hydrogel contact lens wear. We considered all of them to be sterile because: (1) the lesions were small; (2) no corneal epithelial defects were present; (3) no anterior chamber reactions were present; (4) no pain was involved; (5) no

Karen K. Yeung; Barry A. Weissman



Localized conjunctival extra-nodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma with presumed paraproteinic crystalline keratopathy.  


Crystalline corneal deposits have been well reported in individual cases of lymphoproliferative disorders associated with hyper-gammaglobulinemia, hence called 'Crystalline Paraproteinemic Keratopathy'. This is the first report of corneal deposits in a case of localised conjunctival B-cell Lymphoma without paraproteinaemia/hyper-gammaglobulinemia, hence called 'Presumed Paraproteinic Crystalline Keratopathy'. PMID:23361873

Alomar, Thaer S; Mahmood, Khalid; O'Connor, Simon; Robson, Keith; Dua, Harminder S



Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.  


The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables, including the owner's gender, age, education, previous experience with dogs, the number of people and dogs in the household, and purpose of keeping the dogs had minor, but detectable effects. The results suggest that on-line questionnaires are a very effective means for collecting data about dog behavior, especially if owners are motivated by instant feedback. However, note that the characteristics of dogs in the present study were reported by the owners, and the associations with the traits do not necessarily represent a causal relationship. PMID:19520239

Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám



Xylitol toxicosis in dogs.  


The sugar alcohol xylitol is a popular sweetener used in gums, candies, and baked goods. While xylitol has a wide margin of safety in people and most mammalian species, when ingested by dogs it is believed to stimulate excessive insulin secretion leading to severe hypoglycemia, potentially followed by acute hepatic failure and coagulopathies. Additional clinical findings may include thrombocytopenia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia. The prognosis for recovery in dogs that develop uncomplicated hypoglycemia is generally good with prompt and aggressive veterinary care. PMID:22381181

Murphy, Lisa A; Coleman, Adrienne E



Let the Dogs Out!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even the simplest of toys can be great tools for promoting interest in physical science principles. The author developed a strategy based on the 5E learning cycle (Engage, Explore, Explanation, Elaboration, and Evaluation) that uses bobble head dogs to explore the principles of force and motion, systems, and simple machines. The activity is designed to have students make predictions and ask questions about the internal mechanism that allows the dog's head to bobble, and then construct their own model using simple materials.

Foster, Andrea S.



Inhibition of cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by lentiviral-vector mediated shRNA targeting the common promoter of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes.  


Deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes (E6 and E7) is a pivotal event for pathogenesis and progression in cervical cancer. Both viral oncogenes are therefore regarded as ideal therapeutic targets. Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) or double-stranded RNAs can knock down target genes effectively through siRNA-induced transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). Here, we established lentiviral-vector mediated shRNA (LV-shRNA) targeting common promoter of HPV16 E6/E7 and targeting E6 transcript, transduced the lentiviral construct into cervical HPV16-positive cell lines Siha and Caski, then selected and established stably transduced monoclonal cell lines. The results showed that LV-shRNA targeting promoter, as well as targeting E6 transcript, effectively knocked down E6 and E7 expression, resulted in accumulation of p53 and pRB protein and decrease of MCM7 and p16 protein, and consequently remarkably reduced the abilities of proliferation and invasiveness of cervical cancers cells in vitro. Then we inoculated subcutaneously those monoclonal cells into nude mice to establish the transplanted tumor animal models, and found dramatically inhibited tumorigenesis and growth, as well as prolonged survival time of mice incubated by cells with LV-shRNA targeting promoter and E6 transcript. Our results may provide evidence for application of LV-shRNA targeting HR-HPV key oncogenes, as a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy. PMID:23523766

Zhou, Jiansong; Li, Baohua; Peng, Chanjuan; Wang, Fenfen; Fu, Zhiqin; Zhou, Caiyun; Hong, Die; Ye, Feng; Lü, Weiguo; Xie, Xing



Advanced Animal Nutrition Recalls Dog Power Dry Dog Food  

NASA Website

Advanced Animal Nutrition today announced a voluntary recall of its dry Dog Power Dog Food- due to aflatoxin levels that were detected above the acceptable limit. The affected products were manufactured between Jan. 4, 2011, and Nov. 18, 2011.


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the dog.  

PubMed Central

Clinical and necropsy findings in 10 dogs with a spontaneous primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are described. Each dog had marked cardiac hypertrophy, and 8 dogs had disproportionate thickening of the ventricular septum with respect to the left ventricular free wall (compared with dogs with normal hearts or with cardiac hypertrophy due to acquired or congenital heart disease). Septal:free wall thickness ratios in the 10 dogs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5; 6 had ratios greater than or equal to 1.3. However, marked cardiac muscle cell disorganization in the ventricular septum, characteristic of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, was present in only 2 of the 10 dogs. Death occurred most commonly while the dogs were under anesthesia during the course of operative procedures (5 dogs) or suddenly and unexpectedly in animals without previous symptomatic manifestations of cardiac disease (3 dogs). Four dogs had clinical signs of congestive heart failure, including 2 with marked cardiac decompensation. In addition, 2 of these 4 dogs with heart failure and 1 dog without previous symptoms (that died during a noncardiac operation) manifested complete heart block. It is conceivable that dogs with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may prove useful in the future investigations of the clinical, hemodynamic, and pathologic features of this disease in humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Liu, S. K.; Maron, B. J.; Tilley, L. P.



Finite rate chemistry and presumed PDF models for premixed turbulent combustion  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of the prediction of mean reaction rates in turbulent premixed flames to presumed PDF shape is studied. Three different presumed PDF shapes are considered: (i) a beta function PDF, (ii) a twin delta function PDF, and (iii) a PDF based on unstrained laminar flame properties. The unstrained laminar flame has the same thermochemistry as the turbulent flame. Emphasis is placed on capturing the finite rate chemistry effects and obtaining a simple expression for the mean reaction rate. It is shown that, as the PDFs approach their bimodal limit, the mean reaction rate expressions obtained using the above three PDFs reduce to a common form. These expressions differ only in the numerical value of a multiplying factor. Predictions are compared with DNS data. Under the conditions of this comparison, the beta function and twin delta function PDFs lead to significant errors, while the PDF based on properties of an unstrained laminar flame gives good agreement with the DNS. (author)

Bray, K.N.C.; Swaminathan, N. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Champion, M. [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, UPR9028 CNRS, ENSMA, 86961 Futuroscope (France); Libby, P.A. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)



Amoxycillin and co-trimoxazole in presumed viral respiratory infections of childhood: placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double-blind randomized controlled trial of amoxycillin, co-trimoxazole, and placebo was conducted on 197 children presenting with presumed viral respiratory infections. Routine throat swabs were taken to exclude streptococcal diseases. The three disease categories studied--nasopharyngitis, pharyngotonsillitis, and bronchitis (including laryngotracheobronchitis)--showed a generally similar pattern of resolution irrespective of treatment. Nevertheless, seven out of 66 children receiving placebo were withdrawn from

B Taylor; G D Abbott; M M Kerr; D M Fergusson



Presumed Pulmonary Embolism Following Power-Pulse Spray Thrombectomy of Upper Extremity Venous Thrombosis  

SciTech Connect

To achieve more effective thrombolysis in a shorter treatment time, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy has been increasingly used in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The power-pulse spray is a new technique to combine chemical and rheolytic effects on clots. We present a case of presumed pulmonary embolism following power-pulse spray treatment for upper extremity DVT which necessitated resuscitation and intubation. The power-pulse spray technique should be used with caution when treating DVT.

Tsai, Jason; Georgiades, Christos S.; Hong, Kelvin; Kim, Hyun S. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States)], E-mail:



A case of fatal methemoglobinemia of unknown origin but presumably due to ingestion of nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of fatal methemoglobinemia (MetHb-emia) which was presumably due to ingestion of nitrate is presented. An unidentified\\u000a man was taken to a local emergency hospital suffering from deep cyanosis and 7 h later he was found dead in the hospital bed.\\u000a The post-mortem examination of the blood revealed a methemoglobin (MetHb) concentration of 78% and the concentrations of nitrate

T. Saito; S. Takeichi; M. Osawa; N. Yukawa; X.-L. Huang



Economic Evaluation of Intravenous Itraconazole for Presumed Systemic Fungal Infections in Neutropenic Patients in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic fungal infections remain a major clinical problem in immunocompromised patients. Presumed systemic fungal infections (PSFI) are treated empirically with an intravenous antifungal agent to reduce the occurrence of documented infections and associated mortality.The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of intravenous itraconazole (IVitra) treatment with the current first-line empirical treatment of PSFI with conventional amphotericin B

K. Moeremans; L. Annemans; Ji-So Ryu; Kang-Won Choe; Wan-Shik Shine



Epizootiology of Staphylococci in Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Of 150 healthy dogs, 63 were intermittent carriers of Staphylococcus aureus; weekly nasal carrier rates varied widely. Although many of the strains isolated from dogs were of phage types associated with infections in man, transmission of staphylococci bet...

L. Blouse P. Husted A. McKee J. Gonzalez



Bilateral Hermaphroditism in a Dog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bilateral hermaphroditism was diagnosed in a 6-monthold Beagle. Histologically, bilateral ovotestes, epididymides, and fallopian tubes were identified. The dog also had a vagina, phallus, and bicornuate uterus. The dog was genetically a female as determin...

N. W. King C. H. Garvin



Presumed cases of mumps in pregnancy: clinical and infection control implications.  


Recently, a mumps outbreak in New York and New Jersey was reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Subsequently, the dissemination of the disease was rapid, and, from June 28th 2009 through January 29th 2010, a total of 1,521 cases of mumps were reported in New York and New Jersey. Seven presumed cases occurred in pregnant women cared for at our institution. Mumps diagnosis as per the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene was based on clinical manifestations, particularly parotitis. Prior immunizations with mumps vaccine and negative IgM were not adequate to rule out mumps infections. All of our seven patients had exposure to mumps in either their household or their community, and some of the them had symptoms of mumps. Due to the difficulties in interpreting serologies of these patients, their cases led to a presumed diagnosis of mumps. The diagnosis of mumps lead to the isolation of patients and health care personnel that were in contact with them. In this paper, we detail the presenting findings, diagnostic dilemmas and infection control challenges associated with presumed cases of mumps in pregnancy. PMID:22505798

Lozo, Svjetlana; Ahmed, Ahmed; Chapnick, Edward; O'Keefe, Mary; Minkoff, Howard



Presumed Cases of Mumps in Pregnancy: Clinical and Infection Control Implications  

PubMed Central

Recently, a mumps outbreak in New York and New Jersey was reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Subsequently, the dissemination of the disease was rapid, and, from June 28th 2009 through January 29th 2010, a total of 1,521 cases of mumps were reported in New York and New Jersey. Seven presumed cases occurred in pregnant women cared for at our institution. Mumps diagnosis as per the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene was based on clinical manifestations, particularly parotitis. Prior immunizations with mumps vaccine and negative IgM were not adequate to rule out mumps infections. All of our seven patients had exposure to mumps in either their household or their community, and some of the them had symptoms of mumps. Due to the difficulties in interpreting serologies of these patients, their cases led to a presumed diagnosis of mumps. The diagnosis of mumps lead to the isolation of patients and health care personnel that were in contact with them. In this paper, we detail the presenting findings, diagnostic dilemmas and infection control challenges associated with presumed cases of mumps in pregnancy.

Lozo, Svjetlana; Ahmed, Ahmed; Chapnick, Edward; O'Keefe, Mary; Minkoff, Howard



Methaemoglobin reductase deficiency in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte methaemoglobin reductase deficiency is described in a toy Alaskan Eskimo dog, a miniature poodle dog and a cocker\\/poodle cross dog. Blood methaemoglobin contents ranged from 19% to 36% of total haemoglobin, with methaemoglobin reductase values between 13% and 33% of normal. There appeared to be a negative linear correlation between erythrocyte methaemoglobin content and methaemoglobin reductase activity. A single

J. W. Harvey; R. R. King; C. R. Berry; J. T. Blue



Biting dogs in Rome (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present data on dog biting events which occurred in Rome and were recorded by the Public Dog Shelter and Veterinary Hospital of Rome. In Italy the control of rabies is regulated by Presidential Decree. Recently, the endorsement of a National Law, aimed at the prevention of dog and cat straying, has greatly modified the relationship with, and the management

L. Maragliano; G. Ciccone; C. Fantini; C. Petrangeli; G. Saporito; M. Di Traglia; E. Natoli



Directionality of dog vocalizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The directionality patterns of sound emission in domestic dogs were measured in an anechoic environment using a microphone array. Mainly long-distance signals from four dogs were investigated. The radiation pattern of the signals differed clearly from an omnidirectional one with average differences in sound-pressure level between the frontal and rear position of 3-7 dB depending from the individual. Frequency dependence of directionality was shown for the range from 250 to 3200 Hz. The results indicate that when studying acoustic communication in mammals, more attention should be paid to the directionality pattern of sound emission.

Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Gebler, Alban



Vanishing native American dog lineages  

PubMed Central

Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders.



Intravitreal bevacizumab as initial treatment for choroidal neovascularization associated with presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose   To report a case of juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization in a patient with presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS)\\u000a who was treated with intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) as initial treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A 23-year-old woman with POHS presented with sudden dimness of vision and metamorphopsia in the right eye. The patient was\\u000a examined with ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Alfredo Adán; Manuel Navarro; Ricardo P. Casaroli-Marano; Santiago Ortiz; Juan José Molina



A fatal case of severe methemoglobinemia presumably due to chlorate ingestion.  


A fatal case due to severe methemoglobinemia is presented. A male in his forties was found unconscious in his house and, despite intensive care, death was confirmed approximately 11 hours later. Toxicological analysis using ion chromatography revealed the presence of chlorate in the stomach contents. However, chlorate was not detected in the blood, and no other drugs or ethanol were detected in the blood either. We concluded that the cause of death was presumably due to chlorate poisoning, based on the results of the autopsy and the toxicological examination. PMID:21887899

Kinoshita, H; Yoshioka, N; Kuse, A; Nishiguchi, M; Tanaka, N; Jamal, M; Kumihashi, M; Nagasaki, Y; Ueno, Y; Ameno, K



Habits of Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN reply to Dr. Kidd's question as to the disposition of dogs to carry hedgehogs in their mouths, I may say that a smooth-haired Irish terrier, ``Tim'', of which I had charge for some weeks in the early spring of the present year, speedily became an expert hunter of hedgehogs, and carried home five living ones in the course of

H. C. Chadwick



Habits of Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAN any of your readers inform me whether it is common for dogs to eat wasps, or if it is likely to prove injurious? A young bulldog of mine (``Billy'') now finds his chief amusement in catching flying wasps with his mouth, and I think he must swallow them, as they generally vanish, though occasionally I have found the corpse

A. Everett



Habits of Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

I CANNOT answer Miss Everett's questions on this subject, but would like to ``ask another''. Is it known to be a common thing for dogs to carry hedgehogs in their mouths? I have a fox-terrier who amused himself in our garden by making life a burden to a hedgehog until the latter disappeared. He would not only roll the hedgehog

Walter Kidd



Inherited epilepsy in dogs.  


Epilepsy is the most common neurologic disease in dogs and many forms are considered to have a genetic basis. In contrast, some seizure disorders are also heritable, but are not technically defined as epilepsy. Investigation of true canine epilepsies has uncovered genetic associations in some cases, however, many remain unexplained. Gene mutations have been described for 2 forms of canine epilepsy: primary epilepsy (PE) and progressive myoclonic epilepsies. To date, 9 genes have been described to underlie progressive myoclonic epilepsies in several dog breeds. Investigations into genetic PE have been less successful, with only 1 causative gene described. Genetic testing as an aid to diagnosis, prognosis, and breeding decisions is available for these 10 forms. Additional studies utilizing genome-wide tools have identified PE loci of interest; however, specific genetic tests are not yet developed. Many studies of dog breeds with PE have failed to identify genes or loci of interest, suggesting that, similar to what is seen in many human genetic epilepsies, inheritance is likely complex, involving several or many genes, and reflective of environmental interactions. An individual dog's response to therapeutic intervention for epilepsy may also be genetically complex. Although the field of inherited epilepsy has faced challenges, particularly with PE, newer technologies contribute to further advances. PMID:24070682

Ekenstedt, Kari J; Oberbauer, Anita M



Automatic imitation in dogs  

PubMed Central

After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication.

Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia



Zen Hot Dog Molecules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.|

Ryan, Dennis



Hyperadrenocorticism: treating dogs.  


This article is a complete review of all reported therapies for hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. Both medical and surgical options for treating pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism and adrenal tumor-related disease are discussed, and the efficacy, safety, and use of these treatments are compared. PMID:17726933

Brown, Cassandra G; Graves, Thomas K



Automatic imitation in dogs.  


After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to 'automatic imitation'; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia



Investigation of hearing loss in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEARING is important in dogs for their social interaction. It makes them more pleasurable companions and also alerts them to potentially dangerous situations. In the case of working dogs, such as police dogs, guard dogs and hearing dogs for the deaf, which alert their owners to sounds like the telephone or doorbell, animals are only useful if they can 'hear

Celia Cox



Incentive Contrast in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs (Canis familiaris) trained to receive a preferred food (dry beef liver) from an experimenter learned to maintain a longer gaze on the experimenter than dogs receiving a less preferred food (dog pellets). Dogs downshifted from dry liver to pellets rejected food more frequently than nonshifted controls. Gaze duration also decreased in downshifted dogs below the level of a group

Mariana Bentosela; Adriana Jakovcevic; Angel M. Elgier; Alba E. Mustaca; Mauricio R. Papini



Use of health care services by children and diagnoses received during presumably stressful life transitions.  


Transition periods in the lives of children are potentially stressful and might therefore be associated with adverse changes in children's physical or emotional health. The computerized medical records of 1,521 children continuously enrolled in a prepaid health plan for 6 years were analyzed to identify if such a trend was present. The overall rates of children's health care use steadily decline with increasing age until early adolescence, at which time girls' rates modestly increase and boys' continue to decline. However, the prevalence of diagnoses for which an emotional basis may be presumed increases markedly during two major transitional periods: (1) early elementary school and (2) early adolescence. During both periods, there are notable differences between boys and girls with regard to rates and temporal patterns. Girls do not demonstrate the same increased rates during elementary school years as do boys. The study provides evidence from population-based data that for some children early school years and adolescence are times of increased stress. Children who are once diagnosed as having an emotional problem, presumably related to stressful life transitions, tend to continue having similar difficulties. PMID:3714375

Schor, E L



An approach to histologically diagnosed gallbladder carcinoma following cholecystectomy for presumed benign disease.  


Five cases of gallbladder adenocarcinoma treated at Surgical Department 2, Maciel Hospital, Montevideo, Uruguay, in a period ranging from 1985 to 1989 and follow-up to date are reported. All cases were first diagnosed by microscopic examination of the gallbladder, which had been removed for presumed benign disease; there were no intramucosal carcinomas, and 60% of the cases were classified as Nevin's stage II (submucosal and muscularis). Based on the pattern of spread (mainly direct hepatic infiltration, as well as venous and lymphatic involvement), our radical surgical treatment of gallbladder carcinoma includes cholecystectomy, extended lymphatic clearance (along the porta hepatis or R1, pre- and retroduodenopancreatic and hepatic artery R2, and celiac axis R3), and medial hepatectomy (segments, IV, V, and VIII according to Couinaud). Simple cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice in mucosal (T1) neoplasms; otherwise, histologically diagnosed gallbladder carcinoma following cholecystectomy for presumed benign disease calls for reoperation to achieve lymph node dissection and hepatic resection. Overall 2- and 3-year survival was 100% and 80%; mean survival was 50 months. Medial hepatectomy was selected according to gallbladder carcinoma patterns of spread and failures, and entails resection of the parenchyma most frequently involved without compromising liver function, in a quick and safe surgical procedure. PMID:8503975

Torterolo, E; Aizen, B; Silva, C; Bergalli, L; Misa, C; Beltran, R



Intrapericardial cysts in the dog.  


Intrapericardial cysts were identified as the cause of impaired cardiac filling in six young dogs. Pneumopericardiography and two-dimensional echocardiography showed the cysts in 2 of 2 dogs and in 4 of 4 dogs, respectively. One dog, which was also infected with heartworms, died before surgical excision of the cyst could be performed. In the remaining dogs, surgical excision of the cysts and subtotal pericardiectomy was successfully accomplished. Histologic examination of the excised tissue from one dog suggested that it was a pericardial coelomic cyst. The gross and histologic characteristics of the cysts removed from the other five dogs resembled those of acquired cystic hematomas. The etiopathogenesis of these cysts was uncertain, but all cysts were connected to a fatty pedicle of tissue. In one dog, a stalk of tissue was observed to enter the pericardium through a small peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia. In four dogs, the stalk of tissue was adhered to the apex of the parietal pericardium. These observations suggested that intrapericardial cysts, in some dogs, develop in association with, and possibly as a result of, congenital herniation and entrapment of omentum or a portion of the falciform ligament into the pericardial sac. PMID:8114033

Sisson, D; Thomas, W P; Reed, J; Atkins, C E; Gelberg, H B


Service utilization patterns for presumed infertile women in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2004-2005.  


Understanding the utilization pattern of infertility health and medical services can assist health system managers in providing better and more efficient care to affected population. This study aims to investigate the patterns in the utilization of infertility services in Iran.We performed a survey of 10 783 women in 28 provinces from 2004 to 2005. We used a systematic sampling method to draw a total of 400 clusters, the probability for selection being proportional to the size of the urban and rural population in each province. The categorization of the woman as "presumed infertile" was based on her own report of infertility at some time during her married life. We also studied the measures taken for the latest episode of presumed infertility. For each of these measures, we recorded the reason(s), the year in which it was taken, and the time interval separating it from contraceptive discontinuation. Data analysis, using the software package STATA 8.0, included descriptive statistics and computation of 95% confidence intervals (CI) as well as chi(2) and logistic regression procedures adapted to the complex sampling design.A total of 1592 women had presumed infertility at some period after their marriage (14.8%, CI0.95 = 13.8-15.7%), and 1291 subjects had taken measures to deal with the problem (81.1%, CI0.95 = 78.7-83.5%). These rates did not show any significant differences between urban and rural women (p > 0.05). In 70% of these cases, the first measure was a visit to a specialist physician and in 70% the woman had sought care in the private sector. Visits to specialists and private health care facilities had increased over the last three decades, with fewer visits to general practitioners (GPs) and midwives and less use of self-medication or traditional/local therapies. The most common motive for those who had not taken any treatment was their unwillingness to have their problem known and discussed by others (29.3%). The determinants of treatment-seeking behavior were current primary infertility (OR = 4.15, CI0.95 = 2.53-6.80), higher education (OR = 1.39, CI0.95 = 1.04-1.86) and living with husband (OR = 1.83, CI0.95 = 1.01-3.32).The current study is the first attempt to present a population-based pattern of service utilization by infertile women in Iran. It shows that for these patients, the first contact with the health system takes the form of a visit to a specialist physician, and is more likely to involve the private sector. PMID:20066667

Ardalan, Ali; Vahidi, Serajeldin; Mohammad, Kazem; Russel, Mehdi


Cestode infection in 2 dogs: cytologic findings in liver and a mesenteric lymph node.  


Mesocestoides cestode infections in dogs are well known for causing severe peritonitis with larvae or larval fragments (metacestodes, tetrathyridia, or calcareous corpuscles) frequently observed cytologically in peritoneal fluid samples. This case report describes the cytologic and clinical features of 2 dogs infected with cestode larvae, with one case confirmed and the other presumed to be Mesocestoides sp. In these 2 unusual cases, cestode larvae or larval fragments were found in fine-needle aspirates of the liver and a mesenteric lymph node, but no organisms were found in peritoneal fluid samples. The data presented in this report indicate that clinical pathologists should not rule out Mesocestoides sp cestodiasis based on the absence of larvae in peritoneal fluid samples from dogs. PMID:23278428

Patten, Penny K; Rich, Lon J; Zaks, Karen; Blauvelt, Melissa



A de novo mutation in KIT causes white spotting in a subpopulation of German Shepherd dogs.  


Although variation in the KIT gene is a common cause of white spotting among domesticated animals, KIT has not been implicated in the diverse white spotting observed in the dog. Here, we show that a loss-of-function mutation in KIT recapitulates the coat color phenotypes observed in other species. A spontaneous white spotting observed in a pedigree of German Shepherd dogs was mapped by linkage analysis to a single locus on CFA13 containing KIT (pairwise LOD = 15). DNA sequence analysis identified a novel 1-bp insertion in the second exon that co-segregated with the phenotype. The expected frameshift and resulting premature stop codons predicted a severely truncated c-Kit receptor with presumably abolished activity. No dogs homozygous for the mutation were recovered from multiple intercrosses (P = 0.01), suggesting the mutation is recessively embryonic lethal. These observations are consistent with the effects of null alleles of KIT in other species. PMID:23134432

Wong, A K; Ruhe, A L; Robertson, K R; Loew, E R; Williams, D C; Neff, M W



Screening of the arrestin gene in dogs afflicted with generalized progressive retinal atrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Intronic DNA sequences of the canine arrestin (SAG) gene was screened to identify potential disease causing mutations in dogs with generalized progressive retinal atrophy (gPRA). The intronic sequences flanking each of the 16 exons were obtained from clones of a canine genomic library. Results Using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequence analyses we screened affected and unaffected dogs of 23 breeds with presumed autosomal recessively (ar) transmitted gPRA. In the coding region of the SAG gene 12 nucleotide exchanges were identified, 5 of which lead to amino acid substitutions (H14C; A111V; A113T; D259T; A379E). 7 other exonic substitutions represent silent polymorphisms (C132C; Q199Q; H225H; V247V; P264P; T288T and L293L). 16 additional sequence variations were observed in intronic regions of different dog breeds. Conclusions In several breeds, these polymorphisms were found in homozygous state in unaffected and in heterozygous state in affected animals. Consequently these informative substitutions provide evidence to exclude mutations in the SAG gene as causing retinal degeneration in 14 of the 23 dog breeds with presumed ar transmitted gPRA.

Dekomien, Gabriele; Epplen, Jorg Thomas



Presumed intramedullary spinal cord sarcoidosis in a healthy young adult woman.  


Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology associated with the development of granulomatous nodules in various organs, most commonly the lungs, eyes, and skin. It rarely affects the central nervous system, with the spinal cord being least common area of involvement. However, when sarcoidosis does affect the central nervous system, it is often the first presentation of the disease, making diagnosis more difficult. Physical examination findings are consistent with spinal cord pathology, and imaging often suggests spinal cord tumor. We present a case of an otherwise healthy young woman with a granulomatous mass in her cervico-thoracic spinal cord presumed to be sarcoid and review the clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis associated with this rare disease. PMID:22257972

Eby, Sarah A; Buchner, Eric J; Bryant, Mary G



Presumed clostridial and aerobic bacterial infections of the cornea in two horses.  


Microscopic examination of Gram-stained tissue specimens collected from severe corneal ulcers in 2 horses revealed large gram-positive rods suggestive of Clostridium spp. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from specimens collected from horse 1; anaerobic organisms were not detected in specimens from horse 2. Aerobic bacterial culture revealed Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterobacter cloacae in specimens collected from horses 1 and 2, respectively. An insect exoskeleton was presumed to be the underlying cause of ulceration in horse 1. Cause of ulceration in horse 2 was not determined. Antibiotics used to treat the corneal infections included ticarcillin disodium-clavulanic acid injected one time subconjunctivally and chloramphenicol applied topically at frequent intervals. Horse 2 also received penicillin or trimethoprim-sulfadiazine. Small leukomas were the only lesion remaining between 2 and 7 months after initial evaluation. Chloramphenicol applied topically appears to be an effective treatment against clostridial corneal infections in horses. PMID:10340080

Rebhun, W C; Cho, J O; Gaarder, J E; Peek, S F; Patten, V H



Using dogs for tiger conservation and research.  


This paper is a review of the history, development and efficacy of using dogs in wildlife studies and considers the use of dogs in the research and conservation of wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758). Using scat detection dogs, scent-matching dogs, law enforcement detection dogs and protection dogs are proven methods that can be effectively used on tigers. These methods all take advantage of the dog's extremely evolved sense of smell that allows them to detect animals or animal byproducts (often the focus of tiger studies). Dogs can be trained to communicate this information to their handlers. PMID:21392356

Kerley, Linda L



Melatonin administration to dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Melatonin concentrations in serum and urine were examined following oral administration of melatonin to dogs. Four different doses of melatonin ranging from 10 to 80 mg per kg of body weight were given. Melatonin was rapidly absorbed and reached a maximum serum level after 20–30 min, with a distribution phase of 3.5 hours and elimination half life (t1\\/2) of

J. Sääf; L. Wetterberg; M. Bäckström; A. Sundwall



Thymofibrolipoma in two dogs.  


Thymolipomas are unusual benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose and thymic tissue that represent less than 10% of all thymic tumours in man. A thymofibrolipoma is a histological variant of thymolipoma in which there is an additional abundance of fibrous connective tissue. Thymolipoma has been reported previously in one dog and one cat, but thymofibrolipoma has never been described. This report documents the clinical and pathological features of two cases of canine thymofibrolipoma. PMID:19426992

Morini, M; Bettini, G; Diana, A; Spadari, A; Casadio Tozzi, A; Santi, M; Romagnoli, N; Scarpa, F; Mandrioli, L



Priapism in dogs.  


