Science.gov

Sample records for vector-mediated presumed dog

  1. In vitro and in vivo gene therapy with CMV vector-mediated presumed dog ?-nerve growth factor in pyridoxine-induced neuropathy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Young; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Il-Seob; Choi, Eun-Wha; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Lee, Sang-Koo

    2008-01-01

    Due to the therapeutic potential of gene therapy for neuronal injury, many studies of neurotrophic factors, vectors, and animal models have been performed. The presumed dog ?-nerve growth factor (pd?-NGF) was generated and cloned and its expression was confirmed in CHO cells. The recombinant pd?-NGF protein reacted with a human ?-NGF antibody and showed bioactivity in PC12 cells. The pd?-NGF was shown to have similar bioactivity to the dog ?-NGF. The recombinant pd?-NGF plasmid was administrated into the intrathecal space in the gene therapy group. Twenty-four hours after the vector inoculation, the gene therapy group and the positive control group were intoxicated with excess pyridoxine for seven days. Each morning throughout the test period, the dogs' body weight was taken and postural reaction assessments were made. Electrophysiological recordings were performed twice, once before the experiment and once after the test period. After the experimental period, histological analysis was performed. Dogs in the gene therapy group had no weight change and were normal in postural reaction assessments. Electrophysiological recordings were also normal for the gene therapy group. Histological analysis showed that neither the axons nor the myelin of the dorsal funiculus of L4 were severely damaged in the gene therapy group. In addition, the dorsal root ganglia of L4 and the peripheral nerves (sciatic nerve) did not experience severe degenerative changes in the gene therapy group. This study is the first to show the protective effect of NGF gene therapy in a dog model. PMID:19043311

  2. Chronic gastric instability and presumed incomplete volvulus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Paris, J K; Yool, D A; Reed, N; Ridyard, A E; Chandler, M L; Simpson, J W

    2011-12-01

    Chronic gastric volvulus in dogs results in long-standing gastrointestinal signs unlike those of acute gastric dilatation and volvulus. This report describes chronic gastric volvulus in seven dogs. The majority of dogs presented with weight loss, chronic vomiting, lethargy and abdominal pain. A combination of radiographic, ultrasonographic and endoscopic imaging indicated altered positioning of gastric landmarks. Dynamic changes were identified in some cases. Exploratory coeliotomy and surgical gastropexy were performed in all dogs. Clinical signs improved or resolved in six of seven dogs postoperatively. Chronic gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition in dogs, but should be considered as a differential in cases presenting with the above clinical signs. PMID:22017675

  3. Expression of Human ?1-Antitrypsin in Mice and Dogs Following AAV6 Vector-mediated Gene Transfer to the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Christine L; Madtes, David K; Vaughan, Andrew E; Wang, Zejing; Storb, Rainer; Tapscott, Stephen J; Miller, A Dusty

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of lung-directed gene therapy for ?1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency using an adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6) vector containing a human AAT (hAAT) complementary DNA (cDNA) delivered to the lungs of mice and dogs. The results in normal and immune-deficient mice showed that hAAT concentrations were much higher in lung fluid than in plasma, and therapeutic levels were obtained even in normal mice. However, in normal mice an immune response against the vector and/or transgene limited long-term gene expression. An AAV6 vector expressing a marker protein verified that AAV6 vectors efficiently transduced lung cells in dogs. Delivery of AAV6-hAAT resulted in low levels of hAAT in dog serum but therapeutic levels in the lung that persisted for at least 58 days to 4 months in three immunosuppressed dogs. Expression in the serum was not detectable after 45 days in one nonimmune suppressed dog. A lymphoproliferative response to AAV capsid but not to hAAT was detected even after immunosuppression. These results in mice and dogs show the feasibility of expression of therapeutic levels of AAT in the lungs after AAV vector delivery, and advocate for approaches to prevent cellular immune responses to AAV capsid proteins for persistence of gene expression in humans. PMID:20372105

  4. Expression of human alpha1-antitrypsin in mice and dogs following AAV6 vector-mediated gene transfer to the lungs.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Christine L; Madtes, David K; Vaughan, Andrew E; Wang, Zejing; Storb, Rainer; Tapscott, Stephen J; Miller, A Dusty

    2010-06-01

    We evaluated the potential of lung-directed gene therapy for alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency using an adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6) vector containing a human AAT (hAAT) complementary DNA (cDNA) delivered to the lungs of mice and dogs. The results in normal and immune-deficient mice showed that hAAT concentrations were much higher in lung fluid than in plasma, and therapeutic levels were obtained even in normal mice. However, in normal mice an immune response against the vector and/or transgene limited long-term gene expression. An AAV6 vector expressing a marker protein verified that AAV6 vectors efficiently transduced lung cells in dogs. Delivery of AAV6-hAAT resulted in low levels of hAAT in dog serum but therapeutic levels in the lung that persisted for at least 58 days to 4 months in three immunosuppressed dogs. Expression in the serum was not detectable after 45 days in one nonimmune suppressed dog. A lymphoproliferative response to AAV capsid but not to hAAT was detected even after immunosuppression. These results in mice and dogs show the feasibility of expression of therapeutic levels of AAT in the lungs after AAV vector delivery, and advocate for approaches to prevent cellular immune responses to AAV capsid proteins for persistence of gene expression in humans. PMID:20372105

  5. Unusual congenital pulmonary anomaly with presumed left lung hypoplasia in a young dog.

    PubMed

    Lee, C M; Kim, J H; Kang, M H; Eom, K D; Park, H M

    2014-05-01

    A seven-month-old, entire, male miniature schnauzer dog was referred with acute vomiting, inappetence and depression primarily as a result of a gastric foreign body (pine cones). During investigations, thoracic radiographs revealed increased volume of the right lung lobes, deviated cardiomediastinal structures and elevation of the heart from the sternum. Thoracic computed tomography revealed left cranial lung lobe hypoplasia and extension of the right cranial lung parenchyma across the midline to the left hemithorax. Branches of the right pulmonary vessels and bronchi also crossed the midline and extended to the left caudal lung lobe. These findings suggested that the right and left lungs were fused. In humans this finding is consistent with horseshoe lung, which is an uncommon congenital malformation. To the authors' knowledge, this case represents the first report of such a pulmonary anomaly in a dog. PMID:24628409

  6. Dogs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Dogs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... and to prevent infectious diseases. Tips for preventing dog-associated diseases Before choosing a dog Certain types ...

  7. Computational model of a vector-mediated epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Adriana Gomes; Dickman, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    We discuss a lattice model of vector-mediated transmission of a disease to illustrate how simulations can be applied in epidemiology. The population consists of two species, human hosts and vectors, which contract the disease from one another. Hosts are sedentary, while vectors (mosquitoes) diffuse in space. Examples of such diseases are malaria, dengue fever, and Pierce's disease in vineyards. The model exhibits a phase transition between an absorbing (infection free) phase and an active one as parameters such as infection rates and vector density are varied.

  8. Lentiviral vector-mediated transduction of goat undifferentiated spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hassan; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Hajian, Mahdi; Nasiri, Zahra; Bahadorani, Mehrnoosh; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Nasiri, Mohammad Reza; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies show that spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are able to colonize and form mature spermatozoa following transplantation into germ cell depleted testes of recipient males. Therefore, efficient ways for enrichment and gene transfer into SSCs provides a powerful tool for production of transgenic animals. In order to adapt the technique to goats, three issues were addressed: (i) enrichment of the undifferentiated spermatogonia including SSCs using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), (ii) lentiviral vector-mediated transduction of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene into enriched cells, and (iii) transplantation of transduced undifferentiated spermatogonia into the germ cell depleted testes of immune-suppressed mice to assess for migration and colony formation ability. Enriched cells were transduced by lentiviral vectors and subsequently analyzed for expression of THY1, PLZF, VASA, UCHL1 and BCL6B genes. Cells were also analyzed for GFP and PLZF by flow cytometry. Enriched transduced cells were transplanted into germ cell depleted mice testis. Quantitative analysis of transcripts revealed that MACS-enrichment significantly increased the expression of SSC-characteristic genes THY1, PLZF, VASA, UCHL1 and BCL6B compared to non-enriched population (P?0.05). EGFP transduction did not affect the expression levels of SSC-characteristic genes. Flow cytometry revealed that 72% of transduced-enriched cells were positive for EGFP. Finally, transduced-enriched goat SSCs could colonize within the cells into the seminiferous tubules of germ cell depleted recipient mice at higher frequency than non-enriched cells. The results indicated that enrichment of goat undifferentiated spermatogonia by magnetic-activated cell sorting for THY1 antibody combined with lentiviral vector-mediated transduction has the potential to be used for production of transgenic goats. PMID:26481046

  9. Viral vector-mediated gene therapy for hemophilia.

    PubMed

    VandenDriessche, T; Collen, D; Chuah, M K

    2001-09-01

    Hemophilia A and B are hereditary coagulation disorders that result from functional deficiencies of factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX), respectively. Current treatment consists of injections with plasma-derived or recombinant clotting factors. Despite the significant clinical benefits of protein replacement therapies, these do not constitute a cure and patients are still at risk of bleeding. Significant progress has been made recently in the development of gene therapy for hemophilia. This has been primarily due to the technical improvements of existing vector systems and the development of new gene delivery methods. Therapeutic and sometimes physiologic levels of FVIII and FIX could be achieved in FVIII- and FIX-deficient mice and hemophilic dogs using different types of viral vectors. In these preclinical studies, long-term correction of the bleeding disorders and in some cases a permanent cure has been realized. However, complications related to the induction of neutralizing antibodies or viral promoter inactivation often precludes stable phenotypic correction. Several gene therapy phase I clinical trials have been initiated in patients suffering from severe hemophilia A or B. The results from the extensive pre-clinical studies and the preliminary clinical data are encouraging. It is likely that successful gene therapy for hemophilia will become a reality at the beginning of this new millennium, serving as the trailblazer for gene therapy of other diseases. PMID:12109144

  10. Characterising dark matter searches at colliders and direct detection experiments: Vector mediators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buchmueller, Oliver; Dolan, Matthew J.; Malik, Sarah A.; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-09

    We introduce a Minimal Simplified Dark Matter (MSDM) framework to quantitatively characterise dark matter (DM) searches at the LHC. We study two MSDM models where the DM is a Dirac fermion which interacts with a vector and axial-vector mediator. The models are characterised by four parameters: mDM, Mmed , gDM and gq, the DM and mediator masses, and the mediator couplings to DM and quarks respectively. The MSDM models accurately capture the full event kinematics, and the dependence on all masses and couplings can be systematically studied. The interpretation of mono-jet searches in this framework can be used to establishmore » an equal-footing comparison with direct detection experiments. For theories with a vector mediator, LHC mono-jet searches possess better sensitivity than direct detection searches for light DM masses (≲5 GeV). For axial-vector mediators, LHC and direct detection searches generally probe orthogonal directions in the parameter space. We explore the projected limits of these searches from the ultimate reach of the LHC and multi-ton xenon direct detection experiments, and find that the complementarity of the searches remains. In conclusion, we provide a comparison of limits in the MSDM and effective field theory (EFT) frameworks to highlight the deficiencies of the EFT framework, particularly when exploring the complementarity of mono-jet and direct detection searches.« less

  11. Characterising dark matter searches at colliders and direct detection experiments: Vector mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmueller, Oliver; Dolan, Matthew J.; Malik, Sarah A.; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-09

    We introduce a Minimal Simplified Dark Matter (MSDM) framework to quantitatively characterise dark matter (DM) searches at the LHC. We study two MSDM models where the DM is a Dirac fermion which interacts with a vector and axial-vector mediator. The models are characterised by four parameters: mDM, Mmed , gDM and gq, the DM and mediator masses, and the mediator couplings to DM and quarks respectively. The MSDM models accurately capture the full event kinematics, and the dependence on all masses and couplings can be systematically studied. The interpretation of mono-jet searches in this framework can be used to establish an equal-footing comparison with direct detection experiments. For theories with a vector mediator, LHC mono-jet searches possess better sensitivity than direct detection searches for light DM masses (≲5 GeV). For axial-vector mediators, LHC and direct detection searches generally probe orthogonal directions in the parameter space. We explore the projected limits of these searches from the ultimate reach of the LHC and multi-ton xenon direct detection experiments, and find that the complementarity of the searches remains. In conclusion, we provide a comparison of limits in the MSDM and effective field theory (EFT) frameworks to highlight the deficiencies of the EFT framework, particularly when exploring the complementarity of mono-jet and direct detection searches.

  12. Nacystelyn enhances adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery to mouse airways.

    PubMed

    Kushwah, R; Oliver, J R; Cao, H; Hu, J

    2007-08-01

    Adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery has been vastly investigated for cystic fibrosis (CF) gene therapy; however, one of its drawbacks is the low efficiency of gene transfer, which is due to basolateral colocalization of viral receptors, immune responses to viral vectors and the presence of a thick mucus layer in the airways of CF patients. Therefore, enhancement of gene transfer can lead to reduction in the viral dosage, which could further reduce the acute toxicity associated with the use of adenoviral vectors. Nacystelyn (NAL) is a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and has been used clinically in CF patients to reduce mucus viscosity in the airways. In this study, we show that pretreatment of the airways with NAL followed by administration of adenoviral vectors in complex with DEAE-Dextran can significantly enhance gene delivery to the airways of mice without any harmful effects. Moreover, NAL pretreatment can reduce the airway inflammation, which is normally observed after delivery of adenoviral particles. Taken together, these results indicate that NAL pretreatment followed by adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery can be beneficial to CF patients by increasing the efficiency of gene transfer to the airways, and reducing the acute toxicity associated with the administration of adenoviral vectors. PMID:17525704

  13. Lentiviral Vector-Mediated RNA Silencing in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Edmund; Moon, Lawrence D.F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract RNA silencing is an established method for investigating gene function and has attracted particular interest because of the potential for generating RNA-based therapeutics. Using lentiviral vectors as an efficient delivery system that offers stable, long-term expression in postmitotic cells further enhances the applicability of an RNA-based gene therapy for the CNS. In this review we provide an overview of both lentiviral vectors and RNA silencing along with design considerations for generating lentiviral vectors capable of RNA silencing. We go on to describe the current preclinical data regarding lentiviral vector-mediated RNA silencing for CNS disorders and discuss the concerns of side effects associated with lentiviral vectors and small interfering RNAs and how these might be mitigated. PMID:24090197

  14. Baculovirus vector-mediated transfer of NIS gene into colon tumor cells for radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Xiang; Wu, Hai-Fei; Li, Biao; Zhang, Yi-Fan

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of radionuclide therapy of colon tumor cells by baculovirus vector-mediated transfer of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene. METHODS: A recombinant baculovirus plasmid carrying the NIS gene was constructed, and the viruses (Bac-NIS) were prepared using the Bac-to-Bac system. The infection efficiency in the colon cancer cell line SW1116 of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing baculovirus (Bac-GFP) at different multiplicities of infection (MOI) with various concentrations of sodium butyrate was determined by flow cytometry. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay was also conducted after infection of SW1116 cells with Bac-NIS. Iodine uptake of Bac-NIS infected SW1116 cells and inhibition of this uptake by sodium perchlorate was examined, and the effect of Bac-NIS-mediated 131I in killing tumor cells was evaluated by cell colony formation tests. RESULTS: Infection and transgene expression in SW1116 with Bac-GFP were significantly enhanced by sodium butyrate, as up to 72% of SW1116 cells were infected with the virus at MOI of 400 and sodium butyrate at 0.5 mmol/L. No obvious cytotoxicity was observed under these conditions. Infection of SW1116 with Bac-NIS allowed uptake of 131I in these tumor cells, which could be inhibited by sodium perchlorate. The viability of SW1116 cells infected with Bac-NIS was significantly lower than with Bac-GFP, suggesting that NIS gene-mediated 131I uptake could specifically kill tumor cells. CONCLUSION: Baculovirus vector-mediated NIS gene therapy is a potential approach for treatment of colon cancer. PMID:21072902

  15. Ocular Malformations with Presumable Intraocular Calcification.

    PubMed

    Tengtrisorn, Supaporn; Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Nitirungjaras, Anupong; Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Kiddee, Weerawat; Singha, Penny

    2015-07-01

    This is a case of ocular malformations with presumable intraocular calcification based on computed tomography (CT) imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ocular ultrasound (US) findings. The authors presented the clinical, imaging and pathological findings of this case. Intraocular calcification is the most important finding in retinoblastoma, which requires aggressive management. It is important to distinguish it from other intraocular lesions, especially intraocular calcified hematoma. PMID:26267997

  16. Presumed consent in emergency neonatal research

    PubMed Central

    Manning, D

    2000-01-01

    Current methods of obtaining consent for emergency neonatal research are flawed. They risk aggravating the distress of parents of preterm and other sick neonates. This distress, and the inevitable time constraints, compromise understanding and voluntariness, essential components of adequately informed consent. Current practice may be unjust in over-representing babies of more vulnerable and deprived parents. The research findings may thus not be generalisable. Informing parents antenatally about the possible need for emergency neonatal research, with presumed consent and scope for opting out, would address these problems. It would spare parents of sick neonates, already terrified by their baby's illness, further distress. Experience with opting out suggests that recruitment might increase, thus generating earlier results, without compromising parental understanding of the nature and purpose of the research. Key Words: consent neonate emergency research PMID:10951919

  17. What does "presumed consent" might presume? Preservation measures and uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death.

    PubMed

    de Lora, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    One of the most controversial aspects in uncontrolled (out-of-hospital) donation of organs after circulatory death (uDCD) is the initiation of preservation measures before death. I argue that in so-called opting-out systems only under very stringent conditions we might presume consent to the instauration of those measures. Given its current legal framework, I claim that this is not the case of Spain, a well-known country in which consent is presumed-albeit only formally-and where uDCD is currently practiced. PMID:24481849

  18. An AAV Vector-Mediated Gene Delivery Approach Facilitates Reconstitution of Functional Human CD8+ T Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, James M.; Tsuji, Moriya

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a novel adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene delivery approach was taken to improve the reconstitution of functional CD8+ T cells in humanized mice, thereby mimicking the human immune system (HIS). Human genes encoding HLA-A2 and selected human cytokines (A2/hucytokines) were introduced to an immune-deficient mouse model [NOD/SCID/IL2rγnull (NSG) mice] using AAV serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors, followed by transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells. NSG mice transduced with AAV9 encoding A2/hucytokines resulted in higher levels of reconstitution of human CD45+ cells compared to NSG mice transduced with AAV9 encoding HLA-A2 alone or HLA-A2-transgenic NSG mice. Furthermore, this group of HIS mice also mounted the highest level of antigen-specific A2-restricted human CD8+ T-cell response upon vaccination with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human malaria and HIV antigens. Finally, the human CD8+ T-cell response induced in human malaria vaccine-immunized HIS mice was shown to be functional by displaying cytotoxic activity against hepatocytes that express the human malaria antigen in the context of A2 molecules. Taken together, our data show that AAV vector-mediated gene delivery is a simple and efficient method to transfer multiple human genes to immune-deficient mice, thus facilitating successful reconstitution of HIS in mice. The HIS mice generated in this study should ultimately allow us to swiftly evaluate the T-cell immunogenicity of various human vaccine candidates in a pre-clinical setting. PMID:24516613

  19. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a certain... presumed to be dead as stated in Federal law (5 U.S.C. 5565). Unless other evidence is submitted showing an...) When a person has been missing for less than 7 years but may be presumed dead due to drowning or...

  20. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a certain... presumed to be dead as stated in Federal law (5 U.S.C. 5565). Unless other evidence is submitted showing an...) When a person has been missing for less than 7 years but may be presumed dead due to drowning or...

  1. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a certain... presumed to be dead as stated in Federal law (5 U.S.C. 5565). Unless other evidence is submitted showing an...) When a person has been missing for less than 7 years but may be presumed dead due to drowning or...

  2. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a certain... presumed to be dead as stated in Federal law (5 U.S.C. 5565). Unless other evidence is submitted showing an...) When a person has been missing for less than 7 years but may be presumed dead due to drowning or...

  3. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus Vector-Mediated Gene Delivery of Poreless TRPV1 Channels Reduces Bladder Overactivity and Nociception in Rats.

    PubMed

    Majima, Tsuyoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Takai, Shun; Goins, William F; Gotoh, Momokazu; Tyagi, Pradeep; Glorioso, Joseph C; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-11-01

    Increased afferent excitability has been proposed as an important pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and overactive bladder (OAB). In this study, we investigated whether herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors encoding poreless TRPV1, in which the segment in C terminus of TRPV1 receptor is deleted, suppress bladder overactivity and pain behavior using a rat model of chemical cystitis. Replication-defective HSV vectors encoding poreless TRPV1 were injected into the bladder wall of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Additionally, recombinant HSV virus (vHG) vectors were injected as control. Cystometry (CMG) under urethane anesthesia was performed 1 week after viral injection to evaluate bladder overactivity induced by resiniferatoxin (RTx, a TRPV1 agonist). RTx-induced nociceptive behavior such as licking (lower abdominal licking) and freezing (motionless head-turning) was observed 2 weeks after viral injection. GFP expression in L4/L6/S1 dorsal root ganglia and the bladder as well as c-Fos-positive cells in the L6 spinal cord dorsal horn were also evaluated 2 weeks after viral injection. In CMG, the poreless TRPV1 vector-treated group showed a significantly smaller reduction in intercontraction intervals and voided volume after RTx infusion than the vHG-treated control group. The number of the RTx-induced freezing events was significantly decreased in the poreless TRPV1 group than in the vHG group, whereas there was no significant difference of the number of RTx-induced licking events between groups. The number of c-Fos-positive cells in the DCM and SPN regions of the L6 spinal dorsal horn was significantly smaller in the poreless TRPV1 group than in the vHG group. Our results indicated that HSV vector-mediated gene delivery of poreless TRPV1 had a therapeutic effect on TRPV1-mediated bladder overactivity and pain behavior. Thus, the HSV vector-mediated gene therapy targeting TRPV1 receptors could be a novel modality for the treatment of OAB and/or hypersensitive bladder disorders such as IC/BPS. PMID:26204493

  5. Lentiviral Vector-Mediated Complementation Restored Fetal Viability but Not Placental Hyperplasia in Plac1-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Muto, Masanaga; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Tobita, Tomohiro; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Ikawa, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    The X-linked Plac1 gene is maternally expressed in trophoblast cells during placentation, and its disruption causes placental hyperplasia and intrauterine growth restriction. In contrast, Plac1 is also reported to be one of the upregulated genes in the hyperplastic placenta generated by nuclear transfer. However, the effect of overexpressed Plac1 on placental formation and function remained unaddressed. We complemented the Plac1 knockout placental dysfunction by lentiviral vector-mediated, placenta-specific Plac1 transgene expression. Whereas fetal development and the morphology of maternal blood sinuses in the labyrinth zone improved, placental hyperplasia remained, with an expanded the junctional zone that migrated and encroached into the labyrinth zone. Further experiments revealed that wild-type placenta with transgenically expressed Plac1 resulted in placental hyperplasia without the encroaching of the junctional zone. Our findings suggest that Plac1 is involved in trophoblast cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Its proper expression is required for normal placentation and fetal development. PMID:26586843

  6. Onchocerciasis in a California dog.

    PubMed

    Orihel, T C; Ash, L R; Holshuh, H J; Santenelli, S

    1991-05-01

    A 15-year-old dog that had lived all of its life on ranches and at the Wildlife Waystation on the western edge of the San Gabriel mountains near Los Angeles, California, developed an extensive granulomatous lesion involving the right eye and associated tissues requiring removal of both the eye and the lesion. Microscopic examinations of the tissues revealed the presence of living and dead gravid female worms and male worms belonging to the genus Onchocerca. Unsheathed microfilariae presumed to be Onchocerca species were found in the skin as well. Because Onchocerca species are not natural parasites of dogs, it is presumed that this infection was acquired accidentally from bovine, equine, or other animal host sharing the environment. This appears to be the first published record of patent onchocerciasis in a dog. PMID:2063954

  7. Vector-Mediated Delivery of a Polyamide ("Peptide") Nucleic Acid Analogue through the Blood-Brain Barrier in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardridge, William M.; Boado, Ruben J.; Kang, Young-Sook

    1995-06-01

    Polyamide ("peptide") nucleic acids (PNAs) are molecules with antigene and antisense effects that may prove to be effective neuropharmaceuticals if these molecules are enabled to undergo transport through the brain capillary endothelial wall, which makes up the blood-brain barrier in vivo. The model PNA used in the present studies is an 18-mer that is antisense to the rev gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and is biotinylated at the amino terminus and iodinated at a tyrosine residue near the carboxyl terminus. The biotinylated PNA was linked to a conjugate of streptavidin (SA) and the OX26 murine monoclonal antibody to the rat transferrin receptor. The blood-brain barrier is endowed with high transferrin receptor concentrations, enabling the OX26-SA conjugate to deliver the biotinylated PNA to the brain. Although the brain uptake of the free PNA was negligible following intravenous administration, the brain uptake of the PNA was increased at least 28-fold when the PNA was bound to the OX26-SA vector. The brain uptake of the PNA bound to the OX26-SA vector was 0.1% of the injected dose per gram of brain at 60 min after an intravenous injection, approximating the brain uptake of intravenously injected morphine. The PNA bound to the OX26-SA vector retained the ability to bind to synthetic rev mRNA as shown by RNase protection assays. In summary, the present studies show that while the transport of PNAs across the blood-brain barrier is negligible, delivery of these potential neuropharmaceutical drugs to the brain may be achieved by coupling them to vector-mediated peptide-drug delivery systems.

  8. Preclinical demonstration of lentiviral vector-mediated correction of immunological and metabolic abnormalities in models of adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, Denise A; Zhang, Lin; Jin, Xiangyang; Montiel-Equihua, Claudia; Geiger, Sabine; Carmo, Marlene; Cooper, Aaron; Fairbanks, Lynette; Kaufman, Michael L; Sebire, Neil J; Hollis, Roger P; Blundell, Michael P; Senadheera, Shantha; Fu, Pei-Yu; Sahaghian, Arineh; Chan, Rebecca Y; Wang, Xiaoyan; Cornetta, Kenneth; Thrasher, Adrian J; Kohn, Donald B; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2014-03-01

    Gene transfer into autologous hematopoietic stem cells by ?-retroviral vectors (gRV) is an effective treatment for adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, current gRV have significant potential for insertional mutagenesis as reported in clinical trials for other primary immunodeficiencies. To improve the efficacy and safety of ADA-SCID gene therapy (GT), we generated a self-inactivating lentiviral vector (LV) with a codon-optimized human cADA gene under the control of the short form elongation factor-1? promoter (LV EFS ADA). In ADA(-/-) mice, LV EFS ADA displayed high-efficiency gene transfer and sufficient ADA expression to rescue ADA(-/-) mice from their lethal phenotype with good thymic and peripheral T- and B-cell reconstitution. Human ADA-deficient CD34(+) cells transduced with 1-5??10(7) TU/ml had 1-3 vector copies/cell and expressed 1-2x of normal endogenous levels of ADA, as assayed in vitro and by transplantation into immune-deficient mice. Importantly, in vitro immortalization assays demonstrated that LV EFS ADA had significantly less transformation potential compared to gRV vectors, and vector integration-site analysis by nrLAM-PCR of transduced human cells grown in immune-deficient mice showed no evidence of clonal skewing. These data demonstrated that the LV EFS ADA vector can effectively transfer the human ADA cDNA and promote immune and metabolic recovery, while reducing the potential for vector-mediated insertional mutagenesis. PMID:24256635

  9. West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. Foundation wall and pipes in foreground. Wood foundation in background with railroad tracks beyond. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  10. Presumed Perinatal Stroke: Risk Factors, Clinical and Radiological Findings.

    PubMed

    Ilves, Pilvi; Laugesaar, Rael; Loorits, Dagmar; Kolk, Anneli; Tomberg, Tiiu; Lõo, Silva; Talvik, Inga; Kahre, Tiina; Talvik, Tiina

    2016-04-01

    It is unknown why some infants with perinatal stroke present clinical symptoms late during infancy and will be identified as infants with presumed perinatal stroke. The risk factors and clinical and radiological data of 42 infants with presumed perinatal stroke (69% with periventricular venous infarction and 31% with arterial ischemic stroke) from the Estonian Pediatric Stroke Database were reviewed. Children with presumed perinatal stroke were born at term in 95% of the cases and had had no risk factors during pregnancy in 43% of the cases. Children with periventricular venous infarction were born significantly more often (82%) vaginally (P = .0213) compared to children with arterial stroke (42%); nor did they require resuscitation (P = .0212) or had any neurological symptoms after birth (P = .0249). Periventricular venous infarction is the most common type of lesion among infants with the presumed perinatal stroke. Data suggest that the disease is of prenatal origin. PMID:26446909

  11. Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A prairie dog stands on alert. The USGS National Wildlife Health Center works to identify, track, and prevent wildlife disease. Better protection of prairie dogs against plague would minimize the risk of disease transfer to endangered black-footed ferrets, aid in prairie dog conservation, and protec...

  12. Does Presumed Consent Save Lives? Evidence from Europe.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Zeynep Burcu

    2015-12-01

    One policy tool that could affect organ donation rates is legislative defaults. In this study, we examine how presumed consent impacts cadaveric donations and kidney transplantations, using a panel dataset from the EU-27 countries plus Croatia in the period 2000-2010. We find that presumed consent countries have 28% to 32% higher cadaveric donation and 27% to 31% higher kidney transplant rates in comparison to informed consent countries, after accounting for potential confounding factors. After studying willingness to donate one's organs and registering preferences for organ donation, we find that presumed consent could increase cadaveric donation rates, because people fail to register their preferences and many have no preference for organ donation. Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25273232

  13. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Lscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1?year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  14. 12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR FORCE INSIGNIA EMBLEM AFFIXED, 'AIR FORCE WEAPONS LABORATORY.' OTHER SIGN ON DOOR SAYS, 'BSD LIASON OFFICE.' INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6173, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal building is not life cycle... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit...

  16. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal building is not life cycle... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit...

  17. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal building is not life cycle... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit...

  18. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal building is not life cycle... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit...

  19. 10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal building is not life cycle... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.13 Presuming cost-effectiveness results. (a) If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit...

  20. Medial patellar luxation in 16 large dogs. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Remedios, A M; Basher, A W; Runyon, C L; Fries, C L

    1992-01-01

    Unilateral medial patellar luxation was diagnosed in 10, and bilateral medial patellar luxation in six, large and giant-breed dogs (22 stifles). Lameness occurred in five dogs after trauma or surgery, and 11 dogs had no known predisposing history. The mean age at presentation was 25 months, and the mean time from initial onset of clinical signs to diagnosis was 13 weeks. All traumatic or iatrogenic luxations (five dogs) were unilateral. Luxations presumed to be congenital were unilateral in five dogs and bilateral in six. The grades of medial patellar luxation were I (1 stifle), II (11 stifles), III (9 stifles), and IV (1 stifle). Preoperative function was good (1 dog), fair (9 dogs), and poor (6 dogs). Surgical correction was performed in dogs with grades II, III, and IV luxations (21 stifles). Complications included one wound dehiscence and trochlear wedge migration, one pin loosening, and one persistent lameness caused by lymphoplasmacytic synovitis. Long-term follow-up was available in 13 dogs (18 stifles). Function was judged by owners to be excellent in seven dogs, good in five dogs, and poor in one dog. Surgical treatment of grades II and III luxations yielded good (8 stifles) and excellent (9 stifles) results, while one grade IV luxation had a poor long-term outcome. PMID:1580058

  1. Presumed Group B Streptococcal Meningitis After Epidural Blood Patch.

    PubMed

    Beilin, Yaakov; Spitzer, Yelena

    2015-06-15

    Bacterial meningitis after epidural catheter placement is rare. We describe a case in which a parturient received labor epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery complicated by dural puncture. The patient developed postdural puncture headache and underwent 2 separate epidural blood patch procedures. She subsequently developed a headache with fever and focal neurologic deficits. She was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics for presumed meningitis, and she made a full recovery. Blood cultures subsequently grew group B streptococcus. PMID:26050248

  2. Risk of Occult Uterine Sarcoma in Presumed Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rosa R; Wright, Jason D

    2016-03-01

    Symptomatic fibroids are a common indication for hysterectomy or myomectomy. Although rare, unexpected gynecologic malignancies in presumed fibroids have been documented. In cases where tissue retrieval is performed through morcellation, there is increasing concern that intra-abdominal dispersion of occult uterine malignancies may lead to peritoneal dissemination and worse outcomes. We examined the available literature to determine the prevalence of all uterine cancers in women undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy for benign uterine disease, with attention to the risk of morcellating occult uterine sarcomas. We also reviewed the available tools for preoperative discrimination between benign and malignant uterine disease. PMID:26645385

  3. Presumed Symbolic Use of Diurnal Raptors by Neanderthals

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Eugne; Laroulandie, Vronique

    2012-01-01

    In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ?10060 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (?90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (6040 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions. PMID:22403717

  4. Renal clearance studies of effect of left atrial distension in the dog.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, M. J.; Discala, V. A.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the water diuresis of left atrial distension in 16 dogs on the basis of clearance studies employing hydration, chronic and acute salt loading, deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess, and distal tubular nephron blockade with diuretics. The diuresis was found in hydrated and salt-loaded dogs and was independent of DOCA and presumed renin depletion. It was not found in five dogs after distal tubular blockade. No significant reproducible saluresis was ever documented. The water diuresis was always stopped by exogenous vasopressin (seven dogs). Antidiuretic hormone inhibition with distal tubular nephron water permeability changes appears to be the sole mechanism of the diuresis of left atrial distension in the dog.

