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Sample records for vector-mediated presumed dog

  1. In vitro and in vivo gene therapy with CMV vector-mediated presumed dog beta-nerve growth factor in pyridoxine-induced neuropathy dogs.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Shin, Il Seob; Choi, Eun Wha; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Lee, Sang Koo; Youn, Hwa Young

    2008-12-01

    Due to the therapeutic potential of gene therapy for neuronal injury, many studies of neurotrophic factors, vectors, and animal models have been performed. The presumed dog beta-nerve growth factor (pdbeta-NGF) was generated and cloned and its expression was confirmed in CHO cells. The recombinant pdbeta-NGF protein reacted with a human beta-NGF antibody and showed bioactivity in PC12 cells. The pdbeta-NGF was shown to have similar bioactivity to the dog beta-NGF. The recombinant pdbeta-NGF plasmid was administrated into the intrathecal space in the gene therapy group. Twenty-four hours after the vector inoculation, the gene therapy group and the positive control group were intoxicated with excess pyridoxine for seven days. Each morning throughout the test period, the dogs' body weight was taken and postural reaction assessments were made. Electrophysiological recordings were performed twice, once before the experiment and once after the test period. After the experimental period, histological analysis was performed. Dogs in the gene therapy group had no weight change and were normal in postural reaction assessments. Electrophysiological recordings were also normal for the gene therapy group. Histological analysis showed that neither the axons nor the myelin of the dorsal funiculus of L4 were severely damaged in the gene therapy group. In addition, the dorsal root ganglia of L4 and the peripheral nerves (sciatic nerve) did not experience severe degenerative changes in the gene therapy group. This study is the first to show the protective effect of NGF gene therapy in a dog model. PMID:19043311

  2. Presumed primary muscular lymphoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Thuilliez, Céline; Watrelot-Virieux, Dorothée; Chanut, Franck; Fournel-Fleury, Corinne; Ponce, Frédérique; Marchal, Thierry

    2008-11-01

    A case of presumed primary muscular lymphoma in an 8-year-old, intact, male Newfoundland dog is reported. The dog was presented for evaluation of an infiltrating ventral cervical mass, respiratory distress, and anorexia of 1-month duration. Fine-needle aspiration of the mass revealed anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Despite chemotherapy, health status declined and the animal was euthanized a few weeks later. At necropsy, the mass infiltrated the cervical muscles and extended ventrally to the left forelimb and cranially to the tongue and laryngeal musculature. Other muscles were infiltrated by the same neoplasm (diaphragm and intercostal, abdominal, and gluteal muscles) indicating a probable multicentric origin. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which showed a strong muscular tropism. Immunohistochemical staining revealed neoplastic cell reactivity for cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) and Ki-67 antigens (70% and 90%, respectively). The neoplastic cells were negative for CD79a. The presumed histological diagnosis in this dog was primary muscular anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma. PMID:18987239

  3. Presumed lipid retinopathy in a diabetic dog.

    PubMed

    Halenda, R.M.; Moore, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    An eight-year-old neutered male diabetic Cardigan Welsh Corgi was presented for bilateral mature cataracts. Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation were performed routinely, and recovery was uneventful for several months except for lipemic aqueous flare which gradually resolved during the postoperative period. Five months following surgery the owner presented the dog for decreased vision. White retinal deposits were visualized ophthalmoscopically. Serum analysis revealed that the dog was concurrently markedly hyperlipemic. The patient's diet was changed from a high- to a low-fat diet, following which diabetes control improved, hyperlipemia resolved, and the retinal deposits decreased markedly in size. The retinal deposits seen ophthalmoscopically are presumed to be lipid based upon their association with marked hyperlipemia, and the concurrent resolution of hyperlipemia and the fundic lesions. PMID:11397228

  4. Presumed brain infarctions in two dogs with systemic leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    José-López, R; la Fuente, C De; Añor, S

    2012-09-01

    Clinical signs and magnetic resonance imaging findings of multiple brain infarcts in two dogs infected with Leishmania spp. are reported. Clinical signs of intracranial dysfunction were peracute and there was no further deterioration. Magnetic resonance images of the brain were consistent with multifocal, non-haemorrhagic, ischaemic lesions. Routine serum biochemistry revealed hyperproteinaemia and hyperglobulinaemia. Serum antibody titres were highly positive for Leishmania infantum and Leishmania amastigotes were seen within bone marrow macrophages in both cases. Canine leishmaniasis can cause cerebrovascular alterations, such as vasculitis, that might predispose dogs to brain infarcts. PMID:22882167

  5. Early diagnostic imaging findings in juvenile dogs with presumed diskospondylitis: 10 cases (2008-2014).

    PubMed

    Kirberger, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe early diagnostic imaging findings in juvenile dogs with diskospondylitis. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 10 client-owned dogs < 6 months of age. PROCEDURES Medical records were searched to identify juvenile dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of diskospondylitis. Signalment, history, examination findings, diagnostic test results, and imaging procedures were reviewed. Archived diagnostic images were retrieved and retrospectively evaluated. Data analysis was descriptive. RESULTS All dogs were evaluated for signs of vertebral pain ≤ 3 weeks after treatment for blunt trauma, bite wounds, or systemic illness. The earliest radiographic change was a narrowed intervertebral disk space (found for 28 disk spaces ≤ 2 weeks after evaluation for signs of vertebral pain); subluxation of adjacent vertebrae was identified for 8 of 28 affected disks, either initially or within the following 2 weeks. Vertebral end plate lysis was not an initial radiographic feature but was evident in follow-up radiographs. Ultrasonographic and transverse, multiformatted, volume-rendered CT images were obtained for 5 and 4 dogs, respectively. Ultrasonographic changes included ventrally bulging hypoechoic material at the affected disk site and loss of typical normal reverberation artifact in 4 dogs; these were detected prior to radiographic changes in 2 dogs. Affected disks on volume-rendered CT images had altered coloration in 3 of 4 dogs, and this was identified prior to radiographic changes in 1 dog. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Juvenile dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of diskospondylitis had early imaging findings that were atypical, compared with the changes described for adult dogs with this condition. PMID:27556268

  6. Presumed masitinib-induced nephrotic syndrome and azotemia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Devine, Lauren; Polzin, David J

    2016-07-01

    Masitinib mesylate is a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of nonresectable or recurrent, Grade 2 or 3 mast cell tumors in dogs. This report describes nephrotic syndrome and acute kidney injury attributed to masitinib and illustrates the need for regular monitoring of serum creatinine concentration, urinalysis, and urine protein:creatinine ratio during its use. PMID:27429464

  7. Non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of presumed intermedioradial carpal bone avascular necrosis in the dog.

    PubMed

    Pownder, Sarah L; Cooley, Stacy; Hayashi, Kei; Bezuidenhout, Abraham; Koff, Matthew F; Potter, Hollis G

    2016-08-01

    A 5-year-old, spayed female Weimaraner dog was evaluated for progressive left forelimb lameness localized to the carpus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to arrive at a presumptive diagnosis of intermedioradial carpal (IRC) bone fracture with avascular necrosis (AVN). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of naturally occurring AVN of the canine IRC diagnosed using MRI. PMID:27493290

  8. Vector-Mediated In Vivo Antibody Expression.

    PubMed

    Schnepp, Bruce C; Johnson, Philip R

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on a novel vaccine strategy known as vector-mediated antibody gene transfer, with a particular focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This strategy provides a solution to the problem of current vaccines that fail to generate neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 infection and AIDS. Antibody gene transfer allows for predetermination of antibody affinity and specificity prior to "immunization" and avoids the need for an active humoral immune response against the HIV envelope protein. This approach uses recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors, which have been shown to transduce muscle with high efficiency and direct the long-term expression of a variety of transgenes, to deliver the gene encoding a broadly neutralizing antibody into the muscle. Following rAAV vector gene delivery, the broadly neutralizing antibodies are endogenously synthesized in myofibers and passively distributed to the circulatory system. This is an improvement over classical passive immunization strategies that administer antibody proteins to the host to provide protection from infection. Vector-mediated gene transfer studies in mice and monkeys with anti-HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-neutralizing antibodies demonstrated long-lasting neutralizing activity in serum with complete protection against intravenous challenge with virulent HIV and SIV. These results indicate that existing potent anti-HIV antibodies can be rapidly moved into the clinic. However, this methodology need not be confined to HIV. The general strategy of vector-mediated antibody gene transfer can be applied to other difficult vaccine targets such as hepatitis C virus, malaria, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. PMID:26104192

  9. What is presumed when we presume consent?

    PubMed Central

    Pierscionek, Barbara K

    2008-01-01

    Background The organ donor shortfall in the UK has prompted calls to introduce legislation to allow for presumed consent: if there is no explicit objection to donation of an organ, consent should be presumed. The current debate has not taken in account accepted meanings of presumption in law and science and the consequences for rights of ownership that would arise should presumed consent become law. In addition, arguments revolve around the rights of the competent autonomous adult but do not always consider the more serious implications for children or the disabled. Discussion Any action or decision made on a presumption is accepted in law and science as one based on judgement of a provisional situation. It should therefore allow the possibility of reversing the action or decision. Presumed consent to organ donation will not permit such reversal. Placing prime importance on the functionality of body organs and their capacity to sustain life rather than on explicit consent of the individual will lead to further debate about rights of ownership and potentially to questions about financial incentives and to whom benefits should accrue. Factors that influence donor rates are not fully understood and attitudes of the public to presumed consent require further investigation. Presuming consent will also necessitate considering how such a measure would be applied in situations involving children and mentally incompetent adults. Summary The presumption of consent to organ donation cannot be understood in the same way as is presumption when applied to science or law. Consideration should be given to the consequences of presuming consent and to the questions of ownership and organ monetary value as these questions are likely to arise should presumed consent be permitted. In addition, the implications of presumed consent on children and adults who are unable to object to organ donation, requires serious contemplation if these most vulnerable members of society are to be

  10. Bilateral Presumed Tuberculous Choroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Naseh; Ghassemi, Fariba; Shojaei, Esfandiar; Moradnejad, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of bilateral presumed tuberculous choroiditis which resolved promptly with a short course of antituberculous therapy. Case Report: A 44-year-old lady presented with bilateral visual loss of 8 months’duration. Considering the presence of pan-uveitis, severe macular edema, multifocal leakage on fluorescein angiography, positive tuberculin skin test, and after excluding other diseases, she underwent anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) for disseminated choroiditis due to presumed ocular tuberculosis. She improved promptly and completely. There were no signs of relapse 18 months after completion of the treatment course. In a young patient with disseminated choroiditis and relatively short duration of symptoms, a course of ATT for 6 months may effectively treat the disease preventing relapse for a considerable period of time. Conclusion: In Presumed Tuberculous chroiditis early diagnosis is crucial for prompt and complete improvement. PMID:27413507

  11. Computational model of a vector-mediated epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Adriana Gomes; Dickman, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    We discuss a lattice model of vector-mediated transmission of a disease to illustrate how simulations can be applied in epidemiology. The population consists of two species, human hosts and vectors, which contract the disease from one another. Hosts are sedentary, while vectors (mosquitoes) diffuse in space. Examples of such diseases are malaria, dengue fever, and Pierce's disease in vineyards. The model exhibits a phase transition between an absorbing (infection free) phase and an active one as parameters such as infection rates and vector density are varied.

  12. AAV vector-mediated reversal of hypoglycemia in canine and murine glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Dwight D; Pinto, Carlos; Sun, Baodong; Li, Songtao; Kozink, Daniel M; Benjamin, Daniel K; Demaster, Amanda K; Kruse, Meghan A; Vaughn, Valerie; Hillman, Steven; Bird, Andrew; Jackson, Mark; Brown, Talmage; Kishnani, Priya S; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2008-04-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) profoundly impairs glucose release by the liver due to glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency. An adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing a small human G6Pase transgene was pseudotyped with AAV8 (AAV2/8) to optimize liver tropism. Survival was prolonged in 2-week-old G6Pase (-/-) mice by 600-fold fewer AAV2/8 vector particles (vp), in comparison to previous experiments involving this model (2 x 10(9) vp; 3 x 10(11) vp/kg). When the vector was pseudotyped with AAV1, survival was prolonged only at a higher dose (3 x 10(13) vp/kg). The AAV2/8 vector uniquely prevented hypoglycemia during fasting and fully corrected liver G6Pase deficiency in GSD-Ia mice and dogs. The AAV2/8 vector has prolonged survival in three GSD-Ia dogs to >11 months, which validated this strategy in the large animal model for GSD-Ia. Urinary biomarkers, including lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate, were corrected by G6Pase expression solely in the liver. Glycogen accumulation in the liver was reduced almost to the normal level in vector-treated GSD-Ia mice and dogs, as was the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in GSD-Ia mice. These preclinical data demonstrated the efficacy of correcting hepatic G6Pase deficiency, and support the further preclinical development of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy for GSD-Ia. PMID:18362924

  13. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Dogs and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  14. Modulation of Treg function improves adenovirus vector-mediated gene expression in the airway.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Y; Limberis, M P; Zhang, H

    2014-02-01

    Virus vector-mediated gene transfer has been developed as a treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease, a lethal inherited disorder caused by somatic mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. The pathological proinflammatory environment of CF as well as the naïve and adaptive immunity induced by the virus vector itself limits the effectiveness of gene therapy for CF airway. Here, we report the use of an HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), to enhance the activity of the regulatory T cells (T(reg)) and to improve the expression of virus vector-mediated gene transfer to the respiratory epithelium. Our study demonstrates the potential utility of VPA, a drug used for over 50 years in humans as an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizer, in controlling inflammation and improving the efficacy of gene transfer in CF airway. PMID:24385144

  15. Characterising dark matter searches at colliders and direct detection experiments: Vector mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmueller, Oliver; Dolan, Matthew J.; Malik, Sarah A.; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-09

    We introduce a Minimal Simplified Dark Matter (MSDM) framework to quantitatively characterise dark matter (DM) searches at the LHC. We study two MSDM models where the DM is a Dirac fermion which interacts with a vector and axial-vector mediator. The models are characterised by four parameters: mDM, Mmed , gDM and gq, the DM and mediator masses, and the mediator couplings to DM and quarks respectively. The MSDM models accurately capture the full event kinematics, and the dependence on all masses and couplings can be systematically studied. The interpretation of mono-jet searches in this framework can be used to establish an equal-footing comparison with direct detection experiments. For theories with a vector mediator, LHC mono-jet searches possess better sensitivity than direct detection searches for light DM masses (≲5 GeV). For axial-vector mediators, LHC and direct detection searches generally probe orthogonal directions in the parameter space. We explore the projected limits of these searches from the ultimate reach of the LHC and multi-ton xenon direct detection experiments, and find that the complementarity of the searches remains. In conclusion, we provide a comparison of limits in the MSDM and effective field theory (EFT) frameworks to highlight the deficiencies of the EFT framework, particularly when exploring the complementarity of mono-jet and direct detection searches.

  16. Characterising dark matter searches at colliders and direct detection experiments: Vector mediators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buchmueller, Oliver; Dolan, Matthew J.; Malik, Sarah A.; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-09

    We introduce a Minimal Simplified Dark Matter (MSDM) framework to quantitatively characterise dark matter (DM) searches at the LHC. We study two MSDM models where the DM is a Dirac fermion which interacts with a vector and axial-vector mediator. The models are characterised by four parameters: mDM, Mmed , gDM and gq, the DM and mediator masses, and the mediator couplings to DM and quarks respectively. The MSDM models accurately capture the full event kinematics, and the dependence on all masses and couplings can be systematically studied. The interpretation of mono-jet searches in this framework can be used to establishmore » an equal-footing comparison with direct detection experiments. For theories with a vector mediator, LHC mono-jet searches possess better sensitivity than direct detection searches for light DM masses (≲5 GeV). For axial-vector mediators, LHC and direct detection searches generally probe orthogonal directions in the parameter space. We explore the projected limits of these searches from the ultimate reach of the LHC and multi-ton xenon direct detection experiments, and find that the complementarity of the searches remains. In conclusion, we provide a comparison of limits in the MSDM and effective field theory (EFT) frameworks to highlight the deficiencies of the EFT framework, particularly when exploring the complementarity of mono-jet and direct detection searches.« less

  17. Nacystelyn enhances adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery to mouse airways.

    PubMed

    Kushwah, R; Oliver, J R; Cao, H; Hu, J

    2007-08-01

    Adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery has been vastly investigated for cystic fibrosis (CF) gene therapy; however, one of its drawbacks is the low efficiency of gene transfer, which is due to basolateral colocalization of viral receptors, immune responses to viral vectors and the presence of a thick mucus layer in the airways of CF patients. Therefore, enhancement of gene transfer can lead to reduction in the viral dosage, which could further reduce the acute toxicity associated with the use of adenoviral vectors. Nacystelyn (NAL) is a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and has been used clinically in CF patients to reduce mucus viscosity in the airways. In this study, we show that pretreatment of the airways with NAL followed by administration of adenoviral vectors in complex with DEAE-Dextran can significantly enhance gene delivery to the airways of mice without any harmful effects. Moreover, NAL pretreatment can reduce the airway inflammation, which is normally observed after delivery of adenoviral particles. Taken together, these results indicate that NAL pretreatment followed by adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery can be beneficial to CF patients by increasing the efficiency of gene transfer to the airways, and reducing the acute toxicity associated with the administration of adenoviral vectors. PMID:17525704

  18. Lentiviral Vector-Mediated RNA Silencing in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Edmund; Moon, Lawrence D.F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract RNA silencing is an established method for investigating gene function and has attracted particular interest because of the potential for generating RNA-based therapeutics. Using lentiviral vectors as an efficient delivery system that offers stable, long-term expression in postmitotic cells further enhances the applicability of an RNA-based gene therapy for the CNS. In this review we provide an overview of both lentiviral vectors and RNA silencing along with design considerations for generating lentiviral vectors capable of RNA silencing. We go on to describe the current preclinical data regarding lentiviral vector-mediated RNA silencing for CNS disorders and discuss the concerns of side effects associated with lentiviral vectors and small interfering RNAs and how these might be mitigated. PMID:24090197

  19. Therapeutic effects of viral vector-mediated antiangiogenic gene transfer in malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Hampl, M; Tanaka, T; Albert, P S; Lee, J; Ferrari, N; Fine, H A

    2001-09-20

    Malignant ascites is a common complication of advanced intraabdominal neoplasms for which standard treatments are suboptimal. Evidence suggests that tumor-mediated angiogenesis and enhanced vascular permeability in the peritoneal wall due to high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of malignant ascites. To explore the advantage of viral vector-mediated "targeted antiangiogenic therapy" in ascites formation, we constructed and administered adenoviral vectors encoding several different antiangiogenic proteins (angiostatin, endostatin, platelet factor 4, and a fusion protein between angiostatin and endostatin) alone or in combination intraperitoneally in mice with peritoneal carcinomatosis from breast cancer (TA3 cells) and ovarian cancer (SKOV-3 i.p. and ES-2 cell lines) to explore the potential of additive or synergistic activity. Our data demonstrated statistically significant downregulation of ascites formation, tumor growth, vascularity, and prolongation of animal survival after intraperitoneal treatment with antiangiogenic adenoviral vectors in three different ascites tumor models. Combined treatment proved to be more effective than treatment with one vector alone. Reduced ascites formation was accompanied by decreased microvascular density in the peritoneal wall and increased apoptosis of tumor cells after administration of antiangiogenic vectors in vivo. Of interest was the observation that AdPF4 caused a significant decrease in the level of VEGF secreted by tumor cells both in vitro and in TA3 ascites tumor-bearing animals in vivo. These data suggest that adenoviral vector-mediated delivery of genes encoding antiangiogenic proteins may represent a potentially new treatment modality for malignant ascites. PMID:11560766

  20. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer and RNA silencing technology in neuronal dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2011-02-01

    Lentiviral-mediated gene transfer in vivo or in cultured mammalian neurons can be used to address a wide variety of biological questions, to design animals models for specific neurodegenerative pathologies, or to test potential therapeutic approaches in a variety of brain disorders. Lentiviruses can infect non-dividing cells, thereby allowing stable gene transfer in post-mitotic cells such as mature neurons. An important contribution has been the use of inducible vectors: the same animal can thus be used repeatedly in the doxycycline-on or -off state, providing a powerful mean for assessing the function of a gene candidate in a disorder within a specific neuronal circuit. Furthermore, lentivirus vectors provide a unique tool to integrate siRNA expression constructs with the aim to locally knockdown expression of a specific gene, enabling to assess the function of a gene in a very specific neuronal pathway. Lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of short hairpin RNA results in persistent knockdown of gene expression in the brain. Therefore, the use of lentiviruses for stable expression of siRNA in brain is a powerful aid to probe gene functions in vivo and for gene therapy of diseases of the central nervous system. In this chapter I review the applications of lentivirus-mediated gene transfer in the investigation of specific gene candidates involved in major brain disorders and neurodegenerative processes. Major applications have been in polyglutamine disorders, such as synucleinopathies and Parkinson's disease, or in investigating gene function in Huntington's disease, dystonia, or muscular dystrophy. Recently, lentivirus gene transfer has been an invaluable tool for evaluation of gene function in behavioral disorders such as drug addiction and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or in learning and cognition. PMID:20862616

  1. Lymphocyte transformation in presumed ocular histoplasmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ganley, J.P.; Nemo, G.J.; Comstock, G.W.; Brody, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a higher mean response than the other two groups to pokeweed mitogen but not to phytohemagglutinin and had higher mean counts per minute to the specific antigens Toxoplasma gondii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M battery, and M gaus, but not to Candida albicans. These data would suggest that individuals with the disciform lesion of presumed ocular histoplasmosis have a hyperreactive cellular immune response; this response may play an important role in the development of the disciform.

  2. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation. PMID:25533260

  3. Etiological analysis of presumed perinatal stroke.

    PubMed

    Kocaman, Canan; Yilmaz, Yuksel

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the maternal, pre- and perinatal, and prothrombotic factors with congenital hemiparesis due to presumed perinatal stroke (PPS). Prothrombotic risk factors including protein C and S, antithrombin III, lipoprotein (a), homocystein, factor VIII levels; anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations, factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A mutations were investigated. Arterial ischemic stroke was detected in 60% and periventricular venous infarction in 40%. At least one prothrombotic risk factor was present in 69%, two in 17%, and three or more in 8.5% of cases. The most common combination was methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and factor V Leiden heterozygosity. The etiology and pathogenesis of PPS is still unclear. According to this study, most of the patients with PPS might have one or more prothrombotic risk factors and certain prenatal risk factors including intrauterine growth retardation, twin gestation and preeclampsia might be related to PPS. PMID:21561729

  4. [Diagnosis of presumed benign ovarian tumors].

    PubMed

    Laculle-Massin, C; Collinet, P; Faye, N

    2013-12-01

    Symptoms of presumed benign ovarian tumors (PBOT) are not specific (LE4). Personal or family history of gynecological cancers can guide the diagnostic strategy. Clinical examination is ineffective for positive, topographic and etiologic diagnosis of PBOT (LE4). Signs of hormonal impregnation may refer to certain types of tumors (LE4). For any patient presenting with a pelvic mass, pelvic ultrasound is in the first-line exam (grade A); it can classify most ovarian tumors. In case of pure liquid unilocular mass smaller than 7 cm, ultrasound is sufficient to characterize the mass (grade A). In case of indeterminate or complex ovarian mass on ultrasound, MRI is useful to characterize the mass (LE2). Beyond 7 cm, the diagnostic performance of ultrasound decreases (LE2). When a non-unilocular liquid ovarian formation is characterized using ultrasound as determinate mass, ultrasound scan is the only exam recommended (grade B). MRI is indicated as a second-line scan for indeterminate masses or greater than 7 cm (grade B). Cyst puncture for diagnostic purposes has no place in the diagnostic strategy of ovarian cysts (grade C). In case of PBOT in pre-pubertal period, dosing biomarkers is useful but should not delay care. In adult women with PBOT, the measurement of CA125 is not recommended for first-line diagnosis (grade C). Current literature data are not sufficient to specify the diagnostic strategy for an ovarian tumor discovered incidentally during laparoscopy. In case of discovery of a high CA125 value, pelvic ultrasound is the first-line examination. The literature data are still limited to define a CA125 threshold value requiring further exploration or special monitoring, in case of normal pelvic ultrasound. PMID:24210239

  5. Laparoscopic power morcellation of presumed fibroids.

    PubMed

    Brolmann, Hans A; Sizzi, Ornella; Hehenkamp, Wouter J; Rossetti, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is a highly prevalent benign gynecologic neoplasm that affects women of reproductive age. Surgical procedures commonly employed to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids include myomectomy or total or sub-total hysterectomy. These procedures, when performed using minimally invasive techniques, reduce the risks of intraoperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality; however, in order to remove bulky lesions from the abdominal cavity through laparoscopic ports, a laparoscopic power morcellator must be used, a device with rapidly spinning blades to cut the uterine tissue into fragments so that it can be removed through a small incision. Although the minimal invasive approach in gynecological surgery has been firmly established now in terms of recovery and quality of life, morcellation is associated with rare but sometimes serious adverse events. Parts of the morcellated specimen may be spread into the abdominal cavity and enable implantation of cells on the peritoneum. In case of unexpected sarcoma the dissemination may upstage disease and affect survival. Myoma cells may give rise to 'parasitic' fibroids, but also implantation of adenomyotic cells and endometriosis has been reported. Finally the morcellation device may cause inadvertent injury to internal structures, such as bowel and vessels, with its rotating circular knife. In this article it is described how to estimate the risk of sarcoma in a presumed fibroid based on epidemiologic, imaging and laboratory data. Furthermore the first literature results of the in-bag morcellation are reviewed. With this procedure the specimen is contained in an insufflated sterile bag while being morcellated, potentially preventing spillage of tissue but also making direct morcellation injuries unlikely to happen. PMID:26799759

  6. [Presumed benign ovarian tumors during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Tariel, O; Huissoud, C; Rudigoz, R C; Dubernard, G

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of ovarian tumors diagnosed during pregnancy is between 0.3 and 5.4% (LE2). The most common ovarian tumors diagnosed during pregnancy are functional cysts diagnosed incidentally during the first trimester ultrasound (LE2) and spontaneous regression is often observed. Dermoid cysts and cystadenoma are the most frequent organic benign ovarian tumors diagnosed during pregnancy (LE2). The main complication of presumed benign ovarian tumor (PBOT) during pregnancy is adnexal torsion and is estimated at around 8% (LE2), especially at the end of the first trimester and during the second trimester (LE4). Tumor markers are not reliable during pregnancy to assess the risk of malignancy of ovarian tumor (LE2). Ultrasound remains the gold standard for characterizing an ovarian tumor during pregnancy (LE3), but with a lower specificity for the diagnosis of malignancy. Pelvic MRI is accurate in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors during pregnancy and brings additional information to ultrasound (LE4). Ultrasound-guided aspiration of ovarian tumors is not recommended during pregnancy (grade C). Expectation is recommended in cases of PBOT during pregnancy, which does not enlarge (grade C). Whatever the gestational age, surgery is recommended in patients with symptoms suggesting an adnexal torsion (grade C). Laparoscopy is possible during the first and second trimester of pregnancy for the management of symptomatic PBOT (LE3). The risk of miscarriage following surgery (laparoscopy and laparotomy) for ovarian tumor during pregnancy is estimated at 2.8% (LE3). The route of delivery should not be modified by the ovarian tumour, except in case of praevia cyst requiring a cesarean section, a complication or suspicion of malignancy (grade C). Surgical treatment of PBOT may be performed during a cesarean section indicated for another reason. The risk of torsion is increased during the postpartum period (LE4). PMID:24210242

  7. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  8. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  9. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  10. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  11. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  12. Impaired clearance of accumulated lysosomal glycogen in advanced Pompe disease despite high-level vector-mediated transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Bird, Andrew; Li, Songtao; Young, Sarah P.; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Infantile-onset glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) causes death early in childhood from cardiorespiratory failure in absence of effective treatment, whereas late-onset Pompe disease causes a progressive skeletal myopathy. The limitations of enzyme replacement therapy could potentially be addressed with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy. Methods AAV vectors containing tissue-specific regulatory cassettes, either liver-specific or muscle-specific, were administered to 12 and 17 month old Pompe disease mice to evaluate the efficacy of gene therapy in advanced Pompe disease. Biochemical correction was evaluated through GAA activity and glycogen content analyses of the heart and skeletal muscle. Western blotting, urinary biomarker, and Rotarod performance were evaluated following vector administration. Results The AAV vector containing the liver-specific regulatory cassette secreted high-level hGAA into the blood and corrected glycogen storage in the heart and diaphragm. The biochemical correction of the heart and diaphragm was associated with efficacy, as reflected by increased Rotarod performance; however, the clearance of glycogen from skeletal muscles was relatively impaired, in comparison with younger Pompe disease mice. An alternative vector containing a muscle-specific regulatory cassette transduced skeletal muscle with high efficiency, but also failed to achieve complete clearance of accumulated glycogen. Decreased transduction of the heart and liver in older mice, especially in females, was implicated as a cause for reduced efficacy in advanced Pompe disease. Conclusion The impaired efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in old Pompe disease mice emphasized the need for early treatment to achieve full efficacy. PMID:19621331

  13. Pathological features of polyneuropathy in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ide, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Mizue; Inagaki, Takehiko; Tamura, Shinji; Saito, Miyoko; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canine polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder characterized by a dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. The etiology of the disease is diverse; it may occur in cases of infectious, immune-mediated, or hereditary conditions or in association with endocrinopathy, neoplasm, or chemical intoxication. It is often difficult to determine the etiology through clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate pathological differences among three canine polyneuropathy cases with each presumably having a different etiology. Cases included a 13-month-old female border collie (Dog No.1), a 21-month-old male chihuahua (Dog No.2) and an 11-year-old male beagle (Dog No.3). Clinical examinations revealed hindlimb ataxia and sensory loss in Dog No.1, forelimb paralysis and vertebral pain in Dog No.2, and paddling-gait and hypothyroidism in Dog No.3. Histopathologically, axonal swelling and pale myelin were observed in Dog No.1. Giant axons mimicking giant axonal neuropathy were obvious in Dog No.2. Dog No.3 showed atrophic axons and severe interstitial edema. Distributions of peripheral nerve lesions coincided with respective clinical symptoms. According to their clinical and pathological features, Dogs No.1 and No.2 were suspected of hereditary polyneuropathy, while Dog No.3 seemed to have hypothyroidism-associated polyneuropathy. As each case demonstrated unique pathological features, different pathogeneses of peripheral nerve dysfunction were suggested. PMID:23123885

  14. 20 CFR 416.1140 - The presumed value rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... described in § 416.1124(c)(12). (2) The presumed value rule allows you to show that your in-kind support and... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The presumed value rule. 416.1140 Section 416..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1140 The presumed value rule. (a)...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1140 - The presumed value rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... described in § 416.1124(c)(12). (2) The presumed value rule allows you to show that your in-kind support and... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The presumed value rule. 416.1140 Section 416..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1140 The presumed value rule. (a)...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1140 - The presumed value rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... described in § 416.1124(c)(12). (2) The presumed value rule allows you to show that your in-kind support and... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The presumed value rule. 416.1140 Section 416..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1140 The presumed value rule. (a)...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1140 - The presumed value rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... described in § 416.1124(c)(12). (2) The presumed value rule allows you to show that your in-kind support and... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The presumed value rule. 416.1140 Section 416..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1140 The presumed value rule. (a)...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1140 - The presumed value rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... described in § 416.1124(c)(12). (2) The presumed value rule allows you to show that your in-kind support and... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The presumed value rule. 416.1140 Section 416..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1140 The presumed value rule. (a)...

  19. Degenerative myelopathy in two Boxer dogs.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; Barber, R; Porter, B F; Peters, R M; Kent, M; Platt, S R; Schatzberg, S J

    2009-07-01

    Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a common, slowly progressive, debilitating disease reported in several dog breeds, including the German Shepherd Dog and Pembroke Welsh Corgi. Boxer dogs present occasionally for a thoracolumbar myelopathy for which no cause is identified on MRI or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Despite a lack of a histologic description of DM in the Boxer in the veterinary literature, such dogs are presumed to have DM. Here we report 2 histologically confirmed cases of DM in the Boxer breed in which histologic studies disclosed marked degenerative changes in the spinal cord that were most prominent in the thoracic and cranial lumbar segments. Lesions consisted of myelin vacuolation and degeneration, myelophagocytosis, reactive astrocytosis, and ellipsoid formation most prominent in the lateral and ventral funiculi. We present a detailed histologic description of DM in the Boxer dog and compare it to DM in other purebred dogs. PMID:19276068

  20. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Presuming cost-effectiveness results. 436.13 Section 436.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for...

  1. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Presuming cost-effectiveness results. 436.13 Section 436.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for...

  2. Enhancing chemosensitivity in oral squamous cell carcinoma by lentivirus vector-mediated RNA interference targeting EGFR and MRP2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Ju; Chen, Shiuan-Yin; Lovel, Ronald; Ku, Yi-Chu; Lai, Yi-Hui; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Li, Yu-Fen; Lu, Yin-Che; Tai, Chien-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is the eighth most common type of cancer among men worldwide, with an age-standardized rate of 6.3 per 100,000, and is the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality among men in Taiwan. Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are two of the most frequently utilized chemotherapy drugs for the treatment of oral cancer. Although oral cancer patients initially benefit from chemotherapy with these drugs, they may develop resistance to them, which worsens their prognosis and reduces survival rates. It has been reported that increased levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) induce drug resistance in numerous types of human cancer. Therefore, the present study employed lentivirus vector-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) in order to target the genes encoding EGFR and MRP2 in the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line OC2. It was observed that RNAi-mediated downregulation of EGFR or MRP2 increased the sensitivity to 5-FU and cisplatin in OC2 cells. Downregulation of EGFR resulted in significant suppression of OC2 tumor growth following 5-FU administration. However, simultaneous downregulation of the two genes did not further suppress the tumor growth, indicating that MRP2 does not have a significant role in the chemosensitivity of EGFR-downregulated cells to 5-FU. In contrast, downregulation of MRP2 was demonstrated to significantly enhance the therapeutic effects of cisplatin in EGFR-downregulated OC2 tumors. The observation that the expression of MRP2 was positively correlated with the level of cisplatin resistance in cells suggests that RNAi-mediated downregulation of MRP2 may be applicable as a therapeutic approach toward reversing MRP2-dependent cisplatin resistance in oral cancer. PMID:27602148

  3. Vector-Mediated Delivery of a Polyamide ("Peptide") Nucleic Acid Analogue through the Blood-Brain Barrier in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardridge, William M.; Boado, Ruben J.; Kang, Young-Sook

    1995-06-01

    Polyamide ("peptide") nucleic acids (PNAs) are molecules with antigene and antisense effects that may prove to be effective neuropharmaceuticals if these molecules are enabled to undergo transport through the brain capillary endothelial wall, which makes up the blood-brain barrier in vivo. The model PNA used in the present studies is an 18-mer that is antisense to the rev gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and is biotinylated at the amino terminus and iodinated at a tyrosine residue near the carboxyl terminus. The biotinylated PNA was linked to a conjugate of streptavidin (SA) and the OX26 murine monoclonal antibody to the rat transferrin receptor. The blood-brain barrier is endowed with high transferrin receptor concentrations, enabling the OX26-SA conjugate to deliver the biotinylated PNA to the brain. Although the brain uptake of the free PNA was negligible following intravenous administration, the brain uptake of the PNA was increased at least 28-fold when the PNA was bound to the OX26-SA vector. The brain uptake of the PNA bound to the OX26-SA vector was 0.1% of the injected dose per gram of brain at 60 min after an intravenous injection, approximating the brain uptake of intravenously injected morphine. The PNA bound to the OX26-SA vector retained the ability to bind to synthetic rev mRNA as shown by RNase protection assays. In summary, the present studies show that while the transport of PNAs across the blood-brain barrier is negligible, delivery of these potential neuropharmaceutical drugs to the brain may be achieved by coupling them to vector-mediated peptide-drug delivery systems.

  4. Early, sustained efficacy of adeno-associated virus vector-mediated gene therapy in glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, D D; Sun, B D; Damodaran, T V; Brown, T; Millington, D S; Benjamin, D K; Bird, A; Schneider, A; Hillman, S; Jackson, M; Beaty, R M; Chen, Y T

    2006-09-01

    The deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) underlies life-threatening hypoglycemia and growth retardation in glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia). An adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding G6Pase was pseudotyped as AAV8 and administered to 2-week-old GSD-Ia mice (n = 9). Median survival was prolonged to 7 months following vector administration, in contrast to untreated GSD-Ia mice that survived for only 2 weeks. Although GSD-Ia mice were initially growth-retarded, treated mice increased fourfold in weight to normal size. Blood glucose was partially corrected by 2 weeks following treatment, whereas blood cholesterol normalized. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was partially corrected to 25% of the normal level at 7 months of age in treated mice, and blood glucose during fasting remained lower in treated, affected mice than in normal mice. Glycogen storage was partially corrected in the liver by 2 weeks following treatment, but reaccumulated to pre-treatment levels by 7 months old (m.o.). Vector genome DNA decreased between 3 days and 3 weeks in the liver following vector administration, mainly through the loss of single-stranded genomes; however, double-stranded vector genomes were more stable. Although CD8+ lymphocytic infiltrates were present in the liver, partial biochemical correction was sustained at 7 m.o. The development of efficacious AAV vector-mediated gene therapy could significantly reduce the impact of long-term complications in GSD-Ia, including hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia and growth failure. PMID:16672983

  5. West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. Foundation wall and pipes in foreground. Wood foundation in background with railroad tracks beyond. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  6. Presumed Perinatal Stroke: Risk Factors, Clinical and Radiological Findings.