Priapism is a persistent penile erection lasting longer than 4 hours, without sexual stimulation. Priapism is categorized as either nonischemic (arterial, high flow) or ischemic (veno-occlusive, low flow). Ischemic priapism is considered an emergency in people. Reports of priapism in dogs are uncommon. This report describes 3 dogs with priapism; the first was considered idiopathic, the second was due to acute disc extrusion and subsequent T12-T13 hemilaminectomy, and the third was secondary to a lumbar meningomyelocoele. All 3 cases were suspected to be nonischemic priapism. The pathophysiology of the canine erection and a review of priapism in dogs and cats are discussed. Distinguishing ischemic versus nonischemic priapism and identifying and treating the underlying cause are important. Aspiration to obtain blood gas analysis may help classify the priapism and may provide pain relief. Ultrasonography aids in evaluation for vascular abnormalities and identifying etiology. If determined to be ischemic, then aspiration with the patient under sedation or anesthesia with or without irrigation should be done. Intracavernosal injections of phenylephrine and lubrication of the exposed penis are also recommended. If intracavernosal drainage and injections are not successful, or significant tissue damage has occurred, then penile amputation and perineal urethrostomy may become necessary. Systemic therapy could be considered if the priapism is not considered an emergency, and if intracavernous injections or surgical treatment are declined. PMID:19501342

Lavely, James A



Lycoperdonosis in two dogs.  


Lycoperdonosis is a rare respiratory disease that results from the inhalation of spores released from the Lycoperdon (puffball) mushroom. In the present study, 2 cases of confirmed canine lycoperdonosis are described. The first case presented to the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, and the second case was submitted for postmortem examination to the University of Tennessee Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Both dogs presented in respiratory distress, and owners reported that the dogs had been playing or digging in areas with puffball mushrooms prior to the onset of clinical signs. In the initial case, thoracic radiographs revealed a diffuse interstitial and multifocal alveolar pulmonary pattern. Despite aggressive medical treatment and mechanical ventilation, the dog continued to worsen and was euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed firm lung lobes and enlarged tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Histologically, there was a severe diffuse histiocytic and pyogranulomatous bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Throughout the lung and lymph nodes, most commonly within macrophages, were round, 3-5 µm in diameter, Gomori methenamine silver-positive structures, consistent with Lycoperdon spores. An approximately 750-base pair DNA fragment was amplified from lung of both cases by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific to yeast ribosomal DNA, and the sequence of the fragment was determined to be most closely related to Lycoperdon pyriforme. Importantly, reexamination of an endotracheal wash from the initial case revealed intrahistiocytic spores, suggesting that airway sampling may assist in diagnosing lycoperdonosis. PMID:21088194

Alenghat, Theresa; Pillitteri, Cara A; Bemis, David A; Kellett-Gregory, Lindsay; Jackson, Karen V; Kania, Stephen A; Donnell, Robert L; Van Winkle, Thomas



Atypical caudal duplication with phenotypic sex reversal in a dog.  


A male German Shepherd Dog mix was presented for chronic non-weight-bearing lameness of the left hind limb. At clinical examination, the dog's left hind limb had severe joint contractures, with the presence of what appeared to be a second paw. The dog also had 2 sets of external genitalia of opposite phenotypic sex; a complete male reproductive tract with a left retained testicle and a right descended testicle, as well as rudimentary female external genitalia including a hypoplastic vulva with a blind-end vagina and a hypertrophied clitoris. The female genitalia were located on the proximal posterior third of the deformed limb. Following amputation of the hind limb, gross pathologic analysis revealed a duplication of the fibula, tarsal, and metatarsal bones, digits, and appendices. The supernumerary structures and female genitalia were concluded to represent a parasitic twin. As conjoined or parasitic twinning of non-identical twins is thought to be impossible, the presence of genitalia of opposite phenotypic sex appeared paradoxical. Polymerase chain reaction analyses were therefore performed to determine the genotypic sex of both animals, which revealed the presence of the Y chromosome in all tissues, including the female genitalia. The non-masculinization of the external genitalia in the parasitic twin was presumed to be the result of an embryonic developmental defect. On this basis, a diagnosis of atypical caudal duplication (parasitic twinning) with phenotypic sex reversal was made. PMID:21908371

Paquet, Marilčne; El-Warrak, Alexander O; Laguë, Marie-Noëlle; Boerboom, Derek



Metabolic fate of inhaled Co aerosols in beagle dogs  

SciTech Connect

Lung retention of /sup 57/Co in dogs after the inhalation of physically and chemically uniform particles of Co compounds was similar, indicating little biological variability. The retention of Co oxide particles ranging from 0.3 micron to 2.7 micron geometric diameter, however, depended markedly on their physicochemical parameters. Measuring the retention by a gamma camera, and analyzing excreta and blood samples enabled the distinction of different clearance pathways from the lungs particularly with the use of results of some metabolic studies. Particle dissolution was the predominant clearance pathway. Particle dissolution half-times ranged from 6 to 80 d proportional to the size of the particles. Organ analysis yielded information on the fate of the long-term burden of Co in the lungs and other organs. A fraction less than 10% of the initial lung burden was retained in the lungs of all dogs with a biological half-time of 400 d presumably after being transformed into a nonparticulate state. There were cellular structures in the tracheobronchial tree which accumulated Co significantly. These studies on dogs suggest the dose after human exposure to well-defined Co aerosols can be accurately estimated. Whereas risk assessment after the exposure to undefined aerosols containing radionuclides of Co will mostly be impossible because retention varies widely with the varying physicochemical properties of the aerosol particles.

Kreyling, W.G.; Ferron, G.A.; Haider, B.



Presumed infectious endophthalmitis following cataract surgery in the UK: a case–control study of risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsTo study risk factors for presumed infectious endophthalmitis complicating cataract surgery in the United Kingdom.MethodsTwo hundred and fourteen clinically diagnosed patients with presumed infectious endophthalmitis were compared with 445 control patients throughout the United Kingdom in a prospective case–control study. The cases were identified through the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit reporting card system. Control patients undergoing cataract surgery from 13

S Kamalarajah; R Ling; G Silvestri; N K Sharma; M D Cole; G Cran; R M Best



Pathogens in dog bite wounds in dogs in Harare, Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a year swabs were taken from 87 untreated bite wounds in dogs seen by veterinary practitioners in Harare, Zimbabwe. Swabs were also taken from normal skin adjacent to the wound site, and gingival swabs were collected from normal dogs coming to the same clinics. The swabs were cultured aerobically for pathogens, particularly Staphylococcus intermedius, and the antibiotic sensitivities of

PJ Kelly; PR Mason; J Els; LA Matthewman



Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.



[Fighting dogs--dangerous dogs: legal situation in Bavaria].  


A report is given on eight years of experience with the Bavarian legal regulation for the protection against dangerous dogs of 10.7.1992. The implementation of the regulation was a success. Since then only two cases of biting accidents are reported. In one case the dogs were euthanatized, in the other case they were taken away and given to other owners. The advantages of the regulation are seen in the increased responsibility of the dog owner who has to give proof of the peaceful character of his dog in form of an expert testimony. This lowers the administration costs and has revealed a preventive effect, the dog owners are looking more carefully after their animals to avoid any security problems. PMID:11314462

Breitsamer, F



The dangers of dog bites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes an unusual case of endocarditis caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus as a result of dog bite. The diagnosis could be established only by molecular techniques after amplification of bacterial DNA from the infected cardiac valve. The epidemiology and management of Capnocytophaga infections is discussed, as well as the role of prophylactic antibiotics in preventing these infections after dog

David W Wareham; Joy S Michael; Simon Warwick; Paul Whitlock; Alan Wood; Satya S Das



Noise Reversion in Paced Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacemakers are commonly implanted by veterinary cardiologists in dogs with bradyarrhythmias. In the past, these pacemakers were placed with little attention to programming except for the basic heart rate. However, the availability of pacing programmers has permitted a better appreciation of the needs for proper and safe pacing in dogs. An awareness of the problems that can result from improper

Amara Estrada



A dog in the fight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holly Hughes’ “A Dog in the Fight” is a queer and feminist literary performance that models a feminist politics of performance that stands as alternative to performances of power that come from the officially anointed space of politics. In this piece, Hughes meditates on the queer relationship between US Presidents and their faithful companions, their dogs. Refusing to jump through

Holly Hughes



Semen collection in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review will discuss semen collection in the dog. Semen samples may be collected from male dogs for the purposes of artificial insemination, cryopreservation or diagnosis. The materials needed for semen collection depend on which method is used and the collector's level of expertise with this procedure. At minimum, two sterile centrifuge tubes or specimen cups can be used to

Michelle Anne Kutzler



[Longterm ECG in the dog].  


Holter monitoring was obtained from 44 clinically normal dogs and 68 dogs with heart disease or being suspicious for a cardiopathy. Several employments of the holter monitoring are shown by means of some examples. This method proved to be effective in the diagnosis of syncopes and the review of the therapy of arrhythmias. Limits and difficulties are discussed. PMID:8650683

Hertel, M; Murlat, B; Kersten, U



Ageing: it's a dog's life.  


The relationship between size and lifespan is complex. Larger species normally outlive smaller species, but within species smaller individuals generally outlive larger individuals. Research comparing size and mortality in dogs suggests that big dogs die young because they age faster. PMID:23701689

Selman, Colin; Nussey, Daniel H; Monaghan, Pat



Sezary syndrome in a dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sézary syndrome was diagnosed in a dog with epidermotropic lymphosarcoma and a leukaemic blood picture wherein 73.5% of the leucocytes (15582 of 21200 leucocytes \\/µl of blood) were large mononuclear cells with markedly convoluted nuclei. The dog had a history of multiple skin tumours progressing to hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase staining of blood smears and splenic imprints revealed

K. S. Latimer; P. M. Rakich



Botulism in 2 urban dogs  

PubMed Central

Two dogs from the same owner were referred for ascending weakness and paresis of 2 to 3 days duration. Electromyography and electroneurography determined that there were normal F-waves, decreased compound action potential, and decreased activity on repetitive nerve stimulation. These findings were valuable in diagnosing botulism in the dogs.

Uriarte, Ane; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Blot, Stephane



Dogs for the disabled: benefits to recipients and welfare of the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs for the Disabled is an organisation recently established in the UK to provide trained assistance dogs to enhance the mobility and independence of people with physical disabilities. Fifty-seven recipients of a Dog for the Disabled (90% of all recipients) took part in a questionnaire survey to assess satisfaction with their dog, commitment to the dog's welfare, and other changes

J McNicholas; G. M Collis



The quality of the relation between handler and military dogs influences efficiency and welfare of dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 10 years, the influence of the dog–owner relationship on dog behaviour has received growing attention, unlike the working dog handler's relationship. Using a questionnaire addressed to the 430 dog handlers of the Belgian army in 2001 (303 respondents), this study investigated the association between the time spent by handlers with their military dog (MD) and some behaviours

Diane Lefebvre; Claire Diederich; Madeleine Delcourt; Jean-Marie Giffroy



Lethal outcome after percutaneous aspiration of a presumed ovarian cyst in a neonate.  


Most surgeons agree that complex neonatal ovarian cysts, regardless of size, warrant operative intervention. Management of simple cysts >4 cm is still controversial, although many favor intervention because of the increased risk of torsion. Whereas laparoscopic cyst resection is favored by some, others prefer less invasive percutaneous needle aspiration. We present a newborn infant who was admitted with sepsis and respiratory failure after home delivery. Ultrasound done on day 8 to check for umbilical venous line placement incidentally showed a simple cyst measuring 3.6 x 5.9 x 6.9 cm that was presumed to be of ovarian origin. Percutaneous needle aspiration was atraumatic and revealed serous fluid, with a high estradiol level. Four days later, surgery was indicated for clinical deterioration with suspected hemorrhage into the cyst. We found a midgut volvulus with extensive necrosis secondary to a jejunal duplication cyst. Ovaries were normal and there was no evidence of malrotation. Postoperatively, after discussion with the parents, support was withdrawn and the child died. We should not rely solely on ultrasonographic features and fluid characteristics to diagnose a large neonatal abdominal cyst, but rather confirm the diagnosis with laparoscopy. PMID:19349004

Puligandla, Pramod S; Laberge, Jean-Martin



MRI appearance of presumed self-inflicted trauma in the knees of military recruits.  


When knee bone marrow edema is observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it usually follows a pattern that can be explained by certain etiologies. This article describes a series of unusual knee bone marrow edemas in soldiers presumed to represent self-inflicted trauma.Ten soldiers (9 men and 1 woman; age range, 19-24 years) underwent knee MRI. None reported recent trauma or stress, and all presented with nonspecific pain or failure to respond to therapy. All showed a similar unusual pattern of bone marrow edema in the medial femoral condyle. Three observers evaluated the location of the bone marrow edema within the medial femoral condyle and its distance from the articular surface, dimensions, overlying soft tissue abnormality, and internal derangements. The edema was always subcortical and located in the middle aspect (n=7) or mid-anterior aspect (n=3) of the medial femoral condyle but was never centered subarticularly. Edema size ranged between 8 × 10 × 8 and 32 × 46 × 40 mm. Overlying soft tissue abnormalities were common (n=4) and included organizing (n=1) and residual hematoma (n=3). Concomitant MRI abnormalities were seen in 3 patients, usually minor. Eight patients reported longstanding pain with no antecedent trauma, and 2 reported remote trauma. One patient had a negative 4-month follow-up MRI, and another had a negative arthroscopy. Poor correlation existed between MRI findings and the absence of stress and trauma. Soldier chat rooms were found that describe how to induce fractures at this location. PMID:22588411

Thein, Ran; Schweitzer, Mark E; Diprimio, Gina; Shabshin, Nogah



Assessment of a standard treatment protocol on visual outcome following presumed bacterial endophthalmitis  

PubMed Central

AIMS—The aim of this prospective study was, firstly, to judge the effect of early aggressive treatment with a standardised regimen of high dose broad spectrum intraocular and systemic antibiotics on visual outcome and, secondly, to assess the sensitivity of isolated organisms to the treatment regimen utilised.?METHODS—Thirty two consecutive patients presenting with presumed bacterial endophthalmitis were treated and completed follow up. In every case, intraocular sampling was undertaken and treatment with intraocular vancomycin, amikacin, and systemic ciprofloxacin was commenced immediately, followed by systemic steroids 1 day later.?RESULTS—In 69% of patients vision improved with 47% achieving a final visual acuity of 6/36 or better and 31% achieving 6/12 or better. Of the intraocular samples taken from post-surgical and post-traumatic cases, 10/27 (37%) and 3/5 (60%) were culture positive, respectively. All the bacteria isolated were sensitive to at least one of the three antibiotics used.?CONCLUSIONS—The study demonstrated that the combination of vancomycin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin is adequate as a standard regimen for the treatment of most patients with suspected bacterial endophthalmitis. The prognosis for a good visual outcome, however, remains poor with 15/27 (55%) post-surgical and 2/5 (40%) post-traumatic cases achieving a final acuity of 6/60 or less.??

Okhravi, N; Towler, H; Hykin, P; Matheson, M; Lightman, S



Combined optic neuropathy and central retinal artery occlusion in presumed ocular tuberculosis without detectable systemic infection.  


Purpose: To report a rare case of combined optic neuropathy and central retinal artery occlusion in presumed ocular tuberculosis without systemic infection. Case Report: A young man presented with sudden onset of decreased vision in his left eye with combined optic disc swelling and central retinal artery occlusion in a background of vasculitic changes of the same eye. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. Chest X-ray and computed tomography thorax findings were normal and sputum cultures for tuberculosis were negative. The Mantoux and QuantiFERON-TB Gold tests were strongly positive. No tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction testing was done. Anti-tuberculosis therapy was initiated, based on the strong clinical evidence. Conclusion: The ocular findings improved remarkably with the anti-tuberculosis treatment, although the left eye vision remained poor. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose ocular tuberculosis when all other systemic investigations are negative, especially in this part of the world where tuberculosis is endemic. PMID:21834697

Ooi, Y L; Tai, L Y; Subrayan, V; Tajunisah, I



A case of presumed acute retinal necrosis after intraocular foreign body injury.  


The aim of this study was to report a case of acute retinal necrosis (ARN) after intraocular foreign body removal. A 32-year-old male presented with visual loss in the left eye. He was hit by an iron fragment while he was hammering. An intraocular foreign body was found with corneal laceration and traumatic cataract. On the day he was injured, primary closure of the laceration, lensectomy, and vitrectomy were performed, and the foreign body was removed. The day after the operation, there was no sign of retinal detachment or retinitis. Two days after the operation, retinal necrosis and accompanying vitreous inflammation were noted in the far periphery. On day 3, the necrosis spread circumferentially and inflammation became more distinct. ARN was presumed and intravenous acyclovir was administered. The necrotic areas were reduced 2 days later, and were resolved in 1 month. The final visual acuity in his left eye was 20/20 after implantation of an intraocular lens. This case is the first report of ARN after penetrating injury and an intraocular foreign body. ARN may develop after open-globe injury. PMID:23658473

Park, Sung Who; Byon, Ik Soo; Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Ji Eun; Oum, Boo Sup



Hypothyroid dogs treated with intravenous levothyroxine.  


The purpose of this retrospective study was to report clinical and clinicopathologic findings, response to treatment, and outcome of hypothyroid dogs treated with levothyroxine intravenously (IV). Seven levothyroxine IV treated hypothyroid dogs and 799 other hypothyroid dogs examined during the same period were included. Rottweiler dogs were overrepresented in the group of levothyroxine IV-treated hypothyroid dogs compared with other hypothyroid dogs (P < .0001). Common physical examination abnormalities were obese or overweight body condition (5 dogs), mental dullness (5 dogs), and nonpitting edema (4 dogs). Anemia (4 dogs) and hypercholesterolemia (5) were common, although 1 dog had neither. Concurrent disease (most commonly infection) was observed in 5 dogs. Glucocorticoids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs had been administered to 2 dogs before examination. Surgery was performed in 2 dogs before treatment with levothyroxine IV. Four of the 7 dogs received 4-5 microg/kg of levothyroxine IV. Subjective improvement in mentation or ambulation (6 of 7 dogs) and systolic hypotension (2 of 2 dogs) occurred within 30 hours of levothyroxine IV administration. Six of the 7 dogs responded well to therapy and were discharged from the hospital. It was concluded that physical examination and clinicopathologic findings of dogs with a hypothyroid crisis are nonspecific, although Rottweiler dogs may be at increased risk. Concurrent disorder, such as infection, concurrent administration of thyroid hormone-altering medication, and surgery, may be associated with development of a hypothyroid crisis. Resolution of abnormal mentation, ambulation, and systolic hypotension should be expected within 30 hours. Prognosis is good in most treated dogs. PMID:16496920

Pullen, William H; Hess, Rebecka S


Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in

Andrea Wang; Rebecca Ruch-Gallie; Valeria Scorza; Philip Lin; Michael R. Lappin


Functional MRI in Awake Unrestrained Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of dogs' prolonged evolution with humans, many of the canine cognitive skills are thought to represent a selection of traits that make dogs particularly sensitive to human cues. But how does the dog mind actually work? To develop a methodology to answer this question, we trained two dogs to remain motionless for the duration required to collect quality fMRI

Gregory S. Berns; Andrew M. Brooks; Mark Spivak



The Human Role in Dog Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan asks students to investigate and think carefully about the human role in the domestication and evolution of ancient and modern dog breeds. Students will explore the relationship between wolves and dogs, the reasons why dogs have been bred, and the controversial wolf hybrid breed. They will conclude by writing essays explaining the role of humans in dog evolution, past and present.


Night Reconnoitering Capability for Military Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AN/PVS-5 Night Vision Goggles were evaluated as a potential viewing device to enable a military dog handler to work his dog, e.g., a scout dog, off-leash at night. Supplementary IR illuminating devices mounted on the dog were evaluated in conjunction ...

E. S. Tomlinson M. Krauss



Spirocercosis-associated pyothorax in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The records of five dogs diagnosed with spirocercosis-associated pyothorax were retrospectively reviewed. On admission, the most common clinical findings were weakness, anorexia, depression, dyspnoea and fever. All dogs had typical oesophageal Spirocerca lupi granulomas. Contrast thoracic radiography revealed contrast material leakage from the oesophagus into the pleural cavity in two dogs only. All dogs were medically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics,

Sigal Klainbart; Michal Mazaki-Tovi; Neomi Auerbach; Itzhak Aizenberg; Yaron Bruchim; Gillian Dank; Eran Lavy; Itamar Aroch; Shimon Harrus



Sulfation in dog.  


Sulfation has been thoroughly studied in several species including e.g. man and rat. However, one important species often used for pharmacological drug studies is the dog. Here we describe recent advances as well as older data in the field of dog sulfation. Species differences in sulfation have been reported. Stereoselectivity, inhibition by pentachlorophenol, bioactivation of DNA binding species, and gender differences have also been observed for canine sulfotransferases (SULTs). Several drugs are being sulfated in vivo in dog, e.g. xamoterol, 4'-hydroxypropanolol, paracetamol and salicylamide. However, studies have shown that also e.g. canine hepatocytes and liverslices will sulfate substrates e.g. paracetamol and 7-hydroxycoumarin in in vitro experiments. Recently, three different enzymes have been cloned and characterized from canine liver, cSULT1A1, cSULT1B1 and cSULT1D1. cSULT1A1 being very similar to the human ortholog in terms of substrate specificity and is also ubiquitously expressed in canine tissues. The cSULT1B1 enzyme is also very similar in both distribution pattern as well as substrate preference compared to the human ortholog. The third enzyme, cSULT1D1, sulfates dopamine with high efficiency and it has no counterpart in man since it is found as a pseudogene. The importance of amino acid residue 247 in cSULT1D1 will be discussed since it can alter the ratio of sulfation of dopamine versus para-nitrophenol. In addition, the phenomenon of the high expression of the canine enzymes in colon is discussed. PMID:15975044

Tsoi, C; Swedmark, S



Comparison of transducer placement sites for Doppler echocardiography in dogs with subaortic stenosis.  


Effects of transducer placement site and various operators on Doppler echocardiographic measures were evaluated in 12 dogs with subaortic stenosis. Dogs sedated by IV administration of acepromazine and buprenorphine were examined by 2 observers. Maximal aortic velocity and aortic velocity time integral were determined from Doppler aortic velocity spectra recorded, using a 1.9-MHz continuous wave nonimaging transducer placed at 3 echocardiographic sites: left ventricular apex (LA), suprasternal notch (SSN), and subcostal (SC). Doppler-estimated left ventricular-to-aortic pressure gradients were calculated from the traced velocity spectra by application of the modified Bernoulli equation. Each observer recorded high-quality Doppler spectral signals in all dogs from the SC and LA transducer sites and in 83% of dogs from the SSN window. Mean values for maximal aortic velocity and velocity time integral differed among sites (P < 0.05), but not between observers. Maximal velocity and velocity time integral measured from the SC transducer site were higher than those measured from the SSN or LA positions. Presumably, SC transducer placement provided the highest aortic velocities because of optimal alignment with aortic outflow. The maximal pressure gradient estimated from SC velocities exceeded SSN values by 27 mm of Hg and LA measurements by 38 mm of Hg. In this study, the optimal site for the Doppler echocardiographic detection of subaortic stenosis and assessment of this lesion's hemodynamic importance in most affected dogs was the SC position. PMID:8172406

Lehmkuhl, L B; Bonagura, J D



9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China,...



Attitudes toward Financial Incentives, Donor Authorization, and Presumed Consent among Next-of-Kin Who Consented vs. Refused Organ Donation  

PubMed Central

Background Financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent are strategies designed to increase organ donation rates. Surveys designed to assess attitudes toward these initiatives have been conducted with the general public, transplant patients, and transplant professionals. Methods To assess attitudes toward financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent and to identify multivariate predictors of such attitudes, we conducted telephone interviews with 561 family members who had recently been asked for consent to donate the organs of a deceased family member (348 donors, 213 nondonors). Results Financial incentives would have made a difference in the donation decision for 54% of nondonors (vs. 46% of donors, P = 0.02), and a higher percentage of nondonors would themselves become donors if financial incentives were available (P = 0.03). Donors had significantly more favorable attitudes toward donor authorization (P < 0.0001) and presumed consent (P < 0.0001) policies. Overall, 54% of participants thought that family permission for donation was unnecessary when the deceased documented their donation intention, and 24% favored a presumed consent law with an opting out provision. Conclusions Of the three initiatives, donor authorization is likely supported by more donor and nondonor families than either financial incentives or presumed consent. Public education efforts should aim to better inform the public regarding existing and proposed donor authorization legislation and its benefits for registered organ donors and their families.

Rodrigue, James R.; Cornell, Danielle L.; Howard, Richard J.



Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.  


High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication. PMID:19666600

Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D



Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history  

PubMed Central

High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.



Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. METHODS: RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up) measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal

Hayley E Cutt; Matthew W Knuiman; Billie Giles-Corti



Do dogs ( Canis familiaris ) show contagious yawning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown\\u000a video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs\\u000a showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly\\u000a after viewing yawning videos than to

Aimee L. Harr; Valerie R. Gilbert; Kimberley A. Phillips



[Childhood vaccinations anno 2004. II. The real and presumed side effects of vaccination].  


Vaccinations protect to a high degree against infectious diseases, but may cause side effects. In the Netherlands since 1962 the adverse events following immunizations are registered and analysed by the National Institute of Health and Environment (RIVM). Since 1983 a permanent Committee of the Dutch Health Council reviews adverse events reported to the RIVM. With the so-called killed vaccines the side effects are mainly local (redness, swelling, pain) or general (fever, listlessness, irritability, sleep and eating problems). They are seen mainly after DPT-IPV vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and poliomyelitis. Some side effects occur rarely (collapse reactions, discoloured legs, persistent screaming and convulsions) and very rarely serious neurological events are reported. After MMR vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella, cases of arthritis, thrombocytopenia and ataxia are reported sporadically. Usually, they have a spontaneous recovery. During recent years a scala of diseases or symptoms have been associated with vaccination (presumed side effects). Careful and extensive investigations have shown that such hypotheses could not be supported. Examples are allergic diseases as asthma, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis (after hepatitis B vaccination), autism and inflammatory bowel disease (after MMR vaccination) and sudden infant death syndrome. The total number of cases where at least a possible relation between side effects and vaccination is observed--apart from local reactions and moderate general symptoms--is very rare (about 0.25 per 1000 vaccinations) and does not balance the benefits from vaccination. There appears increasing doubt about the use and safety of vaccinations. More research is needed about the motives of people to choose for and against vaccination. The education about vaccination for parents and professionals who are involved with vaccination has to be improved. Internet can play an important role. PMID:15032089

Rümke, H C; Visser, H K



Spontaneous remission of hypercortisolism presumed due to asymptomatic tumor apoplexy in ACTH-producing pituitary macroadenoma.  


Cushing's disease (CD) is usually caused by secretion of ACTH by a pituitary corticotroph microadenoma. Nevertheless, 7%-20% of patients present with ACTH-secreting macroadenomas. Our aim is to report a 36-year-old female patient with CD due to solid-cystic ACTH-macroadenoma followed up during 34 months. The patient presented spontaneous remission due to presumed asymptomatic tumor apoplexy. She showed typical signs and symptoms of Cushing's syndrome (CS). Initial tests were consistent with ACTH-dependent CS: elevated urinary free cortisol, abnormal serum cortisol after low dose dexamethasone suppression test, and elevated midnight salivary cortisol, associated with high plasma ACTH levels. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a sellar mass of 1.2 x 0.8 x 0.8 cm of diameter with supra-sellar extension leading to slight chiasmatic impingement, and showing hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging, suggesting a cystic component. She had no visual impairment. After two months, while waiting for pituitary surgery, she presented spontaneous resolution of CS. Tests were consistent with remission of hypercortisolism: normal 24-h total urinary cortisol and normal midnight salivary cortisol. Pituitary MRI showed shrinkage of the tumor with disappearance of the chiasmatic compression. She has been free from the disease for 28 months (without hypercortisolism or hypopituitarism). The hormonal and imaging data suggested that silent apoplexy of pituitary tumor led to spontaneous remission of CS. However, recurrence of CS was described in cases following pituitary apoplexy. Therefore, careful long-term follow-up is required. PMID:24030190

Machado, Marcio Carlos; Gadelha, Patricia Sampaio; Bronstein, Marcello Delano; Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Vilares



Topical application of a chlordane-containing ectoparasiticide: effect on the plasma half-life of warfarin in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Brief exposure of dogs to topical chlordane solutions resulted in a signifi- cant and long-lasting decrease in the biological half-life of orally administered warfarin. The effect is presumed to be an expression of chlordane's well- documented inductive effect on hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes and its long-term storage in fat depots. The facility with which chlordane is absorbed through

K. A. Bachmann; A. M. Burkman



Evolutionary genomics of dog domestication.  


We review the underlying principles and tools used in genomic studies of domestic dogs aimed at understanding the genetic changes that have occurred during domestication. We show that there are two principle modes of evolution within dogs. One primary mode that accounts for much of the remarkable diversity of dog breeds is the fixation of discrete mutations of large effect in individual lineages that are then crossed to various breed groupings. This transfer of mutations across the dog evolutionary tree leads to the appearance of high phenotypic diversity that in actuality reflects a small number of major genes. A second mechanism causing diversification involves the selective breeding of dogs within distinct phenotypic or functional groups, which enhances specific group attributes such as heading or tracking. Such progressive selection leads to a distinct genetic structure in evolutionary trees such that functional and phenotypic groups cluster genetically. We trace the origin of the nuclear genome in dogs based on haplotype-sharing analyses between dogs and gray wolves and show that contrary to previous mtDNA analyses, the nuclear genome of dogs derives primarily from Middle Eastern or European wolves, a result more consistent with the archeological record. Sequencing analysis of the IGF1 gene, which has been the target of size selection in small breeds, further supports this conclusion. Finally, we discuss how a black coat color mutation that evolved in dogs has transformed North American gray wolf populations, providing a first example of a mutation that appeared under domestication and selectively swept through a wild relative. PMID:22270221

Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett M



Therapeutic application of ultrasound-guided 8-gauge Mammotome system in presumed benign breast lesions.  