  5. Adenovirus vector-mediated herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase gene/ganciclovir system exhibits anti-tumor effects in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruidong; Chen, Dexi; Lin, Dongdong; Lu, Fudong; Yin, Jiming; Li, Ning

    2014-07-01

    Adenovirus vector-mediated herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (ADV.tk/GCV) system is a promising approach for cancer gene therapy. This study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor efficacy and the underlying mechanisms of ADV.tk/GCV system in orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model. A total of 132 female nude mice orthotopic HCC models were established and tumors were directly injected with ADV.tk (5.0 x 10(6) vector particles/kg) or saline solution, 24 h later the animals were intraperitoneally administrated by ganciclovir (30 mg/kg) or saline solution for 7 consecutive days. We observed that ADV.tk/GCV resulted in a significant regression of tumor growth and a significant prolongation of survival of the mice. At each given time point, the percentages of cleaved caspae-3, caspase-9 and TUNEL positive cells were significantly higher in the ADV.tk + GCV group than saline group (P < 0.005), while CD31 and VEGF staining were significantly less in ADV.tk + GCV group than in saline group (P < 0.005). In summary, ADV.tk/GCV system exhibits dramatic anti-tumor effects in orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model by promoting apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis, and is a promising treatment strategy for hepatic carcinoma. PMID:25073402

  6. Lentiviral vector-mediated stable expression of sTNFR-Fc in human macrophage and neuronal cells as a potential therapy for neuroAIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection frequently causes neurologic disease, which is the result of viral replication and activation of macrophages and microglia in the CNS, and subsequent secretion of high levels of neurotoxic products, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). We therefore hypothesized that a soluble TNF-? antagonist might have potential utility as a neuroprotective effecter molecule, and conducted proof-of-concept studies to test this hypothesis. Methods To develop novel therapeutics for the treatment of neuroAIDS, we constructed and characterized a soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR)-Fc fusion protein with the goal of neutralizing TNF-?, and tested the stability of expression of this gene following delivery by a lentiviral vector. Results High-titer lentiviral vectors were prepared, allowing efficient transduction of macrophage/glial and neuronal cell lines, as well as primary rat cerebellar neurons. Efficient, stable secretion of sTNFR-Fc was demonstrated in supernatants from transduced cell lines over 20 passages, using both western blot and ELISA. Biological activity of the secreted sTNFR-Fc was confirmed by TNF-specific in vitro protein binding and functional blocking assays. Finally, the secreted protein was shown to protect neuronal cells from TNF-?, HIV-1 Tat-, and gp120-mediated neurotoxicity. Conclusions These results demonstrate that lentiviral vector mediated expression of sTNFR-Fc may have potential as a novel therapy for neuroAIDS. PMID:21569583

  7. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  8. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia

  9. Gene flow between wolf and shepherd dog populations in Georgia (Caucasus).

    PubMed

    Kopaliani, Natia; Shakarashvili, Maia; Gurielidze, Zurab; Qurkhuli, Tamar; Tarkhnishvili, David

    2014-01-01

    We studied the distribution of the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and microsatellite genotypes at 8 loci in 102 gray wolves, 57 livestock guarding dogs, and 9 mongrel dogs from Georgia (Caucasus). Most of the studied dogs had mitochondrial haplotypes clustered with presumably East Asian dog lineages, and most of the studied wolves had the haplotypes clustered with European wolves, but 20% of wolves and 37% of dogs shared the same mitochondrial haplotypes. Bayesian inference with STRUCTURE software suggested that more than 13% of the studied wolves had detectable dog ancestry and more than 10% of the dogs had detectable wolf ancestry. About 2-3% of the sampled wolves and dogs were identified, with a high probability, as first-generation hybrids. These results were supported by the relatedness analysis, which showed that 10% of wolves and 20% of dogs had closest relatives from an opposite group. The results of the study suggest that wolf-dog hybridization is a common event in the areas where large livestock guarding dogs are held in a traditional way, and that gene flow between dogs and gray wolves was an important force influencing gene pool of dogs for millennia since early domestication events. This process may have been terminated 1) in areas outside the natural range of gray wolves and 2) since very recent time, when humans started to more tightly control contacts of purebred dogs. PMID:24622972

  10. Training dogs to detect Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxley, Jimmie C.; Smith, James L.; Moran, Jesse; Nelson, Ken; Utley, William E.

    2004-09-01

    Dogs have been used successfully to detect drugs and conventional high explosives. The world-wide rise in terrorist activities has placed emphasis on the detection of non-conventional explosive materials such as the multi-functional peroxides, triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD). This study demonstrates that dogs can detect both solid TATP and TATP adsorbed to cotton balls. An effective procedure to train dogs to detect TATP using cotton balls permeated with TATP vapor is provided. The various trials showed that dogs were capable of detecting as little as 200 μg of TATP adsorbed to a one gram cotton ball under a variety of circumstances. However, since TATP vaporizes rapidly at room temperature, significant depletion of TATP from cotton balls can occur in as little as 20 minutes, hampering the ability of the dogs to detect it. The TATP depleted cotton ball can be refreshed by returning it to a sealed container with TATP residue for about 20 minutes. A presumed decomposition product of TATP, acetone, cannot be used in place of TATP to train dogs.

  11. Presumably bacterial remains in banded iron formations: beginning of investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, M.

    2014-04-01

    Ancient Archaean and Protherozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. Judging by their age these terrestrial rocks are the nearest to the rocks of meteorites. They are represented as a rule by deeply metamorphized layers of volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks and bacterial-paleontological investigations of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. But paleontological studies of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. One of these difficulties is usual high metamorphization of rocks. That is why investigation of Archaean banded iron formations is of great importance. Banded iron formations are known everywhere. The oldest banded iron formations are met in Archaean. Their widest distribution was in Proterozoic. They are constituent part of metamorphic complexes of all ancient shields. Formation of these units ended in Phanerozoic. Peculiarity of their development in time, thin layering, rhythmyc repetitiveness are reasons of great interest to these formations. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks. Interbedding of ferrigenous (magnetite, hematite, siderite etc.) interlayers and siliceous layers are typical to these formations. Stratificatification is thin, thickness of interlayers is less than 1-2 mm. Iron content exceeds 15%. Potentially all minerals of ferrigenous interlayers could be of biogenic nature because both for oxygenized (hematite) and reduced (magnetite and siderite) minerals direct mechanism of bacterial production is established by microbiologists. Basic ore mineral of banded iron formations is magnetite. But magnetite origin is not clear till nowadays and this problem is very actual [2]. Nevertheless bacterial remains by themselves have not been found and it is not surprising. It is proved that finely dispersed non-completely formed magnetite compose basic mass of magnetite formed for example by thermophylic iron-reducing bacteria. Processes of structure arrangement and crystal enlargement are occurred under sediment ageing and abiogenic magnetite recrystallization [1]. That is why in nature in case of ancient sediments and metamorphic rocks it is almost impossible to reveal biogenic origin of magnetite [3]. We decided to begin studying problem of banded iron formations origin because of its great interest. Archaean (2.75 GA) banded iron formations of Olenegorsk deposit (Kola Peninsula) were chosen as a model object. Material was kindly lent us by our colleagues from Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology - S. Felitsyn and N. Alfimova. Interesting results were received while bacterial-paleontological studying. Threadlike, coccoidal, dumbbell-like etc. forms presumably of bacterial nature were discovered. The most abundant and diverse forms are those close to coccoidal - the very cocci, oval, dumbbell-like etc. forms. Sizes of the most part of discovered objects about 1 ?m. Thread-like forms are met less often and mainly are represented by long thin single threads. The most part of biogenic structures was found in ferruginous interlayers. The whole rock fragments often consist almost completely from such structures, biogenic forms sink into rock matrix, some images show their location inside rock sample. There are no reasons to doubt that these biogenic forms were found in situ. In siliceous interlayers presumably biogenic forms are very rare. There are mainly long thin thread-like forms merged with the rock. As can be seen from the above it is possible to make preliminary conclusion about Archaean of banded iron formations biogenic origin and about microorganism participation in the process of banded iron formations formation. Investigations are continuing.

  12. Long-term enzymatic and phenotypic correction in the phenylketonuria mouse model by adeno-associated virus vector-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Eun-Sook; Kang, Seongman; Jo, Inho; Jung, Sung-Chul

    2004-08-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). The accumulation of phenylalanine leads to severe mental and psychomotor retardation, and hypopigmentation of skin and hair. Low-phenylalanine diet therapy can prevent irreversible damage if instituted from birth. However, poor compliance with the strict lifelong dietary therapy leads to various neurologic and behavioral problems. To develop a safe and promising gene therapy method for PKU, we investigated whether a recombinant adeno-associated virus could be used as a PAH gene transfer vector to reduce the excessive phenylalanine level in the PKU mouse model. A recombinant adeno-associated virus vector encoding the human PAH gene (rAAV-hPAH), driven by EF1-alpha promoter, was infused into PAH-deficient mice, Pah(enu2), via the hepatic portal vein. Two weeks after injection, the plasma phenylalanine level dramatically decreased to 360 microM in male PKU mice, accompanied by the coat color changing to black. The mean plasma phenylalanine level of untreated PKU mice was 1800 microM. The PAH enzyme activities of treated mice increased to 10-17% of wild-type mice. No signs of liver toxicity were observed after gene transfer. The biochemical and phenotypic corrections were sustained for up to 25 wk (25-wk detection period). In contrast, the treatment was less effective in female PKU mice. These results indicate that recombinant adeno-associated virus vector-mediated gene therapy can be a useful therapeutic candidate for patients with PKU. Further studies are needed to clarify the differences in PKU pathogenesis in males and females, and to explore alternative administration routes besides hepatic portal vein injection. PMID:15181195

  13. Genetic modification of mouse bone marrow by lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of HPRT shRNA confers chemoprotection against 6-thioguanine cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hacke, Katrin; Treger, Janet A.; Bogan, Brooke T.; Schiestl, Robert H.; Kasahara, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    We have recently developed a novel and highly efficient strategy that exclusively employs the purine analog 6-thioguanine (6TG) for both pre-transplant conditioning and post-transplant chemoselection of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-deficient bone marrow (BM). In a mouse BM transplant model, combined 6TG preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection consistently achieved >95% engraftment of HPRT-deficient donor BM and long-term reconstitution of histologically and immunophenotypically normal hematopoiesis in both primary and secondary recipients, without significant toxicity and in the absence of any other cytotoxic conditioning regimen. In order to translate this strategy for combined 6TG conditioning and chemoselection into a clinically feasible approach, it is necessary to develop methods for genetic modification of normal HSC to render them HPRT-deficient and thus 6TG-resistant. Here we investigated a strategy to reduce HPRT expression and thereby confer protection against 6TG myelotoxicity to primary murine bone marrow cells by RNA interference (RNAi). Accordingly, we constructed and validated a lentiviral gene transfer vector expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) that targets the murine HPRT gene. Our results showed that lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of HPRT-targeted shRNA could achieve effective and long-term reduction of HPRT expression. Furthermore, in both an established murine cell line as well as in primary murine bone marrow cells, lentiviral transduction with HPRT-targeted shRNA was associated with enhanced resistance to 6TG cytotoxicity in vitro. Hence this represents a translationally feasible method to genetically engineer HSC for implementation of 6TG-mediated preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection. PMID:23769104

  14. Gaze-following behind barriers in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Met, Amandine; Miklsi, dm; Lakatos, Gabriella

    2014-11-01

    Although gaze-following abilities have been demonstrated in a wide range of species, so far no clear evidence has been available for dogs. In the current study, we examined whether dogs follow human gaze behind an opaque barrier in two different contexts, in a foraging situation and in a non-foraging situation (food involved vs. food not involved in the situation). We assumed that dogs will spontaneously follow the human gaze and that the foraging context will have a positive effect on dogs' gaze-following behaviour by causing an expectation in the dogs that food might be hidden somewhere in the room and might be communicated by the experimenter. This expectation presumably positively affects their motivational and attentional state. Here, we report that dogs show evidence of spontaneous gaze-following behind barriers in both situations. According to our findings, the dogs gazed earlier at the barrier in the indicated direction in both contexts. However, as we expected, the context also has some effect on dogs' gaze-following behaviour, as more dogs gazed behind the barrier in the indicated direction in the foraging situation. The present results also support the idea that gaze-following is a characteristic skill in mammals which may more easily emerge in certain functional contexts. PMID:24816625

  15. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for...-time outside the home, economic loss may be determined with reference to replacement services...

  16. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for...-time outside the home, economic loss may be determined with reference to replacement services...

  17. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for...-time outside the home, economic loss may be determined with reference to replacement services...

  18. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for... prior earned income, or who worked only part time outside the home, economic loss may be determined...

  19. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss... Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents. In reaching presumed determinations for economic loss for... prior earned income, or who worked only part time outside the home, economic loss may be determined...

  20. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  1. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites

    PubMed Central

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog bite prevention working as well as it should? In this novel, small scale qualitative study, the perceptions of victims regarding their dog bite experience were explored in-depth. The study recruited 8 female participants who had been bitten by a dog in the past 5 years. In-depth, one-to-one interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that dog bites may not be as easily preventable as previously presumed, and that education about dog body language may not prevent some types of dog bites. The reasons participants were bitten were multifaceted and complex. In some cases, there was no interaction with the dog before the bite so there was no opportunity to assess the situation and modify behavior around the dog accordingly. Identifying who was to blame, and had responsibility for preventing the bite, was straightforward for the participants in hindsight. Those bitten blamed themselves and/or the dog owner, but not the dog. Most participants already felt they had a theoretical knowledge that would allow them to recognize dog aggression before the dog bite, yet participants, especially those who worked regularly with dogs, routinely believed, “it would not happen to me.” We also identified an attitude that bites were “just one of those things,” which could also be a barrier prevention initiatives. Rather than being special to the human-canine relationship, the attitudes discovered mirror those found in other areas of injury prevention. A new approach to dog-bite prevention may now be required, drawing on other injury prevention strategies including awareness-raising and minimizing the damage caused by a bite when it happens. PMID:26702271

  2. 20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721... person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but evidence of death is needed, we will presume... person is presumed to be dead as set out in Federal law (5 U.S.C. 5565). Unless we have other...

  3. 20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721... person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but evidence of death is needed, we will presume... person is presumed to be dead as set out in Federal law (5 U.S.C. 5565). Unless we have other...

  4. 20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721... person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but evidence of death is needed, we will presume... person is presumed to be dead as set out in Federal law (5 U.S.C. 5565). Unless we have other...

  5. 20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721... person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but evidence of death is needed, we will presume... person is presumed to be dead as set out in Federal law (5 U.S.C. 5565). Unless we have other...

  6. 20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721... person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but evidence of death is needed, we will presume... person is presumed to be dead as set out in Federal law (5 U.S.C. 5565). Unless we have other...

  7. Selecting shelter dogs for service dog training.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Service dogs are an essential aid to persons with disabilities, providing independence, mobility, and improved self-esteem. Because of these proven benefits, the growing se of service dogs is creating a demand and supply crisis. One major cause is the 50% verage dropout rate for dogs selected for training. Weiss and Greenber (1997) re-cently found that a dog, successful on the most commonly used selection test items, was as likely to be either a poor or a good candidate for service work. The experiment presented here evaluated test items developed by the author in 15 years of experience with dogs. The test items were administered to 75 dogs from the Kansas Humane So-ciety. Once tested, the dogs received obedience and retrieval training. The experiment assessed each dog on behavior over 5 weeks of training versus performance on each selection test item. A subset of the selection items, combined in a regression analysis, accounted for 36.4% of the variance with R = 0.603. This research also revealed a reli-able test for dog aggression without risking injury to dog or tester. Items for testing in-cluded fear, motivation, and submission. Another set of selection items reliably pre-dicted the trait of "high energy" commonly described as "high strung." Future research should involve investigating the effectiveness of both cortisol levels and blood pressure in predicting traits to help strengthen the predictive value of the tool and then testing on dogs trained to be full service dogs. PMID:12738588

  8. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C. R.; Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin. PMID:23843389

  9. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C R; Kltsch, Cornelya F C; Amorim, Antnio; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sn pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin. PMID:23843389

  10. Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors mediate therapeutic factor VIII expression for several months with minimal accompanying toxicity in a canine model of severe hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brian D; Shi, Chang Xin; Powell, Sandra; Hurlbut, David; Graham, Frank L; Lillicrap, David

    2004-02-01

    Two helper-dependent (HD) adenoviral vectors encoding a canine factor VIII B-domain-deleted transgene (cFVIII) were constructed and evaluated in 4 hemophilia A dogs. One vector was regulated by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (HD-CMV-cFVIII), while the other vector contained a tissue-restricted promoter comprised of the human FVIII proximal promoter with an upstream concatemer of 5 hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 binding sites (HD-HNF-cFVIII). We detected no toxicity at low dose (5 x 10(11) vp/kg), but at higher vector doses (> 1 x 10(12) vp/kg) transient hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia were observed. Low-level increases in FVIII activity were detected in all 3 HD-HNF-cFVIII-treated dogs, which corresponded with decreased whole blood clotting times. None of the animals receiving the HD-HNF-cFVIII vector developed FVIII inhibitors, and in 1 of the 3 animals, FVIII activity was sustained for over 6 months after treatment. One animal, which received the HD-CMV-cFVIII vector, achieved peak levels of FVIII above 19 000 mU/mL, but FVIII activity disappeared within 1 week, coincident with the development of a potent anti-canine FVIII antibody response. This study supports previous demonstrations of improved safety using HD gene transfer and suggests that these vectors can provide transient FVIII expression with minimal, acute toxicity in the absence of inhibitor formation. PMID:14512318

  11. 28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants § 104.45 Determination of presumed...

  12. Genetic evaluation of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog

    PubMed Central

    Oberbauer, AM; Bell, JS; Belanger, JM; Famula, TR

    2006-01-01

    Background Addison's disease, also known as hypoadrenocorticism, has been reported in many individual dogs, although some breeds exhibit a greater incidence than the population as a whole. Addison's is presumed to be an autoimmune mediated hereditary defect but the mode of inheritance remains unclear. In particular, the heritability and mode of inheritance have not been defined for the Portuguese Water Dog although Addison's is known to be prevalent in the breed. Results The analyses present clear evidence that establishes Addison's disease as an inherited disorder in the Portuguese Water Dog with an estimate of heritability of 0.49 (± 0.16); there were no differences in risk for disease across sexes (p > 0.49). Further, the complex segregation analysis provides suggestive evidence that Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog is inherited under the control of a single, autosomal recessive locus. Conclusion The high heritability and mode of inheritance of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog should enable the detection of segregating markers in a genome-wide scan and the identification of a locus linked to Addison's. Though the confirmation of Addison's disease as an autosomal recessive disorder must wait until the gene is identified, breeders of these dogs may wish to keep the present findings in mind as they plan their breeding programs to select against producing affected dogs. PMID:16670022

  13. Tick-borne pathogens and disease in dogs on St. Kitts, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Amanda D; Kelly, Patrick J; Freeman, Mark D; Fitzharris, Susan; Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Wang, Chengming

    2013-09-01

    Between 2009 and 2011, we conducted a case-control study of ticks and tick-associated pathogens affecting dogs on the island of St. Kitts, eastern Caribbean, including 55 cases of clinically suspected tick-borne disease (TBD) and 110 presumably healthy animals presented for elective surgeries. Rhipicephalus sanguineus caused year-round infestations of dogs, and 36% of the dogs in the study were infested at the time of examination. Overall, 62% of suspected TBD cases and 24% of presumably healthy dogs tested positive by PCR for infections with: Anaplasma platys (0% and 4%), Babesia canis vogeli (20% and 6%), Babesia gibsoni (18% and 5%), Ehrlichia canis (35% and 7%), and Hepatozoon canis (5% and 2%). Co-infections were documented in 15% of these PCR-positive dogs. Antibodies against A. platys or E. canis were noted in 36% of the dogs. Thrombocytopenia was the most common sign of infection, followed by anemia. This is the first detection of A. platys, B. canis vogeli, or H. canis on St. Kitts and the first detection of B. gibsoni in the Caribbean. We conclude that tick-borne pathogens of dogs are highly prevalent in this region and may present in dogs that appear healthy, in spite of hematologic abnormalities that may increase surgical risk. PMID:23481028

  14. Secondary immunodeficiency in dogs with enteric, dermatologic, infectious or parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Toman, M; Svoboda, M; Rybncek, J; Krejc, J; Svobodov, V

    1998-08-01

    A group of 238 dogs with various infectious and parasitic disease, in which suppressed activity of the immune system could e presumed, was examined using a set of immunological methods. The frequency and depth of immunosuppression and its association with certain infectious or parasitic disease were determined. Marked immunosuppression was found 62 (26%) of the dogs examined. Dogs with distemper, parvovirosis and German Shepherd dog pyoderma (GSP) were the most severely impaired. Dogs in acute phases of distemper or parvovirosis had decreased numbers and activity of lymphocytes and decreased immunoglobulin levels. Dogs with GSP had some of the following immunologic symptoms: inhibition of phagocytosis, reduced activity of lymphocytes, decreased levels of haemolytic complement and increased levels of immunoglobulin and lysozyme. A persistent immunosuppression was found in 12 dogs. These dogs were diagnosed with deep pyoderma, giardiasis, dermatophytosis or neoplasms. Although samples were not taken before the clinical diseases appeared, it can be presumed that some diseases caused immunosuppression (distemper or parvovirosis), and for other diseases immunosuppression was a predisposing factor (dermatophytosis, giardiasis and possibly GSP). PMID:9719765

  15. Wild Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A prairie dog sits outside its burrow at the Pitchfork Ranch near Meteetsee, Wyoming. Western U.S. prairie dogs are susceptible to plague outnreaks. The USGS developed an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) to help immunize prairie dogs against plague. If successful, the SPV cou...

  16. Is that dog a pit bull? A cross-country comparison of perceptions of shelter workers regarding breed identification.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Christy L; Harrison, Natalie; Wolff, London; Westgarth, Carri

    2014-01-01

    Bull breeds are commonly kept as companion animals, but the pit bull terrier is restricted by breed-specific legislation (BSL) in parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom. Shelter workers must decide which breed(s) a dog is. This decision may influence the dog's fate, particularly in places with BSL. In this study, shelter workers in the United States and United Kingdom were shown pictures of 20 dogs and were asked what breed each dog was, how they determined each dog's breed, whether each dog was a pit bull, and what they expected the fate of each dog to be. There was much variation in responses both between and within the United States and United Kingdom. UK participants frequently labeled dogs commonly considered by U.S. participants to be pit bulls as Staffordshire bull terriers. UK participants were more likely to say their shelters would euthanize dogs deemed to be pit bulls. Most participants noted using dogs' physical features to determine breed, and 41% affected by BSL indicated they would knowingly mislabel a dog of a restricted breed, presumably to increase the dog's adoption chances. PMID:24673506

  17. Is That Dog a Pit Bull? A Cross-Country Comparison of Perceptions of Shelter Workers Regarding Breed Identification

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Harrison, Natalie; Wolff, London; Westgarth, Carri

    2014-01-01

    Bull breeds are commonly kept as companion animals, but the pit bull terrier is restricted by breed-specific legislation (BSL) in parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom. Shelter workers must decide which breed(s) a dog is. This decision may influence the dog's fate, particularly in places with BSL. In this study, shelter workers in the United States and United Kingdom were shown pictures of 20 dogs and were asked what breed each dog was, how they determined each dog's breed, whether each dog was a pit bull, and what they expected the fate of each dog to be. There was much variation in responses both between and within the United States and United Kingdom. UK participants frequently labeled dogs commonly considered by U.S. participants to be pit bulls as Staffordshire bull terriers. UK participants were more likely to say their shelters would euthanize dogs deemed to be pit bulls. Most participants noted using dogs' physical features to determine breed, and 41% affected by BSL indicated they would knowingly mislabel a dog of a restricted breed, presumably to increase the dog's adoption chances. PMID:24673506

  18. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. PMID:26763220

  19. Comparison of owner-reported behavioral characteristics among genetically clustered breeds of dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Tonoike, Akiko; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Serpell, James A; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2015-01-01

    During the domestication process, dogs were selected for their suitability for multiple purposes, resulting in a variety of behavioral characteristics. In particular, the ancient group of breeds that is genetically closer to wolves may show different behavioral characteristics when compared to other breed groups. Here, we used questionnaire evaluations of dog behavior to investigate whether behavioral characteristics of dogs were different among genetically clustered breed groups. A standardized questionnaire, the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ), was used, and breed group differences of privately-owned dogs from Japan (n?=?2,951) and the United States (n?=?10,389) were analyzed. Results indicated that dogs in the ancient and spitz breed group showed low attachment and attention-seeking behavior. This characteristic distinguished the ancient group from any other breed groups with presumed modern European origins, and may therefore, be an ancestral trait. PMID:26680442

  20. Comparison of owner-reported behavioral characteristics among genetically clustered breeds of dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed Central

    Tonoike, Akiko; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Serpell, James A.; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2015-01-01

    During the domestication process, dogs were selected for their suitability for multiple purposes, resulting in a variety of behavioral characteristics. In particular, the ancient group of breeds that is genetically closer to wolves may show different behavioral characteristics when compared to other breed groups. Here, we used questionnaire evaluations of dog behavior to investigate whether behavioral characteristics of dogs were different among genetically clustered breed groups. A standardized questionnaire, the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ), was used, and breed group differences of privately-owned dogs from Japan (n = 2,951) and the United States (n = 10,389) were analyzed. Results indicated that dogs in the ancient and spitz breed group showed low attachment and attention-seeking behavior. This characteristic distinguished the ancient group from any other breed groups with presumed modern European origins, and may therefore, be an ancestral trait. PMID:26680442

  1. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. PMID:25150161

  2. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog

  3. Carolyn with Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS National Wildlife Health Center works to identify, track, and prevent wildlife disease. A USGS technician works with a prairie dog as part of the center's efforts to protect prairie dogs, and in turn the endangered black-footed ferret, from plague....

  4. Prairie Dog in Trap

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A prairie dog trapped outside its burrow in Wind Cave National Park waits for a crew of scientists to arrive. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This prairie dog will either be brought to a research van for blood ...

  5. Prairie Dog Under Anesthesia

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvatic plague vaccine could help protect endangered black-footed ferrets in the western U.S. because the ferrets rely on prairie dogs for ...

  6. Marked Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The chin of an anaesthetized prairie dog in Wind Cave National Park is marked before the animal is released back into the wild. Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvat...

  7. Anesthetizing a Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    National Park Service veterinarian Kevin Castle places a prairie dog under anesthesia in Wind Cave National Park. He will tag this trapped prairie dog and take hair, whisker, and blood samples before scientists release the animal back into the wild. Over 30 organizations and agencies are&...

  8. Sampling Prairie Dog Fur

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Fur samples are taken from an anaesthetized prairie dog in Wind Cave National Park.  Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvatic plague vaccine could help protect e...

  9. Trapped Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A prairie dog trapped outside its burrow in Wind Cave National Park waits for a crew of scientists to arrive. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This prairie dog will either be brought to a research van for blood ...

  10. Prairie Dog Tagging

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An anaesthetized prairie dog is tagged in Wind Cave National Park.  Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvatic plague vaccine could help protect endangered black-f...

  11. Drawing Prairie Dog Blood

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Blood is taken from an anaesthetized prairie dog in Wind Cave National Park.  Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvatic plague vaccine could help protect endanger...

  12. Tagged Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This wild prairie dog has been tagged by scientists in an effort to study the efficacy of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) to help immunize prairie dogs against plague. It was released after being tagged and after scientists took hair, whisker, and blood samples. I...

  13. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  14. Presumed Perinatal Stroke in a Child with Down Syndrome and Moyamoya Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pysden, Karen; Fallon, Penny; Moorthy, Bhagavatheswaran; Ganesan, Vijeya

    2010-01-01

    Moyamoya disease describes a cerebral arteriopathy characterized by stenosis or occlusion of the terminal internal carotid and/or the proximal middle cerebral arteries. We report a female child with trisomy 21 and bilateral moyamoya disease who presented, unusually, with a presumed perinatal cerebral infarct. The clinical, radiological, and…

  15. The presumed central nervous system effects of rocuronium in a neonate and its reversal with sugammadex.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ross J; McFadzean, Jillian; McCormack, Jon

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 2-day-old male infant who received rocuronium as part of general anesthesia for a tracheal esophageal fistula repair. Postoperatively, he had prolonged central and peripheral neuromuscular blockade despite cessation of the rocuronium infusion several hours previously. This case discusses the presumed central nervous system effects of rocuronium in a neonate and its effective reversal with sugammadex. PMID:26456087

  16. Presumed Perinatal Stroke in a Child with Down Syndrome and Moyamoya Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pysden, Karen; Fallon, Penny; Moorthy, Bhagavatheswaran; Ganesan, Vijeya

    2010-01-01

    Moyamoya disease describes a cerebral arteriopathy characterized by stenosis or occlusion of the terminal internal carotid and/or the proximal middle cerebral arteries. We report a female child with trisomy 21 and bilateral moyamoya disease who presented, unusually, with a presumed perinatal cerebral infarct. The clinical, radiological, and

  17. Vector-mediated delivery of 125I-labeled beta-amyloid peptide A beta 1-40 through the blood-brain barrier and binding to Alzheimer disease amyloid of the A beta 1-40/vector complex.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Y; Buciak, J; Yang, J; Pardridge, W M

    1995-01-01

    The brain amyloid of Alzheimer disease (AD) may potentially be imaged in patients with AD by using neuroimaging technology and a radiolabeled form of the 40-residue beta-amyloid peptide A beta 1-40 that is enabled to undergo transport through the brain capillary endothelial wall, which makes up the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. Transport of 125I-labeled A beta 1-40 (125I-A beta 1-40) through the BBB was found to be negligible by experiments with both an intravenous injection technique and an internal carotid artery perfusion method in anesthetized rats. In addition, 125I-A beta 1-40 was rapidly metabolized after either intravenous injection or internal carotid artery perfusion. BBB transport was increased and peripheral metabolism was decreased by conjugation of monobiotinylated 125I-A beta 1-40 to a vector-mediated drug delivery system, which consisted of a conjugate of streptavidin (SA) and the OX26 monoclonal antibody to the rat transferrin receptor, which undergoes receptor-mediated transcytosis through the BBB. The brain uptake, expressed as percent of injected dose delivered per gram of brain, of the 125I,bio-A beta 1-40/SA-OX26 conjugate was 0.15 +/- 0.01, a level that is 2-fold greater than the brain uptake of morphine. The binding of the 125I,bio-A beta 1-40/SA-OX26 conjugate to the amyloid of AD brain was demonstrated by both film and emulsion autoradiography performed on frozen sections of AD brain. Binding of the 125I,bio-A beta 1-40/SA-OX26 conjugate to the amyloid of AD brain was completely inhibited by high concentrations of unlabeled A beta 1-40. In conclusion, these studies show that BBB transport and access to amyloid within brain may be achieved by conjugation of A beta 1-40 to a vector-mediated BBB drug delivery system. Images Fig. 5 PMID:7479757

  18. BigDog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  19. Finite rate chemistry and presumed PDF models for premixed turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, K.N.C.; Swaminathan, N.; Champion, M.; Libby, P.A.

    2006-09-15

    The sensitivity of the prediction of mean reaction rates in turbulent premixed flames to presumed PDF shape is studied. Three different presumed PDF shapes are considered: (i) a beta function PDF, (ii) a twin delta function PDF, and (iii) a PDF based on unstrained laminar flame properties. The unstrained laminar flame has the same thermochemistry as the turbulent flame. Emphasis is placed on capturing the finite rate chemistry effects and obtaining a simple expression for the mean reaction rate. It is shown that, as the PDFs approach their bimodal limit, the mean reaction rate expressions obtained using the above three PDFs reduce to a common form. These expressions differ only in the numerical value of a multiplying factor. Predictions are compared with DNS data. Under the conditions of this comparison, the beta function and twin delta function PDFs lead to significant errors, while the PDF based on properties of an unstrained laminar flame gives good agreement with the DNS. (author)

  20. Psychologic aspects of patients with symptoms presumed to be caused by electricity or visual display units.

    PubMed

    Bergdahl, J

    1995-10-01

    Psychologic factors were studied in 10 patients with symptoms presumed to be caused by electricity (EG) and in 10 patients with symptoms presumed to be caused by visual display units (VG) and compared with a sex- and age-matched control group (CG). Psychologic differences between the EG and VG were also measured. The symptoms presumed to be caused by electricity or visual display units were registered, and the personality, psychologic functioning, and quality of life were determined by using the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), an additional Personality Scale (PS), a Psychological Functioning Scale (PFS), and a quality of Life Scale (QLS). The results showed that the commonest general symptoms in the EG/VG were skin complaints, fatigue, pain, and dizziness, and the commonest oral symptoms were gustatory disturbance, burning mouth, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. The patients in the EG described more different types of both general and oral symptoms than those in the VG. The result showed that the VG scored significantly higher only in the KSP Somatic Anxiety and Muscular Tension scales, and the EG scored significantly lower in the KSP Socialization scale and significantly higher in the Somatic Anxiety, Muscular Tension, and Psychasthenia scales. In addition, only the EG differed significantly on the PS, PFS, and QLS. The EG differed significantly in such psychologic aspects as being more fatigued in the PS, in having more difficulty in concentrating, in taking the initiative, and in getting on with people in the PFS and experiencing inactivity and visiting other people rarely in the QLS. The conclusion was that patients with symptoms presumed to be caused by electricity and visual display units differed from each other psychologically and, therefore, should be handled clinically in different ways. The need for an interdisciplinary approach to these patients is emphasized. PMID:8553807

  1. Presumed Pulmonary Embolism Following Power-Pulse Spray Thrombectomy of Upper Extremity Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jason; Georgiades, Christos S.; Hong, Kelvin; Kim, Hyun S.

    2006-08-15

    To achieve more effective thrombolysis in a shorter treatment time, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy has been increasingly used in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The power-pulse spray is a new technique to combine chemical and rheolytic effects on clots. We present a case of presumed pulmonary embolism following power-pulse spray treatment for upper extremity DVT which necessitated resuscitation and intubation. The power-pulse spray technique should be used with caution when treating DVT.

  2. Presumed Cases of Mumps in Pregnancy: Clinical and Infection Control Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lozo, Svjetlana; Ahmed, Ahmed; Chapnick, Edward; O'Keefe, Mary; Minkoff, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a mumps outbreak in New York and New Jersey was reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Subsequently, the dissemination of the disease was rapid, and, from June 28th 2009 through January 29th 2010, a total of 1,521 cases of mumps were reported in New York and New Jersey. Seven presumed cases occurred in pregnant women cared for at our institution. Mumps diagnosis as per the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene was based on clinical manifestations, particularly parotitis. Prior immunizations with mumps vaccine and negative IgM were not adequate to rule out mumps infections. All of our seven patients had exposure to mumps in either their household or their community, and some of the them had symptoms of mumps. Due to the difficulties in interpreting serologies of these patients, their cases led to a presumed diagnosis of mumps. The diagnosis of mumps lead to the isolation of patients and health care personnel that were in contact with them. In this paper, we detail the presenting findings, diagnostic dilemmas and infection control challenges associated with presumed cases of mumps in pregnancy. PMID:22505798

  3. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    PubMed

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsn, Borbla; Miklsi, Adm

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables, including the owner's gender, age, education, previous experience with dogs, the number of people and dogs in the household, and purpose of keeping the dogs had minor, but detectable effects. The results suggest that on-line questionnaires are a very effective means for collecting data about dog behavior, especially if owners are motivated by instant feedback. However, note that the characteristics of dogs in the present study were reported by the owners, and the associations with the traits do not necessarily represent a causal relationship. PMID:19520239

  4. Dog Bite Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    IF YOU are bitten • If your own dog bit you, confine it immediately and call your veterinarian to check your dog’s vaccination records. Consult with your veterinarian about your dog’s aggressive ...