    PubMed

    Ilves, Pilvi; Laugesaar, Rael; Loorits, Dagmar; Kolk, Anneli; Tomberg, Tiiu; Lõo, Silva; Talvik, Inga; Kahre, Tiina; Talvik, Tiina

    2016-04-01

    It is unknown why some infants with perinatal stroke present clinical symptoms late during infancy and will be identified as infants with presumed perinatal stroke. The risk factors and clinical and radiological data of 42 infants with presumed perinatal stroke (69% with periventricular venous infarction and 31% with arterial ischemic stroke) from the Estonian Pediatric Stroke Database were reviewed. Children with presumed perinatal stroke were born at term in 95% of the cases and had had no risk factors during pregnancy in 43% of the cases. Children with periventricular venous infarction were born significantly more often (82%) vaginally (P = .0213) compared to children with arterial stroke (42%); nor did they require resuscitation (P = .0212) or had any neurological symptoms after birth (P = .0249). Periventricular venous infarction is the most common type of lesion among infants with the presumed perinatal stroke. Data suggest that the disease is of prenatal origin. PMID:26446909

  7. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  8. Lentiviral vector mediated modification of mesenchymal stem cells & enhanced survival in an in vitro model of ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A combination of gene and cell therapies has the potential to significantly enhance the therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The development of efficient gene delivery methods is essential if MSCs are to be of benefit using such an approach. Achieving high levels of transgene expression for the required period of time, without adversely affecting cell viability and differentiation capacity, is crucial. In the present study, we investigate lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of rat bone-marrow derived MSCs and examine any functional effect of such genetic modification in an in vitro model of ischaemia. Methods Transduction efficiency and transgene persistence of second and third generation rHIV-1 based lentiviral vectors were tested using reporter gene constructs. Use of the rHIV-pWPT-EF1-α-GFP-W vector was optimised in terms of dose, toxicity, cell species, and storage. The in vivo condition of ischaemia was modelled in vitro by separation into its associated constituent parts i.e. hypoxia, serum and glucose deprivation, in which the effect of therapeutic gene over-expression on MSC survival was investigated. Results The second generation lentiviral vector rHIV-pWPT-EF1-α-GFP-W, was the most efficient and provided the most durable transgene expression of the vectors tested. Transduction with this vector did not adversely affect MSC morphology, viability or differentiation potential, and transgene expression levels were unaffected by cryopreservation of transduced cells. Over-expression of HSP70 resulted in enhanced MSC survival and increased resistance to apoptosis in conditions of hypoxia and ischaemia. MSC differentiation capacity was significantly reduced after oxygen deprivation, but was preserved with HSP70 over-expression. Conclusions Collectively, these data validate the use of lentiviral vectors for efficient in vitro gene delivery to MSCs and suggest that lentiviral vector transduction can facilitate sustained

  9. Presumed and definite bacteremia in extremely low gestational age newborns

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sonal; Dammann, Olaf; Martin, Camilia R.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Leviton, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Aim To explore risk patterns for presumed and definite, early and late neonatal bacteremia. Methods We studied 1106 ELGANs who survived until postnatal day 28. We defined early definite bacteremia as a positive bacterial culture in the first week and definite late bacteremia as a positive bacterial culture in week 2, 3 or 4. Bacteremia was presumed if antibiotics were given for more than 72 hours despite negative blood cultures. Results Risk patterns did not differ much for presumed and definite bacteremia in the first postnatal month. While maternal and pregnancy characteristics were associated with early bacteremia, neonatal co-morbidities, especially NEC, were the main antecedents/correlates of late bacteremia. All four categories of bacteremia were associated with younger gestational age and lower birth weight. Infants with presumed and definite bacteremia had similar distributions of days of ventilation and oxygenation. Conclusion Definite and presumed late bacteremia have rather similar risk patterns, while those of early and late bacteremia differ appreciably. PMID:20712830

  10. Does Presumed Consent Save Lives? Evidence from Europe.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Zeynep Burcu

    2015-12-01

    One policy tool that could affect organ donation rates is legislative defaults. In this study, we examine how presumed consent impacts cadaveric donations and kidney transplantations, using a panel dataset from the EU-27 countries plus Croatia in the period 2000-2010. We find that presumed consent countries have 28% to 32% higher cadaveric donation and 27% to 31% higher kidney transplant rates in comparison to informed consent countries, after accounting for potential confounding factors. After studying willingness to donate one's organs and registering preferences for organ donation, we find that presumed consent could increase cadaveric donation rates, because people fail to register their preferences and many have no preference for organ donation. PMID:25273232

  11. 12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR FORCE INSIGNIA EMBLEM AFFIXED, 'AIR FORCE WEAPONS LABORATORY.' OTHER SIGN ON DOOR SAYS, 'BSD LIASON OFFICE.' INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6173, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Systemic responses of preterm newborns with presumed or documented bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Leviton, Alan; O’Shea, T. Michael; Bednarek, Francis J.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Dammann, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare the frequency of elevated concentrations of inflammation-related proteins in the blood of infants born before the 28th week of gestation who had documented bacteremia to those who had presumed (antibiotic-treated but culture-negative) bacteremia to those who neither. Methods The subjects of this study are the 868 infants born at 14 institutions for whom information about protein measurements on at least two of the three protocol days (days 1, 7, and 14) was available and who did not have Bell stage 3 necrotizing enterocolitis or isolated bowel perforation, which were strongly associated with bacteremia in this sample. Results Newborns with presumed early (week 1) bacteremia had elevated concentrations of only a few inflammation-related proteins, while those who had presumed late (weeks 2–4) bacteremia did not have any elevations. In contrast, newborns who had documented early bacteremia had a moderately strong signal, while those who had documented late bacteremia had a stronger signal with more protein concentrations elevated on two separate occasions a week apart. Conclusions Culture-confirmed early and late bacteremia are accompanied/followed by systemic inflammatory responses not seen with presumed early and late bacteremia. PMID:22085230

  13. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal building is not life cycle... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit...

  14. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal building is not life cycle... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit...

  15. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal building is not life cycle... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit...

  16. Presumed consent for transplantation: a dead issue after Alder Hey?

    PubMed

    English, V; Sommerville, A

    2003-06-01

    In the wake of scandals about the unauthorised retention of organs following postmortem examination, the issue of valid consent (or the lack of it) has returned to the forefront. Emphasis is put on obtaining explicit authorisation from the patient or family prior to any medical intervention, including those involving the dead. Although the controversies in the UK arose from the retention of human material for education or research rather than therapy, concern has been expressed that public mistrust could also adversely affect organ donation for transplantation. At the same time, however, the British Medical Association (BMA) continues to call for a shift to a system of presumed consent for organ transplantation. This apparent inconsistency can be justified because valid distinctions exist between the reasons requiring explicit consent for retention and the acceptability of presumed consent for transplantation. This paper argues for introducing a system of presumed consent for organ donation, given the overwhelming expressions of public support for transplantation. Ongoing legislative review in the UK provides an ideal chance to alter the default position to one where potential donors can simply acquiesce or opt out of donation. Combined with consultation with their relatives, this could be a much better method of realising individuals' wishes. It would also achieve a better balance between the duties owed to the deceased and those owed to people awaiting a transplant. PMID:12796433

  17. Ultrasonographic features of uterus masculinus in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chee Kin; Heng, Hock Gan; Hui, Timothy Y; Thompson, Craig A; Childress, Michael O; Adams, Larry G

    2015-01-01

    Uterus masculinus (persistent Mullerian duct) is a vestigial embryological remnant of the paramesonephric duct system in males and has been associated with clinical signs such as dysuria, incontinence, tenesmus and urethral obstruction in dogs. The radiological appearance of cystic uterus masculinus in dogs has been described previously with the aid of retrograde positive or negative contrast cystography. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe ultrasonographic features of confirmed or presumed uterus masculinus in a group of dogs with confirmed or presumed disease. Ultrasonographic findings were recorded based on a consensus opinion of two readers. A uterus masculinus was defined as cylindrical when no lumen was observed and tubular when it had lumen that was filled with anechoic fluid. Six dogs met the inclusion criterion with a mean age of 8 years and 9 months. Uterus masculinus appeared as single (four dogs) or two (two dogs) horn-like, tubular (four dogs) or cylindrical (two dogs) structures, originating from the craniodorsal aspect of the prostate gland and extending cranially. The walls of the uterus masculinus were isoechoic to the urinary bladder wall. The diameter of the observed uterus masculinus varied from 0.3 cm to 1 cm. The length of the uterus masculinus varied from 2 cm to 6.5 cm but the cranial terminal end was not identified in two dogs. Concomitant prostatomegaly was seen in five dogs (83.3%) and urinary tract infection was noted in three dogs (50%). Findings indicated that uterus masculinus should be included as a differential diagnosis for male dogs with these ultrasonographic characteristics. PMID:25074324

  18. Extradural spinal liposarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D D; Kim, D Y; Paulsen, D B; Kerwin, S C

    1991-12-01

    An 8-year-old female Doberman Pinscher was examined because of progressive, asymmetric, ambulatory caudal paraparesis. Myelography revealed extradural left ventrolateral spinal cord compression over the first and second lumbar vertebral bodies. A left hemilaminectomy, extending from the thirteenth thoracic to the second lumbar vertebrae, was done, and an extradural mass was removed. The tumor was identified histologically as myxoid liposarcoma. The dog's neurologic function improved gradually after surgery; however, at 7 months after surgery, hind limb neurologic function deteriorated rapidly over a 5-week period, presumably because of local recurrence of the tumor. The dog was euthanatized; necropsy was not permitted. PMID:1778745

  19. Dog bites.

    PubMed

    1991-04-01

    Although our canine companions can provide us with many hours of unyielding love and faithfulness, it is important to remember that these same loving creatures inflict 500,000 to one million bites per year, accounting for one percent of all emergency room visits nationwide. Ten percent of these injuries require suturing, one to two percent require hospitalization, and approximately one-third of dog bite injuries cause lost time from work or school. The United States Postal Service spends more than $250,000 annually just for prevention and treatment of dog bite injuries involving letter carriers! Still think that adorable pooch is harmless? Read on. PMID:1857330

  20. Renal clearance studies of effect of left atrial distension in the dog.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, M. J.; Discala, V. A.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the water diuresis of left atrial distension in 16 dogs on the basis of clearance studies employing hydration, chronic and acute salt loading, deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess, and distal tubular nephron blockade with diuretics. The diuresis was found in hydrated and salt-loaded dogs and was independent of DOCA and presumed renin depletion. It was not found in five dogs after distal tubular blockade. No significant reproducible saluresis was ever documented. The water diuresis was always stopped by exogenous vasopressin (seven dogs). Antidiuretic hormone inhibition with distal tubular nephron water permeability changes appears to be the sole mechanism of the diuresis of left atrial distension in the dog.

  1. Risk of Occult Uterine Sarcoma in Presumed Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rosa R; Wright, Jason D

    2016-03-01

    Symptomatic fibroids are a common indication for hysterectomy or myomectomy. Although rare, unexpected gynecologic malignancies in presumed fibroids have been documented. In cases where tissue retrieval is performed through morcellation, there is increasing concern that intra-abdominal dispersion of occult uterine malignancies may lead to peritoneal dissemination and worse outcomes. We examined the available literature to determine the prevalence of all uterine cancers in women undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy for benign uterine disease, with attention to the risk of morcellating occult uterine sarcomas. We also reviewed the available tools for preoperative discrimination between benign and malignant uterine disease. PMID:26645385

  2. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  3. Presumed Symbolic Use of Diurnal Raptors by Neanderthals

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Eugène; Laroulandie, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ≈100–60 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (≈90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60–40 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions. PMID:22403717

  4. Infectious endotheliitis: a rare case of presumed mycotic origin

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Luis Fernando; Paulo, José David; Restrepo, Carlos A; Velásquez, Luis Fernando; Montoya, Andrés E Toro; Zapata, Melissa A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report an interesting case of infectious endotheliitis of presumed mycotic origin. Methods A case report of a 56-year-old male farmer who sought medical attention after a month-long evolution of irritative symptoms in his right eye, accompanied by visual acuity (VA) impairment. The patient received topical and oral broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment with no improvement before being referred to a cornea specialist, where he was found to have VA of 20/150 and was noted on biomicroscopy to have endothelial feathery coalescent lesions. The patient was admitted to the hospital for an aqueous humor sample and intravenous voriconazole. Results The microbiological studies did not isolate any micro-organisms. However, clinical evidence of improvement was confirmed after 5 days of antimycotic intravenous therapy. Complete clinical resolution was achieved at 1 month after treatment completion with oral voriconazole, as evidenced by VA of 20/20 and disappearance of endothelial lesions. Conclusion Endothelial involvement by fungi is a rare condition. In this case, no microbes were isolated, but the characteristic morphology of the lesions, the history of onychomycosis, and the spectacular response to voriconazole turn this case into a valid presumptive diagnosis. PMID:23901253

  5. Two successive necrotic lesions secondary to presumed loxosceles envenomation.

    PubMed

    Tarullo, David B; Jacobsen, Ryan C; Algren, D Adam

    2013-06-01

    Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) envenomations with subsequent necrotic skin lesions occur infrequently, and systemic loxoscelism is rarer still. We report a case of 2 successive developing necrotic lesions, each on adjacent medial aspects of the legs, secondary to presumed Loxosceles envenomation. A 31-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented to the emergency department with 2, large, necrotic lesions, 1 on each medial thigh. They had progressed over the course of 1 month from small blisters to large necrotic lesions with eschar. He underwent surgical debridement without skin grafting with no further complications. Bites from recluse spiders that progress to necrosis usually present as single lesions. The differential diagnoses for a necrotic skin lesion is large. The presence of more than 1 lesion argues against Loxosceles envenomation; however, in the absence of underlying infection, systemic diseases, immunodeficiency, or malignancy, the diagnosis must be considered if the case presents in an endemic area. Brown recluse spiders rarely bite multiple times, thus confounding the diagnosis of an already nonspecific clinical finding. PMID:23352313

  6. rAAV2/7 vector-mediated overexpression of alpha-synuclein in mouse substantia nigra induces protein aggregation and progressive dose-dependent neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpha-synuclein is a key protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is the main component of the Lewy bodies, a cardinal neuropathological feature in the disease. In addition, whole locus multiplications and point mutations in the gene coding for alpha-synuclein lead to autosomal dominant monogenic PD. Over the past decade, research on PD has impelled the development of new animal models based on alpha-synuclein. In this context, transgenic mouse lines have failed to reproduce several hallmarks of PD, especially the strong and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration over time that occurs in the patients. In contrast, viral vector-based models in rats and non-human primates display prominent, although highly variable, nigral dopaminergic neuron loss. However, the few studies available on viral vector-mediated overexpression of alpha-synuclein in mice report a weak neurodegenerative process and no clear Lewy body-like pathology. To address this issue, we performed a comprehensive comparative study of alpha-synuclein overexpression by means of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors serotype 2/7 (rAAV2/7) at different doses in adult mouse substantia nigra. Results We noted a significant and dose-dependent alpha-synucleinopathy over time upon nigral viral vector-mediated alpha-synuclein overexpression. We obtained a strong, progressive and dose-dependent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, reaching a maximum of 82% after 8 weeks. This effect correlated with a reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum. Moreover, behavioural analysis revealed significant motor impairments from 12 weeks after injection on. In addition, we detected the presence of alpha-synuclein-positive aggregates in the remaining surviving neurons. When comparing wild-type to mutant A53T alpha-synuclein at the same vector dose, both induced a similar degree of cell death. These data were supported by a biochemical

  7. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  8. Experimental assessment of presumed filtered density function models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetsyuk, V.; Soulopoulos, N.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.

    2015-06-01

    Measured filtered density functions (FDFs) as well as assumed beta distribution model of mixture fraction and "subgrid" scale (SGS) scalar variance z '' 2 ¯ , used typically in large eddy simulations, were studied by analysing experimental data, obtained from two-dimensional planar, laser induced fluorescence measurements in isothermal swirling turbulent flows at a constant Reynolds number of 29 000 for different swirl numbers (0.3, 0.58, and 1.07). Two-dimensional spatial filtering, by using a box filter, was performed in order to obtain the filtered variables, namely, resolved mean and "subgrid" scale scalar variance. These were used as inputs for assumed beta distribution of mixture fraction and top-hat FDF shape estimates. The presumed beta distribution model, top-hat FDF, and the measured filtered density functions were used to integrate a laminar flamelet solution in order to calculate the corresponding resolved temperature. The experimentally measured FDFs varied with the flow swirl number and both axial and radial positions in the flow. The FDFs were unimodal at flow regions with low SGS scalar variance, z '' 2 ¯ < 0.01, and bimodal at regions with high SGS variance, z '' 2 ¯ > 0.02. Bimodal FDF could be observed for a filter size of approximately 1.5-2 times the Batchelor scale. Unimodal FDF could be observed for a filter size as large as four times the Batchelor scale under well-mixed conditions. In addition, two common computational models (a gradient assumption and a scale similarity model) for the SGS scalar variance were used with the aim to evaluate their validity through comparison with the experimental data. It was found that the gradient assumption model performed generally better than the scale similarity one.

  9. Normative consent and presumed consent for organ donation: a critique.

    PubMed

    Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

    2010-08-01

    Ben Saunders claims that actual consent is not necessary for organ donation due to 'normative consent', a concept he borrows from David Estlund. Combining normative consent with Peter Singer's 'greater moral evil principle', Saunders argues that it is immoral for an individual to refuse consent to donate his or her organs. If a presumed consent policy were thus adopted, it would be morally legitimate to remove organs from individuals whose wishes concerning donation are not known. This paper disputes Saunders' arguments. First, if death caused by the absence of organ transplant is the operational premise, then, there is nothing of comparable moral precedence under which a person is not obligated to donate. Saunders' use of Singer's principle produces a duty to donate in almost all circumstances. However, this premise is based on a flawed interpretation of cause and effect between organ availability and death. Second, given growing moral and scientific agreement that the organ donors in heart-beating and non-heart-beating procurement protocols are not dead when their organs are surgically removed, it is not at all clear that people have a duty to consent to their lives being taken for their organs. Third, Saunders' claim that there can be good reasons for refusing consent clashes with his claim that there is a moral obligation for everyone to donate their organs. Saunders' argument is more consistent with a conclusion of 'mandatory consent'. Finally, it is argued that Saunders' policy, if put into place, would be totalitarian in scope and would therefore be inconsistent with the freedom required for a democratic society. PMID:20663768

  10. Nigrostriatal α-synucleinopathy induced by viral vector-mediated overexpression of human α-synuclein: A new primate model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kirik, Deniz; Annett, Lucy E.; Burger, Corinna; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Mandel, Ronald J.; Björklund, Anders

    2003-01-01

    We used a high-titer recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector to express WT or mutant human α-synuclein in the substantia nigra of adult marmosets. The α-synuclein protein was expressed in 90–95% of all nigral dopamine neurons and distributed by anterograde transport throughout their axonal and dendritic projections. The transduced neurons developed severe neuronal pathology, including α-synuclein-positive cytoplasmic inclusions and granular deposits; swollen, dystrophic, and fragmented neuritis; and shrunken and pyknotic, densely α-synuclein-positive perikarya. By 16 wk posttransduction, 30–60% of the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons were lost, and the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive innervation of the caudate nucleus and putamen was reduced to a similar extent. The rAAV-α-synuclein-treated monkeys developed a type of motor impairment, i.e., head position bias, compatible with this magnitude of nigrostriatal damage. rAAV vector-mediated α-synuclein gene transfer provides a transgenic primate model of nigrostriatal α-synucleinopathy that is of particular interest because it develops slowly over time, like human Parkinson's disease (PD), and expresses neuropathological features (α-synuclein-positive inclusions and dystrophic neurites, in particular) that are similar to those seen in idiopathic PD. This model offers new opportunities for the study of pathogenetic mechanisms and exploration of new therapeutic targets of particular relevance to human PD. PMID:12601150

  11. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... Claimants. § 104.45 Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did...

  12. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... § 104.45 Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die),...

  13. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... § 104.45 Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die),...

  14. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... § 104.45 Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die),...

  15. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for... prior earned income, or who worked only part time outside the home, economic loss may be determined...

  16. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for...-time outside the home, economic loss may be determined with reference to replacement services...

  17. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for...-time outside the home, economic loss may be determined with reference to replacement services...

  18. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for... prior earned income, or who worked only part time outside the home, economic loss may be determined...

  19. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for...-time outside the home, economic loss may be determined with reference to replacement services...

  20. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites

    PubMed Central

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog bite prevention working as well as it should? In this novel, small scale qualitative study, the perceptions of victims regarding their dog bite experience were explored in-depth. The study recruited 8 female participants who had been bitten by a dog in the past 5 years. In-depth, one-to-one interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that dog bites may not be as easily preventable as previously presumed, and that education about dog body language may not prevent some types of dog bites. The reasons participants were bitten were multifaceted and complex. In some cases, there was no interaction with the dog before the bite so there was no opportunity to assess the situation and modify behavior around the dog accordingly. Identifying who was to blame, and had responsibility for preventing the bite, was straightforward for the participants in hindsight. Those bitten blamed themselves and/or the dog owner, but not the dog. Most participants already felt they had a theoretical knowledge that would allow them to recognize dog aggression before the dog bite, yet participants, especially those who worked regularly with dogs, routinely believed, “it would not happen to me.” We also identified an attitude that bites were “just one of those things,” which could also be a barrier prevention initiatives. Rather than being special to the human-canine relationship, the attitudes discovered mirror those found in other areas of

  1. Optimization of adenoviral vector-mediated transgene expression in the canine brain in vivo, and in canine glioma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Candolfi, Marianela; Pluhar, G Elizabeth; Kroeger, Kurt; Puntel, Mariana; Curtin, James; Barcia, Carlos; Muhammad, A K M Ghulam; Xiong, Weidong; Liu, Chunyan; Mondkar, Sonali; Kuoy, William; Kang, Terry; McNeil, Elizabeth A; Freese, Andrew B; Ohlfest, John R; Moore, Peter; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Phillip; Young, John D; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2007-07-01

    Expression of the immune-stimulatory molecule Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) and the conditional cytotoxic enzyme herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) provides long-term immune-mediated survival of large glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) models in rodents. A limitation for predictive testing of novel antiglioma therapies has been the lack of a glioma model in a large animal. Dogs bearing spontaneous GBM may constitute an attractive large-animal model for GBM, which so far has remained underappreciated. In preparation for a clinical trial in dogs bearing spontaneous GBMs, we tested and optimized adenovirus-mediated transgene expression with negligible toxicity in the dog brain in vivo and in canine J3T glioma cells. Expression of the marker gene beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) was higher when driven by the murine (m) than the human (h) cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter in the dog brain in vivo, without enhanced inflammation. In the canine brain, beta-Gal was expressed mostly in astrocytes. beta-Gal activity in J3T cells was also higher with the mCMV than the hCMV promoter driving tetracycline-dependent (TetON) transgene expression within high-capacity adenovirus vectors (HC-Ads). Dog glioma cells were efficiently transduced by HC-Ads expressing mCMV-driven HSV1-TK, which induced 90% reduction in cell viability in the presence of ganciclovir. J3T cells were also effectively transduced with HC-Ads expressing Flt3L under the control of the regulatable TetON promoter system, and as predicted, Flt3L release was stringently inducer dependent. HC-Ads encoding therapeutic transgenes under the control of regulatory sequences driven by the mCMV promoter are excellent vectors for the treatment of spontaneous GBM in dogs, which constitute an ideal preclinical animal model. PMID:17522335

  2. Lentiviral Vector-Mediated Gradients of GDNF in the Injured Peripheral Nerve: Effects on Nerve Coil Formation, Schwann Cell Maturation and Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, Ruben; de Winter, Fred; Hoyng, Stefan A.; Roet, Kasper C. D.; Ehlert, Erich M.; Malessy, Martijn J. A.; Verhaagen, Joost; Tannemaat, Martijn R.

    2013-01-01

    Although the peripheral nerve is capable of regeneration, only a small minority of patients regain normal function after surgical reconstruction of a major peripheral nerve lesion, resulting in a severe and lasting negative impact on the quality of life. Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent survival- and outgrowth-promoting effects on motoneurons, but locally elevated levels of GDNF cause trapping of regenerating axons and the formation of nerve coils. This phenomenon has been called the “candy store” effect. In this study we created gradients of GDNF in the sciatic nerve after a ventral root avulsion. This approach also allowed us to study the effect of increasing concentrations of GDNF on Schwann cell proliferation and morphology in the injured peripheral nerve. We demonstrate that lentiviral vectors can be used to create a 4 cm long GDNF gradient in the intact and lesioned rat sciatic nerve. Nerve coils were formed throughout the gradient and the number and size of the nerve coils increased with increasing GDNF levels in the nerve. In the nerve coils, Schwann cell density is increased, their morphology is disrupted and myelination of axons is severely impaired. The total number of regenerated and surviving motoneurons is not enhanced after the distal application of a GDNF gradient, but increased sprouting does result in higher number of motor axon in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve. These results show that lentiviral vector mediated overexpression of GDNF exerts multiple effects on both Schwann cells and axons and that nerve coil formation already occurs at relatively low concentrations of exogenous GDNF. Controlled expression of GDNF, by using a viral vector with regulatable GDNF expression, may be required to avoid motor axon trapping and to prevent the effects on Schwann cell proliferation and myelination. PMID:23951085

  3. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C R; Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin. PMID:23843389

  4. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C. R.; Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin. PMID:23843389

  5. Protective role of adenovirus vector-mediated interleukin-10 gene therapy on endogenous islet β-cells in recent-onset type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    LI, CHENG; ZHANG, LIJUAN; CHEN, YANYAN; LIN, XIAOJIE; LI, TANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide an animal experimental basis for the protective effect of the adenoviral vector-mediated interleukin-10 (Ad-mIL-10) gene on islet β-cells during the early stages of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. A total of 24 female NOD mice at the onset of diabetes were allocated at random into three groups (n=8 per group): Group 1, intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml Ad-mIL-10; group 2, intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml adenovirus vector; and group 3, was a diabetic control. In addition to groups 1, 2 and 3, 8 age- and gender-matched NOD mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml PBS and assigned to group 4 as a normal control. All mice were examined weekly for body weight, urine glucose and blood glucose values prior to onset of diabetes, and at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after that, and all mice were sacrificed 3 weeks after injection. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, insulin and C-peptide were evaluated, and in addition the degree of insulitis and the local expression of IL-10 gene in the pancreas were detected. The apoptosis rate of pancreatic β-cells was determined using a TUNEL assay. Compared with groups 2 and 3, IL-10 levels in the serum and pancreas were elevated in group 1. Serum IFN-γ levels were decreased while serum IL-4 levels and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio were significantly increased in group 1 (P<0.01). C-peptide and insulin levels were higher in group 1 compared with groups 2 and 3, (P<0.01). Furthermore, compared with groups 2 and 3, the degree of insulitis, islet β-cell apoptosis rate and blood glucose values did not change significantly (P>0.05). The administration of the Ad-mIL-10 gene induced limited immune regulatory and protective effects on islet β-cell function in NOD mice with early T1D, while no significant reduction in insulitis, islet β-cell apoptosis rate and blood glucose was observed. PMID:27168782

  6. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. PMID:26763220

  7. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... Claimants. § 104.45 Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1141 - When the presumed value rule applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1141 Section 416.1141 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1141 When the presumed value rule applies. The presumed value rule applies whenever we must count in-kind support...

  9. 20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721 Section 404.721 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.721 Evidence to presume...

  10. 20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721 Section 404.721 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.721 Evidence to presume...

  11. 20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721 Section 404.721 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.721 Evidence to presume...

  12. 20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721 Section 404.721 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.721 Evidence to presume...

  13. 20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721 Section 404.721 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.721 Evidence to presume...

  14. Is That Dog a Pit Bull? A Cross-Country Comparison of Perceptions of Shelter Workers Regarding Breed Identification

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Harrison, Natalie; Wolff, London; Westgarth, Carri

    2014-01-01

    Bull breeds are commonly kept as companion animals, but the pit bull terrier is restricted by breed-specific legislation (BSL) in parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom. Shelter workers must decide which breed(s) a dog is. This decision may influence the dog's fate, particularly in places with BSL. In this study, shelter workers in the United States and United Kingdom were shown pictures of 20 dogs and were asked what breed each dog was, how they determined each dog's breed, whether each dog was a pit bull, and what they expected the fate of each dog to be. There was much variation in responses both between and within the United States and United Kingdom. UK participants frequently labeled dogs commonly considered by U.S. participants to be pit bulls as Staffordshire bull terriers. UK participants were more likely to say their shelters would euthanize dogs deemed to be pit bulls. Most participants noted using dogs' physical features to determine breed, and 41% affected by BSL indicated they would knowingly mislabel a dog of a restricted breed, presumably to increase the dog's adoption chances. PMID:24673506

  15. Presuming Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biklen, Douglas; Burke, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    At least since the early 1990s, educators in inclusive schooling as well as scholars in Disability Studies have critiqued prevailing notions of intellectual ability and have suggested the importance of interpretive communities for constructing student competence (Biklen, 1990; Goode, 1992, 1994; Kliewer, 1998; Kluth, 2003; Linneman, 2001). This…

  16. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. PMID:25150161

  17. Impact of presumed consent for organ donation on donation rates: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rithalia, Amber; Suekarran, Sara; Myers, Lindsey; Sowden, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of a system of presumed consent for organ donation on donation rates and to review data on attitudes towards presumed consent. Design Systematic review. Data sources Studies retrieved by online searches to January 2008 of Medline, Medline In-Process, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, HMIC, PAIS International, and OpenSIGLE. Studies reviewed Five studies comparing donation rates before and after the introduction of legislation for presumed consent (before and after studies); eight studies comparing donation rates in countries with and without presumed consent systems (between country comparisons); 13 surveys of public and professional attitudes to presumed consent. Results The five before and after studies represented three countries: all reported an increase in donation rates after the introduction of presumed consent, but there was little investigation of any other changes taking place concurrently with the change in legislation. In the four best quality between country comparisons, presumed consent law or practice was associated with increased organ donation—increases of 25-30%, 21-26%, 2.7 more donors per million population, and 6.14 more donors per million population in the four studies. Other factors found to be important in at least one study were mortality from road traffic accidents and cerebrovascular causes, transplant capacity, gross domestic product per capita, health expenditure per capita, religion (Catholicism), education, public access to information, and a common law legal system. Eight surveys of attitudes to presumed consent were of the UK public. These surveys varied in the level of support for presumed consent, with surveys conducted before 2000 reporting the lowest levels of support (28-57%). The most recent survey, in 2007, reported that 64% of respondents supported a change to presumed consent. Conclusion Presumed consent alone is unlikely to explain the variation in organ donation rates between countries

  18. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans. PMID:22950145

  19. Comparison of owner-reported behavioral characteristics among genetically clustered breeds of dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Tonoike, Akiko; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Serpell, James A; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2015-01-01

    During the domestication process, dogs were selected for their suitability for multiple purposes, resulting in a variety of behavioral characteristics. In particular, the ancient group of breeds that is genetically closer to wolves may show different behavioral characteristics when compared to other breed groups. Here, we used questionnaire evaluations of dog behavior to investigate whether behavioral characteristics of dogs were different among genetically clustered breed groups. A standardized questionnaire, the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ), was used, and breed group differences of privately-owned dogs from Japan (n = 2,951) and the United States (n = 10,389) were analyzed. Results indicated that dogs in the ancient and spitz breed group showed low attachment and attention-seeking behavior. This characteristic distinguished the ancient group from any other breed groups with presumed modern European origins, and may therefore, be an ancestral trait. PMID:26680442

  20. 28 CFR 104.46 - Determination of presumed noneconomic losses for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND Amount of Compensation for Eligible... losses based upon the extent of the victim's physical harm. Such presumed losses include any...

  1. 28 CFR 104.46 - Determination of presumed noneconomic losses for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND Amount of Compensation for Eligible... losses based upon the extent of the victim's physical harm. Such presumed losses include any...

  2. 28 CFR 104.46 - Determination of presumed noneconomic losses for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND Amount of Compensation for Eligible... losses based upon the extent of the victim's physical harm. Such presumed losses include any...

  3. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  4. The dog genome.

    PubMed

    Galibert, F; André, C

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few centuries, several hundred dog breeds have been artificially selected through intense breeding, resulting in the modern dog population having the widest polymorphism spectrum in terms of body shape, behavior and aptitude among mammals. Unfortunately, this diversification has predisposed most breeds to specific diseases of genetic origin. The highly fragmented nature of the dog population offers a great opportunity to track the genes and alleles responsible for these diseases as well as for the various phenotypic traits. This has led to a thorough analysis of the dog genome. Here, we report the main results obtained during the last ten years, culminating in the recent publication of a complete dog genome sequence. PMID:18753768

  5. Novel multi-targeted polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to report the use of multi-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis. Multi-targeted PCR using three targets specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, i.e., IS6110, MPB64, and protein b, was performed on intraocular fluid samples of 25 subjects. Nine had presumed tubercular uveitis, six had intraocular inflammation secondary to a nontubercular etiology (disease controls), and ten had no evidence of intraocular inflammation (normal controls). As described previously, response to antitubercular therapy was considered as the gold standard. Results Multi-targeted PCR was positive in seven out of nine patients with presumed tubercular uveitis and negative in all normal and disease controls. The sensitivity and specificity were 77.77% and 100%, respectively. For the diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis, multi-targeted PCR had a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 88.88%. Conclusion Multi-targeted PCR can be a valuable tool for diagnosing presumed tubercular uveitis. PMID:23514226

  6. BigDog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  7. Dogs discriminate identical twins.

    PubMed

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  8. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  9. [Fatal dog bite injuries].

    PubMed

    Pollak, S; Mortinger, H

    1989-01-01

    In the absence of her parents, a girl of 4 months was killed by a 2-year old male Rottweiler dog belonging to the same family. The dog's front teeth left marks of individual, circular or scratch-like abrasions as well as slit-like severances of the skin, arranged in curved lines. The pattern of the skin-lesions largely correspond to the anatomy of the dog's set of teeth. No tissue defects (effects of devour) could be detected. Multiple traumatization of the trunk had led to serial rib fractures and ruptures of several organs. PMID:2818522

  10. Cholangiohepatitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Forrester, S D; Rogers, K S; Relford, R L

    1992-06-01

    Cholangiohepatitis was diagnosed in a dog with a 4-day history of anorexia, vomiting, fever, and icterus. Additional findings included signs of depression, dehydration, hepatosplenomegaly, and abdominal discomfort. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and specimens of liver, spleen, and bile were obtained. Histologic evaluation of liver and spleen revealed acute, suppurative cholangio-hepatitis and splenitis, respectively. Cultures of liver and bile yielded Klebsiella sp. The dog responded to rehydration and intravenous administration of chloramphenicol. Although uncommon, cholangiohepatitis should be suspected in dogs with anorexia, fever, vomiting, icterus, and signs of abdominal discomfort. Definitive diagnosis requires bacterial cultures of liver and bile. Administration of an appropriate antibiotic should resolve clinical signs. PMID:1624352

  11. Transplantation, multi-organ donation & presumed consent: a 3 year survey of university students.

    PubMed

    Healy, G; Sharma, K; Healy, D G

    2009-10-01

    We profile the practises and attitudes of university students in Ireland towards consent for organ donation. 1103 students were surveyed. Only 34.6% (382/1103) carried organ donor consent cards, although the majority were favourably disposed towards donation. Only 9% (96/1103) were against donation. In regard to presumed consent only 38% (177/470) were in favour of changing the current "opt-in" consent methodology to presumed consent. These findings show a favourable opinion towards donation among Irish university students. However this may result in few actual donations in the event of brain death, as the majority do not carry donor cards and do not want to change to a presumed consent regime. The most common answer for not carrying a card was that the individual had not formalised a decision. Mandated choice at a fixed point could significantly reduce this ambivalence. PMID:19902652

  12. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  13. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  14. Hybrid vigour in dogs?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Arnott, Elizabeth R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2.5% to -6.0% for components of a standardised applied-stimulus behavioural test, and the second being at least +12.4% for chance of graduating as a guide dog. The third study provides a minimum estimate of negative actual hybrid vigour: crossbreds between Labrador retrievers and poodles had a higher prevalence of multifocal retinal dysplasia than the average prevalence in their purebred parent breeds. The lack of estimates of actual hybrid vigour can be overcome by including the exact nature of the cross (e.g. F1, F2 or backcross) and their purebred parental breeds in the specification of mixed-bred dogs. Even if only F1 crossbreds can be categorised, this change would enable researchers to conduct substantial investigations to determine whether hybrid vigour has any utility for dog breeding. PMID:27387730

  15. Presumed Perinatal Stroke in a Child with Down Syndrome and Moyamoya Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pysden, Karen; Fallon, Penny; Moorthy, Bhagavatheswaran; Ganesan, Vijeya

    2010-01-01

    Moyamoya disease describes a cerebral arteriopathy characterized by stenosis or occlusion of the terminal internal carotid and/or the proximal middle cerebral arteries. We report a female child with trisomy 21 and bilateral moyamoya disease who presented, unusually, with a presumed perinatal cerebral infarct. The clinical, radiological, and…

  16. 28 CFR 104.46 - Determination of presumed noneconomic losses for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... losses for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.46 Section 104.46 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT... physical harm. The Special Master may determine the presumed noneconomic losses for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die) by relying upon the noneconomic losses described in § 104.44 and...

  17. Molecular diagnosis of diphyllobothriasis in Spain, most presumably acquired via imported fish, or sojourn abroad

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Valle, J; González, L M; Martín-Clemente, J P; Merino, F J; Gottstein, B; Gárate, T

    2014-01-01

    Human diphyllobothriasis is sporadically detected in Spain. Diphyllobothrium latum and Diplogonoporus balaenopterae have been identified. In the study, four cases of presumably imported diphyllobothriasis in Spanish patients were appraised. Molecular diagnosis allowed us to identify ‘exotic’ fish tapeworms such as Diplogonoporus balaenopterae in one patient and Diphyllobothrium pacificum in the others. PMID:25356331

  18. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  19. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... on top of the kidneys. Dogs, cats, and horses, as well as humans, can get Cushing's disease. ... commonly found in dogs than in cats or horses. "Cortisol is one of the body's natural steroids," ...

  20. Upper Airway Injury in Dogs Secondary to Trauma: 10 Dogs (2000-2011).

    PubMed

    Basdani, Eleni; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Patsikas, Michail N; Kazakos, Georgios M; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Tsokataridis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively. Complications were seen in three dogs including aspiration pneumonia in one and vocalization alterations in two dogs. PMID:27487354

  1. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs

  2. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs.

    PubMed

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports. PMID:27389748

  3. Dog saliva – an important source of dog allergens

    PubMed Central

    Polovic, N; Wadén, K; Binnmyr, J; Hamsten, C; Grönneberg, R; Palmberg, C; Milcic-Matic, N; Bergman, T; Grönlund, H; van Hage, M; Crameri, Reto

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergy to dog (Canis familiaris) is a worldwide common cause of asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, dander extract in routine diagnostics is not an optimal predictor of IgE-mediated dog allergy. Our objective was to evaluate saliva as an allergen source for improved diagnostics of allergy to dog. Methods IgE-binding proteins in dog saliva and dander extract were analysed by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using pooled or individual sera from dog-allergic patients (n = 13). Sera from 59 patients IgE positive to dander and 55 patients IgE negative to dander but with symptoms to dog were analysed for IgE against saliva and dander by ELISA. Basophil stimulation with dog saliva and dander extract was measured by flow cytometry among three dog-allergic patients. Additionally, IgE-binding protein profiles of saliva from different breeds were investigated by immunoblot. Results Greater number and diversity of IgE-binding proteins was found in saliva compared to dander extract and varied among dog breeds. In saliva, Can f 1, 2, 3 and 6 were identified but also four new saliva allergen candidates. The majority of the 59 dog dander–positive sera (n = 44) were IgE positive to dog saliva. Among patients IgE negative to dander, but with symptoms to dog, 20% were IgE positive to saliva. The biological activity of saliva was confirmed by basophil degranulation. Conclusions Dog saliva is an allergen source for improved diagnostics of dog allergy. The IgE-binding protein profile of saliva from different dogs varies. PMID:23464525

  4. 76 FR 35162 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed... veterans in need of service dogs. Under current regulations, VA provides benefits to veterans with guide dogs, and this rulemaking would broaden and clarify those benefits. This rulemaking would...