The stereotactic or ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (Mammotome, MMT) system is a minimally invasive surgical technique. Increasingly, it is used to remove benign breast lesions as management. To evaluate the therapeutic value of 8-gauge ultrasound-guided MMT system (UMS) in presumed benign breast lesions, a retrospective analysis was performed on a series of 2,167 consecutive 8-gauge UMS procedures. The parameters used in this analysis included lesion size, location, breast imaging reporting and data system for ultrasound category, histopathologic diagnosis, and others. A total of 1,119 women whose mean ages were 36.6 years (range: 12-71, SD: 9.6) underwent 2,167 consecutive 8-gauge UMS procedures. Among the patients, 298 cases (26.63%) did not have palpable mass, 430 (38.43%) had multiple lesions, and 237 (21.18%) had bilateral ones. The average size of excised lesions was 15.8 mm (range: 5-55, SD: 6.7) in the largest dimension, including 294 lesions < 10 mm (13.57%); 1,359 lesions, 10-19 mm (62.71%); 420 lesions, 20-29 mm (19.38%), and 94 lesions ? 30 mm (4.34%). Predominant lesions (81.59%) were solid on ultrasound image and nearly half (48.59%) of them were localized in the upper outer quadrant. Histopathologic diagnosis revealed that the overwhelming majority of specimens (96.61%) were benign, most of which manifested as fibroadenoma and fibrocystic changes, while high-risk lesions were revealed in 31 (2.29%) cases and malignancies in 15 (1.11%). Average time for procedure was 8.6 minutes (range: 3.5-38, SD: 5.4) and mean number of cores removed in the procedure was 9.3 (range: 2-42, SD: 3.7). Complete excision was achieved predominantly (99.82%). Complications (59, 5.27%) in which hematoma (41, 3.66%) was the majority were acceptable. In conclusion, the 8-gauge UMS procedure is a safe and potent therapeutic management with satisfactory cosmetic outcome for benign and high-risk breast lesions, especially for bilateral, multiple, and nonpalpable ones. It is a reliable biopsy tool for suspected lesions as well. Eradication and maximal cosmesis can be achieved with few complications if the targeted lesion is limited to 30 mm. PMID:21762243

Luo, Hao-jun; Chen, Xin; Tu, Gang; Wang, Jing; Wu, Cheng-yi; Yang, Guang-lun



Do dogs (Canis familiaris) show contagious yawning?  


We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs showed significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs showing contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans showing this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008). PMID:19452178

Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A



Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers  


... you are covered for your own injuries and liabilities – for that we recommend you consult legal counsel ... feces, etc.); otherwise, the use of hand sanitizer products is appropriate. Don’t let dogs give you ...


Dance of the hot dogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When two hot dogs are cooked in water, they undergo simultaneous 180° rotation about their long axis. Why do they turn? Why do they change orientation several times? Why do they do it at the same time?

Dindorf, Wojciech



Frustration behaviors in domestic dogs.  


During extinction a previously learned behavior stops being reinforced. In addition to the decrease in the rate of the instrumental response, it produces an aversive emotional state known as frustration. This state can be assimilated with the fear reactions that occur after aversive stimuli are introduced at both the physiological and behavioral levels. This study evaluated frustration reactions of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during a communicative situation involving interactions with a human. The task included the reinforcement and extinction of the gaze response toward the experimenter's face when the dogs tried to obtain inaccessible food. The dog's frustration reactions during extinction involved an increase in withdrawal and side orientation to the location of the human as well as lying down, ambulation, sniffing, and vocalizations compared with the last acquisition trial. These results are especially relevant for domestic dog training situations in which the extinction technique is commonly used to discourage undesirable behaviors. PMID:23282291

Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana



Clinical impact of a commercially available multiplex PCR system for rapid detection of pathogens in patients with presumed sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Timely identification of pathogens is crucial to minimize mortality in patients with severe infections. Detection of bacterial and fungal pathogens in blood by nucleic acid amplification promises to yield results faster than blood cultures (BC). We analyzed the clinical impact of a commercially available multiplex PCR system in patients with suspected sepsis. METHODS: Blood samples from patients with presumed

Christine Dierkes; Boris Ehrenstein; Sylvia Siebig; Hans-Jörg Linde; Udo Reischl; Bernd Salzberger



[Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].  


The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in the private domain which normally is not recorded in the statistics of incidents. Therefore, it is more effective to support activities which include the training of abilities of the dog owners. Training by experts can enable dog owners to avoid conflict situations with their dog, or in case of conflict, to take appropriate actions. PMID:17172131

Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer


Noninvasive radioisotopic technique for detection of platelet deposition in mitral valve prostheses and quantitation of visceral microembolism in dogs  

SciTech Connect

A noninvasive technique has been developed in the dog model for imaging, with a gamma camera, the platelet deposition on Bjoerk-Shiley mitral valve prostheses early postoperatively. At 25 hours after implantation of the prosthesis and 24 hours after intravenous administration of 400 to 500 microCi of platelets labeled with indium-111, the platelet deposition in the sewing ring and perivalvular cardiac tissue can be clearly delineated in a scintiphotograph. An in vitro technique was also developed for quantitation of visceral microemboli in brain, lungs, kidneys, and other tissues. Biodistribution of the labeled platelets was quantitated, and the tissue/blood radioactivity ratio was determined in 22 dogs in four groups: unoperated normal dogs, sham-operated dogs, prosthesis-implanted dogs, and prosthesis-implanted dogs treated with dipyridamole before and aspirin and dipyridamole immediately after operation. Fifteen to 20% of total platelets were consumed as a consequence of the surgical procedure. On quantitation, we found that platelet deposition on the components of the prostheses was significantly reduced in prosthesis-implanted animals treated with dipyridamole and aspirin when compared with prosthesis-implanted, untreated dogs. All prosthesis-implanted animals considered together had a twofold to fourfold increase in tissue/blood radioactivity ratio in comparison with unoperated and sham-operated animals, an indication that the viscera work as filters and trap platelet microemboli that are presumably produced in the region of the mitral valve prostheses. In the dog model, indium-111-labeled platelets thus provide a sensitive marker for noninvasive imaging of platelet deposition on mechanical mitral valve prostheses, in vitro evaluation of platelet microembolism in viscera, in vitro quantitation of surgical consumption of platelets, and evaluation of platelet-inhibitor drugs.

Dewanjee, M.K.; Fuster, V.; Rao, S.A.; Forshaw, P.L.; Kaye, M.P.



Aflatoxicosis in nine dogs after exposure to contaminated commercial dog food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to characterize light and electron microscopic findings from 9 dogs that had consumed aflatoxin-contaminated commercial dog food from recalled batches. Four dogs died and 5 were euthanized after signs of liver failure. Analysis of feed and liver samples confirmed exposure to aflatoxin. Of the 9 dogs, 8 had classic signs of liver failure, and

Shelley Newman; J A Smith; K A Stenske; L B Newman; J R Dunlap; P M Imerman; Claudia A Kirk



Training methods and owner–dog interactions: Links with dog behaviour and learning ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods by which owners train their pet dogs range widely, with some exclusively using rewards, and others using a combination, or only punishment-based methods. This paper examines links between the way in which owners reported to have trained their dogs and observations of the dogs’ subsequent behaviour. It also explores associations between behaviour of owner and dog when tested

Nicola Jane Rooney; Sarah Cowan



Parameters influencing service dogs' quality of response to commands: Retrospective study of 71 dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was carried out on 71 dogs to determine the parameters influencing the quality of service provided by service dogs and to modify the dog training and selection. The questionnaires were mailed 3 years after placing the dogs with disabled people. Two co-joined medical and veterinary studies were carried out. The questionnaires covered the quality of life and

Geraldine Heillaut Dalibard



Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.|

Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.



Effect of nitroglycerin on myocardial collateral conductance in awake dogs  

SciTech Connect

Conductance of the coronary collateral circulation during the course of two abrupt circumflex coronary occlusions was measured in awake dogs {approximately} 2 wk after collateral vessels were stimulated to develop. The pressure gradient from the central aorta to the distal circumflex coronary artery was measured, and myocardial blood flow was determined by 9-{mu}m radioactive microspheres at 30 s and 4 min after coronary occlusions. Collateral conductance was calculated as mean collateral blood flow divided by the mean aorta-coronary pressure gradient. Before nitroglycerin, collateral conductance increased in all eight dogs from 30 s to 4 min. After nitroglycerin administration, the conductance at 30 s increased from the prenitroglycerin control value to 0.014 {+-} 0.012 ml{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}{center dot}g{sup {minus}1}{center dot}mmHg{sup {minus}1}. The mean change in conductance from 30 s to 4 min postnitroglycerin was significantly less than during prenitroglycerin. These data indicate that an increase in conductance during coronary occlusion occurs even in the immature collateral circulation. This effect presumably takes place in the arterial smooth muscle at the origin of the collateral vasculature.

Brazzamano, S.; Rembert, J.C.; Greenfield, J.C. Jr. (Duke Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))



"I'm Just a'-Walking the Dog" correlates of regular dog walking.  


Intrapersonal and environmental factors associated with dog walking (N = 483) were examined. A greater proportion of regular (80%) than irregular (59%) dog walkers met the recommended 150 minutes of physical activity per week. Owners who perceived greater social support and motivation from their dogs to walk, and who had access to a dog-supportive park within their neighborhood, were more likely to regularly walk with their dogs, even after adjustment for other well-known correlates of physical activity. The higher level of physical activity of regular dog walkers can be attributed to the additional walking these owners perform with their dogs. PMID:20010004

Christian nee Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew


Scavenging by mammalian carnivores on prairie dog colonies: implications for the spread of plague.  


Plague causes mass mortality of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in shortgrass steppe. Although the pathogen, the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is spread within colonies by flea bites or contact between infected hosts, it is unclear how Y. pestis is transported over long distances between isolated colonies. One possibility is that wideranging, plague-resistant mammalian carnivores pick up fleas when scavenging prairie dog carcasses. Using guinea pigs as surrogates for prairie dogs, we compared how quickly scavengers discovered carcasses on active prairie dog colonies, on colonies recently extirpated by plague, and in grasslands without prairie dogs. In June-July 2007, we monitored the fates of 20 guinea pig carcasses for 4 consecutive days on each site type. Ten carcasses were placed in wire exclosures that restricted access only to arthropods and small rodents; the other 10 were exposed to all scavengers. Scavengers were identified by tracks, evidence of consumption, and/or remote cameras. Carnivores discovered carcasses more quickly on active and plague colonies (mean +/- 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6 +/- 0.7, 1.4 +/- 1.4 days, respectively) than on grasslands (3.1 +/- 0.7 days). By the end of the trials, all (100%) exposed carcasses were removed from active colonies, whereas 60% were removed from plague colonies and 30% were removed from grasslands. Rates of carcass discovery and removal on active colonies were significantly greater than in grasslands, which mirrored differences in carnivore activity recorded during earlier scat surveys. A small fraction (30%-40%) of carcasses in exclosures were eaten by rodents, but only on active and plague colonies, suggesting that small rodents, presumably grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster), may also consume carcasses and pick up fleas if carcasses are not removed by carnivores first. These results, combined with observations that fleas remain alive on prairie dogs at least 1 day following their death, suggest that carnivores may encounter infectious fleas while scavenging, and they could transport them over long distances. PMID:18945188

Boone, Amanda; Kraft, John P; Stapp, Paul




PubMed Central

Fourteen dogs, fed a regular diet and given 250 mg/kg of triton (a non-ionic surface-active agent) intravenously every 4th day, exhibited a progressively severe hyperlipemia. Serum triglycerides were the first to increase. Cholesterol, mostly in the free form, and phospholipids showed elevation only at a later stage and increased at almost identical rates. The plasma-free fatty acid concentration was from 2 to 3 times above normal. With establishment of sustained hyperlipemia, there was reduction, followed by total disappearance, of the high density D 1.063 to 1.21 lipoprotein. Most of the cholesterol and phospholipids (70 to 75 per cent of the total) were found in the D 1.006 to 1.063 lipoprotein class, the remainder in the D < 1.006 class. Triglycerides were almost evenly distributed between these two classes. The concentration of the serum lipoprotein proteins was within normal limits. All of the animals died within from 4 to 5 months after receiving the first injection of triton. Autopsy findings consistently showed: (a) numerous lipidladen macrophages in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes; (b) significant depletion of all fat stores; (c) presence of lipids, either free or engulfed in macrophages (foam cells), in the subintima of the coronary arteries, aorta, and pulmonary arteries, indicating an early stage of atherosclerosis. Concurrent daily administration of heparin (5 mg per kilogram of body weight) did not substantially change the course of the disease. Withdrawal of triton from animals that had been receiving the detergent for from 3 to 4 months, elicited a slow return to normal of the lipid pattern. In two dogs killed when normolipemia was reestablished, all tissues were normal with the minor exception of a few hepatic macrophages still laden with sudanophilic material. It is postulated that the primary action of the injected triton was on the lipid moieties of plasma lipoproteins with formation of complexes, which, as foreign bodies, were preferentially taken up by the cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Depletion of fat stores was probably secondary to increased lipid mobilization, as an attempt by these tissues to supply energy to the parenchymal cells unable to utilize triton-bound lipids.

Scanu, Angelo; Oriente, Pasquale; Szajewski, Janusz M.; McCormack, Lawrence J.; Page, Irvine H.



Livestock Guarding Dogs: Protecting Sheep from Predators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A livestock guarding dog is one that generally stays with sheep without harming them and aggressively repels predators. The dog chooses to remain with sheep because it has been reared from puppyhood with them. Its protective behaviors are largely instinct...



Evaluating the effect of intraoperative peritoneal lavage on bacterial culture in dogs with suspected septic peritonitis  

PubMed Central

This pilot study describes the effect of intraoperative peritoneal lavage (IOPL) on bacterial counts and outcome in clinical cases of septic peritonitis. Intraoperative samples were cultured before and after IOPL. Thirty-three dogs with presumed septic peritonitis on the basis of cytology were managed surgically during the study period. Positive pre-lavage bacterial cultures were found in 14 cases, 13 of which were a result of intestinal leakage. The post-lavage cultures showed fewer isolates in 9 cases and in 1 case became negative. The number of dogs with a decrease in the concentration of bacteria cultured from pre-lavage to post-lavage samples was not statistically significant. There was no significant effect of the change in pre- to post-lavage culture, single versus multiple types of bacteria, selection of an appropriate empiric antimicrobial on survival or the need for subsequent surgery.

Swayne, Seanna L.; Brisson, Brigitte; Weese, J. Scott; Sears, William



Dark spots in late-phase indocyanine green angiographic studies in a patient with presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

·   Purpose: We analyzed indocyanine green (ICG) angiograms in a patient with presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS)\\u000a complaining about “seeing spots” and decreased visual acuity in order to identify the pathologic process. · Patients and methods:\\u000a A 30-year-old caucasian man with clinical signs of POHS who had previously undergone laser photocoagulation for secondary\\u000a choroidal neovascularization developed visual disturbances primarily in

Andreas W. A. Weinberger; Thomas Kube; S. Wolf



Morbidity of purebred dogs in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalences of diseases in purebred dogs are reported from a questionnaire study among members of the Danish Kennel Club (DKC) in 1997. The 4295 dogs in the study represented 24 breeds and 16 breed groups. Sixty percent of the dogs had at least one disease-event during their lifetime with a median of 2 and a maximum of 11. Diseases of

Helle Friis Proschowsky; Helene Rugbjerg; Annette Kjćr Ersbřll



Idiopathic facial paralysis in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial nerve paralysis of acute onset is reported in seven mature dogs, five of which were cocker spaniels. The clinical signs were characterised by ear drooping, lip commissural paralysis, sialosis, and collection of food on the paralysed side of the mouth. All dogs showed absent menace responses and trigeminofacial\\/acousticofacial reflexes. Horner's syndrome was not present in any dog. In four

KG Braund; PJ Luttgen; DC Sorjonen; RW Redding



Tracheal allotransplantation in beagle dogs without immunosuppressants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The antigenicity of tracheal grafts is still unclear. We investigated the possibility of performing tracheal allotransplantation without immunosuppressants.Methods. Intrathoracic five-ring tracheal replacements were performed in beagle dogs without immunosuppressants (n = 18). The dogs were divided into 9 pairs, and grafts were exchanged within the pairs. In group 1 (n = 6), the paired dogs were blood relatives, whereas

Yu Liu; Tatsuo Nakamura; Yasuhiko Shimizu; Hiroki Ueda; Makoto Yoshitani; Toshinari Toba; Seijun Fukuda



Describing the ideal Australian companion dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs have had a long association with humans and are believed to be the first domesticated animal species. Many breeds of dog exist today which vary considerably in physical appearance and temperament. These differences have arisen primarily from selective pressures imposed by humans to create dogs suitable for various working roles. Nowadays, however, few breeds undertake the work they were

Tammie King; Linda C. Marston; Pauleen C. Bennett



Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine detection dogs have been found to be an effective method to locate buried landmines. The capabilities of the canine olfaction method are from a complex combination of training and inherent capacity of the dog for odor detection. The purpose of this effort was to explore the detection thresholds of a limited group of dogs that were trained specifically for

James M. Phelan; James L. Barnett



Barking in family dogs: An ethological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is one of the most conspicuous features of dog behaviour, barking has received little attention from ethologists or from an applied perspective. In this review, an ethological look is taken at the communicative aspect of dog barking. Emerging new research has indicated that in the repertoire of dog vocalisations barking has unique features in showing wide ranges of

Péter Pongrácz; Csaba Molnár; Ádám Miklósi



The origin of the dog revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most widely accepted hypothesis of the origin of the dog, Canis familiaris, is that the dog is a domesticated gray wolf, Canis lupus. This paper reviews the evidence for this conclusion, finds many unanswered questions and conceptual gaps in the wolf origin hypothesis, and explores the alternative hypothesis that the most likely ancestor of the domestic dog was a

Janice Koler-Matznick



Rehabilitation and conditioning of sporting dogs.  


Owners and trainers exercise sporting dogs to increase their fitness and optimize their conditioning and performance. Training is designed to in-crease strength, endurance, and agility and is sport-specific. Sporting dogs are susceptible to specific musculoskeletal injuries. The rehabilitation of sporting dogs after these injuries follows specific principles during the acute, subacute, and reconditioning periods. PMID:16260320

Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Levine, David; Taylor, Robert



Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs  


... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...


Benefits of Assistance Dogs: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective: To review outcome research concerning placement of trained assistance dogs (ADs), focusing primarily on service dogs for people with mobility impairments and hearing dogs for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. Design: The authors place the relatively small body of literature on ADs in the context of relevant research on the benefits of human-animal contact and

Natalie Sachs-Ericsson; Nancy K. Hansen; Shirley Fitzgerald



Do Dogs (Canis familiaris) Understand Invisible Displacement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) perform above chance on invisible displacement tasks despite showing few other signs of possessing the necessary representational abilities. Four experiments investigated how dogs find an object that has been hidden in 1 of 3 opaque boxes. Dogs passed the task under a variety of control conditions, but only if the device used to displace the object

Emma Collier-Baker; Joanne M. Davis; Thomas Suddendorf



Cephalic index and perceived dog trainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

People rank breeds of dogs for trainability despite a lack of evidence of breed differences in underlying behaviour. Instead of using behavioural information, people may use dog morphology to determine the trainability of breeds. Dogs are categorized as dolichocephalic, mesocephalic, or brachycephalic based on cephalic index, a ratio between skull width and length. Dolichocephalic breeds are anatomically more specialized for

William S. Helton



Ceroid-lipofuscinosis in Border Collie dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five Border Collie dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis developed progressive neurological disease between 18 and 22 months of age. These dogs had behavioural abnormalities, gait and visual deficits and became progressively demented. All dogs examined had common ancestors. Light microscopic examination of tissues demonstrated extensive accumulation of granular, sudan black-staining autofluorescent material in the cytoplasm of neurones, retinal ganglion cells and some

R. M. Taylor; B. R. H. Farrow



Safety of selamectin in dogs.  


Selamectin is a broad-spectrum avermectin endectocide for treatment and control of canine parasites. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the clinical safety of selamectin for topical use in dogs 6 weeks of age and older, including breeding animals, avermectin-sensitive Collies, and heartworm-positive animals. The margin of safety was evaluated in Beagles, which were 6 weeks old at study initiation. Reproductive, heartworm-positive, and oral safety studies were conducted in mature Beagles. Safety in Collies was evaluated in avermectin-sensitive, adult rough-coated Collies. Studies were designed to measure the safety of selamectin at the recommended dosage range of 6-12mgkg(-1) of body weight. Endpoints included clinical examinations, clinical pathology, gross and microscopic pathology, and reproductive indices. Selected variables in the margin of safety and reproductive safety studies were subjected to statistical analyses. Pups received large doses of selamectin at the beginning of the margin of safety study when they were 6 weeks of age and at their lowest body weight, yet displayed no clinical or pathologic evidence of toxicosis. Similarly, selamectin had no adverse effects on reproduction in adult male and female dogs. There were no adverse effects in avermectin-sensitive Collies or in heartworm-positive dogs. Oral administration of the topical formulation caused no adverse effects. Selamectin is safe for topical use on dogs at the recommended minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1) (6-12mgkg(-1)) monthly starting at 6 weeks of age, and including dogs of reproducing age, avermectin-sensitive Collies, and heartworm-positive dogs. PMID:10940536

Novotny, M J; Krautmann, M J; Ehrhart, J C; Godin, C S; Evans, E I; McCall, J W; Sun, F; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D



Dog ecology and demography in Antananarivo, 2007  

PubMed Central

Background Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and a serious public health problem in developing countries. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. This paper reports the results of a cross-sectional study of dog ecology in the Antananarivo urban community in Madagascar. A questionnaire survey of 1541 households was conducted in Antananarivo from October 2007 to January 2008. The study addressed both owned and unowned dogs. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size of dog population, relationship between dogs and humans, rabies vaccination. Results Dog ownership was common, with 79.6 to 94.1% (mean 88.9%) of households in the six arrondissements owning dogs. The mean owned dog to person ratio was 1 dog per 4.5 persons and differed between arrondissements (administrative districts), with ratios of 1:6.0 in the first arrondissement, 1:3.2 persons in the 2nd, 1:4.8 in the 3rd, 1:5.2 in the 4th, 1:5.6 in the 5th and 1:4.4 in the 6th arrondissement. Overall, there were more male dogs (61.3%) and the male/female sex ratio was estimated to be 1.52; however, mature females were more likely than males to be unowned (OR: 1.93, CI 95%; 1.39dogs were never restricted and roamed freely to forage for food and mix with other dogs. Only a small proportion of dogs (11.7%) were fed with commercial dog food. Only 7.2% of owned dogs had certificates confirming vaccination against rabies. The proportion of vaccinated dogs varied widely between arrondissements (3.3% to 17.5%). Conclusion Antananarivo has a higher density of dogs than many other urban areas in Africa. The dog population is unrestricted and inadequately vaccinated against rabies. This analysis of the dog population will enable targeted planning of rabies control efforts.

Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Rasambainarivo, Jhon H; Raharimanana, Soloherilala; Rakotonandrasana, Hary; Andriamiarisoa, Marie-Perle; Rakalomanana, Fidilalao A; Richard, Vincent



Cephalic index and perceived dog trainability.  


People rank breeds of dogs for trainability despite a lack of evidence of breed differences in underlying behaviour. Instead of using behavioural information, people may use dog morphology to determine the trainability of breeds. Dogs are categorized as dolichocephalic, mesocephalic, or brachycephalic based on cephalic index, a ratio between skull width and length. Dolichocephalic breeds are anatomically more specialized for running and brachycephalic breeds are more specialized for fighting. Dog breeds rated as highly trainable are instead mesocephalic, morphological generalists. Looking trainable in dogs may reflect differences in physical morphology. PMID:19683035

Helton, William S



Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs and raccoon dogs in Korea  

PubMed Central

Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in cattle, and dogs are its only known definitive host. Its seroprevalence among domestic urban and rural dogs and feral raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) in Korea was studied by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and by the neospora agglutination test (NAT), respectively. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 8.3% of urban dogs and in 21.6% of dogs at dairy farms. Antibody titers ranged from 1:50 to 1:400. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in six (23%) of 26 raccoon dogs. However, the potential role of raccoon dogs as a source of horizontal transmission of bovine neosporosis needs further investigation. The results of this study suggest that there is a close relationship between N. caninum infection among dairy farm dogs and cattle in Korea. This study reports for the first time upon the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in raccoon dogs in Korea.

Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Min-Soo; Lee, Byung-Chun; Hwang, Woo-Suk; Lee, Chang-Woo; So, Byung-Jae; Dubey, J. P.



Sialography in dog: normal appearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomy of dog salivary glands was studied on cadaver heads. The mandibular duct enters the oral cavity on the sublingual caruncle. The parotid gland duct enters the oral cavity on the cheek opposite the 4 th upper premolar tooth. The zygomatic salivary gland duct enters the oral cavity opposite the first upper molar tooth. Prior to applying sialography to

Mina Tadjalli; Seifollah Nazhvani Dehghani



Bartonella DNA in Dog Saliva  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species, transmitted by arthropods or animal bites and scratches, are emerging pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to test oral swabs collected from dogs. Results indicated the presence of 4 Bartonella species: B. bovis, B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii.

Duncan, Ashlee W.; Maggi, Ricardo G.



Bartonella DNA in dog saliva.  


Bartonella species, transmitted by arthropods or animal bites and scratches, are emerging pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to test oral swabs collected from dogs. Results indicated the presence of 4 Bartonella species: B. bovis, B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii. PMID:18258056

Duncan, Ashlee W; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B



Lead intoxication in urban dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pet animals share man's urban environment, dwelling even in his home, and are thus exposed to the same ecologic hazards. The study of lead poisoning and other toxicologic diseases in dogs and other pets may afford valuable insight into human environmental health problems. The purpose of this report is to summarize data gathered from a large number of accidentally lead-poisoned

B C. Zook



Hemorrhagic shock in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Oxygen consumption, hemodynamics, and regional blood flow (with the radioactive microspheres technique) were determined in 12 anesthetized dogs subjected to hemorrhagic shock. The animals were kept in hypotension at 40 mm Hg, until 15% of the maximum shed blood had been infused to keep arterial pressure stable, whereafter all the shed blood was retransfused. Cardiac output (CO) decreased to

M. H. Schoenberg; C. Lundberg; B. Gerdin; G. Smedegĺrd; K. Messmer; K.-E. Arfors



Innervation of dog ciliary ganglion  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are species differences with regard to the composition of the ciliary ganglion. For instance, in rabbits and cats it consists solely of oculomotor nerves and has no sympathetic or sensory innervation. The purpose of this study is to clarify the participation of these nerves in the ciliary ganglion of the dog by histochemical methods. Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was studied

H. Hara; S. Kobayashi; K. Sugita; S. Tsukahara



Irrational fears in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using as criteria of fear reactions a turning away, crouching, or running, 26 home-reared dogs were tested with various stationary objects and objects with moving parts, including toy lizards, skulls, soap bubbles, etc. Avoidance responses were most frequent to objects with moving parts. Learning was found to play an important role.

Ronald Melzack



Cricopharyngeal achalasia in a dog  

PubMed Central

A 4-month-old, female terrier-poodle cross was presented with a chronic history of dysphagia. Fluoroscopic swallowing studies localized the problem to the upper esophageal sphincter. A diagnosis of cricopharyngeal achalasia was made. After cricopharyngeal and thyropharyngeal myectomy, the dog was able to eat soft food without difficulty.

Pfeifer, Renate M.



Lessons from a Dog Musher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the analogy of an Alaskan Iditarod dog-mushing team, this article will identify how the critical elements of motivation, understanding, synergy, and hunger underscore the vital role motivation plays in the delivery of quality care and positive outcomes. Whether it is in the thorough completion of a care assessment at intake or discharge or the education of a patient, all

Jeannie Whitman



Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macadamia nuts are cultivated in the United States from Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla trees commonly found in Hawaii. The commercially produced nuts are popular as party treats and as ingredients in cookies and candies. Each year, the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) receives calls concerning dogs consuming varying amounts of macadamia nuts (see boxed text). These relatively infrequent

Steven R. Hansen


An Anesthetized Dog Heatstroke Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was undertaken to develop an anesthetized dog heatstroke model. Forty-six animals were anesthetized with Sodium pentobarbital (25 mg/kg) intravenously, and maintained at an ambient temperature of 42-46 C with a water heating blanket over 2.5 to...

G. Bynum J. Patton W. Bowers J. Brown D. Wolfe



Genetic relationship between Kangal, Akbash and other dog populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kangal and Akbash dogs are the two well-known shepherd dog breeds in Turkey. In order to contribute to the understanding of the genetic relationship between Kangal dogs, Akbash dogs and the dogs from different regions of Eurasia, 585 base pair (bp) segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced from Kangals and Akbashes. Sequences of the Kangal and Akbash

Evren Koban; Çigdem Gökçek Saraç; Sinan Can Açan; Peter Savolainen; Inci Togan



4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts GOVERNMENT...AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs,...



4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts GOVERNMENT...AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs,...



Aggressive conflicts amongst dogs and factors affecting them  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over one year, 206 dog owners were questioned in a veterinary clinic. The survey included two groups: 151 owners who visited the clinic because of an injury to their dog caused by another dog and 55 people who owned dogs that caused injuries to others. The questioning served to compare aggressors and victims of dog fights. The form contained 43

A. Roll; J. Unshelm



Influenza Virus Transmission from Horses to Dogs, Australia  

PubMed Central

During the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, respiratory disease in dogs in close contact with infected horses was noted; influenza (H3N8) virus infection was confirmed. Nucleotide sequence of the virus from dogs was identical to that from horses. No evidence of dog-to-dog transmission or virus persistence in dogs was found.

Finlaison, Deborah S.; Crispe, Ellie; Hurt, Aeron C.



Coaxial biopsy during percutaneous vertebroplasty in patients with presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: retrospective review of biopsy results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study retrospectively analysed the results of biopsies obtained during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in patients\\u000a with presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, with a view to highlighting the importance of coaxial biopsy in\\u000a determining the aetiology of vertebral fractures and planning subsequent treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Between November 2003 and March 2009, 98 patients (78 women; 20 men) with a clinical and

C. Venturi; S. Barbero; C. Tappero; V. Ciccone; F. Mastrogiacomo; L. Molinaro; G. Gandini



Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma or both.  