  5. Jealousy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some "primordial" form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  6. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some primordial form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  7. Nutrition of aging dogs.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy

    2014-07-01

    Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. PMID:24951344

  8. The role of dogs in transmission of gastrointestinal parasites in a remote tea-growing community in northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Traub, Rebecca J; Robertson, Ian D; Irwin, Peter; Mencke, Norbert; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2002-11-01

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with canine gastrointestinal parasitic zoonoses and the role of dogs in the mechanical transmission of human Ascaris infection was examined in three tea estates in Assam, India. Nearly all (99%) dogs harbored one or more zoonotic species of gastrointestinal parasites, with hookworm infection being most common (94%). Parasitic stages presumed to be host-specific for humans such as Ascaris spp. (31%), Trichuris trichiura (25%), and Isospora belli (2%) were also recovered from dog feces. A polymerase chain reaction-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used to differentiate the species of Ascaris eggs in dog feces. The results of this study demonstrate the role of the dog as a significant disseminator and environmental contaminator of Ascaris lumbricoides in communities where promiscuous defecation by humans occurs. PMID:12479559

  9. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs were ever positive for microfilariae or antigen, and none had worms at necropsy; three control dogs were positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. These data indicate that doxycycline treatment of microfilaremic dogs gradually reduces numbers of microfilariae and blocks further transmission of heartworms. This latter effect should be highly effective in reducing the rate of selection of heartworms with genes that confer resistance to macrocyclic lactone preventives and microfilaricides. The data also suggest that doxycycline has a slow-kill effect on adult heartworms. PMID:25458121

  10. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  11. Successful Colchicine Therapy in a Patient With Follicular Bronchiolitis Presumed to Be Asthma.

    PubMed

    Goksel, Ozlem; Nart, Deniz; Ergonul, Ayse Gul; Sever, Fidan; Goksel, Tuncay

    2015-07-01

    Follicular bronchiolitis (FB) is a rare small-airway pathology that is associated mainly with connective tissue diseases. This case report presents a new, diagnosed, different airway disease in a non-smoker with rheumatoid arthritis in remission who was treated for presumed asthma, but was not controlled. She was ultimately diagnosed with FB after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The clinical findings of FB were controlled successfully by colchicine after she did not respond to systemic steroid therapy. This is the first case report of FB associated with rheumatoid arthritis that responded to colchicine. PMID:25587165

  12. A fatal case of severe methemoglobinemia presumably due to chlorate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, H; Yoshioka, N; Kuse, A; Nishiguchi, M; Tanaka, N; Jamal, M; Kumihashi, M; Nagasaki, Y; Ueno, Y; Ameno, K

    2011-07-01

    A fatal case due to severe methemoglobinemia is presented. A male in his forties was found unconscious in his house and, despite intensive care, death was confirmed approximately 11 hours later. Toxicological analysis using ion chromatography revealed the presence of chlorate in the stomach contents. However, chlorate was not detected in the blood, and no other drugs or ethanol were detected in the blood either. We concluded that the cause of death was presumably due to chlorate poisoning, based on the results of the autopsy and the toxicological examination. PMID:21887899

  13. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Disease Treating Cushing's Disease Your 9-year old dog has been drinking a lot more lately and ...

  14. 20 CFR 10.740 - In what situations will OWCP automatically presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by the FECA? 10.740 Section 10.740 Employees' Benefits...-Federal Law Enforcement Officers 10.740 In what situations will OWCP automatically presume that a law... authority to assist a Federal law enforcement authority in the protection of the President of the...

  15. 20 CFR 10.740 - In what situations will OWCP automatically presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by the FECA? 10.740 Section 10.740 Employees' Benefits...-Federal Law Enforcement Officers 10.740 In what situations will OWCP automatically presume that a law... authority to assist a Federal law enforcement authority in the protection of the President of the...

  16. [Dental anatomy of dogs].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, E G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate dog teeth anatomy as animal model for study of etiopathogenesis of caries disease and physiological tooth wear in human. After examining the dog's dental system, following conclusions were drawn: the dog has 42 permanent teeth, which are distributed over the dental arches not equally, and so the upper dentition consists of 20, and the lower of 22 teeth. The largest are considered upper fourth premolar and lower first molars, which are called discordant teeth. Between discordant teeth and fangs a dog has an open bite, which is limited to the top and bottom conical crown premolar teeth. Thus, in the closed position of the jaws, behind this occlusion is limited by discordant teeth, just in contact are smaller in size two molars. Only large dog's molars in a valid comparison can be likened to human molars, which allows us to use them in an analog comparison between them with further study of the morphological features ensure durability short-crown teeth and their predisposition to caries. PMID:25617107

  17. 76 FR 35162 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed... veterans in need of service dogs. Under current regulations, VA provides benefits to veterans with guide dogs, and this rulemaking would broaden and clarify those benefits. This rulemaking would...

  18. Black-Tailed Prairie Dog

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

  19. Inflammatory autoimmune neuropathy, presumably induced by bortezomib, in a patient suffering from multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Stefan; Goldschmidt, H; Storch-Hagenlocher, B; Pham, M; Fingerle-Rowson, G; Ho, A D; Neben, K

    2011-06-01

    Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor demonstrating substantial activity in multiple myeloma. One of its key toxicities is peripheral neuropathy, which is reversible in most patients. The possibility that bortezomib might in rare cases induce severe neuropathies by auto-inflammatory mechanisms remains controversial. We report here the case of a 65-year-old female myeloma patient who was initially treated with bortezomib, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (PAD). At the end of the second cycle of PAD, the patient presented with a rapid and severe onset of paresis of the left arm, accompanied by progressive sensory neuropathy and increasing neuropathic pain. After an extensive neurological work-up, including electrophysiological and laboratory evaluations as well as magnet resonance tomography imaging, we diagnosed an inflammatory autoimmune neuropathy, presumably induced by bortezomib, with accentuation of the left arm nerve plexus. We subsequently initiated regular treatment with polyvalent immunoglobulins, which gradually improved the neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the identification of an inflammatory autoimmune neuropathy, presumably associated with bortezomib, is a rare but important complication. An extensive neurological examination should be performed in patients who develop severe or unusual sensory or motor deficits under therapy with bortezomib, so as to differentiate autoimmune from toxic neuropathies, as therapeutic strategies differ for each. PMID:21553020

  20. [Research on cationic vector-mediated RNAi].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Ding, Huiqin; Wang, Bing; Cui, Shaohui; Zhao, Yinan; Jin, Wenshi; Zhang, Shubiao; Jin, Mei

    2012-08-01

    In order to study the efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfer mediated by cationic liposome, we used luciferase siRNA to evaluate the gene silencing activity in the Hep-2 cells, which were stably transduced with a luciferase gene. The pDNA transfection was studied, and siRNA arrearage assay was conducted to determine the capability of cationic liposome with siRNA. Different concentrations of siRNA was used to silence luciferase gene' activity, and then the result was examined by microplate reader. Cell viability was analyzed after transfection by MTT assay. The results suggested that Lipofectamine 2000 could transfer the pDNA efficiently, and have strong binding capacity with siRNA. The silencing efficiency of luciferase was obtained with low concentration of siRNA. The cell viability was influenced by RNA interference (RNAi) very slightly, but the cell survival rate decreased with the increase of siRNA concentrations. It was well concluded that by optimizing the experimental conditions, cationic liposome can transfer low concentration siRNA to silence target gene's activity efficiently. PMID:23016424

  1. Facial dog attack injuries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2015-02-01

    The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to successful management of such wounds are meticulous cleansing of the wound, careful debridement, primary repair, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and rabies and tetanus immunization where indicated. This review presents an overview of the epidemiology, presentation, management of such emergencies, and the recent advances in the care of such patients. PMID:25829713

  2. Echinococcus granulosus in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, M. A.

    1962-01-01

    Twenty-five dogs were used in a vaccination trial against infections of Echinococcus granulosus. Nine of these acted as controls and sixteen were vaccinated with freeze-dried preparations from either tapeworm tissue or scolices of E. granulosus. All were challenged with an aliquot of living scolices and examined at periods up to 49 days after challenge. The results indicate that 0.1 g. of either crude antigen complex did not prevent some worms developing from a subsequent challenge with about 50,000 scolices. However, the number of segments and lengths of the subterminal and terminal segments of E. granulosus were almost always less than those found in controls. A phase of rapid growth of the terminal and subterminal segments was observed in control dogs. This was absent in practically all worms in vaccinated dogs and appears to be essential for egg production. PMID:13947115

  3. The "Big Dog-Puppy Dog" Analogy for Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Todd P.

    1999-02-01

    The "big dog-puppy dog" analogy is a wry visual scheme that helps to explain the nature of resonance structures, delocalized p bonds, and fractional bond orders and formal charges. In this analogy, puppy dogs are restricted to a specific dog run; they represent s-bond electron pairs. Big dogs are allowed to roam freely over several consecutive dog runs; they represent delocalized p-bond electron pairs. By adding a bunny rabbit who is chased by the big dog, the analogy can be expanded to account for delocalized formal charge in a resonance hybrid. This analogy presents a vivid, humorous picture that helps to explain some of the key aspects of resonance.

  4. Directionality of dog vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Gebler, Alban

    2004-07-01

    The directionality patterns of sound emission in domestic dogs were measured in an anechoic environment using a microphone array. Mainly long-distance signals from four dogs were investigated. The radiation pattern of the signals differed clearly from an omnidirectional one with average differences in sound-pressure level between the frontal and rear position of 3-7 dB depending from the individual. Frequency dependence of directionality was shown for the range from 250 to 3200 Hz. The results indicate that when studying acoustic communication in mammals, more attention should be paid to the directionality pattern of sound emission.

  5. Service utilization patterns for presumed infertile women in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Ali; Vahidi, Serajeldin; Mohammad, Kazem; Russel, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the utilization pattern of infertility health and medical services can assist health system managers in providing better and more efficient care to affected population. This study aims to investigate the patterns in the utilization of infertility services in Iran.We performed a survey of 10 783 women in 28 provinces from 2004 to 2005. We used a systematic sampling method to draw a total of 400 clusters, the probability for selection being proportional to the size of the urban and rural population in each province. The categorization of the woman as "presumed infertile" was based on her own report of infertility at some time during her married life. We also studied the measures taken for the latest episode of presumed infertility. For each of these measures, we recorded the reason(s), the year in which it was taken, and the time interval separating it from contraceptive discontinuation. Data analysis, using the software package STATA 8.0, included descriptive statistics and computation of 95% confidence intervals (CI) as well as chi(2) and logistic regression procedures adapted to the complex sampling design.A total of 1592 women had presumed infertility at some period after their marriage (14.8%, CI0.95 = 13.8-15.7%), and 1291 subjects had taken measures to deal with the problem (81.1%, CI0.95 = 78.7-83.5%). These rates did not show any significant differences between urban and rural women (p > 0.05). In 70% of these cases, the first measure was a visit to a specialist physician and in 70% the woman had sought care in the private sector. Visits to specialists and private health care facilities had increased over the last three decades, with fewer visits to general practitioners (GPs) and midwives and less use of self-medication or traditional/local therapies. The most common motive for those who had not taken any treatment was their unwillingness to have their problem known and discussed by others (29.3%). The determinants of treatment-seeking behavior were current primary infertility (OR = 4.15, CI0.95 = 2.53-6.80), higher education (OR = 1.39, CI0.95 = 1.04-1.86) and living with husband (OR = 1.83, CI0.95 = 1.01-3.32).The current study is the first attempt to present a population-based pattern of service utilization by infertile women in Iran. It shows that for these patients, the first contact with the health system takes the form of a visit to a specialist physician, and is more likely to involve the private sector. PMID:20066667

  6. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  7. Presumed monozygotic twins develop following transfer of an in vitro-produced equine embryo

    PubMed Central

    ROBERTS, Melissa Ann; LONDON, Kelly; CAMPOS-CHILLN, Lino Fernando; ALTERMATT, Joy Lynn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An equine embryo produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was trans-cervically transferred to a recipient mare and pregnancy was confirmed via ultrasound examination on days 11, 12 and 15. On days 20 and 22, a single embryonic proper with a heartbeat was observed. On day 29, two embryos proper appeared during ultrasound examination, each possessing a heartbeat. Subsequent examinations on days 35 and 39 revealed continued viability and development of both embryos proper. On day 49, demise of both fetuses was present. Although no DNA analysis or post-partum examinations were performed, it is presumed that the fetuses were monozygotic twins based on membrane classification by ultrasound imaging as well as development occurring after the transfer of a single in vitro-produced embryo. PMID:26435682

  8. Presumed monozygotic twins develop following transfer of an in vitro-produced equine embryo.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Melissa Ann; London, Kelly; Campos-Chilln, Lino Fernando; Altermatt, Joy Lynn

    2015-01-01

    An equine embryo produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was trans-cervically transferred to a recipient mare and pregnancy was confirmed via ultrasound examination on days 11, 12 and 15. On days 20 and 22, a single embryonic proper with a heartbeat was observed. On day 29, two embryos proper appeared during ultrasound examination, each possessing a heartbeat. Subsequent examinations on days 35 and 39 revealed continued viability and development of both embryos proper. On day 49, demise of both fetuses was present. Although no DNA analysis or post-partum examinations were performed, it is presumed that the fetuses were monozygotic twins based on membrane classification by ultrasound imaging as well as development occurring after the transfer of a single in vitro-produced embryo. PMID:26435682

  9. Deferoxamine (Desferal)-induced toxic retinal pigmentary degeneration and presumed optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lakhanpal, V; Schocket, S S; Jiji, R

    1984-05-01

    Eight patients (16 eyes) developed ocular toxicity while undergoing intravenous deferoxamine mesylate (Desferal) chelation therapy for transfusional hemosiderosis. Presenting symptoms included decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and night blindness. Six patients presented as presumed retrobulbar optic neuropathy demonstrating central scotomas and color vision abnormalities. The remaining two patients presented with pigmentary changes confined either to the macula or equator. Following cessation of therapy, vision improved in all but four eyes, which did not attain their pretreatment visual acuity. Optic neuropathy resolved in all cases. However, follow-up revealed development of retinal pigmentary degeneration in seven patients, involving the macula in six and the equatorial retina in one. Fluorescein angiography and electrophysiological tests suggested toxicity at the level of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors. PMID:6739047

  10. Recurrent presumed herpes simplex keratitis and episcleritis in keratosis follicularis (Darier's disease).

    PubMed

    Radia, Meera; Gilhooley, Michael James; Panos, Chris; Claoué, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Keratosis follicularis (Darier's disease) is an autosomal dominant dermatological disorder characterised by abnormal epidermal differentiation and loss of normal cell-to-cell adhesion. Cardinal features include diffuse hyperkeratotic warty papules with scaly plaques in seborrhoeic regions with associated mucous membrane changes. Darier's disease is rare (prevalence 2.7 in 100,000), with few ocular sequelae reported: commonly dry eye with or without Sjögren's syndrome. This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, to describe a case of recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis and episcleritis in a 47-year-old man suffering from Darier's disease. The patient's condition predisposed him towards developing ocular complications due to several factors: impaired desmosome function leading to poor cell-to-cell adhesion in the corneal epithelium, dry eye and HSV invasion of inflamed periocular skin presumably combining to allow viral colonisation of a poorly protected cornea. PMID:26184361

  11. Identification of presumed ancestral DNA sequences of phaseolin in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Kami, J; Velsquez, V B; Debouck, D G; Gepts, P

    1995-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) consists of two major geographic gene pools, one distributed in Mexico, Central America, and Colombia and the other in the southern Andes (southern Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina). Amplification and sequencing of members of the multigene family coding for phaseolin, the major seed storage protein of the common bean, provide evidence for accumulation of tandem direct repeats in both introns and exons during evolution of the multigene family in this species. The presumed ancestral phaseolin sequences, without tandem repeats, were found in recently discovered but nearly extinct wild common bean populations of Ecuador and northern Peru that are intermediate between the two major gene pools of the species based on geographical and molecular arguments. Our results illustrate the usefulness of tandem direct repeats in establishing the polarity of DNA sequence divergence and therefore in proposing phylogenies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7862642

  12. Identifying monogenic diabetes in a pediatric cohort with presumed type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gandica, Rachelle G.; Chung, Wendy K.; Deng, Liyong; Goland, Robin; Gallagher, Mary Pat

    2016-01-01

    Objective Monogenic diabetes (MD) is rare and can often be confused with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a pediatric cohort. We sought to determine clinical criteria that could optimally identify candidates for genetic testing of two common forms of MD that alter therapy: glucokinase (GCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1α). Research design and methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 939 patients with a presumed diagnosis of T1D, 6 months–20 yr of age, and identified four clinical criteria that were unusual for T1D and could warrant further evaluation for MD: (i) negative pancreatic autoantibodies, (ii) evidence of prolonged endogenous insulin production, or (iii) strong family history of diabetes in multiple generations. One hundred and twenty-one patients were identified as having one or more of these high-risk clinical criteria and were offered screening for mutations in GCK and HNF1α; 58 consented for genetic testing. Results Of 58 patients with presumed T1D who underwent genetic testing, four were found to have GCK and one had HNF1α. No patients with only one high-risk feature were found to have MD. Of 10 patients who had two or more high risk criteria, five had MD (50%). Conclusion A high frequency of MD from mutations in GCK/HNF1α may be identified among pediatric diabetic patients originally considered to have T1D by performing genetic testing on those patients with multiple clinical risk factors for MD. PMID:25082184

  13. MULTIDETECTOR-ROW COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PRESUMED PREURETERAL VENA CAVA IN CATS.

    PubMed

    Pey, Pascaline; Marcon, Oriana; Drigo, Michele; Specchi, Swan; Bertolini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Preureteral vena cava (circumcaval ureter, retrocaval ureter) occurs in a third of the feline population and has been associated with ureteral strictures in humans. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to describe the contrast-enhanced multidetector row computed tomographic (MDCT) characteristics of presumed preureteral vena cava in a group of cats. Medical records from two institutions located in different continents were searched from 2010-2013 for cases with complete contrast-enhanced MDCT examinations of the abdomen (i.e. included the entire course of the ureters and prerenal and renal segments of the caudal vena cava) and a diagnosis of preureteral caudal vena cava. For cases meeting inclusion criteria, CT scan data were retrieved and characteristics of the preureteral caudal vena cava were recorded. Presence of concomitant renal or ureteral diseases was also recorded. A total of 272 cats had contrast-enhanced abdominal CT scans during the study period and of these, 68 cats (22.43 ± 4.96%) had a diagnosis of presumed preureteral vena cava. In all affected cats, a "reverse-J ureter" was observed, i.e. a ureter running medially at the level of L4-5, passing dorsally to the caudal vena cava and then exiting ventrally between the caudal vena cava and aorta returning to its normal position. Having a preureteral vena cava resulted in an increased risk for concurrent urinary signs (OR = 3.00; CI: 95%; 1.28-6.99; P = 0.01). Findings supported the use of contrast-enhanced MDCT for characterizing morphology of preureteral vena cava and its relation with ureters in cats. PMID:25786990

  14. Nitric oxide activates leak K+ currents in the presumed cholinergic neuron of basal forebrain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youngnam; Dempo, Yoshie; Ohashi, Atsuko; Saito, Mitsuru; Toyoda, Hiroki; Sato, Hajime; Koshino, Hisashi; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2007-12-01

    Learning and memory are critically dependent on basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neuron excitability, which is modulated profoundly by leak K(+) channels. Many neuromodulators closing leak K(+) channels have been reported, whereas their endogenous opener remained unknown. We here demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) can be the endogenous opener of leak K(+) channels in the presumed BFC neurons. Bath application of 1 mM S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, induced a long-lasting hyperpolarization, which was often interrupted by a transient depolarization. Soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitors prevented SNAP from inducing hyperpolarization but allowed SNAP to cause depolarization, whereas bath application of 0.2 mM 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclomonophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) induced a similar long-lasting hyperpolarization alone. These observations indicate that the SNAP-induced hyperpolarization and depolarization are mediated by the cGMP-dependent and -independent processes, respectively. When examined with the ramp command pulse applied at -70 mV under the voltage-clamp condition, 8-Br-cGMP application induced the outward current that reversed at K(+) equilibrium potential (E(K)) and displayed Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz rectification, indicating the involvement of voltage-independent K(+) current. By contrast, SNAP application in the presumed BFC neurons either dialyzed with the GTP-free internal solution or in the presence of 10 muM Rp-8-bromo-beta-phenyl-1,N(2)-ethenoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate sodium salt, a protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor, induced the inward current that reversed at potentials much more negative than E(K) and close to the reversal potential of Na(+)-K(+) pump current. These observations strongly suggest that NO activates leak K(+) channels through cGMP-PKG-dependent pathway to markedly decrease the excitability in BFC neurons, while NO simultaneously causes depolarization by the inhibition of Na(+)-K(+) pump through ATP depletion. PMID:17928563

  15. Extracts from presumed "reduced harm" cigarettes induce equivalent or greater toxicity in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Wang, Lei; Hirano, Yoshimi; Walters, Paula; Grill, Diane

    2015-09-01

    The tobacco industry has promoted certain cigarette products with claims that their use may be less harmful to the smoker as they purportedly deliver lower amounts of toxic chemicals compared to conventional cigarettes. This study was designed to compare the relative antigen presenting cellular toxicity of Eclipse, a presumed reduced exposure product (PREP) cigarette, when compared with the reference research 3R4F cigarettes (Kentucky University). Utilizing a murine macrophage cell line, murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DCs) and human monocyte-derived DCs incubated with extracts generated from Eclipse and Kentucky reference 3R4F cigarettes, we determined the relative toxic effects of the different cigarette smoke extracts on cellular viability, oxidative stress, T-helper-1 (Th-1) polarizing cytokine production and general gene expression. Eclipse and 3R4F cigarette smoke extracts induced equivalent oxidatively-mediated cellular heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein levels in macrophages and DCs. Cellular viability determination demonstrated greater induction of cell death by apoptosis and necrosis by Eclipse extracts in DCs. The production of the key Th-1 polarizing cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) by activated DCs or macrophages was suppressed to an equivalent or greater extent by Eclipse extracts. Microarray studies performed on bone marrow derived murine DCs incubated with Eclispe or 3R4F cigarette extracts showed identical genotoxic profiles. These studies imply that presumed reduced harm Eclipse cigarettes induce equivalent or greater antigen presenting cell dysfunction relative to 3R4F cigarettes and illustrate the importance of independent validation and testing of similar products claimed to be associated with reduced toxicity relative to other cigarettes. PMID:26169828

  16. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  17. Neosporosis in dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  18. Protothecosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Vince, Andrew R.; Pinard, Chantale; Ogilvie, Adam T.; Tan, Emmeline O.; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C.G.

    2014-01-01

    A case of a disseminated algal infection is reported in a young rough-coated collie dog with progressive neurologic deficits, blindness, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Prototheca zopfii organisms were cultured from feces, urine, and blood. At necropsy, granulomas containing typical organisms were identified within the proximal colon, heart, kidneys, and eyes. PMID:25320382

  19. Forced organ donation: the presumed consent to organ donation laws of the various states and the United States Constitution.

    PubMed

    Powhida, A

    1999-01-01

    The issues presented in this Comment pertain to whether there are substantive limits imposed by the Fourteenth Amendment upon the state legislatures which would defeat the recent, tentative steps of many states to pass laws authorizing presumed consent to organ donation. The final and perhaps least effective presumed consent law creates a presumption of consent to organ donation. The potential organ donor makes the choice whether to donate or not during his lifetime. This form of the presumed consent law would probably have the least impact on increasing the number of available donor organs. It permitted the coroner to harvest the eyes and corneas of deceased individuals if the coroner was unaware of objections from either the decedent or the family of the decedent. Presumed consent statutes should be found unconstitutional because they infringe upon a family's property interest in a deceased relative's corpse. However, due to the family's property interest in a relative's deceased body, as set forth in the next section, the result is that presumed consent statutes are unconstitutional. In order to find the presumed consent law unconstitutional, the Court would have to find that either: (a) the Fourteenth Amendment's liberty component included the family's right to determine what happens to a relative's body after death, or (b) that the property component included a vested state law property interest in the dead body. PMID:16506330

  20. Screening of the arrestin gene in dogs afflicted with generalized progressive retinal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Dekomien, Gabriele; Epplen, Jrg Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Background Intronic DNA sequences of the canine arrestin (SAG) gene was screened to identify potential disease causing mutations in dogs with generalized progressive retinal atrophy (gPRA). The intronic sequences flanking each of the 16 exons were obtained from clones of a canine genomic library. Results Using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequence analyses we screened affected and unaffected dogs of 23 breeds with presumed autosomal recessively (ar) transmitted gPRA. In the coding region of the SAG gene 12 nucleotide exchanges were identified, 5 of which lead to amino acid substitutions (H14C; A111V; A113T; D259T; A379E). 7 other exonic substitutions represent silent polymorphisms (C132C; Q199Q; H225H; V247V; P264P; T288T and L293L). 16 additional sequence variations were observed in intronic regions of different dog breeds. Conclusions In several breeds, these polymorphisms were found in homozygous state in unaffected and in heterozygous state in affected animals. Consequently these informative substitutions provide evidence to exclude mutations in the SAG gene as causing retinal degeneration in 14 of the 23 dog breeds with presumed ar transmitted gPRA. PMID:12123530

  1. Presumable incipient hybrid speciation of door snails in previously glaciated areas in the Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Koch, Eva L; Neiber, Marco T; Walther, Frank; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Homoploid hybrid speciation, speciation by hybridization without a change in chromosome number, may be the result of an encounter of closely related species in a habitat that is different from that usually occupied by these species. In the northwestern Caucasus the land snail species Micropontica caucasica and M. circassica form two distinct entities with little admixture at low and intermediate altitudes. However, at higher altitudes in the Lagonaki plateau, which were repeatedly glaciated, Micropontica populations with intermediate characters occur. Admixture analyses based on AFLP data demonstrated that the populations from the Lagonaki plateau are homoploid hybrids that now form a cluster separate from the parental species. The Lagonaki populations are characterized by a mtDNA haplotype clade that has been found in the parental species only once. The fixation of this haplotype clade in most hybrid populations suggests that these haplotypes are better adapted to the cooler conditions in high altitude habitats and have replaced the haplotypes of the parental species in a selective sweep. The fixation of a presumably adaptive mitochondrial haplotype clade in the Lagonaki populations is an important step towards speciation under the differential fitness species concept. PMID:26748267

  2. Effects of a synbiotic on fecal quality, short-chain fatty acid concentrations, and the microbiome of healthy sled dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sled dogs commonly suffer from diarrhea. Although multiple etiologies exist there are limited field studies using synbiotics as a supplement to prevent or treat diarrhea. The objective of this study was to examine alterations in fecal quality, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and the fecal microbiome in two groups of training sled dogs fed a synbiotic or microcrystalline cellulose placebo. Twenty clinically healthy training sled dogs randomized into two cohorts (9 synbiotic-fed, 8 placebo-fed) for a 6 week prospective study were examined. Fecal pH and fecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were measured and tag-encoded FLX 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) and quantitative real-time PCR were performed at baseline (10 d prior to the study) and after 2 weeks of treatment with a total treatment time of 6 weeks. Fecal scores for all dogs were assessed at baseline and every day for 6 wk after initiation of treatment. Results Alterations in the fecal microbiome were observed with a significant rise in Lactobacillaceae in the synbiotic group (P = 0.004) after 2 wk of treatment. A positive correlation was found between Lactobacillaceae and overall butyrate concentration (R = 0.62, p = 0.011) in all dogs. After 5 wk of treatment, there was an improved fecal score and fewer days of diarrhea (Χ2 = 5.482, P = 0.019) in the dogs given synbiotic, which coincided with a presumed contagious outbreak shared by all dogs in the study. Conclusions Use of this synbiotic results in an increase in presumed beneficial bacterial flora of the host colon which was associated with a decrease in the prevalence of diarrhea in training sled dogs. PMID:24313995

  3. An Extrarenal Role for Parathyroid Hormone in the Disposal of Acute Acid Loads in Rats and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Donald S.; Adler, Sheldon

    1979-01-01

    Acid infusion studies were performed in nephrectomized rats and dogs with either intact parathyroid glands (intact) or after thyroparathyroidectomy (thyroparathyroidectomized [TPTX]) to determine the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in extrarenal disposal and buffering of acutely administered acid. 29 intact rats given 5 mM/kg HCl and 6 intact dogs given 7 mM/kg HCl developed severe metabolic acidosis but all survived. However, each of 12 TPTX rats and 4 TPTX dogs given the same acid loads died. Intact rats and dogs buffered 39 and 50% of administered acid extracellularly, respectively, whereas extracellular buffering of administered acid was 97 and 78% in TPTX rats and dogs, respectively. 17 TPTX rats and 6 TPTX dogs given synthetic PTH 2 h before acid infusion survived. The blood bicarbonate and extracellular buffering in these animals, measured 2 h after acid infusion, was similar to intact animals. Changes in liver, heart, and skeletal muscle pH determined from [14C]5,5-dimethyl-2,4 oxazolidinedione distribution seemed insufficient to account for the increased cell buffering of PTH-replaced animals. Indeed, muscle pH in TPTX dogs given PTH and acid was only 0.06 pH units lower than in control dogs given no acid, suggesting that another tissue, presumably bone, was the target for PTH-mediated increased cell buffering. This conclusion was supported by the observation that PTH did not alter the pH of intact rat diaphragms in vitro. These results indicate that PTH is necessary for the optimal buffering of large, acute acid loads presumably by increasing bone buffering. PMID:36406

  4. Dogs steal in the dark.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Juliane; Pitsch, Andrea; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-05-01

    All current evidence of visual perspective taking in dogs can possibly be explained by dogs reacting to certain stimuli rather than understanding what others see. In the current study, we set up a situation in which contextual information and social cues are in conflict. A human always forbade the dog from taking a piece of food. The part of the room being illuminated was then varied, for example, either the area where the human was seated or the area where the food was located was lit. Results show that dogs steal significantly more food when it is dark compared to when it is light. While stealing forbidden food the dog's behaviour also depends on the type of illumination in the room. Illumination around the food, but not the human, affected the dogs' behaviour. This indicates that dogs do not take the sight of the human as a signal to avoid the food. It also cannot be explained by a low-level associative rule of avoiding illuminated food which dogs actually approach faster when they are in private. The current finding therefore raises the possibility that dogs take into account the human's visual access to the food while making their decision to steal it. PMID:23179109

  5. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2012-08-11

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  6. Lycoperdonosis in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Alenghat, Theresa; Pillitteri, Cara A; Bemis, David A; Kellett-Gregory, Lindsay; Jackson, Karen V; Kania, Stephen A; Donnell, Robert L; Van Winkle, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Lycoperdonosis is a rare respiratory disease that results from the inhalation of spores released from the Lycoperdon (puffball) mushroom. In the present study, 2 cases of confirmed canine lycoperdonosis are described. The first case presented to the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, and the second case was submitted for postmortem examination to the University of Tennessee Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Both dogs presented in respiratory distress, and owners reported that the dogs had been playing or digging in areas with puffball mushrooms prior to the onset of clinical signs. In the initial case, thoracic radiographs revealed a diffuse interstitial and multifocal alveolar pulmonary pattern. Despite aggressive medical treatment and mechanical ventilation, the dog continued to worsen and was euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed firm lung lobes and enlarged tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Histologically, there was a severe diffuse histiocytic and pyogranulomatous bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Throughout the lung and lymph nodes, most commonly within macrophages, were round, 3-5 µm in diameter, Gomori methenamine silver-positive structures, consistent with Lycoperdon spores. An approximately 750-base pair DNA fragment was amplified from lung of both cases by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific to yeast ribosomal DNA, and the sequence of the fragment was determined to be most closely related to Lycoperdon pyriforme. Importantly, reexamination of an endotracheal wash from the initial case revealed intrahistiocytic spores, suggesting that airway sampling may assist in diagnosing lycoperdonosis. PMID:21088194

  7. Infarcts in the anterior choroidal artery territory. Anatomical distribution, clinical syndromes, presumed pathogenesis and early outcome.

    PubMed

    Hupperts, R M; Lodder, J; Heuts-van Raak, E P; Kessels, F

    1994-08-01

    From a prospective registry of all consecutive patients with a supratentorial ischaemic stroke, those with a compatible CT lesion were selected to study topographical relationship, clinical syndrome, vascular risk factors, signs of large-vessel disease or cardiogenic embolism, and mortality in cases with an infarct in the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) territory in comparison with other infarct subtypes. First we identified the area supplied by the AChA: in accordance with the consensus in the literature the posterior two-thirds of the posterior leg of the internal capsule was considered as certain AChA territory. After reviewing CT scans, all presumed small deep AChA territory infarcts were displayed in a schematic composite picture of super-imposed areas of infarction in different shades of grey. Infarcts that were located largely outside the generally included territory were presumed to belong to a different vascular territory. Thus, 77 small deep infarcts were considered to be located within, and 83 outside the AChA territory. Twenty-nine AChA infarcts extended from the internal capsule upwards into the posterior paraventricular corona radiata region. Furthermore, the composite representation of 26 infarcts restricted to the posterior part of the paraventricular corona radiata region showed almost complete overlap with the area occupied by AChA infarcts that extended upwards. We therefore concluded that the posterior paraventricular area is most likely supplied by the AChA. The frequency of a clinical lacunar or a cortical syndrome did not differ between small deep AChA and remaining small deep infarcts. Comparison of vascular risk factors by way of multivariate regression analysis only showed that a significant carotid stenosis was more frequent (adjusted odds ratio 8.87; 95% confidence interval 1.44-54.50), and a cardioembolic source was less frequent (odds ratio 0.24; 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.92) in AChA infarcts than in the other small deep infarcts. Carotid stenosis and cardiac embolism were less frequent in AChA infarcts than in superficial infarcts (odds ratio 0.33, 0.23, respectively; 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.74, 0.09-0.52, respectively). One month and one year mortality were lower in small deep infarcts compared with superficial infarcts, but most favourable in the AChA group. However, this was probably related to younger age in the AChA patients. Larger AChA infarcts were infrequent in our series; six of such cases did not differ in any respect from superficial infarcts. We conclude that the posterior paraventricular corona radiata region is most likely supplied by the AChA, and that AChA infarcts do not constitute a separate brain infarct entity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7922468

  8. Age-Stratified Risk of Unexpected Uterine Sarcoma Following Surgery for Presumed Benign Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Andikyan, Vaagn; Obi?an, Sarah G.; Cioffi, Angela; Hao, Ke; Dudley, Joel T.; Ascher-Walsh, Charles; Kasarskis, Andrew; Maki, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Estimates of unexpected uterine sarcoma following surgery for presumed benign leiomyoma that use age-stratification are lacking. Patients and Methods. A retrospective cohort of 2,075 patients that had undergone myomectomy was evaluated to determine the case incidence of unexpected uterine sarcoma. An aggregate risk estimate was generated using a meta-analysis of similar studies plus our data. Database-derived age distributions of the incidence rates of uterine sarcoma and uterine leiomyoma surgery were used to stratify risk by age. Results. Of 2,075 patients in our retrospective cohort, 6 were diagnosed with uterine sarcoma. Our meta-analysis revealed 8 studies from 1980 to 2014. Combined with our study, 18 cases of leiomyosarcoma are reported in 10,120 patients, for an aggregate risk of 1.78 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12.8) or 1 in 562. Eight cases of other uterine sarcomas were reported in 6,889 patients, for an aggregate risk of 1.16 per 1,000 (95% CI: 0.54.9) or 1 in 861. The summation of these risks gives an overall risk of uterine sarcoma of 2.94 per 1,000 (95% CI: 1.84.1) or 1 in 340. After stratification by age, we predict the risk of uterine sarcoma to range from a peak of 10.1 cases per 1,000, or 1 in 98, for patients aged 7579 years to <1 case per 500 for patients aged <30 years. Conclusion. The risk of unexpected uterine sarcoma varies significantly across age groups. Our age-stratified predictive model should be incorporated to more accurately counsel patients and to assist in providing guidelines for the surgical technique for leiomyoma. PMID:25765878

  9. [Childhood vaccinations anno 2004. II. The real and presumed side effects of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Rmke, H C; Visser, H K

    2004-02-21

    Vaccinations protect to a high degree against infectious diseases, but may cause side effects. In the Netherlands since 1962 the adverse events following immunizations are registered and analysed by the National Institute of Health and Environment (RIVM). Since 1983 a permanent Committee of the Dutch Health Council reviews adverse events reported to the RIVM. With the so-called killed vaccines the side effects are mainly local (redness, swelling, pain) or general (fever, listlessness, irritability, sleep and eating problems). They are seen mainly after DPT-IPV vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and poliomyelitis. Some side effects occur rarely (collapse reactions, discoloured legs, persistent screaming and convulsions) and very rarely serious neurological events are reported. After MMR vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella, cases of arthritis, thrombocytopenia and ataxia are reported sporadically. Usually, they have a spontaneous recovery. During recent years a scala of diseases or symptoms have been associated with vaccination (presumed side effects). Careful and extensive investigations have shown that such hypotheses could not be supported. Examples are allergic diseases as asthma, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis (after hepatitis B vaccination), autism and inflammatory bowel disease (after MMR vaccination) and sudden infant death syndrome. The total number of cases where at least a possible relation between side effects and vaccination is observed--apart from local reactions and moderate general symptoms--is very rare (about 0.25 per 1000 vaccinations) and does not balance the benefits from vaccination. There appears increasing doubt about the use and safety of vaccinations. More research is needed about the motives of people to choose for and against vaccination. The education about vaccination for parents and professionals who are involved with vaccination has to be improved. Internet can play an important role. PMID:15032089

  10. Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

  11. Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that

  12. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dogs care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners attachments to their dogs. PMID:25685855

  13. Prairie Dog Released from Trap

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A prairie dog returns to its burrow in Wind Cave National Park after scientists free it from a trap. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This prairie dog was previously tagged, and its blood, hair, and whisker samp...