  5. Detection of Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in a dog from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Lorentz, Susanne; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico; Naucke, Torsten J

    2016-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous infection in dogs and cats, and is the main agent of human dirofilariosis in Europe. Detection of D. repens is described in a dog from Portugal, a finding that simultaneously represents the first presumable case of autochthonous infection with the parasite in any animal host species in the country. A mixed D. repens/Dirofilaria immitis infection (20:1 ratio) was found, with an overall density of 1267 microfilariae per millilitre of blood. Morphological features, including morphometry, and acid phosphatase histochemical staining confirmed identity of the two filarioids. Distribution of D. repens in Portugal should be further assessed at the population level both in vertebrate hosts and in vectors. Due to the zoonotic potential of the parasite, preventive measures such as the administration of microfilaricides and insect repellents should be put into practice to protect animals and public health. PMID:26486944

  6. A case of portal hypertension by presumed as plexiform neurofibroma at the hepatic hilum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Han; Yoo, Sun Hong; Noh, Gi Tark; Heo, Won Suk; Ko, Byung Seong; Chio, Jung Ah; Cho, Hyo Jin; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Hee Jun; Sohn, Won; Park, Sang Jong; Park, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas can occur anywhere in the body, but they usually involve the head, neck, pelvis, and extremities. Abdominal visceral involvement is rare, and intrahepatic involvement is even less common. We describe a patient who suffered from plexiform neurofibromatosis with liver involvement. A 49-year-old man, who had previously been diagnosed with neurofibromatosis, underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography for screening purposes. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed grade 2 esophageal varices and abdominal ultrasonography showed conglomerated nodules with echogenic appearances in the perihepatic space. Magnetic resonance imaging showed presumed plexiform neurofibroma involving the lesser sac and hepatic hilum and encasing the common hepatic artery celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery left portal triad. We report an unusual case of portal hypertension attributed to the compressive narrowing of the portal vein by presumed as plexiform neurofibroma at the lesser sac and hepatic hilum. PMID:27209645

  7. An unusual complication associated with hard palate mucosal grafts: presumed minor salivary gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, C R; Jordan, D R; Brownstein, S; Li, S

    1998-07-01

    Hard palate grafts are commonly used in eyelid reconstructive procedures as a replacement for posterior lamellar defects. Four patients are presented with an unusual complication after placement of a hard palate graft: presumed minor salivary gland secretion. They were experiencing stringy mucous discharge over the graft and along the eyelids, causing visual blurring. Removal of the graft in one patient and cryotherapy to the grafts in the others (presumably causing atrophy of the minor salivary gland tissue found within the grafts) allowed resolution of symptoms. The authors propose the application of cryotherapy to the graft surface to atrophy the salivary glands, prevent any further production of mucus, and return the tear film to a more normal consistency. Alternatively, surgical removal of the grafts can be performed. To our knowledge, this complication (saliva-like mucoid discharge) has not been previously reported. PMID:9700733

  8. Finite rate chemistry and presumed PDF models for premixed turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, K.N.C.; Swaminathan, N.; Champion, M.; Libby, P.A.

    2006-09-15

    The sensitivity of the prediction of mean reaction rates in turbulent premixed flames to presumed PDF shape is studied. Three different presumed PDF shapes are considered: (i) a beta function PDF, (ii) a twin delta function PDF, and (iii) a PDF based on unstrained laminar flame properties. The unstrained laminar flame has the same thermochemistry as the turbulent flame. Emphasis is placed on capturing the finite rate chemistry effects and obtaining a simple expression for the mean reaction rate. It is shown that, as the PDFs approach their bimodal limit, the mean reaction rate expressions obtained using the above three PDFs reduce to a common form. These expressions differ only in the numerical value of a multiplying factor. Predictions are compared with DNS data. Under the conditions of this comparison, the beta function and twin delta function PDFs lead to significant errors, while the PDF based on properties of an unstrained laminar flame gives good agreement with the DNS. (author)

  9. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) from a presumed brown recluse spider bite.

    PubMed

    Dandoy, Christopher; Grimley, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Systemic loxoscelism is a rare complication after Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider) envenomation. Loxosceles venom contains pro-inflammatory proteins, which have been shown to be elevated in patients with hemophagocytic lymph histiocytosis. We present a case of a 10-year-old male that developed presumed systemic loxoscelism, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with hepatic dysfunction and renal failure. He was treated with dexamethasone and made a full recovery. PMID:24737162

  10. Presumed Pulmonary Embolism Following Power-Pulse Spray Thrombectomy of Upper Extremity Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jason; Georgiades, Christos S.; Hong, Kelvin; Kim, Hyun S.

    2006-08-15

    To achieve more effective thrombolysis in a shorter treatment time, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy has been increasingly used in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The power-pulse spray is a new technique to combine chemical and rheolytic effects on clots. We present a case of presumed pulmonary embolism following power-pulse spray treatment for upper extremity DVT which necessitated resuscitation and intubation. The power-pulse spray technique should be used with caution when treating DVT.

  11. Intra-arterial thrombolysis of embolic proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion from presumed atrial myxoma.

    PubMed

    Bekavac, I; Hanna, J P; Wallace, R C; Powers, J; Ratliff, N B; Furlan, A J

    1997-08-01

    The role of thrombolysis in brain ischemia in patients with atrial myxoma is unknown. A patient with acute brain ischemia and previously undiagnosed atrial myxoma recanalized an occluded middle cerebral artery with intra-arterial thrombolysis. Arterial occlusion from presumed myxoma may be amenable to fibrinolysis. Angiography before treatment in patients with atrial myxoma excludes a myxomatous pseudoaneurysm and permits site-specific thrombolytic instillment. PMID:9270611

  12. Facial dog attack injuries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2015-02-01

    The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to successful management of such wounds are meticulous cleansing of the wound, careful debridement, primary repair, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and rabies and tetanus immunization where indicated. This review presents an overview of the epidemiology, presentation, management of such emergencies, and the recent advances in the care of such patients. PMID:25829713

  13. Epidermolytic ichthyosis in a dog: clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Mecklenburg, L; Hetzel, U; Ueberschär, S

    2000-05-01

    Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EH) in man is a complex of congenital, ichthyosiform skin diseases characterized clinically by blistering and hyperkeratosis. These clinical signs are the result of a collapse of the cytoskeleton, seen ultrastructurally as tonofilament clumping and cytolysis within terminally differentiating epidermal cells. In man, specific mutations in keratin 1, 2e, 9 or 10 underlie the various types of EH. This report describes the clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings in a 6-month-old dog with severe multifocal hyperkeratosis. The morphological changes were comparable with those of EH in man, indicating that this disease, presumably with a similar underlying pathogenetic mechanism, also occurs in the dog. PMID:10805985

  14. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  15. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  16. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  17. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-04-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  18. Neosporosis in dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  19. QuantiFERON-TB Gold Assay on Plasma for Confirmation of Presumed Tuberculosis-Related Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Stefania; Bua, Alessandra; Molicotti, Paola; Maiore, Irene; Pinna, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The QuantiFERON-TB Gold assay was used to measure interferon gamma levels in plasma from 4 patients with presumed tuberculosis-related uveitis before, during, and after antitubercular therapy. After treatment, all patients showed clinical improvement. The concentrations showed a reversion to an absence of interferon gamma in one case, decreased in two cases, and remained stable in one case. These results suggest that the QuantiFERON assay may be useful for tuberculosis-related uveitis diagnosis and follow-up. PMID:27252466

  20. Antimicrobial management of presumed microbial keratitis: guidelines for treatment of central and peripheral ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, H; Hay, J; Kirkness, C; Seal, D; Devonshire, P.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the quantitative relation between the major risk factors for microbial keratitis of previous ocular surface disease and contact lens wear and central and peripheral infiltration, often associated with ulceration, in order to establish a rational chemotherapeutic management algorithm.
METHODS—Data from 55 patients were collected over a 10 month period. All cases of presumed microbial keratitis where corneal scrapes had been subjected to microbiological examination were included. Risk factor data and laboratory outcome were recorded. Antimicrobial regimens used to treat each patient were documented.
RESULTS—57 episodes of presumed microbial keratitis were identified from 55 patients, 24 male and 31 female. There were 30 central infiltrates and 27 peripheral infiltrates of which 28 were culture positive (73% of central infiltrates, 22% of peripheral infiltrates). 26 patients had worn contact lenses of whom 12 had culture positive scrapes (9/14 for central infiltrates, 3/12 for peripheral infiltrates). 31 patients had an ocular surface disease of whom five previous herpes simplex virus keratitis patients developed secondary bacterial infection. Anterior chamber activity and an infiltrate size ⩾ 4 mm2 were more common with culture positive central infiltrates than peripheral infiltrates (χ2 test = 11.98, p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—Predisposing factors for "presumed" microbial keratitis, either central or peripheral, were: ocular surface disease (26/57 = 45.6%), contact lens wear (26/57 = 45.6%), and previous trauma (5/57 = 8.8%). Larger ulceration (⩾4 mm2) with inflammation was more often associated with positive culture results for central infiltration. None of these four variables (contact lens wear, ocular surface disease, ulcer size, anterior chamber activity) were of intrinsic value in predicting if a peripheral infiltrate would yield identifiable micro-organisms. Successful management of presumed microbial

  1. Presumable Scenario of One of the Collinear Cluster Tri-Partition Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyatkov, Yu. V.; Kamanin, D. V.; Alexandrov, A. A.; Alexandrova, I. A.; Kondratyev, N. A.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Jacobs, N.; Malaza, V.; Pham Minh, D.; Zhuchko, V. E.

    Collinear cluster tri-partition (CCT) channel in 252Cf(sf) was studied using COMETA apparatus. The setup consists of a double arm time of flight heavy ion spectrometer with two mosaic "stop" detectors. Also included in the setup is a neutron registration channel based on 3He filled counters. Specific CCT mode manifesting itself as a rectangular structure in the mass-mass plot of detected fragments was revealed both by neutron gating and direct detection of all three decay partners. Presumable scenario which stands behind the mode observed is discussed.

  2. 41 CFR 301-72.1 - Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation? 301-72.1 Section 301-72.1 Public Contracts... Transportation § 301-72.1 Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of...

  3. 41 CFR 301-72.1 - Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation? 301-72.1 Section 301-72.1 Public Contracts... Transportation § 301-72.1 Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of...

  4. 48 CFR 50.205-4 - Authorization of awards made presuming SAFETY Act designation or certification after contract award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002 50.205-4 Authorization of awards made presuming SAFETY Act designation or certification after... made presuming SAFETY Act designation or certification after contract award. 50.205-4 Section...

  5. Long-term efficacy following readministration of an adeno-associated virus vector in dogs with glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    PubMed

    Demaster, Amanda; Luo, Xiaoyan; Curtis, Sarah; Williams, Kyha D; Landau, Dustin J; Drake, Elizabeth J; Kozink, Daniel M; Bird, Andrew; Crane, Bayley; Sun, Francis; Pinto, Carlos R; Brown, Talmage T; Kemper, Alex R; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2012-04-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is the inherited deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), primarily found in liver and kidney, which causes life-threatening hypoglycemia. Dogs with GSD-Ia were treated with double-stranded adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding human G6Pase. Administration of an AAV9 pseudotyped (AAV2/9) vector to seven consecutive GSD-Ia neonates prevented hypoglycemia during fasting for up to 8 hr; however, efficacy eventually waned between 2 and 30 months of age, and readministration of a new pseudotype was eventually required to maintain control of hypoglycemia. Three of these dogs succumbed to acute hypoglycemia between 7 and 9 weeks of age; however, this demise could have been prevented by earlier readministration an AAV vector, as demonstrated by successful prevention of mortality of three dogs treated earlier in life. Over the course of this study, six out of nine dogs survived after readministration of an AAV vector. Of these, each dog required readministration on average every 9 months. However, two were not retreated until >34 months of age, while one with preexisting antibodies was re-treated three times in 10 months. Glycogen content was normalized in the liver following vector administration, and G6Pase activity was increased in the liver of vector-treated dogs in comparison with GSD-Ia dogs that received only with dietary treatment. G6Pase activity reached approximately 40% of normal in two female dogs following AAV2/9 vector administration. Elevated aspartate transaminase in absence of inflammation indicated that hepatocellular turnover in the liver might drive the loss of vector genomes. Survival was prolonged for up to 60 months in dogs treated by readministration, and all dogs treated by readministration continue to thrive despite the demonstrated risk for recurrent hypoglycemia and mortality from waning efficacy of the AAV2/9 vector. These preclinical data support the further translation of AAV vector-mediated

  6. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. PMID:23094756

  7. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... back to top Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  8. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    PubMed Central

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  9. Using dogs for tiger conservation and research.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a review of the history, development and efficacy of using dogs in wildlife studies and considers the use of dogs in the research and conservation of wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758). Using scat detection dogs, scent-matching dogs, law enforcement detection dogs and protection dogs are proven methods that can be effectively used on tigers. These methods all take advantage of the dog's extremely evolved sense of smell that allows them to detect animals or animal byproducts (often the focus of tiger studies). Dogs can be trained to communicate this information to their handlers. PMID:21392356

  10. Presumed immune-mediated cerebellar granuloprival degeneration in the Coton de Tuléar breed.

    PubMed

    Tipold, A; Fatzer, R; Jaggy, A; Moore, P; Vandevelde, M

    2000-10-01

    An unusual form of cerebellar granuloprival degeneration was observed in three male Coton de Tuléar puppies between 12 and 14 weeks of age from different litters showing progressive cerebellar signs beginning at 8 weeks after birth. Pathological examinations revealed a shrunken cerebellum. Histopathologically the granular cells were diminished or almost completely absent, some 'torpedos' of Purkinje cells were present. There was a marked gliosis, and occasionally small inflammatory foci were present. A marked diffuse T cell infiltration (CD3(+) cells) occurred in the lesions, B cells did not appear. CD18 staining showed an upregulation of microglial cells at the lesion site. Histopathologically the lesions resembled paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration which is caused by an autoimmune mediated T cell reaction. This congenital condition in the Coton de Tuléar dog breed could be based on a genetically defined immune defect leading to autoimmune destruction of the granular cells. PMID:11024542

  11. Screening of the arrestin gene in dogs afflicted with generalized progressive retinal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Dekomien, Gabriele; Epplen, Jörg Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Background Intronic DNA sequences of the canine arrestin (SAG) gene was screened to identify potential disease causing mutations in dogs with generalized progressive retinal atrophy (gPRA). The intronic sequences flanking each of the 16 exons were obtained from clones of a canine genomic library. Results Using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequence analyses we screened affected and unaffected dogs of 23 breeds with presumed autosomal recessively (ar) transmitted gPRA. In the coding region of the SAG gene 12 nucleotide exchanges were identified, 5 of which lead to amino acid substitutions (H14C; A111V; A113T; D259T; A379E). 7 other exonic substitutions represent silent polymorphisms (C132C; Q199Q; H225H; V247V; P264P; T288T and L293L). 16 additional sequence variations were observed in intronic regions of different dog breeds. Conclusions In several breeds, these polymorphisms were found in homozygous state in unaffected and in heterozygous state in affected animals. Consequently these informative substitutions provide evidence to exclude mutations in the SAG gene as causing retinal degeneration in 14 of the 23 dog breeds with presumed ar transmitted gPRA. PMID:12123530

  12. Effects of a synbiotic on fecal quality, short-chain fatty acid concentrations, and the microbiome of healthy sled dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sled dogs commonly suffer from diarrhea. Although multiple etiologies exist there are limited field studies using synbiotics as a supplement to prevent or treat diarrhea. The objective of this study was to examine alterations in fecal quality, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and the fecal microbiome in two groups of training sled dogs fed a synbiotic or microcrystalline cellulose placebo. Twenty clinically healthy training sled dogs randomized into two cohorts (9 synbiotic-fed, 8 placebo-fed) for a 6 week prospective study were examined. Fecal pH and fecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were measured and tag-encoded FLX 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) and quantitative real-time PCR were performed at baseline (10 d prior to the study) and after 2 weeks of treatment with a total treatment time of 6 weeks. Fecal scores for all dogs were assessed at baseline and every day for 6 wk after initiation of treatment. Results Alterations in the fecal microbiome were observed with a significant rise in Lactobacillaceae in the synbiotic group (P = 0.004) after 2 wk of treatment. A positive correlation was found between Lactobacillaceae and overall butyrate concentration (R = 0.62, p = 0.011) in all dogs. After 5 wk of treatment, there was an improved fecal score and fewer days of diarrhea (Χ2 = 5.482, P = 0.019) in the dogs given synbiotic, which coincided with a presumed contagious outbreak shared by all dogs in the study. Conclusions Use of this synbiotic results in an increase in presumed beneficial bacterial flora of the host colon which was associated with a decrease in the prevalence of diarrhea in training sled dogs. PMID:24313995

  13. Presumed monozygotic twins develop following transfer of an in vitro-produced equine embryo

    PubMed Central

    ROBERTS, Melissa Ann; LONDON, Kelly; CAMPOS-CHILLÓN, Lino Fernando; ALTERMATT, Joy Lynn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An equine embryo produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was trans-cervically transferred to a recipient mare and pregnancy was confirmed via ultrasound examination on days 11, 12 and 15. On days 20 and 22, a single embryonic proper with a heartbeat was observed. On day 29, two embryos proper appeared during ultrasound examination, each possessing a heartbeat. Subsequent examinations on days 35 and 39 revealed continued viability and development of both embryos proper. On day 49, demise of both fetuses was present. Although no DNA analysis or post-partum examinations were performed, it is presumed that the fetuses were monozygotic twins based on membrane classification by ultrasound imaging as well as development occurring after the transfer of a single in vitro-produced embryo. PMID:26435682

  14. UK National Data Centre archive of seismic recordings of (presumed) underground nuclear tests 1964-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, John; Peacock, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    The year 1996 has particular significance for forensic seismologists. This was the year when the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was signed in September at the United Nations, setting an international norm against nuclear testing. Blacknest, as a long time seismic centre for research into detecting and identifying underground explosions using seismology, provided significant technical advice during the CTBT negotiations. Since 1962 seismic recordings of both presumed nuclear explosions and earthquakes from the four seismometer arrays Eskdalemuir, Scotland (EKA), Yellowknife, Canada (YKA), Gauribidanur, India (GBA), and Warramunga, Australia (WRA) have been copied, digitised, and saved. There was a possibility this archive would be lost. It was decided to process the records and catalogue them for distribution to other groups and institutions. This work continues at Blacknest but the archive is no longer under threat. In addition much of the archive of analogue tape recordings has been re-digitised with modern equipment, allowing sampling rates of 100 rather than 20 Hz.

  15. Identification of presumed ancestral DNA sequences of phaseolin in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Kami, J; Velásquez, V B; Debouck, D G; Gepts, P

    1995-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) consists of two major geographic gene pools, one distributed in Mexico, Central America, and Colombia and the other in the southern Andes (southern Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina). Amplification and sequencing of members of the multigene family coding for phaseolin, the major seed storage protein of the common bean, provide evidence for accumulation of tandem direct repeats in both introns and exons during evolution of the multigene family in this species. The presumed ancestral phaseolin sequences, without tandem repeats, were found in recently discovered but nearly extinct wild common bean populations of Ecuador and northern Peru that are intermediate between the two major gene pools of the species based on geographical and molecular arguments. Our results illustrate the usefulness of tandem direct repeats in establishing the polarity of DNA sequence divergence and therefore in proposing phylogenies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7862642

  16. Recurrent presumed herpes simplex keratitis and episcleritis in keratosis follicularis (Darier's disease).

    PubMed

    Radia, Meera; Gilhooley, Michael James; Panos, Chris; Claoué, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Keratosis follicularis (Darier's disease) is an autosomal dominant dermatological disorder characterised by abnormal epidermal differentiation and loss of normal cell-to-cell adhesion. Cardinal features include diffuse hyperkeratotic warty papules with scaly plaques in seborrhoeic regions with associated mucous membrane changes. Darier's disease is rare (prevalence 2.7 in 100,000), with few ocular sequelae reported: commonly dry eye with or without Sjögren's syndrome. This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, to describe a case of recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis and episcleritis in a 47-year-old man suffering from Darier's disease. The patient's condition predisposed him towards developing ocular complications due to several factors: impaired desmosome function leading to poor cell-to-cell adhesion in the corneal epithelium, dry eye and HSV invasion of inflamed periocular skin presumably combining to allow viral colonisation of a poorly protected cornea. PMID:26184361

  17. MULTIDETECTOR-ROW COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PRESUMED PREURETERAL VENA CAVA IN CATS.

    PubMed

    Pey, Pascaline; Marcon, Oriana; Drigo, Michele; Specchi, Swan; Bertolini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Preureteral vena cava (circumcaval ureter, retrocaval ureter) occurs in a third of the feline population and has been associated with ureteral strictures in humans. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to describe the contrast-enhanced multidetector row computed tomographic (MDCT) characteristics of presumed preureteral vena cava in a group of cats. Medical records from two institutions located in different continents were searched from 2010-2013 for cases with complete contrast-enhanced MDCT examinations of the abdomen (i.e. included the entire course of the ureters and prerenal and renal segments of the caudal vena cava) and a diagnosis of preureteral caudal vena cava. For cases meeting inclusion criteria, CT scan data were retrieved and characteristics of the preureteral caudal vena cava were recorded. Presence of concomitant renal or ureteral diseases was also recorded. A total of 272 cats had contrast-enhanced abdominal CT scans during the study period and of these, 68 cats (22.43 ± 4.96%) had a diagnosis of presumed preureteral vena cava. In all affected cats, a "reverse-J ureter" was observed, i.e. a ureter running medially at the level of L4-5, passing dorsally to the caudal vena cava and then exiting ventrally between the caudal vena cava and aorta returning to its normal position. Having a preureteral vena cava resulted in an increased risk for concurrent urinary signs (OR = 3.00; CI: 95%; 1.28-6.99; P = 0.01). Findings supported the use of contrast-enhanced MDCT for characterizing morphology of preureteral vena cava and its relation with ureters in cats. PMID:25786990

  18. Extracts from presumed "reduced harm" cigarettes induce equivalent or greater toxicity in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Wang, Lei; Hirano, Yoshimi; Walters, Paula; Grill, Diane

    2015-09-01

    The tobacco industry has promoted certain cigarette products with claims that their use may be less harmful to the smoker as they purportedly deliver lower amounts of toxic chemicals compared to conventional cigarettes. This study was designed to compare the relative antigen presenting cellular toxicity of Eclipse, a presumed reduced exposure product (PREP) cigarette, when compared with the reference research 3R4F cigarettes (Kentucky University). Utilizing a murine macrophage cell line, murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DCs) and human monocyte-derived DCs incubated with extracts generated from Eclipse and Kentucky reference 3R4F cigarettes, we determined the relative toxic effects of the different cigarette smoke extracts on cellular viability, oxidative stress, T-helper-1 (Th-1) polarizing cytokine production and general gene expression. Eclipse and 3R4F cigarette smoke extracts induced equivalent oxidatively-mediated cellular heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein levels in macrophages and DCs. Cellular viability determination demonstrated greater induction of cell death by apoptosis and necrosis by Eclipse extracts in DCs. The production of the key Th-1 polarizing cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) by activated DCs or macrophages was suppressed to an equivalent or greater extent by Eclipse extracts. Microarray studies performed on bone marrow derived murine DCs incubated with Eclispe or 3R4F cigarette extracts showed identical genotoxic profiles. These studies imply that presumed reduced harm Eclipse cigarettes induce equivalent or greater antigen presenting cell dysfunction relative to 3R4F cigarettes and illustrate the importance of independent validation and testing of similar products claimed to be associated with reduced toxicity relative to other cigarettes. PMID:26169828

  19. Laparoscopic hysterectomy with morcellation versus abdominal hysterectomy for presumed fibroids in premenopausal women: a decision analysis

    PubMed Central

    SIEDHOFF, Matthew T.; WHEELER, Stephanie B.; RUTSTEIN, Sarah E.; GELLER, Elizabeth J.; DOLL, Kemi M.; WU, Jennifer M.; CLARKE-PEARSON, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To model outcomes in laparoscopic hysterectomy with morcellation compared to abdominal hysterectomy for the presumed fibroid uterus, examining short-and long-term complications, as well as mortality. Study Design A decision tree was constructed to compare outcomes for a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for presumed fibroids over a 5-year time horizon. Parameter and quality of life utility estimates were determined from published literature for postoperative complications, leiomyosarcoma incidence, death related to leiomyomsarcoma, and procedure-related death. Results The decision analysis predicted fewer overall deaths with laparoscopic hysterectomy compared to abdominal hysterectomy (98 vs. 103 per 100,000). While there were more deaths from leiomyosarcoma following laparoscopic hysterectomy (86 vs. 71 per 100,000), there were more hysterectomy-related deaths with abdominal hysterectomy (32 vs. 12 per 100,000). The laparoscopic group had lower rates of transfusion (2,400 vs. 4,700 per 100,000), wound infection (1,500 vs 6,300 per 100,000), venous thromboembolism (690 vs. 840 per 100,000) and incisional hernia (710 vs. 8,800 per 100,000), but a higher rate of vaginal cuff dehiscence (640 vs. 290 per 100,000). Laparoscopic hysterectomy resulted in more quality-adjusted life years (499,171 vs. 490,711 over five years). Conclusion The risk of leiomyosarcoma morcellation is balanced by procedure-related complications associated with laparotomy, including death. This analysis provides patients and surgeons with estimates of risk and benefit, upon which patient-centered decisions can be made. PMID:25817518

  20. Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

  1. [Fighting dogs--dangerous dogs: legal situation in Bavaria].

    PubMed

    Breitsamer, F

    2001-03-01

    A report is given on eight years of experience with the Bavarian legal regulation for the protection against dangerous dogs of 10.7.1992. The implementation of the regulation was a success. Since then only two cases of biting accidents are reported. In one case the dogs were euthanatized, in the other case they were taken away and given to other owners. The advantages of the regulation are seen in the increased responsibility of the dog owner who has to give proof of the peaceful character of his dog in form of an expert testimony. This lowers the administration costs and has revealed a preventive effect, the dog owners are looking more carefully after their animals to avoid any security problems. PMID:11314462

  2. Botulism in 2 urban dogs

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, Ane; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Blot, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Two dogs from the same owner were referred for ascending weakness and paresis of 2 to 3 days duration. Electromyography and electroneurography determined that there were normal F-waves, decreased compound action potential, and decreased activity on repetitive nerve stimulation. These findings were valuable in diagnosing botulism in the dogs. PMID:21197207

  3. Neuromuscular disease in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bors, M; Valentine, B A; de Lahunta, A

    1988-10-01

    Diffuse neuromuscular disease occurs sporadically in dogs. The most commonly reported diffuse neuromuscular diseases are polyradiculoneuritis (coonhound paralysis), tick paralysis, botulism, and myasthenia gravis (1,2,12). This clinical report describes an atypical presentation of a diffuse neuromuscular disease in a dog. PMID:3168469

  4. Nodular panniculitis in the dog.

    PubMed

    Baker, B B; Stannard, A A

    1975-10-15

    Nodular panniculitis, a granulomatous inflammatory disease of the subcutaneous fat, was diagnosed in 11 dogs. Clinically, the disease was characterized by development of subcutaneous nodules and intermittent fever and anorexia. Short-term corticosteroid therapy was effective in 10 of the 11 dogs. PMID:1237484

  5. Ureteral fibropapilloma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hattel, A L; Diters, R W; Snavely, D A

    1986-04-15

    A fibropapilloma was found to involve the left ureter in a 7-year-old castrated male Doberman Pinscher dog. Severe unilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter were associated with the ureteral mass. Treatment consisted of unilateral nephrectomy and ureterectomy. This case represents an additional type of primary ureteral neoplasm found in the dog. PMID:3710881

  6. Forced organ donation: the presumed consent to organ donation laws of the various states and the United States Constitution.

    PubMed

    Powhida, A

    1999-01-01

    The issues presented in this Comment pertain to whether there are substantive limits imposed by the Fourteenth Amendment upon the state legislatures which would defeat the recent, tentative steps of many states to pass laws authorizing presumed consent to organ donation. The final and perhaps least effective presumed consent law creates a presumption of consent to organ donation. The potential organ donor makes the choice whether to donate or not during his lifetime. This form of the presumed consent law would probably have the least impact on increasing the number of available donor organs. It permitted the coroner to harvest the eyes and corneas of deceased individuals if the coroner was unaware of objections from either the decedent or the family of the decedent. Presumed consent statutes should be found unconstitutional because they infringe upon a family's property interest in a deceased relative's corpse. However, due to the family's property interest in a relative's deceased body, as set forth in the next section, the result is that presumed consent statutes are unconstitutional. In order to find the presumed consent law unconstitutional, the Court would have to find that either: (a) the Fourteenth Amendment's liberty component included the family's right to determine what happens to a relative's body after death, or (b) that the property component included a vested state law property interest in the dead body. PMID:16506330

  7. Retrobulbar chondrosarcoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Ralić, M.; Vasić, J.; Jovanović, M.; Cameron, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of a dog, with a retrobulbar chondrosarcoma, which was admitted for surgery for visible changes in his eye during inspection. Orbital neoplasia in dogs may be primary and secondary. Sixty percent of orbital neoplasia in dogs are primary, ninety percent of which are malignant. Retrobulbar neoplasms are rare and in their early stage represent a diagnostic challenge. Chondrosarcoma of the skull is a slow-progressing malignant disease which occurs locally, aggressive with invasion into the surrounding tissues. Dogs with chondrosarcoma of the skull have life expectancy between 210 and 580 days - in our case it was 180 days - after the first alterations on the eye of the dog occurred. PMID:26623338

  8. Consenting options for posthumous organ donation: presumed consent and incentives are not favored

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Posthumous organ procurement is hindered by the consenting process. Several consenting systems have been proposed. There is limited information on public relative attitudes towards various consenting systems, especially in Middle Eastern/Islamic countries. Methods We surveyed 698 Saudi Adults attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital. Preference and perception of norm regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation were explored. Participants ranked (1, most agreeable) the following, randomly-presented, options from 1 to 11: no-organ-donation, presumed consent, informed consent by donor-only, informed consent by donor-or-surrogate, and mandatory choice; the last three options ± medical or financial incentive. Results Mean(SD) age was 32(9) year, 27% were males, 50% were patients’ companions, 60% had ≥ college education, and 20% and 32%, respectively, knew an organ donor or recipient. Mandated choice was among the top three choices for preference of 54% of respondents, with an overall median[25%,75%] ranking score of 3[2,6], and was preferred over donor-or-surrogate informed consent (4[2,7], p < 0.001), donor-only informed consent (5[3,7], p < 0.001), and presumed consent (7[3,10], p < 0.001). The addition of a financial or medical incentive, respectively, reduced ranking of mandated choice to 7[4,9], p < 0.001, and 5[3,8], p < 0.001; for donor-or-surrogate informed consent to 7[5,9], p < 0.001, and 5[3,7], p = 0.004; and for donor-only informed consent to 8[6,10], p < 0.001, and 5[3,7], p = 0.56. Distribution of ranking score of perception of norm and preference were similar except for no-organ donation (11[7,11] vs. 11[6,11], respectively, p = 0.002). Compared to females, males more perceived donor-or-surrogate informed consent as the norm (3[1,6] vs. 5[3,7], p < 0.001), more preferred mandated choice with financial incentive option (6[3,8] vs. 8[4,9], p < 0.001), and

  9. Rotary slot dog

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Smauley, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A clamp or dog is disclosed which preferably comprises a slotted stepped cylindrical body which is inserted into a hole in a workpiece and then fastened to a base or fixture using a screw which is inserted through the slot. The stepped configuration provides an annular clamping surface which securely clamps the workpiece against the base or fixture. The slotted cylindrical configuration permits adjustment of the workpiece and retaining clamp in any direction, i.e., over 360.degree., relative to the mounting position of the screw in the base or fixture.

  10. When You Meet a Dog Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Pauline

    1994-01-01

    Tips are offered for use in an encounter with a dog guide and its blind owner. Tips include approaching the person from the right side, not taking hold of the dog guide's harness, not offering food to the dog guide, and not petting the dog guide without the owner's permission. (JDD)

  11. A case of presumed acute retinal necrosis after intraocular foreign body injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Who; Byon, Ik Soo; Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Ji Eun; Oum, Boo Sup

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report a case of acute retinal necrosis (ARN) after intraocular foreign body removal. A 32-year-old male presented with visual loss in the left eye. He was hit by an iron fragment while he was hammering. An intraocular foreign body was found with corneal laceration and traumatic cataract. On the day he was injured, primary closure of the laceration, lensectomy, and vitrectomy were performed, and the foreign body was removed. The day after the operation, there was no sign of retinal detachment or retinitis. Two days after the operation, retinal necrosis and accompanying vitreous inflammation were noted in the far periphery. On day 3, the necrosis spread circumferentially and inflammation became more distinct. ARN was presumed and intravenous acyclovir was administered. The necrotic areas were reduced 2 days later, and were resolved in 1 month. The final visual acuity in his left eye was 20/20 after implantation of an intraocular lens. This case is the first report of ARN after penetrating injury and an intraocular foreign body. ARN may develop after open-globe injury. PMID:23658473

  12. Presumable incipient hybrid speciation of door snails in previously glaciated areas in the Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Koch, Eva L; Neiber, Marco T; Walther, Frank; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Homoploid hybrid speciation, speciation by hybridization without a change in chromosome number, may be the result of an encounter of closely related species in a habitat that is different from that usually occupied by these species. In the northwestern Caucasus the land snail species Micropontica caucasica and M. circassica form two distinct entities with little admixture at low and intermediate altitudes. However, at higher altitudes in the Lagonaki plateau, which were repeatedly glaciated, Micropontica populations with intermediate characters occur. Admixture analyses based on AFLP data demonstrated that the populations from the Lagonaki plateau are homoploid hybrids that now form a cluster separate from the parental species. The Lagonaki populations are characterized by a mtDNA haplotype clade that has been found in the parental species only once. The fixation of this haplotype clade in most hybrid populations suggests that these haplotypes are better adapted to the cooler conditions in high altitude habitats and have replaced the haplotypes of the parental species in a selective sweep. The fixation of a presumably adaptive mitochondrial haplotype clade in the Lagonaki populations is an important step towards speciation under the differential fitness species concept. PMID:26748267

  13. Attitudes toward Financial Incentives, Donor Authorization, and Presumed Consent among Next-of-Kin Who Consented vs. Refused Organ Donation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, James R.; Cornell, Danielle L.; Howard, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent are strategies designed to increase organ donation rates. Surveys designed to assess attitudes toward these initiatives have been conducted with the general public, transplant patients, and transplant professionals. Methods To assess attitudes toward financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent and to identify multivariate predictors of such attitudes, we conducted telephone interviews with 561 family members who had recently been asked for consent to donate the organs of a deceased family member (348 donors, 213 nondonors). Results Financial incentives would have made a difference in the donation decision for 54% of nondonors (vs. 46% of donors, P = 0.02), and a higher percentage of nondonors would themselves become donors if financial incentives were available (P = 0.03). Donors had significantly more favorable attitudes toward donor authorization (P < 0.0001) and presumed consent (P < 0.0001) policies. Overall, 54% of participants thought that family permission for donation was unnecessary when the deceased documented their donation intention, and 24% favored a presumed consent law with an opting out provision. Conclusions Of the three initiatives, donor authorization is likely supported by more donor and nondonor families than either financial incentives or presumed consent. Public education efforts should aim to better inform the public regarding existing and proposed donor authorization legislation and its benefits for registered organ donors and their families. PMID:16699449

  14. Age-Stratified Risk of Unexpected Uterine Sarcoma Following Surgery for Presumed Benign Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Andikyan, Vaagn; Običan, Sarah G.; Cioffi, Angela; Hao, Ke; Dudley, Joel T.; Ascher-Walsh, Charles; Kasarskis, Andrew; Maki, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Estimates of unexpected uterine sarcoma following surgery for presumed benign leiomyoma that use age-stratification are lacking. Patients and Methods. A retrospective cohort of 2,075 patients that had undergone myomectomy was evaluated to determine the case incidence of unexpected uterine sarcoma. An aggregate risk estimate was generated using a meta-analysis of similar studies plus our data. Database-derived age distributions of the incidence rates of uterine sarcoma and uterine leiomyoma surgery were used to stratify risk by age. Results. Of 2,075 patients in our retrospective cohort, 6 were diagnosed with uterine sarcoma. Our meta-analysis revealed 8 studies from 1980 to 2014. Combined with our study, 18 cases of leiomyosarcoma are reported in 10,120 patients, for an aggregate risk of 1.78 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–2.8) or 1 in 562. Eight cases of other uterine sarcomas were reported in 6,889 patients, for an aggregate risk of 1.16 per 1,000 (95% CI: 0.5–4.9) or 1 in 861. The summation of these risks gives an overall risk of uterine sarcoma of 2.94 per 1,000 (95% CI: 1.8–4.1) or 1 in 340. After stratification by age, we predict the risk of uterine sarcoma to range from a peak of 10.1 cases per 1,000, or 1 in 98, for patients aged 75–79 years to <1 case per 500 for patients aged <30 years. Conclusion. The risk of unexpected uterine sarcoma varies significantly across age groups. Our age-stratified predictive model should be incorporated to more accurately counsel patients and to assist in providing guidelines for the surgical technique for leiomyoma. PMID:25765878

  15. Neuropathological and biochemical criteria to identify acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease among presumed sporadic cases.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Parchi, Piero; Yamada, Masahito; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    As an experimental model of acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we performed transmission studies of sporadic CJD using knock-in mice expressing human prion protein (PrP). In this model, the inoculation of the sporadic CJD strain V2 into animals homozygous for methionine at polymorphic codon 129 (129 M/M) of the PRNP gene produced quite distinctive neuropathological and biochemical features, that is, widespread kuru plaques and intermediate type abnormal PrP (PrP(Sc) ). Interestingly, this distinctive combination of molecular and pathological features has been, to date, observed in acquired CJD but not in sporadic CJD. Assuming that these distinctive phenotypic traits are specific for acquired CJD, we revisited the literature and found two cases showing widespread kuru plaques despite the 129 M/M genotype, in a neurosurgeon and in a patient with a medical history of neurosurgery without dura mater grafting. By Western blot analysis of brain homogenates, we revealed the intermediate type of PrP(Sc) in both cases. Furthermore, transmission properties of brain extracts from these two cases were indistinguishable from those of a subgroup of dura mater graft-associated iatrogenic CJD caused by infection with the sporadic CJD strain V2. These data strongly suggest that the two atypical CJD cases, previously thought to represent sporadic CJD, very likely acquired the disease through exposure to prion-contaminated brain tissues. Thus, we propose that the distinctive combination of 129 M/M genotype, kuru plaques, and intermediate type PrP(Sc) , represents a reliable criterion for the identification of acquired CJD cases among presumed sporadic cases. PMID:26669818

  16. Trace element concentrations in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme growing in a presumably unpolluted area.