In veterinary medicine, Staphylococcus schleiferi was previously assumed to be an inhabitant of carnivore skin, however, more recently, it has been repeatedly documented in the literature as both an inhabitant and as a pathogen. In order to determine the frequency of nasal carriage, and the methicillin susceptibility pattern of S. schleiferi from healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and/or pyoderma, a prospective study including 24 dogs with healthy ears and skin, 27 dogs with healthy ears and pyoderma, 15 dogs with otitis without pyoderma and 20 dogs with both otitis and pyoderma was performed. Specimens were obtained and cultured and isolates were identified as S. schleiferi based on growth and biochemical characteristics. S. schleiferi was isolated from the nares of 1 healthy dog, 3 dogs with recurrent pyoderma, 2 dogs with recurrent otitis, and 1 dog with both recurrent otitis and pyoderma. One of the S. schleiferi isolates was methicillin resistant. Nasal carriage of S. schleiferi does occur in healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and pyoderma. Methicillin resistant and sensitive S. schleiferi can be found in the nares of dogs with diseased ears and skin. PMID:22771206

May, Elizabeth R; Kinyon, Joann M; Noxon, James O



Pharyngeal mucoceles in dogs: 14 cases.  


This report describes the clinical features of a series of dogs with pharyngeal salivary mucoceles. A retrospective study of 14 dogs with pharyngeal mucocele was performed. Medical records from 1983 to 2003 were reviewed for information regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnosis, surgical procedures, and short-term and long-term outcome. Miniature and toy poodles were common breeds in the study population, and 79% of the dogs were male. The most common presenting sign was dyspnea (50%). Diagnosis was by fine-needle aspirate, which revealed a mucoid substance in 93% of dogs. Histopathology of the excised salivary glands revealed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation in all dogs that had histopathology performed. Forty-three percent of the dogs had a cervical mucocele on the same side as the pharyngeal mucocele. Surgical therapy was performed in 13 dogs, which consisted of excision of the mandibular and sublingual salivary glands, excision of the mucocele, or marsupulization of the mucocele. Only two dogs had recurrence of the pharyngeal mucocele. In this study, pharyngeal mucoceles occurred in predominantly small dogs that frequently presented with respiratory signs. Surgical treatment was successful in most dogs. PMID:22186721

Benjamino, Kevin P; Birchard, Stephen J; Niles, Jacqui D; Penrod, Kimberly D



Prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs.  


To investigate the role of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the pathogenesis of pyoderma, isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs were analyzed. According to reverse passive latex agglutination, 14/184 isolates (7.6%) from dogs with pyoderma and 9/87 (10.3%) from healthy dogs produced SEs (SEA, SEC or SED). According to multiplex PCR, 99 isolates (53.7%) from dogs with pyoderma and 97 (90.8%) from healthy dogs possessed one or more se genes. There was no significant difference regarding ses between dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs. Therefore, SEs may not be a direct virulence factor in pyoderma. PMID:23659343

Tanabe, Taishi; Toyoguchi, Midori; Hirano, Fumitaka; Chiba, Mei; Onuma, Kenta; Sato, Hisaaki



Maximum oxygen consumption and catecholamines in thyroidectomized dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons have been made in 7 dogs between maximum oxygen consumption recorded before (N dogs) and after thyroidectomy (T dogs). The comparisons were performed under two conditions 1) during severe cold stress (C\\u000a

A. Therminarias; A. Lucas



Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can…

Carlson, Priscilla



Purification and characterization of liver catalase in acatalasemic beagle dog: comparison with normal dog liver catalase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalase from acatalasemic dog liver was purified to homogeneity and its properties were compared with those of normal dog liver catalase. The purified acatalasemic and normal dog liver catalases were found to have the same molecular weight (230,000 Da) and isoelectric point (pI: 6.0–6.2) and both enzymes contained four hematins per molecule. The catalytic activity of catalase from acatalasemic dog

Kouichi Nakamura; Misa Watanabe; Yukio Sasaki; Toshihiko Ikeda



Beware of the dog? An observational study of dog-related musculoskeletal injury in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although owning a dog confers numerous health benefits, dogs can cause falls resulting in musculoskeletal injury and fractures. We conducted a prospective observational study over a two-month period to investigate the incidence and epidemiology of dog-related musculoskeletal injury. All patients attending the Emergency Department, trauma ward or fracture clinic were asked whether their injury was caused by a dog. Thirty-seven

H. Willmott; N. Greenheld; R. Goddard


Multiple distinct malignancies in dogs: 53 cases.  


Despite the clinical recognition of multiple distinct types of neoplasia in individual dogs, a detailed description of such cases has not recently been published. Canine oncology cases that were diagnosed with multiple, confirmed, distinct malignancies were prospectively collected for analysis. Approximately 3% of 1722 dogs that were presented to the oncology service at the Colorado State University Veterinary Medical Center were diagnosed with multiple distinct primary tumors. No significant breed or sex predisposition was apparent. Dogs with mast cell tumor, malignant melanoma, and thyroid carcinoma were significantly overrepresented and thus more likely to be diagnosed with multiple tumor types. These findings emphasize the importance of thorough, whole-body evaluation for dogs presented with mast cell tumor, malignant melanoma, and thyroid carcinoma. Furthermore, because approximately 33% of dogs that were presented with thyroid tumors were found to have additional distinct tumors, complete staging is justified in all dogs presented with thyroid tumors. PMID:20045833

Rebhun, Robert B; Thamm, Douglas H


Spinal meningeal oligodendrogliomatosis in two boxer dogs.  


Two Boxer dogs developed progressive ataxia in association with a neoplastic infiltration of the spinal leptomeninges. In the first dog, the leptomeningeal neoplasm encompassed the entire cord and the ventral aspect of the brainstem and extended bilaterally into the piriform lobes. In the second, the neoplasm surrounded the C1-C3 segments of the spinal cord and the brainstem without involvement of the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. In both dogs, the neoplastic cells had variably distinct cell borders, clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, and a round to ovoid hyperchromatic nucleus. Neoplastic cells were immunopositive for Olig2 and doublecortin in both dogs and for vimentin in one dog but were immunonegative for glial fibrillary acidic protein, S-100, CD34, E-cadherin, cytokeratin, CD3, and CD20. The morphological and immunohistochemical features of the neoplastic cells were consistent with an oligodendrocyte lineage. This hitherto poorly recognized neoplasm in dogs is analogous to human leptomeningeal oligodendrogliomatosis. PMID:23381922

Kovi, R C; Wünschmann, A; Armién, A G; Hall, K; Carlson, T; Shivers, J; Oglesbee, M J



Spirocercosis-associated pyothorax in dogs.  


The records of five dogs diagnosed with spirocercosis-associated pyothorax were retrospectively reviewed. On admission, the most common clinical findings were weakness, anorexia, depression, dyspnoea and fever. All dogs had typical oesophageal Spirocerca lupi granulomas. Contrast thoracic radiography revealed contrast material leakage from the oesophagus into the pleural cavity in two dogs only. All dogs were medically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, repeated chest tube drainage and thoracic lavage, and four of the dogs were treated with doramectin. One dog was euthanased due to a concurrent non-related disease at the owners request while the remaining four survived. S. lupi infection should be included in the differential diagnoses of canine pyothorax in endemic areas. Conservative medical management of pyothorax with antihelmintic medication was shown to be effective in the treatment of S. lupi-associated pyothorax. PMID:16246607

Klainbart, Sigal; Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Auerbach, Neomi; Aizenberg, Itzhak; Bruchim, Yaron; Dank, Gillian; Lavy, Eran; Aroch, Itamar; Harrus, Shimon



[Docteur Emily, I presume ?].  


Dr Jules Emily, health corps doctor in the French Colonial Troops, is a prominent figure in the history of tropical medicine, even though no major discovery is attributed to him, nor any invention. He was however a privileged witness to a crucial episode of the colonial history of the continent of Africa, of which left a detailed description: the Marchand mission, and its great feat, the taking of Fachoda. Beyond this famous event, J. Emily's writings also illuminate the life of a colonial doctor at that time, a dense life, made up of discoveries and unceasing activities, filled by providing medical care for military personnel as well as for the populations administered by the colony. A life "in which a curious person, exercising initiative and practicing with passion his daily medical-tropical tasks, can have a beneficial role in improving the health of the people under his responsibility", as another colonial doctor, Dr Abbatucci, reported in 1927. PMID:23419318

Milleliri, J-M


"What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.|

Jalongo, Mary Renck



Dog Bite Rates and Biting Dog Breeds in Texas, 1995-1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Almost 5 million people a year are bitten by dogs in the United States. The majority of dog bites occur in children under 15, and approximately 18 deaths each year are dog-bite related. Numerous studies have provided statistics on the incidence rates of d...

D. E. Blocker



Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)|

Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko



Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective survey, researchers identified 100 incidents of attacks on guide dogs by other dogs. These were reviewed in order to determine the number, severity and impact on the handler and dog, and the characteristics of the aggressors and victims. During the study period there were more than three attacks reported each month, with 61 per cent of the

A. Brooks; R. Moxon; G. C. W. England



Dog handlers' and dogs' emotional and cortisol secretion responses associated with animal-assisted therapy sessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated 13 dog handlers and 18 companion dogs (Canis familiaris) working as teams in nonhuman animal-assisted service. The handlers described in questionnaires what emotions they chose to associate with their daily life and therapeutic work. They described their emotional condition before and after therapeutic sessions, giving analogous descriptions for their dogs. Handlers collected saliva samples from themselves and

D. K. Haubenhofer; S. Kirchengast



Clostridium difficile in faeces from healthy dogs and dogs with diarrhea  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to evaluate the faecal occurrence and characterization of Clostridium difficile in clinically healthy dogs (N?=?50) and in dogs with diarrhea (N?=?20) in the Stockholm-Uppsala region of Sweden. Findings Clostridium difficile was isolated from 2/50 healthy dogs and from 2/20 diarrheic dogs. Isolates from healthy dogs were negative for toxin A and B and for the tcdA and tcdB genes. Both isolates from diarrheic dogs were positive for toxin B and for the tcdA and tcdB genes. The C. difficile isolates from healthy dogs had PCR ribotype 009 (SE-type 6) and 010 (SE-type 3) whereas both isolates from dogs with diarrhoea had the toxigenic ribotype 014 (SE-type 21). One of the isolates from healthy dogs was initially resistant to metronidazole. Conclusions This study revealed presence of toxigenic C. difficile in faecal samples of diarrheic dogs and low number of non- toxigenic isolates in healthy dogs from Uppsala-Stockholm region in Sweden. However, more comprehensive studies are warranted to investigate the role of C. difficile in gastrointestinal disease in dogs.



Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs and raccoon dogs in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in cattle, and dogs are its only known definitive host. Its seroprevalence among domestic urban and rural dogs and feral raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) in Korea was studied by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and by the neospora agglutination test (NAT), respectively. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 8.3% of

Jae-Hoon Kim; Min-Soo Kang; Byung-Chun Lee; Woo-Suk Hwang; Chang-Woo Lee; Byung-Jae So; J. P. Dubey; Dae-Yong Kim



Perceptions of Guide Dog Users on Their Dogs’ Impact on Their Lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1929, dogs have been trained in the United States to guide the blind and visually impaired. While there are numerous testimonials and personal accounts on how dog guides change the individual lives of their blind handlers, there is a paucity of research on this topic. The intent of this study was to conduct a survey of dog guide users

Mei Ling Wong



Dog bites: how big a problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude of the dog bite problem in the US. METHODS: Data on dog bites were gathered as part of a 1994 national telephone survey of 5,238 randomly dialed households. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. RESULTS: The weighted total number of dog bites was 4,494,083 (estimated incidence = 18\\/1,000 population); of these, 756,701 persons sustained

J. J. Sacks; M. Kresnow; B. Houston



Autonomous navigation for BigDog  

Microsoft Academic Search

BigDog} is a four legged robot with exceptional rough-terrain mobility. In this paper, we equip {BigDog} with a laser scanner, stereo vision system, and perception and navigation algorithms. Using these sensors and algorithms, {BigDog} performs autonomous navigation to goal positions in unstructured forest environments. The robot perceives obstacles, such as trees, boulders, and ground features, and steers to avoid them

David Wooden; Matthew Malchano; Kevin Blankespoor; Andrew Howardy; Alfred A. Rizzi; Marc Raibert



[Clinical neosporosis in the dog: a review].  


Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that was first recognized in dogs in 1988. N. caninum may cause neuromuscular disease in dogs. Later, it was discovered that N. caninum has a wide host range and is an important cause of abortion in cattle. In this article, the literature on N. caninum in the dog is reviewed, with emphasis on clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:11060927

Kramer, A M; Wouda, W; Kooistra, H S



Spinal cord blood flow in dogs 1  

PubMed Central

The spinal cord blood flow has been measured in anaesthetized dogs using an inert radioactive gas (133Xenon) clearance technique. The 133Xe was placed in the cord by direct injection. This study has demonstrated that the flows obtained from the white matter are reproducible and that there is little variation in blood flow in the white matter between different thoracolumbar segments in the same dog. No difference was found in blood flow between dogs anaesthetized with halothane, trichlorethylene, or pentobarbitone.

Griffiths, Ian R.



Dog bites: Bacteriology, management, and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dog bites are among the most frequent causes of nonfatal injuries in the United States. Most dog bites involve children and\\u000a young adults. Infected wounds are polymicrobial in nature; the most prevalent organisms are Pasteurella, streptococci, staphylococci, and Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, and Porphyromonas species. Musculoskeletal and neurovascular injuries, as well as systemic infections, can be complications of dog-bite wounds.\\u000a Treatment includes

Fredrick M. Abrahamian



Some effects of sarcoptic mange on dogs.  


Sequential changes in pathology were examined for scabies-infested dogs to determine the effects of infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. During 8 wk of infestation with S. scabiei, the progression of the disease was evaluated weekly by skin scrape, clinical examination, and blood analyses. At 8 wk, selected organs were microscopically examined for histopathology. All infested dogs developed an advanced level of scabies infestation by 8 wk. Of the 36 blood parameters evaluated, only values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) deviated significantly from the normal ranges for dogs. However, infested dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) lower average hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations after 8 wk of infestation compared to their values prior to infestation or to the values for the control dogs. Red blood cell levels for infested dogs dropped significantly (P < 0.01) from preinfestation concentrations by week 8. Conversely, by 8 wk total white blood cell and neutrophil concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) greater than uninfested controls. Also, whereas average eosinophil concentrations were not statistically different for infested dogs compared to controls, some individual infested dogs exhibited eosinophilia at 4-8 wk of infestation. The ESRs for infested dogs were significantly (P < 0.01) greater at week 6 and 8 than for experimental dogs prior to infestation or control dogs. All parameters except neutrophils had returned to preinfestation levels by 2 wk after treatment for scabies. Neutrophil concentrations were no longer significantly different by 4 wk posttreatment. There were no significant differences in serum enzyme, biochemical and electrolyte concentrations between infested and control dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7472858

Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Rapp, C M; Vyszenski-Moher, D L



[Dangerous dogs: application of federal regulations].  


During the last years nearly in all provinces in Germany new, hotly debated rules were published in order to meet the threat dangerous dogs or so-called fighting dogs mean to animals and men. Comparing current regulations of different provinces two categories of rules can be identified: one considering particular breeds as extremely dangerous and the other defining and characterising the dangerous dog. The application of these regulations differs enormously in expenditure and procedure. Recent statistics of all registered dog-bites allow other conclusions than those which seemed to have been relevant for the elaboration of the existing legislation. This is particularly true for the breeds which are considered extremely dangerous. It seems to be more useful to use the expression dangerous dog in general. Routine application of the new regulations have, except from some cases, increased administrative input but have not improved the situation itself. Animals homes are complaining of more "fighting" dogs. The fact that it is extremely difficult to find a new owner for these dogs leads to additional animal health problems. Judgement and treatment of dogs presented to public authorities because of dog-biting has not become any easier and dogs causing severe injury are not even presented. The new regulations are not sufficiently preventive and do not really tackle the cause of the problem of dangerous dogs. The existing regulations were developed under a strong political pressure. Authorities are now calling into question the usefulness and purpose of the new legislation. In the past the problem of dangerous dogs was dealt with using general safety legislation and police regulations offering flexibility. Obviously there is an urgent need to identify countermeasures on a larger scale. PMID:10774066

Rossi-Broy, C



Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.  


Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention. PMID:23071828

Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah



Dogs' Social Referencing towards Owners and Strangers  

PubMed Central

Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.

Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah



Clifford the Big Red Dog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS Kids has companion sites for their programs that offer a number of activities for young users. This one features everyone's favorite enormous, bright-red pooch, Clifford. At Clifford's site, visitors can play a matching game, read a story, print a cut-out dog house, and print out pages to color. The site also offers some Clifford video clips. THe site is compact, easy to navigate, and well suited for their target audience.



Safety of selamectin in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selamectin is a broad-spectrum avermectin endectocide for treatment and control of canine parasites. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the clinical safety of selamectin for topical use in dogs 6 weeks of age and older, including breeding animals, avermectin-sensitive Collies, and heartworm-positive animals. The margin of safety was evaluated in Beagles, which were 6 weeks old at study

M. J Novotny; M. J Krautmann; J. C Ehrhart; C. S Godin; E. I Evans; J. W McCall; F Sun; T. G Rowan; A. D Jernigan



Dynamic gearing in running dogs.  


Dynamic gearing is a mechanism that has been suggested to enhance the performance of skeletal muscles by maintaining them at the shortening velocities that maximize their power or efficiency. We investigated this hypothesis in three domestic dogs during trotting and galloping. We used ground force recordings and kinematic analysis to calculate the changes in gear ratio that occur during the production of the external work of locomotion. We also monitored length changes of the vastus lateralis muscle, an extensor muscle of the knee, using sonomicrometry in four additional dogs to determine the nature and rate of active shortening of this muscle. During both trotting and galloping, the gear ratios of the extensor muscles of the elbow, wrist and ankle joints were relatively constant early in limb support, but decreased rapidly during the second half of support. The gear ratio at the hip exerted an extensor moment initially, but decreased throughout limb support and became negative midway through support. This pattern of decreasing gear ratio during the second half of support indicates that dynamic gearing does not maximize muscle power or efficiency at the elbow, wrist, hip and ankle joints. In contrast, the extensor muscles of the shoulder and knee joints exhibited an increase in gear ratio during limb support. In two dogs, the vastus lateralis muscle shortened at a relatively constant rate of 3.7-4 lengths s-1 during intermediate-speed galloping. This pattern of increasing gear ratio and constant velocity of muscle shortening at the knee joint is consistent with the hypothesis of dynamic gearing. Given the amount of work done at the knee and shoulder joints of running dogs, dynamic gearing may contribute to the economy of constant-speed running and may be important to integrated limb function. PMID:9808832

Carrier, D R; Gregersen, C S; Silverton, N A



Systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis-like syndrome in a steer presumed to be persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.  


Unusual proliferative intravascular lesions were seen in multiple organs of a 2-year-old Corriente steer presumed to be persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), based on widespread immunohistochemical detection of BVDV antigen. Proliferations of spindle cells, which were immunohistochemically positive for von Willebrand factor-related antigen, partially-to-completely occluded vessel lumens and were supported by cells that were immunohistochemically positive for smooth muscle actin. Distribution and character of the intraluminal proliferations are strikingly similar to those described in feline systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis, a rare entity of unknown cause. The presence of occasional intravascular thrombi suggests that the proliferative vasculopathy was associated with an underlying thrombotic process with immunohistochemical similarities to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura of humans. Death of the steer was due to hemorrhage from a castration wound, which may indicate thrombocytopenia or platelet dysfunction. The role of persistent BVDV infection in the formation of the intravascular lesions is unknown. PMID:18725468

Breshears, M A; Johnson, B J



Community-based HIV prevention in presumably underserved populations--Colorado Springs, Colorado, July-September 1995.  


Persons whose behaviors may increase their risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but who may be underserved by existing HIV prevention and testing programs (in part because of limited access) include those who are homeless, chemically dependent but not in treatment, and mentally ill. To assess the prevalence of high-risk behaviors for HIV infection, the acceptance of HIV counseling and testing, and HIV seropositivity in such populations in Colorado Spring, Colorado (1995 population: 465,885), the El Paso County Department of Health and Environment (EPCDHE) conducted a study during July-September 1995. This report summarizes the results of the study, which indicate that such presumably underserved persons are accessible, commonly report high-risk behaviors and previously have been tested for HIV infection and that social isolation, in part, accounted for the low seroprevalence of HIV in this study population. PMID:9072674



Self-induced seizures presumably by peri-orbital somatosensory self-stimulation: a report of two cases.  


Self-induced seizures by somatosensory stimulation are rare. We describe two epileptic patients with self-induced seizures presumably by peri-orbital somatosensory stimulation. Two infants with severely delayed psychomotor development and poor visual acuity after acute subdural hemorrhage in early infancy had been diagnosed as having West syndrome. They evolutionally became to show serial self-induced seizures preceded by rubbing eye with finger in one case and touching right eyebrow with the back of left hand in the other case. Video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring was useful to confirm self-induced seizure by peri-orbital self-stimulation. In patients with serial seizures preceded by peculiar behaviors, we need to consider the possibility of self-induced seizures, even if they have a history of West syndrome and severe psychomotor retardation. PMID:22154490

Takayama, Rumiko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Mogami, Yukiko; Ikegami, Mariko; Mukaida, Souichi; Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Yushi



Mitochondrial profiling of dog hairs.  


In order to make greater use of dog hairs as forensic evidence, we have developed a robust method for duplex amplification of adjacent 306 and 332bp amplicons within the 5' hypervariable region (5' HVR) of the canine mitochondrial control region. In support of this, a 595bp region covering 35 polymorphic sites has been sequenced from the blood of 105 UK dogs. In total, 30 different haplotypes were observed, 13 only once whilst the commonest was seen 14 times; the overall exclusion capacity is 0.929. One animal was heteroplasmic in blood for a single base deletion and showed phenotypes ranging from near complete deletion to a predominance of the base among a sample of 12 hairs. In contrast, no evidence of heteroplasmy was seen in single hairs from 20 dogs which were not visibly heteroplasmic in blood. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons with other published databases highlighted instances of possible recurrent mutation which may be relevant when interpreting single base differences between samples. PMID:12787657

Wetton, Jon H; Higgs, Jenny E; Spriggs, Adrian C; Roney, Chris A; Tsang, Carol S F; Foster, Aiden P



[Arthropod-borne parasites of dogs, especially Leishmania, in the Kosovo and Albania].  


Currently no information is available regarding canine arthropod-borne parasites in Albania and the Kosovo, especially the zoonotic protozoan Leishmania infantum. Presumably autochtonous cases of human leishmaniosis have been described for some areas (Kosovo: Ferizaj, Gjakovo, Pec, Malisevo; Albania: Tirana, Durres, Elbasan, Shkodra, Vlore). In order to investigate the infection status of dogs of different origin sera from 272 animals (151 from Albania - Tirana, Kamza and Durres; 121 from the Kosovo - Gjakovo, Ferizaj and Prishtina) were obtained. Corresponding blood samples were available from 36 Albanian stray dogs. Antibody titres were determined by Indirect Immunofluorescence Test against L. infantum and Babesia canis. Antigens of Dirofilaria immitis were determined using the DiroCheck-Test. Blood samples were tested for L. infantum, B. canis, Hepatozoon canis, D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific antibodies against Babesia were found in 7.3% of the animals, against Leishmania in 3.3% and 7.0% were positive for D. immitis antigen. DNA of Babesia, Leishmania or D. repens was detected in 11.1%, respectively. H. canis was found in 52.8% of the blood samples. D. immitis DNA was not detected. Since the Babesia- and Leishmania-PCR-positive animals were all serologically negative it can be assumed that infections were acquired only recently. All Leishmania-positive animals were stray dogs. These animals contribute to the maintenance of Leishmania transmission in endemic areas, and a control of the canine stray population should be considered. PMID:19066774

Lazri, Tune; Duscher, Georg; Edelhofer, Renate; Bytyci, Burim; Gjino, Paskal; Joachim, Anja



Vicious dogs: the antisocial behaviors and psychological characteristics of owners.  


Each year, 4.7 million people are bitten by dogs. Of those bitten each year, 386,000 are seriously injured and some killed. Consequently, many insurance companies refuse to issue homeowners insurance to owners of specific breeds of dogs considered "vicious" or high risk of causing injury. This study examined whether vicious dog owners were different on antisocial behaviors and personality dimensions. A total of 869 college students completed an anonymous online questionnaire assessing type of dog owned, criminal behaviors, attitudes towards animal abuse, psychopathy, and personality. The sample was divided into four groups: vicious dog owners, large dog owners, small dog owners, and controls. Findings revealed vicious dog owners reported significantly more criminal behaviors than other dog owners. Vicious dog owners were higher in sensation seeking and primary psychopathy. Study results suggest that vicious dog ownership may be a simple marker of broader social deviance. PMID:19302402

Ragatz, Laurie; Fremouw, William; Thomas, Tracy; McCoy, Katrina



Mixed-Breed Dogs Increasing in Popularity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To the average person words such as cockapoo, yorkipoo, and dorgi may seem inappropriate for polite conversation, but in actuality they are the names of mixed-breed dogs. Previously, many of these mixed-breed dogs (formerly referred to as mutts), would have been of little interest. But in recent years more and more people have become entranced with having these animals as household pets. The labradoodle, for example, was originally bred in Australia in the 1970s, and was used as a guide dog for allergy sufferers. These dogs are not at all cheap however, as some of these labradoodles can cost up to $4000. Another interesting development is that the labradoodle may become eligible for American Kennel Club recognition if there are at least 300 of them in at least 20 states with three substantiated generations of labradoodle to labradoodle mixing. Some dog experts are also touting the merits of these new mixes, claiming that the are in fact healthier than purebreds. Other experts in the field remain skeptical, such as Allan Reznik, editor-in-chief of Dog Fancy and Dog World magazines, who opined thusly: "It's indicative of a society that loves labels. Having a dog that is part spaniel and part poodle isn't enough -- it has to be a cockapoo."The first link leads to a news story from that documents this latest trend in designer dogs, along with a nice table that deciphers what the names of these mixed-breeds mean exactly. The second link leads to another story about these new hybrid dogs from the National Geographic website, authored by Bijal P. Trivedi. The third link will take visitors to the homepage of the American Kennel Club, where they may read about various purebred dogs, browse a calendar of related events, and learn about the upcoming national dog championship event sponsored by the Club that will take place in Long Beach, California. The fourth link leads to a page devoted to the Schnoodle (a cross between a poodle and a schnauzer) provided by the Dog Breeder Info Center website. The fifth link leads to a site created by Catherine N. Ball (an adjunct professor of linguistics at Georgetown University) that offers a list of the words for the sounds that dogs make in several dozen languages, including Croatian, Esperanto, and Bengali. The final link leads to a fun site that allows visitors to engage in a virtual dog simulation game where they can prepare their animals to compete in the show ring.


Dog bite risk: an assessment of child temperament and child-dog interactions.  


Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children's interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.5-6 years interacted with a live dog. Dog and child behaviors were assessed through observational coding. Four child temperament constructs-impulsivity, inhibitory control, approach and shyness-were assessed via the parent-report Children's Behavioral Questionnaire. Less shy children took greater risks with the dog, even after controlling for child and dog characteristics. No other temperament traits were associated with risk-taking with the dog. Based on these results, children's behavior with unfamiliar dogs may parallel behavior with other novel or uncertain situations. Implications for dog bite intervention programs include targeting at-risk children and merging child- and parent-oriented interventions with existing programs geared toward the physical environment and the dog. PMID:23066411

Davis, Aaron L; Schwebel, David C; Morrongiello, Barbara A; Stewart, Julia; Bell, Melissa



Care of dogs and attitudes of dog owners in Port-au-Prince, the Republic of Haiti.  


This article reports the first known study on dogs in Port-au-Prince. Interviews with 1,290 residents provided information on 1,804 dogs. More than 57.7% of homes kept dogs. Not all the dogs received vaccinations for rabies (41.6%), even though 28.2% of households had had a household member bitten by a dog. Although the "owned" dog population had decreased as a result of the earthquake in January 2010, the number of roaming dogs appeared to have been uninfluenced by the disaster. Given that 64.8% of dogs probably had access to the street and only 6.0% of the females were spayed, to humanely contain the dog population will require both confinement and neutering. Although roaming dogs were considered a nuisance by 63.3% of respondents, 42.6% of households fed dogs they did not own. PMID:22742200

Fielding, William J; Gall, Melanie; Green, Dick; Eller, Warren S



Rapid Brain Cooling in Exercising Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In alert, resting dogs, the brain is warmer than arterial blood in the common carotid artery. When dogs run, brain temperature drops, despite a sharp rise in carotid blood temperature, and is maintained 1.3 degrees C below carotid temperature during exercise. This brain cooling apparently results from countercurrent heat exchange between warm arterial blood supplying the brain and cool venous

M. A. Baker; L. W. Chapman



Context specificity of inhibitory control in dogs.  


Across three experiments, we explored whether a dog's capacity for inhibitory control is stable or variable across decision-making contexts. In the social task, dogs were first exposed to the reputations of a stingy experimenter that never shared food and a generous experimenter who always shared food. In subsequent test trials, dogs were required to avoid approaching the stingy experimenter when this individual offered (but withheld) a higher-value reward than the generous experimenter did. In the A-not-B task, dogs were required to inhibit searching for food in a previously rewarded location after witnessing the food being moved from this location to a novel hiding place. In the cylinder task, dogs were required to resist approaching visible food directly (because it was behind a transparent barrier), in favor of a detour reaching response. Overall, dogs exhibited inhibitory control in all three tasks. However, individual scores were not correlated between tasks, suggesting that context has a large effect on dogs' behavior. This result mirrors studies of humans, which have highlighted intra-individual variation in inhibitory control as a function of the decision-making context. Lastly, we observed a correlation between a subject's age and performance on the cylinder task, corroborating previous observations of age-related decline in dogs' executive function. PMID:23584618

Bray, Emily E; Maclean, Evan L; Hare, Brian A




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Musclar sarcocystosis is a rare infection in dogs. In the present report clinical myositis associated with an unidentified species of Sarcocystis was diagnosed in an adult dog from Canada. There was granulomatous myositis associated with nmerous immature sarcocysts in muscle biopsy. The sarcocyst...