  14. Pancreatic torsion in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Brabson, Tamera L.; Maki, Lynn C.; Newell, Susan M.; Ralphs, S. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A 6-month-old male intact Cane Corso mastiff dog was presented for a recent history of vomiting, abdominal pain, and lethargy. A diagnosis of pancreatic torsion was made during abdominal exploratory surgery and was confirmed with histopathology. The dog underwent partial pancreatectomy and recovered with no complications. PMID:25969579

  15. [Medical management of presumed sexual assault victims in Dakar, Senegal. Report of 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Diouf, A; Gaye, A; Sangare, M; Ba Gueye, M; Diadhiou, F

    1995-04-01

    Between January 1989 and June 1992, interviews with and a medical examination of 25 rape victims (mean age, 12 years; range, 7-21 years) were conducted at the University Hospital in Dakar, Senegal. Females aged less than 18 represented 84% of cases, 25% of whom were less than 10 years old. None were married. Sexual abuse occurred during ovulation among 5 of the 11 victims who had reached menses, thus placing them at risk of pregnancy. Places where the rapes occurred were the dwelling of either the offender or the victim (56%), especially that of the victim (9/14 cases), or a public place (44%). The victim knew the presumed offender in 80% of cases. Known offenders included fathers, priests, employers, ex-boyfriends, and men living in the vicinity. In five cases the female was gang-raped. 18 victims waited 72 hours before seeking care; 2 females waited 3 weeks. The long delays compromised cytologic exams and findings. None of the victims had ever had a child. One case had nine weeks of amenorrhea and tested positive for pregnancy. The only extragenital lesion was a bruise on the thigh. Genital lesions included bruises or lacerations of the large and small labia, lacerated hymen (sometimes ruptured hymen), fossa triangularis, and vaginal lacerations. There was no evidence of anal penetration. 3 of 15 samples tested positive for pathogens (1 for Escherichia coli; 2 for Candida albicans). Sperm was found in only 1 case. In 7 cases, penetration had not occurred, probably due to immature genitals. It was not clear whether penetration had occurred or not in 3 other cases. Penetration clearly occurred in 15 cases. Physicians and allied health personnel should be sensitive and prepared to perform a complete physical exam so as to defend the interests of the victim and of society by obtaining proof to convict the sexual offender. Senegalese jurisprudence does not consider the distress of rape victims with an unwanted pregnancy. Legislation should include rape as a reason for legal abortion. PMID:12289998

  16. Retrobulbar chondrosarcoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Rali?, M.; Vasi?, J.; Jovanovi?, M.; Cameron, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of a dog, with a retrobulbar chondrosarcoma, which was admitted for surgery for visible changes in his eye during inspection. Orbital neoplasia in dogs may be primary and secondary. Sixty percent of orbital neoplasia in dogs are primary, ninety percent of which are malignant. Retrobulbar neoplasms are rare and in their early stage represent a diagnostic challenge. Chondrosarcoma of the skull is a slow-progressing malignant disease which occurs locally, aggressive with invasion into the surrounding tissues. Dogs with chondrosarcoma of the skull have life expectancy between 210 and 580 days - in our case it was 180 days - after the first alterations on the eye of the dog occurred. PMID:26623338

  17. When You Meet a Dog Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Pauline

    1994-01-01

    Tips are offered for use in an encounter with a dog guide and its blind owner. Tips include approaching the person from the right side, not taking hold of the dog guide's harness, not offering food to the dog guide, and not petting the dog guide without the owner's permission. (JDD)

  18. Rotary slot dog

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA); Smauley, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A clamp or dog is disclosed which preferably comprises a slotted stepped cylindrical body which is inserted into a hole in a workpiece and then fastened to a base or fixture using a screw which is inserted through the slot. The stepped configuration provides an annular clamping surface which securely clamps the workpiece against the base or fixture. The slotted cylindrical configuration permits adjustment of the workpiece and retaining clamp in any direction, i.e., over 360.degree., relative to the mounting position of the screw in the base or fixture.

  19. Operation Wild Dog.

    PubMed

    Poole, P

    'Operation Wild Dog' was the title given to an incredible escapade by two Army Dental Corps soldiers who decided to mount their own two-man raid on occupied France in 1942. In an attempt to forestall claims of desertion, they involved Prime Minister Winston Churchill and, when they ultimately faced a court martial, were lauded in the press for their daredevil exploits. Inspired by raids carried out by Special Services units on Norway, Italy and France, Sergeant Peter King, a regular soldier and dental clerk orderly, and Private Thomas Leslie Cuthbertson, a trainee dental mechanic, set about their unofficial raid, outlined below. PMID:1467013

  20. Keratitis in six dogs after topical treatment with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Beckwith-Cohen, Billie; Bentley, Ellison; Gasper, David J; McLellan, Gillian J; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2015-12-15

    Case Description-6 dogs (10 eyes) with keratitis following long-term topical treatment with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) were evaluated. In 4 dogs (6 eyes), CAI treatment was discontinued. Three dogs (4 eyes) underwent enucleation because of end-stage corneal disease. One dog was treated differently in each eye and thus was represented in both aforementioned groups. Clinical Findings-Following initiation of treatment with a CAI (ie, brinzolamide or dorzolamide), the median time to development of severe ocular signs was 266 days (range, 133 to 679 days). Clinically severe ocular signs included ulcerative and nonulcerative perilimbal keratitis or severe diffuse keratitis with marked vascularization. The keratitis was refractory to treatment with anti-inflammatory medications. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of enucleated globes was performed in 3 affected dogs and in 1 dog with keratitis that recovered. Corneal lesions included 2 distinct inflammatory infiltrates with plasma cells predominating in the anterior stroma and both T cells and neutrophils in the epithelium. Stromal plasma cells and overlying epithelium exhibited strong positive immunoreactivity for IgG. Treatment and Outcome-Topical CAI treatment was discontinued in 4 dogs after a median of 209 days (range, 44 to 433 days), and in these dogs, clinical improvement was evident within 2 to 4 days of CAI treatment cessation. Signs of keratitis resolved in 12 to 25 days in these 4 dogs, and median follow-up time after CAI discontinuation was 25.5 months (range, 6 to 42 months), during which time signs of corneal disease did not recur. Clinical Relevance-On the basis of this small series, presumed topical CAI-associated keratitis in dogs appeared to be an uncommon immune-mediated disease that was not responsive to corticosteroid treatment. Affected patients improved rapidly, but only after discontinuation of CAI treatment. In dogs with glaucoma, clinicians should consider the development of punctate keratopathy and severe diffuse keratitis as potential adverse effects related to topical administration of CAIs, even after previously uneventful long-term use. PMID:26642138

  1. 41 CFR 301-72.1 - Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation? 301-72.1 Section 301-72.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 72-AGENCY...

  2. Presumed Competence Reflected in the Educational Programs of Students with IDD before and after the Beyond Access Professional Development Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; McSheehan, Michael; Sonnenmeier, Rae M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Judgements about students' competence influence the goals of their individualised education programs (IEPs), the location of service delivery, and their placement in general education (GE) as opposed to special education (SE) classes. The purpose of this study was to describe how presumed competence to learn the GE curriculum was

  3. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication. PMID:19666600

  4. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication. PMID:19666600

  5. Potential for cloning dogs.

    PubMed

    Westhusin, M E; Burghardt, R C; Ruglia, J N; Willingham, L A; Liu, L; Shin, T; Howe, L M; Kraemer, D C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether nuclear transplantation could be used to clone a dog using donor nucleus cells collected from an adult female. Fibroblasts obtained from skin biopsies were fused with enucleated bovine or canine oocytes. The resulting cloned embryos were cultured in vitro to monitor embryonic development. A proportion of the resulting embryos was transferred into surrogate bitches for development to term. When canine oocytes were used as recipient ova for canine fibroblasts, 23% of the resulting embryos cleaved at least once after culture in vitro. Five cloned embryos were transferred into three synchronized recipient bitches, but no pregnancies resulted. When bovine oocytes were used as recipinets for canine fibroblasts, 38% cleaved to the two- to four-cell stage and 43% cleaved to the eight- to 16-cell stage. Forty-seven of these embryos were transferred into four recipient females, resulting in a single conceptus that ceased development at about day 20 of gestation. The desire for cloned dogs is considerable and will undoubtedly incite the development of successful methods for cloning companion animals. However, significant investment into additional research is required, especially in the areas of in vitro maturation of oocytes and control of the oestrous cycle of bitches. PMID:11787163

  6. A PCR study of piroplasms in 166 dogs and 111 horses in France (March 2006 to March 2008).

    PubMed

    Fritz, Denis

    2010-05-01

    Positive PCR results for piroplasms were obtained on EDTA blood samples from 166 dogs and 111 horses between March 2006 and March 2008. The organisms were initially identified using common primers, followed by restriction enzyme profiles to determine the species and types of Babesia/Theileria. In 27 dogs and eight horses with positive results, the size of the specimen was insufficient to separate species/types. We identified Babesia canis canis in 105 of the 166 dogs (63%) and Theileria equi in 89 of the 111 horses (80%). Babesia caballi was also present, but rare, in only two Babesia/Theileria of the 111 horses (1.2%). Unexpected findings were the identification of T. equi in 31 of the 166 dogs (19%), of B. caballi in one of the 166 dogs (0.6%), of B. canis canis in 11 of 111 horses (10%), as well as of Babesia canis rossi in one of 111 horses (0.9%). A positive result for B. canis rossi was also obtained in one of the 166 dogs (0.6%). A single case of the California type of "Babesia gibsoni" (presumably Babesia conradae) was found in a dog. We did not detect Babesia canis vogeli, possibly because of the geographic distribution of our clients. The unusual results were confirmed by DNA sequencing in several cases for B. canis canis and B. canis rossi in horses, as well as T. equi in dogs. Such infections might explain the difficulties met in some unsuccessfully treated animals using the standard dosage of imidocarb dipropionate at 3 mg/kg in dogs. PMID:20221639

  7. Evolutionary genomics of dog domestication.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett M

    2012-02-01

    We review the underlying principles and tools used in genomic studies of domestic dogs aimed at understanding the genetic changes that have occurred during domestication. We show that there are two principle modes of evolution within dogs. One primary mode that accounts for much of the remarkable diversity of dog breeds is the fixation of discrete mutations of large effect in individual lineages that are then crossed to various breed groupings. This transfer of mutations across the dog evolutionary tree leads to the appearance of high phenotypic diversity that in actuality reflects a small number of major genes. A second mechanism causing diversification involves the selective breeding of dogs within distinct phenotypic or functional groups, which enhances specific group attributes such as heading or tracking. Such progressive selection leads to a distinct genetic structure in evolutionary trees such that functional and phenotypic groups cluster genetically. We trace the origin of the nuclear genome in dogs based on haplotype-sharing analyses between dogs and gray wolves and show that contrary to previous mtDNA analyses, the nuclear genome of dogs derives primarily from Middle Eastern or European wolves, a result more consistent with the archeological record. Sequencing analysis of the IGF1 gene, which has been the target of size selection in small breeds, further supports this conclusion. Finally, we discuss how a black coat color mutation that evolved in dogs has transformed North American gray wolf populations, providing a first example of a mutation that appeared under domestication and selectively swept through a wild relative. PMID:22270221

  8. Virologic and serologic identification of minute virus of canines (canine parvovirus type 1) from dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Masami; Hashimoto, Michiru; Hajima, Takayuki; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Akira; Une, Yumi; Roerink, Frank; Ohshima, Takahisa; Parrish, Colin R; Carmichael, Leland E

    2002-11-01

    Minute virus of canines (MVC), also known as canine parvovirus type 1, was initially believed to be a nonpathogenic agent, since it was first isolated from canine fecal specimens in the late 1960s. However, subsequent pathological as well as epidemiological studies suggested that MVC is a pathogen of neonatal puppies and is widely distributed among domestic dogs in the United States. The virus also has been shown to cause fetal deaths. Nevertheless, the virus was not detected in dogs outside the United States until recently, presumably because of a lack of widespread availability of the only susceptible canine cell line, WRCC/3873D, used for MVC isolation. We examined 470 clinical specimens from 346 dogs by PCR and detected MVC-specific gene fragments from four diseased puppies (positive rate, 1.2%). Viruses were recovered from three PCR-positive rectal specimens by using WRCC/3873D and MDCK cells. The isolates possessed antigenic and genomic properties similar to those of the U.S. reference strain GA3 and were identified as MVC. In addition, seroepidemiological evidence that 5.0% of dogs possessed anti-MVC antibodies also indicated the presence of MVC infection among dogs in Japan. From this study and several recent European reports describing MVC field cases, it is evident that MVC is distributed among domestic dogs worldwide. PMID:12409364

  9. Virologic and Serologic Identification of Minute Virus of Canines (Canine Parvovirus Type 1) from Dogs in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Masami; Hashimoto, Michiru; Hajima, Takayuki; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Akira; Une, Yumi; Roerink, Frank; Ohshima, Takahisa; Parrish, Colin R.; Carmichael, Leland E.

    2002-01-01

    Minute virus of canines (MVC), also known as canine parvovirus type 1, was initially believed to be a nonpathogenic agent, since it was first isolated from canine fecal specimens in the late 1960s. However, subsequent pathological as well as epidemiological studies suggested that MVC is a pathogen of neonatal puppies and is widely distributed among domestic dogs in the United States. The virus also has been shown to cause fetal deaths. Nevertheless, the virus was not detected in dogs outside the United States until recently, presumably because of a lack of widespread availability of the only susceptible canine cell line, WRCC/3873D, used for MVC isolation. We examined 470 clinical specimens from 346 dogs by PCR and detected MVC-specific gene fragments from four diseased puppies (positive rate, 1.2%). Viruses were recovered from three PCR-positive rectal specimens by using WRCC/3873D and MDCK cells. The isolates possessed antigenic and genomic properties similar to those of the U.S. reference strain GA3 and were identified as MVC. In addition, seroepidemiological evidence that 5.0% of dogs possessed anti-MVC antibodies also indicated the presence of MVC infection among dogs in Japan. From this study and several recent European reports describing MVC field cases, it is evident that MVC is distributed among domestic dogs worldwide. PMID:12409364

  10. Experimental encephalitozoonosis in neonatal dogs.

    PubMed

    Szabo, J R; Shadduck, J A

    1987-03-01

    The in vivo infection of neonatal dogs by the microsporidian protozoan parasite, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, was studied. Microscopic examination of tissues from infected animals showed granulomatous nephritis, meningoencephalitis, hepatitis, and pneumonitis. A large component of the inflammatory infiltrate consisted of plasma cells and lymphocytes. In addition, hyperplasia of B-lymphocyte-dependent regions of lymph nodes and erythrophagocytosis were consistently seen in infected dogs. Infected dogs developed lymphocytosis, hypergammaglobulinemia, anti-encephalitozoon antibodies, and an antigen-specific blastogenic response to E. cuniculi spores. Lymphocyte blastogenic responses to the lectin phytohemagglutinin A (PHA) were depressed compared to controls. Dogs dying during the 2-month experimental trial were bacteremic. The findings of these experiments suggest that postnatal infection results in a demonstrable although seemingly ineffective immune and inflammatory response without detectable clinical disease. PMID:3107200

  11. Frustration behaviors in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    During extinction a previously learned behavior stops being reinforced. In addition to the decrease in the rate of the instrumental response, it produces an aversive emotional state known as frustration. This state can be assimilated with the fear reactions that occur after aversive stimuli are introduced at both the physiological and behavioral levels. This study evaluated frustration reactions of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during a communicative situation involving interactions with a human. The task included the reinforcement and extinction of the gaze response toward the experimenter's face when the dogs tried to obtain inaccessible food. The dog's frustration reactions during extinction involved an increase in withdrawal and side orientation to the location of the human as well as lying down, ambulation, sniffing, and vocalizations compared with the last acquisition trial. These results are especially relevant for domestic dog training situations in which the extinction technique is commonly used to discourage undesirable behaviors. PMID:23282291

  12. A retrospective study of skull base neoplasia in 42 dogs.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    This study describes the prevalence and distribution of 42 cases of skull base neoplasia in dogs between 2000 and 2014. The average age of affected individuals was 9.5 years, and there was no sex or breed predisposition. The most common skull base neoplasms were meningioma (25 cases) and pituitary adenoma (9 cases). Less common tumors included craniopharyngioma (2 cases), nerve sheath tumor (2 cases), and 1 case each of pituitary carcinoma, meningeal oligodendrogliomatosis, presumed nasal or sinonasal carcinoma, and multilobular tumor of bone. All neoplasms caused some degree of compression of adjacent structures. The distribution of the tumors was greatest in the sellar region (n = 18), followed by the paranasal region (n = 12), caudal cranial fossa (n = 10), central cranial fossa (n = 1), and rostral cranial fossa (n = 1). PMID:26462763

  13. Concurrent sialocoele and necrotising sialadenitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    McGill, S; Lester, N; McLachlan, A; Mansfield, C

    2009-03-01

    A seven-year-old male, entire rottweiler was presented to Murdoch University Veterinary Hospital with a 24 hour history of blindness, chemosis, exophthalmus, pain on opening the mouth and hypersialism. Bilateral mandibular and zygomatic salivary gland enlargement with concurrent bilateral zygomatic salivary gland sialocoeles were identified. The cause of the mandibular salivary gland enlargement was confirmed as necrotising sialadenitis, while the cause of the zygomatic gland enlargement was presumed to be because of a similar disease process. No underlying aetiology was identified. Treatment consisted of supportive management, corticosteroids and paracentesis of the sialocoeles and resulted in resolution of the salivary gland enlargement and the associated clinical signs. This is an unusual presentation of salivary gland disease in the dog with multiple gland involvement and a spectrum of disease processes occurring at the same time. PMID:19261087

  14. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. PMID:25251020

  15. Are dogs just like us?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Dogs have evolved to become the animal species most integrated with human society. Surprisingly, the origins and mechanisms of the remarkable co-evolution are still obscure and provide fuel for debates. Brain imaging studies showing up similarities and recent results implicating the hormone oxytocin also suggest that it makes sense to compare the social mind of dogs to our own. Michael Gross reports. PMID:26668945

  16. Are dogs just like us?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Dogs have evolved to become the animal species most integrated with human society. Surprisingly, the origins and mechanisms of the remarkable co-evolution are still obscure and provide fuel for debates. Brain imaging studies showing up similarities and recent results implicating the hormone oxytocin also suggest that it makes sense to compare the social mind of dogs to our own. Michael Gross reports. PMID:26561653

  17. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  18. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  19. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  20. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  1. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  2. Hormonal disturbances associated with obesity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Martin, L J M; Siliart, B; Dumon, H J W; Nguyen, P G

    2006-10-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple endocrine alterations and changes in the concentration of circulating hormones. However, few studies have explored such alterations in dogs with naturally acquired excess weight. In the present study, we investigated the effect of naturally acquired obesity on cortisol, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and prolactin secretion in dogs. Thirty-one overweight dogs were enrolled in the trial. Blood samples were collected before and after adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) injection. Free thyroxine (fT4), cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), IGF-1, prolactin and fructosamine were assayed. Body weight excess increased significantly with age and neutered dogs were more obese than entire ones. The ACTH stimulation test was within the normal range for 26 of 31 dogs. Prolactinaemia was increased in seven dogs and IGF-1 in six dogs. Twenty dogs had a fructosamine concentration >340 microm. Interestingly, 18 of 31 dogs showed disturbances of thyroid function based on high TSH and/or low fT4 baseline concentration, with 11 dogs showing both. According to these parameters only six of 31 dogs were free of hormonal disturbances. These results revealed the high incidence of such disturbances, especially thyroid dysfunction, in obese, but otherwise apparently healthy dogs. They demonstrate the importance of examining endocrine function during the initial evaluation of obese dogs to avoid failure of any nutritional treatment. PMID:16958791

  3. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  4. Lymphocytic ganglioneuritis secondary to intervertebral disc extrusion in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mouradian-Darby, A E; Young, B D; Griffin, J F; Mansell, J; Levine, J M

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a case of lymphocytic ganglioneuritis in a dog secondary to intervertebral disc extrusion that mimicked a peripheral nerve sheath tumour on magnetic resonance imaging. A four-year-old spayed female dachshund with lumbar pain was imaged via magnetic resonance. A?tubular, space-occupying, contrast-enhancing lesion was noted in the right intervertebral foramen at L6 to L7. This was presumed to represent focal enlargement of the right sixth lumbar spinal nerve. A?right-sided haemilaminectomy was performed at L6 to L7 and material that grossly resembled extruded nucleus pulposus was removed. The right L6 dorsal root ganglion, dorsal nerve root and proximal spinal nerve were severely enlarged and a partial thickness biopsy was collected from the dorsal root ganglion. Results of histopathological examination of the submitted tissue samples were consistent with extruded disc material and lymphocytic ganglioneuritis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first published report of lymphocytic ganglioneuritis secondary to intervertebral disc disease in a dog. PMID:24779364

  5. Dogs May Ease a Child's Fears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155959.html Dogs May Ease a Child's Fears Kids with pets ... 29, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The companionship of a dog may lower a child's anxiety levels, a new ...

  6. Effects of polyvinyl chloride ingestion by dogs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W S; Schmidt, R E

    1977-11-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) acrylic thermoplastic sheeting was fed to 6 dogs to determine whether ingestion during periods of normal transit of military working dogs would be toxic and thus affect the safety of this material for construction of shipping containers. The test dogs were fed PVC acrylic (0.125 g/kg of body weight; by gelatin capsule) twice each day for 5 days: for 2 dogs, the test material was in a shredded form; for 2 dogs, the material was diced; and for 2 dogs, it was powdered. Two other dogs were used as controls. Dogs were observed for clinical signs, and feed consumption and body weights were recorded. Blood and urine samples were examined. All animals were necropsied approximately 10 days after the feeding was stopped. Clinical or pathologic indication of a toxic effect of PVC was not seen within the time limits of the study. PMID:931170

  7. Military Dog Training for Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Lou E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes five courses involved in the intensive training that dogs and their handlers go through in the Military Dog Studies Branch at Lackland Air Force Base (San Antonio, Texas) in preparation for duties in law enforcement. (HD)

  8. Researchers Dig for Cause of Dog Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_154657.html Researchers Dig for Cause of Dog Diabetes Disease looks similar to type 1 in ... new research suggests that while the disease in dogs looks similar to type 1 diabetes in people, ...

  9. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  10. Evaluating the effect of intraoperative peritoneal lavage on bacterial culture in dogs with suspected septic peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Swayne, Seanna L.; Brisson, Brigitte; Weese, J. Scott; Sears, William

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study describes the effect of intraoperative peritoneal lavage (IOPL) on bacterial counts and outcome in clinical cases of septic peritonitis. Intraoperative samples were cultured before and after IOPL. Thirty-three dogs with presumed septic peritonitis on the basis of cytology were managed surgically during the study period. Positive pre-lavage bacterial cultures were found in 14 cases, 13 of which were a result of intestinal leakage. The post-lavage cultures showed fewer isolates in 9 cases and in 1 case became negative. The number of dogs with a decrease in the concentration of bacteria cultured from pre-lavage to post-lavage samples was not statistically significant. There was no significant effect of the change in pre- to post-lavage culture, single versus multiple types of bacteria, selection of an appropriate empiric antimicrobial on survival or the need for subsequent surgery. PMID:23450861

  11. Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Monzn, J.; Kays, R.; Dykhuizen, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids in order to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution, and ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, reveal a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. PMID:24148003

  12. Fat necrosis simulating recurrent neoplasia following external beam radiotherapy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Looper, Jayme S

    2007-01-01

    A 4.5-year-old neutered male dog was diagnosed with incompletely excised well-differentiated lymphangiosarcoma in the right inguinal subcutaneous region. The mass had metastasized to the right hypogastric and medial iliac lymph nodes. Surgery followed by definitive radiation therapy was administered to the primary site and the sites of metastasis. The dog had a complete response to radiotherapy, and minimal acute side effects. Doxorubicin was administered after radiotherapy. Approximately 4 months following radiation therapy, the dog developed a mass, presumed recurrent tumor, in the original site. In a biopsy only steatitis and fibrosis were found. The mass continued to grow and conservative surgical excision was elected. Histopathologically the diagnosis was fat necrosis and steatitis, with a microscopic focus of lymphangiosarcoma. Fat necrosis is an uncommon sequelum to breast irradiation in people and also appears to be rare in animals. Fat necrosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis when recurrent tumor is suspected in a previously irradiated subcutaneous site in a dog. PMID:17236366

  13. Copy number variations in the amylase gene (AMY2B) in Japanese native dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Tonoike, A; Hori, Y; Inoue-Murayama, M; Konno, A; Fujita, K; Miyado, M; Fukami, M; Nagasawa, M; Mogi, K; Kikusui, T

    2015-10-01

    A recent study suggested that increased copy numbers of the AMY2B gene might be a crucial genetic change that occurred during the domestication of dogs. To investigate AMY2B expansion in ancient breeds, which are highly divergent from modern breeds of presumed European origins, we analysed copy numbers in native Japanese dog breeds. Copy numbers in the Akita and Shiba, two ancient breeds in Japan, were higher than those in wolves. However, compared to a group of various modern breeds, Akitas had fewer copy numbers, whereas Shibas exhibited the same level of expansion as modern breeds. Interestingly, average AMY2B copy numbers in the Jomon-Shiba, a unique line of the Shiba that has been bred to maintain their appearance resembling ancestors of native Japanese dogs and that originated in the same region as the Akita, were lower than those in the Shiba. These differences may have arisen from the earlier introduction of rice farming to the region in which the Shiba originated compared to the region in which the Akita and the Jomon-Shiba originated. Thus, our data provide insights into the relationship between the introduction of agriculture and AMY2B expansion in dogs. PMID:26358734

  14. Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs.

    PubMed

    Monzn, J; Kays, R; Dykhuizen, D E

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution and the ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, revealed a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. PMID:24148003

  15. Adoptive Immunotherapy against Allogeneic Kidney Grafts in Dogs with Stable Hematopoietic Trichimerism

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Scott S.; Hogan, William J.; Kuhr, Christian; Diaconescu, Razvan; Harkey, Michael; Sale, George E.; Stone, Brad; Georges, George E.; Storb, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Dogs given nonmyeloablative conditioning and marrow grafts from two dog leukocyte antigen- (DLA) identical littermate donors developed stable trichimerism and stably accepted a subsequent kidney graft from one of the marrow donors without the need for immunosuppression. Here, we used trichimeras to evaluate strategies of adoptive immunotherapy to solid tumors, using the kidney as a tumor surrogate. Three DLA-identical trichimeric recipients were established by simultaneously infusing marrow from two DLA-identical donor dogs into a DLA-identical recipient conditioned with 2 Gy total body irradiation and given a short course of postgrafting immunosuppression. After confirming stable hematopoietic engraftment, a kidney was transplanted from one of the two marrow donors into each respective trichimeric recipient. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from each kidney donor were then used to sensitize the alternate marrow donor. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) from the sensitized dogs were given to the trichimeric recipients, whereupon chimerism, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and kidney rejection were monitored. After DLI, we observed both prompt rejection of the transplanted marrow-donor kidney and disappearance of corresponding hematopoietic chimerism. Presumably, owing to shared minor histocompatibility antigens, host chimerism also disappeared and GvHD in skin, gut, and liver developed. The native kidneys, while showing lymphocytic infiltration, remained functionally normal. The current study demonstrated that under certain experimental conditions, the kidney, an organ ordinarily not involved in graft-versus-host reactions, can be targeted by sensitized donor lymphocytes. PMID:18940673

  16. Cyclosporin treatment of perianal fistulas in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, K A; Ayres, S A; Tano, C A; Riley, S M; Sukhiani, H R; Adams, C

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of cyclosporin in treating perianal fistulas (PAF) in dogs. Based on resolution of all fistulas in all dogs with remission times up to > 18 months, we conclude that cyclosporin therapy is the treatment of choice for PAF in dogs. PMID:8993784

  17. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  18. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  19. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  20. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  1. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  2. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  3. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  4. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  5. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  6. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  7. Hypoadrenocorticism in a kindred of Pomeranian dogs

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Erin T.; Hammond, Tara N.; Mahony, Orla M.

    2015-01-01

    Three adult Pomeranian dogs, full siblings from 2 litters, were diagnosed with primary hypoadrenocorticism following onset of hypoadrenal crisis. Review of the family history revealed the dogs’ maternal grandmother also had hypoadrenocorticism. All 4 dogs were pedigree-certified by the American Kennel Club. An inherited basis for hypoadrenocorticism is proposed in these Pomeranian dogs. PMID:25565713

  8. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  9. Cages Next to Prairie Dog Hole

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Cages are set up next to a prairie dog burrow at the Pitchfork Ranch in Wyoming to capture free-ranging prairie dogs. Once captured, each trapped prairie dog is tagged, and a scientist takes hair, whisker, and blood samples before the animals are released back into the wild.  The purpose ...

  10. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  11. Impact of community-based vector control on house infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Triatoma infestans, dogs and cats in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, M V; Lauricella, M A; Marcet, P L; Orozco, M M; Kitron, U; Grtler, R E

    2007-09-01

    The relative impact of two community-based vector control strategies on house infestation by Triatoma infestans and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in bugs, domestic dogs and cats was assessed in two neighboring rural areas comprising 40 small villages and 323 houses in one of the regions most endemic for Chagas disease in northern Argentina. The prevalence and abundance of domestic infestation were 1.5- and 6.5-fold higher, respectively, in the area under pulsed, non-supervised control actions operating under the guidelines of the National Vector Control Program (NCVP) than in the area under sustained, supervised surveillance carried out jointly by the UBA research team and NCVP. The prevalence of infestation and infection varied widely among village groups within each area. In the pulsed control area, the prevalence of infection in bugs, dogs and cats was two- to three-fold higher than in the area under sustained surveillance, most of the infected animals qualified as autochthonous cases, and evidence of recent transmission was observed. Infection was highly aggregated at the household level and fell close to the 80/20 rule. Using multiple logistic regression analysis clustered by household, infection in dogs was associated positively and significantly with variables reflecting local exposure to infected T. infestans, thus demonstrating weak performance of the vector surveillance system. For high-risk areas in the Gran Chaco region, interruption of vector-mediated domestic transmission of T. cruzi requires residual insecticide spraying that is more intense, of a higher quality and sustained in time, combined with community participation and environmental management measures. PMID:17686448

  12. Brightness discrimination in the dog.

    PubMed

    Pretterer, Gabriele; Bubna-Littitz, Hermann; Windischbauer, Gerhard; Gabler, Cornelia; Griebel, Ulrike

    2004-04-01

    Almost nothing is known about brightness discrimination in animals and how this ability relates to their lifestyles. As arrhythmic visual generalists, three dogs, a German shepherd and two Belgian shepherds, were tested on their ability to discriminate brightness using a series of 30 shades of grey varying from white to black. The dogs were trained to discriminate between different shades of grey in a simultaneous two-choice situation. Weber's law can be correlated to their ability to discriminate brightness differences with a calculated Weber fraction of 0.22 for the German shepherd and 0.27 for the Belgian shepherds. Thus brightness discrimination in dogs is about 2 times worse than in humans, a diurnal species. PMID:15086313

  13. Safety of selamectin in dogs.

    PubMed

    Novotny, M J; Krautmann, M J; Ehrhart, J C; Godin, C S; Evans, E I; McCall, J W; Sun, F; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

    2000-08-23

    Selamectin is a broad-spectrum avermectin endectocide for treatment and control of canine parasites. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the clinical safety of selamectin for topical use in dogs 6 weeks of age and older, including breeding animals, avermectin-sensitive Collies, and heartworm-positive animals. The margin of safety was evaluated in Beagles, which were 6 weeks old at study initiation. Reproductive, heartworm-positive, and oral safety studies were conducted in mature Beagles. Safety in Collies was evaluated in avermectin-sensitive, adult rough-coated Collies. Studies were designed to measure the safety of selamectin at the recommended dosage range of 6-12mgkg(-1) of body weight. Endpoints included clinical examinations, clinical pathology, gross and microscopic pathology, and reproductive indices. Selected variables in the margin of safety and reproductive safety studies were subjected to statistical analyses. Pups received large doses of selamectin at the beginning of the margin of safety study when they were 6 weeks of age and at their lowest body weight, yet displayed no clinical or pathologic evidence of toxicosis. Similarly, selamectin had no adverse effects on reproduction in adult male and female dogs. There were no adverse effects in avermectin-sensitive Collies or in heartworm-positive dogs. Oral administration of the topical formulation caused no adverse effects. Selamectin is safe for topical use on dogs at the recommended minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1) (6-12mgkg(-1)) monthly starting at 6 weeks of age, and including dogs of reproducing age, avermectin-sensitive Collies, and heartworm-positive dogs. PMID:10940536

  14. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers′ constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers’ alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's ‘presumed media influence’ theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers’ constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers’ drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. PMID:24443822

  15. Presumption of Herbicide Exposure and Presumption of Disability During Service for Reservists Presumed Exposed to Herbicide. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-06-19

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its regulation governing individuals presumed to have been exposed to certain herbicides. Specifically, VA is expanding the regulation to include an additional group consisting of individuals who performed service in the Air Force or Air Force Reserve under circumstances in which they had regular and repeated contact with C-123 aircraft known to have been used to spray an herbicide agent ("Agent Orange'') during the Vietnam era. In addition, the regulation will establish a presumption that members of this group who later develop an Agent Orange presumptive condition were disabled during the relevant period of service, thus establishing that this service constituted "active, naval, military or air service.'' The effect of this action is to presume herbicide exposure for these individuals and to allow individuals who were exposed to herbicides during reserve service to establish veteran status for VA purposes and eligibility for some VA benefits. The need for this action results from a recent decision by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to acknowledge that individuals who had regular and repeated exposure to C-123 aircraft that the United States Air Force used to spray the herbicides in Vietnam during Operation Ranch Hand were exposed to Agent Orange. PMID:26103644

  16. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  17. Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?