    PubMed

    Boquete, M T; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Martínez-Abaigar, J; Tomás-Las-Heras, R; Núñez-Olivera, E

    2016-09-01

    In this study we determined the concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb in samples of the moss Hypnum cupressiforme collected during 5 different sampling surveys (2006-2014) in a presumably unpolluted area in northern Spain (25 sampling sites). We then applied factor analysis (FA) to the data to explore the factors underlying the spatial and temporal variability in the concentrations. The percentage of variance explained by the FA ranged between 34 and 98%, and was usually higher than 70%. The FA yielded 5 factors that explained the variance in the concentrations of Cd, As, Hg and Pb in all sampling surveys and also a single factor that explained the variance in Hg and Pb concentrations in 2006. Although the lack of obvious sources of pollution in the study region (at least for the elements considered) suggests that most elements (except perhaps Ni) probably originated from long-range atmospheric transport, this would not explain the results of the FA. We suggest that rather than being due to the origin of the pollutants (as frequently assumed), the spatio-temporal variability in the concentrations of these elements is probably determined by a series of other factors: the physicochemical characteristics of the pollutants and of the moss binding surfaces, physiological processes (e.g. moss growth), and the characteristics of the sampling sites (e.g. vegetation cover, elevation, slope, aspect). We therefore conclude that the assumption that variations in element concentrations in moss tissues are due to the origin of the pollutants is an oversimplification that leads to erroneous interpretation of the results of biomonitoring studies with terrestrial mosses. PMID:27269992

  17. [Childhood vaccinations anno 2004. II. The real and presumed side effects of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Rümke, H C; Visser, H K

    2004-02-21

    Vaccinations protect to a high degree against infectious diseases, but may cause side effects. In the Netherlands since 1962 the adverse events following immunizations are registered and analysed by the National Institute of Health and Environment (RIVM). Since 1983 a permanent Committee of the Dutch Health Council reviews adverse events reported to the RIVM. With the so-called killed vaccines the side effects are mainly local (redness, swelling, pain) or general (fever, listlessness, irritability, sleep and eating problems). They are seen mainly after DPT-IPV vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and poliomyelitis. Some side effects occur rarely (collapse reactions, discoloured legs, persistent screaming and convulsions) and very rarely serious neurological events are reported. After MMR vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella, cases of arthritis, thrombocytopenia and ataxia are reported sporadically. Usually, they have a spontaneous recovery. During recent years a scala of diseases or symptoms have been associated with vaccination (presumed side effects). Careful and extensive investigations have shown that such hypotheses could not be supported. Examples are allergic diseases as asthma, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis (after hepatitis B vaccination), autism and inflammatory bowel disease (after MMR vaccination) and sudden infant death syndrome. The total number of cases where at least a possible relation between side effects and vaccination is observed--apart from local reactions and moderate general symptoms--is very rare (about 0.25 per 1000 vaccinations) and does not balance the benefits from vaccination. There appears increasing doubt about the use and safety of vaccinations. More research is needed about the motives of people to choose for and against vaccination. The education about vaccination for parents and professionals who are involved with vaccination has to be improved. Internet can play an important role. PMID:15032089

  18. The role of presumed probability density functions in the simulation of nonpremixed turbulent combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coclite, A.; Pascazio, G.; De Palma, P.; Cutrone, L.

    2016-07-01

    Flamelet-Progress-Variable (FPV) combustion models allow the evaluation of all thermochemical quantities in a reacting flow by computing only the mixture fraction Z and a progress variable C. When using such a method to predict turbulent combustion in conjunction with a turbulence model, a probability density function (PDF) is required to evaluate statistical averages (e. g., Favre averages) of chemical quantities. The choice of the PDF is a compromise between computational costs and accuracy level. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the PDF choice and its modeling aspects to predict turbulent combustion. Three different models are considered: the standard one, based on the choice of a β-distribution for Z and a Dirac-distribution for C; a model employing a β-distribution for both Z and C; and the third model obtained using a β-distribution for Z and the statistically most likely distribution (SMLD) for C. The standard model, although widely used, does not take into account the interaction between turbulence and chemical kinetics as well as the dependence of the progress variable not only on its mean but also on its variance. The SMLD approach establishes a systematic framework to incorporate informations from an arbitrary number of moments, thus providing an improvement over conventionally employed presumed PDF closure models. The rational behind the choice of the three PDFs is described in some details and the prediction capability of the corresponding models is tested vs. well-known test cases, namely, the Sandia flames, and H2-air supersonic combustion.

  19. Infertility in the male dog.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S

    1992-09-01

    The diagnosis and characterization of infertility in the male dog depends largely on the initial history and semen evaluation and on following the course of infertility over time. The diagnostic testing described here is helpful for guiding therapy, but the prognosis in serious cases of infertility is usually poor. Cases of subfertility that are not progressive have a better prognosis with optimal breeding management. Finally, the clinician should remember that some insults to the testes are reversible with time so it is important not to administer therapy that will interfere with the dog's ability to recover. Client education is an important part of the management of male dog infertility because it is not uncommon for various drugs to be administered by the breeder, or at the breeder's request, without a sufficient diagnostic work-up. In addition, errors of breeding management may play a role in male dog infertility or limit the success of treatment. PMID:1421819

  20. Pseudoketogenesis in hepatectomized dogs.

    PubMed

    Des Rosiers, C; Montgomery, J A; Garneau, M; David, F; Mamer, O A; Daloze, P; Toffolo, G; Cobelli, C; Landau, B R; Brunengraber, H

    1990-03-01

    Overestimation of ketone body turnover in vivo, measured by tracer kinetics, could occur if specific activity or molar percent enrichment is diluted in extrahepatic tissues by label exchange via reversal of 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase, a process we call pseudoketogenesis. To test this hypothesis, euglycemic hepatectomized dogs were injected with a bolus of acetoacetate (0.8 mmol/kg), 32% enriched in [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate. Concentrations and labeling patterns of blood acetoacetate and R-3-hydroxybutyrate were measured by selected ion-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. During the 60 min after bolus injection of [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate, the molar percent enrichment of blood [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate decreased to 73 +/- 3% (n = 5) in controls and to 11.5 +/- 0.8% (n = 3) during infusion of dichloroacetate, an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The enrichment of R-3-hydroxy-[3,4-13C2]butyrate followed closely that of [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate. These dilutions occurred despite a net uptake of ketone bodies. Concomitantly, 10.6 +/- 2.2 (n = 5) and 6.0 +/- 2.9% (n = 3) of [13C]acetoacetate molecules were labeled on all four carbons in control and dichloroacetate-treated dogs, respectively. This uniformly labeled acetoacetate arises from partial equilibration between [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate and [1,2-13C2]acetyl-CoA via the reactions catalyzed by 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. Our data demonstrate the reversibility of the 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase in intact extrahepatic tissues and support the concept of pseudoketogenesis. This phenomenon has been quantitated by kinetic analysis of the data. PMID:2316645

  1. Cranial mediastinal carcinomas in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Liptak, J M; Kamstock, D A; Dernell, W S; Ehrhart, E J; Rizzo, S A; Withrow, S J

    2008-03-01

    Nine dogs were diagnosed with cranial mediastinal carcinomas. Based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis, four dogs were diagnosed with ectopic follicular cell thyroid carcinomas, one dog with ectopic medullary cell thyroid carcinoma, two dogs with neuroendocrine carcinomas and two dogs with anaplastic carcinomas. Clinical signs and physical examination findings were associated with a space-occupying mass, although one dog was diagnosed with functional hyperthyroidism. Surgical resection was attempted in eight dogs. The cranial mediastinal mass was invasive either into the heart or into the cranial vena cava in three dogs. Resection was complete in six dogs and unresectable in two dogs. All dogs survived surgery, but four dogs developed pulmonary thromboembolism and two dogs died of respiratory complications postoperatively. Adjunctive therapies included pre-operative radiation therapy (n=1) and postoperative chemotherapy (n=3). Three dogs had metastasis at the time of diagnosis, but none developed metastasis following surgery. The overall median survival time was 243 days. Local invasion, pleural effusion and metastasis did not have a negative impact on survival time in this small case series. PMID:19178660

  2. Are dogs just like us?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Dogs have evolved to become the animal species most integrated with human society. Surprisingly, the origins and mechanisms of the remarkable co-evolution are still obscure and provide fuel for debates. Brain imaging studies showing up similarities and recent results implicating the hormone oxytocin also suggest that it makes sense to compare the social mind of dogs to our own. Michael Gross reports. PMID:26561653

  3. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. PMID:25251020

  4. "Presumed fair: Ironic effects of organizational diversity structures": Correction to Kaiser et al. (2013).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Presumed fair: Ironic effects of organizational diversity structures" by Cheryl R. Kaiser, Brenda Major, Ines Jurcevic, Tessa L. Dover, Laura M. Brady and Jenessa R. Shapiro (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2013[Mar], Vol 104[3], 504-519). In the article, a raw data merging error in one racial discrimination claim condition from Experiment 6 inadvertently resulted in data analyses on an inaccurate data set. When the error was discovered by the authors and corrected, all analyses reported in Experiment 6 for claim validity, seriousness of the claim, and support for the claimant were inaccurate and none were statistically significant. The conclusions should be altered to indicate that participants with management experience who reflected on their own workplace diversity policies did not show the predicted effects. The literature review, remaining five studies, and remaining conclusions in the article are unaffected by this error. Experiment 6 should also report that 26.4% (not 26.4.7%) of participants had a graduate degree and eight participants (not 8%) did not provide educational data. Experiment 5 should have referred to the claim validity measure as a six-item measure ( .92) rather than a five-item measure; analyses on claim validity are accurate in text. Table 2's note should have said standard errors, not standard deviations. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-31077-001.) This research tests the hypothesis that the presence (vs. absence) of organizational diversity structures causes high-status group members (Whites, men) to perceive organizations with diversity structures as procedurally fairer environments for underrepresented groups (racial minorities, women), even when it is clear that underrepresented groups have been unfairly disadvantaged within these organizations. Furthermore, this illusory sense of fairness derived from the mere presence of diversity structures causes high

  5. Therapeutic application of ultrasound-guided 8-gauge Mammotome system in presumed benign breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hao-jun; Chen, Xin; Tu, Gang; Wang, Jing; Wu, Cheng-yi; Yang, Guang-lun

    2011-01-01

    The stereotactic or ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (Mammotome, MMT) system is a minimally invasive surgical technique. Increasingly, it is used to remove benign breast lesions as management. To evaluate the therapeutic value of 8-gauge ultrasound-guided MMT system (UMS) in presumed benign breast lesions, a retrospective analysis was performed on a series of 2,167 consecutive 8-gauge UMS procedures. The parameters used in this analysis included lesion size, location, breast imaging reporting and data system for ultrasound category, histopathologic diagnosis, and others. A total of 1,119 women whose mean ages were 36.6 years (range: 12-71, SD: 9.6) underwent 2,167 consecutive 8-gauge UMS procedures. Among the patients, 298 cases (26.63%) did not have palpable mass, 430 (38.43%) had multiple lesions, and 237 (21.18%) had bilateral ones. The average size of excised lesions was 15.8 mm (range: 5-55, SD: 6.7) in the largest dimension, including 294 lesions < 10 mm (13.57%); 1,359 lesions, 10-19 mm (62.71%); 420 lesions, 20-29 mm (19.38%), and 94 lesions ≥ 30 mm (4.34%). Predominant lesions (81.59%) were solid on ultrasound image and nearly half (48.59%) of them were localized in the upper outer quadrant. Histopathologic diagnosis revealed that the overwhelming majority of specimens (96.61%) were benign, most of which manifested as fibroadenoma and fibrocystic changes, while high-risk lesions were revealed in 31 (2.29%) cases and malignancies in 15 (1.11%). Average time for procedure was 8.6 minutes (range: 3.5-38, SD: 5.4) and mean number of cores removed in the procedure was 9.3 (range: 2-42, SD: 3.7). Complete excision was achieved predominantly (99.82%). Complications (59, 5.27%) in which hematoma (41, 3.66%) was the majority were acceptable. In conclusion, the 8-gauge UMS procedure is a safe and potent therapeutic management with satisfactory cosmetic outcome for benign and high-risk breast lesions, especially for bilateral, multiple, and

  6. Hydrated nucleus pulposus herniation in seven dogs.

    PubMed

    Manunta, M L; Evangelisti, M A; Bergknut, N; Grinwis, G C M; Ballocco, I; Meij, B P

    2015-03-01

    The clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, treatment and follow-up in seven dogs with hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion (HNPE) are reported. All dogs had tetraparesis or tetraplegia. T2-weighted MRI revealed extradural hyperintense homogeneous material compressing the cervical spinal cord. After conservative treatment (five dogs) or surgical decompression (two dogs), all dogs returned to ambulatory function within 1 month. Follow-up MRI in conservatively treated dogs revealed complete disappearance of the extruded material. Histopathological examination of surgical specimens confirmed that the retrieved material was extruded nucleus pulposus with evidence of early degeneration. PMID:25599897

  7. Cortical multineuronal activity in dogs with defensive instrumental conditioned reflex.

    PubMed

    Dolbakyan, E E; Merzhanova, G Kh; Tveritskaya, I N

    1990-01-01

    For the first time in dogs with semi-microelectrodes chronically implanted in the motor and somatosensory region of the cortex, background multineuronal activity (MNA) was recorded over the long term followed by an amplitudinal discrimination from the MNA of impulse series presumably belonging to cells of large, medium, and small size was performed. The presence of close synergistic functional connections, particularly significant during the avoidance conditioned reflex and its extinction, was established by determining the correlation coefficient (CC) between the impulse flows of these neurons. In trained animals the highest CC values were observed between neurons with a small and medium spike amplitude. The network properties of identified neurons were studied by constructing histograms of cross interval relationships. The connections established were of primarily a unilateral, excitatory character. PMID:2077444

  8. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  9. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  10. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  11. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  12. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  13. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  14. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  15. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  16. [Imported infestations of nasopharyngeal parasites in dogs].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Barutzki, D; Schöl, H; Heinen, H

    1991-02-01

    In this paper infestations of the nasal cavity with Myxobdella annandalei in a dog after a sojourn in Nepal and with Linguatula serrata in 2 stray dogs from Turkey, which were imported to Germany, are described. PMID:2048114

  17. Extradural spinal synovial cysts in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, P J; Sturges, B K; Berry, W L; Vernau, K M; Koblik, P D; Lecouteur, R A

    2001-10-01

    Nine dogs presenting for investigation of cervical or thoracolumbar myelopathies were diagnosed with extradural spinal synovial cysts. Degenerative disease affecting the articular facets or intervertebral discs was present on plain spinal radiographs in all cases. Myelography was consistent with dorsolateral, extradural spinal cord compression. Two groups of dogs were identified: (1) young, giant breed dogs with multiple cysts involving one or more levels of the cervical spinal cord; and (2) older, large breed dogs with solitary cysts involving the thoracolumbar spinal cord. The synovial cysts constituted the major compressive lesions in four of the dogs. Analysis of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated albuminocytological dissociation, consistent with chronic compressive myelopathy, in six dogs. All dogs underwent decompressive surgery and the diagnosis of synovial cysts was confirmed histologically. The mean follow-up period was 17 months (range four to 36 months). At the time of follow-up, all dogs were fully ambulatory with improved neurological function compared with that at initial presentation. PMID:11688527

  18. Military Dog Training for Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Lou E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes five courses involved in the intensive training that dogs and their handlers go through in the Military Dog Studies Branch at Lackland Air Force Base (San Antonio, Texas) in preparation for duties in law enforcement. (HD)

  19. Dog allergen levels in homes with hypoallergenic compared with nonhypoallergenic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa R.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the public interest in hypoallergenic dogs, few scientific, including epidemiological studies have attempted to evaluate claims of hypoallergenicity. This study was designed to determine whether dog breeds reported as hypoallergenic correspond to lower dog allergen in the home versus nonhypoallergenic dogs. Methods: A web search was conducted to identify breeds cited as hypoallergenic. Four separate classification schemes using combinations of purebred and mixed breed dogs were used to compare the levels of Canis familiaris 1 in dust samples collected from homes with hypoallergenic versus nonhypoallergenic dogs from an established birth cohort. Results: No classification scheme showed that the level of dog allergen in homes with hypoallergenic dogs differed from other homes. Conclusion: Dog-allergic individuals should have access to scientifically valid information on the level of allergen shedding of different breeds of dogs. PMID:21819763

  20. Effect of nitroglycerin on myocardial collateral conductance in awake dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Brazzamano, S.; Rembert, J.C.; Greenfield, J.C. Jr. )

    1988-04-01

    Conductance of the coronary collateral circulation during the course of two abrupt circumflex coronary occlusions was measured in awake dogs {approximately} 2 wk after collateral vessels were stimulated to develop. The pressure gradient from the central aorta to the distal circumflex coronary artery was measured, and myocardial blood flow was determined by 9-{mu}m radioactive microspheres at 30 s and 4 min after coronary occlusions. Collateral conductance was calculated as mean collateral blood flow divided by the mean aorta-coronary pressure gradient. Before nitroglycerin, collateral conductance increased in all eight dogs from 30 s to 4 min. After nitroglycerin administration, the conductance at 30 s increased from the prenitroglycerin control value to 0.014 {+-} 0.012 ml{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}{center dot}g{sup {minus}1}{center dot}mmHg{sup {minus}1}. The mean change in conductance from 30 s to 4 min postnitroglycerin was significantly less than during prenitroglycerin. These data indicate that an increase in conductance during coronary occlusion occurs even in the immature collateral circulation. This effect presumably takes place in the arterial smooth muscle at the origin of the collateral vasculature.

  1. Noninvasive radioisotopic technique for detection of platelet deposition in mitral valve prostheses and quantitation of visceral microembolism in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Fuster, V.; Rao, S.A.; Forshaw, P.L.; Kaye, M.P.

    1983-05-01

    A noninvasive technique has been developed in the dog model for imaging, with a gamma camera, the platelet deposition on Bjoerk-Shiley mitral valve prostheses early postoperatively. At 25 hours after implantation of the prosthesis and 24 hours after intravenous administration of 400 to 500 microCi of platelets labeled with indium-111, the platelet deposition in the sewing ring and perivalvular cardiac tissue can be clearly delineated in a scintiphotograph. An in vitro technique was also developed for quantitation of visceral microemboli in brain, lungs, kidneys, and other tissues. Biodistribution of the labeled platelets was quantitated, and the tissue/blood radioactivity ratio was determined in 22 dogs in four groups: unoperated normal dogs, sham-operated dogs, prosthesis-implanted dogs, and prosthesis-implanted dogs treated with dipyridamole before and aspirin and dipyridamole immediately after operation. Fifteen to 20% of total platelets were consumed as a consequence of the surgical procedure. On quantitation, we found that platelet deposition on the components of the prostheses was significantly reduced in prosthesis-implanted animals treated with dipyridamole and aspirin when compared with prosthesis-implanted, untreated dogs. All prosthesis-implanted animals considered together had a twofold to fourfold increase in tissue/blood radioactivity ratio in comparison with unoperated and sham-operated animals, an indication that the viscera work as filters and trap platelet microemboli that are presumably produced in the region of the mitral valve prostheses. In the dog model, indium-111-labeled platelets thus provide a sensitive marker for noninvasive imaging of platelet deposition on mechanical mitral valve prostheses, in vitro evaluation of platelet microembolism in viscera, in vitro quantitation of surgical consumption of platelets, and evaluation of platelet-inhibitor drugs.

  2. DNA testing and domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellersh, Cathryn

    2012-02-01

    There are currently about 80 different DNA tests available for mutations that are associated with inherited disease in the domestic dog, and as the tools available with which to dissect the canine genome become increasingly sophisticated, this number can be expected to rise dramatically over the next few years. With unrelenting media pressure focused firmly on the health of the purebred domestic dog, veterinarians and dog breeders are turning increasingly to DNA tests to ensure the health of their dogs. It is ultimately the responsibility of the scientists who identify disease-associated genetic variants to make sensible choices about which discoveries are appropriate to develop into commercially available DNA tests for the lay dog breeder, who needs to balance the need to improve the genetic health of their breed with the need to maintain genetic diversity. This review discusses some of the factors that should be considered along the route from mutation discovery to DNA test and some representative examples of DNA tests currently available. PMID:22071879

  3. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  4. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  5. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  6. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  7. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  8. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  9. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  10. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  11. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  12. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  13. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  14. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  15. Evaluating the effect of intraoperative peritoneal lavage on bacterial culture in dogs with suspected septic peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Swayne, Seanna L.; Brisson, Brigitte; Weese, J. Scott; Sears, William

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study describes the effect of intraoperative peritoneal lavage (IOPL) on bacterial counts and outcome in clinical cases of septic peritonitis. Intraoperative samples were cultured before and after IOPL. Thirty-three dogs with presumed septic peritonitis on the basis of cytology were managed surgically during the study period. Positive pre-lavage bacterial cultures were found in 14 cases, 13 of which were a result of intestinal leakage. The post-lavage cultures showed fewer isolates in 9 cases and in 1 case became negative. The number of dogs with a decrease in the concentration of bacteria cultured from pre-lavage to post-lavage samples was not statistically significant. There was no significant effect of the change in pre- to post-lavage culture, single versus multiple types of bacteria, selection of an appropriate empiric antimicrobial on survival or the need for subsequent surgery. PMID:23450861

  16. Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs.

    PubMed

    Monzón, J; Kays, R; Dykhuizen, D E

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution and the ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, revealed a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. PMID:24148003

  17. Copy number variations in the amylase gene (AMY2B) in Japanese native dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Tonoike, A; Hori, Y; Inoue-Murayama, M; Konno, A; Fujita, K; Miyado, M; Fukami, M; Nagasawa, M; Mogi, K; Kikusui, T

    2015-10-01

    A recent study suggested that increased copy numbers of the AMY2B gene might be a crucial genetic change that occurred during the domestication of dogs. To investigate AMY2B expansion in ancient breeds, which are highly divergent from modern breeds of presumed European origins, we analysed copy numbers in native Japanese dog breeds. Copy numbers in the Akita and Shiba, two ancient breeds in Japan, were higher than those in wolves. However, compared to a group of various modern breeds, Akitas had fewer copy numbers, whereas Shibas exhibited the same level of expansion as modern breeds. Interestingly, average AMY2B copy numbers in the Jomon-Shiba, a unique line of the Shiba that has been bred to maintain their appearance resembling ancestors of native Japanese dogs and that originated in the same region as the Akita, were lower than those in the Shiba. These differences may have arisen from the earlier introduction of rice farming to the region in which the Shiba originated compared to the region in which the Akita and the Jomon-Shiba originated. Thus, our data provide insights into the relationship between the introduction of agriculture and AMY2B expansion in dogs. PMID:26358734

  18. Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Monzón, J.; Kays, R.; Dykhuizen, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids in order to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution, and ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, reveal a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. PMID:24148003

  19. Examining how presumed media influence affects social norms and adolescents' attitudes and drinking behavior intentions in rural Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shirley S; Poorisat, Thanomwong; Neo, Rachel L; Detenber, Benjamin H

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the influence of presumed media influence model as the theoretical framework to examine how perceived social norms (i.e., descriptive, subjective, and injunctive norms) will mediate the influence of pro- and antidrinking media messages on adolescents' intention to consume alcohol in rural Thailand. Data collected from 1,028 high school students indicate that different mechanisms underlie drinking intentions between nondrinkers and those who have consumed alcohol or currently drink. Among nondrinkers, perceived peer attention to prodrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to consume alcohol through all three types of perceived social norms. Among drinkers, perceived peer attention to pro- and antidrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to drink alcohol through perceived subjective norm. The findings provide support for the extended influence of presumed media influence model and have practical implications for how antidrinking campaigns targeted at teenagers in Thailand might be designed. PMID:24354888

  20. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. PMID:21890275

  1. History of guide dog use by veterans.

    PubMed

    Ostermeier, Mark

    2010-08-01

    The first guide dog school was established in Germany during World War I to care for German soldiers blinded in that war. Other schools in Germany followed. Observation by an American at one of the schools led to the creation of the first guide dog school in the United States in 1929, "The Seeing Eye." Additional U.S. schools were opened during and after World War II. This article discusses the history of guide dog use by veterans, including the formation of the first guide dog schools in response to aiding blinded servicemen, and the involvement of federal agencies and guide dog schools in providing assistance to blinded veterans. PMID:20731263

  2. Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dogs with liver disease.

    PubMed

    Crawford, K; Warman, S M; Marques, A I; Yool, D A; Eckersall, P D; McCulloch, E; Lynn, K; Mellanby, R J; Gow, A G

    2013-12-14

    Dogs with liver disease have been shown to have increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. However, it is unclear whether dogs with liver disease also have increased serum haptoglobin concentrations. The aim of the study was to measure serum haptoglobin concentrations in healthy dogs, hospitalised dogs and dogs with liver diseases. Haptoglobin concentrations were measured in 30 healthy dogs, 47 hospitalised dogs with non-hepatic illness, 46 dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (cPSS) and 11 dogs with primary hepatopathy. Haptoglobin concentrations were not significantly different between cPSS dogs with and without hepatic encephalopathy (HE), thus all cPSS dogs were considered as one group. Haptoglobin concentrations were significantly different between the remaining groups (P<0.0001). Hospitalised ill dogs had significantly higher haptoglobin concentrations than healthy dogs (P<0.001), dogs with cPSS (P<0.001) and dogs with primary hepatopathy (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between haptoglobin concentrations in healthy dogs, dogs with cPSS and dogs with primary hepatopathy. Haptoglobin concentrations were not significantly increased in dogs with liver diseases or in dogs with cPSS and HE. This is in contrast with the previously reported CRP results. This study demonstrates that liver function should be considered when interpreting haptoglobin concentrations in dogs. PMID:24158322

  3. Efficacy of albendazole against giardiasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Bowman, D D; Heller, R L; Erb, H N

    1993-06-01

    Efficacy of albendazole for treating giardiasis in dogs was assessed in 3 experiments. In experiment 1, Giardia cysts were cleared from feces of 5 of 7 dogs (as determined by the zinc-sulfate concentration technique) after the dogs received a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg of body weight, PO), whereas feces of 3 of 7 dogs became clear of cysts without treatment. In experiment 2, feces of 5 of 5 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole treatment (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 doses); feces of 1 of 5 untreated control dogs became clear. In experiment 3, feces of 18 of 20 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 doses) was given; none of the 20 control dogs had feces clear of cysts. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO) is not effective for treating giardiasis in dogs. However, 4 doses of albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) are highly effective and non-toxic for treatment of giardiasis in dogs. PMID:8323064

  4. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK: an update.

    PubMed

    Moxon, R; Whiteside, H; England, G C W

    2016-04-01

    Data on dog attacks on Guide Dogs' stock were reviewed to investigate the characteristics of the attacks. An average of 11.2 attacks occurred each month. Nearly all of the attacks occurred in public areas, 68.4 per cent of victim dogs were qualified guide dogs and 55.5 per cent of victim dogs were working in harness when they were attacked. Guide Dogs' stock were injured in 43.2 per cent of attacks and veterinary costs for attacks were estimated at £34,514.30. Over 40 per cent of qualified guide dogs' working ability was affected and >20 per cent of qualified guide dogs required some time off from working after a dog attack. Twenty dogs were permanently withdrawn from the Guide Dogs' programme as a result of dog attacks, 13 of which were qualified and working with guide dog owners at the time of the withdrawal; this resulted in a financial cost of >£600,000 to the charity. More importantly perhaps, temporary and permanent withdrawals have a significant impact upon the mobility and independence of guide dog owners and in many cases significantly impacted their emotional well-being. PMID:26924739

  5. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  6. Seasonal weight regulation of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides): interactions between melatonin, leptin, ghrelin, and growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Asikainen, Juha; Hyvärinen, Heikki

    2002-04-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, Canidae, Carnivora) is a middle-sized omnivore with excessive autumnal fattening and winter sleep. We studied seasonal weight regulation of the species by following the plasma leptin, ghrelin, and growth hormone (GH) levels of farm-bred raccoon dogs (n = 32) for 6 months. In August, half of the raccoon dogs received continuous-release melatonin implants, and in November, half of the animals of both the sham-operated and melatonin-treated groups were fasted for 2 months. In the autumn, the plasma leptin and GH levels were low, but the ghrelin levels were relatively high and correlated positively with energy intake. This represents the period of energy storage. Leptin and GH levels peaked simultaneously in late October, and melatonin advanced the peaks by 1 week. Thereafter, the levels rapidly declined, representing the transition period from autumnal anabolism to wintertime catabolism. In the winter, the leptin and GH levels rose to high levels, but the ghrelin-leptin ratio was very low. This is the period of winter sleep, with fat accumulated in the autumn as the principal metabolic fuel. In the winter, leptin, ghrelin, and GH may work in synergy to increase lipolysis. GH may also induce winter sleep to the raccoon dog. Fasting had no effect on the hormone levels, unlike in humans and rodents. Instead of the amount of fat in the body, the main regulators of the levels of these hormones in the raccoon dog are presumably seasonal rhythms entrained by melatonin. PMID:12002162

  7. 77 FR 54368 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 35162) a proposed rule to amend VA regulations to broaden and... quality of care that the VA-system can provide. 76 FR 35163. One commenter additionally noted that the... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION:...

  8. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  9. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  10. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  11. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  12. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  13. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  14. Retrospective analysis of spinal arachnoid cysts in 14 dogs.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Helena; Lipsitz, David; Berry, Wayne L; Sturges, Beverly K; Vernau, Karen M; Dickinson, Peter J; Añor, Sonia A; Higgins, Robert J; LeCouteur, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    Spinal cord dysfunction secondary to spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) has been reported previously in dogs. This retrospective study reviews the clinical signs, radiographic findings, and outcome after surgical resection of SACs in 14 dogs. Plain vertebral column radiographs and myelography were done in all dogs. Computed tomography (CT) was done in 7 dogs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 3 dogs. Affected dogs were between 1 and 12 years of age, and 8 of 14 were Rottweilers. Abnormalities detected on neurological examination depended on the location of the SAC. Five dogs had bilobed or multiple SACs. SACs were located in the cervical vertebral column in 11 dogs and in the thoracic vertebral column in 4 dogs. All dogs had dorsally or dorsolaterally located SACs. Two dogs also had additional ventrally located SACs. Spinal cord compression secondary to intervertebral disc extrusion or protrusion was demonstrated at the site of the SACs in 2 dogs. Surgical resection of the SACs was completed in all dogs. Eleven dogs were available for follow-up. Five weeks postoperatively, 7 dogs improved in neurological function, with some residual ataxia and paresis in 6 of these dogs. Neurological function had deteriorated in 4 dogs. It was concluded from this study that Rottweilers have a higher incidence of SACs than other breeds of dog. Furthermore, bilobed or multiple SACs can occur commonly, and myelography effectively localized SACs in dogs. Surgical resection of SACs resulted in improvement in neurological function in the majority of treated dogs. PMID:12465766

  15. A safety study of a novel photosensitizer, sinoporphyrin sodium, for photodynamic therapy in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ni; Li, Chao; Wang, Zhonghua; Zhang, Jingxuan; Ye, Xiangfeng; Gao, Wenjing; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao; Wei, Jinfeng

    2015-04-01

    Sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS) is a novel hematoporphyrin-like photosensitizer developed for photodynamic therapy (PDT), an effective therapeutic modality for tumor treatment; however, the safety of photosensitizer-based PDT is always of great concern. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential repeated-dose toxicity and describe the toxicokinetic process of DVDMS-based PDT in Beagle dogs. The dogs were randomly allocated to six groups, and then were administrated a DVDMS preparation intravenously at dose levels of 0, 1, 3, 9, 1 and 9 mg per kg body weight, respectively; then, the latter two groups were illuminated 24 h later with a 630 nm laser for 10 min, once every seven days for 5 weeks. During the study period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food consumption, body temperature, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, electrocardiograms, toxicokinetics, organ weights, gross anatomy and histopathology were examined. After the administration, no deaths were observed; however, the dogs that received PDT showed skin swelling and ulceration, indicating that DVDMS-PDT induced a phototoxic effect. DVDMS led to an increase in blood coagulation in dogs in the 9 mg kg(-1) group and in the two PDT groups on Day 35, whereas it induced a decrease in dogs in the 3 mg kg(-1) group and in the two PDT groups on Day 49. The toxicokinetic study showed that the systematic exposure of DVDMS in dogs occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and DVDMS did not accumulate in blood plasma. The DVDMS-based PDT group showed no obvious treatment-related pathological changes; however, slight or mild brown-and-yellow pigmentation of DVDMS (or its metabolite) was observed to deposit in the liver, spleen, local lymph nodes and marrow of dogs in the mid- and high-dose groups, as well as the high-dose PDT group. In females, the absolute and relative spleen weights increased in dogs in the 9 mg kg(-1) DVDMS groups with and without PDT during the

  16. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    PubMed

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes). PMID:24568806

  17. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25850824

  18. Urinary tract manifestations of protothecosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Barrak M; Gookin, Jody L; Sykes, Jane E; Wolf, Alice M; Vaden, Shelly L

    2005-01-01

    Records of 13 dogs with systemic infection with Prototheca sp. from 3 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. Acute renal failure secondary to disseminated infection with Prototheca zopfii was diagnosed in 2 dogs. In 1 dog, acute renal failure developed during administration of immunosuppressive drugs for treatment of anterior uveitis. During diagnostic evaluation of this dog, Prototheca sp. organisms were noted in urine sediment and renal biopsy specimens. In the 2nd dog, acute renal failure was diagnosed after treatment for bacterial cystitis. After diagnosis of protothecosis, organisms were successfully isolated by aerobic urine culture. Both dogs with acute renal failure did not respond to conventional medical therapy. In total, Prototheca sp. was noted in urine sediment in 4 of 8 dogs and successfully cultured from urine in 5 of 7 dogs. Four of 5 dogs had organisms noted in the kidneys on histopathologic examination. In all dogs, the species identified was P zopfii. Sensitivity testing of 3 isolates revealed wide differences in in vitro drug resistance. Examination and culture of urine is recommended as a practical method for diagnosis of systemic infection with Prototheca sp. PMID:15715059

  19. Identification of Heterobilharzia americana infection in a dog residing in Indiana with no history of travel.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jessica Y; Camp, Joseph W; Lenz, Stephen D; Kazacos, Kevin R; Snowden, Karen F

    2016-04-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 1-year-old castrated male dog residing in Indiana was examined because of intermittent vomiting of 4 months' duration. CLINICAL FINDINGS The dog's condition did not resolve with medication. Diagnostic imaging revealed a possible partial obstruction at the ileocecal junction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed. The jejunum contained diffusely distributed, nodular, intramural lesions; 2 biopsy specimens were collected from representative lesions. The pancreas was grossly swollen, and pancreatitis was presumed present. No other abnormalities were observed in the abdomen. Histologic examination of the submitted biopsy specimens revealed infection with Heterobilharzia americana. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME After diagnosis, the dog was treated with fenbendazole suspension (48 mg/kg [21.8 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 10 days. This treatment was subsequently repeated 11 and 80 days later. One week after the end of the last fenbendazole treatment, several H americana eggs were detected in a fecal sample via saline sedimentation, and the dog was given praziquantel (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 2 days. No gastrointestinal signs were evident 4 months after that treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The dog described in this report was the first autochthonous canine case of H americana infection in Indiana, to the authors' knowledge; this case has confirmed that the distribution of this parasite in the Midwestern United States is broader than previously known. Increased awareness of the distribution of H americana should aid veterinarians in early, noninvasive diagnosis and appropriate treatment of affected animals. Repeated treatments and recheck fecal examinations may be necessary when managing these cases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:827-830). PMID:27003025

  20. Prostacyclin inhibits gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit in rats and dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruwart, M.J.; Rush, B.D.

    1984-08-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) antagonizes 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2-induced diarrhea in rats, presumably by inhibiting the fluid accumulation of ''enteropooling'' in the small intestine. The effect of PGI2 on gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colonic transit was examined in rats and dogs to determine if interference with propulsion might also contribute to the antidiarrheal properties of this compound. Rats implanted with chronic duodenal cannulas were given subcutaneous PGI2 (0.1-1000 microgram/kg) followed 10 min later by intragastric /sup 2/Cr and a visually detectable duodenal transit marker. Forty-five minutes later, the animals were killed. Subcutaneous PGI2 inhibited gastric emptying maximally at 10 micrograms/kg. Small-intestinal transit was significantly decreased at 50 micrograms/kg and almost completely suppressed at 1.0 mg/kg. Subcutaneous naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) given 10 min before and 20 min after subcutaneous PGI2 administration did not block PGI2's effects. Intravenous or oral PGI2, had none of these effects. Small intestinal transit was only decreased by PGI2 infusion, suggesting that this parameter was more sensitive to a sustained blood level than gastric emptying. Hourly injections of subcutaneous PGI2 (0.5 mg/kg) had no effect on rat colonic transit measured over a 3-h period after deposition of the transit marker through a colonic cannula in a manner similar to that described for small-intestinal transit above. Small-intestinal transit was also measured in dogs given a barium suspension through a chronic duodenal cannula. In vehicle-treated dogs, barium reached the cecal area in an average of 2.8 h after instillation. In PGI2-treated dogs, barium never reached the cecum in the 5-h examination period. Thus, PGI2 inhibits gastric emptying in rat and small-intestinal transit in rat and dog but has no effect on rat colonic transit.