Corneal Inflammatory Diseases - Infectious Keratitis in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kecová H., Z. Hlinomazová, P. Rau‰er, A. Neăas: Corneal Inflammatory Diseases - Infectious Keratitis in Dogs. Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 359-363. This article compares different aspects of corneal infection in human versus veterinary medicine. It emphasizes different aetiology of development of corneal infection and distinct number of pathogens employed (monoinfections in people versus often mixed infections in dogs). Contrary



Dog bite injuries a preventable hazard?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates indicate 1.5% of the population is bitten by a dog annually (though probably 50% of bites remain unreported), and that the incidence is increasing. However, dogs are popular pets associated with scientifically proven health and social benefits for their owners and their families. It is important to devise bite prevention strategies that preserve these benefits while reducing the risk

R Butcher; T De Keuster



[Dog-assisted intervention with elderly people].  


An experiment to study the benefits of dog-assisted intervention in a long-term nursing home was carried out in two care homes in Lyon. It brought together trained visiting dogs with their handlers and elderly people. More than a simple activity, the experience proved to be therapeutic, soothing and stimulating for people who are often withdrawn. PMID:23173496

Merle, Marylčne; Saillant, Martine



Motor laterality in 4 breeds of dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was designed to explore possible breed differences in a basic behavioral phenotype in dogs. It measured paw use during food-retrieval from a cylindrical, hollow, rubber toy to assess motor laterality (pawedness) in 4 breeds of dogs selected for their morphological differences: 45 greyhounds (males n = 23\\/females n = 22), 47 whippets (15\\/32), 46

Paul D. McGreevy; Alex Brueckner; Peter C. Thomson; Nicholas J. Branson



Subclinical cecal impaction in a dog  

PubMed Central

A 7-year-old, bichon frise dog was incidentally diagnosed with cecal impaction. Typhlectomy was performed as cecal rupture and resultant septic peritonitis appeared to be imminent. Histopathological evaluation did not identify an underlying cause for impaction and cecal dysmotility was suspected. Subclinical cecal impaction has not previously been reported in dogs.

Westgarth, Shannon; Singh, Ameet; Vince, Andrew R.




EPA Science Inventory

Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...


Histoplasmosis in a dog from New Brunswick.  


A young dog was presented with a history of chronic diarrhea, anorexia, and weight loss. Histoplasma capsulatum was suspected, based on cytologic examination of lymph node aspirates and peritoneal fluid, and confirmed by fungal culture. To our knowledge, this is the first case of histoplasmosis diagnosed in a dog in Atlantic Canada. PMID:17824159

Tyre, Erica; Eisenbart, David; Foley, Peter; Burton, Shelley



Dog Bite Prevention: A New Screening Tool  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine what children know about preventing dog bites and parental desires for dog bite prevention education. Study design This cross-sectional study sampled 5-15 year olds and their parents/guardians presenting to a pediatric emergency department with non-urgent complaints or dog bites. Pairs completed surveys and knowledge-based simulated scenario tests developed from American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) dog bite prevention recommendations. Regression analyses modeled knowledge test scores and probability of passing; a passing score was ?11/14 questions. Results Of 300 parent/child pairs, 43% of children failed the knowledge test. Older children had higher odds of passing the knowledge test than younger children, as did children with white parents versus non-white parents. No associations were found between knowledge scores and other sociodemographic or experiential factors. Over 70% of children had never received dog bite prevention education, although 88% of parents desired it. Conclusion Dog bites are preventable injures disproportionately affecting children. Dog bite prevention knowledge in our sample was poor, particularly among younger children and children with non-white parents. Formal dog bite prevention education is warranted and welcomed by a majority of parents.

Dixon, Cinnamon A.; Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Hart, Kimberly W.; Lindsell, Christopher J.



Obedience training effects on search dog performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competent search dogs should be accurate, reliable, and work independently, yet be responsive to handler commands. The aim of this study was to identify training factors that contribute to producing competent search dogs. Demographics, obedience training methods, the age training was initiated, previous canine training experience of the trainer, and time spent training were determined using 177 responses to an

Michael Ben Alexander; Ted Friend; Lore Haug



Physiological reactions to fear provocation in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fear is a common behavioral problem in dogs. In this paper, we studied the association between behavioral and physiological responses in two potentially fear-eliciting situations. The aim was to establish whether it is possible to separate dogs of the collie breed that are fearful of floors and gunshots from those that are not by studying changes in heart rate and

E Hydbring-Sandberg; L W von Walter; K Höglund; K Svartberg; L Swenson; B Forkman



Conditioned behavior in a decorticate dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal dogs passed through two stages in becoming conditioned to auditory and visual stimuli. They very soon made a diffuse type of response upon and subsequent to the presentation of the stimulus, and later they responded specifically by lifting the foot as soon as the stimulus was presented, thus avoiding the shock. A decorticate dog (examination disclosed but a few

E. Culler; F. A. Mettler




Microsoft Academic Search





Malignant Embryonal Nephroma in an Aged Dog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 9-year-old male Basenji dog responded satisfactorily to treatment of lacerations inflicted during a fight with another dog but not to treatment of concurrent lameness of the left hindlimb. Radiography revealed an osteolytic process in the proximal end o...

F. R. Robinson I. G. Cashell J. W. Sagartz K. M. Ayers



Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.  

PubMed Central

Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vazquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G



Cultivable Oral Microbiota of Domestic Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaques of nine dogs and a sample of pooled saliva from five other dogs and were then identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among 339 isolates, 84 different phylotypes belonging to 37 genera were identified. Approximately half of the phylotypes were identified to the species level, and 28% of these were considered members

David R. Elliott; Michael Wilson; Catherine M. F. Buckley; David A. Spratt



Environmental Exposure to Allergens of Different Dog Breeds and Relevance in Allergological Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our environment, dogs are a relevant source of allergens, but diagnosing dog-related allergies may present difficulties, as in diagnostic tests with commercial dog allergens, some patients show only slight positive or negative results, even though they suffer from dog-related symptoms. Occasionally, allergy tests with extracts of dog hair belonging to patients' dogs or from dogs of the same breed

Astrid R. R. Heutelbeck; Thomas Schulz; Karl-Christian Bergmann; Ernst Hallier



Nasca classification of hemivertebra in five dogs  

PubMed Central

Five dogs, four small mixed breed and a Doberman Pinscher, presented in our clinic with hemivertebra. Complete physical, radiological and neurological examinations were done and the spinal deformities were characterized in accord with the Nasca classification used in human medicine. Two dogs had multiple hemivertebrae (round, oval or wedge-shaped: Type 3) in the thoracic region; one dog had an individual surplus half vertebral body (Type 1) plus a wedge-shaped hemivertebra (Type 2b) in the lumbar region; one dog had multiple hemivertebrae which were fused on one side (Type 4a) in the thoracic region; and one dog had a wedge-shaped hemivertebra (Type 2a) in the cervical region.



Malassezia pachydermatis Carriage in Dog Owners  

PubMed Central

Yeasts of the genus Malassezia serve as both commensal microorganisms and pathogens on the skin of humans and domestic animals. Although rare, cases of life-threatening fungemia in people have been attributed to Malassezia pachydermatis, for which dogs are a natural host. Zoonotic transfer has been documented from dogs to immunocompromised patients by healthcare workers who own dogs. We investigated the role of pet dogs as risk factors for mechanical carriage of M. pachydermatis on human hands. Dogs and their owners were sampled as pairs, by fungal culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although fungal culture was not a reliable means by which to detect carriage of the yeast on human hands, PCR identified M. pachydermatis on most (?93%) human participants. Human carriage of ubiquitous opportunistic pathogens such as M. pachydermatis underscores the importance of good hand hygiene by healthcare professionals.

O'Shea, Kathleen; Shofer, Frances S.; Rankin, Shelley



Dog Models of Naturally Occurring Cancer  

PubMed Central

Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models of natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has vastly reduced genetic variation compared to humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five to eight-fold faster than humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age, and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the last decade, developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer.

Rowell, Jennie L.; McCarthy, Donna O.; Alvarez, Carlos E.



Fatal dog maulings associated with infant swings.  


We present three cases of fatal dog maulings of infants placed in mobile infant swings, a phenomenon not previously described in the literature. In each case, the victim was left in a mobile swing, unsupervised by an adult, and the attacking dog was a family pet. Case 1 involved an 18-day-old male infant attacked by a pit bull; Case 2 involved a 3-month-old male infant attacked by a Chow Chow and/or a Dachshund, and Case 3 involved an 18-day-old female infant attacked by a Labrador-pit bull mix. These cases not only underscore the importance of not leaving young children unattended in the presence of pet dogs, but also raise the possibility that mobile swings may trigger a predatory response in dogs and thus may represent an additional risk factor for dog attack. PMID:16566780

Chu, Albert Y; Ripple, Mary G; Allan, Carol H; Thogmartin, Jon R; Fowler, David R



Metazoan parasites of dogs in Sabah, Malaysia.  


The parasites which occurred most frequently in 175 owned or stray dogs in Sabah were Ancylostoma spp. present in 68% of the animals. Dirofilaria immitis occurred in 70% of the adult dogs but neither D. immitis nor Spirocerca lupi were present in puppies under four months of age. The latter attained a prevalence of 30% in the adults. In contrast Toxocara canis occurred in 81% of the puppies but infrequently in older dogs. Dipylidium caninum was moderately prevalent (15 to 25%) in dogs of all ages. Ticks were the most common arthropod parasite being present on 26% of the dogs and were mainly Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Demodectic and sarcoptic mange were confirmed and fleas and lice were also recovered. PMID:6730003

MacAdam, I; Gudan, D; Timbs, D V; Urquhart, H R; Sewell, M M



Functional MRI in Awake Unrestrained Dogs  

PubMed Central

Because of dogs' prolonged evolution with humans, many of the canine cognitive skills are thought to represent a selection of traits that make dogs particularly sensitive to human cues. But how does the dog mind actually work? To develop a methodology to answer this question, we trained two dogs to remain motionless for the duration required to collect quality fMRI images by using positive reinforcement without sedation or physical restraints. The task was designed to determine which brain circuits differentially respond to human hand signals denoting the presence or absence of a food reward. Head motion within trials was less than 1 mm. Consistent with prior reinforcement learning literature, we observed caudate activation in both dogs in response to the hand signal denoting reward versus no-reward.

Berns, Gregory S.; Brooks, Andrew M.; Spivak, Mark



The prevalence of parasitic helminths in stray dogs in the Baghdad area, Iraq.  


The prevalence of parasitic helminths in 20 stray dogs from the area of Baghdad was recorded. Taenia spp. were found in 12 dogs, Dipylidium caninum in ten dogs, Toxocara canis in eight dogs, Ancylostoma caninum in seven dogs and Echinococcus granulosus in five dogs. Spirocerca lupi and Dirofilaria immitis were found in three dogs, Mesocestoides lineatus in two dogs and Strongyloides stercoralis in one dog. PMID:3800471

Tarish, J H; Al-Saqur, I M; Al-Abbassy, S N; Kadhim, F S



Genetic typing of dogs’ traces in biological samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dog-bite related injuries and fatalities are increasing in incidence and represents an important public health concern, as dogs are intensely integrated in human social life. Forensic investigations in dog attack usually involve the examination of bite marks and toothprints. Generally, it was possible to obtain a canine-specific STR profile from the dog's saliva left on the wound area, even when

Marina Dobosz; Massimo Lancia; Alessio Coletti; Cinzia Grasso; Fernando Panarese; Paolo De Iuliis



Concomitant occurrence of Campylobacter and parvoviruses in dogs with gastroenteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979 a canine parvovirus infection was widespread among dogs in Sweden. During the epizootic faecal samples were taken for bacteriological examination from 77 hospitalised dogs at an animal clinic. Forty-nine of the dogs had signs of gastroenteritis and they were all infected with canine parvovirus according to serological investigations. The remaining 28 dogs were referred to the clinic for

K. Sandstedt; M. Wierup



9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...100 percent of the required space for each dog if maintained separately. Such animals may...adversely affect the health or well-being of the dog(s); or (3) Any dog exhibits aggressive or vicious behavior. (c) Methods and period of...



9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...100 percent of the required space for each dog if maintained separately. Such animals may...adversely affect the health or well-being of the dog(s); or (3) Any dog exhibits aggressive or vicious behavior. (c) Methods and period of...



Dogs as Sentinels for Human Lyme Borreliosis in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples from hunters (n 5 440), their hunting dogs (n 5 448), and hunters without dog ownership (n 5 53) were collected in The Netherlands at hunting dog trials and were tested for antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi by a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, 75 healthy pet dogs were tested. The results of this study indicate that the seroprevalence

H. A. T. Goossens; A. E. van den Bogaard; M. K. E. Nohlmans



Comparative social ecology of feral dogs and wolves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we compare some socio-ecological traits of feral dogs and wolves in order to assess the social ecology of feral dogs in terms of its adaptive value in the natural environment, and to evaluate to what extent the domestication process altered the wolf's socio-ecological patterns. Referring to feral dogs as those dogs living in a wild state with

L. Boitani; P. Ciucci



36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504.10 Section 504.10 Parks, Forests...BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be...



36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests...SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION § 520.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be...



44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management...EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, must not be...



36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504.10 Section 504.10 Parks, Forests...BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be...



36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests...SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION § 520.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be...



44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management...EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, must not be...



31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11...BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...



Clever hounds: social cognition in the domestic dog ( Canis familiaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the reasons why domestic dogs make good models to investigate cognitive processes related to social living and describes experimental approaches that can be adopted to investigate such processes in dogs. Domestic dogs are suitable models for investigating social cognition skills for three broad reasons. First, dogs originated from wolves, social animals that engage in a number of

Jonathan J. Cooper; Clare Ashton; Sarah Bishop; Rebecca West; Daniel S. Mills; Robert J. Young



Postnatal Hematologic Development in Phosphofructokinase-Deficient Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult dogs with phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency have compensated hemolytic anemia. due to an absolute on functional deficiency of the muscle-type (M-type) subunit that normally accounts for a majority of total erythrocyte PFK activity in dogs. Potential effects of PFK deficiency on hematologic development were evaluated in dogs. Routine hematologic parameters were similar in normal and affected dogs when 1 day

John W. Harvey; G. Roman Reddy



Dog bites in urban children.  


As a result of a perceived increase in pit bull injuries, all children who presented to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia during 1989 for evaluation of dog bite injuries were prospectively studied. Epidemiologic information was collected from parents, either at the time of visit or by phone on the following day. A total of 168 children were enrolled; the mean age was 8 years. Males outnumbered females 1.5:1. Most (61%) injuries occurred in or around the home and involved dogs known to the patient (77%). Types of injuries included abrasions (33%), punctures (29%), and lacerations (38%). Thirteen bites had associated complications; nine developed infection. Twelve (7%) children required admission to the hospital. More than 12 different purebreeds or cross-breeds were identified as perpetrators, including German shepherds (n = 35), pit bulls (n = 33), rottweilers (n = 9), and Dobermans (n = 7). Most (54%) animals were contained (ie, leashed, fenced, in-house) at the time of injury. Fewer (46%) were provoked prior to biting. Significantly more pit bull injuries (94% vs 43%, P less than .001) were the consequence of unprovoked attacks and involved freely roaming animals (67% vs 41%, P less than .01). Children aged 5 or younger were more likely to provoke animals prior to injury than were older children (69% vs 36%, P less than .001). It is recommended that families with young children be the target of pet safety education and that measures be sought that would lead to early identification of a potentially dangerous dog and restrict ownership. PMID:2057274

Avner, J R; Baker, M D



Haemodynamic and haematologic effects of Acanthaster planci venom in dogs.  


This study was designed to examine haemodynamic and haematologic effects of the crown-of-thorns starfish venom (Acanthaster planci venom: APV) in dogs. Severe systemic hypotension, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were induced by APV (1.0 mg protein/kg i.v.), followed by gradual return to the baseline level within 60 min. Hypotension was presumably caused by two factors: an early decrease in systemic vascular resistance and the large reduction in cardiac output due to reduced ventricular filling. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, remarkably suppressed systemic hypotension induced by APV. The peak reduction in systemic pressure was associated with concomitant rise of plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a major stable metabolite of prostacyclin. Thus, the hypotensive effect of APV may be caused primarily by prostacyclin and/or some vasodilating prostaglandins. In contrast, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were not affected by cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor or platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist. When APV was administered repeatedly, tachyphylaxis was developed in haemodynamic effects, but not in haematologic effects. These findings suggest that APV-induced hypotensive effects may occur mainly through endogenous production of vasodilating prostaglandins including prostacyclin, although APV-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia may be caused by other mechanism(s) unrelated to arachidonate metabolites and/or PAF. PMID:7846692

Shiroma, N; Noguchi, K; Matsuzaki, T; Ojiri, Y; Hirayama, K; Sakanashi, M



Patellar blastomycosis in a dog.  


A 4-year-old, spayed female, mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of chronic left hind-limb lameness. Lytic lesions were observed in the left patella on radiographs of the stifle. A biopsy of the patella led to a histopathological diagnosis of blastomycosis. Surgical debridement followed by a 90-day course of itraconazole and physical rehabilitation resolved the clinical signs and stopped the progression of radiographic lesions. Blastomycosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for stifle joint lameness with lytic lesions in the patella. PMID:19723847

Oshin, Abimbola; Griffon, Dominique; Lemberger, Karin; Naughton, James; Barger, Anne


Aflatoxicosis in nine dogs after exposure to contaminated commercial dog food.  


The purpose of this study was to characterize light and electron microscopic findings from 9 dogs that had consumed aflatoxin-contaminated commercial dog food from recalled batches. Four dogs died and 5 were euthanized after signs of liver failure. Analysis of feed and liver samples confirmed exposure to aflatoxin. Of the 9 dogs, 8 had classic signs of liver failure, and 1 had signs of liver failure. Enlarged, pale yellow livers were seen macroscopically at necropsy in the dogs with subacute hepatopathy, and cirrhosis was noted in the dog with chronic hepatopathy. Histopathologic findings included hepatic lipidosis, portal fibroplasia, and biliary hyperplasia, which supported a diagnosis of subacute toxic hepatopathy in the 8 symptomatic animals. Marked lobular atrophy, bridging portal fibrosis, and regenerative hepatocellular nodules characterized the dog with chronic hepatopathy. Electron microscopy revealed marked hepatocellular lipid vacuolation and early fibroplasia in the dogs with acute hepatopathy and marked fibrosis and regeneration in the dog with chronic hepatopathy. Analysis of feed for aflatoxin consistently revealed high levels of aflatoxin B1 (range of 223-579 ppb), and hepatic tissue contained elevated levels of aflatoxin B1 metabolite M1 (0.6-4.4 ppb). Although dogs are not commonly affected by aflatoxicosis, they are highly susceptible and can present with classic signs of acute or chronic hepatopathy. Characteristic gross, histologic, and electron microscopic changes help pathologists determine a presumptive toxic insult. Detecting aflatoxins or their metabolites in feed or liver specimens can help confirm the diagnosis of aflatoxicosis. PMID:17402611

Newman, Shelley Joy; Smith, Joanne R; Stenske, Kate A; Newman, Leslie B; Dunlap, John R; Imerman, Paula M; Kirk, Claudia A



Decline in human dog-bite cases during a street dog sterilisation programme in Jaipur, India.  


Human dog-bite injuries are a major public health problem, particularly where there are large populations of free-roaming or street dogs. Dog bites are also the major source of human rabies infections. There is little information on the means to reduce these injuries. Monthly human animal-bite injury records from January 2003 to June 2011 were obtained from the main government hospital in Jaipur, India. The data were analysed and compared with records of pregnancy in street dogs in Jaipur obtained from a street dog sterilisation programme. Human animal-bite injuries showed a seasonal pattern which followed by approximately 10 weeks the seasonal peak of street dog breeding. The number of human animal bites has declined significantly since 2003. It is concluded that a street dog sterilisation programme can reduce human dog-bite injuries by reducing the maternal protective behaviour of the street dogs, as well as reducing the total size of the roaming dog population. PMID:23492927

Reece, J F; Chawla, S K; Hiby, A R



Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins  

PubMed Central

Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog.

Brown, Sarah K.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L.; Ahrens, Kristen D.; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N.



[Allergy presumed by parents of children in nursery schools and day care in relation to conditions of care].  


By means of an interview investigation with the staffs of the 11 nursery schools in the Municipality of Odense and 344 day care homes, information was collected about the number of children who received special diets on account of allergy postulated by the parents or predisposition to allergy. 8% of the children in day care and 10% of the children i nursery schools received special diets on account of presumed allergy. Special diets are often instituted without medically documented indications. In institutions with many children on special diets, this frequently results in dietary changes for all of the children. Nursery schools have only very few possibilities for dietary advice. The dietary efforts are not combined with corresponding efforts in other fields such as tobacco smoking, exposure to carpeting and animals. Placing of children with postulated allergy occurs independently of the presence of carpets, animals and smoke in the day care situation. 40-50% of the children in day care homes are passive smokers. PMID:2773148

Viskum, B; Hasle, H



Ceftazidime as monotherapy or combined with teicoplanin for initial empiric treatment of presumed bacteremia in febrile granulocytopenic patients.  

PubMed Central

In a prospective randomized study, 120 febrile, granulocytopenic patients received as initial therapy ceftazidime with or without teicoplanin. At the onset of fever, patients had no obvious infectious focus. For 103 assessable episodes, initial bacteremias were detected in 18 of 51 patients (35%) given ceftazidime and 20 of 52 patients (38%) given the combination; 13 and 17 bacteremias caused by gram-positive bacteria occurred in these groups, respectively. There was no difference in terms of the final response (25 of 51 patients [49%] treated with ceftazidime alone versus 33 of 52 patients [63%] given the combination), and the morbidity was comparable for both treatment groups. The duration of fever and of total antibiotic therapy were similar in both groups. Initial therapy was modified in 26 patients (51%) treated with ceftazidime, with 20 surviving the infection, and in 19 patients (37%) treated with the combination, with 15 surviving. Persistent fever was the main reason for changing treatment, and no patient died of a gram-positive infection. Subsequent infective events occurred in 16 patients (31%) given ceftazidime and in 25 patients (48%) given the combination. Lung infiltrates developed in 12 and 13 patients, respectively, but more new infections occurred in the combination group. Allergic skin reactions were also more frequent in this group. Thus, while teicoplanin provides simple, reliable, and safe treatment of patients with presumed gram-positive infections, it is not useful when given empirically to this patient population, and treatment may result in more infective complications and adverse events.

Novakova, I; Donnelly, J P; De Pauw, B



Infant death presumably due to exertional self-overheating in bed: an autopsy case of suspected child abuse.  


We report a case of accidental infant death presumably due to exertional self-overheating in bed. On a winter morning, a 9-month-old female baby was found dead in her bed at home. She had been confined to the bed overnight by her father, totally covered with a blanket and a thick quilt, because her night crying disturbed his sleep. The clothing and bedclothes were extremely wet with sweat. Many petechial hemorrhages were observed in the upper chest and thoracic viscera. The blood was concentrated, indicative of dehydration. Histological and immunohistochemical investigation revealed findings of shock and myolysis in the cardiac and skeletal muscles. There was no evidence of natural diseases. The main cause of death was diagnosed as circulatory collapse from overheating (hyperpyrexia and dehydration; heat stroke/exhaustion) probably precipitated by struggling in the closed space. Although there was no apparent evidence of battering or any other repetitive physical violence, this case was regarded as an atypical type of fatal child abuse. PMID:9711068

Zhu, B L; Ishida, K; Fujita, M Q; Maeda, H



The effect of diabetes mellitus on portal blood hepatotrophic factors in dogs.  


Ten nondiabetic dogs were submitted to a procedure called splanchnic division which directed the nutrient rich venous return from the intestines into the left lobes of the liver and the hormone rich pancreaticogastroduodenosplenic venous return into the right lobes. Two months later, the right lobes had undergone the expected gross and microscopic hypertrophy. Compared with the abnormal shrunken and glycogen-depleted hepatocytes of the left lobes, the large and otherwise normal hepatocytes of the right lobes had a higher rate of cell division as judged by microscopic examination, measurements of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and the results of autoradiography. Both sides had greater cell replication than in the livers of normal unaltered dogs. The dominance of the right lobes following splanchnic division was almost completely eliminated by the prior creation of alloxan-induced diabetes in four dogs and by the performance of total pancreatectomy at the same time as splanchnic division in six dogs. In these ten diabetic dogs, which were treated with subcutaneously administered insulin for the two month period of the post operative study, hepatic lobar and cell size were nearly equal on both sides. By light and electron microscopy, the hepatocytes on both sides had abnormalities, somewhat less pronounced on the right. However, the most active cell division was now transferred to the left lobes. The results with alloxan-induced diabetes were similar to those after total pancreatectomy, except the lipid deposits were less on both liver sides in the alloxan experiments, and the glycogen was selectively reduced in the right lobes. The latter finding presumably was due to the continued action of glucagon in dogs made diabetic with alloxan. Twelve nondiabetic dogs had a procedure called partial portacaval transposition which directed systemic venous blood from the hindquarters, kidneys and adrenal glands into the left lobes of the liver and the total splanchnic venous return into the right lobes. Two months later, the degree of relative hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the glycogen rich right lobes was even greater than after splanchnic division, as was the morphologic damage to the left lobar hepatocytes. The degree of right lobar hypertrophy following partial portacaval transposition was reduced but not eliminated by pre-existing alloxan-induced diabetes in four dogs and by concomitant total pancreatectomy in six more dogs. The dogs were subcutaneously treated with insulin. Structurally, the hepatocytes on the right side after two months were in better condition than were those on the left, although both were abnormal. The dominance of cell division on the right side was reduced, as judged by standard microscopy and by autoradiography, but there was not a shifting of sides. The biochemical analyses reflected the presence or absence of glucagon. These findings are consistent with our earlier multifactorial hypothesis which holds that portal hepatotrophic factors are mainly interreacting hormones generated by splanchnic organs and delivered straight to the liver and that the hormone interrelationships might have augmented significance because of the high concentration of nutritional substrate in the same venous blood. The observations also substantiate by direct testing the suggestion that insulin is the most important hepatotropic factor and that it profoundly affects many aspects of liver cell structure, division and function. PMID:18689029

Starzl, T E; Porter, K A; Kashiwagi, N; Lee, I Y; Russsell, W J; Putnam, C W



Serum insulin-like growth factor type 1 concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous primary hypothyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circulating insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) concentrations in dogs have been correlated with standard breed bodyweight (SBBW or breed size). Thyroid and somatotropic functions, which have common effects and regulatory mechanisms, were investigated in hypothyroid dogs. IGF-1 was measured in 495 adult healthy dogs (N) and in 220 primary hypothyroid dogs (HOT) with clinical and biological signs of primary

Laetitia Jaillardon; Lucile Martin; Patrick Nguyen; Brigitte Siliart


[Immediate sensitivity of asthmatic children to dog allergens].  


The occurrence of dog hypersensitivity in 203 unselected asthmatic children was investigated by means of skin prick test, provocation test and RAST. The history of past and present exposure to dogs, symptoms in contact with dogs, and the effects of dog avoidance were recorded. The amount of dog dander antigens was measured from dust samples from 67 homes using counter-immunoelectrophoresis. A history of past or present dog hypersensitivity was obtained for 120 subjects (59%). The skin prick test was found to be a sensitive method for diagnosing dog hypersensitivity, when a standardized allergen extract was used. The results of the skin prick test correlated well with the provocation test (r = 0.832) and the RAST (r = 0.777). A positive (greater than or equal to ++) skin reaction was observed in 56% of the subjects, a positive (class greater than or equal to 1) RAST in 69%, and a positive provocation test with the same extract in 41% of the subjects. The occurrence of dog hypersensitivity was not significantly associated with past or present exposure to dog at home. However, the children who were exposed to a dog at home during early childhood developed dog hypersensitivity symptoms significantly earlier and had dog hypersensitivity slightly more often than the subjects with a later exposure or no exposure to dog. Significant amounts of dog dander antigens were found even in dust samples from homes where dogs had never been kept. The effect of dog avoidance on dog dander-specific IgE levels was studied from sera obtained from 24 subjects. Steadily high and even rising levels were observed in cases when a strict avoidance of dogs was reported by the patient. Dog saliva was found to be a more potent and more species-specific source of dog allergens, in comparison with a commercial dander extract, according to skin prick test and RAST inhibition studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4046495

Vanto, T


Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in the Polish Owczarek Nizinny (PON) dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual dysfunction and neurological symptoms were found in Polish Owczarek Nizinny (PON) dogs. Two dogs were examined, one at 2 years of age and the other one at 4 years. The oldest dog was totally blind. The 2-year-old dog developed mental disturbances and the 4-year-old dog became severely ataxic. Ophthalmoscopical findings were retinal hyper-reflectivity, attenuation of the retinal vessels and

Anders Wrigstad; Sven Erik G. Nilsson; Richard Dubielzig; Kristina Narfström



How to Steal a Dog and Other Lessons in Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author relates how a lost dog gave her the idea for writing her book, "How to Steal a Dog." Her tale of serendipity began when she, a dog-lover, walked into a garden center near her home and saw a sign for a lost dog taped beside the cash register. She states that, although her story is about a girl who stole a dog and…

O'Connor, Barbara



Innervation of dog ciliary ganglion.  


There are species differences with regard to the composition of the ciliary ganglion. For instance, in rabbits and cats it consists solely of oculomotor nerves and has no sympathetic or sensory innervation. The purpose of this study is to clarify the participation of these nerves in the ciliary ganglion of the dog by histochemical methods. Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was studied by Karnovsky's method and catecholamine fluorescence by the glyoxylic acid method. Furthermore, the origins of the respective nerves were investigated by a serial preparation method, involving unilateral cervical sympathectomy and tracer dye injection in the ganglion. The results obtained were: (1) Ciliary ganglion cells showed intense ChE activity. Oculomotor nerve fibers leading to the ganglion showed moderate ChE activity, while the reaction in the short ciliary nerves was strong. (2) Aminergic nerves were present in the intercellular space of the ciliary ganglion, and bilateral or central innervation was suggested by the results of cervical sympathectomy. (3) Connection between the ciliary and trigeminal ganglia was proved by the dye tracer study. The results show that the ciliary ganglion in dogs is composed of oculomotor, trigeminal and sympathetic nerves. PMID:6186643

Hara, H; Kobayashi, S; Sugita, K; Tsukahara, S



Gliomatosis cerebri in two dogs.  