    PubMed Central

    Cutt, Hayley E; Knuiman, Matthew W; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2008-01-01

    Background This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. Methods RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up) measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal and socio-demographic factors. Analysis was restricted to 'Continuing non-owners' (i.e., non-owners at both baseline and follow-up; n = 681) and 'New dog owners' (i.e., non-owners who acquired a dog by follow-up; n = 92). Results Overall, 12% of baseline non-owners had acquired a dog at follow-up. Dog acquisition was associated with working and having children at home. Those who changed from single to couple marital status were also more likely to acquire a dog. The increase in minutes of walking for recreation within the neighborhood from baseline to follow-up was 48 minutes/week for new dog owners compared with 12 minutes/week for continuing non-owners (p < 0.05). After adjusting for baseline variables the effect of dog acquisition on the increase in minutes of recreational walking within the neighborhood was 31 minutes (95% CI: 7.39, 54.22; p < 0.01). However, this reduced to 22 minutes (95% CI: -1.53, 45.42; p > 0.05) after further adjustment for change in baseline to follow-up variables. Increase in intention to walk was the main factor contributing to attenuation of the effect of dog acquisition on recreational walking. Conclusion This study used a large representative sample of non-owners to examine the relationship between dog acquisition and recreational walking and provides evidence to suggest that dog acquisition leads to an increase in walking. The most likely mechanism through which dog acquisition facilitates increased physical activity is through behavioral intention via the dog's positive effect on owner's cognitive beliefs about walking, and through the provision of motivation and social support for walking. The results suggest that behavioral intention mediates the relationship between dog acquisition and walking and that dogs may have a significant role in the maintenance of owner walking behavior. PMID:18366804

  18. 77 FR 54368 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 35162) a proposed rule to amend VA regulations to broaden and... quality of care that the VA-system can provide. 76 FR 35163. One commenter additionally noted that the... need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing,...

  19. A safety study of a novel photosensitizer, sinoporphyrin sodium, for photodynamic therapy in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ni; Li, Chao; Wang, Zhonghua; Zhang, Jingxuan; Ye, Xiangfeng; Gao, Wenjing; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao; Wei, Jinfeng

    2015-04-01

    Sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS) is a novel hematoporphyrin-like photosensitizer developed for photodynamic therapy (PDT), an effective therapeutic modality for tumor treatment; however, the safety of photosensitizer-based PDT is always of great concern. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential repeated-dose toxicity and describe the toxicokinetic process of DVDMS-based PDT in Beagle dogs. The dogs were randomly allocated to six groups, and then were administrated a DVDMS preparation intravenously at dose levels of 0, 1, 3, 9, 1 and 9 mg per kg body weight, respectively; then, the latter two groups were illuminated 24 h later with a 630 nm laser for 10 min, once every seven days for 5 weeks. During the study period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food consumption, body temperature, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, electrocardiograms, toxicokinetics, organ weights, gross anatomy and histopathology were examined. After the administration, no deaths were observed; however, the dogs that received PDT showed skin swelling and ulceration, indicating that DVDMS-PDT induced a phototoxic effect. DVDMS led to an increase in blood coagulation in dogs in the 9 mg kg(-1) group and in the two PDT groups on Day 35, whereas it induced a decrease in dogs in the 3 mg kg(-1) group and in the two PDT groups on Day 49. The toxicokinetic study showed that the systematic exposure of DVDMS in dogs occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and DVDMS did not accumulate in blood plasma. The DVDMS-based PDT group showed no obvious treatment-related pathological changes; however, slight or mild brown-and-yellow pigmentation of DVDMS (or its metabolite) was observed to deposit in the liver, spleen, local lymph nodes and marrow of dogs in the mid- and high-dose groups, as well as the high-dose PDT group. In females, the absolute and relative spleen weights increased in dogs in the 9 mg kg(-1) DVDMS groups with and without PDT during the treatment and recovery period, respectively. The target organs are presumed to be the liver and immune organs (spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes), while all of the responses were slight. Based on the results above, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was considered to be 1 mg kg(-1), and DVDMS-PDT appeared to be a safe and promising anti-tumor therapy in the clinic. PMID:25671327

  20. Influenza Virus Transmission from Horses to Dogs, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Finlaison, Deborah S.; Crispe, Ellie; Hurt, Aeron C.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, respiratory disease in dogs in close contact with infected horses was noted; influenza (H3N8) virus infection was confirmed. Nucleotide sequence of the virus from dogs was identical to that from horses. No evidence of dog-to-dog transmission or virus persistence in dogs was found. PMID:20350392

  1. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  2. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  3. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  4. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  5. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  6. Orthopaedic problems in old dogs.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, L C

    1990-04-21

    With advancing years a dog may suffer from a variety of conditions of its musculoskeletal system which adversely affect its ability to exercise and may cause it to be retired from activities in work and sport for which it has been trained. Arthritis is common, and in many cases arises from developmental errors suffered in puppyhood, such as hip dysplasia, osteochondrosis and growth plate disorders. Trauma to joints (ligament ruptures, dislocations and fractures) may also be the precursor of degenerative joint changes later in life. It is important, therefore, for all such conditions to be corrected as effectively as possible if joint disease is to be minimised as the dog grows older. Preventive action is also required for some conditions for which correction may not be entirely feasible, so the identification of modes of inheritance is important if those are to be controlled by breeding. Certain spinal disorders also tend to increase in prevalence with age, particularly spondylosis deformans, neoplasms and chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy. As it happens, spondylosis in mild to moderate degree affects pet dogs very little, but a reduction in spinal flexibility can cause problems for dogs required to be agile in work or sport. In common with other body tissues, neoplasm of the locomotor system increases in occurrence in older dogs, and although the overall incidence of tumours of bones, joints, nervous tissue and muscle is relatively low, these are the most serious of all the limb and spinal conditions encountered because of their life threatening propensities. The treatment required covers a wide range from simple changes of management in order to reduce exercise, to the use of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs and to surgery to remove diseased tissue, stabilise joints or reduce pain with forms of arthroplasty or arthrodesis. PMID:2195752

  7. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jrg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25850824

  8. Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, James M.; Barnett, James L.

    2002-08-01

    Mine detection dogs have been found to be an effective method to locate buried landmines. The capabilities of the canine olfaction method are from a complex combination of training and inherent capacity of the dog for odor detection. The purpose of this effort was to explore the detection thresholds of a limited group of dogs that were trained specifically for landmine detection. Soils were contaminated with TNT and 2,4-DNT to develop chemical vapor standards to present to the dogs. Soils contained ultra trace levels of TNT and DNT, which produce extremely low vapor levels. Three groups of dogs were presented the headspace vapors from the contaminated soils in work environments for each dog group. One positive sample was placed among several that contained clean soils and, the location and vapor source (strength, type) was frequently changed. The detection thresholds for the dogs were determined from measured and extrapolated dilution of soil chemical residues and, estimated soil vapor values using phase partitioning relationships. The results showed significant variances in dog sensing thresholds, where some dogs could sense the lowest levels and others had trouble with even the highest source. The remarkable ultra-trace levels detectable by the dogs are consistent with the ultra-trace chemical residues derived from buried landmines; however, poor performance may go unnoticed without periodic challenge tests at levels consistent with performance requirements.

  9. Prostacyclin inhibits gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit in rats and dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruwart, M.J.; Rush, B.D.

    1984-08-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) antagonizes 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2-induced diarrhea in rats, presumably by inhibiting the fluid accumulation of ''enteropooling'' in the small intestine. The effect of PGI2 on gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colonic transit was examined in rats and dogs to determine if interference with propulsion might also contribute to the antidiarrheal properties of this compound. Rats implanted with chronic duodenal cannulas were given subcutaneous PGI2 (0.1-1000 microgram/kg) followed 10 min later by intragastric /sup 2/Cr and a visually detectable duodenal transit marker. Forty-five minutes later, the animals were killed. Subcutaneous PGI2 inhibited gastric emptying maximally at 10 micrograms/kg. Small-intestinal transit was significantly decreased at 50 micrograms/kg and almost completely suppressed at 1.0 mg/kg. Subcutaneous naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) given 10 min before and 20 min after subcutaneous PGI2 administration did not block PGI2's effects. Intravenous or oral PGI2, had none of these effects. Small intestinal transit was only decreased by PGI2 infusion, suggesting that this parameter was more sensitive to a sustained blood level than gastric emptying. Hourly injections of subcutaneous PGI2 (0.5 mg/kg) had no effect on rat colonic transit measured over a 3-h period after deposition of the transit marker through a colonic cannula in a manner similar to that described for small-intestinal transit above. Small-intestinal transit was also measured in dogs given a barium suspension through a chronic duodenal cannula. In vehicle-treated dogs, barium reached the cecal area in an average of 2.8 h after instillation. In PGI2-treated dogs, barium never reached the cecum in the 5-h examination period. Thus, PGI2 inhibits gastric emptying in rat and small-intestinal transit in rat and dog but has no effect on rat colonic transit.

  10. Identification of Heterobilharzia americana infection in a dog residing in Indiana with no history of travel.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jessica Y; Camp, Joseph W; Lenz, Stephen D; Kazacos, Kevin R; Snowden, Karen F

    2016-04-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 1-year-old castrated male dog residing in Indiana was examined because of intermittent vomiting of 4 months' duration. CLINICAL FINDINGS The dog's condition did not resolve with medication. Diagnostic imaging revealed a possible partial obstruction at the ileocecal junction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed. The jejunum contained diffusely distributed, nodular, intramural lesions; 2 biopsy specimens were collected from representative lesions. The pancreas was grossly swollen, and pancreatitis was presumed present. No other abnormalities were observed in the abdomen. Histologic examination of the submitted biopsy specimens revealed infection with Heterobilharzia americana. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME After diagnosis, the dog was treated with fenbendazole suspension (48 mg/kg [21.8 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 10 days. This treatment was subsequently repeated 11 and 80 days later. One week after the end of the last fenbendazole treatment, several H americana eggs were detected in a fecal sample via saline sedimentation, and the dog was given praziquantel (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 2 days. No gastrointestinal signs were evident 4 months after that treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The dog described in this report was the first autochthonous canine case of H americana infection in Indiana, to the authors' knowledge; this case has confirmed that the distribution of this parasite in the Midwestern United States is broader than previously known. Increased awareness of the distribution of H americana should aid veterinarians in early, noninvasive diagnosis and appropriate treatment of affected animals. Repeated treatments and recheck fecal examinations may be necessary when managing these cases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:827-830). PMID:27003025

  11. Differential Host Immune Responses after Infection with Wild-Type or Lab-Attenuated Rabies Viruses in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Li, Zhenguang; Leyson, Christina M.; Cooper, Tanya L.; Platt, Simon R.; Harvey, Stephen B.; Hooper, Douglas C.; Faber, Milosz; Fu, Zhen F.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) induces encephalomyelitis in humans and animals. One of the major problems with rabies is that the infected individuals most often do not develop virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA). In this study we have investigated the host immune response to RABV infection in dogs, using a live-attenuated (TriGAS) or a wild-type (wt) (DRV-NG11) RABV isolated from a rabid dog. Methodology/Principal Findings The experimental infection of dogs with TriGAS induced high levels of VNA in the serum, whereas wt RABV infection did not. Dogs infected with TriGAS developed antibodies against the virus including its glycoprotein, whereas dogs infected with DRV-NG11 only developed rabies antibodies that are presumably specific for the nucleoprotein, (N) and not the glycoprotein (G). We show that infection with TriGAS induces early activation of B cells in the draining lymph nodes and persistent activation of DCs and B cells in the blood. On the other hand, infection with DRV-NG11 fails to induce the activation of DCs and B cells and further reduces CD4 T cell production. Further, we show that intrathecal (IT) immunization of TriGAS not only induced high levels of VNA in the serum but also in the CSF while intramuscular (IM) immunization of TriGAS induced VNA only in the serum. In addition, high levels of total protein and WBC were detected in the CSF of IT immunized dogs, indicating the transient enhancement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, which is relevant to the passage of immune effectors from periphery into the CNS. Conclusions/Significance IM infection of dogs with TriGAS induced the production of serum VNA whereas, IT immunization of TriGAS in dogs induces high levels of VNA in the periphery as well as in the CSF and transiently enhances BBB permeability. In contrast, infection with wt DRV-NG11 resulted in the production of RABV-reactive antibodies but VNA and antibodies specific for G were absent. As a consequence, all of the dogs infected with wt DRV-NG11 succumbed to rabies. Thus the failure to activate protective immunity is one of the important features of RABV pathogenesis in dogs. PMID:26292099

  12. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food and their behaviour was video recorded. Treatment dogs were found to investigate the area in the vicinity of the bowls for significantly less time and to eat significantly fewer pieces of food when on corticosteroids, compared to control dogs, after hearing the growl. These results provide the first empirical evidence of possible adverse psycho-behavioural side effects in a veterinary clinical setting following the use of corticosteroids, and suggest the need for concomitant behavioural advice when these drugs are used in general veterinary practise to avoid the risks associated with these changes. PMID:26344646

  13. Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2008-01-01

    How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can make

  14. Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2008-01-01

    How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can make…

  15. Clinical and mycological analysis of dogs oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Santin, Rosema; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; de Oliveira Nobre, Mrcia; Nascente, Patrcia da Silva; de Mello, Joo Roberto Braga; Meireles, Mrio Carlos Arajo

    2013-01-01

    The oral microbiota of humans and animals is made up of a wide variety of yeasts and bacteria, but microbiota of dogs is not totally described. Although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate oral alterations with the presence of yeasts in oral cavity of female dogs. After clinical evaluation samples from healthy and from dogs with oral diseases were obtained from three different oral sites by swabs, curettes, millimeter periodontal probes and HA membrane tip in cellulose ester. Yeast identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic colony features and biochemical tests. Dental calculus was the most prevalent occurrence in the oral cavity of 59 females. However, the isolation of yeasts was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in animals suffering from halitosis. Eleven yeast species were identified, namely: Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula spp., Candida albicans, C. catenulata, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. intermedia, Trichosporon asahii, T. mucoides and Cryptococcus albidus. It could be concluded that the yeasts are part of the microbiota from the different sites of the oral cavity of the female canines studied without causing any significant alterations except halitosis. PMID:24159296

  16. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  17. "What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

  18. Dirofilaria infections in working dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpkov, M; Antolov, D; Hurnkov, Z; Dubinsk, P; Pavlacka, A; Nmeth, J

    2010-06-01

    A monitoring programme aimed at the diagnosis of subcutaneous dirofilariasis and heartworm disease in working (police and military) dogs in Slovakia has been performed during the period of September 2007 to February 2008. In co-operation with the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defence, in total, 710 dogs (591 police dogs and 119 military dogs) were investigated for the presence of microfilariae in blood. All police and military dogs in active service held on the territory of Slovakia were included. Microfilariae were detected in 118 (20.0%) police dogs and 10 (8.4%) military dogs. The most infected individuals originated from southern parts of Slovakia (Trnava region 53.6% and Nitra region 39.6%); the prevalence was low in northern regions (Zilina 3.1% and Presov 6.6%). In several districts of southern Slovakia, the prevalence of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in working dogs exceeded 40%. In all infected animals, the autochthonous origin of the disease was confirmed; however, due to the frequent movement of working dogs, it was not possible to identify the exact locality of infection. At present, a dog living in Nemsov village in Trencn district (north-western part of the country) is regarded as the northernmost localized autochthonous case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in Slovakia. In three dogs, co-infection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis was detected. High prevalence rates in working dogs and the zoonotic characteristic of the disease represent an undoubtedly important veterinary and medical problem that requires the urgent introduction of prophylactic and control measures. PMID:19728899

  19. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  20. Orbital and periorbital dog bites.

    PubMed

    Gonnering, R S

    1987-01-01

    Although periorbital and orbital dog bites are rare, they most frequently occur in young children and commonly involve significant associated adnexal injuries. In most cases, the dog is either the family pet or is otherwise known to the victim. The exact precipitating event is usually unknown. Most victims are treated by a physician soon after injury, and can be reconstructed primarily following meticulous local wound care, including adequate irrigation. Infection is rare, but because of its potentially disastrous consequences, prophylactic treatment with penicillinase-resistant penicillin or cephalosporin seems indicated. Serious, potentially fatal consequences due to underlying intracranial injury in children under aged 2 years, fatal septicemia in splenectomized individuals, tetanus, and rabies must be considered by ophthalmologists who treat such patients. PMID:3502736

  1. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazuki; Amano, Shinjiro; Kawamura, Yoshio; Kagawa, Yumiko

    2015-11-01

    An 8-year-old, spayed, female Shiba dog was presented to a referring veterinarian with a complaint of chronic diarrhea and anorexia. Ultrasound and radiographs revealed an irregular mass in the pelvic cavity. The mass and the affected section of colon were surgically removed. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas and effaced intestinal structures. Central necrotic debris surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells and neutrophils was observed. Numerous, irregularly branched hyphae with pale basophilic, thin walls and occasional bulbous enlargements at the tips were present. Polymerase chain reaction identified Basidiobolus ranarum, successfully confirming a definitive diagnosis of basidiobolomycosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal basidiobolomycosis in a dog. PMID:25960121

  2. Internet resources cataloguing inherited disorders in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Crook, Alice; Sargan, David R

    2011-08-01

    Up-to-date annotated catalogues of known inherited disorders in dogs are freely available on the Internet, providing vital information to existing and prospective dog owners, dog breeders, veterinarians, geneticists and others interested in the occurrence and control of inherited disorders. These resources are the Canine Inherited Disorders Database (CIDD), Inherited Diseases in Dogs (IDID) and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) the latter associated with Listing of Inherited Disorders in Animals (LIDA). The history and features of these resources are summarised. PMID:21737319

  3. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    PubMed

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention. PMID:23071828

  4. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E.; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of ototoxicity in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows us to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy. PMID:23122180

  5. Severe Pit Viper Envenomation with Extended Clinical Signs and Treatment Complications in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Schaer, Michael; Buckley, Gareth J; Conner, Bobbi J; Cuddy, Laura C; Vigani, Alessio; Vansickle, Allison E; Coisman, James G; DeVuyst, Deanna R; Bandt, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the extended clinical abnormalities that can occur in severe snake envenomation and the clinical signs associated with antivenom hypersensitivity in a 3 yr old dog. Treatment consisted of IV fluid therapy, analgesics, a vasopressor, cardiac antiarrhythmia drugs, and polyvalent pit viper antivenom. Following initial response to treatment, relapse of clinical signs occurred. Most interesting was the recrudescence of clinical signs on day 7 that may have been caused by the release of deposited venom during surgical debridement of necrotic skin. The resulting extensive clinical signs required multiple vials of antivenom (22 vials over a 7 day period). Both F(ab')2 antivenom and antivenin (Crotalidae) polyvalent were used in this dog because of availability logistics. It is thought that this large amount of antivenom resulted in type I (anaphylaxis) and type III hypersensitivity (serum sickness) reactions. The dog made a complete clinical recovery. This description of extended, fluctuating clinical abnormalities that were associated with envenomation together with the development of hypersensitivity reactions that were presumably secondary to antivenom administration is information that can be useful for the management of patients afflicted with severe pit viper envenomation. PMID:26355585

  6. Current surveys on the prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria spp. in dogs in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Norden, Nina; Lorentzen, Leif; Rossi, Marco; Rossi, Ulrike; Brand, Bastian; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2009-08-01

    The Central Upper-Rhine (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) is one of the warmest regions in Germany and also harbours abundant numbers of mosquitoes. Case reports on presumably autochthonous occurrence of Dirofilaria spp. were reported previously and were a reason for a further investigation into the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens. For this purpose, 44 hunting dogs from the Central Upper-Rhine region were tested between 4(th) and 29(th) June 2007. The blood samples were tested using the Knott's test and IDEXX SNAP 4Dx test. The Knott's test revealed unsheathed microfilaria identified as Dirofilaria repens by PCR in 3 dogs with no history of travelling (6.8%; 95% CI: 2.4-18.2%). The seroprevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 43.2% (95% CI: 29.7-57.8%), but only 4.5% (95% CI: 1.3-15.1%) for antibodies to Borrelia C6 peptide. Dirofilaria immitis antigen was not detected in any of the samples. A further 288 blood samples from non-hunting companion dogs of the Central Upper-Rhine region were tested negative for heartworm antigen between February and August 2007. PMID:19575227

  7. Herb induced liver injury presumably caused by black cohosh: a survey of initially purported cases and herbal quality specifications.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Wolff, Albrecht; Hennermann, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) is a particular challenge that also applies to purported cases presumably caused by black cohosh (BC), an herb commonly used to treat menopausal symptoms. We analyzed and reviewed all published case reports and spontaneous reports of initially alleged BC hepatotoxicity regarding quality of case details and causality assessments. Shortcomings of data quality were more evident in spontaneous reports of regulatory agencies compared to published case reports, but assessments with the scale of CIOMS (Council for the International Organizations of Sciences) or its updated version revealed lack of causality for BC in all cases. The applied causality methods are structured, quantitative, and liver specific with clear preference over an ad hoc causality method or the liver unspecific Naranjo scale. Reviewing the case data and the reports dealing with quality specifications of herbal BC products, there is general lack of analysis with respect to authentication of BC in the BC products used by the patients. However, in one single regulatory study, there was a problem of BC authentication in the analysed BC products, and other reports addressed the question of impurities and adulterants in a few BC products. It is concluded that the use of BC may not exert an overt hepatotoxicity risk, but quality problems in a few BC products were evident that require additional regulatory quality specifications. PMID:21677326

  8. Ceftazidime as monotherapy or combined with teicoplanin for initial empiric treatment of presumed bacteremia in febrile granulocytopenic patients.

    PubMed

    Nováková, I; Donnelly, J P; De Pauw, B

    1991-04-01

    In a prospective randomized study, 120 febrile, granulocytopenic patients received as initial therapy ceftazidime with or without teicoplanin. At the onset of fever, patients had no obvious infectious focus. For 103 assessable episodes, initial bacteremias were detected in 18 of 51 patients (35%) given ceftazidime and 20 of 52 patients (38%) given the combination; 13 and 17 bacteremias caused by gram-positive bacteria occurred in these groups, respectively. There was no difference in terms of the final response (25 of 51 patients [49%] treated with ceftazidime alone versus 33 of 52 patients [63%] given the combination), and the morbidity was comparable for both treatment groups. The duration of fever and of total antibiotic therapy were similar in both groups. Initial therapy was modified in 26 patients (51%) treated with ceftazidime, with 20 surviving the infection, and in 19 patients (37%) treated with the combination, with 15 surviving. Persistent fever was the main reason for changing treatment, and no patient died of a gram-positive infection. Subsequent infective events occurred in 16 patients (31%) given ceftazidime and in 25 patients (48%) given the combination. Lung infiltrates developed in 12 and 13 patients, respectively, but more new infections occurred in the combination group. Allergic skin reactions were also more frequent in this group. Thus, while teicoplanin provides simple, reliable, and safe treatment of patients with presumed gram-positive infections, it is not useful when given empirically to this patient population, and treatment may result in more infective complications and adverse events. PMID:1829879

  9. Sperm retrieval and live birth rates in presumed Sertoli-cell-only syndrome in testis biopsy: a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Gul, U; Turunc, T; Haydardedeoglu, B; Yaycioglu, O; Kuzgunbay, B; Ozkardes, H

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate sperm retrieval rates (SRR) by testicular sperm extraction (TESE), factors affecting SRR, and fertilization rate (FR), implantation rate (IR), clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and live birth rate (LBR) in patients with presumed Sertoli-cell-only syndrome in testis biopsy (SCOS). We retrospectively evaluated files of 134 patients with SCOS who underwent TESE. Group I were patients in whom spermatozoa were retrieved and Group II were patients in whom no spermatozoa could be retrieved. SRR, Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels, and the volume of testicles were compared between groups. In addition, FR, IR, CPR and LBR were determined. Sperm retrieval was achieved in 37 (27.6%) patients (Group I), and the remaining 97 (72.4%) patients made Group II. There were no significant differences in age, infertility time, testicular volume, serum FSH, LH and testosterone levels between Groups I and II (p>0.05). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed in 36 patients. FR, IR, and CPR were 60.8623.03, 36.5341.78 and 51.3% respectively. Cycle and patient based LBRs were 37.8 and 45.1% respectively. SRR in SCOS is lower than patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) in general. No parameters to predict spermatozoa retrieval were determined. In patients with SCOS, ICSI achieves similar live birth rate to other patients with NOA. PMID:23258629

  10. MIP-3?/CCL19 is associated with the intrathecal invasion of mononuclear cells in neuroinflammatory and non-neuroinflammatory CNS diseases in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemokines such as MIP-3?/CCL19 are important factors in the mechanism of cell migration and pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reactions. The hypothesis of this study is that CCL19, also known as MIP-3?, is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and non-inflammatory CNS diseases of dogs. Experiments were performed on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of dogs affected with steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) during the acute phase as well as during treatment. Dogs with SRMA were compared to dogs with presumed meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO), and both groups sub-categorized into dogs receiving no therapy and with patients receiving prednisolone therapy. Idiopathic epilepsy (IE), a group with normal CSF cell count, was used as a control. Additionally, dogs with intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) of varying severity were analyzed. Chemokine concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Migration assays were performed on seven selected CSF samples using a disposable 96-well chemotaxis chamber. Results CCL19 was detectable in CSF samples of all dogs. Dogs with untreated SRMA and MUO displayed pronounced CCL19 elevations compared to the control group and patients receiving glucocorticosteroid treatment. CSF cell counts of untreated SRMA and MUO patients were significantly positively correlated with the CCL19 CSF concentration. IVDD patients also had elevated CCL19 concentration compared to controls, but values were considerably lower than in inflammatory CNS diseases. Selected CSF samples displayed chemotactic activity for mononuclear cells in the migration assay. Conclusions CCL19 CSF concentrations were markedly elevated in patients affected with the neuroinflammatory diseases SRMA and MUO and showed a strong correlation with the CSF cell count. This chemokine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SRMA and MUO. The elevation of CSF CCL19 in IVDD suggests that it may also be involved in the secondary wave of spinal cord injuries. PMID:25016392

  11. Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society.

    PubMed

    Audrestch, Hilary M; Whelan, Chantelle T; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual-purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their 'owners,' as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of assistance dogs in society is widely recognized by the public, but is not currently acknowledged in government social policy. The current evidence on the benefits of assistance dogs is limited by the type and scale of current research. This article highlights the need for independent funding for high quality research to enable social care and policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the value of assistance dogs to people with disabilities. PMID:26364936

  12. Dog ownership, dog behaviour and transmission of Echinococcus spp. in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Van Kesteren, Freya; Mastin, Alexander; Mytynova, Bermet; Ziadinov, Iskender; Boufana, Belgees; Torgerson, Paul R; Rogan, Michael T; Craig, Philip S

    2013-11-01

    Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities. PMID:23985326

  13. Dog Bite Risk: An Assessment of Child Temperament and Child-Dog Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Aaron L.; Schwebel, David C.; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Stewart, Julia; Bell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on childrens interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.56 years interacted with a live dog. Dog and child behaviors were assessed through observational coding. Four child temperament constructsimpulsivity, inhibitory control, approach and shynesswere assessed via the parent-report Childrens Behavioral Questionnaire. Less shy children took greater risks with the dog, even after controlling for child and dog characteristics. No other temperament traits were associated with risk-taking with the dog. Based on these results, childrens behavior with unfamiliar dogs may parallel behavior with other novel or uncertain situations. Implications for dog bite intervention programs include targeting at-risk children and merging child- and parent-oriented interventions with existing programs geared toward the physical environment and the dog. PMID:23066411

  14. A survey of the dog population in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Moazzem; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Marma, Aung Swi Prue; Hossain, Sohrab; Ali, Mohammad Azmat; Shamsuzzaman, Abul Khair Mohammad; Nishizono, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Globally, Bangladesh ranks third in the number of human deaths from rabies. Although dogs are the principal known transmitters of rabies and knowledge of dog populations is essential for effective national control and proper planning, dog control programs are scarce in Bangladesh. Our objective was to count dogs in a rural area to understand the dog population of the country. For this purpose we selected six unions of Raipura upazila in Narsingdi district. Dog counting was done by direct observation following accepted guidelines. We determined the mean density of the dog population in Bangladesh to be 14 dog/km(2) (95% CI 3.7, 24) and the human:dog ratio to be 120 (95% CI 55, 184). Our paper contribute to the literature which shows great variation in the human:dog ratio across regions of the developing world. The human:dog ratio depends on the area's human (as well as dog) population, whereas dog density per unit area indicates the true number of dogs. We propose that extrapolating from the human:dog ratios of other regions not be relied upon for estimating dog populations, unless the ratios can be supplemented by actual counts of dogs within the target area. PMID:23590964

  15. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Dogs, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C.; Pacheco, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy. PMID:19239764

  16. Going to the 'Dogs' to Test Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramm, Kenneth R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an alternative method for using live animals in the classroom. A toy dog, the "Trail Tracker Hound Dog" (manufactured by CPG Products Corporation, Cincinnati, Ohio), is used to encourage development of such skills as observation, hypothesis testing, and collection and analysis of scientific data. (Author/JN)

  17. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  18. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  19. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  20. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  1. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  2. POLLUTION DETECTION DOGS: PROOF OF CONCEPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

  3. Interactions of wolves and dogs in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.; Paul, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    This article reports on the nature and extent of wolf-dog interactions in Minnesota, based on investigations of complaints received by personnel of the federal government dealing with wolf-depredation control. Findings may indicate the wolf-dog interactions that can be expected in other recovery areas.

  4. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  5. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions

  6. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  7. Compounding errors in 2 dogs receiving anticonvulsants

    PubMed Central

    McConkey, Sandra E.; Walker, Susan; Adams, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Two cases that involve drug compounding errors are described. One dog exhibited increased seizure activity due to a compounded, flavored phenobarbital solution that deteriorated before the expiration date provided by the compounder. The other dog developed clinical signs of hyperkalemia and bromine toxicity following a 5-fold compounding error in the concentration of potassium bromide (KBr). PMID:23024385

  8. Dogs' Body Language Relevant to Learning Achievement.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masashi; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2014-01-01

    The facial expressions and body postures of dogs can give helpful information about their moods and emotional states. People can more effectively obedience train their dogs if we can identify the mannerisms associated with learning in dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the dog's body language during operant conditioning to predict achievement in the test that followed by measuring the duration of behaviors. Forty-six untrained dogs (17 males and 26 females) of various breeds were used. Each session consisted of 5 minutes of training with a treat reward followed by 3 minutes of rest and finally an operant conditioning test that consisted of 20 "hand motion" cues. The operant tests were conducted a total of nine times over three consecutive days, and the success numbers were counted. The duration of the dog's behavior, focusing on the dog's eyes, mouth, ears, tail and tail-wagging, was recorded during the operant conditioning sessions before the test. Particular behaviors, including wide-eyes, closed mouth, erect ears, and forward and high tail carriage, without wagging or with short and quick wagging, related to high achievement results. It is concluded that dogs' body language during operant conditioning was related to their success rate. PMID:26479883

  9. Bait-Colored Prairie Dog Excrement

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image was taken during field tests to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) to help immunize prairie dogs against plague. The SPV is administered to wild prairie dogs via a brightly colored bait. After the bait is eaten, the animals' excrement takes ...

  10. Checking a Prairie Dog for Fleas

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    National Park Service veterinarian Kevin Castle checks an anaesthetized prairie dog for fleas in Wind Cave National Park.  Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvat...

  11. Prairie Dog Hole, Pitchfork Ranch, WY

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The image was taken during field tests to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) to help immunize prairie dogs against plague. The SPV is administered to wild prairie dogs via a brightly colored bait. After the bait is eaten, the animals' excreme...

  12. "The Dog Project:" Implications for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Joanne Marie

    2004-01-01

    In this photo essay, I examine the social contexts of literacy development through an exploration of a unique organization called "The Dog Project." In this descriptive narrative, I document the ways children's interactions with their peers, the instructors, and the dogs in the project fostered their sense of self-efficacy, their…

  13. Heat stroke in a Great Pyrenees dog

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 2-year-old, male Great Pyrenees presented with a history and clinical signs suggesting heat exhaustion. Treatment with intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and surface cooling was unsuccessful, and euthanasia was elected. Histological evaluation of the dogs tissues revealed lesions consistent with severe hyperthermia and shock. PMID:15283523

  14. Context specificity of inhibitory control in dogs

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Evan L.; Hare, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Across three experiments, we explored whether a dog's capacity for inhibitory control is stable or variable across decision-making contexts. In the social task, dogs were first exposed to the reputations of a stingy experimenter that never shared food and a generous experimenter who always shared food. In subsequent test trials, dogs were required to avoid approaching the stingy experimenter when this individual offered (but withheld) a higher-value reward than the generous experimenter did. In the A-not-B task, dogs were required to inhibit searching for food in a previously rewarded location after witnessing the food being moved from this location to a novel hiding place. In the cylinder task, dogs were required to resist approaching visible food directly (because it was behind a transparent barrier), in favor of a detour reaching response. Overall, dogs exhibited inhibitory control in all three tasks. However, individual scores were not correlated between tasks, suggesting that context has a large effect on dogs' behavior. This result mirrors studies of humans, which have highlighted intra-individual variation in inhibitory control as a function of the decision-making context. Lastly, we observed a correlation between a subject's age and performance on the cylinder task, corroborating previous observations of age-related decline in dogs' executive function. PMID:23584618

  15. Aggression in Dogs and Associated Neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, D. S.; Little, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    The central nervous systems of eight dogs with behavioral changes were compared. Three had pathological lesions involving the limbic system. The nervous system and, in particular, the limbic system should be examined as a possible site for lesions in dogs with a history of behavioral changes. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7191766

  16. Fatal presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat with measurement of venom and antivenom concentration.