  1. Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2008-01-01

    How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can make…

  2. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  3. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    PubMed

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family. PMID:27502802

  4. Differential Host Immune Responses after Infection with Wild-Type or Lab-Attenuated Rabies Viruses in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Li, Zhenguang; Leyson, Christina M.; Cooper, Tanya L.; Platt, Simon R.; Harvey, Stephen B.; Hooper, Douglas C.; Faber, Milosz; Fu, Zhen F.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) induces encephalomyelitis in humans and animals. One of the major problems with rabies is that the infected individuals most often do not develop virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA). In this study we have investigated the host immune response to RABV infection in dogs, using a live-attenuated (TriGAS) or a wild-type (wt) (DRV-NG11) RABV isolated from a rabid dog. Methodology/Principal Findings The experimental infection of dogs with TriGAS induced high levels of VNA in the serum, whereas wt RABV infection did not. Dogs infected with TriGAS developed antibodies against the virus including its glycoprotein, whereas dogs infected with DRV-NG11 only developed rabies antibodies that are presumably specific for the nucleoprotein, (N) and not the glycoprotein (G). We show that infection with TriGAS induces early activation of B cells in the draining lymph nodes and persistent activation of DCs and B cells in the blood. On the other hand, infection with DRV-NG11 fails to induce the activation of DCs and B cells and further reduces CD4 T cell production. Further, we show that intrathecal (IT) immunization of TriGAS not only induced high levels of VNA in the serum but also in the CSF while intramuscular (IM) immunization of TriGAS induced VNA only in the serum. In addition, high levels of total protein and WBC were detected in the CSF of IT immunized dogs, indicating the transient enhancement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, which is relevant to the passage of immune effectors from periphery into the CNS. Conclusions/Significance IM infection of dogs with TriGAS induced the production of serum VNA whereas, IT immunization of TriGAS in dogs induces high levels of VNA in the periphery as well as in the CSF and transiently enhances BBB permeability. In contrast, infection with wt DRV-NG11 resulted in the production of RABV-reactive antibodies but VNA and antibodies specific for G were absent. As a consequence, all of the dogs infected with wt DRV

  5. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers′ constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers’ alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's ‘presumed media influence’ theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers’ constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers’ drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. PMID:24443822

  6. Presumption of Herbicide Exposure and Presumption of Disability During Service for Reservists Presumed Exposed to Herbicide. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-06-19

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its regulation governing individuals presumed to have been exposed to certain herbicides. Specifically, VA is expanding the regulation to include an additional group consisting of individuals who performed service in the Air Force or Air Force Reserve under circumstances in which they had regular and repeated contact with C-123 aircraft known to have been used to spray an herbicide agent ("Agent Orange'') during the Vietnam era. In addition, the regulation will establish a presumption that members of this group who later develop an Agent Orange presumptive condition were disabled during the relevant period of service, thus establishing that this service constituted "active, naval, military or air service.'' The effect of this action is to presume herbicide exposure for these individuals and to allow individuals who were exposed to herbicides during reserve service to establish veteran status for VA purposes and eligibility for some VA benefits. The need for this action results from a recent decision by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to acknowledge that individuals who had regular and repeated exposure to C-123 aircraft that the United States Air Force used to spray the herbicides in Vietnam during Operation Ranch Hand were exposed to Agent Orange. PMID:26103644

  7. Quantitative analysis of changes in blood concentrations and 'presumed effect-site concentration' of sevoflurane during one-lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Matsuse, S; Hara, Y; Ohkura, T; Yahagi, N

    2012-10-01

    During one-lung ventilation, ventilation-perfusion mismatch decreases the arterial concentration of inhaled anaesthetics due to the arterial-to-venous concentration difference. This study tested the hypothesis that in humans, the 'presumed effect-site concentration' (taken as the mid-point between the arterial and superior jugular venous concentrations) of inhaled anaesthetic falls during one-lung (vs two-lung) ventilation. Four patients scheduled for elective prostatectomy (two-lung ventilation) and four patients for elective thoracotomy (one-lung ventilation) were randomly selected and assigned to receive sevoflurane (vaporiser-dial setting, 1.5%). Sevoflurane concentrations were measured periodically from radial artery and superior jugular vein (via a catheter advanced cephalad from the jugular vein). During one-lung ventilation, the end-expiratory sevoflurane concentration was stable at ∼1.3% but the mean (SD) presumed effect-site concentration declined initially from 58 (6.7) to 43 (4.7) μg.ml(-1) (p=0.011) before slowly recovering. A period of insufficient depth of anaesthesia is thus a risk during one-lung ventilation. PMID:22734829

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of pre-operative imaging findings in presumed clinical T1a renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    NAKASHIMA, KAZUFUMI; KITAGAWA, YASUHIDE; IZUMI, KOUJI; MIZOKAMI, ATSUSHI; GABATA, TOSHIFUMI; NAMIKI, MIKIO

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of recent imaging modalities, certain pathological misdiagnoses remain for surgical specimens of presumed small renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). In the present study, a retrospective analysis of benign pathological lesions diagnosed as small RCC prior to surgery was performed. In total, the cases of 196 sporadic renal tumors that was surgically treated as clinical T1a RCCs were reviewed, and the accuracy of the pathological diagnoses was calculated. The pre-operative findings for benign pathological lesions was investigated, and the lesions were observed in 13 (6.63%) of the 196 tumors. Pre-operative computed tomography images were obtained in all cases, and magnetic resonance images were available in 10 cases. The diagnostic accuracy of imaging modalities was significantly lower in the tumors with a diameter of ≤20 mm. In all cases, the possible pathological diagnosis of RCC could not be excluded even by retrospective imaging analysis. Several benign pathological lesions were found in small renal masses presumed to be clinical T1a RCC. In conclusion, there may be limitations to the pre-operative imaging for certain types of small renal mass. PMID:27123087

  9. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  10. "What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

  11. Some effects of sarcoptic mange on dogs.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Rapp, C M; Vyszenski-Moher, D L

    1995-10-01

    Sequential changes in pathology were examined for scabies-infested dogs to determine the effects of infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. During 8 wk of infestation with S. scabiei, the progression of the disease was evaluated weekly by skin scrape, clinical examination, and blood analyses. At 8 wk, selected organs were microscopically examined for histopathology. All infested dogs developed an advanced level of scabies infestation by 8 wk. Of the 36 blood parameters evaluated, only values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) deviated significantly from the normal ranges for dogs. However, infested dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) lower average hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations after 8 wk of infestation compared to their values prior to infestation or to the values for the control dogs. Red blood cell levels for infested dogs dropped significantly (P < 0.01) from preinfestation concentrations by week 8. Conversely, by 8 wk total white blood cell and neutrophil concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) greater than uninfested controls. Also, whereas average eosinophil concentrations were not statistically different for infested dogs compared to controls, some individual infested dogs exhibited eosinophilia at 4-8 wk of infestation. The ESRs for infested dogs were significantly (P < 0.01) greater at week 6 and 8 than for experimental dogs prior to infestation or control dogs. All parameters except neutrophils had returned to preinfestation levels by 2 wk after treatment for scabies. Neutrophil concentrations were no longer significantly different by 4 wk posttreatment. There were no significant differences in serum enzyme, biochemical and electrolyte concentrations between infested and control dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7472858

  12. Diagnosis and Management of Cholesteatomas in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Risselada, Marije

    2016-07-01

    Surgical intervention of aural cholesteatomas in dogs can be curative. Imaging findings include a soft tissue density in the middle ear and destruction of the bone of the bulla with characteristics of an aggressive lesion. Dogs with early stage disease have a better outcome than those with chronic disease, temporal bone involvement and neurologic signs. Dogs with recurrent disease can be reoperated or managed medically with long-term resolution or palliation of clinical signs. PMID:26972889

  13. Congenital anorectal abnormalities in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Prassinos, N N; Papazoglou, L G; Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Galatos, A D; Gouletsou, P; Rallis, T S

    2003-07-19

    Congenital anorectal abnormalities were diagnosed in three male and three female dogs. One dog had anal stenosis, three had a persistent anal membrane, and the other two had an imperforate anus associated with a rectovaginal fistula. Five of the dogs were treated surgically, and four of them which were followed up for periods ranging from one to five years continued to pass faeces normally. PMID:12892267

  14. Humanity's Dual Response to Dogs and Wolves.

    PubMed

    Treves, Adrian; Bonacic, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Dogs were first domesticated 31 000-41 000 years ago. Humanity has experienced ecological costs and benefits from interactions with dogs and wolves. We propose that humans inherited a dual response of attraction or aversion that expresses itself independently to domestic and wild canids. The dual response has had far-reaching consequences for the ecology and evolution of all three taxa, including today's global 'ecological paw print' of 1 billion dogs and recent eradications of wolves. PMID:27185394

  15. Dirofilaria infections in working dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Antolová, D; Hurníková, Z; Dubinský, P; Pavlacka, A; Németh, J

    2010-06-01

    A monitoring programme aimed at the diagnosis of subcutaneous dirofilariasis and heartworm disease in working (police and military) dogs in Slovakia has been performed during the period of September 2007 to February 2008. In co-operation with the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defence, in total, 710 dogs (591 police dogs and 119 military dogs) were investigated for the presence of microfilariae in blood. All police and military dogs in active service held on the territory of Slovakia were included. Microfilariae were detected in 118 (20.0%) police dogs and 10 (8.4%) military dogs. The most infected individuals originated from southern parts of Slovakia (Trnava region 53.6% and Nitra region 39.6%); the prevalence was low in northern regions (Zilina 3.1% and Presov 6.6%). In several districts of southern Slovakia, the prevalence of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in working dogs exceeded 40%. In all infected animals, the autochthonous origin of the disease was confirmed; however, due to the frequent movement of working dogs, it was not possible to identify the exact locality of infection. At present, a dog living in Nemsová village in Trencín district (north-western part of the country) is regarded as the northernmost localized autochthonous case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in Slovakia. In three dogs, co-infection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis was detected. High prevalence rates in working dogs and the zoonotic characteristic of the disease represent an undoubtedly important veterinary and medical problem that requires the urgent introduction of prophylactic and control measures. PMID:19728899

  16. Malicious paraquat poisoning in Oklahoma dogs.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, K; Brizzee-Buxton, B; Gatto, N; Edwards, W C; Stair, E L; Logan, C

    1998-06-01

    Paraquat is a restricted use herbicide which is extremely toxic to companion animals when ingested. This report details one incident of malicious poisoning involving 6 dogs. All dogs were from the same geographic area, and 5 had pulmonary and renal lesions consistent with paraquat toxicosis. Diagnosis was initiated by a modified dithionite spot test on vomitus from 1 dog. Subsequent tissue paraquat levels ranged from non-detectable to 1 ppm. PMID:9610494

  17. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, Kazuki; AMANO, Shinjiro; KAWAMURA, Yoshio; KAGAWA, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    An 8-year-old, spayed, female Shiba dog was presented to a referring veterinarian with a complaint of chronic diarrhea and anorexia. Ultrasound and radiographs revealed an irregular mass in the pelvic cavity. The mass and the affected section of colon were surgically removed. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas and effaced intestinal structures. Central necrotic debris surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells and neutrophils was observed. Numerous, irregularly branched hyphae with pale basophilic, thin walls and occasional bulbous enlargements at the tips were present. Polymerase chain reaction identified Basidiobolus ranarum, successfully confirming a definitive diagnosis of basidiobolomycosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal basidiobolomycosis in a dog. PMID:25960121

  18. Coccygeal chordoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; Brown, Cathy A; Weiss, Raul

    2003-05-01

    A 4-cm diameter spherical mass was removed from the region of the second coccygeal vertebra of a 6-year-old female Doberman Pinscher dog. The mass had been present for 7 months and was described as multilobular and smooth. Histologically, the neoplasm consisted of small spindle-shaped cells surrounding lobules of large vacuolated polygonal cells. Mucin was present within most lobules. The large polygonal cells stained positively with antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin, and S-100 protein. Although the spindle-shaped cells stained positively with antibodies against vimentin, they only occasionally contained cytokeratin. The histology and immunohistochemistry are consistent with that reported for chordoma. Although 4 chordomas have previously been reported in dogs, this is the first case in which immunohistochemistry has been used to support the histological diagnosis. Neither recurrence nor metastasis was reported 10 months after surgical excision. PMID:12735353

  19. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  20. Essential thrombocythemia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mizukoshi, Takeshi; Fujino, Yasuhito; Yasukawa, Kuniyoshi; Matumoto, Hidefumi; Matsumura, Shingo; Nagasaki, Teppei; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Shimoda, Tetsuya

    2006-11-01

    A two-year old male Welsh Corgi was referred for persistent thrombocytosis and occasional seizure. Hematological findings indicated marked thrombocytosis, eosinophilia, basophilia and moderate anemia. Bone marrow examination revealed marked megakaryocytic hyperplasia with morphologic abnormality. A diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia was made and the treatment was initiated with combination chemotherapy and maintained by prednisolone and busulfan. The dog successfully achieved complete remission on 100 days after initial presentation and has been good in health without chemotherapy since then. PMID:17146180

  1. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Samara, E; Bialer, M; Mechoulam, R

    1988-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the major nonpsychoactive cannabinoids produced by Cannabis sativa L. Recent studies have shown that CBD has a high protective index, comparable to that of phenobarbital and phenytoin. Because CBD has been reported to possess both anticonvulsant and antiepileptic activity, its pharmacokinetics were studied in dogs after the administration of two iv doses (45 and 90 mg) and one oral dose (180 mg) to dogs. After iv administration, CBD was rapidly distributed, followed by a prolonged elimination. It has a terminal half-life of 9 hr. CBD plasma levels declined in a triphasic fashion. The total body clearance of CBD was 17 liters/hr (after the 45-mg dose) and 16 liters/hr (after the 90-mg dose). This clearance value, after its normalization to blood clearance using mathematical equations, approaches the value of the hepatic blood flow; the extraction ratio in the liver is 0.74. CBD was observed to have a large volume of distribution, approximately 100 liters. In the dose range of 45 to 90 mg, the increase in the AUC was proportional to the dose, a fact that indicates that the pharmacokinetic profile of CBD in this dose range was not dose dependent. In three of the six dogs studied, CBD could not be detected in the plasma after oral administration. In the other three, the oral bioavailability ranged from 13 to 19%. The results of this study show that CBD is barely absorbed after oral administration to dogs. This low bioavailability may be due to a first pass effect. PMID:2900742

  2. [Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs].

    PubMed

    van Noort, R

    1990-07-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is the most common cause of maldigestion in dogs. This is usually caused by irreversible atrophy of the pancreas which subsequently requires life-long substitution therapy. The pathophysiology, symptoms and diagnosis are briefly reviewed in the present paper. The Trypsin-like-immunoreactivity test is recommended for establishing the diagnosis. Finally, treatment and possible causes of the failure of therapy are discussed. PMID:2196714

  3. Blastomycosis in a postpartum dog.

    PubMed

    Panciera, David L; Troy, Gregory C; Purswell, Beverly J

    2014-10-01

    Transplacental infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis is rare in humans and unknown in the dog. A Doberman pinscher bitch was diagnosed with blastomycosis 25 days after whelping. Clinical signs were noted after whelping and were progressive. All 9 pups were free of clinical signs and had negative urine Blastomyces antigen tests at 6 weeks of age and remained free of signs of illness through 11 months of age. The bitch responded to treatment with itraconazole. PMID:25379395

  4. Pneumatosis coli in a dog.

    PubMed

    Russell, Nicholas J; Tyrrell, Dayle; Irwin, Peter J; Beck, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A 17-year-old, castrated male Maltese was presented with chronic polyphagia and a 2-week history of tenesmus, diarrhea, hematochezia, weight loss, and ribbon-like feces. Pneumatosis coli was diagnosed by abdominal radiography. Concurrent hyperadrenocorticism was suspected. The clinical signs of colorectal disease resolved within 2 days of initiating a lowresidue diet and oral metronidazole. Pneumatosis coli should be considered as a differential diagnosis for colorectal disease in dogs. PMID:18175797

  5. Blastomycosis in a postpartum dog

    PubMed Central

    Panciera, David L.; Troy, Gregory C.; Purswell, Beverly J.

    2014-01-01

    Transplacental infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis is rare in humans and unknown in the dog. A Doberman pinscher bitch was diagnosed with blastomycosis 25 days after whelping. Clinical signs were noted after whelping and were progressive. All 9 pups were free of clinical signs and had negative urine Blastomyces antigen tests at 6 weeks of age and remained free of signs of illness through 11 months of age. The bitch responded to treatment with itraconazole. PMID:25379395

  6. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    PubMed

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention. PMID:23071828

  7. Diagnosis of food allergy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rosser, E J

    1993-07-15

    The diagnosis of food allergy was confirmed in 51 dogs while the responsiveness to a 60-day home-cooked restricted dietary trial (elimination-diet trial) was evaluated. The primary clinical sign of allergy detected and evaluated in all dogs was persistent and nonseasonally pruritic skin disease. The duration of time between starting the elimination-diet trial and remission of clinical signs was recorded. Dogs were then reexposed to diets that had been fed before testing, and the duration of time before pruritus recurred was recorded. The elapsed time during which dogs were being fed an elimination diet before remission of clinical signs was 1 to 3 weeks in 13 dogs, 4 to 6 weeks in 25 dogs, 7 to 8 weeks in 10 dogs, and 9 to 10 weeks in 3 dogs. Findings indicated that the recommendation of a 3-week elimination-diet trial for diagnosis of food allergy was adequate for only 25% of the dogs. It is recommended that test diets be fed for at least 10 weeks before a food allergy is ruled out. PMID:8407485

  8. [Keeping dogs indoor aggravates infantile atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Hizawa, T; Fukuzumi, T; Kataoka, Y

    1999-12-01

    We had a two-month-old girl with severe dermatitis since birth. Her serum RAST to HD, Df and Dp were 1.06, 0.03 and 0.01 Ua/ml respectively. A Yorkshire terrier were kept at her mother's parents' home where the patient had lived for a month since birth. Her eczema, which became markedly aggravated whenever she visited there, improved after the elimination of the dog. We investigated the relationship between keeping dogs and infantile atopic dermatitis. We studied 368 patients under the age of two years (211 boys and 157 girls). Skin symptoms were graded globally mild, moderate or severe. Total serum IgE and specific antibody titer to dog dander were measured. We asked them whether they kept dogs and specifically, where they kept dogs, outdoor, indoor, in their own house, or in their grandparents' house. 197 patients had no contact with dogs, 90 patients kept dogs outdoor and 81 patients did indoor. The positive rate of RAST (> or = 0.7 Ua/ml) to dog dander was 6.1%, 17.8% and 46.9% respectively in these three groups. There were strong statistical differences between three groups. On the other hand, among the 81 patients who kept indoor, the RAST positive rates were almost same regarding where the dogs were kept, in their own house or their grandparents' house. Interestingly this difference happens only with patients under the age of 3 months. Patients older than 4 months showed no significant differences in the positive RAST rates, whether they kept dogs indoor or outdoor. This suggests the sensitization occurs before the age of 3 months. Speaking of symptoms, patients who kept dogs indoor showed significantly more severe symptoms than patients who had no contact with dogs and patients who kept dogs outdoor. There was no significant difference between the symptoms of patients who had no contact with dogs and those of patients who kept dogs outdoor. This implies the patient's symptom will improve only by moving the dog out of the house. PMID:10666918

  9. [Recognizing and assessing aggressive behaviour in dogs].

    PubMed

    Schalke, E; Hackbarth, H

    2006-03-01

    Within the population the sensitivity to aggressive behaviour in dogs has increased. The authorities are confronted with a problem: if any incident occurs it is their task to decide whether the dogs involved constitute a threat to other people or whether the charge is only the result of a quarrel between neighbours. For this reason, an examination of the dogs with regard to their aggressive behaviour is necessary. Seen from the biological point of view, aggressive behaviour is one of four possibilities a dog can chose from to solve a conflict. The dog's intention in showing aggressive behaviour is to eliminate disturbances and to maintain a distance in space and time. Aggressive behaviour might also be necessary to acquire or defend resources essential to the dog's life. This is to secure its survival and its success in reproduction. One can see from this that aggressive behaviour is a very important and biologically necessary adjustment factor. However, when living together with man aggressive behaviour might become a problem. For the assessment and the therapy of the problem it is necessary to exa-mine the behaviour shown by the dog with regard to its cause. To be able to do this an exact anamnesis, a medical check, and an examination of the dog on the basis of its display in special situations are necessary. For this reason, exclusively veterinarians with a special further education in the field of behaviour should carry out the examination of dogs. PMID:16669189

  10. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P < 0.001) more likely to be seropositive than dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. PMID:26729351

  11. [Arthropod-borne parasites of dogs, especially Leishmania, in the Kosovo and Albania].

    PubMed

    Lazri, Tune; Duscher, Georg; Edelhofer, Renate; Bytyci, Burim; Gjino, Paskal; Joachim, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Currently no information is available regarding canine arthropod-borne parasites in Albania and the Kosovo, especially the zoonotic protozoan Leishmania infantum. Presumably autochtonous cases of human leishmaniosis have been described for some areas (Kosovo: Ferizaj, Gjakovo, Pec, Malisevo; Albania: Tirana, Durres, Elbasan, Shkodra, Vlore). In order to investigate the infection status of dogs of different origin sera from 272 animals (151 from Albania - Tirana, Kamza and Durres; 121 from the Kosovo - Gjakovo, Ferizaj and Prishtina) were obtained. Corresponding blood samples were available from 36 Albanian stray dogs. Antibody titres were determined by Indirect Immunofluorescence Test against L. infantum and Babesia canis. Antigens of Dirofilaria immitis were determined using the DiroCheck-Test. Blood samples were tested for L. infantum, B. canis, Hepatozoon canis, D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific antibodies against Babesia were found in 7.3% of the animals, against Leishmania in 3.3% and 7.0% were positive for D. immitis antigen. DNA of Babesia, Leishmania or D. repens was detected in 11.1%, respectively. H. canis was found in 52.8% of the blood samples. D. immitis DNA was not detected. Since the Babesia- and Leishmania-PCR-positive animals were all serologically negative it can be assumed that infections were acquired only recently. All Leishmania-positive animals were stray dogs. These animals contribute to the maintenance of Leishmania transmission in endemic areas, and a control of the canine stray population should be considered. PMID:19066774

  12. Severe Pit Viper Envenomation with Extended Clinical Signs and Treatment Complications in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Schaer, Michael; Buckley, Gareth J; Conner, Bobbi J; Cuddy, Laura C; Vigani, Alessio; Vansickle, Allison E; Coisman, James G; DeVuyst, Deanna R; Bandt, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the extended clinical abnormalities that can occur in severe snake envenomation and the clinical signs associated with antivenom hypersensitivity in a 3 yr old dog. Treatment consisted of IV fluid therapy, analgesics, a vasopressor, cardiac antiarrhythmia drugs, and polyvalent pit viper antivenom. Following initial response to treatment, relapse of clinical signs occurred. Most interesting was the recrudescence of clinical signs on day 7 that may have been caused by the release of deposited venom during surgical debridement of necrotic skin. The resulting extensive clinical signs required multiple vials of antivenom (22 vials over a 7 day period). Both F(ab')2 antivenom and antivenin (Crotalidae) polyvalent were used in this dog because of availability logistics. It is thought that this large amount of antivenom resulted in type I (anaphylaxis) and type III hypersensitivity (serum sickness) reactions. The dog made a complete clinical recovery. This description of extended, fluctuating clinical abnormalities that were associated with envenomation together with the development of hypersensitivity reactions that were presumably secondary to antivenom administration is information that can be useful for the management of patients afflicted with severe pit viper envenomation. PMID:26355585

  13. For Fit's Sake: A Norms-Based Approach to Healthy Behaviors Through Influence of Presumed Media Influence.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shirley S; Lee, Edmund W J; Ng, Kaijie; Leong, Grace S H; Tham, Tiffany H M

    2016-09-01

    Based on the influence of presumed media influence (IPMI) model as the theoretical framework, this study examines how injunctive norms and personal norms mediate the influence of healthy lifestyle media messages on public intentions to engage in two types of healthy lifestyle behaviors-physical activity and healthy diet. Nationally representative data collected from 1,055 adults in Singapore demonstrate partial support for the key hypotheses that make up the extended IPMI model, highlighting the importance of a norms-based approach in health communication. Our results indicate that perceived media influence on others indirectly shaped public intentions to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors through personal norms and attitude, providing partial theoretical support for the extended IPMI model. Practical implications for health communicators in designing health campaigns media messages to motivate the public to engage in healthy lifestyle are discussed. PMID:26799846

  14. MIP-3β/CCL19 is associated with the intrathecal invasion of mononuclear cells in neuroinflammatory and non-neuroinflammatory CNS diseases in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemokines such as MIP-3β/CCL19 are important factors in the mechanism of cell migration and pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reactions. The hypothesis of this study is that CCL19, also known as MIP-3β, is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and non-inflammatory CNS diseases of dogs. Experiments were performed on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of dogs affected with steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) during the acute phase as well as during treatment. Dogs with SRMA were compared to dogs with presumed meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO), and both groups sub-categorized into dogs receiving no therapy and with patients receiving prednisolone therapy. Idiopathic epilepsy (IE), a group with normal CSF cell count, was used as a control. Additionally, dogs with intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) of varying severity were analyzed. Chemokine concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Migration assays were performed on seven selected CSF samples using a disposable 96-well chemotaxis chamber. Results CCL19 was detectable in CSF samples of all dogs. Dogs with untreated SRMA and MUO displayed pronounced CCL19 elevations compared to the control group and patients receiving glucocorticosteroid treatment. CSF cell counts of untreated SRMA and MUO patients were significantly positively correlated with the CCL19 CSF concentration. IVDD patients also had elevated CCL19 concentration compared to controls, but values were considerably lower than in inflammatory CNS diseases. Selected CSF samples displayed chemotactic activity for mononuclear cells in the migration assay. Conclusions CCL19 CSF concentrations were markedly elevated in patients affected with the neuroinflammatory diseases SRMA and MUO and showed a strong correlation with the CSF cell count. This chemokine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SRMA and MUO. The elevation of CSF CCL19 in IVDD suggests

  15. Low-field Mri and arthroscopy of meniscal lesions in ten dogs with experimentally induced cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Martig, Sandra; Konar, Martin; Schmökel, Hugo G; Rytz, Ueli; Spreng, David; Scheidegger, Jürg; Höhl, Birgit; Kircher, Patrick R; Boisclair, Julie; Lang, Johann

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of canine meniscal lesions. The aim of this study is to describe the MR appearance of meniscal lesions in dogs with experimentally induced cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency. The pilot study revealed dogs weighing approximately 10 kg to be too small for meniscal evaluation on low-field MRI. In the main study, dogs weighing approximately 35 kg were used. The left CCL was transected and low-field MRI was performed regularly until 13 months post-surgery. Normal menisci were defined as grade 0. Intrameniscal lesions not reaching any surface corresponded to grade 1 if focal and to grade 2 if linear or diffuse. Grade 3 lesions consisted in linear tears penetrating a meniscal surface. Grade 4 lesions included complex signal changes or meniscal distortion. Between 2 and 13 months post-surgery, all dogs developed grade 4 lesions in the medial meniscus. Most of them corresponded to longitudinal or bucket handle tears on arthroscopy and necropsy. Two dogs showed grade 3 lesions reaching the tibial surface of the lateral meniscus on MRI but not in arthroscopy. Such tears are difficult to evaluate arthroscopically; MRI provides more accurate information about the tibial meniscal surface. Grades 1 and 2 lesions could not be differentiated from presumably normal menisci with our imaging technique. An MRI grading system better adapted to canine lesions has yet to be developed. MRI is a helpful tool for the diagnosis of complete tears in the canine meniscus, especially in larger dogs. PMID:17153058

  16. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius necrotizing fasciitis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Poma, Roberta; James, Fiona; Buenviaje, Gilbert; Foster, Robert; Slavic, Durda

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was implicated as the cause of rapidly progressive and fatal necrotizing fasciitis in a dog. The isolate was methicillin-susceptible and did not contain genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. While Streptococcus canis is typically considered to be the main cause of necrotizing fasciitis in dogs, staphylococci should also be considered. PMID:19721787

  17. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  18. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  19. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  20. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  1. Interactions of wolves and dogs in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.; Paul, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    This article reports on the nature and extent of wolf-dog interactions in Minnesota, based on investigations of complaints received by personnel of the federal government dealing with wolf-depredation control. Findings may indicate the wolf-dog interactions that can be expected in other recovery areas.

  2. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  3. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  4. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  5. "The Dog Project:" Implications for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Joanne Marie

    2004-01-01

    In this photo essay, I examine the social contexts of literacy development through an exploration of a unique organization called "The Dog Project." In this descriptive narrative, I document the ways children's interactions with their peers, the instructors, and the dogs in the project fostered their sense of self-efficacy, their…

  6. A technique for saliva collection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P A; Newcomer, C E; Shultz, D S

    1983-10-01

    A plastic two-chambered vacuum-collection device was developed to collect saliva produced by the parotid gland in dogs. Repeated application of the device on the parotid gland papilla was atraumatic. Dogs were restrained during the collection period with a continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine hydrochloride and diazepam in lactated Ringer's solution. The anesthetic regime did not interfere with salivation. PMID:6645392

  7. Flavobacterium breve meningitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Haburjak, J J; Schubert, T A

    1997-01-01

    An unusual, gram-negative rod was isolated in significant numbers (4+) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a dog. This isolate, Flavobacterium breve, has not been identified previously as a pathogen in the dog. The case and the characteristics of the organism are described. PMID:9358418

  8. Context specificity of inhibitory control in dogs

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Evan L.; Hare, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Across three experiments, we explored whether a dog's capacity for inhibitory control is stable or variable across decision-making contexts. In the social task, dogs were first exposed to the reputations of a stingy experimenter that never shared food and a generous experimenter who always shared food. In subsequent test trials, dogs were required to avoid approaching the stingy experimenter when this individual offered (but withheld) a higher-value reward than the generous experimenter did. In the A-not-B task, dogs were required to inhibit searching for food in a previously rewarded location after witnessing the food being moved from this location to a novel hiding place. In the cylinder task, dogs were required to resist approaching visible food directly (because it was behind a transparent barrier), in favor of a detour reaching response. Overall, dogs exhibited inhibitory control in all three tasks. However, individual scores were not correlated between tasks, suggesting that context has a large effect on dogs' behavior. This result mirrors studies of humans, which have highlighted intra-individual variation in inhibitory control as a function of the decision-making context. Lastly, we observed a correlation between a subject's age and performance on the cylinder task, corroborating previous observations of age-related decline in dogs' executive function. PMID:23584618

  9. Going to the 'Dogs' to Test Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramm, Kenneth R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an alternative method for using live animals in the classroom. A toy dog, the "Trail Tracker Hound Dog" (manufactured by CPG Products Corporation, Cincinnati, Ohio), is used to encourage development of such skills as observation, hypothesis testing, and collection and analysis of scientific data. (Author/JN)

  10. Ileal cannulation and associated complications in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hill, R C; Ellison, G W; Burrows, C F; Bauer, J E; Carbia, B

    1996-02-01

    Accurate measurement of small intestinal digestibility is important in dogs because it allows the formulation of pet foods that provide optimal nutrition at minimal cost. Digestibility measured by comparing nutrient intake to fecal excretion in intact animals does not distinguish small intestinal digestion from large intestinal bacterial fermentation. Ileal cannulation allows small intestinal digestion to be measured alone by comparing nutrient intake with ileal excretion of chyme. Nevertheless, ileal cannulation and its associated complications are not well documented in dogs. We describe the implantation of a simple T-cannula in the ileum of nine dogs for an average duration of 26 weeks. Established cannulas were well tolerated, and one dog retained the cannula for 14 months. Nevertheless, ileal effluent proved extremely caustic, and the incidence of complications in the immediate postoperative period was high. Only one dog had an unremarkable postoperative course. Complications included abscessation and cannula extrusion, followed by severe excoriation and ulceration of the skin. This excoriation could be prevented only by immediate surgical closure of the fistula. Chronic ileal cannulation is therefore a viable technique in dogs, but careful monitoring of the cannula site is essential. Dogs should be subjected to this procedure only if adequate veterinary and nursing care is available. It is preferable to maintain a colony of long-term cannulated dogs rather than to implant cannulas as needed. PMID:8699825

  11. POLLUTION DETECTION DOGS: PROOF OF CONCEPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

  12. Have Fun. Be Active with Your Dog!

    MedlinePlus

    ... together. Take a brisk walk to your local dog park. Be imaginative. Walks are great, but consider other ... obstacle course in your yard or at the park; together, move around, through, and even ... water for both you and your dog. In hot weather , go out in the morning ...

  13. Possible Platelet Thrombi Formation in Dog and Human Femoral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Folts, John D.; Detmer, Donald E.; Nadler, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a ubiquitous condition that commonly produces vessel stenosis and progresses ultimately to vascular occlusion. It is thought by many that platelets collect on sites of atherosclerosis and exacerbate its progression. We have previously shown that platelet thrombi can form within 10 minutes in the stenosed coronary arteries of a dog and can produce acute cyclical reduction in blood flow measured with an electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF). This is followed by sudden restoration of flow as the platelet thrombus breaks loose and is carried distally (Circulation 54:365-370, 1976). In five dogs, blood flow was measured simultaneously in a femoral artery stenosed 70%, exposed proximally with an EMF, and monitored distally over intact skin with a Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter (DUF). Cyclical reductions in blood flow were detected by both the EMF and the DUF, presumably due to platelet thrombi forming in the stenosed femoral artery and then breaking loose and moving distally. These flow reductions could be consistently abolished with aspirin (ASA). In ten patients with angiographically proven substantial stenoses of the femoral or popliteal arteries who were not taking ASA, the popliteal blood flow velocity was measured with a DUF. Six of the ten patients showed cyclical blood flow velocity reductions during 30 minutes of observation. These flow velocity reductions were similar to those observed in the stenosed dog femoral arteries. One hour after taking 600 mg ASA orally, five of the six patients no longer showed flow velocity reductions. Eight male control subjects who were not on ASA and had no known stenoses had no flow velocity reductions when studied with the DUF. Since many factors, such as cigarette smoking, diabetes, and elevated plasma lipids, are known to increase human platelet aggregation, we postulate that platelet thrombi may form in stenosed peripheral arteries, hasten the development of atherosclerosis, and reduce blood flow. This postulate

  14. Metazoan parasites of dogs in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    MacAdam, I; Gudan, D; Timbs, D V; Urquhart, H R; Sewell, M M

    1984-02-01

    The parasites which occurred most frequently in 175 owned or stray dogs in Sabah were Ancylostoma spp. present in 68% of the animals. Dirofilaria immitis occurred in 70% of the adult dogs but neither D. immitis nor Spirocerca lupi were present in puppies under four months of age. The latter attained a prevalence of 30% in the adults. In contrast Toxocara canis occurred in 81% of the puppies but infrequently in older dogs. Dipylidium caninum was moderately prevalent (15 to 25%) in dogs of all ages. Ticks were the most common arthropod parasite being present on 26% of the dogs and were mainly Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Demodectic and sarcoptic mange were confirmed and fleas and lice were also recovered. PMID:6730003

  15. Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) prefer family?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jennifer; Vonk, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Kin recognition requires the ability to discriminate between one's own genetic relatives and non-relatives. There are two mechanisms that aid in kin discrimination: phenotype matching and familiarity. Dogs may be a good model for assessing these mechanisms as dogs are a promiscuous social species with a keen sense of smell. Domestic dogs of both sexes were presented with two scents (close kin, distant-kin) and preference was assessed through three measures (latency to approach, number of visits, time spent). Experiment 1 explored the possibility of phenotype matching as subjects had no contact with sires, whose scent was presented alongside a control male's scent. Experiment 2 explored recognition of siblings raised with the subjects and then separated at seven weeks of age. Whereas female dogs in this experiment did not show a statistically significant preference, male dogs showed a preference for distant-kin when presented with sire and female sibling samples. PMID:26277060

  16. Hyperferritinemia in dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Kanai, Kazutaka; Ito, Naoyuki; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2013-11-01

    Serum ferritin concentration increases in dogs in association with various diseases. In this study, we measured serum ferritin levels in dogs with splenic masses, using a sandwich ELISA assay. Eleven dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA), six with hematoma, 1 with hemangioma and 3 with lymphoma were enrolled. All dogs with HSA had serum ferritin concentrations above the normal limit (1,357 ng/ml, mean + 2× standard deviation of normal). Increased serum ferritin concentrations have also been observed in few cases of hematoma, hemangioma and lymphoma. Therefore, hyperferritinemia is not specific for splenic HSA, but may have clinical usefulness as a sensitive test for the disease. Further evaluation of serum ferritin concentrations in dogs with splenic HSA is needed. PMID:23803459

  17. Acute idiopathic polyneuropathy in the dog.

    PubMed

    Northington, J W; Brown, M J; Farnbach, G C; Steinberg, S A

    1981-08-15

    From among a large group of dogs with acute tetraparesis, we identified 10 dogs with a distinct peripheral nerve disorder. Prior to the onset of signs, all of the dogs had been healthy, and none was known to have been exposed to a neurotoxin or raccoon bite. Weakness, with hypoactive or absent segmental reflexes, became progressively worse for 1 to 21 days. Results of electromyography and nerve conduction studies invariably were compatible with a diagnosis of polyneuropathy that predominantly affected proximal nerve segments. Appearance of nerve biopsy specimens and the short time course for functional recovery suggested a demyelinative component to the disorder. The extent of recovery was variable but often rapid and complete in dogs that did not succumb to complications in the early period. Corticosteroid therapy did not demonstrably influence the outcome. This acute idiopathic polyneuropathy in the dog shares many clinical and pathologic features with idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis (Coonhound paralysis). PMID:6270046

  18. Nasca classification of hemivertebra in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Besalti, Omer; Ozak, Ahmet; Pekcan, Zeynep; Eminaga, Salih

    2005-01-01

    : Five dogs, four small mixed breed and a Doberman Pinscher, presented in our clinic with hemivertebra. Complete physical, radiological and neurological examinations were done and the spinal deformities were characterized in accord with the Nasca classification used in human medicine. Two dogs had multiple hemivertebrae (round, oval or wedge-shaped: Type 3) in the thoracic region; one dog had an individual surplus half vertebral body (Type 1) plus a wedge-shaped hemivertebra (Type 2b) in the lumbar region; one dog had multiple hemivertebrae which were fused on one side (Type 4a) in the thoracic region; and one dog had a wedge-shaped hemivertebra (Type 2a) in the cervical region. PMID:21851666

  19. Functional MRI in Awake Unrestrained Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Gregory S.; Brooks, Andrew M.; Spivak, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Because of dogs' prolonged evolution with humans, many of the canine cognitive skills are thought to represent a selection of traits that make dogs particularly sensitive to human cues. But how does the dog mind actually work? To develop a methodology to answer this question, we trained two dogs to remain motionless for the duration required to collect quality fMRI images by using positive reinforcement without sedation or physical restraints. The task was designed to determine which brain circuits differentially respond to human hand signals denoting the presence or absence of a food reward. Head motion within trials was less than 1 mm. Consistent with prior reinforcement learning literature, we observed caudate activation in both dogs in response to the hand signal denoting reward versus no-reward. PMID:22606363

  20. Bacteriological study of the liver in dogs.

    PubMed

    Niza, M M R E; Ferreira, A J A; Peleteiro, M C; Vilela, C L

    2004-08-01

    This study aimed to confirm the possible presence of bacteria in the liver of healthy dogs. Laparotomy was performed in 20 animals admitted for routine abdominal surgery. To be selected for the study, dogs had to be healthy adults without clinical liver disease, signs of infection or macroscopic liver abnormalities. Biopsy samples were histologically and bacteriologically examined. Bacteriological analysis was negative for the livers of eight of the dogs. The remaining animals harboured a diverse bacterial flora in their liver. Twelve bacterial species were identified. Histology showed that the livers of 19 dogs had minor or no abnormalities, and only one animal had interstitial fibrosis and trabecular disarrangement. Histological changes were not related to the presence of bacteria. Thus the results showed that the liver of healthy dogs may harbour different bacterial species. These microorganisms did not cause any detectable manifestation of disease, despite being potential pathogens. PMID:15352409

  1. N-desmethyldiazepam physical dependence in dogs.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, L F; Martin, W R; Pruitt, T A

    1985-11-01

    Dogs, surgically implanted with a chronic gastric fistula, were chronically dosed with N-desmethyldiazepam (32 mg/kg/day) in four divided doses to attain N-desmethyldiazepam plasma levels comparable to those observed in dogs dependent on diazepam (60 mg/kg/day). The time course of N-desmethyldiazepam abstinence was studied, beginning not less than 2 weeks after stabilization levels had been achieved. The abstinence syndrome observed after abrupt discontinuation of N-desmethyldiazepam was similar to the diazepam abstinence syndrome but differed in several important aspects. In diazepam-dependent dogs, there was a short burst of tremor very early in withdrawal (approximately 1-2 hr after the last dose of diazepam) that was not seen in N-desmethyldiazepam-dependent dogs. Signs of abstinence such as tremor, hot foot walking and twitches and jerks were more frequently observed in N-desmethyldiazepam-dependent dogs than in diazepam-dependent dogs as were decreases in food and water intake and in body weight. The overall intensity of abstinence, as measured by the Diazepam Withdrawal Abstinence Scale, was greater in N-desmethyldiazepam-dependent dogs than in dogs dependent on either lorazepam or diazepam. Plasma levels of N-desmethyldiazepam and oxazepam were nearly equal in dogs dependent on diazepam or on N-desmethyldiazepam and were 4 to 10 times greater than the plasma levels of diazepam or lorazepam in diazepam- or lorazepam-dependent dogs, respectively. Furthermore, the plasma levels of N-desmethyldiazepam and oxazepam declined much more slowly than the levels of diazepam and lorazepam. These results suggest that physical dependence on diazepam is caused by the accumulation and actions of N-desmethyldiazepam.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3932642

  2. Multifocal retinopathy of Great Pyrenees dogs.

    PubMed

    Grahn, B.H.; Philibert, H.; Cullen, C.L.; Houston, D.M.; Semple, H.A.; Schmutz, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-four related Great Pyrenees dogs were examined ophthalmoscopically. Focal retinal elevations, multiple gray-tan-pink subretinal patches, and discrete areas of tapetal hyper-reflectivity were seen in 19 dogs, ranging from 13 weeks to 10 years of age. These lesions varied in size from focal spots that were barely visible with the indirect ophthalmoscope to areas that were larger than the optic disc. Complete blood cell counts, serum biochemical profiles, urinalyses, and blood pressure measurements were completed on four affected dogs and all were within normal reference ranges. Photopic and scotopic electroretinography was completed and the a-wave and b-wave amplitudes and latencies were similar for affected and age-matched nonaffected Great Pyrenees and other normal dogs. Electroretinograms that were examined twice during a 3-year period on three affected adult dogs did not reveal significant progressive deterioration of the a or b-wave parameters. Fluorescein angiography was completed on four affected dogs of ages 1 (n = 2), 5, and 6 years. These angiograms were repeated in three of these dogs 1 year later. The blood ocular barrier was intact in these dogs but there was blocked choroidal fluorescence. Postmortem examination, light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were performed on three affected puppies and two affected adult dogs. These examinations revealed that the lesions in the puppies were limited to bilateral multiple areas of retinal pigment epithelial vacuolation, hypertrophy, and apparent separation from Bruch's membrane, and multiple serous retinal detachments. The affected adult dogs had focal retinal degeneration and retinal pigment epithelial hypertrophy, hyperplasia and pigmentation. Pedigree analysis and test mating confirm that this condition is inherited, probably as an autosomal recessive trait. This condition develops at approximately 13 weeks of age and the focal areas of retinal detachment and retinal pigment

  3. Vaginal Leiomyoma in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Kang, T. B.; Holmberg, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The surgical treatment of vaginal leiomyoma in a seven year old Blue Heeler bitch is described. A smooth, 12 cm diameter submucosal, intraluminal, firm mass was found on vaginal examination. It appeared to arise from the left ventral vaginal wall, cranial to the clitoris but caudal to the cervix. There was no history of urinary problems and the dog was normal in all other aspects. The treatment was surgical excision of the mass via an episiotomy. Histological examination indicated a leiomyoma. The differential diagnoses, possible etiologies and control or prevention of the condition by ovariohysterectomy are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422296

  4. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  5. Proteinuria in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  6. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  7. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  8. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  9. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  10. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  11. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  12. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  13. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  14. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Dogs and other animals. 520.11... THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION § 520.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  15. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  16. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  17. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Dogs and other animals. 504.10... SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  18. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  19. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  20. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  1. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  2. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  3. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  4. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  5. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  6. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  7. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  8. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  9. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  10. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section... CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the property for other than...