A 3.5 yr old Saint Bernard was evaluated for nonambulatory tetraparesis and cranial nerve dysfunction, and a 7 yr old rottweiler was evaluated for progressive paraparesis. Clinical signs of left-sided vestibular and general proprioceptive ataxia and cranial nerve VII dysfunction in the Saint Bernard suggested a lesion affecting the brain stem. Signs in the rottweiler consisted of general proprioceptive/upper motor neuron paraparesis, suggesting a lesion involving the third thoracic (T3) to third lumbar (L3) spinal cord segments. MRI was normal in the Saint Bernard, but an intra-axial lesion involving the T13-L2 spinal cord segments was observed in the rottweiler. In both dogs, the central nervous system (CNS) contained neoplastic cells with features consistent with gliomatosis cerebri (GC). In the Saint Bernard, neoplastic cells were present in the medulla oblongata and cranial cervical spinal cord. In the rottweiler, neoplastic cells were only present in the spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry disclosed two distinct patterns of CD18, nestin, and vimentin staining. GC is a rarely reported tumor of the CNS. Although GC typically involves the cerebrum, clinical signs in these two dogs reflected caudal brainstem and spinal cord involvement. PMID:22843831

Plattner, Brandon L; Kent, Marc; Summers, Brian; Platt, Simon R; Freeman, A Courtenay; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Clemans, Jessie; Cheville, Norman F; Garcia-Tapia, David



Dog is a dog is a dog: Infant rule learning is not specific to language  

PubMed Central

Human infants possess powerful learning mechanisms used for the acquisition of language. To what extent are these mechanisms domain-specific? One well-known infant language learning mechanism is the ability to detect and generalize rule-like similarity patterns, such as ABA or ABB (Marcus et al., 1999). The results of three experiments demonstrate that 7-month-old infants can detect and generalize these same patterns when the elements consist of pictures of animals (dogs and cats). These findings indicate that rule learning of this type is not specific to language acquisition.

Saffran, Jenny R.; Pollak, Seth D.; Seibel, Rebecca L.; Shkolnik, Anna



Serum protein electrophoresis in 147 dogs.  


Reference intervals for serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) were created from a group of 75 clinically healthy dogs and compared with SPE results obtained from clinical cases presented to the University of Bristol over an eight-and-a-half-year period. A total of 147 dogs, in which SPE had been performed, had complete case records available and thus met the inclusion criteria. Signalment and final diagnoses taken from the case records and SPE results were divided into normal and abnormal based on the newly established reference intervals. Cases were grouped according to the SPE protein fraction abnormalities and diagnosis using the DAMNITV classification system. Of the 147 cases, 140 (95.2 per cent) had abnormal SPE results. The most common protein fraction abnormality was decreased albumin (59.3 per cent) followed by a polyclonal increase in ? globulins (38.6 per cent). Decreased ?-1 globulins and increased ?-2 globulins were documented in 36.4 and 30.0 per cent of cases, respectively. The most common DAMNITV classification associated with abnormal SPE results was infectious/inflammatory disease, which was diagnosed in 79 of 140 cases (56.4 per cent). Monoclonal gammopathies were noted in eight dogs (5.7 per cent), and underlying lymphoproliferative disease was present in all cases where a diagnosis was achieved, including multiple myeloma (four dogs), splenic plasmacytoma (one dog), hepatic plasmacytoma (one dog) and lymphoma (one dog). PMID:21493443

Tappin, S W; Taylor, S S; Tasker, S; Dodkin, S J; Papasouliotis, K; Murphy, K F



Tylosin-responsive chronic diarrhea in dogs.  


Fourteen dogs had shown chronic or intermittent diarrhea for more than 1 year. Diarrhea had been successfully treated with tylosin for at least 6 months but recurred when treatment was withdrawn on at least 2 occasions. Tylosin-responsive diarrhea (TRD) affects typically middle-aged, large-breed dogs and clinical signs indicate that TRD affects both the small and large intestine. Treatment with tylosin eliminated diarrhea in all dogs within 3 days and in most dogs within 24 hours. Tylosin administration controlled diarrhea in all dogs, but after it was discontinued, diarrhea reappeared in 12 (85.7%) of 14 dogs within 30 days. Prednisone given for 3 days did not completely resolve diarrhea. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG did not prevent the relapse of diarrhea in any of 9 dogs so treated. The etiology of TRD, a likely form of antibiotic-responsive diarrhea (ARD) is unclear. The following reasons for chronic diarrhea were excluded or found to be unlikely: parasites, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, inflammatory bowel disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, enteropathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp., or Lawsoni intracellularis), and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and Clostridium difficile A toxin. A possible etiologic factor is a specific enteropathogenic organism that is a common resident in the canine gastrointestinal tract and is sensitive to tylosin but difficult to eradicate. Additional studies are required to identify the specific cause of TRD. PMID:15822561

Westermarck, Elias; Skrzypczak, Teresa; Harmoinen, Jaana; Steiner, Jőrg M; Ruaux, Craig G; Williams, David A; Eerola, Erkki; Sundbäck, Pernilla; Rinkinen, Minna


Evaluation of dog-appeasing pheromone as a potential treatment for dogs fearful of fireworks.  


Thirty dogs that showed signs of fear in response to fireworks participated in an open clinical trial to assess the potential value of dog-appeasing pheromone for the alleviation of their behavioural signs. The treatment was delivered continuously into the atmosphere of each dog's home with an electrically heated diffuser. At the baseline assessments, the owners identified the behavioural signs of fear that their dogs normally displayed in response to fireworks, rated their frequency and assessed the overall severity of their responses. These measures were repeated at the final assessment and the owners also rated the change in their dogs' responses. There were significant improvements in the owners' rating of nine of the 14 behavioural signs of fear that were examined, and in their ratings of the overall severity of the responses. The treatment was generally associated with a reduction in the intensity of fear but there were variations in the responses of individual dogs. PMID:12708592

Sheppard, G; Mills, D S



Circovirus in tissues of dogs with vasculitis and hemorrhage.  


We characterized the complete genome of a novel dog circovirus (DogCV) from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, vasculitis, and granulomatous lymphadenitis. DogCV was detected by PCR in fecal samples from 19/168 (11.3%) dogs with diarrhea and 14/204 (6.9%) healthy dogs and in blood from 19/409 (3.3%) of dogs with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, fever of unknown origin, or past tick bite. Co-infection with other canine pathogens was detected for 13/19 (68%) DogCV-positive dogs with diarrhea. DogCV capsid proteins from different dogs varied by up to 8%. In situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy detected DogCV in the lymph nodes and spleens of 4 dogs with vascular compromise and histiocytic inflammation. The detection of a circovirus in tissues of dogs expands the known tropism of these viruses to a second mammalian host. Our results indicate that circovirus, alone or in co-infection with other pathogens, might contribute to illness and death in dogs. PMID:23628223

Li, Linlin; McGraw, Sabrina; Zhu, Kevin; Leutenegger, Christian M; Marks, Stanley L; Kubiski, Steven; Gaffney, Patricia; Dela Cruz, Florante N; Wang, Chunlin; Delwart, Eric; Pesavento, Patricia A



Signs of travel-related problems in dogs and their response to treatment with dog appeasing pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-two dogs with problems when travelling in the car took part in a non-blinded study aimed at differentiating groups of dogs on the basis of the pattern of signs shown by individual dogs and their response to treatment with a collar impregnated with dog-appeasing pheromone (dap) for six weeks and general behavioural advice. The dogs were taken out in the

M. Gandia Estellés; D. S. Mills



The response of guide dogs and pet dogs ( Canis Familiaris ) to cues of human referential communication (pointing and gaze)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study raises the question of whether guide dogs and pet dogs are expected to differ in response to cues of referential\\u000a communication given by their owners; especially since guide dogs grow up among sighted humans, and while living with their\\u000a blind owners, they still have interactions with several sighted people. Guide dogs and pet dogs were required to respond

Miriam Ittyerah; Florence Gaunet



Neophilia in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and its implication for studies of dog cognition.  


This study examined novel-object preference in dogs. In a free choice test 17 dogs were presented with a novel toy in a line up with two familiar toys. The unfamiliar object was chosen first in 38 out 50 tests suggesting a strong preference for novel over familiar items. Neophilia may be an adaptive trait for domestic dogs that has helped their adaptation towards man. PMID:18183436

Kaulfuss, Patricia; Mills, Daniel S



Neophilia in domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and its implication for studies of dog cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined novel-object preference in dogs. In a free choice test 17 dogs were presented with a novel toy in a line\\u000a up with two familiar toys. The unfamiliar object was chosen first in 38 out 50 tests suggesting a strong preference for novel\\u000a over familiar items. Neophilia may be an adaptive trait for domestic dogs that has helped

Patricia Kaulfuß; Daniel S. Mills



Differences in anti-malarial activity of 4-aminoalcohol quinoline enantiomers and investigation of the presumed underlying mechanism of action  

PubMed Central

Background A better anti-malarial efficiency and lower neurotoxicity have been reported for mefloquine (MQ) (+)- enantiomer. However, the importance of stereoselectivity remains poorly understood as the anti-malarial activity of pure enantiomer MQ analogues has never been described. Building on these observations, a series of enantiopure 4-aminoalcohol quinoline derivatives has previously been synthesized to optimize the efficiency and reduce possible adverse effects. Their in vitro activity on Plasmodium falciparum W2 and 3D7 strains is reported here along with their inhibition of ?-haematin formation and peroxidative degradation of haemin, two possible mechanisms of action of anti-malarial drugs. Results The (S)-enantiomers of this series of 4-aminoalcohol quinoline derivatives were found to be at least as effective as both chloroquine (CQ) and MQ. The derivative with a 5-carbon side-chain length was the more efficient on both P. falciparum strains. (R )-enantiomers displayed an activity decreased by 2 to 15-fold as compared to their (S) counterparts. The inhibition of ?-haematin formation was significantly stronger with all tested compounds than with MQ, irrespective of the stereochemistry. Similarly, the inhibition of haemin peroxidation was significantly higher for both (S) and (R)-enantiomers of derivatives with a side-chain length of five or six carbons than for MQ and CQ. Conclusions The prominence of stereochemistry in the anti-malarial activity of 4-aminoalcohol quinoline derivatives is confirmed. The inhibition of ?-haematin formation and haemin peroxidation can be put forward as presumed mechanisms of action but do not account for the stereoselectivity of action witnessed in vitro.



Characteristics of persons with overactive bladder of presumed neurologic origin: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey  

PubMed Central

Aims To compare the descriptive epidemiology of overactive bladder (OAB) of presumed neurologic origin (NOAB) to OAB of non-neurologic origin (N-NOAB). Methods 5,503 community-dwelling persons aged 30-79 were interviewed regarding urologic symptoms (2002-2005). NOAB was defined as symptoms of urgency and/or urgency incontinence among those with a self-reported history of health care provider diagnosed stroke (N=98), multiple sclerosis (N=21), or Parkinson’s disease (N=7). N-NOAB was defined identically but occurring among those not reporting neurologic disease (ND). Prevalence estimates were weighted to reflect sampling design; chi-square, Fisher’s exact, or t-tests were used to test differences. Urologic symptom interference was assessed using the Epstein scale, while the impact of urinary incontinence (UI) on health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) was measured using a modification of the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7. Results 45 (31.0%) of 125 persons with ND and 994 (16.7%) of 5378 persons without ND reported OAB symptoms. The overall prevalence of NOAB and N-NOAB was 0.6% and 16.4%, respectively. Persons with NOAB had higher (worse) mean American Urologic Association Symptom Index scores (13.0 vs. 10.0, p=0.09) compared to those with N-NOAB, and were significantly more likely to have diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiac disease and fair/poor self-reported health (all p<0.05). Mean symptom interference and UI HRQOL scores were significantly higher (worse) in the NOAB group compared to persons with N-NOAB (all p<0.05). Conclusions Persons with NOAB appeared to have a greater burden of urologic illness with respect to symptom interference and HRQOL compared to persons with N-NOAB.

Hall, Susan A.; Curto, Teresa M.; Onyenwenyi, Ahunna; Lemack, Gary E.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Link, Carol L.; McKinlay, John B.



Chromobacterium violaceum infection in two dogs.  


Chromobacterium violaceum is a saprophyte of soil and water in tropical and subtropical environments that is associated with rare but highly fatal infections in animals and humans. Systemic infection was diagnosed in two critically ill dogs from Florida. Fever was absent in both dogs. Both dogs were treated surgically and provided with intensive care, but only one survived. The identification of characteristic, violet-pigmented bacterial colonies on routine microbial cultures should alert microbiologists and clinicians to the likelihood of this dangerous pathogen. Because of the rapidly progressive nature of this infection, empirical antibiotic administration with fluoroquinolones should be employed pending susceptibility testing. PMID:16527917

Crosse, Patricia A; Soares, Karen; Wheeler, Jason L; Cooke, Kirsten L; Adin, Chris A; O'Kelley, Jeffrey J; Levy, Julie Kay


The domestication of social cognition in dogs.  


Dogs are more skillful than great apes at a number of tasks in which they must read human communicative signals indicating the location of hidden food. In this study, we found that wolves who were raised by humans do not show these same skills, whereas domestic dog puppies only a few weeks old, even those that have had little human contact, do show these skills. These findings suggest that during the process of domestication, dogs have been selected for a set of social-cognitive abilities that enable them to communicate with humans in unique ways. PMID:12446914

Hare, Brian; Brown, Michelle; Williamson, Christina; Tomasello, Michael



Cor triatriatum dexter in two dogs.  


Cor triatriatum dexter is a congenital heart defect in which the embryologic right sinus venosus valve persists as a septum within the right atrium. Cor triatriatum dexter was diagnosed in 2 dogs on the basis of clinical signs, two-dimensional echocardiography, and cardiac catheterization. In 1 of the dogs, the condition was successfully treated by surgical resection of the intra-atrial septum. In the second dog, the defect was associated with an incomplete persistent cranial left vena cava and Ebstein's anomaly; surgery was declined. PMID:8428836

Tobias, A H; Thomas, W P; Kittleson, M D; Komtebedde, J



Dog Experts' Brains Distinguish Socially Relevant Body Postures Similarly in Dogs and Humans  

PubMed Central

We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facing toward each other from humans facing away, and in dog experts, a distinction also occurred for dogs facing toward vs. away in a bilateral area extending from the pSTS to the inferior temporo-occipital cortex: the dissociation of dog behavior was significantly stronger in expert than control group. Furthermore, the control group had stronger pSTS responses to humans than dogs facing toward a conspecific, whereas in dog experts, the responses were of similar magnitude. These findings suggest that dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnove; Hari, Riitta



Detecting introgressive hybridization between free-ranging domestic dogs and wild wolves (Canis lupus) by admixture linkage disequilibrium analysis.  


Occasional crossbreeding between free-ranging domestic dogs and wild wolves (Canis lupus) has been detected in some European countries by mitochondrial DNA sequencing and genotyping unlinked microsatellite loci. Maternal and unlinked genomic markers, however, might underestimate the extent of introgressive hybridization, and their impacts on the preservation of wild wolf gene pools. In this study, we genotyped 220 presumed Italian wolves, 85 dogs and 7 known hybrids at 16 microsatellites belonging to four different linkage groups (plus four unlinked microsatellites). Population clustering and individual assignments were performed using a Bayesian procedure implemented in structure 2.1, which models the gametic disequilibrium arising between linked loci during admixtures, aiming to trace hybridization events further back in time and infer the population of origin of chromosomal blocks. Results indicate that (i) linkage disequilibrium was higher in wolves than in dogs; (ii) 11 out of 220 wolves (5.0%) were likely admixed, a proportion that is significantly higher than one admixed genotype in 107 wolves found previously in a study using unlinked markers; (iii) posterior maximum-likelihood estimates of the recombination parameter r revealed that introgression in Italian wolves is not recent, but could have continued for the last 70 (+/- 20) generations, corresponding to approximately 140-210 years. Bayesian clustering showed that, despite some admixture, wolf and dog gene pools remain sharply distinct (the average proportions of membership to wolf and dog clusters were Q(w) = 0.95 and Q(d) = 0.98, respectively), suggesting that hybridization was not frequent, and that introgression in nature is counteracted by behavioural or selective constraints. PMID:16911205

Verardi, A; Lucchini, V; Randi, E



Viral vector-mediated gene therapy for Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects 1% of the population above the age of 60. The cause of the disease remains unknown. The histopathological hallmarks of the disease are intracytoplasmic Lewy bodies and dopaminergic striatal insufficiency secondary to a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). Pharmacological treatment options for PD are

Marina E. Emborg; Nicole Deglon; Liza Leventhal; Patrick Aebischer; Jeffrey H. Kordower



Serum-free thyroxine concentrations, measured by chemiluminescence assay before and after thyrotropin administration in healthy dogs, hypothyroid dogs, and euthyroid dogs with dermathopathies.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of free thyroxine (FT4) measured by chemiluminescence in evaluating thyroid function in dogs. Total thyroxine (TT4) concentration measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and FT4 measured by chemiluminescence were evaluated in 30 healthy dogs, 60 euthyroid dogs with concurrent dermatopathies, and 30 hypothyroid dogs before and after intravenous stimulation with 1 or 2 IU of thyrotropin (TSH). Median basal TT4 and median TT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different (P < 0.0001) between healthy dogs and euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but were significantly higher than those in hypothyroid dogs. In healthy dogs, the median TT4 concentrations at 4 and 6 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different. Median basal FT4 and median FT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration in healthy dogs were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than those in euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but significantly higher than the same parameters in hypothyroid dogs. There was a significant difference between the median FT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration and median basal FT4 concentrations for healthy dogs and euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but not for hypothyroid dogs. Lastly, in healthy dogs, median FT4 concentrations at 4 and 6 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different. Free thyroxine measured by chemiluminescence was highly correlated (P < 0.0001; Spearman r = 0.91) with FT4 measured by the reference method for free hormone analysis, namely, equilibrium dialysis, when sera from 56 dogs were used.

Paradis, M; Page, N; Lariviere, N; Fontaine, M



Comparison of P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs, dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction  

PubMed Central

Background P-wave dispersion (Pd) is a new ECG index used in human cardiology and veterinary medicine. It is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different ECG leads. So far no studies were performed assessing the importance of P-wave dispersion in dogs. Methods The current study was aimed at determining proper value of Pd in healthy dogs (group I), dogs with chronic valvular disease (group II) and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction (group III). The tests were carried out in 53 healthy dogs, 23 dogs with chronic valvular disease and 12 dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction of various breeds, sexes and body weight from 1,5 to 80 kg, aged between 0,5 and 17 years, submitted to the ECG examination. ECG was acquired in dogs in a standing position with BTL SD-8 electrocardiographic device and analyzed once the recording was enlarged. P-wave duration was calculated in 9 ECG leads (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, V1, V2, V4) from 5 cardiac cycles. Results The proper P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs was determined at up to 24 ms. P-wave dispersion was statistically significant increased (p < 0.01) in dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction. In dogs with the atrial enlargement the P-wave dispersion is also higher than in healthy dogs, although no significant correlation between the size of left atria and Pd was noticed (p = 0.1, r = 0,17). Conclusions The P-wave dispersion is a constant index in healthy dogs, that is why it can be used for evaluating P wave change in dogs with chronic valvular disease and in dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction.



Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Neighborhood Characteristics of Dog Walkers  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined how demographics, physical activity, weight status, and neighborhood characteristics varied among households with and without dogs. Method Participants aged 20 to 65 years (N = 2199, 52% male, 75% white, Mean age = 45) were recruited from 32 neighborhoods in the Seattle, WA and Baltimore, MD regions during 2002 – 2005. Dog ownership, dog walking, education, height, weight, and family income were self-reported. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured objectively by 7-day accelerometry. Results Dog walking was associated with a higher proportion of participants who met national recommendations for MVPA (53%) when compared to those who had but did not walk their dog (33%) and to non-dog owners (46%). There were significantly fewer obese dog walkers (17%) when compared to both owners who did not walk their dogs (28%) and non-owners (22%). Dog owners who walked their dogs were more likely to live in high-walkable neighborhoods when compared to dog owners who did not walk their dogs. Conclusion Dog walking may promote physical activity and contribute to weight control. Dog walking appears to be a mechanism by which residents of high-walkable neighborhoods obtain their physical activity.

Coleman, Karen J.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Conway, Terry L.; Sallis, James F.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Cain, Kelli



Latent Viral Diseases in the Dog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Respiratory disease is one of the most common causes of illness in the domestic dog. Veterinary clinicians have recognized canine distemper for many years, but minor respiratory complications have not received much attention until recently. Today pet owne...

E. L. Massie



Dual Viral Infections in Two Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simultaneous viral infections in two young dogs were confirmed histologically by the finding of inclusion bodies typical of those produced by canine distemper virus and a respiratory adenovirus. Presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microsco...

G. D. Whitney J. L. Stookey M. J. VanZwieten



The March of the robot dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the success of Sony Corporation's`AIBO,' robot cats and dogs are multiplyingrapidly. ``Robot pets'' employing sophisticatedartificial intelligence and animatronictechnologies are now being marketed as toys andcompanions by a number of large consumerelectronics corporations.

Robert Sparrow



Accidental poisoning of 17 dogs with lasalocid.  


Over a period of 10 days, 17 dogs became weak and developed neurological deficits of different degrees of severity. About 12 hours before these clinical signs appeared they had all eaten a particular brand of commercial dog food from a recently opened bag. They were all quadriparetic and hyporeflexic, and some of them also showed additional systemic or neurological signs, including dyspnoea, a high body temperature, tongue laxity, hyperaesthesia and anisochoria. Serum biochemical abnormalities included high activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase. Analysis of the suspect food revealed high concentrations of the ionophore lasalocid. Fifteen of the dogs were given supportive treatment at home and two were hospitalised. Five of the dogs died, but the others improved gradually and had fully recovered by one to four days after the appearance of the clinical signs. PMID:15357378

Segev, G; Baneth, G; Levitin, B; Shlosberg, A; Aroch, I



Theileria annae in a young Swedish dog.  


A severe regenerative anemia was detected in a 12-week-old mixed breed puppy in Sweden. A small protozoan parasite was observed in erythrocytes on a blood smear. It was initially suspected to be Babesia gibsoni based on its size and because B. gibsoni was previously recorded in Sweden. Surprisingly, specific polymerase chain reaction analysis identified the protozoan as Theileria annae. T. annae is endemic in Northwest Spain, is very uncommonly reported elsewhere and has never been recorded in Scandinavia. T. annae has been identified in dogs used for dog fighting, and it is thought to be transmitted by dog bites. This puppy was a mixed pit bull terrier. Pit bull terriers are sometimes used for dog fighting. T. annae has been reported to be transmitted vertically, and in light of the puppy's age, this transmission was suspected in the present case. PMID:23842507

Falkenö, Ulrika; Tasker, Séverine; Osterman-Lind, Eva; Tvedten, Harold W



Lessons learned from the dog genome.  


Extensive genetic resources and a high-quality genome sequence position the dog as an important model species for understanding genome evolution, population genetics and genes underlying complex phenotypic traits. Newly developed genomic resources have expanded our understanding of canine evolutionary history and dog origins. Domestication involved genetic contributions from multiple populations of gray wolves probably through backcrossing. More recently, the advent of controlled breeding practices has segregated genetic variability into distinct dog breeds that possess specific phenotypic traits. Consequently, genome-wide association and selective sweep scans now allow the discovery of genes underlying breed-specific characteristics. The dog is finally emerging as a novel resource for studying the genetic basis of complex traits, including behavior. PMID:17963975

Wayne, Robert K; Ostrander, Elaine A



Dog Guide Schools in the United States  


... Dogs for the Blind 1210 Hardscrabble Road Cassville, NY 13318 315-822-5132 Fax: 315-822-5132 ( ... the Blind, Inc. 371 East Jericho Turnpike Smithtown, NY 11787-2976 631-265-2121; 800-548-4337 ...


Management of dog bites in children  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question A 4-year-old girl was playing with her neighbour’s dog. The dog became excited and bit the girl on the forearm, leaving a puncture wound. As a result of the injury, she has presented to my office. Should she be treated with antibiotics? If so, which antibiotic should be used and for how long? Answer Initiation of prophylactic antibiotics is indicated if the dog bite has undergone primary closure; if there is a moderate or severe bite wound; for puncture wounds (especially if penetration of bone, tendon sheath, or joint), facial bites, bites to the hands or feet, or genital area bites; or wounds sustained by victims who are immunocompromised or asplenic. The first-line choice of antibiotic is amoxicillin-clavulanate. Appropriate tetanus and rabies prophylaxis as indicated should also be a part of caring for a patient who has sustained a dog bite, as well as local debridement and thorough cleaning of the wound.

Sabhaney, Vikram; Goldman, Ran D.



Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis in two dogs.  


Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis was diagnosed in two young dogs. The first, an entire male border collie, was presented with vomiting. An abdominal mass detected during physical examination proved to be cryptococcal mesenteric lymphadenitis on exploratory laparotomy. The second dog, a female neutered giant schnauzer, was presented with neurological signs suggestive of encephalopathy. Intestinal cryptococcal granulomas were detected in an extensive diagnostic investigation which included abdominal ultrasonography. The gastrointestinal tract was considered the most likely portal of entry for cryptococcal organisms in both cases. Both dogs were treated using surgery and multiagent antifungal chemotherapy. The first case succumbed despite therapy, while the second dog was treated successfully as gauged by return to clinical normality and a substantial decline in the cryptococcal antigen titre which continued to fall after cessation of treatment. PMID:10476527

Malik, R; Hunt, G B; Bellenger, C R; Allan, G S; Martin, P; Canfield, P J; Love, D N



Identification of mephenytoin metabolites in the dog.  


In two dogs p-hydroxymephenytoin, m-hydroxymephenytoin, 5-ethyl-5-phenylhydantoin (nirvanol), and 5-ethyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)hydantoin (p-hydroxynirvanol) were identified by use of synthetic metabolites as standards for comparison. PMID:6104582

Karlaganis, G; Küpfer, A; Bircher, J; Schlunegger, U P; Gfeller, H; Bigler, P


Imaging diagnosis--spinal cord chondrosarcoma associated with spirocercosis in a dog.  


A 7-year-old neutered female Boerboel cross was examined for progressive left pelvic limb lameness. There was no left patellar reflex but the remaining pelvic limb reflexes were hyperreflexic. Radiographically, there was a poorly mineralized opacity occupying the intervertebral foramen at LA-L5. On computed tomography images there was a hyperattenuating intramedullary lesion at LA-L5 that continued caudally, lateralized to the left and became extramedullary, terminating at L5-L6. In addition, well marginated, hyperattenuating lesions were noted at two muscular sites. The dog underwent euthanasia and a caudal esophageal mass was found at post mortem examination. The tumors in the spinal cord, the esophagus, and the skeletal muscles were diagnosed histologically as low-grade chondrosarcoma undergoing endochondral ossification. Spirocerca lupi-induced esophageal chondrosarcoma was believed to be the primary site from which the other, presumably metastatic, lesions originated. PMID:21158232

Lindsay, Nicolette; Kirberger, Robert; Williams, Mark


Primary polycythaemia in a dog.  


A 7-year-old, crossbred, desexed bitch had a fluctuating illness of more than 6 months duration, with signs of inappetence, reduced exercise tolerance, restlessness, panting, black diarrhoea, and red eyes and ears. Haematological examination disclosed persistent polycythaemia, reticulocytosis, normoblastaemia , and normal total plasma protein concentration when not dehydrated. Splenomegaly was present, but there was no evidence of significant pulmonary, cardiac or renal disease on physical, radiographic or electrocardiographic examination. Further investigations revealed normal arterial Po2 and oxygen saturation, and increased total erythrocyte volume. Primary polycythaemia was diagnosed. The dog was rendered anaemic by bleeding, then treated with a single injection of radioactive phosphorus. The patient has had no recurrence of signs and remains well 50 months later. PMID:6732671

Watson, A D; Yeats, J A



Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Pasculle, A. W.; Lourduraj, Leena T.; Iscoll, Eileen



Portal vein aneurysm in a dog.  


Portal vein aneurysm (PVA) is a rare abnormal dilatation of the portal vein, which has not been reported in dogs. We describe the findings of ultrasound and computed tomography in a case of PVA in a young male toy poodle, with the final diagnosis established by explorative surgical observation. The dog had an aneurysmal fusiform dilatation in the extrahepatic portal vein with portal hypertension and multiple portsystemic shunts. This is the first report of canine PVA. PMID:22571895

Miyawaki, Shingo; Washizu, Makoto; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Shibata, Sanae; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Yamazoe, Kazuaki



Caffeine Pharmacokinetics in Young and Adult Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics of caffeine were studied in young (age: 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 30–45 days) and adult dogs following a single intravenous dose of 50 mg\\/kg. Mean ( ± SE) plasma elimination half life (T˝ was 47.5 ( ± 5.35) h in 1-day-old puppies, as opposed to 6.66 ( ± 0.85) h in adult dogs. A rapid decrease

Ditsa Warszawski; Rafael Gorodischer; Shimon W. Moses; Hylton Bark



Training dogs to detect Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs have been used successfully to detect drugs and conventional high explosives. The world-wide rise in terrorist activities has placed emphasis on the detection of non-conventional explosive materials such as the multi-functional peroxides, triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD). This study demonstrates that dogs can detect both solid TATP and TATP adsorbed to cotton balls. An effective procedure

Jimmie C. Oxley; James L. Smith; Jesse Moran; Ken Nelson; William E. Utley



Dog Allergy, a Model for Allergy Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental sensitization in dogs has revealed that the capacity to produce high levels of IgE against a variety of allergens (high IgE responders), an essential characteristic of the atopic state, is a genetic trait inherited in a dominant manner. In high IgE responder dogs spontaneous development of IgE to inhaled allergens, such as house dust mites, on the other hand,

Alain L. de Weck; Peter Mayer; Barbara Stumper; Brigitte Schiessl; Louise Pickart



Renal dysplasia in a Rhodesian ridgeback dog.  