    PubMed

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-04-01

    A fatal outcome of a presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat is described. Detectable venom components and antivenom concentrations in serum from clotted and centrifuged whole blood and urine were measured using a sensitive and specific ELISA. The cat presented in a paralysed state with a markedly elevated serum CK but with normal clotting times. The cat was treated with intravenous fluids and received two vials of equine whole IgG bivalent (tiger and brown snake) antivenom. Despite treatment the cat's condition did not improve and it died 36 h post-presentation. Serum concentration of detectable tiger snake venom components at initial presentation was 311 ng/mL and urine 832 ng/mL, this declined to non-detectable levels in serum 15-min after intravenous antivenom. Urine concentration of detectable tiger snake venom components declined to 22 ng/mL at post-mortem. Measurement of equine anti-tiger snake venom specific antibody demonstrated a concentration of 7.2 Units/mL in serum at post-mortem which had declined from an initial high of 13 Units/mL at 15-min post-antivenom. The ELISA data demonstrated the complete clearance of detectable venom components from serum with no recurrence in the post-mortem samples. Antivenom concentrations in serum at initial presentation were at least 100-fold higher than theoretically required to neutralise the circulating concentrations of venom. Despite the fatal outcome in this case it was concluded that this was unlikely that is was due to insufficient antivenom. PMID:26836396

  17. Differences in anti-malarial activity of 4-aminoalcohol quinoline enantiomers and investigation of the presumed underlying mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A better anti-malarial efficiency and lower neurotoxicity have been reported for mefloquine (MQ) (+)- enantiomer. However, the importance of stereoselectivity remains poorly understood as the anti-malarial activity of pure enantiomer MQ analogues has never been described. Building on these observations, a series of enantiopure 4-aminoalcohol quinoline derivatives has previously been synthesized to optimize the efficiency and reduce possible adverse effects. Their in vitro activity on Plasmodium falciparum W2 and 3D7 strains is reported here along with their inhibition of β-haematin formation and peroxidative degradation of haemin, two possible mechanisms of action of anti-malarial drugs. Results The (S)-enantiomers of this series of 4-aminoalcohol quinoline derivatives were found to be at least as effective as both chloroquine (CQ) and MQ. The derivative with a 5-carbon side-chain length was the more efficient on both P. falciparum strains. (R )-enantiomers displayed an activity decreased by 2 to 15-fold as compared to their (S) counterparts. The inhibition of β-haematin formation was significantly stronger with all tested compounds than with MQ, irrespective of the stereochemistry. Similarly, the inhibition of haemin peroxidation was significantly higher for both (S) and (R)-enantiomers of derivatives with a side-chain length of five or six carbons than for MQ and CQ. Conclusions The prominence of stereochemistry in the anti-malarial activity of 4-aminoalcohol quinoline derivatives is confirmed. The inhibition of β-haematin formation and haemin peroxidation can be put forward as presumed mechanisms of action but do not account for the stereoselectivity of action witnessed in vitro. PMID:22401346

  18. Histiocytic typhlocolitis in two colony Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Carvallo, Francisco R; Kerlin, Roy; Fredette, Claudine; Pisharath, Harshan; DebRoy, Chitrita; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Pardo, Ingrid D

    2015-02-01

    Two young female Beagle dogs in a laboratory colony with clinical signs of loose stools and fecal blood were confirmed to have histiocytic ulcerative colitis by histologic evaluation. This syndrome is well recognized in other dog breeds such as Boxers and related French Bulldogs, Mastiffs, Alaskan malamutes and Doberman Pinschers. Formalin-fixed paraffin sections of large intestine from one dog demonstrated the presence of Escherichia coli strain LF82 by immunohistochemistry and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. E coli strain LF82 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and similar bacteria have been cultured from cases of histiocytic ulcerative colitis in Boxer dogs. Spontaneous histiocytic ulcerative colitis must be differentiated from test article-related findings in nonclinical toxicity studies in Beagle dogs. PMID:25467750

  19. Dog Models of Naturally Occurring Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Jennie L.; McCarthy, Donna O.; Alvarez, Carlos E.

    2011-01-01

    Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models of natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has vastly reduced genetic variation compared to humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five to eight-fold faster than humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age, and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the last decade, developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer. PMID:21439907

  20. Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) prefer family?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jennifer; Vonk, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Kin recognition requires the ability to discriminate between one's own genetic relatives and non-relatives. There are two mechanisms that aid in kin discrimination: phenotype matching and familiarity. Dogs may be a good model for assessing these mechanisms as dogs are a promiscuous social species with a keen sense of smell. Domestic dogs of both sexes were presented with two scents (close kin, distant-kin) and preference was assessed through three measures (latency to approach, number of visits, time spent). Experiment 1 explored the possibility of phenotype matching as subjects had no contact with sires, whose scent was presented alongside a control male's scent. Experiment 2 explored recognition of siblings raised with the subjects and then separated at seven weeks of age. Whereas female dogs in this experiment did not show a statistically significant preference, male dogs showed a preference for distant-kin when presented with sire and female sibling samples. PMID:26277060

  1. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  2. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  3. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  4. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  5. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section... CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the property for other than...

  6. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  7. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  8. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  9. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  10. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  11. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  12. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  13. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  14. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  15. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  16. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  17. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  18. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  19. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  20. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  1. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Dogs and other animals. 504.10... SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  2. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  3. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  4. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  5. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Dogs and other animals. 520.11... THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION § 520.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  6. Anthelmintic efficacy of milbemycin oxime against Trichuris vulpis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Horii, Y; Otsuka, Y; Tateishi, M; Makimura, S; Kusano, K

    1998-02-01

    The anthelmintic efficacy of milbemycin oxime against dog whipworm, Trichuris vulpis, was evaluated. A total of 21 T. vulpis positive dogs were divided into 3 groups, one (5 dogs) for control and the other two (8 dogs each) for anthelmintic treatment with oral administration of milbemycin oxime. PMID:9524958

  7. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    PubMed

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P?<0.01). Risk factors such as bending over the dog, putting the face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs. PMID:26598785

  8. Calcipotriol toxicity in a dog.

    PubMed

    Fan, T M; Simpson, K W; Trasti, S; Birnbaum, N; Center, S A; Yeager, A

    1998-12-01

    A six-month-old Labrador retriever was presented for investigation of acute polyuria, polydipsia and haematemesis six hours following ingestion of a tube of the topical antipsoriatic vitamin D analogue, calcipotriol. Transient hypercalcaemia, azotaemia, proteinuria, thrombocytopenia and ventricular arrhythmias ensued. Abdominal ultrasonography and echocardiography revealed evidence of diffuse soft tissue mineralisation. Despite 13 days of intensive supportive care, the dog was euthanased due to continued haematemesis and anorexia. Necropsy confirmed mineralisation and necrosis of multiple organ systems consistent with vitamin D toxicity. PMID:9888112

  9. Haemodynamic and haematologic effects of Acanthaster planci venom in dogs.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, N; Noguchi, K; Matsuzaki, T; Ojiri, Y; Hirayama, K; Sakanashi, M

    1994-10-01

    This study was designed to examine haemodynamic and haematologic effects of the crown-of-thorns starfish venom (Acanthaster planci venom: APV) in dogs. Severe systemic hypotension, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were induced by APV (1.0 mg protein/kg i.v.), followed by gradual return to the baseline level within 60 min. Hypotension was presumably caused by two factors: an early decrease in systemic vascular resistance and the large reduction in cardiac output due to reduced ventricular filling. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, remarkably suppressed systemic hypotension induced by APV. The peak reduction in systemic pressure was associated with concomitant rise of plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a major stable metabolite of prostacyclin. Thus, the hypotensive effect of APV may be caused primarily by prostacyclin and/or some vasodilating prostaglandins. In contrast, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were not affected by cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor or platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist. When APV was administered repeatedly, tachyphylaxis was developed in haemodynamic effects, but not in haematologic effects. These findings suggest that APV-induced hypotensive effects may occur mainly through endogenous production of vasodilating prostaglandins including prostacyclin, although APV-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia may be caused by other mechanism(s) unrelated to arachidonate metabolites and/or PAF. PMID:7846692

  10. Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

  11. The types of the landslide by the heavy rain presumed from geographical and geological features in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshida, S.

    2014-12-01

    Various types of a landslide, such as a deep-seated landslide, a shallow landslide, and a debris flow, exist. And the risk and the damage area of a landslide change greatly with the types. Therefore it is very important to guess the type of a landslide generated in the future, in order to decrease the damage of a landslide. In this research, I investigated and studied the landslide disaster which occurred in the typhoon No.12 disaster in 2011 and the northern Kyusyu-island heavy rain disaster 2012, in Japan. The purpose of the study presumes the types of a landslide generated in the future by analyzing geographical and geological features. ?Many deep-seated landslides and shallow landslides (debris flows) occurred by the typhoon No.12, 2011 in Japan. The precipitation exceeds 1,800 mm in four days in part regionally. Landslides occurred frequently in the Totsukawa area (Northern part) and Nachi-Katsuura area (Southern part), both area were the precipitation of about 1000 mm in four days. In the Totsukawa area, deep-seated landslides occurred frequently, and in Nachi-Katsuura area, shallow landslides (debris flows) occurred frequently. On the other hand, many deep-seated landslides and shallow landslides occurred by the northern Kyusyu-island heavy rain disaster 2012 in Japan too. Landslides occurred frequently in the Hoshino village area (Northern part) and Asodani area (Southern part). In both area, the total precipitation exceeds 500 mm and the hourly precipitation is about 80 mm. In the Hoshino village area, deep-seated landslides occurred frequently, and in Asodani area, shallow landslides occurred frequently. ?The result compared with the deep-seated landslide area (Totsukawa and Hoshino village) and the shallow landslide area (Nachi-Katsuura and Asodani), area of landslide is larger and number of landslide is fewer in the deep-seated landslide area. In the shallow landslide area, the slope is steeper and the drainage network is more developed. It is surmised that these geographical differentiations are the geographical features formed of the past landslide. Therefore, it is important to read and analyze the past landslide disaster hysteresis from geographical feature for specifying the type of a landslide.

  12. How to Steal a Dog and Other Lessons in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a lost dog gave her the idea for writing her book, "How to Steal a Dog." Her tale of serendipity began when she, a dog-lover, walked into a garden center near her home and saw a sign for a lost dog taped beside the cash register. She states that, although her story is about a girl who stole a dog and

  13. How to Steal a Dog and Other Lessons in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a lost dog gave her the idea for writing her book, "How to Steal a Dog." Her tale of serendipity began when she, a dog-lover, walked into a garden center near her home and saw a sign for a lost dog taped beside the cash register. She states that, although her story is about a girl who stole a dog and…

  14. Insect vector-mediated transmission of plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Anna E; Falk, Bryce W; Rotenberg, Dorith

    2015-05-01

    The majority of plant-infecting viruses are transmitted to their host plants by vectors. The interactions between viruses and vector vary in duration and specificity but some common themes in vector transmission have emerged: 1) plant viruses encode structural proteins on the surface of the virion that are essential for transmission, and in some cases additional non-structural helper proteins that act to bridge the virion to the vector binding site; 2) viruses bind to specific sites in or on vectors and are retained there until they are transmitted to their plant hosts; and 3) viral determinants of vector transmission are promising candidates for translational research aimed at disrupting transmission or decreasing vector populations. In this review, we focus on well-characterized insect vector-transmitted viruses in the following genera: Caulimovirus, Crinivirus, Luteovirus, Geminiviridae, Reovirus, Tospovirus, and Tenuivirus. New discoveries regarding these genera have increased our understanding of the basic mechanisms of virus transmission by arthropods, which in turn have enabled the development of innovative strategies for breaking the transmission cycle. PMID:25824478

  15. Gliomatosis cerebri in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Brandon L; Kent, Marc; Summers, Brian; Platt, Simon R; Freeman, A Courtenay; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Clemans, Jessie; Cheville, Norman F; Garcia-Tapia, David

    2012-01-01

    A 3.5 yr old Saint Bernard was evaluated for nonambulatory tetraparesis and cranial nerve dysfunction, and a 7 yr old rottweiler was evaluated for progressive paraparesis. Clinical signs of left-sided vestibular and general proprioceptive ataxia and cranial nerve VII dysfunction in the Saint Bernard suggested a lesion affecting the brain stem. Signs in the rottweiler consisted of general proprioceptive/upper motor neuron paraparesis, suggesting a lesion involving the third thoracic (T3) to third lumbar (L3) spinal cord segments. MRI was normal in the Saint Bernard, but an intra-axial lesion involving the T13-L2 spinal cord segments was observed in the rottweiler. In both dogs, the central nervous system (CNS) contained neoplastic cells with features consistent with gliomatosis cerebri (GC). In the Saint Bernard, neoplastic cells were present in the medulla oblongata and cranial cervical spinal cord. In the rottweiler, neoplastic cells were only present in the spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry disclosed two distinct patterns of CD18, nestin, and vimentin staining. GC is a rarely reported tumor of the CNS. Although GC typically involves the cerebrum, clinical signs in these two dogs reflected caudal brainstem and spinal cord involvement. PMID:22843831

  16. Quantum non-barking dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

    2014-06-01

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

  17. Managing Neuropathic Pain in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of the somatosensory system such as neuropathic pain are common in people with chronic neurologic and musculoskeletal diseases, yet these conditions remain an underappreciated morbidity in veterinary patients. This is likely because assessment of neuropathic pain in people relies heavily on self-reporting, something our veterinary patients are not able to do. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex phenomenon, and concepts related to it are frequently not addressed in the standard veterinary medical curriculum such that veterinarians may not recognize this as a potential problem in patients. The goals of this review are to discuss basic concepts in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, provide definitions for common clinical terms used in association with the condition, and discuss pharmacological treatment options for dogs with neuropathic pain. The development of neuropathic pain involves key mechanisms such as ectopic afferent nerve activity, peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, impaired inhibitory modulation, and pathologic activation of microglia. Treatments aimed at reducing neuropathic pain are targeted at one or more of these mechanisms. Several drugs are commonly used in the veterinary clinical setting to treat neuropathic pain. These include gabapentin, pregabalin, amantadine, and amitriptyline. Proposed mechanisms of action for each drug, and known pharmacokinetic profiles in dogs are discussed. Strong evidence exists in the human literature for the utility of most of these treatments, but clinical veterinary-specific literature is currently limited. Future studies should focus on objective methods to document neuropathic pain and monitor response to therapy in veterinary patients. PMID:26942185

  18. Metabolism of cibenzoline in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, A.C.; Williams, T.H.; Tilley, J.W.; Sasso, G.J.; Carbone, J.J.; Leinweber, F.J.; Cazes, M.

    1986-03-05

    The disposition of /sup 14/C-cibenzoline in male dogs after oral administration of 13.8 mg/kg of cibenzoline base, 4,5-dihydro-2-(2,2-diphenylcyclopropyl)-1H-imidazole, was investigated. Unchanged drug was the major excreted component in 0-24 h urine from 3 dogs, ranging from 32.2-56.6% of the dose. A phenolic metabolite was purified by TLC after Glusulase hydrolysis and identified by NMR and MS as p-hydroxycibenzoline in rearranged form, rac-4-(5-phenyl(2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-pyrrolo-(1,2-a)imidazol-5-yl)) phenol. The 0-24 h urine contained 4-5% of the dose as this compound. The conditions leading to rearrangement of synthetic p-hydroxycibenzoline, trans-rac-4-(2-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-phenylcyclopropyl) phenol, were investigated. These studies suggested that unrearranged p-hydroxycibenzoline was excreted and that rearrangement occurred predominantly during the purification procedure. Unchanged cibenzoline, purified from urine, was analyzed by ORD/CD and found to display slight optical activity, corresponding to an optical purity of 15%. Shape of the spectra and sign (minus) were those of reference S(-) cibenzoline. p-Hydroxycibenzoline and its rearranged analog were only slightly active in inhibiting ventricular arrhythmia in rats induced by i.v. infusion of aconitine.

  19. Dog is a dog is a dog: Infant rule learning is not specific to language

    PubMed Central

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Pollak, Seth D.; Seibel, Rebecca L.; Shkolnik, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Human infants possess powerful learning mechanisms used for the acquisition of language. To what extent are these mechanisms domain-specific? One well-known infant language learning mechanism is the ability to detect and generalize rule-like similarity patterns, such as ABA or ABB (Marcus et al., 1999). The results of three experiments demonstrate that 7-month-old infants can detect and generalize these same patterns when the elements consist of pictures of animals (dogs and cats). These findings indicate that rule learning of this type is not specific to language acquisition. PMID:17188676

  20. Are owners' reports of their dogs' 'guilty look' influenced by the dogs' action and evidence of the misdeed?

    PubMed

    Ostoji?, Ljerka; Tkal?i?, Mladenka; Clayton, Nicola S

    2015-02-01

    While dog owners claim that their dogs' greeting behaviour after having performed a misdeed indicates the dogs' 'guilt', current experimental evidence suggests that dogs show these 'guilty look' behaviours as a response to being scolded by their owners. Given reports that 'guilty look' behaviours are shown also in the absence of being scolded, we investigated whether the dogs' own actions or the evidence of a misdeed might serve as triggering cues. We manipulated whether or not dogs ate a 'forbidden' food item and whether or not the food was visible upon the owners' return. Based on their dogs' greeting behaviour, owners stated that their dog had eaten the food no more than expected by chance. In addition, dogs' greeting behaviours were not affected by their own action or the presence or absence of the food. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that dogs show the 'guilty look' in the absence of a concurrent negative reaction by their owners. PMID:25562192

  1. Are owners' reports of their dogs guilty look influenced by the dogs action and evidence of the misdeed?

    PubMed Central

    Ostoji?, Ljerka; Tkal?i?, Mladenka; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    While dog owners claim that their dogs greeting behaviour after having performed a misdeed indicates the dogs' guilt, current experimental evidence suggests that dogs show these guilty look behaviours as a response to being scolded by their owners. Given reports that guilty look behaviours are shown also in the absence of being scolded, we investigated whether the dogs' own actions or the evidence of a misdeed might serve as triggering cues. We manipulated whether or not dogs ate a forbidden food item and whether or not the food was visible upon the owners return. Based on their dogs greeting behaviour, owners stated that their dog had eaten the food no more than expected by chance. In addition, dogs greeting behaviours were not affected by their own action or the presence or absence of the food. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that dogs show the guilty look in the absence of a concurrent negative reaction by their owners. PMID:25562192

  2. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  3. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning. PMID:21874515

  4. Dog ownership and dog walking to promote physical activity and health in patients.

    PubMed

    Epping, Jacqueline N

    2011-07-01

    Lack of physical activity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases and conditions and is associated with significant medical costs. Approximately half of adults and more than a third of adolescents and youth in the United States do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Effective population-level strategies are needed to promote activities that are practical, accessible, and sustainable and that can reach a large proportion of the population. Dog walking may be such a strategy. Walking is popular, easy, and sustainable and has a low risk of injury. Owning dogs confers many health benefits, and dog walking, in particular, can help promote physical activity and improve health. Physicians and other health care providers can play a unique and integral role in promoting physical activity among patients by recommending dog walking both to dog owners and to non-dog owners as a purposeful, enjoyable, and sustainable form of regular physical activity. PMID:23531898

  5. Dog owners' perceptions of breed-specific dangerous dog legislation in the UK.

    PubMed

    Oxley, J A; Farr, K J; De Luna, C J

    2012-10-27

    The aim of this study was to identify both the level and source of knowledge that dog owners in the UK have of the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991. In order to acquire such information a questionnaire was designed and distributed using two main methods over a period of five months. Questionnaires were distributed via three pet-related online forums and by hand at two locations within five predefined areas in England. In total, 459 responses were received. Of these, 21.4 per cent were unable to name a single type of banned dog and 81.9 per cent of respondents agreed that information on dog legislation was not publicised enough. The knowledge of banned breeds among the dog owners surveyed was low and respondents expressed a desire to see the law relating to dangerous dogs in the UK either changed or improved. PMID:23104789

  6. Circovirus in Tissues of Dogs with Vasculitis and Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; McGraw, Sabrina; Zhu, Kevin; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Marks, Stanley L.; Kubiski, Steven; Gaffney, Patricia; Dela Cruz Jr, Florante N.; Wang, Chunlin; Delwart, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We characterized the complete genome of a novel dog circovirus (DogCV) from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, vasculitis, and granulomatous lymphadenitis. DogCV was detected by PCR in fecal samples from 19/168 (11.3%) dogs with diarrhea and 14/204 (6.9%) healthy dogs and in blood from 19/409 (3.3%) of dogs with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, fever of unknown origin, or past tick bite. Co-infection with other canine pathogens was detected for 13/19 (68%) DogCV-positive dogs with diarrhea. DogCV capsid proteins from different dogs varied by up to 8%. In situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy detected DogCV in the lymph nodes and spleens of 4 dogs with vascular compromise and histiocytic inflammation. The detection of a circovirus in tissues of dogs expands the known tropism of these viruses to a second mammalian host. Our results indicate that circovirus, alone or in co-infection with other pathogens, might contribute to illness and death in dogs. PMID:23628223

  7. Comparison of the nutrient composition of commercial dog milk replacers with that of dog milk

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Cailin R.; Freeman, Lisa M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Power, Michael L.; Fascetti, Andrea J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the nutrient composition of commercially available dog milk replacers with that of dog milk. Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Sample 5 dog milk samples and 15 samples of commercial dog milk replacers. Procedures Dog milk and milk replacers were analyzed for concentrations of total protein, essential amino acids, sugars, total fat, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus. Energy density was calculated. Results from milk replacers were compared with the range of the concentration of each nutrient in milk samples from mature dogs as well as the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations for puppy growth. Results Milk replacers varied widely in caloric density and concentration of nutrients such as calcium, protein, and fat. Calcium concentration was lower in 14 of 15 milk replacers than in the dog milk samples. Docosahexaenoic acid was undetectable in 12 of 15 milk replacers but present in all dog milk samples. All milk replacers had numerous essential nutrients outside of the range of the dog milk samples, and many had concentrations of amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus less than the NRC minimal requirement or recommended allowance. Compared with NRC recommendations, some dog milk samples had concentrations of total protein, linoleic acid, calcium, or phosphorus less than the recommended allowance. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that there was substantial variation in nutrient composition of 15 dog milk replacers and that some products were closer approximations of dog milk than others. Nearly all products would benefit from more appropriate calcium, amino acids, and essential fatty acids concentrations and better feeding directions. PMID:24871064

  8. Transthoracic lung ultrasound in normal dogs and dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Nathalie; Pariaut, Romain; Pate, Julie; Saelinger, Carley; Kearney, Michael T; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is the most common complication of left-sided heart failure in dogs and early detection is important for effective clinical management. In people, pulmonary edema is commonly diagnosed based on transthoracic ultrasonography and detection of B line artifacts (vertical, narrow-based, well-defined hyperechoic rays arising from the pleural surface). The purpose of this study was to determine whether B line artifacts could also be useful diagnostic predictors for cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. Thirty-one normal dogs and nine dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema were prospectively recruited. For each dog, presence or absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema was based on physical examination, heartworm testing, thoracic radiographs, and echocardiography. A single observer performed transthoracic ultrasonography in all dogs and recorded video clips and still images for each of four quadrants in each hemithorax. Distribution, sonographic characteristics, and number of B lines per thoracic quadrant were determined and compared between groups. B lines were detected in 31% of normal dogs (mean 0.9 0.3 SD per dog) and 100% of dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (mean 6.2 3.8 SD per dog). Artifacts were more numerous and widely distributed in dogs with congestive heart failure (P < 0.0001). In severe cases, B lines increased in number and became confluent. The locations of B line artifacts appeared consistent with locations of edema on radiographs. Findings from the current study supported the use of thoracic ultrasonography and detection of B lines as techniques for diagnosing cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. PMID:24620777

  9. Eye diseases in Siberian husky dogs.

    PubMed

    Stanley, R G; Blogg, J R

    1991-05-01

    A full ophthalmic examination was performed on 40 Siberian husky dogs using direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, gonloscopy and nasolacrimal cannulation. Eight (20%) of the dogs were found to have distichia, 10 (25%) had excessive medial caruncular hairs, 8 (20%) had absence, displacement, or narrowing of the nasolacrimal puncta, 2 (5%) had bilateral corneal crystalline opacities, and 2 (5%) had unilateral areas of lateral corneal lipidosis. Fifty percent of the dogs had some abnormality of the iridocorneal (drainage) angle. However, in only one of these was the deformity severe enough to require glaucoma prophylaxis. An association between blue iris colour and malformation of the iridocorneal angle was noted. PMID:1883291

  10. Medullary trichomalacia in 6 German shepherd dogs

    PubMed Central

    Tieghi, Chiara; Miller, William H.; Scott, Danny W.; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2003-01-01

    Medullary trichomalacia is the name proposed for a hair shaft abnormality that was recognized in 6 German shepherd dogs. Affected dogs had multifocal areas of broken hairs, especially on the dorsolateral trunk. Microscopic examination of hair shafts revealed focal areas of loss of architecture, swelling, and apparent softening of the medulla, followed by longitudinal (lengthwise) splitting and breakage of the hair shaft. No cause could be found. Affected dogs were otherwise healthy, and apparent spontaneous recovery was the usual outcome. Relapses may occur. PMID:12650041

  11. Medullary trichomalacia in 6 German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Tieghi, Chiara; Miller, William H; Scott, Danny W; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2003-02-01

    Medullary trichomalacia is the name proposed for a hair shaft abnormality that was recognized in 6 German shepherd dogs. Affected dogs had multifocal areas of broken hairs, especially on the dorsolateral trunk. Microscopic examination of hair shafts revealed focal areas of loss of architecture, swelling, and apparent softening of the medulla, followed by longitudinal (length-wise) splitting and breakage of the hair shaft. No cause could be found. Affected dogs were otherwise healthy, and apparent spontaneous recovery was the usual outcome. Relapses may occur. PMID:12650041

  12. Adverse food reactions in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Gaschen, Frdric P; Merchant, Sandra R

    2011-03-01

    Adverse food reactions (AFR) are a common problem that may cause cutaneous and/or gastrointestinal signs in dogs and cats. They comprise food intolerance, food intoxication, and food allergy. Response to a dietary elimination trial and recurrence of signs during dietary provocation remain the centerpiece of diagnosis and management of dogs and cats with AFR. Response to an elimination trial is frequently observed in dogs and cats with chronic idiopathic enteropathies. However, only a fraction of them relapse after a dietary challenge. These animals may have mild to enteritis and/or colitis and benefit from various additional properties of the elimination diet. PMID:21486641

  13. Fleas parasitizing domestic dogs in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gracia, M J; Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Castillo, J A; Peribez, M A; Lucientes, J

    2008-02-14

    In addition to their importance to veterinary clinical practice as ectoparasites, fleas of domestic dogs are of special concern because they can be vectors of disease, including zoonoses. Flea assemblages parasitizing domestic dogs usually comprise several flea species whose distribution is determined by factors acting at several scales. Knowledge of these factors will aid in assessment of the distribution patterns of flea parasitism, and is an important tool in developing control strategies and in evaluation of flea-borne disease risk in dogs and humans. In this survey we used data from 744 domestic dogs from 79 localities in Spain to explore the associations between the abundance of flea species, host-dependent factors (sex and age), and host habitat factors including abode (farm, house with garden, apartment), location (urban or rural), the presence of other pets, and dog activity (measured as the frequency with which dogs left their abode). We also considered environmental factors including the time of year and mean annual temperature and rainfall. Variations in flea community structure at infracommunity and component community levels were also explored. Four flea species were found parasitizing dogs. Ctenocephalides felis was the most abundant (88.02% of fleas identified), followed by Ctenocephalides canis (10.38%), Pulex irritans (1.47%) and Echidnophaga gallinacea (0.13%). Overall flea abundance was higher on dogs living on farms than in apartments, as was the abundance of Ct. felis, Ct. canis and P. irritans. Ct. felis was more abundant on dogs living in houses than in apartments, but the reverse was found for P. irritans. Overall flea abundance and Ct. canis abundance were highest in rural areas, whereas the presence of other pets sharing the abode was associated with higher overall flea abundance and Ct. felis abundance. Only P. irritans abundance was positively related to the activity of dogs. Ct. canis and P. irritans abundances were higher during the warm period of the year. Mean annual temperature was negatively correlated with overall, Ct. canis and P. irritans abundances, but positively related to Ct. felis abundance. Annual rainfall was negatively correlated with Ct. canis and P. irritans abundances. Variations in the number of flea species found on a dog reflected the abundance distribution patterns for each species and their associations with host habitat and environmental factors. At the component community level, flea species richness was inversely related to annual mean temperature. The structure of flea assemblages on dogs was mainly associated with host habitat and environmental variables, and not with host-dependent variables. However, a large amount of variation in flea abundance remained unexplained, suggesting the effect of other non-controlled factors. PMID:18031934

  14. Size and demography pattern of the domestic dog population in Bhutan: Implications for dog population management and disease control.

    PubMed

    Rinzin, Karma; Tenzin, Tenzin; Robertson, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the demography of domestic dogs is essential to plan the dog population management and rabies control program. In this study, we estimated the owned and stray dog population and the proportion of owned dogs that are free-roaming in Bhutan. For this, a cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in six districts (both urban and rural areas) and two border towns in southern Bhutan. The population estimation was done by extrapolation of the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person, whilst mark-resight survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of owned dogs that were free-roaming. A total of 1,301 (rural:585; urban:716) respondents (one per household) were interviewed of which 173 households (24.4%) in urban areas owned 237 dogs whilst 238 households (40.8%) in rural areas owned 353 dogs. The mean number of dogs per dog owning household was estimated to be 1.44 (urban:1.37 dogs; rural:1.48 dogs) and dogs per household was estimated to be 0.45 (urban:0.33; rural:0.60). The dog: human ratio was 1:16.30 (0.06 dogs per person) in urban areas and 1:8.43 (0.12 dogs per person) in rural areas. The total owned dog population based on the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person were estimated to be 65,312 and 71,245 in the country, respectively. The male: female ratio of the owned dog was 1.31:1 in urban areas and 2.05:1 in rural areas. Majority of the dogs were local non-descript breeds in both urban (60.8%) and rural (78%) areas, and the most common source was acquisition from friends or family (44.7%). The stray dog population in Bhutan was estimated to be 48,379 (urban:22,772; rural:25,607). Of the total estimated owned dog population in the two border towns, the proportion that were found free-roaming was estimated to be 31%. The different dog population estimation methods were compared and discussed in this paper. This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which will be useful for planning and monitoring dog population management and rabies control program in the country. PMID:26873612

  15. Uniplanar Nystagmus Associated with Perceptual and Cognitive Visual Dysfunction due to Presumed Focal Ischemic Occipital Cortical Atrophy: A Missed Diagnosis and New Observation

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Swetha Sara; Dutton, Gordon N.; Dorris, Liam

    2012-01-01

    Uniplanar nystagmus has been described in relation to pathology of the brain stem, retina, optic nerve, sensory visual deprivation, periventricular leucomalacia, and drug toxicity. This paper describes a case of uniplanar nystagmus associated with features of higher visual dysfunction and a presumed focal insult to the occipital lobes following an episode of neonatal apnea. PMID:23056980

  16. Even Lesbian Youths or Those Presumed to Be Lesbians Are Protected by the Constitution of Uganda--But to a Limited Extent: Rules the High Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujuzi, Jamil Ddamulira

    2009-01-01

    The Ugandan Penal Code criminalizes same-sex relationships. The author analyzes the Ugandan High Court decision where the judge relied on the Constitution and international human rights instruments to hold that law enforcement officers must respect the rights to privacy and human dignity even of those people presumed to be in same-sex…

  17. Even Lesbian Youths or Those Presumed to Be Lesbians Are Protected by the Constitution of Uganda--But to a Limited Extent: Rules the High Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujuzi, Jamil Ddamulira

    2009-01-01

    The Ugandan Penal Code criminalizes same-sex relationships. The author analyzes the Ugandan High Court decision where the judge relied on the Constitution and international human rights instruments to hold that law enforcement officers must respect the rights to privacy and human dignity even of those people presumed to be in same-sex

  18. Evaluation of the shock index in dogs presenting as emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Adam E.; Rozanski, Elizabeth A.; Sharp, Claire R.; Dixon, Kursten L.; Lyn Price, Lori; Shaw, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To 1) determine the normal range for Shock Index (SI) [defined as heart rate (HR)/systolic blood pressure (SBP)], in healthy dogs, and 2) compare SI in healthy dogs with dogs presenting to the emergency room (ER) deemed to be in or not in a state of shock. Design Prospective study. Animals 68 clinically normal dogs,,18 dogs that were presented to the ER deemed to be in shock and 19 dogs presenting to the ER not deemed to be in shock. Setting University teaching hospital. Interventions Peripheral or central venous blood sampling. Measurements and Main Results Heart rate and SBP were recorded on simulated presentation (healthy dogs), and emergency presentations for both dogs deemed to be in shock and dogs not deemed in shock. Dogs in shock had a median SI of 1.37 (0.87–3.13), which was significantly higher than both other groups; dogs not deemed in shock had median SI 0.73 (0.56–1.20), P<0.0001 and healthy dogs had median SI 0.78 (0.37–1.30) P<0.0001), respectively. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis suggested a SI cut-off of 1.0, yielding an area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) of 0.89 (Specificity (Sp) 89, Sensitivity (Sn) 90) when comparing dogs deemed in shock with healthy dogs, and 0.92 (Sp 95, Sn 89) when comparing dogs in shock with to dogs not deemed in shock. Conclusions The SI is an easy and non-invasive patient parameter that is higher in dogs that are deemed to be in shock than both healthy dogs and dogs presented as emergencies but not deemed to be in a state of shock. The measurement of SI may have some benefit in clinical assessment of emergency patients. PMID:23855723

  19. Should people with epilepsy have untrained dogs as pets?

    PubMed

    Strong, V; Brown, S W

    2000-09-01

    We report 36 cases of pet dogs, who suffered significant adverse health effects as a result of spontaneously reacting to, or anticipating, epileptic seizures in their human owners. These included three cases in which the dog died, and 12 cases in which the dog exhibited aggressive behaviour towards humans. However, where dogs have been specially trained as Seizure Alert Dogs, these adverse effects have not been seen. As interest grows in the use of dogs to anticipate human seizures and support people with epilepsy, it is important to emphasize the need for specially chosen dogs to be used, and for them to be specially trained. This also raises concerns about potential use of untrained dogs as controls in future research using Seizure Alert Dogs. PMID:10986001

  20. Comparison of P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs, dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background P-wave dispersion (Pd) is a new ECG index used in human cardiology and veterinary medicine. It is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different ECG leads. So far no studies were performed assessing the importance of P-wave dispersion in dogs. Methods The current study was aimed at determining proper value of Pd in healthy dogs (group I), dogs with chronic valvular disease (group II) and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction (group III). The tests were carried out in 53 healthy dogs, 23 dogs with chronic valvular disease and 12 dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction of various breeds, sexes and body weight from 1,5 to 80 kg, aged between 0,5 and 17 years, submitted to the ECG examination. ECG was acquired in dogs in a standing position with BTL SD-8 electrocardiographic device and analyzed once the recording was enlarged. P-wave duration was calculated in 9 ECG leads (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, V1, V2, V4) from 5 cardiac cycles. Results The proper P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs was determined at up to 24 ms. P-wave dispersion was statistically significant increased (p < 0.01) in dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction. In dogs with the atrial enlargement the P-wave dispersion is also higher than in healthy dogs, although no significant correlation between the size of left atria and Pd was noticed (p = 0.1, r = 0,17). Conclusions The P-wave dispersion is a constant index in healthy dogs, that is why it can be used for evaluating P wave change in dogs with chronic valvular disease and in dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction. PMID:21396110

  1. Serum-free thyroxine concentrations, measured by chemiluminescence assay before and after thyrotropin administration in healthy dogs, hypothyroid dogs, and euthyroid dogs with dermathopathies.