  11. Decline in human dog-bite cases during a street dog sterilisation programme in Jaipur, India.

    PubMed

    Reece, J F; Chawla, S K; Hiby, A R

    2013-05-01

    Human dog-bite injuries are a major public health problem, particularly where there are large populations of free-roaming or street dogs. Dog bites are also the major source of human rabies infections. There is little information on the means to reduce these injuries. Monthly human animal-bite injury records from January 2003 to June 2011 were obtained from the main government hospital in Jaipur, India. The data were analysed and compared with records of pregnancy in street dogs in Jaipur obtained from a street dog sterilisation programme. Human animal-bite injuries showed a seasonal pattern which followed by approximately 10 weeks the seasonal peak of street dog breeding. The number of human animal bites has declined significantly since 2003. It is concluded that a street dog sterilisation programme can reduce human dog-bite injuries by reducing the maternal protective behaviour of the street dogs, as well as reducing the total size of the roaming dog population. PMID:23492927

  12. Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sarah K.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L.; Ahrens, Kristen D.; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N.

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

  13. Aprindine for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in the dog.

    PubMed

    Muir, W W; Bonagura, J D

    1982-10-01

    Aprindine hydrochloride was administered IV and orally to 20 dogs with ventricular tachycardia. Seventeen of the 20 dogs had been unsuccessfully treated with conventional antiarrhythmic drugs. Fifteen of the 20 dogs converted to sinus rhythm after IV aprindine therapy, 4 dogs demonstrated marked slowing of their ventricular tachycardia, and 1 dog showed an increase in the rate of ventricular tachycardia. Emesis, ataxia, salivation, and nystamus were observed in 7 dogs after IV aprindine therapy. One dog developed clinical and laboratory evidence compatible with acute hepatitis. PMID:7149383

  14. Microvasculature of the Dog Left Ventricular Myocardium1

    PubMed Central

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Yipintsoi, Tada; Harvey, Rodney B.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main branches of the left main coronary artery of normally beating dog hearts was perfused with a silicone elastomer which solidified within the vasculature. Prolonged immersion in increasingly concentrated ethanol and in methyl salicylate rendered the tissue translucent and the vasculature clearly visible. Surfaces were photographed by reflected or transmitted light microscopy, showing large groups of capillaries running parallel to muscle fibers and extending for up to a few centimeters. The arrangement of arteriolar inflows to the capillary network and venular outflows (two to four times as frequent) suggested that functional capillary lengths were 500–1000 μm. Estimates of capillary diameters, presumably at maximal dilatation, were 5.6 ± 1.3 μm. Capillary densities within muscle groups were 3100–3800/mm2, giving intercapillary distances of 19–17.5 μm. With the lesser density value, the capillary surface area is estimated to be 500 cm2/g of myocardium. Inclusion of interfascial spaces lowered the average density to about 2500/mm2. Unbranched capillary lengths averaged 100 μm, with a strongly right-skewed distribution. The anatomic arrangement provides a basis mainly for concurrent flow in neighboring capillaries, and also for some diffusional exchange between inflow and outflow regions. PMID:4596001

  15. Quantum non-barking dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

    2014-06-01

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

  16. Managing Neuropathic Pain in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of the somatosensory system such as neuropathic pain are common in people with chronic neurologic and musculoskeletal diseases, yet these conditions remain an underappreciated morbidity in veterinary patients. This is likely because assessment of neuropathic pain in people relies heavily on self-reporting, something our veterinary patients are not able to do. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex phenomenon, and concepts related to it are frequently not addressed in the standard veterinary medical curriculum such that veterinarians may not recognize this as a potential problem in patients. The goals of this review are to discuss basic concepts in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, provide definitions for common clinical terms used in association with the condition, and discuss pharmacological treatment options for dogs with neuropathic pain. The development of neuropathic pain involves key mechanisms such as ectopic afferent nerve activity, peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, impaired inhibitory modulation, and pathologic activation of microglia. Treatments aimed at reducing neuropathic pain are targeted at one or more of these mechanisms. Several drugs are commonly used in the veterinary clinical setting to treat neuropathic pain. These include gabapentin, pregabalin, amantadine, and amitriptyline. Proposed mechanisms of action for each drug, and known pharmacokinetic profiles in dogs are discussed. Strong evidence exists in the human literature for the utility of most of these treatments, but clinical veterinary-specific literature is currently limited. Future studies should focus on objective methods to document neuropathic pain and monitor response to therapy in veterinary patients. PMID:26942185

  17. Metabolism of cibenzoline in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, A.C.; Williams, T.H.; Tilley, J.W.; Sasso, G.J.; Carbone, J.J.; Leinweber, F.J.; Cazes, M.

    1986-03-05

    The disposition of /sup 14/C-cibenzoline in male dogs after oral administration of 13.8 mg/kg of cibenzoline base, 4,5-dihydro-2-(2,2-diphenylcyclopropyl)-1H-imidazole, was investigated. Unchanged drug was the major excreted component in 0-24 h urine from 3 dogs, ranging from 32.2-56.6% of the dose. A phenolic metabolite was purified by TLC after Glusulase hydrolysis and identified by NMR and MS as p-hydroxycibenzoline in rearranged form, rac-4-(5-phenyl(2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-pyrrolo-(1,2-a)imidazol-5-yl)) phenol. The 0-24 h urine contained 4-5% of the dose as this compound. The conditions leading to rearrangement of synthetic p-hydroxycibenzoline, trans-rac-4-(2-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-phenylcyclopropyl) phenol, were investigated. These studies suggested that unrearranged p-hydroxycibenzoline was excreted and that rearrangement occurred predominantly during the purification procedure. Unchanged cibenzoline, purified from urine, was analyzed by ORD/CD and found to display slight optical activity, corresponding to an optical purity of 15%. Shape of the spectra and sign (minus) were those of reference S(-) cibenzoline. p-Hydroxycibenzoline and its rearranged analog were only slightly active in inhibiting ventricular arrhythmia in rats induced by i.v. infusion of aconitine.

  18. Dog is a dog is a dog: Infant rule learning is not specific to language

    PubMed Central

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Pollak, Seth D.; Seibel, Rebecca L.; Shkolnik, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Human infants possess powerful learning mechanisms used for the acquisition of language. To what extent are these mechanisms domain-specific? One well-known infant language learning mechanism is the ability to detect and generalize rule-like similarity patterns, such as ABA or ABB (Marcus et al., 1999). The results of three experiments demonstrate that 7-month-old infants can detect and generalize these same patterns when the elements consist of pictures of animals (dogs and cats). These findings indicate that rule learning of this type is not specific to language acquisition. PMID:17188676

  19. Review on Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Africa: A Question of Dog Accessibility or Cost Recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Jibat, Tariku; Hogeveen, Henk; Mourits, Monique C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged). Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP), Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP) and AJOL (African Journal Online) for peer reviewed articles on 1) rabies control, 2) dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3) dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ≥ 1990), type of study (cross sectional), objective(s) of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs), language of publication (English) and geographical focus (Africa). The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1) the majority (up to 98.1%) of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible), 2) puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30%) of the dog population and 3) male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population). Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between “free of charge” and “owner charged” vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68%) is closer to the

  20. How to Steal a Dog and Other Lessons in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a lost dog gave her the idea for writing her book, "How to Steal a Dog." Her tale of serendipity began when she, a dog-lover, walked into a garden center near her home and saw a sign for a lost dog taped beside the cash register. She states that, although her story is about a girl who stole a dog and…

  1. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning. PMID:21874515

  2. Diagnostic testing of dogs for food hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, J G; Shanley, K J; Meyer, E K

    1991-01-15

    Thirteen food-allergic dogs were studied to evaluate the efficacy of feeding a commercially available egg and rice diet, intradermal skin testing, and serologic testing by ELISA for diagnosing and/or characterizing food hypersensitivity. Feeding of a home-cooked whole lamb meat and rice diet for 3 weeks, followed by challenge with each dog's regular diet, served as the standard for diagnosing food hypersensitivity. Each dog underwent provocative testing with 6 individual ingredients to determine as many of its dietary allergens as possible. Prior to skin testing and serologic testing by ELISA, most dogs had been recently exposed to the offending diet and subsequently manifested clinical signs of allergy. All dogs that tolerated the aforementioned commercial diet were exposed to it for at least 7 weeks; 84.6% of food-hypersensitive dogs ate the commercial diet with impunity. Of the 2 reactors to the commercial diet, only 1 became pruritic in response to provocation testing with chicken eggs. Low sensitivity and high specificity were found for skin testing and the ELISA, indicating a lack of true- and false-positive reactions. Neither the positive nor negative predictive values adequately predicted positive and negative reactions, respectively, for either test. On the basis of these results, the commercial diet, skin testing, and anti-IgE ELISA cannot replace an owner-prepared food elimination diet for food hypersensitivity testing in dogs. PMID:2004984

  3. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  4. Borreliosis in dogs from southern Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Kaufmann, A F; Lieberman, L L; Whitney, G D

    1985-05-01

    Blood samples were obtained from dogs in tick-infested regions of southern Connecticut to assess canine exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease in human beings. An indirect fluorescent antibody test detected immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies at titers of 1:64 to 1:512 in 22 of 84 serum samples previously shown to be positive with a polyvalent rabbit anti-dog total Ig conjugate. Analyses of paired serum samples from 20 seropositive dogs revealed temporal differences in titers; changes occurred during brief (1 month) or extended (greater than 4 years) sampling periods. Clinical records for 52 seropositive dogs indicated a history of intermittent lameness in 19 of these. Limb/joint disorders typically developed in dogs without IgM antibodies, suggesting manifestation during later phases of illness. A microscopic-agglutination test was used to assess cross reactivity between B burgdorferi and 20 serovars of Leptospira interrogans and biflexa. Analyses of 63 dog serum specimens with antibodies to B burgdorferi and a series of reference rabbit sera revealed minor antigenic relatedness. There was geographic clustering of dogs with antibodies to B burgdorferi in areas of south-central and southeastern Connecticut, where human Lyme disease also occurs. PMID:3997647

  5. Hierarchical stimulus processing by dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Pitteri, Elisa; Mongillo, Paolo; Carnier, Paolo; Marinelli, Lieta

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the visual processing of global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli in domestic dogs. Fourteen dogs were trained to recognise a compound stimulus in a simultaneous conditioned discrimination procedure and were then tested for their local/global preference in a discrimination test. As a group, dogs showed a non-significant trend for global precedence, although large inter-individual variability was observed. Choices in the test were not affected by either dogs' sex or the type of stimulus used for training. However, the less time a dog took to complete the discrimination training phase, the higher the probability that it chose the global level of test stimulus. Moreover, dogs that showed a clear preference for the global level in the test were significantly less likely to show positional responses during discrimination training. These differences in the speed of acquisition and response patterns may reflect individual differences in the cognitive requirements during discrimination training. The individual variability in global/local precedence suggests that experience in using visual information may be more important than predisposition in determining global/local processing in dogs. PMID:24337824

  6. Visual loss and presumed pseudoxanthoma elasticum confirmed with genetic analysis but not with skin examination and biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Carolien; De Keyser, Christophe; Leys, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Case report of a patient with angioid streaks, peau d’orange, comet tail lesions, choroidal neovascularisation and presumed pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). PXE was confirmed by gene analysis but not by skin biopsies. Methods: Case report of a patient with angioid streaks identified at age 21 and follow-up till age 43 with repeated fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Dermatologic examination, skin biopsies and genetical analysis performed to confirm suspected diagnosis of PXE. Results: At age 43, no specific skin lesions were identified and 3 biopsies could not confirm PXE. Genetic analysis showed a homozygous mutation in the ABCC6 gene and confirmed the diagnosis of PXE. Conclusions: This case illustrates that in patients with angioid streaks having strong ocular indicators of PXE, confirmation of PXE can be obtained not only with dermatologic examination and skin biopsies, but also with genetic analysis. PXE associated mutations can be detected occasionally in biopsy negative patients and for this reason are extremely helpful in confirming a suspected diagnosis.

  7. A cluster of presumed, noninfectious endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab: long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Federico; Calabrese, Antonio; De Felici, Cecilia; Missiroli, Filippo; Pileri, Marco; Regine, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcome of 5 consecutive cases of presumed, noninfectious endopththalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB). Methods Ten pre-loaded syringes of bevacizumab (1.25 mg/50 µL) furnished by a compounding pharmacy were injected intravitreally. Treatments were performed in the operating room by the same surgeon on 2 consecutive days. Results Of 10 eyes, 5 showed moderate to severe ocular inflammation within a few days of injection. All patients were treated in the same surgical session. Vitreous tap performed in the patient presenting with the most severe grade of inflammation was negative for bacteria and fungi. At the time of the vitreous biopsy, this patient was injected with vancomycin 1 mg/100 µL in the vitreous cavity. Other eyes with moderate inflammation received topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroid treatment. Visual acuity returned to pre-endophthalmitis or better levels in all eyes within 1 month. The other 5 patients treated with IVB from the same batch in the other surgical session did not develop inflammation. Conclusions IVB can induce noninfectious endophthalmitis. The use of compounded syringes can explain clustering of the inflammation. We were unable to identify the reasons for the variable grade of inflammation we observed in our patients. PMID:27582674

  8. Neurodegenerative disease and the evolution of art: the effects of presumed corticobasal degeneration in a professional artist.

    PubMed

    Kleiner-Fisman, Galit; Black, Sandra E; Lang, Anthony E

    2003-03-01

    Production of art is a complex process involving a combination of technical skill and a unique talent. Changes in artistic ability may accompany neurodegenerative disorders when they occur in an artist. The nature of these changes in the context of definable regional neuropathological disturbances may provide insight into the structural basis of the creative process. We describe a professional artist in whom presumed corticobasal degeneration (CBD) was associated with an alteration of his artistic judgement and production. Disinhibition, perseveration, and left hemispatial neglect, features of his cognitive profile were readily discernible in his work. The differences in his style are examined with respect to his main neuroanatomic abnormalities, namely right cerebral hemiatrophy as defined by magnetic resonance and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. Cognitive deficits, including visuoconstructive and motor neglect, apathy, perseveration, and disinhibition as determined by neuropsychological testing, contributed to the dissolution of his artistic skills. Our case study adds to the growing literature on the effects of brain damage on artistic expression in the graphic arts. PMID:12621633

  9. Dog ownership and dog walking to promote physical activity and health in patients.

    PubMed

    Epping, Jacqueline N

    2011-07-01

    Lack of physical activity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases and conditions and is associated with significant medical costs. Approximately half of adults and more than a third of adolescents and youth in the United States do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Effective population-level strategies are needed to promote activities that are practical, accessible, and sustainable and that can reach a large proportion of the population. Dog walking may be such a strategy. Walking is popular, easy, and sustainable and has a low risk of injury. Owning dogs confers many health benefits, and dog walking, in particular, can help promote physical activity and improve health. Physicians and other health care providers can play a unique and integral role in promoting physical activity among patients by recommending dog walking both to dog owners and to non-dog owners as a purposeful, enjoyable, and sustainable form of regular physical activity. PMID:23531898

  10. Efficacy of oxfendazole for the treatment of giardiosis in dogs. Experiments in dog breeding kennels.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, V; Beugnet, F; Bourdoiseau, G

    2000-09-01

    Giardiosis is one of the most frequent parasites of dogs and cats. Since several years, the treatment is based on the use of metronidazole. A coproscopic study in four dog kennels was conducted to demonstrate, at a significant level, the efficacy of oxfendazole (Dolthène, Merial). At the posology of 11.3 mg/kg each day during three days (D1, D2 and D3), no dogs eliminated Giardia cysts and all dogs are clinically cured. The importance of hygienic measures is underlined. In kennels 1 and 2 where hygienic conditions were poor, dogs reexcreted cysts again after treatment. In kennels where the boxes were disinfected, no dogs, treated with 22.6 or 11.3 mg/kg, reexcreted Giardia cysts. PMID:11031759

  11. Circovirus in Tissues of Dogs with Vasculitis and Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; McGraw, Sabrina; Zhu, Kevin; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Marks, Stanley L.; Kubiski, Steven; Gaffney, Patricia; Dela Cruz Jr, Florante N.; Wang, Chunlin; Delwart, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We characterized the complete genome of a novel dog circovirus (DogCV) from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, vasculitis, and granulomatous lymphadenitis. DogCV was detected by PCR in fecal samples from 19/168 (11.3%) dogs with diarrhea and 14/204 (6.9%) healthy dogs and in blood from 19/409 (3.3%) of dogs with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, fever of unknown origin, or past tick bite. Co-infection with other canine pathogens was detected for 13/19 (68%) DogCV-positive dogs with diarrhea. DogCV capsid proteins from different dogs varied by up to 8%. In situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy detected DogCV in the lymph nodes and spleens of 4 dogs with vascular compromise and histiocytic inflammation. The detection of a circovirus in tissues of dogs expands the known tropism of these viruses to a second mammalian host. Our results indicate that circovirus, alone or in co-infection with other pathogens, might contribute to illness and death in dogs. PMID:23628223

  12. Comparison of the nutrient composition of commercial dog milk replacers with that of dog milk

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Cailin R.; Freeman, Lisa M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Power, Michael L.; Fascetti, Andrea J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the nutrient composition of commercially available dog milk replacers with that of dog milk. Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Sample 5 dog milk samples and 15 samples of commercial dog milk replacers. Procedures Dog milk and milk replacers were analyzed for concentrations of total protein, essential amino acids, sugars, total fat, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus. Energy density was calculated. Results from milk replacers were compared with the range of the concentration of each nutrient in milk samples from mature dogs as well as the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations for puppy growth. Results Milk replacers varied widely in caloric density and concentration of nutrients such as calcium, protein, and fat. Calcium concentration was lower in 14 of 15 milk replacers than in the dog milk samples. Docosahexaenoic acid was undetectable in 12 of 15 milk replacers but present in all dog milk samples. All milk replacers had numerous essential nutrients outside of the range of the dog milk samples, and many had concentrations of amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus less than the NRC minimal requirement or recommended allowance. Compared with NRC recommendations, some dog milk samples had concentrations of total protein, linoleic acid, calcium, or phosphorus less than the recommended allowance. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that there was substantial variation in nutrient composition of 15 dog milk replacers and that some products were closer approximations of dog milk than others. Nearly all products would benefit from more appropriate calcium, amino acids, and essential fatty acids concentrations and better feeding directions. PMID:24871064

  13. Putative avocado toxicity in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Buoro, I B; Nyamwange, S B; Chai, D; Munyua, S M

    1994-03-01

    Two dogs were seen at the University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, both having histories of dyspnoea, progressively enlarging abdomens, anasarca, ascites, pleural and pericardial effusion, and pulmonary oedema. One of the dogs had a mild neutrophilic leucocytosis, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and proteinuria. Histopathological examination of the myocardium revealed some damage to myocytes and a mononuclear cellular infiltration involving the myocardium, liver and kidneys. The two dogs had a fondness for avocado fruits and, as the presenting syndrome is identical to that seen in goats, sheep and horses poisoned by avocados, a comparison is made and the probable manifestation of this poisoning presented. PMID:7898892

  14. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease. PMID:17493900

  15. [Sled dog racing and animal welfare aspects].

    PubMed

    Schminke, A; Möbius, G

    1998-03-01

    Transport, housing and the dimensions of strain during training and race are important aspects of animal welfare. The race veterinarian has a great responsibility. He is responsible for the treatment of injured dogs and he has to give advice on all medical and animal welfare questions. The presence of the veterinarian during the entire race is very important. These veterinarians should have special knowledge of small animals and of sled dogs in particular. There should be health checks of sled dogs before and after racing similar to horse sport tournaments. PMID:9581387

  16. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs. PMID:25454375

  17. Laryngeal disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Macphail, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    The most common disease process involving the larynx is laryngeal paralysis, which occurs much more frequently in dogs than in cats. Diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis requires close attention to anesthetic plane and coordination of respiratory effort with laryngeal motion. Surgical arytenoid lateralization improves respiration and quality of life in dogs with laryngeal paralysis; however, aspiration pneumonia is a recognized complication, and generalized neuropathy can progress. Laryngeal collapse can result from any cause of chronic upper airway obstruction, but is most often associated with unaddressed brachycephalic airway syndrome. Laryngeal neoplasia, while generally uncommon, occurs more frequently in cats than in dogs. PMID:24268331

  18. Fleas parasitizing domestic dogs in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gracia, M J; Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Castillo, J A; Peribáñez, M A; Lucientes, J

    2008-02-14

    In addition to their importance to veterinary clinical practice as ectoparasites, fleas of domestic dogs are of special concern because they can be vectors of disease, including zoonoses. Flea assemblages parasitizing domestic dogs usually comprise several flea species whose distribution is determined by factors acting at several scales. Knowledge of these factors will aid in assessment of the distribution patterns of flea parasitism, and is an important tool in developing control strategies and in evaluation of flea-borne disease risk in dogs and humans. In this survey we used data from 744 domestic dogs from 79 localities in Spain to explore the associations between the abundance of flea species, host-dependent factors (sex and age), and host habitat factors including abode (farm, house with garden, apartment), location (urban or rural), the presence of other pets, and dog activity (measured as the frequency with which dogs left their abode). We also considered environmental factors including the time of year and mean annual temperature and rainfall. Variations in flea community structure at infracommunity and component community levels were also explored. Four flea species were found parasitizing dogs. Ctenocephalides felis was the most abundant (88.02% of fleas identified), followed by Ctenocephalides canis (10.38%), Pulex irritans (1.47%) and Echidnophaga gallinacea (0.13%). Overall flea abundance was higher on dogs living on farms than in apartments, as was the abundance of Ct. felis, Ct. canis and P. irritans. Ct. felis was more abundant on dogs living in houses than in apartments, but the reverse was found for P. irritans. Overall flea abundance and Ct. canis abundance were highest in rural areas, whereas the presence of other pets sharing the abode was associated with higher overall flea abundance and Ct. felis abundance. Only P. irritans abundance was positively related to the activity of dogs. Ct. canis and P. irritans abundances were higher during the

  19. Size and demography pattern of the domestic dog population in Bhutan: Implications for dog population management and disease control.

    PubMed

    Rinzin, Karma; Tenzin, Tenzin; Robertson, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the demography of domestic dogs is essential to plan the dog population management and rabies control program. In this study, we estimated the owned and stray dog population and the proportion of owned dogs that are free-roaming in Bhutan. For this, a cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in six districts (both urban and rural areas) and two border towns in southern Bhutan. The population estimation was done by extrapolation of the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person, whilst mark-resight survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of owned dogs that were free-roaming. A total of 1,301 (rural:585; urban:716) respondents (one per household) were interviewed of which 173 households (24.4%) in urban areas owned 237 dogs whilst 238 households (40.8%) in rural areas owned 353 dogs. The mean number of dogs per dog owning household was estimated to be 1.44 (urban:1.37 dogs; rural:1.48 dogs) and dogs per household was estimated to be 0.45 (urban:0.33; rural:0.60). The dog: human ratio was 1:16.30 (0.06 dogs per person) in urban areas and 1:8.43 (0.12 dogs per person) in rural areas. The total owned dog population based on the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person were estimated to be 65,312 and 71,245 in the country, respectively. The male: female ratio of the owned dog was 1.31:1 in urban areas and 2.05:1 in rural areas. Majority of the dogs were local non-descript breeds in both urban (60.8%) and rural (78%) areas, and the most common source was acquisition from friends or family (44.7%). The stray dog population in Bhutan was estimated to be 48,379 (urban:22,772; rural:25,607). Of the total estimated owned dog population in the two border towns, the proportion that were found free-roaming was estimated to be 31%. The different dog population estimation methods were compared and discussed in this paper. This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which

  20. Sarcocystid organisms found in bile from a dog with acute hepatitis: a case report and review of intestinal and hepatobiliary Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Katherine L; Walker, Julie M; Friedrichs, Kristen R

    2016-03-01

    Sarcocystidae is a family of coccidian protozoa from the phylum Apicomplexa that includes Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Hammondia, and Besnoitia spp. All species undergo a 2-host sexual and asexual cycle. In the definitive host, replication is enteroepithelial, and infection is typically asymptomatic or less commonly causes mild diarrhea. Clinical disease is most frequently observed in the intermediate host, often as an aberrant infection, and is mostly associated with neurologic, muscular, or hepatic inflammation. Here, we review the literature regarding intestinal Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats, with emphasis on the life cycle stages and the available diagnostic assays and their limitations. We also report the diagnostic findings for an 11-year-old dog with acute neutrophilic hepatitis, biliary protozoa, and negative biliary culture. Although Toxoplasma and Neospora IgG titers were both high, PCR for these 2 organisms was negative for bile. The organisms were identified by 18S rDNA PCR as most consistent with Hammondia, either H heydorni or H triffittae. This is the first report of presumed Hammondia organisms being found in canine bile. PMID:26870918

  1. Evaluation of the shock index in dogs presenting as emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Adam E.; Rozanski, Elizabeth A.; Sharp, Claire R.; Dixon, Kursten L.; Lyn Price, Lori; Shaw, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To 1) determine the normal range for Shock Index (SI) [defined as heart rate (HR)/systolic blood pressure (SBP)], in healthy dogs, and 2) compare SI in healthy dogs with dogs presenting to the emergency room (ER) deemed to be in or not in a state of shock. Design Prospective study. Animals 68 clinically normal dogs,,18 dogs that were presented to the ER deemed to be in shock and 19 dogs presenting to the ER not deemed to be in shock. Setting University teaching hospital. Interventions Peripheral or central venous blood sampling. Measurements and Main Results Heart rate and SBP were recorded on simulated presentation (healthy dogs), and emergency presentations for both dogs deemed to be in shock and dogs not deemed in shock. Dogs in shock had a median SI of 1.37 (0.87–3.13), which was significantly higher than both other groups; dogs not deemed in shock had median SI 0.73 (0.56–1.20), P<0.0001 and healthy dogs had median SI 0.78 (0.37–1.30) P<0.0001), respectively. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis suggested a SI cut-off of 1.0, yielding an area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) of 0.89 (Specificity (Sp) 89, Sensitivity (Sn) 90) when comparing dogs deemed in shock with healthy dogs, and 0.92 (Sp 95, Sn 89) when comparing dogs in shock with to dogs not deemed in shock. Conclusions The SI is an easy and non-invasive patient parameter that is higher in dogs that are deemed to be in shock than both healthy dogs and dogs presented as emergencies but not deemed to be in a state of shock. The measurement of SI may have some benefit in clinical assessment of emergency patients. PMID:23855723

  2. [Hepatitis in dogs; a review].

    PubMed

    Rothuizen, J; van den Ingh, T S

    1998-04-15

    As with most liver diseases, the symptoms of hepatitis in dogs are nearly always aspecific: the dogs eat less, are apathetic, sometimes have polyuria/polydipsia, and sometimes have diarrhoea. Hepatoencephalopathy and ascites only occur with these symptoms in very advanced stages of chronic hepatitis. Only a part of the dogs have jaundice. Because of these aspecific symptoms, the diagnosis hepatitis is often not taken into consideration, even though the presence of a liver disease can be easily detected by measuring plasma concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and bile acids, one or both of which are elevated. The diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination of a liver biopsy sample. The most common forms of hepatitis are non-specific reactive hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis. Non-specific reactive hepatitis is a reaction against endotoxin as a result of sepsis or an increased gastrointestinal absorption. Treatment is directed to the primary process. Leptospirosis also causes non-specific reactive hepatitis, but then renal insufficiency is the most prominent feature. The diagnosis is made not on the basis of a liver biopsy but on the basis of increased IgM titres against Leptospira. Immediate treatment with antibiotics and infusions at the first signs (jaundice and uraemia) can save the animal's life. Acute hepatitis can develop as a result of infection, toxins, or liver hypoxia. There is no specific treatment, but adequate recovery often occurs with supportive treatment. Corticosteroids are contraindicated. Chronic hepatitis, which can lead to cirrhosis, is the most common form of hepatitis. It is an autoimmune inflammatory reaction that is usually caused by a virus infection but sometimes by poisoning (intoxication). Long treatment with prednisolone or azathioprine is usually successful, but early recognition of the disease increases the likelihood of success. Nowadays, chronic hepatitis due to hepatic copper accumulation in Beddlington

  3. Fatal presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat with measurement of venom and antivenom concentration.

    PubMed

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-04-01

    A fatal outcome of a presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat is described. Detectable venom components and antivenom concentrations in serum from clotted and centrifuged whole blood and urine were measured using a sensitive and specific ELISA. The cat presented in a paralysed state with a markedly elevated serum CK but with normal clotting times. The cat was treated with intravenous fluids and received two vials of equine whole IgG bivalent (tiger and brown snake) antivenom. Despite treatment the cat's condition did not improve and it died 36 h post-presentation. Serum concentration of detectable tiger snake venom components at initial presentation was 311 ng/mL and urine 832 ng/mL, this declined to non-detectable levels in serum 15-min after intravenous antivenom. Urine concentration of detectable tiger snake venom components declined to 22 ng/mL at post-mortem. Measurement of equine anti-tiger snake venom specific antibody demonstrated a concentration of 7.2 Units/mL in serum at post-mortem which had declined from an initial high of 13 Units/mL at 15-min post-antivenom. The ELISA data demonstrated the complete clearance of detectable venom components from serum with no recurrence in the post-mortem samples. Antivenom concentrations in serum at initial presentation were at least 100-fold higher than theoretically required to neutralise the circulating concentrations of venom. Despite the fatal outcome in this case it was concluded that this was unlikely that is was due to insufficient antivenom. PMID:26836396

  4. Regulatory Mechanisms in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in First Internodes of Sorghum vulgare: Effect of Presumed Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Helen A.

    1966-01-01

    There was a 6 to 24-hour lag in the production of anthocyanins in the light after excision of 4-day-old etiolated internodes of Sorghum vulgare variety Wheatland milo. In internodes infiltrated with water, apigeninidin was formed first at 12 to 24 hours and continued to be produced slowly. Luteolinidin was formed slightly later, but its formation rapidly exceeded that of apigeninidin. Cyanidin was the last type to be produced, but equaled the amounts of luteolinidin by 4 days. In noninfiltrated internodes, the production of cyanidin was greatly accelerated, beginning at about 6 hours. Data from experiments with inhibitors that presumably affect protein synthesis at different loci indicated that protein synthesis was necessary for maximum production of all 3 anthocyanins, but that different steps were rate limiting. Light independent synthesis of apigeninidin and luteolinidin was inhibited by chloramphenicol and l-ethionine but not by actinomycin D and 8-azaguanine. However, the synthesis of these 2 anthocyanins was not inhibited by puromycin, but was sometimes stimulated. The light-induced synthesis of cyanidin was inhibited by actinomycin, azaguanine, chloramphenicol and ethionine. Actinomycin no longer was inhibitory if added after incubation for 6 hours in air. All inhibitors were capable of inhibiting to various degrees either the incorporation of 14C-uracil into RNA or 14C-leucine into protein. The inhibitor data suggest that the light insensitive synthesis of apigeninidin and luteolinidin may be controlled by enzyme synthesis at the level of ribosomes via stable mRNA, while the light-induced production of cyanidin is dependent initially on the production of mRNA. The latter hypothesis is similar to that recently proposed by Lange and Mohr for a cyanidin produced in Sinapis seedlings. PMID:16656361

  5. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans. PMID:26977412

  6. Tooth brushing inhibits oral bacteria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Kotaro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs. PMID:25994486

  7. Pharmacokinetics of oral dichloroacetate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Shroads, Albert L; Zhong, Guo; Daigle, Adam D; Abdelmalak, Monica M; Samper, Ivan Sosa; Mincey, Brandy D; James, Margaret O; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2013-12-01

    We characterized the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of dichloroacetate (DCA), an investigational drug for mitochondrial diseases, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cancer. Adult Beagle dogs were orally administered 6.25 mg/kg q12h DCA for 4 weeks. Plasma kinetics was determined after 1, 14, and 28 days. The activity and expression of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1), which biotransforms DCA to glyoxylate, were determined from liver biopsies at baseline and after 27 days. Dogs demonstrate much slower clearance and greater inhibition of DCA metabolism and GSTZ1 activity and expression than rodents and most humans. Indeed, the plasma kinetics of DCA in dogs is similar to humans with GSTZ1 polymorphisms that confer exceptionally slow plasma clearance. Dogs may be a useful model to further investigate the toxicokinetics and therapeutic potential of DCA. PMID:24038869

  8. Skin neoplasms of dogs in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, T L; Howlett, C R; Middleton, D J; Griffiths, D A; Duff, B C

    1987-06-01

    In a survey of dogs in Sydney, mastocytomas (16.1%) and histiocytomas (14.0%) were the most common in a total of 1,000 skin neoplasms. The basal cell and appendage group provided 25.5% of the neoplasms. The prevalence of the various neoplasms, the age of affected dogs, the proportion in the sexes, the common sites of occurrence and prevalence in the different breeds were broadly similar to findings in surveys in other countries, except that in the Syndeny dogs there was a greater prevalence of histiocytomas and haemangiopericytomas, a more common occurrence of histiocytomas in mature dogs, an occurrence of histiocytomas in similar numbers on the head, trunk and limbs, and a remarkably common development of squamous cell carcinomas in Dalmatians. PMID:3115242

  9. Thyroid tumors in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lisa G

    2007-07-01

    The clinical presentation and biologic behavior of thyroid tumors vary widely among dogs, cats, and human beings. Although thyroid tumors in dogs are rare, they are most likely to be malignant. Clinical signs are usually the result of impingement on surrounding structures, and clinical hyperthyroidism is rare. In contrast, hyperthyroidism resulting from benign thyroid proliferation is relatively common among older cats. Malignant tumors are extremely uncommon but have high metastatic potential. Irrespective of the tumor's ability to produce functional thyroid hormone, scintigraphy is often helpful in the diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors in all three species. Treatment with surgery is a reasonable treatment option for noninvasive tumors. Iodine 131 is a well-established treatment for thyroid nodules in cats, but its effectiveness in dogs is controversial. In dogs, external beam radiation therapy has produced more consistent results in affording local tumor control when surgery is not possible. PMID:17619010

  10. Elimination of bacteria from dogs with antibiotics*

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Norman R.; van der Waaij, D.; Cohen, Bennett J.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of neomycin cephalothin or kanamycin cephalothin on the aerobic intestinal bacterial flora, was studied in dogs maintained under isolation conditions in a conventional animal room. The dogs were successfully freed of aerobic bacteria with both combinations within two to seven days after the start of antibiotic treatment, and were maintained bacteria free for up to 21 days. Decontamination was attained more rapidly in dogs that were bathed in hexachlorophene surgical soap before and during the first and third days of antibiotic treatment. There was no evidence of toxicity from either of the antibiotic combinations. These results indicate that, as with mice and monkeys, decontamination of dogs with oral antibiotics is feasible. The technique is of potential value in preventing endogenous bacterial infections in canine experimental studies involving use of immunosuppressive agents. PMID:4529233

  11. [Imported parasites in dogs: Dirofilaria repens and Dipetalonema reconditum].

    PubMed

    Zahler, M; Glaser, B; Gothe, R

    1997-07-01

    Between June 1993 and May 1996 infections with filariae were diagnosed in 80 dogs. Five animals were infected with Dirofilaria repens and three other dogs with Dipetalonema reconditum. One of the D. reconditum positive dogs was also infected with Dirofilaria immitis. An epidemiological analysis of the cases was possible for three D. repens and two D. reconditum infected dogs. Two of the dogs with D. repens infections had been imported from Italy or Greece, the third dog had been taken by its owner to Hungary and former Yugoslavia. The dogs infected with D. reconditum were imported from Corse or Spain. Regarding the other 72 dogs with filariae, 45 animals were infected with D. immitis. For 27 dogs being negative in the D. immitis ELISA, microfilariae have been demonstrated. However, a histochemical species differentiation of the microfilariae was not possible because fresh blood smears were not available. PMID:9312900

  12. CT Pneumocolonography In Normal Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Steffey, Michele A.; Daniel, Leticia; Taylor, Sandra L.; Chen, Rachel X.; Zwingenberger, Allison L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of this experimental study were to describe effects of varying technical components that may contribute to an optimal protocol for CT pneumocolonography (CTP) in dogs, and to develop a standardized methodology for CTP as a future potential diagnostic tool in canine clinical patients with large bowel disease. Eight purpose-bred intact male hound cross research dogs were enrolled and randomized to groups based on variables of pressure/body position (n=4) and insufflation time (n=4). For each segment of large bowel (rectum, colorectal junction, descending colon, transverse colon, ascending colon), the adequacy of bowel preparation, % of bowel lumen filled with fecal material, and bowel tortuosity or folding were assessed. Measurements of bowel wall thickness (cm), cross-sectional bowel lumen diameter (cm), and cross-sectional bowel luminal area (cm2) were obtained at standardized locations within the large bowel. False discovery rates (FDR) were calculated to adjust for multiple testing. Values of FDR < 0.05 were considered significant. Differences in mean cross-sectional area and diameter and bowel wall thickness under increasing pressure were not significant after adjusting for multiple testing; some had raw p values <0.05. Ascending colon diameter and ascending colon area significantly increased with insufflation time (FDR<0.05). No other response variables showed a significant change with insufflation time. The optimal insufflation pressure for maintaining pneumocolon in this study was determined to be 20 mmHg. CTP is a feasible technique to provide consistent distension for imaging of the large bowel and further study on application of CTP in clinical patients is warranted. PMID:25545308

  13. Serum-free thyroxine concentrations, measured by chemiluminescence assay before and after thyrotropin administration in healthy dogs, hypothyroid dogs, and euthyroid dogs with dermathopathies.