A six-month-old Rhodesian ridgeback dog was presented for evaluation of facial swelling. Chronic renal failure was clinically diagnosed based on urinalysis, biochemical changes and ultrasonography. The facial swelling was due to fibrous osteodystrophy, which was evident on survey radiographs of the skull. On post mortem examination, chronic renal failure as a result of renal dysplasia was confirmed. This is the first reported case of renal dysplasia in this breed of dog. PMID:8934429

Lobetti, R G; Pearson, J; Jimenez, M



Unraveling the mysteries of dog evolution  

PubMed Central

The increased battery of molecular markers, derived from comparative genomics, is aiding our understanding of the genetics of domestication. The recent BMC Biology article pertaining to the evolution of small size in dogs is an example of how such methods can be used to study the origin and diversification of the domestic dog. We are still challenged, however, to appreciate the genetic mechanisms responsible for the phenotypic diversity seen in 'our best friend'.



Spirocercosis-associated esophageal sarcomas in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen client-owned dogs diagnosed with spirocercosis-associated esophageal sarcomas were retrospectively reviewed. The most common clinical signs noticed were vomiting and\\/or regurgitation (94%), lethargy and depression (59%), pyrexia and anorexia (41% each). Leukocytosis (82%) and microcytic hypochromic anemia (30%) were the most common hematological abnormalities. Caudal thoracic masses were demonstrated on survey radiographs of 13\\/15 of the dogs and thoracic spondylitis

Eyal Ranen; Eran Lavy; Izhac Aizenberg; Shmuel Perl; Shimon Harrus



Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog  

PubMed Central

An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery.

Gojska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech



Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog.  


An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery. PMID:23204580

Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech



Littoral cell angiosarcoma in a dog.  


This report describes the microscopical and immunohistochemical characteristics of littoral cell angiosarcoma in a 12-year-old, neutered female, beagle dog. The dog succumbed to metastatic disease 3 months after diagnosis of a mid-splenic mass. The tumour was characterized by two histological patterns: anastomosing microvascular channels and microvascular papillary fronds. The neoplastic cells expressed both endothelial and histiocytic markers and were erythrophagocytic. Immunohistochemical findings consistent with malignancy were CD34 expression and high Ki67 nuclear immunoreactivity. PMID:23453493

Gal, A; Yamate, J; Golbar, H M; Spoerer, K; Fredrickson, R



Blood glycated hemoglobin evaluation in sick dogs.  

PubMed Central

Blood glycated hemoglobin concentration reflects long-term serum glucose levels in dogs. In this study, the effects of several diseases on blood glycated hemoglobin levels have been evaluated. For this study, blood samples were drawn from 93 unhealthy dogs. The animals were distributed into 10 groups according to pathological process (group 1, digestive problems; group 2, leishmaniasis; group 3, anemia; group 4, dermatological disorders; group 5, urinary problems; group 6, cardiorespiratory problems; group 7, diabetes mellitus; group 8, insulinoma; group 9, general diseases; group 10, control group). Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations and hemoglobin and hematocrit values were analyzed in all the animals. In diabetic dogs, a strong increase in blood glycated hemoglobin was observed when compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). In contrast, dogs with insulinoma showed a decrease in blood glycated hemoglobin, though significant differences were not reported in all cases. No change in blood glycated hemoglobin concentrations were reported in dogs affected by other diseases. So, we can suppose that only the chronic alterations in glucose metabolism (chronic hyper- or hypoglycemia) can induce significant changes on the blood glycated hemoglobin concentrations in dogs.

Marca, M C; Loste, A; Unzueta, A; Perez, M



Genomic Analyses of Modern Dog Breeds  

PubMed Central

A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized world-wide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

Parker, Heidi G.



[Intersexuality in dogs: causes and genetics].  


Failures in the establishment of chromosomal, gonadal and phenotypic sex can cause intersexuality in dogs. Thus, diagnosis of chimaerism, mosaicism, sex reversal syndrome, and male or female pseudohermaphroditism in intersex individuals has to be based on the inspection of the chromosomes, gonads and the phenotypic appearance of the reproductive organs. In a study over two years, seven dogs of different breeds suspected to be intersexes were cytogenetically investigated. A sry-negative XX-sex reversal syndrome was diagnosed in a Jack Russel Terrier. In a mixbred dog a persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) was found and a Border Terrier Dog showed an XX/XY chromosomal chimaerism. In further four dogs of different breeds, a female constitution of sex chromosomes was seen. As a sign of intersexuality each of these dog showed an enlarged clitoris. A differentiation between XX-sex reversal syndrome and female pseudohermaphroditism was not possible because there was no information on the internal genital tract and gonads available. PMID:15287579

Kuiper, H; Distl, O



Intermediate-term outcome of primary digit amputations in patients with diabetes mellitus who have forefoot sepsis requiring hospitalization and presumed adequate circulatory status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The intermediate success and outcome of primary forefoot amputations in patients with diabetes mellitus who have sepsis limited to the forefoot and presumed adequate forefoot perfusion, as determined by means of noninvasive methods, was studied. Methods: Cases of a university hospital-based practice from January 1984 to April 1998 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included had diabetes mellitus with forefoot sepsis

Mark R. Nehler; Thomas A. Whitehill; Steven P. Bowers; Darrell N. Jones; William R. Hiatt; Robert B. Rutherford; William C. Krupski



Hybrid presumed pdf and flame surface density approaches for Large-Eddy Simulation of premixed turbulent combustion. Part 2: Early flame development after sparking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the second part of a work addressing the coupling of presumed probability density function (pdf) with flame surface density (FSD) for the premixed flame modeling in a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) framework. The main objective of this work is to propose approaches able to correctly describe local flame speed as well as detailed chemistry. Models based on the

Guillaume Lecocq; Stéphane Richard; Olivier Colin; Luc Vervisch



Even Lesbian Youths or Those Presumed to Be Lesbians Are Protected by the Constitution of Uganda--But to a Limited Extent: Rules the High Court  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Ugandan Penal Code criminalizes same-sex relationships. The author analyzes the Ugandan High Court decision where the judge relied on the Constitution and international human rights instruments to hold that law enforcement officers must respect the rights to privacy and human dignity even of those people presumed to be in same-sex…

Mujuzi, Jamil Ddamulira



Communication between domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris) and humans: Dogs are good learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication involves a wide range of behaviours that animals emit in their daily lives and can take place between different species, as is the case of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and humans. Dogs have shown to be successful at following human cues to solve the object choice task. The question is what are the mechanisms involved in these communicative abilities.

Angel M. Elgier; Adriana Jakovcevic; Gabriela Barrera; Alba E. Mustaca; Mariana Bentosela



What did domestication do to dogs? A new account of dogs' sensitivity to human actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades increasing evidence for an acute sensitivity to human gestures and attentional states in domestic dogs has led to a burgeoning of research into the social cognition of this highly familiar yet previously under-studied animal. Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) have been shown to be more successful than their closest relative (and wild progenitor) the wolf, and

Monique A. R. Udell; Nicole R. Dorey; Clive D. L. Wynne



Serological Discrimination of Dogs Infected with Gastric Helicobacter spp. and Uninfected Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the humoral immune responses of people to Helicobacter pylori infection has facilitated the investigation of the host response to bacterial virulence factors and the development of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. Dogs are commonly infected with gastric Helicobacter spp., but the presence of multiple Helicobacter spp. and possible coinfection in individual dogs have complicated serological evaluation. Evalu- ation




The genomics of selection in dogs and the parallel evolution between dogs and humans.  


The genetic bases of demographic changes and artificial selection underlying domestication are of great interest in evolutionary biology. Here we perform whole-genome sequencing of multiple grey wolves, Chinese indigenous dogs and dogs of diverse breeds. Demographic analysis show that the split between wolves and Chinese indigenous dogs occurred 32,000 years ago and that the subsequent bottlenecks were mild. Therefore, dogs may have been under human selection over a much longer time than previously concluded, based on molecular data, perhaps by initially scavenging with humans. Population genetic analysis identifies a list of genes under positive selection during domestication, which overlaps extensively with the corresponding list of positively selected genes in humans. Parallel evolution is most apparent in genes for digestion and metabolism, neurological process and cancer. Our study, for the first time, draws together humans and dogs in their recent genomic evolution. PMID:23673645

Wang, Guo-dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-chuan; Fan, Ruo-xi; Cao, Xue; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Liu, Fei; Wu, Hong; Cheng, Lu-guang; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Poyarkov, Nikolai A; Tang, Shu-sheng; Zhao, Wen-ming; Gao, Yun; Lv, Xue-mei; Irwin, David M; Savolainen, Peter; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-ping



Prevalence of gastric lesions in racing Alaskan sled dogs.  


Human and equine athletes are reported to have a high prevalence of gastric disease, and anecdotal evidence suggests a similar phenomenon applies to racing sled dogs. To investigate the prevalence of gastric disease in racing sled dogs, we conducted 2 gastroscopy studies on dogs competing in the annual Iditarod Sled Dog Race. A pilot study of dogs that were either dropped from the 2000 Iditarod Sled Dog Race because of illness or that finished the race indicated that, approximately 5 days after competing, 10 of 28 dogs (35%) had endoscopic evidence of gastric ulceration, erosion, or hemorrhage. The next year, an endoscopic study of 73 dogs participating in the 2001 Iditarod race was performed in order to evaluate a larger population of dogs. Data from 70 of these dogs could be used; 34 (48.5%) had ulceration, erosion, gastric hemorrhage, or some combination of these findings. When this group of 70 dogs was compared retrospectively to a control group of 87 dogs presented to the Texas A&M University (TAMU) Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, the Iditarod sled dogs had a significantly higher prevalence (P = .049) of gastric lesions. These findings suggest that, similar to athletes of other species, elite canine athletes have an increased prevalence of gastric disease compared to the canine population at large. PMID:12774971

Davis, M S; Willard, M D; Nelson, S L; Mandsager, R E; McKiernan, B S; Mansell, J K; Lehenbauer, T W


Spirocercosis in owned and stray dogs in Grenada.  


The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of Spirocerca lupi and its associated lesions in owned and stray dogs in Grenada. During 2001-2011 necropsies were carried out on 1022 owned and 450 stray dogs at the pathology diagnostic laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George's University, Grenada. Lesions due to S. lupi characterized by focal to multifocal granulomatous esophagitis with aneurysms, mineralized plaques and nodules in the adjacent thoracic aorta were found in 90 (8.8%; 95% confidence interval, 7.1-10.5%) of owned dogs and 64 (14.2%; 95% CI, 11.2-17.6%) of stray dogs. Stray dogs were significantly more affected by spirocercosis than owned dogs (p=0.0022). Of the 90 owned dogs with spirocercosis, 3 dogs had aberrant migration to the thoracic vertebral column with resultant spondylitis; 1 dog each had aberrant migration involving the stomach and the lung. Two dogs had ruptured aorta with hemothorax. Among the 64 stray dogs with spirocercosis, one dog had an esophageal granuloma that transformed into a fibroblastic osteosarcoma; spondylitis due to aberrant migration of S. lupi and hypertrophic osteopathy. We report spirocercosis for the first time in the dogs from a tropical island of Grenada. PMID:22841904

Chikweto, A; Bhaiyat, M I; Tiwari, K P; de Allie, C; Sharma, R N



Prostacyclin inhibits gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit in rats and dogs.  


Prostacyclin (PGI2) antagonizes 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2-induced diarrhea in rats, presumably by inhibiting the fluid accumulation of "enteropooling" in the small intestine. The effect of PGI2 on gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colonic transit was examined in rats and dogs to determine if interference with propulsion might also contribute to the antidiarrheal properties of this compound. Rats implanted with chronic duodenal cannulas were given subcutaneous PGI2 (0.1-1000 microgram/kg) followed 10 min later by intragastric 51Cr and a visually detectable duodenal transit marker. Forty-five minutes later, the animals were killed. Small-intestinal transit was expressed as the percentage of small intestinal length traveled by the visually detected marker. Gastric emptying was expressed as the percentage of the total 51Cr found in the small intestine. Subcutaneous PGI2 inhibited gastric emptying maximally at 10 micrograms/kg. Small-intestinal transit was significantly decreased at 50 micrograms/kg and almost completely suppressed at 1.0 mg/kg. Subcutaneous naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) given 10 min before and 20 min after subcutaneous PGI2 administration did not block PGI2's effects. Intravenous or oral PGI2 in doses as high as 0.2 or 10 mg/kg, respectively, had none of these effects. However, a high-dose intravenous bolus (1.0 mg/kg) or infusion (1.0 mg/kg X 45 min) both inhibited gastric emptying. Small intestinal transit was only decreased by PGI2 infusion, suggesting that this parameter was more sensitive to a sustained blood level than gastric emptying. Hourly injections of subcutaneous PGI2 (0.5 mg/kg) had no effect on rat colonic transit measured over a 3-h period after deposition of the transit marker through a colonic cannula in a manner similar to that described for small-intestinal transit above. Small-intestinal transit was also measured in dogs given a barium suspension through a chronic duodenal cannula. The animals simultaneously received subcutaneous PGI2 (10 micrograms/kg) and were given an additional treatment and an abdominal x-ray every 30 min thereafter. In vehicle-treated dogs, barium reached the cecal area in an average of 2.8 h after instillation. In PGI2-treated dogs, barium never reached the cecum in the 5-h examination period. Thus, PGI2 inhibits gastric emptying in rat and small-intestinal transit in rat and dog but has no effect on rat colonic transit. These properties could contribute to PGI2's antidiarrheal activity. PMID:6376267

Ruwart, M J; Rush, B D



The presumed Teplá-Barrandian/Moldanubian terrane boundary in the Orlica Mountains (Sudetes, Bohemian Massif): structural and petrological characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sudetes in southwestern Poland and northern Bohemia expose a Palaeozoic collage of the northeastermost extremity of the Variscan belt. One of presumed terrane boundaries occurs in the Orlica Mts, along the contact between the phyllite-amphibolite complex (Neoproterozoic?) of the Nové M?sto unit of probable Teplá-Barrandian affinities in the SW and the orthogneiss (Early Ordovician protolith) and mica-schist (Neoproterozoic?) complexes of the Orlica-?nie?nik unit in the NE, most likely representing the Moldanubian terrane. The synmetamorphic structural evolution of both adjacent units comprised four deformation events. The Nové M?sto rocks have recorded an early stage of ductile, top-to-the SE thrusting (D1), which must have resulted in an early juxtaposition of the both terranes within a nappe pile. The original overthrust contact was subsequently modified by a dextral shear-dominated event (D2), which produced a 1 2 km wide shear zone at the boundary of both units, in which earlier fabric elements were overprinted and mostly obliterated. This deformation brought the lower-grade Nové M?sto rocks into present-day strike-slip contact with those of the regionally uplifted, higher-grade Orlica-?nie?nik unit. Postdating this juxtaposition are E W trending folds F3, which affect both the adjacent units. The contact shear zone also contains record of a late, top-to-the SW, semi-brittle, normal-slip displacement (D4), downthrowing the Nové M?sto unit. The peak, amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions were attained in the Orlica-?nie?nik unit and in the contact shear zone prior to the D2 event. They corresponded to maximum temperatures and pressures of ca. 600 °C and 10 kbar, respectively. The D1 thrusting event in the phyllites of the Nové M?sto unit took place under greenschist facies conditions (ca. 350 °C and 4.5 kbar) and its effects mostly survived the later amphibolite-facies metamorphism. These structural relationships are equivalent to those observed elsewhere in the Bohemian Massif on the Teplá-Barrandian/Moldanubian terrane boundary. The characteristic features of this boundary are a high metamorphic gradient but lack of metamorphic inversion; the occurrence of mid-Carboniferous stitching plutons; and the importance of mid-Carboniferous deformation that resulted in significant downwards movement of the low-grade Teplá-Barrandian terrane relative to the uplifted high-grade and hot lower to middle crust of the Moldanubian terrane. The downthrow of the Teplá-Barrandian occurred on ductile shear zones showing either down-dip-slip kinematics or that of transfer strike-slip, as was the case with the Orlica Mts., both kinematics being associated within the same, regional-scale, linked shear zone extensional system. The extensional crustal collapse must have been preceded by a SE-directed crustal stacking achieved through overthrust emplacement of the Teplá-Barrandian on top of the Moldanubian terrane.

Mazur, Stanis?aw; Aleksandrowski, Pawe?; Szczepa?ski, Jacek



Acute severe hemorrhage secondary to arterial invasion in a dog with thyroid carcinoma.  


A 7-year-old spayed female Labrador Retriever was referred because of progressive swelling and bruising of the neck, hemothorax, a possible mediastinal mass, and stridor. At the time of admission, the dog was recumbent, mentally dull, tachycardic, and hypothermic. Fluid therapy with hydroxyethyl starch and a balanced electrolyte solution was administered because of presumed hypovolemic shock secondary to hemorrhage; multiple units of packed RBCs and fresh frozen plasma were also administered. On the basis of the computed tomographic images, extensive subcutaneous, subfascial, and cranial mediastinal hemorrhage; hemothorax; prescapular lymphadenopathy; and a contrast-enhancing mass in the left cranioventral aspect of the neck were diagnosed. Exploratory surgery of the neck was performed. All subcutaneous structures were encased in a large blood clot. During dissection of the clot, pulsatile bleeding was observed just caudal to and to the left of the larynx; ligation of the left common carotid artery resulted in immediate cessation of the pulsatile bleeding. Further surgical exploration revealed a 2.5 x 2.5-cm mass adhered to the left common carotid artery at the level of the branching to the left cranial thyroid artery. The mass was removed; the histologic diagnosis was thyroid carcinoma. Three weeks after surgery, treatment with a combination of radiation and chemotherapy (doxorubicin and carboplatin) was begun. Thirteen months after surgery, the dog continued to be free from clinical signs of disease. PMID:12959383

Slensky, Kimberly A; Volk, Susan W; Schwarz, Tobias; Duda, Lili; Mauldin, Elizabeth A; Silverstein, Deborah



Microbial water quality and influences of fecal accumulation from a dog exercise area.  


The risk of water contamination by fecal bacteria may be increased if a watershed includes areas where feces accumulate as a result of specific land uses, such as areas where owners frequently exercise dogs. This study examined the effects of a year-round dog exercise area in the Burke Creek Recreational Area (BCRA) in the arid alpine environment of Stateline, Nevada. Burke Creek drains a small, high relief watershed, flows through a sedimentation basin in the BCRA, and enters Lake Tahoe. Over the course of 14 months, we analyzed water samples from the creek for Escherichia coli and collected feces from plots to estimate fecal accumulation. We found that accumulation was highly localized within the study area, amounting to approximately 100.1 lbs (45.5 kg) of dry matter in 14 months. Statistical analysis indicated, however, that fecal bacteria in water decreased as the stream flowed through the area, presumably due to effects of the sedimentation basin, wetlands, and die-off of E. coli in feces from exposure to environmental stresses. These results are useful for managing heavily used sites and understanding the effects of this type of land use on water quality. PMID:19004392

Garfield, Lynell; Walker, Mark



[Dog as a mammalian genetic model].  


Up to recently, studies on dog genetics were rather scare notwithstanding the enormous potential that the canine model can offer in the study of the genotype/phenotype relationship and the analysis of the causes of many genetic diseases, with simple or complex inheritance, that affect dogs but also the human population. This potentiality is essentially due to the natural history of dogs whose domestication from wolves dated back 15,000 years, at least. All modern dogs originated from a limited number of female wolves from Eastern Asia. By applying a combination of selections and strong inbreeding practices, humans have created over 350 breeds, each of them corresponding to a genetic isolate and altogether offering a unique panel of polymorphism never encountered in any other mammals. In this review we summarized what makes dogs an unavoidable model. Contrary to the classical models like the two yeasts, nematode, fish, fly, mouse, or rat mainly used to understand the function of genes, dog with the creation across the centuries of numerous breeds offers a unique opportunity to study the role of their alleles. We report recent data on the construction of genomic maps and on the sequencing program of the dog genome launched by the National Institute of Health (NIH). To take fully advantage of the canine model, we advocate for the systematic construction of a rich canine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) ressource to perform linkage desiquilibrium studies of normal or pathological traits as well as to get insight into the genetic diversity of the canine species. PMID:15361341

Galibert, Francis; André, Catherine; Hitte, Christophe


Dog bite injuries to the hand.  


Dog bites to the hand and forearm are common. Although bites are usually minor, aggressive dogs may cause extensive bites developing to a public health problem. In a database review of dog bites to the hand applied to Emergency Department or to the Department of Hand Surgery in Malmö, Sweden 2008-2009, we found 81 cases [42 men and 39 women; median age 45 (range 2-88) years]. Three of 81 (4%) were children younger than 11 years. Six of the 81 (8%) patients included had bilateral injuries. Seventy-five patients were treated at the Department of Hand Surgery, where 31 of 75 (41%) were admitted to hospital in 181 days (median 4, range 1-20). The injuries included lacerations of the skin, muscle, and tendons as well as fractures, arterial and nerve injuries, and traumatic amputations of fingers. Some cases developed infections, necrosis of muscle and skin, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and even sepsis. A total of 96 operations were done for 51 patients (median 1, range 1-8) and the patients had 343 (median 2, range 0-22) outpatient visits. Almost half of the bites occurred when the patients was trying to separate two fighting dogs. The size of the lacerations increased with the size of the dog. Serious infections were found independently of size of dog. We suggest that education of owners and the public, reporting of all bites, and control of animals are some of the actions to reduce the number of attacks. At least one serious case could have been prevented if the dog had been put down after a previous serious attack. PMID:21504280

Nygaard, Marianne; Dahlin, Lars B



Variability of estradiol concentration in normal dogs.  


Estradiol concentrations are evaluated in canine serum as part of an adrenal panel used to diagnose atypical Cushing's syndrome and other endocrine abnormalities. Estradiol concentrations are often elevated in dogs without clinical signs of hyperestrogenism, and the significance of this elevation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to estimate the variation in estradiol concentrations in normal dogs. Ten neutered male and female dogs were enrolled in the study. Blood was collected from each dog at 2 h intervals, four times during a given day. This was repeated approximately 1 (week 2) and 5 weeks later (week 6). There was no attempt for a given dog to be started at the exact time or day each week. Results showed that estradiol concentrations ranged from 44.6 to 120.3 pg/mL with a mean of 70.4 pg/mL, which is greater than the upper limit of normal for our laboratory (69 pg/mL). The mean difference between the highest and lowest concentrations for each dog was 28.8 pg/mL, with a range of 12.5-53.5 pg/mL. Mean estradiol concentrations from week 6 (63.2 pg/mL) were significantly lower than those from week 1 (71.4 pg/mL; P=0.015) and week 2 (76.5 pg/mL; P=0.0004). These data show a wide range of variability in estradiol concentration both within and between dogs and that these measurements often exceed the normal ranges established by the laboratory. Therefore, diagnosis of hyperestrogenism or atypical Cushing's syndrome based on increased estradiol concentrations should require compatible clinical presentation of hyperestrogenism together with elevated serum estradiol. PMID:20456717

Frank, Linda A; Mullins, Rebekah; Rohrbach, Barton W



Vitamin E and exertional rhabdomyolysis during endurance sled dog racing.  


Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in sled dogs, animals with high energy expenditures that consume high fat (60% of ingested calories) diets. Associations between pre-race plasma [vitamin E] and total antioxidant status (TAS) and risk of developing ER were examined in dogs competing in the 1998 Iditarod race. Pre-race blood samples were collected from 750 dogs and a second sample was collected from 158 dogs withdrawn from the race at various times. Plasma creatine kinase activity was used to identify withdrawn dogs with ER. There was no association between pre-race plasma [vitamin E] and risk of development of ER. Dogs that developed ER started the race with higher TAS, but when withdrawn, had lower TAS than unaffected dogs and had similar pre-race [vitamin E] but higher [vitamin E] at time of withdrawal. Hence, the risk of ER in sled dogs is not affected by plasma [vitamin E] before the race. PMID:11297943

Piercy, R J; Hinchcliff, K W; Morley, P S; DiSilvestro, R A; Reinhart, G A; Nelson, S L; Schmidt, K E; Craig, A M



Toxicology Studies with Azotomycin (Nsc 56654) IN Beagle Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The toxicity of azotomycin was studied in beagle dogs, which received single intravenous doses, 24-hour intravenous infusions, or 6 weekly intravenous doses. Azotomycin toxicosis in dogs was characterized by emesis, anorexia, mydriasis of short duration, ...

R. K. Morrison D. E. Brown E. K. Timmens M. A. Nieglos R. M. Tassini



Microcytosis does not predict serum iron concentrations in anaemic dogs.  


To determine whether microcytosis can be used to predict hyposideremia in dogs, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were measured in 12 control and 45 anaemic dogs. Hyposideremia was found in all dogs with chronic haemorrhage and occasionally in other dogs but mainly associated with inflammation. An ROC curve analysis demonstrated that microcytosis did not discriminate hyposideremic dogs or hyposideremic dogs with normal TIBC from non-hyposideremic dogs. At the optimised cut-off value determined using the ROC curve (MCV=60.9 fL), diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were 44.4%, 84.6%, 2.89 and 0.66 for hyposideremia, and 60.0%, 83.0%, 3.53 and 0.49 for hyposideremia not associated with decreased TIBC. The results indicate that microcytosis may not be a hallmark of hyposideremia in dogs. PMID:19632869

Paltrinieri, Saverio; Preatoni, Marco; Rossi, Silvia



9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and research...



Outcomes of Dogs Presented for Cataract Evaluation: A Retrospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and forty-four dogs were evaluated for cataracts at the University of Tennessee from January 2001 to December 2002. Fifty-four canine breeds were affected. Odds ratios for cataracts were significantly higher for six purebred dogs (including the cocker spaniel, miniature schnauzer, toy poodle, Boston terrier, miniature poodle, and bichon frise) compared with mixed-breed dogs. One hundred fifty-nine dogs did

EA Hendrix; Diane Hendrix



Glucagon stimulation test for estimating endogenous insulin secretion in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-one dogs (27 diabetic dogs, four that had recovered from diabetes and 20 healthy control dogs) were given 0·5 or 1·0 mg glucagon intravenously. Blood samples were taken before the injection and 10 and 20 minutes after it. Samples were analysed to determine C-peptide, insulin and glucose concentrations, and one sample from each dog was analysed for fructosamine. The median

T. Fall; B. Holm; Ĺ. Karlsson; K. M. Ahlgren; O. Kämpe; H. von Euler



Dogs ( Canis familiaris ) are Adapted to Receive Human Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, evidence has been accumulating that domestic dogs (Canisfamiliaris)havespecializedskillsinreadinghuman-givencommunicativecues (e.g., pointing gestures). These skills seem to be the result\\u000a of selection pressures during the process of domestication and therefore an adaptation to the dogs' environment, namely human\\u000a societies. Also, current evidence suggests that dogs' understanding of human gestures is more flexible than was formerly thought.\\u000a More specifically, dogs

Juliane Kaminski


Transmission of Ehrlichia canis to dogs by ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus).  


Two strains of Rhipicephalus sanguineus acquired Ehrlichia canis by feeding as either larvae or nymphs on acutely infected dogs and, in subsequent instars, transmitted the agent to normal dogs. Three strains of R sanguineus transmitted E canis as adults after their larval and nymphal stages fed on infected dogs. More than 400 adult female ticks were fed on infected dogs as larvae or nymphs or both, but none transmitted E canis transovarially. PMID:1147359

Groves, M G; Dennis, G L; Amyx, H L; Huxsoll, D L



Spirocerca lupi in dogs: prophylactic effect of doramectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spirocerca lupi is primarily a parasite of dogs, which typically causes oesophageal nodules, aortic aneurysms, and spondylitis. This study investigated the efficacy of doramectin as a prophylactic agent for canine spirocercosis. Five beagle dogs were injected subcutaneously with doramectin (400?g\\/kg on 3 occasions 30 days apart q30d), while 5 other beagle dogs served as untreated controls. All dogs were inoculated

E. Lavy; S. Harrus; M. Mazaki-Tovi; H. Bark; A. Markovics; A. Hagag; I. Aizenberg; I. Aroch



Vitamin D3 metabolism in dogs.  


Plasma concentrations of the main vitamin D(3) metabolites (i.e., 25(OH)D(3), 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), and 24,25(OH)(2)D(3)) were measured in 14 weeks old large- and small-breed dogs (adult body weight 60 kg vs. 6 kg), raised under the same conditions. Levels of 25(OH)D(3) (approx. 22 microg/l) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (approx. 40 ng/l) were similar in both groups, whereas plasma 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations were lower in large-breed dogs (7 microg/l vs. 70 microg/l, large- vs. small-breed dogs, respectively). The lower plasma 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations could be explained by the higher plasma GH and IGF-I concentrations in the large- vs. small-breed dogs, and these hormones are known to suppress 24-hydroxylation. Plasma 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations increased during Ca supplementation in small-breed but not in large-breed dogs (100 microg/l vs. 7 microg/l, respectively). Hypophosphatemia induced by a high dietary Ca content was only seen together with increased plasma 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations in euparathyroid dogs and not in hypoparathyroid dogs. Hyperparathyroidism due to Ca deficiency was accompanied by increased plasma 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations and decreased plasma 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations in both large- and small-breed dogs, together with generalized osteoporosis. Large-breed pups fed on a standard diet supplemented with Ca and P had decreased plasma concentrations of both 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), which may indicate an increased clearance of these metabolites; the low plasma concentrations of the di-hydroxylated vitamin D metabolites were considered responsible for the disturbance in cartilage maturation (i.e., osteochondrosis) in these dogs. Even lower concentrations of all vitamin D(3) metabolites were seen in young dogs raised on a vitamin D(3)-deficient diet, and led to disturbed osteoid and cartilage mineralization (i.e., rickets). These studies indicate that there is a hierarchy of factors regulating vitamin D(3) metabolism in dogs, i.e., GH and IGF-I suppress 24-hydroxylase more than hypercalcemia or hypophosphatemia does; 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) are only reciprocally related in hyperparathyroidism; excessive Ca and P intake increases the turnover of vitamin D(3) metabolites; and the synergism between parathyroid hormone and 1,25(OH)D(3) seems to play a role in skeletal mineralization. The low plasma 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations in large-breed dogs raised on standard dog food may play a role in the etiology of disturbances in endochondral ossification during the rapid growth phase. PMID:12431792

Hazewinkel, H A W; Tryfonidou, M A



Neoplasms in young dogs after perinatal irradiation  

SciTech Connect

For a study of the life-time effects of irradiation during development, 1,680 beagles were given single, whole-body exposures to /sup 60/Co gamma-radiation at one of three prenatal (preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal) or at one of three postnatal (neonatal, juvenile, and young adult) ages. Mean doses were 0, 0.16, or 0.83 Gy. For comparison with data on childhood cancer after prenatal irradiation, examination was made of tumors occurring in young dogs in this life-span experiment. Up to 4 years of age, 18 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed, 2 of these being in controls. Four dogs that were irradiated in the perinatal (late fetal or neonatal) period died of cancers prior to 2 years of age. This risk was of significant increase compared to the risks for other experimental groups and for the canine population in general. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of all cancers and 56% (10 of 18) of all benign and malignant neoplasms seen in the first 4 years of life occurred in 29% (480 of 1680) of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation in dogs.