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, M; Pag, N; Larivire, N; Fontaine, M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of free thyroxine (FT4) measured by chemiluminescence in evaluating thyroid function in dogs. Total thyroxine (TT4) concentration measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and FT4 measured by chemiluminescence were evaluated in 30 healthy dogs, 60 euthyroid dogs with concurrent dermatopathies, and 30 hypothyroid dogs before and after intravenous stimulation with 1 or 2 IU of thyrotropin (TSH). Median basal TT4 and median TT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different (P < 0.0001) between healthy dogs and euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but were significantly higher than those in hypothyroid dogs. In healthy dogs, the median TT4 concentrations at 4 and 6 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different. Median basal FT4 and median FT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration in healthy dogs were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than those in euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but significantly higher than the same parameters in hypothyroid dogs. There was a significant difference between the median FT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration and median basal FT4 concentrations for healthy dogs and euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but not for hypothyroid dogs. Lastly, in healthy dogs, median FT4 concentrations at 4 and 6 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different. Free thyroxine measured by chemiluminescence was highly correlated (P < 0.0001; Spearman r = 0.91) with FT4 measured by the reference method for free hormone analysis, namely, equilibrium dialysis, when sera from 56 dogs were used. PMID:8705973

  2. Dogs use of the solidity principle revisited

    PubMed Central

    Mller, Corsin A.; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of comparative data has been accumulated over the past decades on how animals acquire and use information about the physical world. Domestic dogs have typically performed comparably poorly in physical cognition tasks, though in a recent study Kundey and colleagues (2010) challenged this view and concluded that dogs understand that objects cannot pass through solid barriers. However, the eight subjects in the study of Kundey et al. may have solved the task with the help of perceptual cues, which had not been controlled for. Here, we tested dogs with a similar task that excluded these cues. In addition, unlike the setup of Kundey et al., our setup allowed the subjects to observe the effect of the solid barrier. Nevertheless, all 28 subjects failed to solve this task spontaneously, and showed no evidence of learning across 50 trials. Our results therefore call into question the earlier suggestion that dogs have, or can acquire, an understanding of the solidity principle. PMID:24253452

  3. Hemorrhagic cystitis in a dog receiving carboplatin.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Valerie; Dickinson, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    An 8 yr old castrated male Labrador retriever mixed-breed dog with osteosarcoma (OSA) of the left proximal humerus receiving carboplatin presented 10 days after the third chemotherapy treatment with hematuria, stranguria, and pollakiuria. A presumptive diagnosis of hemorrhagic cystitis was made based on clinical signs, urinalysis, and cytologic analysis of a traumatic catheterization sample. Carboplatin was removed from the chemotherapy treatment plan and was substituted with doxorubicin. The dog was treated with meloxicam for pain, and the cystitis signs subsided over a period of 4 wk. Carboplatin is commonly used as adjuvant chemotherapy for dogs with OSA following amputation and is not known to cause hematuria in dogs, although there are reports of this occurring in humans. To the authors' knowledge, there are no reports in the veterinary literature of this toxicity. PMID:24216493

  4. Tooth brushing inhibits oral bacteria in dogs

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Kazuhiro; HAYASHI, Kotaro; KIJIMA, Saku; NONAKA, Chie; YAMAZOE, Kazuaki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs. PMID:25994486

  5. Theileria annae in a young Swedish dog.

    PubMed

    Falkenö, Ulrika; Tasker, Séverine; Osterman-Lind, Eva; Tvedten, Harold W

    2013-01-01

    A severe regenerative anemia was detected in a 12-week-old mixed breed puppy in Sweden. A small protozoan parasite was observed in erythrocytes on a blood smear. It was initially suspected to be Babesia gibsoni based on its size and because B. gibsoni was previously recorded in Sweden. Surprisingly, specific polymerase chain reaction analysis identified the protozoan as Theileria annae. T. annae is endemic in Northwest Spain, is very uncommonly reported elsewhere and has never been recorded in Scandinavia. T. annae has been identified in dogs used for dog fighting, and it is thought to be transmitted by dog bites. This puppy was a mixed pit bull terrier. Pit bull terriers are sometimes used for dog fighting. T. annae has been reported to be transmitted vertically, and in light of the puppy's age, this transmission was suspected in the present case. PMID:23842507

  6. Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Malik, R; Hunt, G B; Bellenger, C R; Allan, G S; Martin, P; Canfield, P J; Love, D N

    1999-08-01

    Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis was diagnosed in two young dogs. The first, an entire male border collie, was presented with vomiting. An abdominal mass detected during physical examination proved to be cryptococcal mesenteric lymphadenitis on exploratory laparotomy. The second dog, a female neutered giant schnauzer, was presented with neurological signs suggestive of encephalopathy. Intestinal cryptococcal granulomas were detected in an extensive diagnostic investigation which included abdominal ultrasonography. The gastrointestinal tract was considered the most likely portal of entry for cryptococcal organisms in both cases. Both dogs were treated using surgery and multiagent antifungal chemotherapy. The first case succumbed despite therapy, while the second dog was treated successfully as gauged by return to clinical normality and a substantial decline in the cryptococcal antigen titre which continued to fall after cessation of treatment. PMID:10476527

  7. Thrombosis of the portal vein in eleven dogs.

    PubMed

    Van Winkle, T J; Bruce, E

    1993-01-01

    Case records from the small animal necropsy service of the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA) from January 1981 through August 1990 were searched for reports of animals with grossly visible portal vein thrombi. Eleven dogs identified from their case materials as having portal vein thrombosis were used for this study. The age of the dogs ranged from 2 to 13 years, and there were five spayed females and six males--four intact and two castrated. Seven breeds were represented (Lhasa Apso, German Wire haired Pointer, Shetland Sheepdog, Dalmatian, Irish Wolfhound, Old English Sheepdog, and Siberian Husky), and the remaining four cases were identified as mixed breeds. The weight of the dogs ranged from 7.7 to 50 kg, and most of them were considered overweight. Dogs with microthrombi and tumor emboli in the portal vein were excluded. No age, sex, or breed predisposition was found. Thrombi were also detected in the pulmonary arteries in five of the dogs and both the pulmonary arteries and aorta in one dog. The portal thrombi extended into the mesenteric veins in three dogs, resulting in infarction of the jejunum. One of these dogs and two other dogs had chronic occlusion of the portal vein, with the formation of secondary portosystemic shunts. Conditions also present in dogs with portal vein thrombi included pancreatic necrosis (four dogs), peritonitis (two dogs), distant neoplasia (three dogs), and therapy with steroids (ten dogs). PMID:8442325

  8. Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Neighborhood Characteristics of Dog Walkers

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Karen J.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Conway, Terry L.; Sallis, James F.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Cain, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study examined how demographics, physical activity, weight status, and neighborhood characteristics varied among households with and without dogs. Method Participants aged 20 to 65 years (N = 2199, 52% male, 75% white, Mean age = 45) were recruited from 32 neighborhoods in the Seattle, WA and Baltimore, MD regions during 2002 – 2005. Dog ownership, dog walking, education, height, weight, and family income were self-reported. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured objectively by 7-day accelerometry. Results Dog walking was associated with a higher proportion of participants who met national recommendations for MVPA (53%) when compared to those who had but did not walk their dog (33%) and to non-dog owners (46%). There were significantly fewer obese dog walkers (17%) when compared to both owners who did not walk their dogs (28%) and non-owners (22%). Dog owners who walked their dogs were more likely to live in high-walkable neighborhoods when compared to dog owners who did not walk their dogs. Conclusion Dog walking may promote physical activity and contribute to weight control. Dog walking appears to be a mechanism by which residents of high-walkable neighborhoods obtain their physical activity. PMID:18572234

  9. Vulvar lipoleiomyoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A

    2005-01-01

    A vulvar neoplasm from a 5-year-old female Siberian Husky dog was removed surgically and examined histologically. Macroscopically, the neoplasm was firm, white, and measured 6 x 4 x 3 cm. Microscopically, the neoplasm was expansile, nonencapsulated, and composed of lobules of mature adipocytes ad-mixed with streams and bundles of well-differentiated smooth muscle cells. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells had strong diffuse cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin and desmin, and no immunoreactivity for cytokeratin or vimentin. On the basis of gross, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of lipoleiomyoma was made. This is, to the author's knowledge, the first report of canine vulvar lipoleiomyoma. PMID:15690962

  10. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans. PMID:26977412

  11. Disseminated chlorellosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Quigley, R R; Knowles, K E; Johnson, G C

    2009-05-01

    An adult dog with ataxia and a lingual mass, previously diagnosed as protothecosis, was euthanized. At the postmortem examination, the lingual mass, regions of the lungs and hilar lymph nodes, liver, mesenteric and sublumbar lymph nodes, and spinal meninges had pronounced green discoloration. Histologically, pyogranulomatous inflammation and algal organisms were found in the tongue, spinal meninges, hilar and mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and lung. The algae had cell walls positive for periodic acid-Schiff and cytoplasmic granules. Ultrastructurally, the algae had a well-defined cell wall, stacks of grana and thylakoid membrane, and dense bodies, typical of starch granules. The organisms were identified as Chlorella, a green alga, based on the results of histochemistical and electron microscopic examination. To the author's knowledge this is the first report of disseminated Chlorella infection and the first report in a companion animal. PMID:19176504

  12. Influence of dog appeasing pheromone (DAP) on dogs housed in a long-term kennelling facility

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, E. K.; Piehler, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kennel facilities are commonly acknowledged as a stressful environment for many domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). One therapeutic measure used to reduce anxiety in dogs is dog appeasing pheromone (DAP), which has been found effective in reducing stress-related behaviours in a number of contexts. Aims and Objectives A pilot study was conducted to assess whether DAP would reduce frequency of stress-related behaviours in a group of eight dogs housed for teaching purposes in a long-term kennelling facility. Materials and Methods Using video analysis, proportion of time spent in stress-related behaviours for six dogs fitted with DAP collars, versus two control dogs (without collars), was compared for the time before and during DAP exposure. Results No significant differences were found either in the proportion of time spent in stress-related behaviours in the baseline versus treatment periods or between the collared and control dogs in the change in proportion of time they spent in any of the focal behaviours in the baseline versus treatment periods. Conclusions Possible reasons for these findings include an actual lack of effect of DAP on dogs housed in this long-term kennelling facility, an apparent lack of effect due to small sample size in this pilot study and high behavioural variation among individual dogs. Despite lack of a demonstrated effect of the DAP collars on these dogs, attention brought by this study to the behavioural issues seen in some of the dogs did have a positive impact, as it contributed to the development of an active, coordinated behavioural wellness and enrichment programme for the colony. PMID:26392901

  13. Antitussive effects of levodropropizine in the dog.

    PubMed

    Munt, P L; Clavenna, G; Algate, D R; Leach, R M

    1994-02-01

    The antitussive activity of levodropropizine (S(-)3-(4-phenyl-piperazine-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526, CAS 99291-25-5) was evaluated after oral administration to the conscious dog. Levodropropizine had a good antitussive activity, comparable with, but having a longer duration of action than dropropizine, the racemate from which it is derived. The antitussive activity of levodropropizine in the dog was approximately 1/20 of that of codeine phosphate. PMID:8147948

  14. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have historically created dog breeds are still ongoing, and create further subdivision within current dog breeds. PMID:18226210

  15. Dog Models for Blinding Inherited Retinal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Komromy, Andrs M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials. PMID:25671556

  16. Dog models for blinding inherited retinal dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Komáromy, András M

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials. PMID:25671556

  17. Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery. PMID:23204580

  18. Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech

    2012-06-01

    An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery. PMID:23204580

  19. Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Lorraine A; Dumais, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma is considered rare in the dog with little known about the clinicopathologic features. There are few reports in the veterinary literature concerning this benign, reactive lesion, formerly known as giant cell epulis. In humans, the four most commonly described reactive epulides are focal fibrous hyperplasia (fibrous epulis), pyogenic granuloma, peripheral ossifying fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. This case report describes the diagnosis and surgical management of a peripheral giant cell granuloma in a dog. PMID:26415387

  20. Treatment of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael A; Gregory, Dawn E; Neumann, Norwood R; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David

    2005-05-15

    An examination was made as to the ability of Sentinel Flavor Tabs (milbemycin oxime/lufenuron) to treat Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs. The study was designed as a critical trial and included five naturally infected dogs and two dogs that were experimentally infected. Another dog from a prior clinical trial that was treated with Sentinel Flavor Tabs as part of the original FDA submission package for intestinal nematode infections was also included with the treated dogs. Of the five naturally infected dogs treated as part of the critical trial, three were cleared of their infections. These five dogs passed a total of 52 worms after treatment; one dog retained 23 worms and the other retained 1 worm at necropsy 7 days after treatment. Two of five experimentally infected Beagle dogs that had been given mice that had been fed 200 infectious eggs, developed patent infections with the parasite. These dogs were treated, and one of the dogs passed one worm and the other passed two worms after treatment with no worms being detected at necropsy 7 days after treatment. The one dog that was treated with milbemycin oxime as part of the FDA submission was clear of worms at necropsy. Overall, the mean efficacy of Sentinel Flavor Tabs was found to be 91.0%. Of the eight dogs that were treated, six were totally cleared of their infections, a cure rate of 75%. The two dogs that did not clear their infections had very large numbers of adult B. procyonis within their intestinal tracts at the time of treatment, one dog had 40 worms (23 remaining) and the other had 26 worms (1 remaining). It is suggested that the treatment of dogs with monthly Sentinel Flavor Tabs could markedly reduce the chance of infected dogs contaminating the environment. Also, additional monthly treatments are highly likely to clear dogs of any worms not killed with the initial treatment. PMID:15845284

  1. Blood glycated hemoglobin evaluation in sick dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Marca, M C; Loste, A; Unzueta, A; Pérez, M

    2000-01-01

    Blood glycated hemoglobin concentration reflects long-term serum glucose levels in dogs. In this study, the effects of several diseases on blood glycated hemoglobin levels have been evaluated. For this study, blood samples were drawn from 93 unhealthy dogs. The animals were distributed into 10 groups according to pathological process (group 1, digestive problems; group 2, leishmaniasis; group 3, anemia; group 4, dermatological disorders; group 5, urinary problems; group 6, cardiorespiratory problems; group 7, diabetes mellitus; group 8, insulinoma; group 9, general diseases; group 10, control group). Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations and hemoglobin and hematocrit values were analyzed in all the animals. In diabetic dogs, a strong increase in blood glycated hemoglobin was observed when compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). In contrast, dogs with insulinoma showed a decrease in blood glycated hemoglobin, though significant differences were not reported in all cases. No change in blood glycated hemoglobin concentrations were reported in dogs affected by other diseases. So, we can suppose that only the chronic alterations in glucose metabolism (chronic hyper- or hypoglycemia) can induce significant changes on the blood glycated hemoglobin concentrations in dogs. PMID:10805256

  2. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Parker, Heidi G

    2012-02-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other. PMID:22231497

  3. Genomic Analyses of Modern Dog Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Heidi G.

    2013-01-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized world-wide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other. PMID:22231497

  4. Efficacy of fenbendazole against giardiasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Bowman, D D; Heller, R L

    1994-07-01

    Efficacy of fenbendazole at 2 dosages for treating naturally acquired giardiasis in dogs was assessed. Giardia cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-1 dogs (as determined by use of the zinc sulfate concentration technique) after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 24 h, for 3 doses). Cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-2 dogs after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 8 h, for 3 days). However, cysts were not detected in the feces of only 1 of 6 group-3 (nontreated control) dogs. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that the current label dosage (for the treatment of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, and Taenia pisiformis, but not Giardia spp) of fenbendazole (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 3 doses) is also effective for treating giardiasis in dogs. PMID:7978640

  5. Canine coronavirus infection in Turkish dog population.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbağ, K; Yilmaz, Z; Torun, S; Pratelli, A

    2004-09-01

    Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is one of the most important viral agents affecting the gastrointestinal system of dogs. In this study virological and serological investigations were performed to demonstrate the existence and prevalence of CCoV infection in a Turkish dog population. A total of 269 animals were subjected to the study. Of 179 dogs tested for CCoV antibodies, 112 (62.5%) were found to be positive by serum neutralization test, while 133 (74.3%) were positive by ELISA. The highest prevalence (94.2%) was detected in kennel dogs. Detection of CCoV genome in faeces was performed in samples from 90 diarrhoeic puppies by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen (15.5%) faeces were positive for CCoV RNA, five of which were characterized as CCoV type I. The widespread CCoV infection in the Turkish dog population may be attributed as an important cause of viral diarrhoea in dogs. PMID:15525364

  6. Urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism: case control study in 499 dogs.

    PubMed

    Fracassi, F; Malerba, E; Furlanello, T; Caldin, M

    2015-12-19

    Pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH) in dogs is frequently associated with high serum phosphate and parathormone concentrations which are in turn associated with prognosis and clinical presentation. The pathogenesis of such abnormalities remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum and urinary concentrations and the urinary fractional excretion of phosphate and calcium in dogs with PDH. Medical records of newly diagnosed PDH dogs before treatment from one referral centre were retrospectively evaluated. One clinically normal and one sick dog for each dog with PDH were included as controls. One hundred and sixty-seven dogs with PDH were included. The serum phosphate concentration in PDH dogs was significantly (P<0.0001) higher compared with clinically normal control dogs (CNDs) and sick control dogs (SCDs). The serum calcium concentration in PDH dogs was significantly higher compared with SCDs but not different compared with CNDs. Urinary fractional excretion of phosphate in PDH dogs was significantly lower compared with CNDs and SCDs. Urinary fractional excretion of calcium in PDH dogs was significantly higher compared with CNDs and SCDs. In conclusion, PDH dogs have lower phosphaturia and higher calciuria compared with control dogs. These findings suggest that, at least in part, high serum phosphate concentrations are related to the renal retention of phosphate. PMID:26626505

  7. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F.

    2015-01-01

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs. PMID:26436700

  8. Who Let the Dog in? How to Incorporate a Dog into a Self-Contained Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Katherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Described in this article are outcomes, procedures, and suggestions for incorporating a dog into a classroom for students with emotional or behavioral disorders. First, the outcomes for the inclusion of a dog are presented and are reported from an empirical study conducted by the author. Next, details are provided on how teachers would initially…

  9. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Songqin; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-11-17

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs. PMID:26436700

  10. Beware of the dog? An observational study of dog-related musculoskeletal injury in the UK.

    PubMed

    Willmott, H; Greenheld, N; Goddard, R

    2012-05-01

    Although owning a dog confers numerous health benefits, dogs can cause falls resulting in musculoskeletal injury and fractures. We conducted a prospective observational study over a two-month period to investigate the incidence and epidemiology of dog-related musculoskeletal injury. All patients attending the Emergency Department, trauma ward or fracture clinic were asked whether their injury was caused by a dog. Thirty-seven patients were identified. There were 26 fractures, 10 soft-tissue injuries and one head injury. Seventeen patients were admitted to the hospital and sixteen cases required an operation. Older people were statistically more likely to sustain a fracture (p=0.0003) or require hospital admission (p=0.02). Mechanisms of injury are discussed and can be classified into direct or indirectly caused by the dog. The most common injury mechanism was being pulled over by a dog on a lead. Injury avoidance strategies are discussed. We conclude that dogs are a potential hazard, particularly to the elderly and the morbidity associated with these injuries may offset the health benefits conferred by dog ownership. PMID:22310043

  11. Contact with Domestic Dogs Increases Pathogen Exposure in Endangered African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus)

    PubMed Central

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Prager, Katherine C.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. Serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic) “reservoir” hosts, and spill over into less abundant host species. If this is the case, disease control directed at the reservoir host might be most appropriate. However, pathogen transmission within threatened host populations may also be important, and may not be controllable by managing another host species. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated interspecific and intraspecific transmission routes, by comparing African wild dogs' exposure to six canine pathogens with behavioural measures of their opportunities for contact with domestic dogs and with other wild dogs. Domestic dog contact was associated with exposure to canine parvovirus, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and perhaps rabies virus, but not with exposure to canine distemper virus or canine coronavirus. Contact with other wild dogs appeared not to increase the risk of exposure to any of the pathogens. Conclusions/Significance These findings, combined with other data, suggest that management directed at domestic dogs might help to protect wild dog populations from rabies virus, but not from canine distemper virus. However, further analyses are needed to determine the management approaches – including no intervention – which are most appropriate for each pathogen. PMID:22238695

  12. Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.

    PubMed

    Wan, Michele; Bolger, Niall; Champagne, Frances A

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain. PMID:23284765

  13. The genomics of selection in dogs and the parallel evolution between dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-chuan; Fan, Ruo-xi; Cao, Xue; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Liu, Fei; Wu, Hong; Cheng, Lu-guang; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Poyarkov, Nikolai A; Tang, Shu-sheng; Zhao, Wen-ming; Gao, Yun; Lv, Xue-mei; Irwin, David M; Savolainen, Peter; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-ping

    2013-01-01

    The genetic bases of demographic changes and artificial selection underlying domestication are of great interest in evolutionary biology. Here we perform whole-genome sequencing of multiple grey wolves, Chinese indigenous dogs and dogs of diverse breeds. Demographic analysis show that the split between wolves and Chinese indigenous dogs occurred 32,000 years ago and that the subsequent bottlenecks were mild. Therefore, dogs may have been under human selection over a much longer time than previously concluded, based on molecular data, perhaps by initially scavenging with humans. Population genetic analysis identifies a list of genes under positive selection during domestication, which overlaps extensively with the corresponding list of positively selected genes in humans. Parallel evolution is most apparent in genes for digestion and metabolism, neurological process and cancer. Our study, for the first time, draws together humans and dogs in their recent genomic evolution. PMID:23673645

  14. Thyroid hormones concentrations and ECG picture in the dog.

    PubMed

    Pasławska, U; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Kungl, K; Bioły, K; Popiel, J; Nicpoń, J

    2006-01-01

    Disorders of the thyroid gland activity are the most commonly encountered disturbances of endocrine origin in the dog. Hypo- or hyperthyroidism may disturb the function of the cardiovascular system and cause arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of thyroid gland activity on electrocardiogram (ECG) picture in the dog by comparing ECG curves of healthy dogs, dogs with hypothyroidism and dogs with cardiac insufficiency caused by endocardiosis of the mitral valve. The study was performed on 38 dogs, patients of the Department of Internal and Parasitic Diseases with Clinic for Horses, Dogs and Cats in Wrocław. The animals were assigned to 3 groups: Group I--control group, 13 clinically healthy dogs; Group II--14 dogs with diagnosed cardiac insufficiency caused by endocardiosis of the mitral valve; Group III--11 dogs with hypothyroidism. Clinical examination of the animals was conducted according to the following pattern: anamnesis, general clinical examination, cardiological examination (ECG, USG of the heart) and laboratory analysis (triacylglycerydes, cholesterol, T3, T4, FT4). In this study, the significant influence of thyroid gland activity on ECG picture of the evaluated dogs was found. In the dogs with hypothyroidism a decrease in the sino-atrial node activity was observed, which led to decreased heart rate. In dogs with hypothyroidism, the innerheart conduction was reduced, which was demonstrated by prolongation of the P wave, QRS complex and the QT interval. PMID:17203744

  15. Molecular Genetic Diversity of the Gyeongju Donggyeong Dog in Korea

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Eun-Woo; CHOI, Seong-Kyoon; CHO, Gil-Jae

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to analyze the genetic characteristics of the Donggyeong dog and establish parentage conservation systems for it by using 10 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). A total of 369 dogs from 12 dog breeds including the Donggyeong dog were genotyped using 10 microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus varied from 5 to 10 with a mean value of 7.6 in the Donggyeong dog. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.4706 to 0.9020 (mean 0.7657) and from 0.4303 to 0.8394 (mean 0.7266), respectively. The total exclusion probability of 10 microsatellite loci was 0.99955. Of the 10 microsatellite markers, the AHT121, AHTh260 and CXX279 markers had relatively high PIC values (?0.7). This study found that there were specific alleles, 116 allele at AHT121 in the Donggyeong dog when compared with other dog breeds. Also, the results showed two (Korean native dogs and the foreign dog breeds) distinct clusters. The closest distance (0.1184) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Jindo dog, and the longest distance (0.3435) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Bulgae. The Korean native dog breeds have comparatively near genetic distances between each other. PMID:25030603

  16. Diseases Transmitted by Man's Best Friend: The Dog.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jerry; Lorber, Bennett

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between dogs and humans is ancient and mutually beneficial. Dogs have served people well as companions, workmates, guides, and protectors. However, on occasion, dogs may injure humans through biting or may transmit pathogens resulting in a large number of problems ranging from a trivial rash to life-threatening bacteremia. Given that there are more than 80 million pet dogs in the United States, it is worth knowing the potential problems that can result from canine exposure. Annually, almost 5 million people in the United States suffer a dog bite. Dog bite wounds become infected up to 15% of the time. In those who have had a splenectomy, a dog bite may transmit the bacterium Capnocytophaga canimorsus, leading to life-threatening bacteremia. Other illnesses that humans can acquire from dog contact include ringworm, diarrheal disease (salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and intestinal parasites), leptospirosis, brucellosis, Q fever, visceral larva migrans, and echinococcosis. Evidence exists that the family dog may serve as a reservoir for uropathogenic Escherichia coli that can lead to urinary tract infections among human household contacts. In this article we discuss dog-related infectious diseases as well as measures to minimize dog-associated illness (e.g., do not disturb sleeping dogs; HIV-infected persons who wish to acquire a puppy should have the dog's stool checked for Cryptosporidium). PMID:26350317

  17. The authority of next-of-kin in explicit and presumed consent systems for deceased organ donation: an analysis of 54 nations

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Amanda M.; Horvat, Lucy D.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Prakash, Versha; Beitel, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Background. The degree of involvement by the next-of-kin in deceased organ procurement worldwide is unclear. We investigated the next-of-kin’s authority in the procurement process in nations with either explicit or presumed consent. Methods. We collected data from 54 nations, 25 with presumed consent and 29 with explicit consent. We characterized the authority of the next-of-kin in the decision to donate deceased organs. Specifically, we examined whether the next-of-kin’s consent to procure organs was always required and whether the next-of-kin were able to veto procurement when the deceased had expressed a wish to donate. Results. The next-of-kin are involved in the organ procurement process in most nations regardless of the consent principle and whether the wishes of the deceased to be a donor were expressed or unknown. Nineteen of the 25 nations with presumed consent provide a method for individuals to express a wish to be a donor. However, health professionals in only four of these nations responded that they do not override a deceased’s expressed wish because of a family’s objection. Similarly, health professionals in only four of the 29 nations with explicit consent proceed with a deceased’s pre-existing wish to be a donor and do not require next-of-kin’s consent, but caveats still remain for when this is done. Conclusions. The next-of-kin have a considerable influence on the organ procurement process in both presumed and explicit consent nations. PMID:22121233

  18. Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Andrea; Dka, Antal; Miklsi, dm

    2015-01-01

    There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:24548652

  19. Analysis of pediatric facial dog bites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Henry H; Neumeier, Anna T; Davies, Brett W; Durairaj, Vikram D

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and report the epidemiological data regarding pediatric facial dog bites. For this study, a retrospective chart review was used. This study was performed at a large tertiary pediatric hospital. All children younger than 18 years who sought medical attention after a facial dog bite between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, were included. Demographic and epidemiologic data were collected and analyzed. A total of 537 children were identified. The average age was 4.59 ± 3.36 years, with a slight male preponderance (52.0%). The majority of dog bites occurred in children 5 years of age or younger (68.0%). Almost all (89.8%) of the dogs were known to the children. When circumstances surrounding the bite were documented, over half (53.2%) of the cases were provoked. The most common breeds were mixed breed (23.0%), Labrador retriever (13.7%), Rottweiler (4.9%), and German shepherd (4.4%). Inpatient treatment was required in 121 (22.5%) patients with an average length of stay of 2.96 ± 2.77 days. Children 5 years or younger were more likely to be hospitalized than older children. Children 5 years old and younger are at high risk for being bitten in the face by a familiar dog and are more likely to require hospitalization than older children. Certain dog breeds are more likely to bite, and there is often a history of provocation. There is a tremendous financial and psychosocial burden associated with dog bites, and prevention strategies should focus on education with the aid of public policies and better documentation and reporting systems. PMID:24436765

  20. Analysis of Pediatric Facial Dog Bites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Henry H.; Neumeier, Anna T.; Davies, Brett W.; Durairaj, Vikram D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and report the epidemiological data regarding pediatric facial dog bites. For this study, a retrospective chart review was used. This study was performed at a large tertiary pediatric hospital. All children younger than 18 years who sought medical attention after a facial dog bite between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, were included. Demographic and epidemiologic data were collected and analyzed. A total of 537 children were identified. The average age was 4.59??3.36 years, with a slight male preponderance (52.0%). The majority of dog bites occurred in children 5 years of age or younger (68.0%). Almost all (89.8%) of the dogs were known to the children. When circumstances surrounding the bite were documented, over half (53.2%) of the cases were provoked. The most common breeds were mixed breed (23.0%), Labrador retriever (13.7%), Rottweiler (4.9%), and German shepherd (4.4%). Inpatient treatment was required in 121 (22.5%) patients with an average length of stay of 2.96??2.77 days. Children 5 years or younger were more likely to be hospitalized than older children. Children 5 years old and younger are at high risk for being bitten in the face by a familiar dog and are more likely to require hospitalization than older children. Certain dog breeds are more likely to bite, and there is often a history of provocation. There is a tremendous financial and psychosocial burden associated with dog bites, and prevention strategies should focus on education with the aid of public policies and better documentation and reporting systems. PMID:24436765

  1. Dog Ownership and Adolescent Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sirard, John R.; Patnode, Carrie D.; Hearst, Mary O.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Positive associations between dog ownership and adult health outcomes have been observed, but research involving youth is lacking. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of family dog ownership to adolescent and parent physical activity, weight status, and metabolic risk factors. Methods Data were collected on dog ownership in 618 adolescent/parent pairs between 9/2006 and 6/2008 and analyzed in 2010. Adolescent physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph accelerometers. Trained staff measured blood pressure, height and weight, and percentage body fat was calculated by impedance. A subsample of adolescents (n=318) opted for a fasting blood draw used to derive a metabolic risk cluster score. Parents and adolescents provided consent and assent, respectively. Results Adolescents’ mean age was 14.6±1.8 years and 49% were male. White and higher SES adolescents were more likely to own a dog. In models adjusted for age, puberty, gender, race, total household members and SES, adolescent physical activity (mean counts min−1 day−1) remained significantly associated with dog ownership (β=24.3, SE=12.4, p=0.05) while the association with minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity day−1 became nonsignificant (β=2.2, SE=1.2, p=0.07). No significant results were observed for other adolescent characteristics. Conclusions Dog ownership was associated with more physical activity among adolescents. Further research using longitudinal data will help clarify the role that dog ownership may have on adolescent physical activity. PMID:21335266

  2. Dogs lap using acceleration-driven open pumping.

    PubMed

    Gart, Sean; Socha, John J; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-12-29

    Dogs lap because they have incomplete cheeks and cannot suck. When lapping, a dog's tongue pulls a liquid column from the bath, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of column formation are critical to understanding how dogs drink. We measured lapping in 19 dogs and used the results to generate a physical model of the tongue's interaction with the air-fluid interface. These experiments help to explain how dogs exploit the fluid dynamics of the generated column. The results demonstrate that effects of acceleration govern lapping frequency, which suggests that dogs curl the tongue to create a larger liquid column. Comparing lapping in dogs and cats reveals that, despite similar morphology, these carnivores lap in different physical regimes: an unsteady inertial regime for dogs and steady inertial regime for cats. PMID:26668382

  3. Prevalence of antileptospiral serum antibodies in dogs in Ireland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 474 serum samples from client owned Irish dogs were tested for the presence of antibodies against serovars Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, Autumnalis, Pomona, Altodouro, Grippotyphosa, Mozdok, Hardjobovis and Ballum. Six percent of dogs presented to veterinary practitioners for...