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, M; Pagé, N; Larivière, N; Fontaine, M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of free thyroxine (FT4) measured by chemiluminescence in evaluating thyroid function in dogs. Total thyroxine (TT4) concentration measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and FT4 measured by chemiluminescence were evaluated in 30 healthy dogs, 60 euthyroid dogs with concurrent dermatopathies, and 30 hypothyroid dogs before and after intravenous stimulation with 1 or 2 IU of thyrotropin (TSH). Median basal TT4 and median TT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different (P < 0.0001) between healthy dogs and euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but were significantly higher than those in hypothyroid dogs. In healthy dogs, the median TT4 concentrations at 4 and 6 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different. Median basal FT4 and median FT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration in healthy dogs were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than those in euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but significantly higher than the same parameters in hypothyroid dogs. There was a significant difference between the median FT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration and median basal FT4 concentrations for healthy dogs and euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but not for hypothyroid dogs. Lastly, in healthy dogs, median FT4 concentrations at 4 and 6 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different. Free thyroxine measured by chemiluminescence was highly correlated (P < 0.0001; Spearman r = 0.91) with FT4 measured by the reference method for free hormone analysis, namely, equilibrium dialysis, when sera from 56 dogs were used. PMID:8705973

  14. The trochanter tertius in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pinna, S; Grandis, A; Spadari, A

    2015-01-01

    The tuberositas glutaea is a rudimentary structure in the dog's os femoris. It gives attachment to the superficial gluteal muscle, and is known by veterinary anatomists and orthopedic surgeons as trochanter tertius. We report an atypical eminence exposed through a surgical approach on a Cane Corso Dog. Anatomic and radiographic investigations led us to recognize this eminence as an abnormally grown tuberositas glutaea. PMID:25720655

  15. Dog models for blinding inherited retinal dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Komáromy, András M

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials. PMID:25671556

  16. Littoral cell angiosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gal, A; Yamate, J; Golbar, H M; Spoerer, K; Fredrickson, R

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the microscopical and immunohistochemical characteristics of littoral cell angiosarcoma in a 12-year-old, neutered female, beagle dog. The dog succumbed to metastatic disease 3 months after diagnosis of a mid-splenic mass. The tumour was characterized by two histological patterns: anastomosing microvascular channels and microvascular papillary fronds. The neoplastic cells expressed both endothelial and histiocytic markers and were erythrophagocytic. Immunohistochemical findings consistent with malignancy were CD34 expression and high Ki67 nuclear immunoreactivity. PMID:23453493

  17. Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery. PMID:23204580

  18. Dog Models for Blinding Inherited Retinal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Komáromy, András M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials. PMID:25671556

  19. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same

  20. Acute thallium toxicosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Waters, C B; Hawkins, E C; Knapp, D W

    1992-09-15

    A Doberman Pinscher was evaluated for acute onset of gastroenteritis, characterized by anorexia, hematemesis, and hematochezia. The dog had ingested mole bait containing thallium 2 days prior to admission. Thallium toxicosis was confirmed by detection of thallium in the urine, using colorimetric analysis. The dog responded well to administration of antibiotics, fluids administered IV, warm-water enemas, and oral administration of activated charcoal slurries. PMID:1399797

  1. Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Lorraine A; Dumais, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma is considered rare in the dog with little known about the clinicopathologic features. There are few reports in the veterinary literature concerning this benign, reactive lesion, formerly known as giant cell epulis. In humans, the four most commonly described reactive epulides are focal fibrous hyperplasia (fibrous epulis), pyogenic granuloma, peripheral ossifying fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. This case report describes the diagnosis and surgical management of a peripheral giant cell granuloma in a dog. PMID:26415387

  2. [Ankyloglossia in an Anatolian Shepherd dog].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, S; Hofmann, A

    2006-08-01

    Ankyloglossia, commonknown as tongue-tie, is a rare congenital oral anomaly in dogs. A complete attachment of the lingual frenulum to the floor of the oral cavity leads to limited mobility of the tongue including problems during eating and swallowing. In humans ankyloglossia is a common anomaly in newborn infants. In our report a 5-month old Anatolian Shepherd dog was surgically treated and full function of the tongue could be achieved with a horizontal-to-vertical frenuloplasty. PMID:16933707

  3. Antitussive effects of levodropropizine in the dog.

    PubMed

    Munt, P L; Clavenna, G; Algate, D R; Leach, R M

    1994-02-01

    The antitussive activity of levodropropizine (S(-)3-(4-phenyl-piperazine-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526, CAS 99291-25-5) was evaluated after oral administration to the conscious dog. Levodropropizine had a good antitussive activity, comparable with, but having a longer duration of action than dropropizine, the racemate from which it is derived. The antitussive activity of levodropropizine in the dog was approximately 1/20 of that of codeine phosphate. PMID:8147948

  4. Pathologic factors affecting postsplenectomy survival in dogs.

    PubMed

    Spangler, W L; Kass, P H

    1997-01-01

    The apparently high prevalence of splenomegaly in dogs, along with the surgical accessibility of the spleen, results in a relatively large number of splenectomies in dogs in clinical veterinary practice. Splenic nodular lesions are widely considered to be indicative of hemangiosarcoma and thus a disease that is ultimately fatal. This study correlates the results of complete pathologic evaluation and classification of 500 spleens obtained by splenectomy with survival information for each dog. Among the spleens examined, 257 of 500 (51.4%) were classified nonneoplastic and 241 (48.2%) were neoplastic; 2 (0.4%) were unclassified. Miscellaneous non-nodular splenomegaly accounted for 46 of 257 (18%) of the nonneoplastic lesions; nodular splenomegaly accounted for 206 of 257 (79%) of nonneoplastic splenic lesions and was composed of lymphoid hyperplastic nodules and associated hematomas, hyperplastic lymphoid nodules alone, or hematomas with no apparent underlying cause. Nodular neoplastic diseases of the spleen were divided among benign tumors (11.5%) and a variety of primary sarcomas. Hemangiosarcoma made up 51% of splenic malignancies but accounted for less than 25% of the spleens evaluated. Survival of dogs with hematomas associated with nonneoplastic conditions of the spleen was markedly different from that in dogs with hemangiosarcoma-associated hematomas, even though most could not be effectively differentiated on gross inspection. Two month postoperative survival was 83% for dogs with nonneoplastic-related hematomas, whereas only 31% of dogs with hemangiosarcoma, with or without associated hematomas, were alive after 2 months. Twelve-month survival times were 64% and 7%, respectively. An overall postsplenectomy survival rate of 52% was based on the number of dogs surviving for a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. PMID:9183768

  5. Influence of dog appeasing pheromone (DAP) on dogs housed in a long-term kennelling facility

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, E. K.; Piehler, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kennel facilities are commonly acknowledged as a stressful environment for many domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). One therapeutic measure used to reduce anxiety in dogs is dog appeasing pheromone (DAP), which has been found effective in reducing stress-related behaviours in a number of contexts. Aims and Objectives A pilot study was conducted to assess whether DAP would reduce frequency of stress-related behaviours in a group of eight dogs housed for teaching purposes in a long-term kennelling facility. Materials and Methods Using video analysis, proportion of time spent in stress-related behaviours for six dogs fitted with DAP collars, versus two control dogs (without collars), was compared for the time before and during DAP exposure. Results No significant differences were found either in the proportion of time spent in stress-related behaviours in the baseline versus treatment periods or between the collared and control dogs in the change in proportion of time they spent in any of the focal behaviours in the baseline versus treatment periods. Conclusions Possible reasons for these findings include an actual lack of effect of DAP on dogs housed in this long-term kennelling facility, an apparent lack of effect due to small sample size in this pilot study and high behavioural variation among individual dogs. Despite lack of a demonstrated effect of the DAP collars on these dogs, attention brought by this study to the behavioural issues seen in some of the dogs did have a positive impact, as it contributed to the development of an active, coordinated behavioural wellness and enrichment programme for the colony. PMID:26392901

  6. Treatment of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael A; Gregory, Dawn E; Neumann, Norwood R; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David

    2005-05-15

    An examination was made as to the ability of Sentinel Flavor Tabs (milbemycin oxime/lufenuron) to treat Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs. The study was designed as a critical trial and included five naturally infected dogs and two dogs that were experimentally infected. Another dog from a prior clinical trial that was treated with Sentinel Flavor Tabs as part of the original FDA submission package for intestinal nematode infections was also included with the treated dogs. Of the five naturally infected dogs treated as part of the critical trial, three were cleared of their infections. These five dogs passed a total of 52 worms after treatment; one dog retained 23 worms and the other retained 1 worm at necropsy 7 days after treatment. Two of five experimentally infected Beagle dogs that had been given mice that had been fed 200 infectious eggs, developed patent infections with the parasite. These dogs were treated, and one of the dogs passed one worm and the other passed two worms after treatment with no worms being detected at necropsy 7 days after treatment. The one dog that was treated with milbemycin oxime as part of the FDA submission was clear of worms at necropsy. Overall, the mean efficacy of Sentinel Flavor Tabs was found to be 91.0%. Of the eight dogs that were treated, six were totally cleared of their infections, a cure rate of 75%. The two dogs that did not clear their infections had very large numbers of adult B. procyonis within their intestinal tracts at the time of treatment, one dog had 40 worms (23 remaining) and the other had 26 worms (1 remaining). It is suggested that the treatment of dogs with monthly Sentinel Flavor Tabs could markedly reduce the chance of infected dogs contaminating the environment. Also, additional monthly treatments are highly likely to clear dogs of any worms not killed with the initial treatment. PMID:15845284

  7. Thrombocytopenia associated with neoplasia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Grindem, C B; Breitschwerdt, E B; Corbett, W T; Page, R L; Jans, H E

    1994-01-01

    Ten percent (214/2,059) of all dogs with cancer at North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital had thrombocytopenia. The thrombocytopenia was associated with infectious/inflammatory etiologies in 4%, miscellaneous disorders (therapy, bone marrow failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation) in 35%, and neoplasia without identifiable secondary factors in 61% of cancer-bearing dogs. Classifying these dogs by tumor groups revealed the following proportionate ratios: lymphoid, 29%; carcinoma, 28%; sarcoma, 20%; hemic neoplasia, 7%; multiple, 5%; unclassified, 3%; benign, 3%; brain, 3%; and endocrine, 3%. Dogs with hemangiosarcoma, lymphoma, and melanoma were at increased risk of developing thrombocytopenia. Cytotoxic therapy was the major factor increasing the risk of thrombocytopenia in dogs with melanoma. Golden Retrievers were the only breed recognized with a predisposition to develop thrombocytopenia. If thrombocytopenia is identified in a dog with cancer, we recommend thorough evaluation of the coagulation system before surgery or therapy, and careful consideration of the risks and potential benefits of myelosuppressive or L-asparaginase therapy. PMID:7884725

  8. Suppression of fertility in adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Maenhoudt, C; Santos, N R; Fontbonne, A

    2014-06-01

    Unfortunately, the overpopulation of dogs is still a problem in the majority of countries and even though surgical methods of sterilization, the most traditional and commonly used technique, have been intensively performed, the impact on the dog population is negligible. The neutering of companion animals as ovariohysterectomy (spaying) or orchidectomy (castration) has its limitations because of the cost, the need of a surgical environment and the risk of surgical and/or anaesthetical complications (ACCD 2009). In fact, surgical castration has been banished in some northern European countries and has limited acceptance in other countries. In a survey performed in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 56.5% of the owners of adopted shelter dogs were against the surgical procedure for different reasons (Soto et al. 2005). Currently, the options for contraception, defined as suppression of fertility are based on hormonal treatment. The treatments can be divided into analogues of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), progestins and androgens. Other possibilities of contraception are via the immunological system with vaccinations against GnRH, the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor and the zona pellucida proteins. Finally, there is also the intra-epididymal or intratesticular injection of sclerosing substances in dogs. Mechanical devices to disrupt fertility are not used anymore due to the side effects. Suppression of fertility in adult dogs will be reviewed in order of use and possible impact on the dog population. PMID:24947862

  9. Pharmacokinetics of oral amantadine in greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Norkus, C; Rankin, D; Warner, M; KuKanich, B

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in greyhound dogs after oral administration. Five healthy greyhound dogs were used. A single oral dose of 100 mg amantadine hydrochloride (mean dose 2.8 mg/kg as amantadine hydrochloride) was administered to nonfasted subjects. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time points from 0 to 24 h after administration, and plasma concentrations of amantadine were measured by liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Amantadine was well tolerated in all dogs with no adverse effects observed. The mean (range) amantadine CMAX was 275 ng/mL (225-351 ng/mL) at 2.6 h (1-4 h) with a terminal half-life of 4.96 h (4.11-6.59 h). The results of this study can be used to design dosages to assess multidose pharmacokinetics and dosages designed to achieve targeted concentrations in order to assess the clinical effects of amantadine in a variety of conditions including chronic pain. Further studies should also assess the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in other dog breeds or using population pharmacokinetics studies including multiple dog breeds to assess potential breed-specific differences in the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in dogs. PMID:25427541

  10. [Intersexuality in dogs: causes and genetics].

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H; Distl, O

    2004-06-01

    Failures in the establishment of chromosomal, gonadal and phenotypic sex can cause intersexuality in dogs. Thus, diagnosis of chimaerism, mosaicism, sex reversal syndrome, and male or female pseudohermaphroditism in intersex individuals has to be based on the inspection of the chromosomes, gonads and the phenotypic appearance of the reproductive organs. In a study over two years, seven dogs of different breeds suspected to be intersexes were cytogenetically investigated. A sry-negative XX-sex reversal syndrome was diagnosed in a Jack Russel Terrier. In a mixbred dog a persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) was found and a Border Terrier Dog showed an XX/XY chromosomal chimaerism. In further four dogs of different breeds, a female constitution of sex chromosomes was seen. As a sign of intersexuality each of these dog showed an enlarged clitoris. A differentiation between XX-sex reversal syndrome and female pseudohermaphroditism was not possible because there was no information on the internal genital tract and gonads available. PMID:15287579

  11. Experimental canine parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V

    1982-04-01

    In specific pathogen-free dogs, clinical signs of experimental canine parvovirus infection were mild, inconsistent and transient. Clinical signs were more pronounced in conventionally-raised dogs, but the severe disease reported in field cases was not reproduced in either group. A pronounced plasma viremia occurred on the 2nd to 4th day post-infection (d.p.i.) in dogs challenged oronasally. Antibody was detectable on the 5th d.p.i. Marked pyrexia was rare, but a significant temperature rise usually coincided with the appearance of antibody and the cessation of viremia. Significant lymphopenia, but not leukopenia, occurred on the 3rd to 7th d.p.i. Virus could be readily isolated from fecal matter on the 3rd to 8th d.p.i.; a few dogs continued to shed virus for up to 12 days. In dogs challenged parenterally, the onset of elevated temperatures, viral shed and antibody production occurred 24-48 hours sooner. Convalescent dogs were no longer contagious for susceptible contact animals 25 days or longer after challenge, although infectious virus persisted in feces for more than 6 months at room temperature. Active giardiasis seemed to exacerbate the clinical syndrome, although treatment with corticosteroids or anti-thymocyte serum did not. PMID:6211333

  12. Efficacy of fenbendazole against giardiasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Bowman, D D; Heller, R L

    1994-07-01

    Efficacy of fenbendazole at 2 dosages for treating naturally acquired giardiasis in dogs was assessed. Giardia cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-1 dogs (as determined by use of the zinc sulfate concentration technique) after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 24 h, for 3 doses). Cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-2 dogs after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 8 h, for 3 days). However, cysts were not detected in the feces of only 1 of 6 group-3 (nontreated control) dogs. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that the current label dosage (for the treatment of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, and Taenia pisiformis, but not Giardia spp) of fenbendazole (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 3 doses) is also effective for treating giardiasis in dogs. PMID:7978640

  13. [Plasma amino acid concentrations in aggressive dogs].

    PubMed

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Riedel, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Following the hypothesis that metabolic screens may be useful tools in the diagnosis of canine aggression we have investigated the blood plasma amino acid levels of dogs which have been found aggressive (N = 10) against dogs or men in comparison to non-aggressive dogs (N = 10). In summary, the aggressive dogs showed elevated plasma concentrations of the neurophysiological active aromatic amino acids tryptophan (46/171 micromol/l, p < 0,001), tyrosine (38/67 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and histidine (74/91 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and lower lysine concentrations (175/151 micromol/l, p < 0.05), which seems to point to a stress situation of these dogs. The nitrogen metabolism is impaired in the urea-cycle in the conversion of ornithine (17/34 micromol/l, p < 0.01) to citrulline (64/47 micromol/l). Higher levels of branched chain amino acids, especially leucine (122/150 micromol/l, p < 0.01), mainly metabolized in muscles, and isoleucin (60/71 micromol/l, p < 0.05) show a high energy potential. The acidose-stimulator methionine (48/78 micromol/l, p < 0.01) proved elevated. The results show that the changed behavior in the aggressive dogs is also reflected in their free amino acid plasma concentrations, independent of the question whether these data are the cause or the result of the aggressivity. PMID:15803756

  14. Comparison of oral and intramuscular recombinant canine distemper vaccination in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Connolly, Maren; Thomas, Patrick; Woodroffe, Rosie; Raphael, Bonnie L

    2013-12-01

    A series of three doses of recombinant canary-pox-vectored canine distemper virus vaccine was administered at 1-mo intervals, orally (n = 8) or intramuscularly (n = 13), to 21 previously unvaccinated juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo. Titers were measured by serum neutralization at each vaccination and at intervals over a period of 3.5-21.5 mo after the initial vaccination. All postvaccination titers were negative for orally vaccinated animals at all sampling time points. Of the animals that received intramuscular vaccinations, 100% had presumed protective titers by the end of the course of vaccination, but only 50% of those sampled at 6.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. None of the three animals sampled at 21.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. PMID:24450046

  15. The types of the landslide by the heavy rain presumed from geographical and geological features in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshida, S.

    2014-12-01

    Various types of a landslide, such as a deep-seated landslide, a shallow landslide, and a debris flow, exist. And the risk and the damage area of a landslide change greatly with the types. Therefore it is very important to guess the type of a landslide generated in the future, in order to decrease the damage of a landslide. In this research, I investigated and studied the landslide disaster which occurred in the typhoon No.12 disaster in 2011 and the northern Kyusyu-island heavy rain disaster 2012, in Japan. The purpose of the study presumes the types of a landslide generated in the future by analyzing geographical and geological features.  Many deep-seated landslides and shallow landslides (debris flows) occurred by the typhoon No.12, 2011 in Japan. The precipitation exceeds 1,800 mm in four days in part regionally. Landslides occurred frequently in the Totsukawa area (Northern part) and Nachi-Katsuura area (Southern part), both area were the precipitation of about 1000 mm in four days. In the Totsukawa area, deep-seated landslides occurred frequently, and in Nachi-Katsuura area, shallow landslides (debris flows) occurred frequently. On the other hand, many deep-seated landslides and shallow landslides occurred by the northern Kyusyu-island heavy rain disaster 2012 in Japan too. Landslides occurred frequently in the Hoshino village area (Northern part) and Asodani area (Southern part). In both area, the total precipitation exceeds 500 mm and the hourly precipitation is about 80 mm. In the Hoshino village area, deep-seated landslides occurred frequently, and in Asodani area, shallow landslides occurred frequently.  The result compared with the deep-seated landslide area (Totsukawa and Hoshino village) and the shallow landslide area (Nachi-Katsuura and Asodani), area of landslide is larger and number of landslide is fewer in the deep-seated landslide area. In the shallow landslide area, the slope is steeper and the drainage network is more developed. It is

  16. Discharge properties of presumed cholinergic and noncholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons related to cortical activation in non-anesthetized mice.

    PubMed

    Sakai, K

    2012-11-01

    We have recorded, for the first time, in non-anesthetized, head-restrained mice, a total of 339 single units in and around the laterodorsal (LDT) and sublaterodorsal (SubLDT) tegmental nuclei, which are located, respectively, in, or beneath, the periaqueductal gray and contain cholinergic neurons. The recordings were made during the complete wake-sleep cycle including wakefulness (W), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and paradoxical (or rapid eye movement) sleep (PS). The tegmental neurons displayed either a biphasic narrow or triphasic broad action potential. Seventy-six LDT or SubLDT neurons characterized by their triphasic long-duration action potentials were judged to be cholinergic and this was verified in anesthetized mice using neurobiotin juxtacellular labeling combined with choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry of the recorded cell. The 76 presumed cholinergic neurons discharged tonically at the highest rate during W and PS (W/PS-active neurons) as either single isolated spikes or clusters of two to five spikes, and 26 of them discharged selectively during W and PS, these W/PS-selective neurons being found mainly in the SubLDT. The clustering discharge was particularly prominent during PS, when it was associated with an obvious phasic change in the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG), and during waking periods, when it was accompanied by abrupt body movements. During the transition from sleep to waking, the cholinergic W/PS-selective neurons and the LDT or SubLDT noncholinergic W-selective neurons showed firing before the onset of W, while, at the transition from waking to sleep, they ceased firing before sleep onset. At the transition from SWS to PS, all the cholinergic neurons exhibited a significant increase in discharge rate before the onset of PS. The present study in mice supports the view that cholinergic and noncholinergic LDT and SubLDT neurons play an important role in tonic and phasic processes of arousal and cortical EEG activation occurring

  17. Analysis of neuroretinal rim distribution and vascular pattern in eyes with presumed large physiological cupping: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate possible differences in neuroretinal rim distribution, vascular pattern, and peripapillary region appearance between eyes with presumed large physiological optic disc cupping (pLPC) and eyes with minimal optic disc excavation. Methods We prospectively enrolled consecutive subjects with pLPC and individuals with minimal excavation (optic disc excavation within normal limits; control group). All eyes had normal visual fields and untreated intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mmHg. Eyes with pLPC required vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) ≥0.6 and ≥30 months of follow-up with no evidence of glaucomatous neuropathy. For controls, VCDR was limited to ≤0.5. We compared ocular signs and characteristics related to the neuroretinal rim distribution, vascular pattern, peripapillary region appearance and disc size between groups. Whenever both eyes were eligible, one was randomly selected for analysis. Results A total of 74 patients (mean age, 45.6 ± 14.9 years) with pLPC and 45 controls (mean age, 44.8 ± 11.6 years) were enrolled (p = 0.76). Median disc size and VCDR was significantly larger in eyes with pLPC compared to controls (p < 0.01). The proportion of eyes with violation of the ISNT rule, laminar dot sign, nasal shifting of the central vessels, nasal excavation and baring of circumlinear vessel was significantly greater in the eyes with pLPC compared to controls (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences regarding the proportions of eyes with peripapillary atrophy between groups (p < 0.09). Finally, disc size was significantly associated with VCDR (r2 = 0.47, p < 0.01), with an increase of 0.21 in VCDR for each 1 mm2 in disc area. Conclusion Compared to normal controls, eyes with pLPC may present a higher proportion of optic nerve head findings frequently observed in glaucomatous eyes. This seems to be explained in part by the larger discs found in these eyes. We believe care should be taken

  18. Who Let the Dog in? How to Incorporate a Dog into a Self-Contained Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Katherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Described in this article are outcomes, procedures, and suggestions for incorporating a dog into a classroom for students with emotional or behavioral disorders. First, the outcomes for the inclusion of a dog are presented and are reported from an empirical study conducted by the author. Next, details are provided on how teachers would initially…

  19. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F.

    2015-01-01

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs. PMID:26436700

  20. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Songqin; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-11-17

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs. PMID:26436700

  1. Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.

    PubMed

    Wan, Michele; Bolger, Niall; Champagne, Frances A

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain. PMID:23284765

  2. Human Perception of Fear in Dogs Varies According to Experience with Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Michele; Bolger, Niall; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of experience in humans’ perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the “fearful” category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the “happy” category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain. PMID:23284765

  3. Computed tomography myelographic findings in dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Ronaldo C; Echandi, Rita L; Beauchamp, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) myelography is used occasionally in the diagnosis of cervical spondylomyelopathy, but the type of lesion found in large- versus giant-breed dogs using this modality has not been characterized. Our purpose was to report the frequency of compressive lesions in large- and giant-breed dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy and imaged using CT myelography. Fifty-eight dogs were retrospectively studied, 23 large-breed and 35 giant-breed dogs. Multiple sites of compression were found in 12 large-breed dogs (52.2%) compared to 30 (85.8%) giant-breed dogs. The main site of compression was at C5-6 and C6-7 in both large-breed (91.3%) and giant-breed (72.4%) dogs. The main cause and direction of compression was disc-associated and ventral in 19 (82.6%) of the large-breed dogs while osseous changes were the primary cause of compression in 27 (77.2%) of the giant-breed dogs, with most compressions being lateral (51.4%), followed by dorsolateral (14.2%). Osseous compression was observed at C7-T1 in eight giant-breed dogs (22.8%), and at T1-T2 or T2 only in five dogs (14.3%). Four of 23 large-breed dogs (17.4%), and seven (20%) of 35 giant-breed dogs had spinal cord atrophy. Therefore, giant-breed dogs often have multiple compressions, usually caused by osseous changes causing lateralized compressions. In large-breed dogs most compressions are disc-associated and located ventrally. Considering the number of giant-breed dogs with compressions at C7-T1, T1-2, and T2, it is important to include the cranial thoracic region when imaging dogs suspected of having cervical spondylomyelopathy. PMID:22093094

  4. Computed tomographic findings in 15 dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Luis; Lam, Richard; Lamb, Christopher R; McConnell, J Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy is a disease characterized by the infiltration of the lung and bronchial mucosa by eosinophils. The aim of the present study was to describe the CT findings in a large series of dogs with confirmed diagnosis of eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy. Computed tomographic scans of 15 dogs with confirmed diagnosis of eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy were evaluated retrospectively by two boarded radiologists who reached a consensus. Abnormalities were identified in 14/15 (93%) dogs, including pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities in 14/15 (93%) dogs, bronchial wall thickening in 13 (87%) dogs, which was considered marked in eight (53%), plugging of the bronchial lumen by mucus/debris in 11 (73%) dogs, and bronchiectasis in nine (60%) dogs. Pulmonary nodules were identified in 5/15 (33%) dogs including one dog with a mass. All dogs with a nodular lung pattern had additional abnormalities. Lymphadenopathy was present in 10 dogs (67%). Lesions associated with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy are variable and heterogeneous and encompass a wider variety of computed tomographic features than reported previously. Computed tomographic images were abnormal in the majority of affected dogs, hence CT is a useful modality to characterize the nature and distribution of thoracic lesions in dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy. PMID:25124052

  5. Diseases Transmitted by Man's Best Friend: The Dog.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jerry; Lorber, Bennett

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between dogs and humans is ancient and mutually beneficial. Dogs have served people well as companions, workmates, guides, and protectors. However, on occasion, dogs may injure humans through biting or may transmit pathogens resulting in a large number of problems ranging from a trivial rash to life-threatening bacteremia. Given that there are more than 80 million pet dogs in the United States, it is worth knowing the potential problems that can result from canine exposure. Annually, almost 5 million people in the United States suffer a dog bite. Dog bite wounds become infected up to 15% of the time. In those who have had a splenectomy, a dog bite may transmit the bacterium Capnocytophaga canimorsus, leading to life-threatening bacteremia. Other illnesses that humans can acquire from dog contact include ringworm, diarrheal disease (salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and intestinal parasites), leptospirosis, brucellosis, Q fever, visceral larva migrans, and echinococcosis. Evidence exists that the family dog may serve as a reservoir for uropathogenic Escherichia coli that can lead to urinary tract infections among human household contacts. In this article we discuss dog-related infectious diseases as well as measures to minimize dog-associated illness (e.g., do not disturb sleeping dogs; HIV-infected persons who wish to acquire a puppy should have the dog's stool checked for Cryptosporidium). PMID:26350317

  6. Thyroid hormones concentrations and ECG picture in the dog.

    PubMed

    Pasławska, U; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Kungl, K; Bioły, K; Popiel, J; Nicpoń, J

    2006-01-01

    Disorders of the thyroid gland activity are the most commonly encountered disturbances of endocrine origin in the dog. Hypo- or hyperthyroidism may disturb the function of the cardiovascular system and cause arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of thyroid gland activity on electrocardiogram (ECG) picture in the dog by comparing ECG curves of healthy dogs, dogs with hypothyroidism and dogs with cardiac insufficiency caused by endocardiosis of the mitral valve. The study was performed on 38 dogs, patients of the Department of Internal and Parasitic Diseases with Clinic for Horses, Dogs and Cats in Wrocław. The animals were assigned to 3 groups: Group I--control group, 13 clinically healthy dogs; Group II--14 dogs with diagnosed cardiac insufficiency caused by endocardiosis of the mitral valve; Group III--11 dogs with hypothyroidism. Clinical examination of the animals was conducted according to the following pattern: anamnesis, general clinical examination, cardiological examination (ECG, USG of the heart) and laboratory analysis (triacylglycerydes, cholesterol, T3, T4, FT4). In this study, the significant influence of thyroid gland activity on ECG picture of the evaluated dogs was found. In the dogs with hypothyroidism a decrease in the sino-atrial node activity was observed, which led to decreased heart rate. In dogs with hypothyroidism, the innerheart conduction was reduced, which was demonstrated by prolongation of the P wave, QRS complex and the QT interval. PMID:17203744

  7. Dog Ecology and Population Studies in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hambolu, Sunday E.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Kwaga, Jacob K.P.; Kazeem, Haruna M.; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Hambolu, Dupe A.

    2014-01-01

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity. PMID:24576383

  8. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-03-01

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity. PMID:24576383

  9. Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:24548652

  10. Analysis of Pediatric Facial Dog Bites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Henry H.; Neumeier, Anna T.; Davies, Brett W.; Durairaj, Vikram D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and report the epidemiological data regarding pediatric facial dog bites. For this study, a retrospective chart review was used. This study was performed at a large tertiary pediatric hospital. All children younger than 18 years who sought medical attention after a facial dog bite between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, were included. Demographic and epidemiologic data were collected and analyzed. A total of 537 children were identified. The average age was 4.59 ± 3.36 years, with a slight male preponderance (52.0%). The majority of dog bites occurred in children 5 years of age or younger (68.0%). Almost all (89.8%) of the dogs were known to the children. When circumstances surrounding the bite were documented, over half (53.2%) of the cases were provoked. The most common breeds were mixed breed (23.0%), Labrador retriever (13.7%), Rottweiler (4.9%), and German shepherd (4.4%). Inpatient treatment was required in 121 (22.5%) patients with an average length of stay of 2.96 ± 2.77 days. Children 5 years or younger were more likely to be hospitalized than older children. Children 5 years old and younger are at high risk for being bitten in the face by a familiar dog and are more likely to require hospitalization than older children. Certain dog breeds are more likely to bite, and there is often a history of provocation. There is a tremendous financial and psychosocial burden associated with dog bites, and prevention strategies should focus on education with the aid of public policies and better documentation and reporting systems. PMID:24436765

  11. Dog Ownership and Adolescent Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sirard, John R.; Patnode, Carrie D.; Hearst, Mary O.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Positive associations between dog ownership and adult health outcomes have been observed, but research involving youth is lacking. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of family dog ownership to adolescent and parent physical activity, weight status, and metabolic risk factors. Methods Data were collected on dog ownership in 618 adolescent/parent pairs between 9/2006 and 6/2008 and analyzed in 2010. Adolescent physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph accelerometers. Trained staff measured blood pressure, height and weight, and percentage body fat was calculated by impedance. A subsample of adolescents (n=318) opted for a fasting blood draw used to derive a metabolic risk cluster score. Parents and adolescents provided consent and assent, respectively. Results Adolescents’ mean age was 14.6±1.8 years and 49% were male. White and higher SES adolescents were more likely to own a dog. In models adjusted for age, puberty, gender, race, total household members and SES, adolescent physical activity (mean counts min−1 day−1) remained significantly associated with dog ownership (β=24.3, SE=12.4, p=0.05) while the association with minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity day−1 became nonsignificant (β=2.2, SE=1.2, p=0.07). No significant results were observed for other adolescent characteristics. Conclusions Dog ownership was associated with more physical activity among adolescents. Further research using longitudinal data will help clarify the role that dog ownership may have on adolescent physical activity. PMID:21335266

  12. Even Lesbian Youths or Those Presumed to Be Lesbians Are Protected by the Constitution of Uganda--But to a Limited Extent: Rules the High Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujuzi, Jamil Ddamulira

    2009-01-01

    The Ugandan Penal Code criminalizes same-sex relationships. The author analyzes the Ugandan High Court decision where the judge relied on the Constitution and international human rights instruments to hold that law enforcement officers must respect the rights to privacy and human dignity even of those people presumed to be in same-sex…

  13. Prostacyclin inhibits gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Ruwart, M J; Rush, B D

    1984-08-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) antagonizes 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2-induced diarrhea in rats, presumably by inhibiting the fluid accumulation of "enteropooling" in the small intestine. The effect of PGI2 on gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colonic transit was examined in rats and dogs to determine if interference with propulsion might also contribute to the antidiarrheal properties of this compound. Rats implanted with chronic duodenal cannulas were given subcutaneous PGI2 (0.1-1000 microgram/kg) followed 10 min later by intragastric 51Cr and a visually detectable duodenal transit marker. Forty-five minutes later, the animals were killed. Small-intestinal transit was expressed as the percentage of small intestinal length traveled by the visually detected marker. Gastric emptying was expressed as the percentage of the total 51Cr found in the small intestine. Subcutaneous PGI2 inhibited gastric emptying maximally at 10 micrograms/kg. Small-intestinal transit was significantly decreased at 50 micrograms/kg and almost completely suppressed at 1.0 mg/kg. Subcutaneous naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) given 10 min before and 20 min after subcutaneous PGI2 administration did not block PGI2's effects. Intravenous or oral PGI2 in doses as high as 0.2 or 10 mg/kg, respectively, had none of these effects. However, a high-dose intravenous bolus (1.0 mg/kg) or infusion (1.0 mg/kg X 45 min) both inhibited gastric emptying. Small intestinal transit was only decreased by PGI2 infusion, suggesting that this parameter was more sensitive to a sustained blood level than gastric emptying. Hourly injections of subcutaneous PGI2 (0.5 mg/kg) had no effect on rat colonic transit measured over a 3-h period after deposition of the transit marker through a colonic cannula in a manner similar to that described for small-intestinal transit above. Small-intestinal transit was also measured in dogs given a barium suspension through a chronic duodenal cannula. The animals simultaneously received

  14. Prevalence of antileptospiral serum antibodies in dogs in Ireland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 474 serum samples from client owned Irish dogs were tested for the presence of antibodies against serovars Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, Autumnalis, Pomona, Altodouro, Grippotyphosa, Mozdok, Hardjobovis and Ballum. Six percent of dogs presented to veterinary practitioners for...

  15. Preference for copying unambiguous demonstrations in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Pongrácz, Péter; Miklósi, Adám; Timár-Geng, Katalin; Csányi, Vilmos

    2003-09-01

    In an earlier study (P. Pongracz et al., 2001), it was shown that human demonstration significantly enhances the detouring ability of dogs (Canis familiaris) around a V-shaped fence. The authors investigated the effect of the direction of the demonstrated detour and the dogs' detouring experience. They found that dogs' trial-and-error experience influences strongly the direction of the dogs' detours later, even if the demonstrator showed detours along the opposite side of the fence. However, dogs' preferences based on their own experiences were changed when the dogs observed demonstrations only on 1 side of the fence. Dogs with no trial-and-error experience followed the direction of 1-sided demonstrations. The change from dogs' own directions to the demonstrated directions seems not to be due to simple facilitative effects of social experience; the similarity with the demonstrated action depends on complex interactions between individual experience and socially provided information. PMID:14498810

  16. Allergic inhalant dermatitis attributable to marijuana exposure in a dog.

    PubMed

    Evans, A G

    1989-12-01

    Exposure to marijuana was believed to be responsible for clinical signs consistent with allergic inhalant dermatitis in a dog. The dog had facial and pedal pruritus associated with bilateral ocular discharge. Clinical signs resolved when the dog was kenneled, but returned when the dog was returned to its home. The results of intradermal skin testing, using a standard tray of 51 inhalant extracts, did not adequately account for the dog's clinical signs. Later, the owners indicated that previous residents of the owners' home had cultivated marijuana intensively inside and outside of the home. Intradermal skin testing with a source of marijuana pollen extract was performed, yielding a positive reaction in the dog and a negative reaction in another dog without clinical or historical evidence of allergic inhalant dermatitis. The affected dog was treated successfully and exclusively by hyposensitization with marijuana pollen extract. PMID:2599943

  17. The English Bulldog's Health Has Gone to The Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... The English Bulldog's Health Has Gone to the Dogs Aggressive breeding to change appearance dampened the pooches' ... are sicker than almost any other breed of dog. And, a new study says their genes don' ...

  18. Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158834.html Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs Keep ... could be deadly. Xylitol, the substance that gives sugar-free gum its sweetness, is dangerous to dogs, ...

  19. Plasma von Willebrand factor concentration and thyroid function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Avgeris, S; Lothrop, C D; McDonald, T P

    1990-03-15

    Plasma von Willebrand factor antigen concentration was determined in 15 dogs with suspected hypothyroidism, in 1 dog with hyperthyroidism, and in 14 euthyroid dogs. The mean +/- SEM von Willebrand factor:antigen concentration in hypothyroid dogs (47.1% +/- 12.6%) was significantly decreased (P less than 0.0005), compared with that in euthyroid dogs (94.7 +/- 5.6%). Four hypothyroid dogs were given thyroxine for 1 month and all 4 had an increase in von Willebrand factor:antigen concentration. The plasma von Willebrand factor:antigen concentration was 200% in the hyperthyroid dog. Seemingly, reduced concentrations of plasma von Willebrand factor:antigen can be found in dogs in association with congenital von Willebrand disease or with von Willebrand disease acquired through hypothyroidism. PMID:2107158

  20. Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs Keep all products containing the sweetener xylitol out ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Here's an alert for all dog lovers: Sugarless chewing gum isn't good for ...

  1. Dogs lap using acceleration-driven open pumping.

    PubMed

    Gart, Sean; Socha, John J; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-12-29

    Dogs lap because they have incomplete cheeks and cannot suck. When lapping, a dog's tongue pulls a liquid column from the bath, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of column formation are critical to understanding how dogs drink. We measured lapping in 19 dogs and used the results to generate a physical model of the tongue's interaction with the air-fluid interface. These experiments help to explain how dogs exploit the fluid dynamics of the generated column. The results demonstrate that effects of acceleration govern lapping frequency, which suggests that dogs curl the tongue to create a larger liquid column. Comparing lapping in dogs and cats reveals that, despite similar morphology, these carnivores lap in different physical regimes: an unsteady inertial regime for dogs and steady inertial regime for cats. PMID:26668382

  2. No effect of autologous growth factors (AGF) around ungrafted loaded implants in dogs.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Bechtold, J E; Chen, X; Vestermark, M; Søballe, K

    2010-08-01

    Autologous growth factors (AGF) is a growth-factor-rich concentrate of platelets, white blood cells and fibrinogen. Application of AGF was presumed to improve implant fixation and gap healing of non-grafted, loaded implants. We inserted one loaded titanium implant intra-articularly in each medial femoral condyle of eight dogs. Each implant was surrounded by a 0.75 mm gap. One implant in each dog was coated with AGF prior to implantation whereas the contralateral implant served as a control. AGF was prepared by isolating the buffy-coat from blood and further concentrated using an Interpore Cross UltraConcentrator. Platelet counts were increased from a median baseline of 168x10(3)/microl to 1003x10(3)/microl in AGF. However, AGF had no significant effect on implant fixation or bone formation. Even though AGF increased ultimate shear strength and energy absorption by approximately 50%, these differences had a p-value less than 0.05. The sample size in this study was small and any negative conclusions should be taken with caution due to low statistical power. We have previously demonstrated that AGF significantly improves fixation and incorporation of grafted implants. AGF might require mixing with an osteoconductive grafting material in order to provide a scaffold on which to foster bone growth and to keep the growth factors on location for a prolonged period. PMID:19856178

  3. No effect of autologous growth factors (AGF) around ungrafted loaded implants in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, J. E.; Chen, X.; Vestermark, M.; Søballe, K.