Benjamin, S.A.; Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Williams, J.S.; Brewster, R.D.; Long, R.I.



Cushing's disease in dogs: cabergoline treatment.  


The treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) in dogs has for a long time been focused on inhibiting the adrenal gland using drugs such as o-p'-DDD, Ketoconazole and Trilostane, without attacking the primary cause: the corticotrophinoma. Corticotroph cells can express the D2 dopaminergic receptor; therefore cabergoline (Cbg) could be effective as a treatment. Follow-up over 4 years was carried out in 40 dogs with PDH that were treated with Cbg (0.07 mg/kg/week. Out of the 40 dogs, 17 responded to Cbg (42.5%). A year after the treatment, there was a significant decrease in ACTH (p<0.0001), alpha-MSH (p<0.01), urinary cortisol/creatinine ratio (p<0.001), and of the tumor size (p<0.0001) evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance. Dogs responding to Cbg lived significantly longer (p<0.001) than those in the control group. To conclude, Cbg is useful in 42.5% of dogs with PDH, justifying its use as a treatment. PMID:17910968

Castillo, V A; Gómez, N V; Lalia, J C; Cabrera Blatter, M F; García, J D



[The nature of the dog--a contribution to the keeping and breeding of so-called fighting dogs].  


The behavioural repertoire of dogs derives from that of the wolf. But there are distinct race-specific differences which go back to the man's breeding influence in the course of domestication to develop special qualities in dogs. Today, dog keeping no longer corresponds to these qualities of dogs in many ways. We refer to the problems resulting from this and man's responsibility for the establishment of a man-dog relationship that is functional and responds to the dog's character. The abuse of certain dog behaviour by man has to be pursued consistently. In the same way we must also take care of an unforced integration of dogs into our society. PMID:1889368

Loeffler, K; Eichelberg, H



Rabies virus in the tonsils of a carrier dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A female dog, inoculated with a rabies isolate from the saliva of an apparently healthy Ethiopian dog, developed rabies but later recovered without supportive treatment. Rabies virus was isolated from the saliva collected 42, 169 and 305 days after recovery. Sixteen months after it recovered, the dog suddenly died after giving birth to two stillborn puppies. At necropsy, viral

M. Fekadu; J. H. Shaddock; F. W. Chandler; G. M. Baer



Factors associated with success in guide dog training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests of motor laterality and behavioral reactivity, as well as salivary cortisol concentrations, were examined in this pilot study to identify dogs best suited to guide dog work. Over a 14-month period, lateralization tests were conducted and cortisol concentrations were determined on 3 separate occasions, and temperament testing was performed on 2. Potential guide dogs (N = 43) involved in

Lara S. Batt; Marjolyn S. Batt; John A. Baguley; Paul D. McGreevy



Traveling with the Family Dog: Targeting an Emerging Segment  

Microsoft Academic Search

More Americans currently consider their dogs as part of their families and are more frequently including them in their travel plans. This study examines this phenomenon and the implications for the marketers of travel-related products and services. Empirical findings show that while over half of those surveyed report traveling with their dogs, many are unaware of the increasing dog-friendliness of

Michael J. Dotson; Eva M. Hyatt; J. Dana Clark




Microsoft Academic Search

Police dog service requires canines that are balanced in social, play, search and aggression behavior as well as physically healthy. Selecting for one or a limited number of genetic traits, such as extraordinarily high energy and aggression, can result in behavior that is counterproductive to police work. In addition to genes, life experience and training determine adult dog behavior. Dogs

Sandy Bryson


Ixodid tick species attaching to dogs in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out to investigate the occurrence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic dogs in Hungary. Forty veterinary clinics from a wide geographical area were asked to collect hard ticks from dogs and to complete a questionnaire. In total, 25 veterinary clinics submitted 900 ticks from 310 dogs. Intensity of infestation ranged from one to 78

Gábor Földvári; Róbert Farkas




Microsoft Academic Search

Information about the effectiveness of livestock guarding dogs for reducing coyote predation on sheep was gathered from livestock producers in the Animal Damage Control Livestock Guarding Dog Program and in Colorado. Eighty-two percent of the producers contacted reported that the performance of their dogs remained the same or improved during 1993 compared with previous years. Eighteen percent of the producers

Jeffrey S. Green; Roger A. Woodruff; William F. Andelt



Pancreatic basal secretion in alcohol-fed and normal dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical, histological, and crystallographic studies were carried out on basal pancreatic secretion of 4 dogs fed alcohol for 12–15 months and 11 control dogs. The results in alcohol-fed dogs when compared to normals showed that: (1) protein concentration was higher, (2) fluid was decreased; (3) conductivity was decrease leading to differences in ionic distribution: Cl- and H+ ion concentrations increased,

M. C. Noel-Jorand; E. Colomb; J. P. Astier; H. Sarles



A review of environmental enrichment for kennelled dogs, Canis familiaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic dogs can be housed in a variety of confined conditions, including kennels, shelters and laboratories. Concern over the well-being of dogs housed in human care has prompted much research in recent years into the enrichment of environments for kennelled dogs. This paper highlights the findings and recommendations arising from this work. Two types of general enrichment method are discussed,

Deborah L. Wells



Behavioural Differences of Dogs of Various Ages in Czech Households  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baranyiová E., A. Holub, M. Tyrlík, B. Janáăková, M. Ernstová: Behavioural Differences of Dogs of Various Ages in Czech Households. Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 229-233. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behaviour of dogs of various ages as viewed by their owners in the Czech Republic. The data were obtained in a questionnaire. The dogs were




Dogs' ( Canis familaris ) responsiveness to human pointing gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of 3 experiments, dogs (Canis familiaris) were presented with variations of the human pointing gesture: gestures with reversed direction of movement, cross-pointing, and different arm extensions. Dogs performed at above chance level if they could see the hand (and index finger) protruding from the human body contour. If these minimum requirements were not accessible, dogs still could

Krisztina Soproni; Ádám Miklósi; József Topál; Vilmos Csányi



Thrombocytosis associated with a myeloproliferative disorder in a dog  

SciTech Connect

A dog with a myeloproliferative disorder and thrombocytosis had clinical signs that were consistent with a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The dog was treated with aspirin, radioactive phosphorus, and melphalan. Eighteen months after referral, the disorder progressed to chronic granulocytic leukemia, and treatment was switched to hydroxyurea. Fourteen months later, the dog was euthanatized because of uncontrollable atrial fibrillation.

Degen, M.A.; Feldman, B.F.; Turrel, J.M.; Goding, B.; Kitchell, B.; Mandell, C.P. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))



Biology and ecology of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) is the most widespread tick in the world and a well-recognized vector of many pathogens affecting dogs and occasionally humans. This tick can be found on dogs living in both urban and rural areas, being highly adapted to live within human dwellings and being active throughout the year not only in tropical and subtropical

Filipe Dantas-Torres



Vitamin E and exertional rhabdomyolysis during endurance sled dog racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in sled dogs, animals with high energy expenditures that consume high fat (60% of ingested calories) diets. Associations between pre-race plasma [vitamin E] and total antioxidant status (TAS) and risk of developing ER were examined in dogs competing in the 1998 Iditarod race. Pre-race blood samples were collected from 750 dogs and a second sample

Richard J Piercy; Kenneth W Hinchcliff; Paul S Morley; Robert A DiSilvestro; Gregory A Reinhart; Stuart L Nelson; Karin E Schmidt; A. Morrie Craig



Unequal Contribution of Sexes in the Origin of Dog Breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs (Canis familiaris) were domesticated from the gray wolf (Canis lupus) at least 14,000 years ago, and there is evidence of dogs with phenotypes similar to those in modern breeds 4000 years ago. However, recent genetic analyses have suggested that modern dog breeds have a much more recent origin, probably ,200 years ago. To study the origin of contemporaneous breeds

A.-K. Sundqvist; S. Bjornerfeldt; J. A. Leonard; F. Hailer; H. Ellegren



Unequal Contribution of Sexes in the Origin of Dog Breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Dogs (Canis familiaris) were domesticated from the gray wolf (Canis lupus) at least 14,000 years ago, and there is evidence of dogs with phenotypes similar to those in modern breeds 4000 years ago. However, recent genetic analyses have suggested that modern dog breeds have a much more recent origin, probably ,200 years ago. To study the origin of contemporaneous

A.-K. Sundqvist; S. Bjo rnerfeldt; J. A. Leonard; F. Hailer; A ű. Hedhammar; H. Ellegren; C. Vila



Personality traits in the domestic dog ( Canis familiaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) has been subjected to a huge range of selection pressures during domestication that has resulted in a considerable diversity in morphology and behaviour. This, together with the many uses the dog is put to in our society, makes the dog an interesting model for studies of animal personality. However, only a few attempts have been

Kenth Svartberg; Björn Forkman



46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping...ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except...



46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping...ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except...



Comparative aspects of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in cats and dogs. Its incidence is increasing, possibly due to an increase in obesity in both species. Different types of diabetes have been identified in pet animals. The classification of diabetic dogs and cats is modeled after the human classification but especially in the diabetic dogs, many aspects are different. The diabetic cat,

M Hoenig



Spontaneous and Age-Related Testicular Findings in Beagle Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to characterize spontaneous testicular and epididymal microscopic findings in eighty control beagle dogs from toxicity studies. Hypospermatogenesis, characterized by randomly scattered missing spermatids and\\/or spermatocytes within seminiferous tubules, was observed in 75% of dogs six to seven months of age and declined to fewer than 10% in dogs over eleven months of age. Atrophy\\/hypoplasia of seminiferous




The Cost Efficiency of Wild Dog Conservation in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aside from Kruger National Park, no other suitable reserves of sufficient size exist in South Africa that will hold a viable population of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Consequently, conservation efforts have been focused on creating a metapopulation through a series of wild dog reintroductions into isolated fenced reserves. Additional potential exists for conserving wild dogs on private ranch land. Establishing




Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on dogs from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  


Uberlândia in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil, has 622 000 inhabitants and is located in the Cerrado biome, the South American savannah. The city dog population is estimated at 82 000 and identification of tick species and infestation prevalence on this host has not been determined. A major infectious disease of dogs in the city, canine ehrlichiosis, is transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. At the same time, autochthonous leishmaniosis has been recently described in the city and a role for dog ticks in the disease transmission has been supposed in Brazil. In this work, we present general information on dog ticks in Uberlândia municipality and region. Dogs from 33 farms and 31 districts were examined for ticks from July 2007 to February 2009. On the whole, 413 dogs were examined, 311 (75.3%) from the city and 102 (24.6%) from rural area. Overall infestation rate of dogs from Uberlândia was 37.3% and the mean infestation intensity was 3.25 parasites per dog. In the urban area, 100 dogs (32.2%) had ticks whereas 54 dogs (52.9%) from rural areas were infested. Four tick species were found: Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale and Boophilus microplus. In the city, only R. sanguineus and one A. cajennense was found on dogs and R. sanguineus and A. ovale were the main dog ticks in rural areas. PMID:20537111

Szabó, M P J; de Souza, L G A; Olegário, M M M; Ferreira, F A; de Albuquerque Pajuaba Neto, A



How Dogs Know when Communication Is Intended for Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one…

Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael



The Experience of Living with and Using a Dog Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of eight adults who use dog guides found four themes that described the experience of using a dog guide: increased confidence, increased independence, changed public interactions, and additional responsibilities or inconveniences. Most participants described their dogs as social "ice breakers" that led to increased interaction with…

Miner, Rachel Joy-Taub



Do Dogs (Canis familiaris) Seek Help in an Emergency?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of whether dogs recognize an emergency and understand the need to seek help from a bystander was tested in two experiments. In the first experiment, dogs' owners feigned a heart attack in an open field, and in the second experiment, dogs' owners experienced an accident in which a bookcase fell on them and pinned them to the floor.

Krista Macpherson; William A. Roberts



50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries...Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats running at large on a national wildlife refuge and...



50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries...Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats running at large on a national wildlife refuge and...



Chronic hepatitis in man and in dog: a comparative update.  


Chronic hepatitis is a frequent pathologic condition encountered in both dogs and humans; however, in the latter etiologic factors are usually searched and found that allow targeted therapeutic approaches, whereas in dogs this is less frequent. This review will take into consideration chronic hepatitis in dogs, and discuss differences and similarities between the two species with respect to this disease. PMID:22537369

Cerquetella, Matteo; Giuliano, Vittorio; Rossi, Giacomo; Corsi, Simona; Laus, Fulvio; Spaterna, Andrea; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Bassotti, Gabrio



MRI of surgically created pulmonary artery narrowing in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrowing of the pulmonary arteries was created surgically in twelve dogs. In six of the dogs the narrowing was central (main pulmonary artery), and in the remaining six the narrowing was located peripherally at the hilar level of the right pulmonary artery beyond the pericardial reflection. MRI and angiography were performed in all dogs. MRI clearly delineated the site of

R. J. Hernandez; A. P. Rocchini; E. L. Bove; T. L. Chenevert; B. Gubin



44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15...ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...



44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15...ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...



Spirocerca lupi in dogs: prophylactic effect of doramectin.  


Spirocerca lupi is primarily a parasite of dogs, which typically causes oesophageal nodules, aortic aneurysms, and spondylitis. This study investigated the efficacy of doramectin as a prophylactic agent for canine spirocercosis. Five beagle dogs were injected subcutaneously with doramectin (400 microg/kg on 3 occasions 30 days apart q30d), while 5 other beagle dogs served as untreated controls. All dogs were inoculated with 40 infectious S. lupi larvae (L3) one month after the last doramectin treatment. All control dogs and 4/5 treated dogs became infected. Two control dogs died of ruptured aortic aneurysms, while no deaths occurred in treated dogs. Oesophageal nodules appeared 40-103 day later in treated as compared to control dogs, and eggs appeared in the faeces 49-106 day later in treated as compared to control dogs. The mean faecal egg count on day 223 in the treatment group was reduced by 99.77%. All control dogs had thoracic radiographic changes during the study, while only 2/5 study dogs showed radiographic changes. This study shows that although doramectin did not entirely prevent canine spirocercosis it reduced the clinical signs associated with infection and delayed and reduced egg output. PMID:13129670

Lavy, E; Harrus, S; Mazaki-Tovi, M; Bark, H; Markovics, A; Hagag, A; Aizenberg, I; Aroch, I



Retinal Disease in the N.Z. Working Dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir, — It may be of interest to some rural practitioners, having an upsurge in requests for opthalmoscopic examinations of working dogs, to know that at present this practice is engaged in examinations at the National dog trials. Retinal disease is an increasing problem in both Huntaways and Heading dogs in this country. This is probably a result of the

Paul L. Hughes; Graham F. Joyce



Characterization of human–dog social interaction using owner report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dog owners were surveyed for observations of social behaviors in their dogs, using questions adapted from the human Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) pre-verbal module. Using 939 responses for purebred and mixed-breed dogs, three factors were identified: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors (INIT), response to social interactions (RSPNS), and communication (COMM). There were small or no effects of sex, age,

Lisa Lit; Julie B. Schweitzer; Anita M. Oberbauer



Prospective medical evaluation of 7 dogs presented with fly biting  

PubMed Central

Fly biting describes a syndrome in which dogs appear to be watching something and then snapping at it. Medical work-up of fly biting in dogs has never been reported. The aims of this case series were to characterize fly biting and perform a complete medical evaluation of dogs displaying fly biting.

Frank, Diane; Belanger, Marie C.; Becuwe-Bonnet, Veronique; Parent, Joane



Genetics of aggressive behaviour in Golden Retriever dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs have been living in close proximity to humans since the last Ice Age. Like their progenitor the grey wolf, dogs may respond with aggressive behaviour to certain stimuli. This is natural behaviour in the majority of cases. However, canine aggression can develop into a dangerous problem. There is individual variation in the tendency of dogs to display aggressive behaviour.

L. van den Berg



GICHD mine dog testing project - soil sample results #4  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data

James L. Barnett; James M. Phelan; Luisa M. Archuleta; Tyson B. Wood; Kelly L. Donovan; Susan Fae Ann Bender



Spirocerca lupi esophageal granulomas in 7 dogs: resolution after treatment with doramectin.  


Seven dogs with Spirocerca lupi esophageal granulomas were identified based on the site of involvement (ie, distal esophagus) and characteristic endoscopic appearance. Six dogs presented with signs of esophageal disease and 1 dog was asymptomatic. Ova were only identified in the feces of 2 dogs. On thoracic radiographs, 4 dogs had evidence of a caudodorsal mediastinal mass, and 2 of these dogs had spondylitis of midthoracic vertebrae. On endoscopy, single esophageal nodules were observed in 5 dogs, 1 dog had 3 nodules, and 1 dog had 6 nodules. All 7 dogs were treated with doramectin at a dosage of 200 microg/kg SC at 14-day intervals for 3 treatments. Dogs had physical and endoscopic examinations at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after treatment. By 6 weeks, clinical signs had resolved in 6 dogs (1 dog was asymptomatic), and the esophageal nodules had completely resolved in 4 dogs, and incompletely resolved in 3 dogs. Two dogs with incomplete resolution were treated again with doramectin at 500 microg/kg PO daily for an additional 6 weeks. Complete resolution of the esophageal nodules was confirmed by endoscopy in all dogs. Nodules had resolved in 4 dogs by 6 weeks, in 2 dogs by 12 weeks (after 6 weeks additional daily oral therapy), and in 1 dog 22 months after the initial 200 microg/kg treatment regimen. No dog experienced adverse effects to the drug, and all symptomatic dogs have been free of disease for periods ranging from 3 to 4 years. PMID:11110382

Berry, W L


Lifetime Dog and Cat Exposure and Dog and Cat Specific Sensitization at Age 18 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research about whether keeping a dog or cat in the home causes allergies to that pet has been limited to outcomes in early childhood. Objective Evaluate the association between lifetime dog and cat exposure and allergic sensitization to the specific animal at age 18 years. Methods Participants enrolled in the Detroit Childhood Allergy Study birth cohort in 1987–1989 were contacted at age 18 years. Sensitization to dog or cat was defined as animal-specific IgE ?0.35 kU/L. Annual interview data from childhood and follow-up interviews at age 18 years were used to determine lifetime indoor dog and cat exposure (indoor defined as the animal spent >50% of their time in the home). Exposure was considered in various ways: first year, age groups and cumulative lifetime. Analyses were conducted separately for dogs and cats. Results Among males, those with an indoor dog in the first year of life had half the risk (RR=0.50, 95% confidence Interval=CI 0.27, 0.92) of being sensitized to dogs at age 18 compared to those who did not have an indoor dog in the first year. This was also true for males and females born via c-section (RR=0.33, 95%CI 0.07, 0.97). Overall, teens with an indoor cat in the first year of life had decreased risk (RR=0.52, 95% CI 0.31, 0.90) of being sensitized to cats. Neither cumulative exposure nor exposure at any other particular age was associated with either outcome. Conclusions and clinical relevance The first year of life is the critical period during childhood when indoor exposure to dogs or cats influences sensitization to these animals.

Wegienka, Ganesa; Johnson, Christine Cole; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R.; Nicholas, Charlotte; Zoratti, Edward M.



Dog Breeding in New Providence, The Bahamas, and Its Potential Impact on the Roaming Dog Population I: Planned and Accidental  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the first known study on dog breeding in an Afro-Caribbean community. The study obtained the information on 517 matings through interviews with dog caregivers. Few litters (6.8%) from mongrels (potcakes) resulted from planned matings, whereas 66.5% of matings between purebred dogs were planned. Confinement of the female is often inadequate, and roaming dogs may have been responsible

William J. Fielding



DOG-SPOT database for comprehensive management of dog genetic research data  

PubMed Central

Research laboratories studying the genetics of companion animals have no database tools specifically designed to aid in the management of the many kinds of data that are generated, stored and analyzed. We have developed a relational database, "DOG-SPOT," to provide such a tool. Implemented in MS-Access, the database is easy to extend or customize to suit a lab's particular needs. With DOG-SPOT a lab can manage data relating to dogs, breeds, samples, biomaterials, phenotypes, owners, communications, amplicons, sequences, markers, genotypes and personnel. Such an integrated data structure helps ensure high quality data entry and makes it easy to track physical stocks of biomaterials and oligonucleotides.



Allogeneic Astrocytoma In Immune Competent Dogs  

PubMed Central

Abstract We have induced in canines long-term immune tolerance to an allogeneic cell line derived from a spontaneous canine astrocytoma. Allogeneic astrocytoma cells were implanted endoscopically into the subcutaneous space of fetal dogs before the onset of immune competency (<40th gestational day). At adulthood, dogs rendered tolerant successfully serve as recipients of intracranial transplants of their growing allogeneic, subcutaneous tumor. Transplanted dogs subsequently develop a solid brain tumor with histological features similar to the original astrocytoma. This model may allow rapid development and evaluation of new therapies for brain tumors, as well as afford tumor biology studies that are untenable in smaller, immune incompetent, or inbred animals harboring less representative tumors.

Berens, Michael E; Giese, Alf; Shapiro, Joan R; Coons, Stephen W



Spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in two dogs.  


This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in young Border Collie and Border Collie crossbred dogs. Histology was performed in one of the cases involving an unusual splitting of the elastin present within the wall of the aorta, consistent with elastin dysplasia as described in Marfan syndrome in humans. The first case involved a young purebred Border Collie that died suddenly and the second case involved a Border Collie crossbred dog that died after a 1-month history of seizures. Gross lesions included pericardial tamponade with dissection of the ascending aorta in the former case and thoracic cavity hemorrhage, mediastinal hematoma, and aortic dissection in the latter. Histologic lesions in the case of the Border Collie crossbred dog included a dissecting hematoma of the ascending aorta with elastin dysplasia and right axillary arterial intimal proliferation. PMID:16312247

Boulineau, Theresa Marie; Andrews-Jones, Lydia; Van Alstine, William



Skin Prick Test Extracts for Dog Allergy Diagnosis Show Considerable Variations Regarding the Content of Major and Minor Dog Allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Commercial skin prick test (SPT) extracts used for the diagnosis of dog allergy are prepared by extracting allergens from natural sources, e.g. dog hair and dander. Due to different starting material and extraction methods used, it is likely that extracts differ regarding their allergen contents. Methods: The total protein content and composition of dog SPT extracts from 5 European

Mirela Curin; Renate Reininger; Ines Swoboda; Margit Focke; Rudolf Valenta; Susanne Spitzauer



A Dog's Got Personality: A Cross-Species Comparative Approach to Personality Judgments in Dogs and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research offers a blueprint for how a cross-species comparative approach can be realized empirically. In a single design, parallel procedures and instruments were used in 2 species, dogs (Canis familiaris) and humans (Homo sapiens), to test whether personality differences exist and can be judged in dogs as accurately as in humans. Personality judgments of humans and dogs were compared

Samuel D. Gosling; Virginia S. Y. Kwan; Oliver P. John



?-Opioid receptor agonist injections into the presumed pre-B?tzinger complex and the surrounding region of awake goats do not alter eupneic breathing  

PubMed Central

Opioids are clinically important in the alleviation of pain. An undesirable side effect of opioids is depression of breathing. Data from isolated preparations suggest this effect is due to attenuation of discharge activity of neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötzC), a medullary area with respiratory rhythmogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to examine how [d-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), a ?-opioid receptor agonist, affected breathing after injection into the presumed preBötzC of the adult awake goat. We hypothesized that DAMGO would cause breathing to decrease and become irregular when injected into the presumed preBötzC and the surrounding region of the conscious animal. We further hypothesized that ventilatory sensitivity to CO2 and hypoxia would be blunted after the injection of DAMGO. Microtubules were bilaterally implanted into the presumed preBötzC of 10 adult female goats. After recovery from the surgery, DAMGO (0.5–10 ?l, 1 nM–10 ?M) was injected into the presumed preBötzC during the awake state. DAMGO had no effect on pulmonary ventilation [inspiratory minute ventilation (V?i)], respiratory rhythm and pattern, the activation pattern of inspiratory and expiratory muscles, or arterial blood gases during eupneic breathing conditions (P > 0.10). However, DAMGO attenuated (P < 0.05) the evoked increase in breathing frequency when inspired CO2 was increased, and DAMGO attenuated the V?i response to reduction of inspired O2 to 10.8% (P < 0.05). We conclude that our data do not provide support for the concept that in awake mammals opioid depression of breathing is due to a directed action of opioids on preBötzC neurons.

Neumueller, S. E.; Marshall, B. D.; Kiner, T.; Bonis, J. M.; Pan, L. G.; Qian, B.; Forster, H. V.



Brucella abortus infection in indigenous Korean dogs  

PubMed Central

Three dogs reared on a dairy farm with a high incidence for Brucella abortus were serologically positive for B. abortus and no other Brucella spp. The identity of the organism was confirmed to be B. abortus by AMOS (abortus melitensis ovis suis)-polymerase chain reaction with specific primers for B. canis. One hundred percent homology of the canine isolate and the bovine pathogen isolated from the farm was demonstrated. The only possible source of infection was infected cattle on the same farm. It is suggested that dogs be routinely included in brucellosis surveillance and eradication programs.

Baek, B. K.; Lim, C. W.; Rahman, M. S.; Kim, C-Hyun; Oluoch, A.; Kakoma, I.



[Aortic valvular dysplasia in a dog].  


A case of aortic valve dysplasia in a 6 year old male cocker spaniel is described. The dog was presented to the veterinarian because of strong dyspnea and frequent coughing. Clinical examination, EKG, radiographs and angiocardiography all pointed towards a tentative diagnosis of aortic insufficiency. Four months after the first appointment the dog was presented again with congestive heart failure, neural symptoms and strong abdominal pain. Electrocardiography and concentrations of LDH and CK were typical of myocardial infarction. Autopsy revealed a narrowing of the aortic valves in combination with a subaortic stenosis and several infarctions localized in the left ventricle as well as a recent infarction in the left kidney. PMID:2762790

Amberger, C; Varini, M; Schläffli, M



Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism in the Dog  

PubMed Central

Six adult pedigreed dogs were studied as long as 3 yr in order to determine the effects of cholesterol feeding and of bile diversion on absorption, synthesis, and storage of cholesterol. These measurements were based on cholesterol balance and isotope kinetic studies. In the six dogs fed a “cholesterol-free” diet with their enterohepatic circulations undisturbed, the rate of cholesterol synthesis ranged from 225 to 508 mg/day (mean 325 mg/day or 12.4 mg/kg/day). In two dogs studied subsequently on cholesterol-containing diets, absorption of cholesterol averaged 81% (range 71-94%) on a dietary intake of 0.5 g/day; on high cholesterol intakes (2.7-3.0 g/day) the rate of absorption dropped to 43-51% of daily intake, but the absolute amounts absorbed were increased. Feeding of cholesterol resulted in acceleration of bile acid formation and excretion, as well as nearly total inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. These two compensatory mechanisms were sufficient to maintain zero balance of cholesterol in the face of a high cholesterol intake. Plasma cholesterol concentrations in the two dogs increased by 37 and 44%. In two other dogs bile was completely diverted into the urinary system for nearly 2 yr. When these dogs were studied on a cholesterol-free diet, the sum of acidic steroids excreted daily in urine plus neutral steroids excreted in feces was seven times as high as before the operation. Since these massive excretory losses could not have been sustained by mobilization from tissue cholesterol pools, and since the rate of disappearance of [4-14C]cholesterol from the plasma after single intravenous injection was greatly increased after complete biliary diversion, total daily synthesis of cholesterol must have been greatly accelerated, for synthesis was totally unsuppressed. The increased output of fecal neutral steroids could be the result of transfer of plasma cholesterol across the gut wall or due to increased synthesis in the gut. Plasma cholesterol levels were reduced in these two dogs by 20 and 27%, and triglycerides decreased by 36 and 43%. Accumulation of cholesterol in body pools in the cholesterol-fed dogs appeared to have been prevented, according to antemortem measurements: increased absorption of dietary cholesterol was exactly balanced by suppression of cholesterol synthesis and enhanced bile acid excretion. In the bile-shunted animals, depletion of tissue stores of cholesterol could not be predicted by antemortem measurements.

Pertsemlidis, Demetrius; Kirchman, Ernest H.; Ahrens, E. H.



Endobronchial metastasis in a dog with sarcoma.  


A 3-year-old neutered male Australian Shepherd mix dog presented with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma arising from a primary tumor in the left lumbar fascia. Two separate metastases to the lungs were characterized by neoplasia within bronchiolar walls, which caused obstruction of the bronchiolar lumina and atelectasis of adjacent alveoli, a characteristic feature of endobronchial metastasis. Neoplastic cells of the primary lumbar neoplasm, metastatic pulmonary lesions, and additional widespread metastatic masses identified postmortem were similarly immunoreactive for vimentin, but non-immunoreactive for cytokeratin, cluster of differentiation 18, synaptophysin, chromogranin, and desmin. The present report describes a naturally occurring case of endobronchial metastasis in a dog. PMID:23782718

Schaffer, Paula A; Weishaar, Kristen M; Han, Sushan