    2009-01-01

    Autologous growth factors (AGF) is a growth-factor-rich concentrate of platelets, white blood cells and fibrinogen. Application of AGF was presumed to improve implant fixation and gap healing of non-grafted, loaded implants. We inserted one loaded titanium implant intra-articularly in each medial femoral condyle of eight dogs. Each implant was surrounded by a 0.75 mm gap. One implant in each dog was coated with AGF prior to implantation whereas the contralateral implant served as a control. AGF was prepared by isolating the buffy-coat from blood and further concentrated using an Interpore Cross UltraConcentrator. Platelet counts were increased from a median baseline of 168×103/μl to 1003×103/μl in AGF. However, AGF had no significant effect on implant fixation or bone formation. Even though AGF increased ultimate shear strength and energy absorption by approximately 50%, these differences had a p-value less than 0.05. The sample size in this study was small and any negative conclusions should be taken with caution due to low statistical power. We have previously demonstrated that AGF significantly improves fixation and incorporation of grafted implants. AGF might require mixing with an osteoconductive grafting material in order to provide a scaffold on which to foster bone growth and to keep the growth factors on location for a prolonged period. PMID:19856178

  4. Gallbladder aspirate from a dog.

    PubMed

    Neel, Jennifer A; Tarigo, Jaime; Grindem, Carol B

    2006-12-01

    A 7-year-old, male, castrated, Labrador Retriever with a history of pancreatitis and inflammatory bowel disease presented for vomiting and anorexia. Serum biochemistry findings were indicative of cholestasis, hepatocellular insult, and decreased hepatic function. Ultrasound examination showed sediment and gas within the gallbladder, and a diagnosis of emphysematous cholecystitis was made. Emergency gallbladder resection was performed. Cytologic examination of bile fluid collected at surgery showed a mixed population of bacteria (bactibilia) together with fungal organisms consistent with Cyniclomyces guttulatus (previously known as Saccharomycopsis guttulatus). Similar fungal organisms were seen on a fecal smear. Bacteria cultured were normal gastrointestinal flora, supporting ascending infection; the fungal organisms were interpreted as incidental. Histopathology of the gallbladder indicated active (suppurative) and chronic (lymphocytic) cholecystitis and sections of liver tissue had evidence of chronic liver disease. A positive liver culture indicated concurrent bacterial hepatitis or cholangiohepatitis. Despite supportive care, the dog continued to decline and was euthanized 30 days later. Necropsy results confirmed end stage liver disease, but an initiating cause was not found. This case highlights the role of bactibilia in the development of acute cholecystitis and the unique cytologic appearance of C guttulatus as an incidental finding in bile fluid. PMID:17123257

  5. Urachal Adenocarcinoma in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Shrader, S; Lauridson, J; King, Z; Loch, J

    2016-05-01

    An 8-year-old neutered female Labrador retriever was presented with a 3-year history of intermittent haematuria. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the urinary bladder revealed a 2 × 3 × 0.5 cm intraluminal mass arising at the dome. The mass was excised via partial cystectomy. Histopathological examination revealed neoplastic epithelial cells arranged in sheets, irregularly-branching tubules and acini within a fibrovascular stroma. Neoplastic cells were cuboidal to polygonal with abundant foamy amphophilic cytoplasm, typically with a single, large, clear intracytoplasmic vacuole and eccentric nucleus ('signet ring' cells). Neoplastic tubules were often ectatic and contained abundant mucin. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells had weak, cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for cytokeratin 7 and rare, but strong, nuclear immunoreactivity for CDX2. Based on the cellular morphology, immunolabelling characteristics and anatomical location, a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of urachal origin was made. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of urachal adenocarcinoma in a dog. PMID:27009748

  6. The role of police dogs as companions and working partners.

    PubMed

    Hart, L A; Zasloff, R L; Bryson, S; Christensen, S L

    2000-02-01

    Written responses to a questionnaire by 255 officers who used canines in police work were assessed. Almost all officers frequently played with, talked to, petted, and brushed their dogs and believed the dogs benefitted their health and well-being. Officers whose dogs slept indoors, often in the same bedroom, generally said they loved their dogs and they described their dogs as calm rather than active, as indicated by a multiple correspondence analysis. These 96 officers more than the 154 officers whose dogs slept outdoors or in kennels also planned to remain in canine work. Although departments often assumed responsibility for purchasing the dogs, the more experienced officers usually were involved in the final selection of dogs (logistic regression: p < .0001). Compared with 94 officers not involved in selecting their dogs, 106 officers with a specific role in selecting their dogs planned to stay in canine work, as shown by a multiple correspondence analysis. They believed the dogs had saved their lives (p < .01). Over-all, officers reported spending 4.1 hr. on-duty and 2.9 hr. off-duty per week training their dogs, and also played with them for 6.5 hr. per week, assuring a regular pattern of exercise for the officers. Virtually all officers valued canine service and believed the dogs enhanced the department's effectiveness. This study showed that both close companionship with the dog and involvement in selecting the dog were associated both with satisfaction with the dog and with working as a canine officer. PMID:10778270

  7. Neoplasms in young dogs after perinatal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.A.; Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Williams, J.S.; Brewster, R.D.; Long, R.I.

    1986-08-01

    For a study of the life-time effects of irradiation during development, 1,680 beagles were given single, whole-body exposures to /sup 60/Co gamma-radiation at one of three prenatal (preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal) or at one of three postnatal (neonatal, juvenile, and young adult) ages. Mean doses were 0, 0.16, or 0.83 Gy. For comparison with data on childhood cancer after prenatal irradiation, examination was made of tumors occurring in young dogs in this life-span experiment. Up to 4 years of age, 18 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed, 2 of these being in controls. Four dogs that were irradiated in the perinatal (late fetal or neonatal) period died of cancers prior to 2 years of age. This risk was of significant increase compared to the risks for other experimental groups and for the canine population in general. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of all cancers and 56% (10 of 18) of all benign and malignant neoplasms seen in the first 4 years of life occurred in 29% (480 of 1680) of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation in dogs.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Shepard, R M; Falkner, F C

    1990-01-01

    After intravenous or oral administration to rats and dogs, azithromycin was rapidly distributed into the tissues, where concentrations frequently exceeded those in serum by 100-fold or more within 24 h of a single dose. Tissue concentrations were proportional to the dose following single administrations of 10 to 40 mg/kg in rats and dogs. Tissue concentrations were higher after multiple dosing and became greater as the dose was increased from 10 to 40 mg/kg. Elimination half-lives were similar in most tissues and were about 40 h in rats after seven doses of 20 mg/kg and about 90 h in dogs after five doses of 30 mg/kg. Serum concentrations declined in a multi-exponential manner, reflecting initial rapid distribution into tissues and then slow return to serum from tissues. Azithromycin had good oral bioavailability in rats and dogs (46% and 97%, respectively). Rapid uptake of azithromycin by tissues from serum and slow redistribution from tissues to serum are apparently factors governing the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in rats and dogs. Serum concentrations do not reflect the availability of azithromycin in tissues. PMID:2154438

  9. Oxytocin promotes social bonding in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that enduring social bonds have fitness benefits. However, very little is known about the neural circuitry and neurochemistry underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social bonds outside reproductive contexts. Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide synthetized by the hypothalamus in mammals, regulates many complex forms of social behavior and cognition in both human and nonhuman animals. Animal research, however, has concentrated on monogamous mammals, and it remains unknown whether OT also modulates social bonds in nonreproductive contexts. In this study we provide behavioral evidence that exogenous OT promotes positive social behaviors in the domestic dog toward not only conspecifics but also human partners. Specifically, when sprayed with OT, dogs showed higher social orientation and affiliation toward their owners and higher affiliation and approach behaviors toward dog partners than when sprayed with placebo. Additionally, the exchange of socio-positive behaviors with dog partners triggered the release of endogenous OT, highlighting the involvement of OT in the development of social relationships in the domestic dog. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance of close social bonds beyond immediate reproductive interest or genetic ties and complement a growing body of evidence that identifies OT as one of the neurochemical foundations of sociality in mammalian species. PMID:24927552

  10. [Dog and fox faecal contamination of farmland].

    PubMed

    Hauser, M; Basso, W; Deplazes, P

    2015-08-01

    The contamination with faeces from dogs and foxes was documented on 14 different grassland areas in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, over one year. A total of 402 dog and 58 fox faecal samples were collected from the grasslands, further 236 faecal samples were retrieved from Robidog® units (disposal units for dog waste bags) in the immediate vicinity. The degree of fecal contamination per 100 m2 and year was 0.07-0.75 for dog samples and 0-0.06 for fox samples. Dog faeces from Robidog® units and grasslands contained stages of the following parasites, respectively (sedimentation/flotation method): Toxocara sp. (2.5%; 1.2%), Taenia crassiceps (with molecular confirmation; 0.8%; 0.2%), Capillaria sp. (0.4%; 0.7%), Trichuris sp. (0.8%; 1%), Isospora sp. (2.1%; 2%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.4%; 0.5%). In fox faeces parasite stages were more frequently detected: 19% Toxocara sp., 8.6% Taenia crassiceps, 6.9% Echinococcus multilocularis, 60.3% Capillaria sp., 29.3% Trichuris sp. In two fecal samples from foxes, Taenia saginata eggs or Toxoplasmagondii oocysts were confirmed by molecular analyses, these findings may be explained as an intestinal passage after coprophagy of human or cat feces, respectively. Therefore, foxes can also indirectly play a role in parasite transmission to livestock. PMID:26753365

  11. Rabies risk in raccoon dogs and foxes.

    PubMed

    Singer, A; Kauhala, K; Holmala, K; Smith, G C

    2008-01-01

    Raccoon dogs are seen as a new host for fox rabies in Europe. Disease spread in a community of species can change the epidemiology of the disease and calls for new disease control strategies. This study assesses the risk of a rabies outbreak, introduced to a community of foxes and raccoon dogs in Southern Finland, as an example of the reintroduction of rabies into rabies-free areas. Epidemiology is simulated with a two-species model, based on approaches for rabies in foxes and parameterised from recently published data on raccoon dog and fox ecology in Northeast Europe. The risk of the establishment of rabies was investigated. The effectiveness of vaccination control was estimated. Results show that rabies may not spread in a single species, when population densities are low, as in Finland. However, persistent epidemics are very likely in the species' community. The threshold density for a system of combined species decreases non-linearly, compared to the thresholds of each of the species. A behavioural factor that influences rabies epidemiology is raccoon dog hibernation, which may alter with climate change. Thus, the new host, the raccoon dog, has to be considered in defining new emergency control strategies for rabies free states in Europe. PMID:18634482

  12. Age-associated changes in the immune system of German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Strasser, A; Teltscher, A; May, B; Sanders, C; Niedermüller, H

    2000-04-01

    In order to look into the ageing of the canine immune system we investigated age-related changes and associated gender-related differences in parameters of innate and acquired immunity in German Shepherd dogs. We obtained the following findings: white blood cell counts, peripheral blood lymphocytes, lymphocyte proliferative activity and interleukin-2 (IL-2) serum concentrations were significantly lower in the group of old animals, whereas the concentrations of gamma-globulins and the functional activity of the complement system were significantly higher in the elderly. Phagocytic and bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear cells, as well as their 'killing function,' the serum cytokine-like activities of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the plasma concentrations of immunoglobulin G, as well as of alpha- and beta-globulins, were not significantly affected by age, whereas natural killer-cell activity and the serum cytokine-like activities of IL-1 were significantly higher only in the group of female old animals. With regard to gender-related differences, lymphocyte proliferative activities as well as plasma concentrations of alpha-globulin were significantly higher in the group of female animals, whereas the absolute numbers of segmented neutrophils were significantly lower. Species analogies with regard to ageing as presumed to exist between man and laboratory rodents also seem to be applicable to the dog. The observed age-related changes in the canine immune system are probably among the main causes for the multimorbidity of old age, affecting life expectancy and mortality in the dog and should be recognized and considered by the attending veterinarian. PMID:10842468

  13. [The nature of the dog--a contribution to the keeping and breeding of so-called fighting dogs].

    PubMed

    Loeffler, K; Eichelberg, H

    1991-06-01

    The behavioural repertoire of dogs derives from that of the wolf. But there are distinct race-specific differences which go back to the man's breeding influence in the course of domestication to develop special qualities in dogs. Today, dog keeping no longer corresponds to these qualities of dogs in many ways. We refer to the problems resulting from this and man's responsibility for the establishment of a man-dog relationship that is functional and responds to the dog's character. The abuse of certain dog behaviour by man has to be pursued consistently. In the same way we must also take care of an unforced integration of dogs into our society. PMID:1889368

  14. Dog mitochondrial genome sequencing to enhance dog mtDNA discrimination power in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

    2014-09-01

    A Belgian dog population sample and several population studies worldwide have confirmed that only a limited number of mtDNA control region haplotypes is observed in the majority of dogs. The high population frequency of these haplotypes negatively impacts both the exclusion probability of dog mtDNA analysis and the evidential value of a match with one of these haplotypes in casework. Variation within the mtDNA coding region was explored to improve the discrimination power of dog mtDNA analysis. In the current study, the entire mitochondrial genome of 161 dogs was sequenced applying a quality assured strategy and resulted in a total of 119 different mitochondrial genome sequences. Our research was focused on those dogs with the six most common control region haplotypes from a previous Belgian population study. We identified 33 informative SNPs that successfully divide the six most common control region haplotypes into 32 clusters of mitochondrial genome sequences. Determining the identity of these 33 polymorphic sites in addition to control region sequencing in case of a match with one of these 6 control region haplotypes could augment the exclusion probability of forensic dog mtDNA analysis from 92.5% to 97.5%. PMID:24905334

  15. Soil change induced by prairie dogs across three ecological sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) can influence vegetation dynamics and landscape hydrology by altering soil properties, yet few studies have evaluated soil responses to prairie dog activities across a range of soil types. This study was conducted to quantify prairie dog effects on soil properties within...

  16. Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a dog with thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Amy E.; Wyatt, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a dog with thyroid carcinoma and paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. Following thyroidectomy the dog became hypocalcemic and required supplementation with calcitriol and calcium carbonate. During the following 2 years, attempts to reduce the supplementation resulted in hypocalcemia. The dog died from renal failure with no evidence of thyroid carcinoma. PMID:23543930

  17. Humoral response to rabies vaccines in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Tiwari, K N; Mohan, Bhardwaj; Mala, Chabbra; Rana, U V S; Ichhpujani, R L

    2007-06-01

    Humoral immune response was studied in dogs vaccinated with different tissue culture vaccines commonly used for immunization of dogs in India. The results revealed that after single dose of vaccination only 56% dogs developed protective titer (> or = 1:8). The response of the three vaccines used in the study was not similar, highlighting the need to maintain post marketing surveillance. PMID:18338690

  18. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  19. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  20. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  1. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  2. How Dogs Know when Communication Is Intended for Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of…

  3. 76 FR 54392 - Animal Welfare; Importation of Live Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Welfare; Importation of Live Dogs AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... restrict the importation of certain live dogs. Consistent with this amendment, this proposed rule would, with certain limited exceptions, prohibit the importation of dogs from any part of the world into...

  4. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  5. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  6. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  7. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  8. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  9. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  10. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  11. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  12. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  13. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  14. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  15. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  16. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  17. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  18. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  19. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  20. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  1. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  2. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  3. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  4. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  5. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  6. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  7. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  8. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  9. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  10. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  11. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  12. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  13. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  14. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  15. Laryngeal structure and function in dogs with cough.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lynelle R

    2016-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence and type of laryngeal abnormalities in dogs examined because of cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease and to compare the prevalence of those abnormalities among dogs with various respiratory tract diseases. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 138 dogs with cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease. PROCEDURES The study was conducted between July 2001 and October 2014 and included dogs examined for cough that had laryngoscopic and bronchoscopic examinations performed by 1 examiner. Laryngeal hyperemia and swelling were recorded, and laryngeal function was assessed before and after doxapram stimulation when indicated. Results were compared among dogs on the basis of cough duration (acute [< 2 weeks], subacute [2 weeks to 2 months], and chronic [> 2 months]) and disease diagnosed (inflammatory airway disease, airway collapse, lower respiratory tract infection, and eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy). RESULTS Laryngeal hyperemia was detected in 73 of 134 (54%) dogs with cough of subacute or chronic duration, and its prevalence did not vary significantly among dogs with various diseases. Thirteen dogs had laryngeal paresis, and 13 dogs had laryngeal paralysis; dysphonia (n = 2) and stridor (1) were uncommon findings in those dogs. The prevalence of laryngeal dysfunction (paresis or paralysis) did not differ significantly among diseases. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that 26 of 138 (19%) dogs examined because of cough alone had laryngeal dysfunction, which suggested that a complete laryngoscopic examination should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of dogs with cough. PMID:27379595

  16. The Experience of Living with and Using a Dog Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Rachel Joy-Taub

    2001-01-01

    A study of eight adults who use dog guides found four themes that described the experience of using a dog guide: increased confidence, increased independence, changed public interactions, and additional responsibilities or inconveniences. Most participants described their dogs as social "ice breakers" that led to increased interaction with people.…

  17. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Ali, C N; Harris, J A; Watkins, J D; Adesiyun, A A

    2003-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii agglutinins and to investigate the relationship between various risk factors and occurrence of toxoplasmosis in dogs in Trinidad. Of a total 250 dogs, comprising domestic, hunting and stray dogs, 80 (32.0%) were positive for T. gondii agglutinins at a titre of > or =1:32 using a latex agglutination test. Stray dogs (60.5%) had statistically significantly higher (P<0.001) seroprevalence for toxoplasmosis than hunting dogs (30.5%) and domestic dogs (25.5%). Amongst dogs whose ages were known, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly highest (P=0.037) in dogs in the >2-3 years age group compared with other age groups. Dogs that consumed home-cooked foods had a seroprevalence of 32.9% compared with those fed commercial dog foods (17.2%) and dogs fed both home-cooked and commercial foods (21.0%). However, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05; chi(2)). The rather high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in stray dogs is a good indication of the extent of the infection in the environment. PMID:12719132

  18. Important behavioral traits for predicting guide dog qualification.

    PubMed

    Arata, Sayaka; Momozawa, Yukihide; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2010-05-01

    Guide dogs for the blind help blind people physically and mentally in their daily lives. Their qualifications are based on health, working performance and temperament; approximately 70% of dogs that fail to qualify are disqualified for behavioral reasons. In order to achieve early prediction of qualification, it would be essential as the first step to identify important temperament traits for guide dogs. Therefore, we administered a questionnaire consisting of 22 temperament items to experienced trainers to assess candidate dogs at the Japan Guide Dog Association after three months of training, which was at least three months prior to the final success (qualified as a guide dog) or failure (disqualified for behavioral reasons) judgment. Factor analyses of question items stably extracted three factors with high internal consistency, Distraction, Sensitivity and Docility. When we compared factor points between successful dogs and failed dogs, the successful dogs showed significantly and consistently lower Distraction points and higher Docility points. Additionally, Distraction points could predict qualification with 80.6% accuracy and detect 28.2% of the failed dogs that had higher Distraction points than any of the successful dogs. Of the nine question items not included in the three factors, two items (;Aggression' and ;Animal interest') were consistently associated with qualification. These results suggest that Distraction is stably assessable and has the strongest impact on success or failure judgment; therefore, it will be the first target to establish a behavioral test that may lead to early prediction of guide dog qualification. PMID:20009419

  19. Dog population management for the control of human echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Kachani, Malika; Heath, David

    2014-11-01

    Cystic and alveolar hydatid disease of humans caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis are significant zoonoses in developing countries. For human infections, the main definitive host is the dog, and reduction in the population of unwanted dogs, together with anthelmintic treatment of wanted dogs, are recommended control procedures for these zoonoses. Both owned and unowned dogs have been shown to be a major source of Echinococcus spp. infection in developing countries. Unowned dogs are the most challenging category in dog population management for the control of major zoonotic diseases. Unowned dogs are those dogs that do not have an owner, and those dogs whose owner cannot readily be identified. Control of numbers of unowned dogs can be done in various ways if funds are available. Fertility control and humane euthanasia are likely to be the most effective procedures in developing countries. Fertility control requires significant funding, and where resources are scarce humane euthanasia may be the most effective option. Both procedures are ongoing events, with no predictable end point. This paper examines the sociology and technology for the population management of owned and unowned dogs, specifically for the reduction of human hydatid disease. Examples are given for developing and developed countries. Although a "One Health" approach is desirable, the technology for hydatid control is different from that for rabies, and FAO Animal Welfare recommendations for dog population management should be adjusted accordingly. PMID:25046696

  20. Thrombocytosis associated with a myeloproliferative disorder in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Degen, M.A.; Feldman, B.F.; Turrel, J.M.; Goding, B.; Kitchell, B.; Mandell, C.P. )

    1989-05-15

    A dog with a myeloproliferative disorder and thrombocytosis had clinical signs that were consistent with a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The dog was treated with aspirin, radioactive phosphorus, and melphalan. Eighteen months after referral, the disorder progressed to chronic granulocytic leukemia, and treatment was switched to hydroxyurea. Fourteen months later, the dog was euthanatized because of uncontrollable atrial fibrillation.

  1. Hyperthyroidism associated with a thyroid adenoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D; Thompson, J; Layton, A W; Calderwood-Mays, M; Ellison, G; Mannella, C

    1991-07-01

    Hyperthyroidism associated with thyroid adenoma was diagnosed in a dog. Typical clinical signs of hyperthyroidism were resolved with surgical excision of the adenoma. Hyperthyroidism in dogs usually is associated with thyroid carcinoma, which has a poor prognosis. This case emphasizes the importance of obtaining a histologic diagnosis of thyroid tumors in hyperthyroid dogs before giving a prognosis. PMID:1885334

  2. Critical behavior in a stochastic model of vector mediated epidemics.

    PubMed

    Alfinito, E; Beccaria, M; Macorini, G

    2016-01-01

    The extreme vulnerability of humans to new and old pathogens is constantly highlighted by unbound outbreaks of epidemics. This vulnerability is both direct, producing illness in humans (dengue, malaria), and also indirect, affecting its supplies (bird and swine flu, Pierce disease, and olive quick decline syndrome). In most cases, the pathogens responsible for an illness spread through vectors. In general, disease evolution may be an uncontrollable propagation or a transient outbreak with limited diffusion. This depends on the physiological parameters of hosts and vectors (susceptibility to the illness, virulence, chronicity of the disease, lifetime of the vectors, etc.). In this perspective and with these motivations, we analyzed a stochastic lattice model able to capture the critical behavior of such epidemics over a limited time horizon and with a finite amount of resources. The model exhibits a critical line of transition that separates spreading and non-spreading phases. The critical line is studied with new analytical methods and direct simulations. Critical exponents are found to be the same as those of dynamical percolation. PMID:27264105

  3. Critical behavior in a stochastic model of vector mediated epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Alfinito, E.; Beccaria, M.; Macorini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The extreme vulnerability of humans to new and old pathogens is constantly highlighted by unbound outbreaks of epidemics. This vulnerability is both direct, producing illness in humans (dengue, malaria), and also indirect, affecting its supplies (bird and swine flu, Pierce disease, and olive quick decline syndrome). In most cases, the pathogens responsible for an illness spread through vectors. In general, disease evolution may be an uncontrollable propagation or a transient outbreak with limited diffusion. This depends on the physiological parameters of hosts and vectors (susceptibility to the illness, virulence, chronicity of the disease, lifetime of the vectors, etc.). In this perspective and with these motivations, we analyzed a stochastic lattice model able to capture the critical behavior of such epidemics over a limited time horizon and with a finite amount of resources. The model exhibits a critical line of transition that separates spreading and non-spreading phases. The critical line is studied with new analytical methods and direct simulations. Critical exponents are found to be the same as those of dynamical percolation. PMID:27264105

  4. Critical behavior in a stochastic model of vector mediated epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfinito, E.; Beccaria, M.; Macorini, G.

    2016-06-01

    The extreme vulnerability of humans to new and old pathogens is constantly highlighted by unbound outbreaks of epidemics. This vulnerability is both direct, producing illness in humans (dengue, malaria), and also indirect, affecting its supplies (bird and swine flu, Pierce disease, and olive quick decline syndrome). In most cases, the pathogens responsible for an illness spread through vectors. In general, disease evolution may be an uncontrollable propagation or a transient outbreak with limited diffusion. This depends on the physiological parameters of hosts and vectors (susceptibility to the illness, virulence, chronicity of the disease, lifetime of the vectors, etc.). In this perspective and with these motivations, we analyzed a stochastic lattice model able to capture the critical behavior of such epidemics over a limited time horizon and with a finite amount of resources. The model exhibits a critical line of transition that separates spreading and non-spreading phases. The critical line is studied with new analytical methods and direct simulations. Critical exponents are found to be the same as those of dynamical percolation.

  5. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs of different dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs in the beagle dog was investigated at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of programs to evaluate the biological effects of both radionuclides in atomic bomb fallout and internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. In the ITRI study, young adult dogs were exposed once by intravenous injection to a range of {sup 137}Cs concentrations; the results have recently been published. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the ANL study and to compare the results of the two studies. At ANL, 63 dogs in three age groups (15 juveniles, 142-151 days old; 38 young adults, 388-427 days old; and 10 middle-aged dogs, 1387-2060 days old) were given {sup 137}Cs intravenously at levels (61-162f MBq/kg) near those expected to be lethal within 30 days after injection. There were 17 control dogs from the same colony. Twenty-three of the dogs injected with {sup 137}Cs, including all middle-aged dogs, died within 52 days after injection due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia that led to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. The other significant early effect was damage to the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. The design of the ANL study revealed an age- and gender-related differential radiosensitivity for early effects. The middle-aged dogs died significantly earlier due to complications of hematological dyscrasia compared to the juvenile and young adult dogs, and the middle-aged females died significantly earlier than the middle-aged males. The most significant non-neoplastic late effects in the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs from ANL and ITRI were atrophy of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules with azoospermia, and a significant dose-dependent decrease in survival. The survival of the ANL dogs was decreased more than that of the ITRI dogs at similar radiation doses from {sup 137}Cs. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. DOG-SPOT database for comprehensive management of dog genetic research data.

    PubMed

    Powell, Julie As; Allen, Jeremy; Sutter, Nathan B

    2010-01-01

    Research laboratories studying the genetics of companion animals have no database tools specifically designed to aid in the management of the many kinds of data that are generated, stored and analyzed. We have developed a relational database, "DOG-SPOT," to provide such a tool. Implemented in MS-Access, the database is easy to extend or customize to suit a lab's particular needs. With DOG-SPOT a lab can manage data relating to dogs, breeds, samples, biomaterials, phenotypes, owners, communications, amplicons, sequences, markers, genotypes and personnel. Such an integrated data structure helps ensure high quality data entry and makes it easy to track physical stocks of biomaterials and oligonucleotides. PMID:21159202

  7. Spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Boulineau, Theresa Marie; Andrews-Jones, Lydia; Van Alstine, William

    2005-09-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in young Border Collie and Border Collie crossbred dogs. Histology was performed in one of the cases involving an unusual splitting of the elastin present within the wall of the aorta, consistent with elastin dysplasia as described in Marfan syndrome in humans. The first case involved a young purebred Border Collie that died suddenly and the second case involved a Border Collie crossbred dog that died after a 1-month history of seizures. Gross lesions included pericardial tamponade with dissection of the ascending aorta in the former case and thoracic cavity hemorrhage, mediastinal hematoma, and aortic dissection in the latter. Histologic lesions in the case of the Border Collie crossbred dog included a dissecting hematoma of the ascending aorta with elastin dysplasia and right axillary arterial intimal proliferation. PMID:16312247

  8. Gastritis and Gastric Ulcers in Working Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michael S.; Williamson, Katherine K.

    2016-01-01

    Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes, including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis. Treatment is focused on prevention of clinical disease using acid secretion inhibitors, such as omeprazole, which has excellent efficacy in controlled clinical studies. PMID:27092307

  9. Primary lumbar extradural hemangiosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Paek, Matthew; Glass, Eric; Kent, Marc; Clifford, Craig A; De Lahunta, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    A 9 yr old castrated male golden retriever weighing 36 kg was presented for evaluation of progressive left pelvic limb paresis and fecal and urinary incontinence. MRI demonstrated an extradural, ovoid mass compressing the lumbar spinal cord. Surgical excision of the mass was performed. Histologically, the mass was consistent with hemangiosarcoma with no involvement of the adjacent vertebrae. The dog underwent a doxorubicin-based chemotherapy protocol with the addition of oral cyclophosphamide. After completion of chemotherapy, the dog was evaluated q 4 mo for restaging. Clinicopathological evidence of primary tumor recurrence or metastatic disease was not detected for 15 mo after initial diagnosis and treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a primary extradural hemangiosarcoma in the lumbar vertebral column in a dog. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome are also discussed. PMID:25955146

  10. Chronic tracheobronchial disease in the dog.

    PubMed

    Padrid, P; Amis, T C

    1992-09-01

    Tracheobronchial collapse and chronic bronchitis (CB) are the two most common forms of chronic tracheobronchial disease in dogs. These conditions may exist independently of one another, although CB and some degree of tracheobronchial collapse often co-exist in the same patient. Diagnosis of CB can be established on clinical grounds alone, whereas radiographic or bronchoscopic evidence is required to confirm the diagnosis of tracheobronchial collapse. Although glucocorticoid drug therapy remains one of the most effective methods for managing CB, surgical implantation of a prosthetic airway device may be of great benefit for some dogs with a focal area of collapsing trachea. With early diagnosis and aggressive medical and surgical management, the prognosis for many dogs with chronic tracheobronchial disease is good for reasonable quality of life. PMID:1523790

  11. Color-dilution alopecia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Kang, Kyung Il; Sohn, Hyun Joo; Woo, Gye Hyeong; Jean, Young Hwa; Hwang, Eui Kyung

    2005-09-01

    Color-dilution alopecia is a relatively uncommon hereditary skin disease seen in "Blue" and other color-diluted dogs. This syndrome is associated with a color-dilution gene. The initial clinical signs are the gradual onset of a dry, dull and poor hair coat quality. Hair shafts and hair regrowth are poor, and follicular papules may develop and progress to frank comedones. Hair loss and comedo formation are usually most severe on the trunk, especially color-diluted area on the skin. Six cases of color-dilution alopecia are reported in 3 months to 10 years old dogs. The breeds of dogs are blue Doberman Pinscher, Miniature Pinscher, Dachshund, and Schnauzer. Grossly, extensive partial hair loss was seen on the skin. Histopathologically, the epidermis is relatively normal but may be hyperplastic. Hair follicles are characterized by atrophy and distortion. Heavily clumped melanin is present in the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles. PMID:16131833

  12. Keloidal fibromas and fibrosarcomas in the dog.

    PubMed

    Mikaelian, I; Gross, T L

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen dogs (2-12 years of age) presented with one (n = 15) or two (n = 1) cutaneous nodules (n = 16) or a dermal plaque (n = 1). Intact males (n = 9) and neutered males (n = 4) were more affected than were females (n = 3). Histologically, these lesions were characterized by focal dermal and subcutaneous deposition of thick hyalinized collagen fibers intermingled with fibroblasts, and in 13 of 17 lesions, a variable number of CD18-positive cells were interpreted as reactive macrophages. Fibroblasts in three dogs formed intersecting fascicles, interpreted as evidence of malignant transformation. The terms keloidal fibroma and keloidal fibrosarcoma can be applied to these lesions. Excision was curative in five dogs with keloidal fibroma for which follow-up was available. However, because malignant transformation may occur, wide excision of canine keloidal lesions is warranted. PMID:12102210

  13. [Passive immunization in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Friedl, Yvonne; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-08-17

    Antibodies play an important role in the defense against infectious diseases. Passive immunization provides immediate protection through transfer of exogenous antibodies to a recipient. It is mainly used for prophylaxis in dogs and cats that failed to receive maternal antibodies through the colostrum or when there is an acute risk to acquire infectious diseases. Only a small number of placebo-controlled studies have been published regarding the therapeutic use of passive immunization in small animals. While positive effects were reported in cats with acute virus infections of the upper respiratory tract and in dogs with distemper, no statistically significant influence could be demonstrated in the treatment of canine parvovirosis. Prospective, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled studies using adequate numbers of patients are warranted for a definitive statement regarding the therapeutic and prophylactic use of passive immunization in dogs and cats. PMID:27410719

  14. The response of guide dogs and pet dogs (Canis familiaris) to cues of human referential communication (pointing and gaze).

    PubMed

    Ittyerah, Miriam; Gaunet, Florence

    2009-03-01

    The study raises the question of whether guide dogs and pet dogs are expected to differ in response to cues of referential communication given by their owners; especially since guide dogs grow up among sighted humans, and while living with their blind owners, they still have interactions with several sighted people. Guide dogs and pet dogs were required to respond to point, point and gaze, gaze and control cues of referential communication given by their owners. Results indicate that the two groups of dogs do not differ from each other, revealing that the visual status of the owner is not a factor in the use of cues of referential communication. Both groups of dogs have higher frequencies of performance and faster latencies for the point and the point and gaze cues as compared to gaze cue only. However, responses to control cues are below chance performance for the guide dogs, whereas the pet dogs perform at chance. The below chance performance of the guide dogs may be explained by a tendency among them to go and stand by the owner. The study indicates that both groups of dogs respond similarly in normal daily dyadic interaction with their owners and the lower comprehension of the human gaze may be a less salient cue among dogs in comparison to the pointing gesture. PMID:18769948

  15. Evaluation of geriatric changes in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pati, Soumyaranjan; Panda, S. K.; Acharya, A. P.; Senapati, S.; Behera, M.; Behera, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study has been envisaged to ascertain the old age for critical management of geriatric dogs considering the parameters of externally visible changes, haemato-biochemical alterations and urine analysis in geriatric dogs approaching senility. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken in the Department of Veterinary Pathology in collaboration with Teaching Veterinary Clinic complex spanning a period of 1 year. For screening of geriatric dogs, standard geriatric age chart of different breeds was followed. The external characteristics such as hair coat texture, dental wear and tear, skin texture and glaucoma were taken as a marker of old age. Haematology, serum biochemistry and urine analysis were also included in the study. Results: External visible changes like greying of hair, dull appearance of hair coat, glaucoma, osteoarthritis, dental wear and tear were commonly encountered in the aged dogs. The haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count and packed cell volume showed a decreasing trend in the geriatric groups. Biochemical values like total protein, albumin, calcium level showed a decreasing trend while urea level with an increasing trend in geriatric dogs without any much alteration in serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminse, serum glutamic-pyruvate transaminase, cholesterol and creatinine. Physical examination of urine revealed yellow, amber, red, deep red color with turbidity and higher specific gravity. Chemical examination revealed presence of protein, glucose, ketone bodies, blood and bilirubin on some cases. The culture and sensitivity test of the urine samples revealed presence of bacteria with sensitive and resistance to some antibiotics. Conclusion: External visible changes are still the golden standard of determining the old age in dogs. Haemato-biochemical evaluation can be useful for correlating with the pathophysiological status of the animal. Biochemical analysis of urine can be employed rightly as kidney dysfunction is being major

  16. First isolation of Hammondia heydorni from dogs in China.

    PubMed

    Jie, Hu Jun; Yu, Meng; Fen, Yang Yan; Mei, Guo Yan; Yan, Yang; Esch, G W; QingTuan, Fu

    2013-10-18

    Fecal samples of 945 dogs were examined microscopically in 2 refuge facilities in China from March 2010 to November 2011. In 8 dogs, oocysts, 9-14 μm in size, were found. Their morphology was similar to those of Hammondia heydorni and Neospora caninum. Sporulated Hammondia/Neospora-like oocysts were fed to 2 dogs, 2 gerbils, 2 guinea pigs, and 2 KM mice; tissues from these inoculated animals were then fed to coccidia-free dogs to determine species susceptibility to these oocysts. Oocysts were not excreted in the feces of dogs or rodents inoculated with oocysts. However, the dogs fed the tissues of gerbils or guinea pigs that were inoculated orally with oocysts excreted fresh oocysts. Dogs fed tissues from guinea pigs inoculated with brain and muscular homogenate from guinea pigs that were fed sporulated Hammondia/Neospora-like oocysts did not excrete oocysts. These findings indicated that the oocysts from naturally infected dogs had an obligatory 2-host life cycle, with gerbils and guinea pigs as intermediate hosts. DNA isolated from these oocysts could not be amplified using N. caninum- and Toxoplasma gondii-specific primers. However, positive amplification with the H. heydorni-specific primers confirmed the presence of H. heydorni DNA in the samples. A comparison of the intron 1 sequence of the alpha tubulin gene with those from H. heydorni from dogs and H. triffittae from foxes showed that dog-derived oocysts possessed a different alpha tubulin gene. Both our dog-derived sequence and 2 previous alpha tubulin gene sequences from H. triffittae from foxes contained a 9-bp insertion relative to 3 sequences of H. heydorni from dogs. However, when the 9-bp insertion from H. triffittae sequences were compared, the 9-bp insertion in our dog-derived sequence had a nucleotide substitution. The present study, therefore, provides new evidence of genetic diversity among isolates from dogs. This is the first survey for H. heydorni in dogs from China. PMID:23731857

  17. Genome Sequencing Highlights the Dynamic Early History of Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Adam H.; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M.; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi G.; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K.; Novembre, John

    2014-01-01

    To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11–16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is

  18. Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Adam H; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R; Parker, Heidi G; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Wilton, Alan; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D; Harkins, Timothy T; Nelson, Stanley F; Ostrander, Elaine A; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K; Novembre, John

    2014-01-01

    To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11-16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is

  19. Complete Situs Inversus in 2 Asymptomatic Dogs.

    PubMed

    Cahua, Jacqueline; Dias, Diego; Gonzales-Viera, Omar

    2015-06-01

    Complete situs inversus is a rare congenital condition that is characterized by the development of the thoracic and abdominal viscera in a mirror image to their normal orientation. This study describes this condition in 2 dogs: an 8-year-old male dalmatian that was originally evaluated for cystitis and a 3-year-old male crossbreed Pekinese that had a routine echographic study. In dogs, most of the reported cases were associated with the Kartagener syndrome, but our patients had no evidences of this ciliary disorder. PMID:26359728

  20. An Old Dog and New Tricks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2003-01-01

    As I approach my 55th birthday, the old adage 'you can't teach an old dog new tricks' keeps coming to mind. I'm not sure why, because I don't feel old and I'm still interested in taking on new challenges and learning new tricks. However, as I mentor new project managers, I am also aware that others may consider me an old dog unable to learn new tricks. To the contrary, the people I mentor continue to teach me new tricks and challenge my assumptions about project management.