  4. Will breed-specific legislation reduce dog bites?

    PubMed

    Bandow, J H

    1996-08-01

    So how do we deal with biting dogs? To start with, we must remind ourselves that biting is a natural activity of all dogs, and that there is potential for injury. All dog owners must understand this and must be made aware that they are fully responsible for the actions of their dogs. I am not convinced that this is universally understood by dog owners, nor am I satisfied that every dog owner takes the necessary steps to train and socialize their dog. Owners need to be encouraged to actively work at inhibiting biting behaviour when dogs are young. As well, all dogs should be socialized to accept children, regardless of whether or not there are children living with the dog. Adults without dogs need to learn that dogs don't understand "people's rights," and that dogs should not be expected to act differently with different people. Adults also need to understand that young children should never be left alone with a dog (or a cat) without supervision, and that all children should be taught how to behave around dogs, particulary around dogs they don't know. So long as we have dogs living with us there will be people who get bitten. The most effective way to prevent bites is to encourage dog owners to become knowledgeable about their animals and to train and socialize them so that they can become good dog neighbours. Many municipalities already have by-laws that deal with animal bites, and in Ontario the Dog Owners Liability Act has proven to be effective in confining, restraining or disposing of biting or attacking dogs judged to be a definite threat to public health and safety, and when evidence warrants, there is always Section #221 of the Criminal Code of Canada. Most legislation deals with bites after the fact. If we want to prevent all bites, there is only one sure way and that is to ban all dogs. That is of course as unrealistic as trying to prevent bites by enacting breed specific legislation. PMID:8853880

  5. Will breed-specific legislation reduce dog bites?

    PubMed Central

    Bandow, J H

    1996-01-01

    So how do we deal with biting dogs? To start with, we must remind ourselves that biting is a natural activity of all dogs, and that there is potential for injury. All dog owners must understand this and must be made aware that they are fully responsible for the actions of their dogs. I am not convinced that this is universally understood by dog owners, nor am I satisfied that every dog owner takes the necessary steps to train and socialize their dog. Owners need to be encouraged to actively work at inhibiting biting behaviour when dogs are young. As well, all dogs should be socialized to accept children, regardless of whether or not there are children living with the dog. Adults without dogs need to learn that dogs don't understand "people's rights," and that dogs should not be expected to act differently with different people. Adults also need to understand that young children should never be left alone with a dog (or a cat) without supervision, and that all children should be taught how to behave around dogs, particulary around dogs they don't know. So long as we have dogs living with us there will be people who get bitten. The most effective way to prevent bites is to encourage dog owners to become knowledgeable about their animals and to train and socialize them so that they can become good dog neighbours. Many municipalities already have by-laws that deal with animal bites, and in Ontario the Dog Owners Liability Act has proven to be effective in confining, restraining or disposing of biting or attacking dogs judged to be a definite threat to public health and safety, and when evidence warrants, there is always Section #221 of the Criminal Code of Canada. Most legislation deals with bites after the fact. If we want to prevent all bites, there is only one sure way and that is to ban all dogs. That is of course as unrealistic as trying to prevent bites by enacting breed specific legislation. PMID:8853880

  6. Medico-legal considerations of canine leishmaniosis in Italy: an overview of an emerging disease with reference to the buying and selling of dogs.

    PubMed

    Passantino, A

    2006-12-01

    Leishmaniosis is a common infection in the canine population. Domestic dogs are the main reservoir hosts for zoonotic human visceral leishmaniosis in both the Old and New Worlds. In fact, canine leishmaniosis is not just a veterinary problem. In the light of some recent advances in the field of diagnosis, the author evaluated the medico-legal aspects of buying and selling dogs that are potentially affected by leishmaniosis. This paper clarifies why it is impossible to attribute redhibitory vice (an essential defect in a product which renders it useless or so diminishes its usefulness or value that it must be presumed that, if he had been aware of it, the buyer would not have bought it, or would have paid a lesser price) to this disease and highlights the necessity to improve Sicilian regional law no. 15 of 3 July 2000 concerning the creation of a dog register by giving every animal a health book. With this aim in mind, the author suggests that leishmaniosis be included in the list of notifiable diseases that appears in article 1 of the Italian Veterinary Police Regulations so as to reduce the possibilities of fraudulent trade in dogs known to be infected before purchase. PMID:17361774

  7. WISE Discovers Hyperluminous Hot DOGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, J.; WISE Team

    2013-01-01

    One of the primary science objectives for NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is to find the most luminous galaxies in the Universe. We have used WISE photometry to select an extraordinary all-sky sample of galaxies, which are prominent at 12 microns (W3) or 22 microns (W4), but faint or undetected at 3.4 microns (W1) and 4.6 microns (W2). Follow-up observations reveal that most of these galaxies are at redshift > 1.5, that they are hyperluminous (> 10^13 Lsun; with ~10% exceeding 10^14 Lsun, comparable to the most luminous optical QSOs). The follow-up observations also show that they are at least twice as hot as other types of infrared luminous galaxies, so that they are hot dust-obscured-galaxies, or Hot DOGs. Their SEDs have a very high mid-IR to submillimeter luminosity ratio, which is quite different from any existing galaxy templates. They may represent a rare, new phase in the galaxy evolution, possibly hosting extremely powerful super massive black holes.

  8. Neoplasms in young dogs after perinatal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.A.; Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Williams, J.S.; Brewster, R.D.; Long, R.I.

    1986-08-01

    For a study of the life-time effects of irradiation during development, 1,680 beagles were given single, whole-body exposures to /sup 60/Co gamma-radiation at one of three prenatal (preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal) or at one of three postnatal (neonatal, juvenile, and young adult) ages. Mean doses were 0, 0.16, or 0.83 Gy. For comparison with data on childhood cancer after prenatal irradiation, examination was made of tumors occurring in young dogs in this life-span experiment. Up to 4 years of age, 18 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed, 2 of these being in controls. Four dogs that were irradiated in the perinatal (late fetal or neonatal) period died of cancers prior to 2 years of age. This risk was of significant increase compared to the risks for other experimental groups and for the canine population in general. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of all cancers and 56% (10 of 18) of all benign and malignant neoplasms seen in the first 4 years of life occurred in 29% (480 of 1680) of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation in dogs.

  9. Oxytocin promotes social bonding in dogs.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2014-06-24

    Recent evidence suggests that enduring social bonds have fitness benefits. However, very little is known about the neural circuitry and neurochemistry underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social bonds outside reproductive contexts. Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide synthetized by the hypothalamus in mammals, regulates many complex forms of social behavior and cognition in both human and nonhuman animals. Animal research, however, has concentrated on monogamous mammals, and it remains unknown whether OT also modulates social bonds in nonreproductive contexts. In this study we provide behavioral evidence that exogenous OT promotes positive social behaviors in the domestic dog toward not only conspecifics but also human partners. Specifically, when sprayed with OT, dogs showed higher social orientation and affiliation toward their owners and higher affiliation and approach behaviors toward dog partners than when sprayed with placebo. Additionally, the exchange of socio-positive behaviors with dog partners triggered the release of endogenous OT, highlighting the involvement of OT in the development of social relationships in the domestic dog. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance of close social bonds beyond immediate reproductive interest or genetic ties and complement a growing body of evidence that identifies OT as one of the neurochemical foundations of sociality in mammalian species. PMID:24927552

  10. Vitamin E deficiency retinopathy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Riis, R C; Sheffy, B E; Loew, E; Kern, T J; Smith, J S

    1981-01-01

    Dogs fed purified diets developed retinopathy consistently when the nutrition was deficient in vitamin E. Deleting DL-methionine along with vitamin E and selenium (groups 3 dogs) varied the development minimally. Supplementation of vitamin E to a selenium-deficient diet (group 1 dogs) protected the retina from changes. Ethoxyquin added to a diet deficient in vitamin E, but supplemented with National Research Council levels of selenium or 10 times the National Research Council levels, induced no beneficial recognizable changes in the retinopathy. the characteristic retinopathy was ophthalmoscopically visible as early as 3 months (group 2 to 9 dogs). Typical lesions developed first in the central, outer layers and progressed slowly toward the periphery. The tapetal retina was more extensively involved, showing a color change and mottling. Microscopically, a yellow autofluorescent pigment accumulated in large amounts within the retinal epithelium. Later stages of retinopathy showed this pigment was present in migrating cells in all the retinal layers. The early disappearance of a recordable electroretinogram, night blindness, and eventual severe day visual impairment makes this retinopathy similar to some aspects of degenerations described for persons and pure breed dogs. PMID:7224322

  11. Mapping DNA structural variation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Kang; Swartz, Joshua D.; Rush, Laura J.; Alvarez, Carlos E.

    2009-01-01

    DNA structural variation (SV) comprises a major portion of genetic diversity, but its biological impact is unclear. We propose that the genetic history and extraordinary phenotypic variation of dogs make them an ideal mammal in which to study the effects of SV on biology and disease. The hundreds of existing dog breeds were created by selection of extreme morphological and behavioral traits. And along with those traits, each breed carries increased risk for different diseases. We used array CGH to create the first map of DNA copy number variation (CNV) or SV in dogs. The extent of this variation, and some of the gene classes affected, are similar to those of mice and humans. Most canine CNVs affect genes, including disease and candidate disease genes, and are thus likely to be functional. We identified many CNVs that may be breed or breed class specific. Cluster analysis of CNV regions showed that dog breeds tend to group according to breed classes. Our combined findings suggest many CNVs are (1) in linkage disequilibrium with flanking sequence, and (2) associated with breed-specific traits. We discuss how a catalog of structural variation in dogs will accelerate the identification of the genetic basis of canine traits and diseases, beginning with the use of whole genome association and candidate-CNV/gene approaches. PMID:19015322

  12. Heartworm in dogs in Canada in 1989

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. Owen D.

    1990-01-01

    In late November 1989, 1732 clinics and institutional veterinarians were sent a questionnaire to assess the status of Dirofilaria immitis, and 51.7% responded. Of 247,716 dogs tested, 394 had D. immitis microfilariae and 51 were amicrofilaremic for a total of 445 cases and heartworm prevalence of 0.17%. Most (408) of these dogs had no preventive medication and the prevalence among dogs tested and unprotected was 1.01%. That prevalence was considerably higher in endemic areas. Thirty-seven dogs with heartworm had preventive medication. Heartworm was most frequent in companion dogs over three years of age maintained outdoors in rural areas. About 75% of the cases had never left Canada, 26% had clinical signs and 125 were not treated. Heartworm was reported from British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, but 383 cases were in Ontario. South-western Ontario was the primary focus of infection. There were 33 cases in Quebec and 24 in Manitoba, mainly found in and around Metropolitan Montreal and Winnipeg respectively. PMID:17423627

  13. Oxytocin promotes social bonding in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that enduring social bonds have fitness benefits. However, very little is known about the neural circuitry and neurochemistry underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social bonds outside reproductive contexts. Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide synthetized by the hypothalamus in mammals, regulates many complex forms of social behavior and cognition in both human and nonhuman animals. Animal research, however, has concentrated on monogamous mammals, and it remains unknown whether OT also modulates social bonds in nonreproductive contexts. In this study we provide behavioral evidence that exogenous OT promotes positive social behaviors in the domestic dog toward not only conspecifics but also human partners. Specifically, when sprayed with OT, dogs showed higher social orientation and affiliation toward their owners and higher affiliation and approach behaviors toward dog partners than when sprayed with placebo. Additionally, the exchange of socio-positive behaviors with dog partners triggered the release of endogenous OT, highlighting the involvement of OT in the development of social relationships in the domestic dog. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance of close social bonds beyond immediate reproductive interest or genetic ties and complement a growing body of evidence that identifies OT as one of the neurochemical foundations of sociality in mammalian species. PMID:24927552

  14. Pseudorabies virus infection in Oklahoma hunting dogs.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Sarah D; Campbell, Gregory A; Njaa, Bradley L; Morgan, Sandra E; Smith, Stephen K; McLin, William R; Brodersen, Bruce W; Wise, Annabel G; Scherba, Gail; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Maes, Roger K

    2011-09-01

    Pseudorabies is caused by Suid herpesvirus 1, a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. Although pigs are the natural host of Pseudorabies virus (PRV), the virus has a broad host range and may cause fatal encephalitis in many species. The United States obtained PRV-free status in 2004 after the virus was eradicated from domestic swineherds, but the virus is still present in feral swine populations. The current report describes PRV infection in 3 dogs that were used to hunt feral swine. The dogs developed clinical signs including facial pruritus with facial abrasions, dyspnea, vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, muscle stiffness, and death. Two were euthanized, and 1 died within approximately 48 hr after onset of clinical signs. The salient histologic changes consisted of neutrophilic trigeminal ganglioneuritis with neuronophagia and equivocal intranuclear inclusion bodies. Pseudorabies virus was isolated from fresh tissues from 2 of the dogs, and immunohistochemistry detected the virus in the third dog. Virus sequencing and phylogeny, based upon available GenBank sequences, revealed that the virus was likely a field strain that was closely related to a cluster of PRV strains previously identified in Illinois. Though eradicated from domestic swine in the United States, PRV is present in populations of feral swine, and should therefore continue to be considered a possible cause of disease in dogs and other domestic animals with compatible clinical history and signs. Continued surveillance is necessary to prevent reintroduction of PRV into domestic swine. PMID:21908347

  15. [Dog and fox faecal contamination of farmland].

    PubMed

    Hauser, M; Basso, W; Deplazes, P

    2015-08-01

    The contamination with faeces from dogs and foxes was documented on 14 different grassland areas in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, over one year. A total of 402 dog and 58 fox faecal samples were collected from the grasslands, further 236 faecal samples were retrieved from Robidog units (disposal units for dog waste bags) in the immediate vicinity. The degree of fecal contamination per 100 m2 and year was 0.07-0.75 for dog samples and 0-0.06 for fox samples. Dog faeces from Robidog units and grasslands contained stages of the following parasites, respectively (sedimentation/flotation method): Toxocara sp. (2.5%; 1.2%), Taenia crassiceps (with molecular confirmation; 0.8%; 0.2%), Capillaria sp. (0.4%; 0.7%), Trichuris sp. (0.8%; 1%), Isospora sp. (2.1%; 2%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.4%; 0.5%). In fox faeces parasite stages were more frequently detected: 19% Toxocara sp., 8.6% Taenia crassiceps, 6.9% Echinococcus multilocularis, 60.3% Capillaria sp., 29.3% Trichuris sp. In two fecal samples from foxes, Taenia saginata eggs or Toxoplasmagondii oocysts were confirmed by molecular analyses, these findings may be explained as an intestinal passage after coprophagy of human or cat feces, respectively. Therefore, foxes can also indirectly play a role in parasite transmission to livestock. PMID:26753365

  16. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  17. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  18. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  19. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  20. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  1. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  2. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  3. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  4. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  5. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  6. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  7. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  8. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  9. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  10. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  11. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  12. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  13. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  14. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  15. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  16. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  17. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  18. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  19. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  20. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  1. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  2. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  3. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  4. How Dogs Know when Communication Is Intended for Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of…

  5. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  6. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  7. Dogs are able to solve a means-end task.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Hentrup, Marleen; Virnyi, Zsfia

    2011-07-01

    Dogs, although very skilled in social-communicative tasks, have shown limited abilities in the domain of physical cognition. Consequently, several researchers hypothesized that domestication enhanced dogs' cognitive abilities in the social realm, but relaxed selection on the physical one. For instance, dogs failed to demonstrate means-end understanding, an important form of relying on physical causal connection, when tested in a string-pulling task. Here, we tested dogs in an "on/off" task using a novel approach. Thirty-two dogs were confronted with four different conditions in which they could choose between two boards one with a reward "on" and another one with a reward "off" (reward was placed next to the board). The dogs chose the correct board when (1) both rewards were placed at the same distance from the dog, when (2) the reward placed "on" the board was closer to the dog, and (3) even when the reward placed "off" the board was much closer to the dog and was food. Interestingly, in the latter case, dogs did not perform above chance, if instead of a direct reward, the dogs had to retrieve an object placed on the board to get a food reward. In contrast to previous string-pulling studies, our results show that dogs are able to solve a means-end task even if proximity of the unsupported reward is a confounding factor. PMID:21445577

  8. Polioencephalomyelopathy in a mixed breed dog resembling Leigh's disease.

    PubMed

    Chai, Orit; Milgram, Joshua; Shamir, Merav H; Brenner, Ori

    2015-01-01

    A 14-month-old mixed-breed dog was presented with acute onset of exercise intolerance that quickly progressed to quadriparesis. Gross and microscopic autopsy findings indicated a type of degenerative polioencephalomyelopathy resembling subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy in dogs or Leigh's disease in humans. This syndrome has previously been reported only in purebred dogs. PMID:25565716

  9. The Experience of Living with and Using a Dog Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Rachel Joy-Taub

    2001-01-01

    A study of eight adults who use dog guides found four themes that described the experience of using a dog guide: increased confidence, increased independence, changed public interactions, and additional responsibilities or inconveniences. Most participants described their dogs as social "ice breakers" that led to increased interaction with people.

  10. How Dogs Know when Communication Is Intended for Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of

  11. Soil change induced by prairie dogs across three ecological sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) can influence vegetation dynamics and landscape hydrology by altering soil properties, yet few studies have evaluated soil responses to prairie dog activities across a range of soil types. This study was conducted to quantify prairie dog effects on soil properties within...

  12. Thrombocytosis associated with a myeloproliferative disorder in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Degen, M.A.; Feldman, B.F.; Turrel, J.M.; Goding, B.; Kitchell, B.; Mandell, C.P. )

    1989-05-15

    A dog with a myeloproliferative disorder and thrombocytosis had clinical signs that were consistent with a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The dog was treated with aspirin, radioactive phosphorus, and melphalan. Eighteen months after referral, the disorder progressed to chronic granulocytic leukemia, and treatment was switched to hydroxyurea. Fourteen months later, the dog was euthanatized because of uncontrollable atrial fibrillation.

  13. Spirocerca lupi in dogs: prophylactic effect of doramectin.

    PubMed

    Lavy, E; Harrus, S; Mazaki-Tovi, M; Bark, H; Markovics, A; Hagag, A; Aizenberg, I; Aroch, I

    2003-12-01

    Spirocerca lupi is primarily a parasite of dogs, which typically causes oesophageal nodules, aortic aneurysms, and spondylitis. This study investigated the efficacy of doramectin as a prophylactic agent for canine spirocercosis. Five beagle dogs were injected subcutaneously with doramectin (400 microg/kg on 3 occasions 30 days apart q30d), while 5 other beagle dogs served as untreated controls. All dogs were inoculated with 40 infectious S. lupi larvae (L3) one month after the last doramectin treatment. All control dogs and 4/5 treated dogs became infected. Two control dogs died of ruptured aortic aneurysms, while no deaths occurred in treated dogs. Oesophageal nodules appeared 40-103 day later in treated as compared to control dogs, and eggs appeared in the faeces 49-106 day later in treated as compared to control dogs. The mean faecal egg count on day 223 in the treatment group was reduced by 99.77%. All control dogs had thoracic radiographic changes during the study, while only 2/5 study dogs showed radiographic changes. This study shows that although doramectin did not entirely prevent canine spirocercosis it reduced the clinical signs associated with infection and delayed and reduced egg output. PMID:13129670

  14. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs of different dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs in the beagle dog was investigated at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of programs to evaluate the biological effects of both radionuclides in atomic bomb fallout and internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. In the ITRI study, young adult dogs were exposed once by intravenous injection to a range of {sup 137}Cs concentrations; the results have recently been published. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the ANL study and to compare the results of the two studies. At ANL, 63 dogs in three age groups (15 juveniles, 142-151 days old; 38 young adults, 388-427 days old; and 10 middle-aged dogs, 1387-2060 days old) were given {sup 137}Cs intravenously at levels (61-162f MBq/kg) near those expected to be lethal within 30 days after injection. There were 17 control dogs from the same colony. Twenty-three of the dogs injected with {sup 137}Cs, including all middle-aged dogs, died within 52 days after injection due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia that led to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. The other significant early effect was damage to the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. The design of the ANL study revealed an age- and gender-related differential radiosensitivity for early effects. The middle-aged dogs died significantly earlier due to complications of hematological dyscrasia compared to the juvenile and young adult dogs, and the middle-aged females died significantly earlier than the middle-aged males. The most significant non-neoplastic late effects in the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs from ANL and ITRI were atrophy of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules with azoospermia, and a significant dose-dependent decrease in survival. The survival of the ANL dogs was decreased more than that of the ITRI dogs at similar radiation doses from {sup 137}Cs. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Associations between Domestic-Dog Morphology and Behaviour Scores in the Dog Mentality Assessment.

    PubMed

    Stone, Holly R; McGreevy, Paul D; Starling, Melissa J; Forkman, Bjorn

    2016-01-01

    The domestic dog shows a wide range of morphologies, that humans have selected for in the process of creating unique breeds. Recent studies have revealed correlations between changes in morphology and behaviour as reported by owners. For example, as height and weight decrease, many undesirable behaviours (non-social fear, hyperactivity and attention seeking) become more apparent. The current study aimed to explore more of these correlations, but this time used reports from trained observers. Phenotypic measurements were recorded from a range of common dog breeds (n = 45) and included cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length), bodyweight, height and sex. These data were then correlated with results from the Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA), which involves trained observers scoring a dog's reaction to stimuli presented over 10 standardised subtests. Each subtest is designed to evoke a behavioural response. Backward elimination and weighted step-wise regression revealed that shorter dogs demonstrated more aggressive tendencies, reacting defensively toward both assistants dressed as ghosts (p = 0.045), and to a dummy (p = 0.008). Taller dogs were more affectionate when greeting and being handled by humans (p = 0.007, p = <0.001, respectively). Taller dogs were also more cooperative (p = <0.001), and playful (p = 0.001) with humans than shorter dogs. Heavier dogs were more inquisitive toward a dummy (p = 0.011), to the source of a metallic noise (p = 0.010) and to an assistant (p = 0.003). Heavier dogs were also more attentive to the ghosts (p = 0.013). In comparison, lighter dogs were cautious of a dummy (p = <0.001) and fearful of the sound of a gunshot (p = <0.001). Lighter dogs were also cautious of, and demonstrated prolonged fearfulness toward, the source of metallic noise (p = <0.001, p = <0.034, respectively). With a far larger sample and the advantage of third-party reporting (which overcomes potential owner bias), the current findings build on previous studies in this field, further supporting covariance between morphology and behaviour. PMID:26919495

  16. Proximal interphalangeal joint instability in the dog.

    PubMed

    Guilliard, M J

    2003-09-01

    A prospective study into the use of transarticular external skeletal fixation in the treatment of proximal interphalangeal instability was undertaken. Only dogs with soft tissue injuries were included. All the dogs except one were greyhounds or related breeds. A hypothesis was proposed that if the articular surfaces were held in normal congruency for a period of time then the development of periarticular fibrosis would alone give sufficient joint support. Joint congruency was maintained by the application of a unilateral external skeletal fixator for approximately three weeks. Complications were common and were due to frame impingement on the neighbouring digit, pin tract infection and pin loosening, and all resolved following frame removal and antibiotic therapy. Careful pin placement and prophylactic antibiotic treatment prevented complications in subsequent cases. All dogs returned to normal function with no lameness, with the exception of one racing greyhound which had a recurrence of the instability. PMID:14510329

  17. Detection of rabies antibodies in dog sera.

    PubMed

    Ondrejkov, A; Sli, J; Ondrejka, R; Slepeck, E; Proke, M; ?echvala, P; Supuka, P

    2015-01-01

    In the presented work, we compared the results of determination of rabies antibodies using three in vitro methods: rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation test (FAVNT) and the immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA). 196 dog sera samples were examined with FAVNT, RFFIT methods and the ELISA test. Sera with low and sufficiently high titre of antibodies had a similar result in determining by all methods. A critical level of rabies antibodies close to the required protection level (0.5 IU/cm3) was seen in sera of 18 dogs (9.18%); these were the sera obtained after primary vaccination of dogs. At this level, even small differences can cause a change in the assessment of the patient's serum seronegativity or seropositivity. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate method that has sufficiently strict criteria while having a good reproducibility. PMID:25928909

  18. Macracanthorhynchus ingens infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J R; Hendrix, C M; Allison, N; Butler, J M

    2001-07-15

    A 4-month-old sexually intact female Siberian Husky was examined because of diarrhea and 4 flesh-colored annulated helminths that were recovered from the dog's feces. Infection with Macracanthorhynchus ingens was diagnosed on the basis of morphologic features of the adult parasites and ova. Spindle-shaped eggs (mean length, 91 microm; mean width; 54 microm) were obtained from the body cavity of a gravid female specimen. The dog was treated empirically with epsiprantel (5.5 mg/kg [2.5 mg/lb] of body weight) and ivermectin (250 to 500 microg/kg [114 to 227 microg/lb]), and the diarrhea resolved. Infection with this parasite has been reported in raccoons from the same geographic area. Macracanthorhynchus ingens is typically a parasite of raccoons, wolves, badgers, foxes, skunks, mink, and moles; transmission from wildlife to dogs may occur via ingestion of infected intermediate hosts (millipedes). PMID:11469574

  19. Dogs as a Model for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Heather L; Fenger, Joelle M; London, Cheryl A

    2016-02-15

    Spontaneous cancers in client-owned dogs closely recapitulate their human counterparts with respect to clinical presentation, histological features, molecular profiles, and response and resistance to therapy, as well as the evolution of drug-resistant metastases. In several instances the incorporation of dogs with cancer into the preclinical development path of cancer therapeutics has influenced outcome by helping to establish pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics relationships, dose/regimen, expected clinical toxicities, and ultimately the potential for biologic activity. As our understanding regarding the molecular drivers of canine cancers has improved, unique opportunities have emerged to leverage this spontaneous model to better guide cancer drug development so that therapies likely to fail are eliminated earlier and therapies with true potential are optimized prior to human studies. Both pets and people benefit from this approach, as it provides dogs with access to cutting-edge cancer treatments and helps to insure that people are given treatments more likely to succeed. PMID:26566160

  20. Atopic dermatitis in the domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M

    2016-01-01

    Dogs may develop a syndrome of spontaneous, inflammatory, pruritic dermatitis that shares many features with human atopic dermatitis, including a young age of onset, characteristic lesion distribution, immunoglobulin E sensitization to common environmental allergen sources, and evidence of epidermal barrier dysfunction. There are also several important differences between canine and human atopic dermatitis. Although dogs may suffer from multiple-organ hypersensitivity syndromes, there is no evidence that this species experiences the progressive evolution from cutaneous to respiratory allergy characteristic of the human atopic march. Despite the presence of epidermal barrier derangement, there is no significant association between canine atopic dermatitis and mutations in filaggrin. Finally, treatment of canine disease relies much less heavily on topical therapy than does its human counterpart, while allergy testing and allergen-specific immunotherapy provide an often essential component of effective clinical management of affected dogs. PMID:26903192

  1. Profile of dog bite victims in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria: a review of dog bite records (2006-2008)

    PubMed Central

    Alabi, Olaniran; Nguku, Patrick; Chukwukere, Silvester; Gaddo, Ayika; Nsubuga, Peter; Umoh, Joliath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dogs are the major reservoir of rabies virus in Nigeria; transmission to humans is via a bite by rabid dog. Between 2006 and 2008 National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) rabies laboratory reported increased numbers of rabies in dogs and human dog bites. The objective of the study was to use veterinary and health records to develop a profile of bite victims and recommend appropriate public health actions. Methods We used the dog brain specimen result register of Rabies Laboratory of NVRI, from January, 2006 to December, 2008 and traced dog bite cases. Structured questionnaires were administered to persons who reported dog bite incident and could be traced. We reviewed records from Evangelical Churches of West Africa (ECWA) clinic from January, 2006 to December, 2008 to collect detailed profiles of bite victims. Results Bite victims linked to positive dog samples were traced to ECWA clinic from January, 2006 to December, 2008. Most bite victims were <16 years 141 (72.3%), male 128 (65.6%), and 48.2% had primary school education. Bites were unprovoked 184 (94.4%), mostly on arms. 54.4% victims received complete post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Majority of the biting dogs were housed and unvaccinated. Conclusion This study provided important information on the profile of dog bite victims and highlights the need for a sustained awareness and education of children on the dangers of dog bite. It has shown lack of enforcement of regulations for licensing of dogs and rabies vaccination. PMID:25328631

  2. Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Adam H; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vil, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R; Parker, Heidi G; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Wilton, Alan; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D; Harkins, Timothy T; Nelson, Stanley F; Ostrander, Elaine A; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K; Novembre, John

    2014-01-01

    To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11-16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is necessary. PMID:24453982

  3. Genome Sequencing Highlights the Dynamic Early History of Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Adam H.; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M.; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi G.; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K.; Novembre, John

    2014-01-01

    To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11–16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is necessary. PMID:24453982

  4. Pulmonary Echinococcus multilocularis metastasis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Karine; Goepfert, Christine; Linon, Elisa; Posthaus, Horst; Frey, Caroline F

    2015-03-01

    A young adult Labrador retriever dog was presented for surgical debulking of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. Computed tomography detected hepatomegaly with multiple large cavitary masses with extension of tissue from a lesion wall into the caudal vena cava and numerous nodules in all lung lobes. Following euthanasia, histology confirmed parasitic vesicles with granulomatous reaction in all lesions, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) established the causative agent to be Echinococcus multilocularis. This report is the first to present imaging features of pulmonary E. multilocularis granulomata in a dog. PMID:25750447

  5. An Old Dog and New Tricks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2003-01-01

    As I approach my 55th birthday, the old adage 'you can't teach an old dog new tricks' keeps coming to mind. I'm not sure why, because I don't feel old and I'm still interested in taking on new challenges and learning new tricks. However, as I mentor new project managers, I am also aware that others may consider me an old dog unable to learn new tricks. To the contrary, the people I mentor continue to teach me new tricks and challenge my assumptions about project management.

  6. Idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalomyelitis in a Rottweiler dog.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Alicia K; Parkes, Jennifer D; Flaherty, Heather A; Kline, Karen L; Haynes, Joseph S

    2010-07-01

    A 6-month-old, female, intact Rottweiler dog was presented to the Iowa State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a progressive history of abnormal behavior and generalized ataxia. At necropsy, there was eosinophilic infiltration of the brain and spinal cord, most severe in the medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord. Infiltrates of eosinophils were also present in the liver and small intestines. The dog was diagnosed with idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalomyelitis based on cerebrospinal fluid analysis, histopathology, and special stains to exclude etiologic agents. PMID:20622243

  7. The use of seizure-alert dogs.

    PubMed

    Brown, S W; Strong, V

    2001-01-01

    We report our experience of training dogs to assist people with epilepsy by providing a useful warning of seizures. An unexpected finding has been that human subjects report an improvement in seizure rate. This may be related to increased confidence and activity levels. We have observed some hazards associated with untrained dogs, which raises questions about future experimental design. We plan further research to test our method and assess outcomes more formally. Recent changes in UK quarantine law provide an opportunity for further international collaboration. PMID:11181096

  8. Nasopharyngeal tooth foreign body in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hee; Lim, Chae-Young; Park, Hee-Myung

    2011-01-01

    An 8-year-old Shih-tzu dog was presented with a 2-week history of cough and nasal discharge. Upon presentation, the dog had constant open-mouth breathing with stertor and blood-tinged mucopurulent nasal discharge. Oral examination revealed a missing right mandibular second premolar tooth and severe periodontal disease. Computed tomography showed a radiodense, retropharyngeal foreign body. The foreign body was removed using caudal rhinoscopy. The foreign body was the right mandibular second premolar covered by thick calculus. PMID:21696125

  9. Pulmonary Echinococcus multilocularis metastasis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Karine; Goepfert, Christine; Linon, Elisa; Posthaus, Horst; Frey, Caroline F.

    2015-01-01

    A young adult Labrador retriever dog was presented for surgical debulking of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. Computed tomography detected hepatomegaly with multiple large cavitary masses with extension of tissue from a lesion wall into the caudal vena cava and numerous nodules in all lung lobes. Following euthanasia, histology confirmed parasitic vesicles with granulomatous reaction in all lesions, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) established the causative agent to be Echinococcus multilocularis. This report is the first to present imaging features of pulmonary E. multilocularis granulomata in a dog. PMID:25750447

  10. Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas.

    PubMed

    Wani, Z A; Allaie, I M; Shah, B M; Raies, A; Athar, H; Junaid, S

    2015-03-01

    The present study pertains to the Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas. Twenty dogs were presented to the Divison of Surgery, SKUAST-K for different surgical procedures. Majority of the dogs had a history of pruritus, loss of weight as well as rubbing their perineal region against the wall. On external examination dogs were found infested with Ctenocephalides canis. When dogs were anesthetized, motile segments were seen coming out of their anus, which were then identified as mature segments of D. caninum. PMID:25698864

  11. Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrn, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

  12. Ticks and haemoparasites of dogs from Praia, Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Gtsch, S; Leschnik, M; Duscher, G; Burgstaller, J P; Wille-Piazzai, W; Joachim, A

    2009-12-01

    In February 2008 an epidemiological field study on arthropod-borne infections in dogs was carried out in Praia, the capital city of Cape Verde. For this purpose 130 dogs were included in the study. Of these, 94.6% were infested with ticks. Altogether, 1293 ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus (in all evaluated cases R. sanguineus) were collected. Examination for haemotropic parasites was performed via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Lymph node fine-needle aspirates were screened by PCR for Leishmania infantum infections in 20 dogs with enlarged lymph nodes. Our investigation revealed two species of protozoa (Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis) and two species of rickettsiae (Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis). In 101 dogs (77.7%) DNA of one or more pathogens was detected. The PCR examination for H. canis was positive in 83 dogs (63.8%), for E. canis in 34 dogs (26.2%), for A. platys in 10 dogs (7.7%) and for B. canis in five dogs (3.8%), whereas neither B. gibsoni nor L. infantum DNA could be detected. Of the infected dogs, 71.3% had a monoinfection, 27.7% had infections with two pathogens and 1.0% with three pathogens. B. canis, H. canis, E. canis, A. platys and their vector tick R. sanguineus are endemic to Cape Verde and can be present in dogs in high prevalences. These results outline the risk of importing tropical canine diseases when Capeverdian stray dogs are taken to Europe. PMID:19729247

  13. Aortic chondroid neoplasia in two Labrador Retriever dogs.

    PubMed

    Kohnken, R; Durham, J A; Premanandan, C; Scansen, B A

    2015-12-01

    In the same week, two Labrador Retriever dogs presented to The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center for cardiac evaluation. The presenting signs in both dogs included: weight loss, weakness, lethargy, and decreased femoral pulses. The first dog presented in cardiogenic shock and biventricular congestive heart failure, which initially responded to treatment; however, the dog was euthanized due to deteriorating clinical condition. In contrast, the second dog had a milder clinical course without signs of congestive heart failure, and remained stable over the 2-month period of clinical evaluation prior to euthanasia. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed a dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype in the first dog, while a space-occupying intraluminal mass originating at the aortic valve with preserved left ventricular systolic function was observed in the second dog. At autopsy, each dog had a large obstructive luminal mass affecting the ascending aorta and arch. Histopathology revealed that the mass in the first dog was consistent with a benign chondroma, while in the second dog the morphologic characteristics, mitotic activity, and infiltrative growth justified a diagnosis of chondrosarcoma. This report presents the contrasting clinical disease progression and findings in two dogs with aortic neoplasia, with a proposed pathogenesis of cardiac failure secondary to aortic neoplasia. PMID:26521222

  14. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  15. Fatal dog attacks in Canada, 19902007

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Malathi

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, public debates on dog attacks are dominated by studies from the United States. An electronic search of media reports in the Canadian Newsstand database, for the years 1990 to 2007, identified 28 fatalities from dog-bite injuries. Predominant factors in this case series were owned, known dogs; residential location; childrens unsupervised access to area with dogs; and rural/remote areas, including aboriginal reserves in the prairies. A higher proportion of sled dogs and, possibly, mixed-breed dogs in Canada than in the United States caused fatalities, as did multiple dogs rather than single dogs. Free-roaming dog packs, reported only from rural communities, caused most on-reserve fatalities. Future studies are needed to assess if this rural/urban divide is observed in nonfatal attacks and if the breeds that bite in Canada are different from the breeds that killed. Breed representation in this paper and, perhaps, multiple-dog overrepresentation should be understood in the context of the overall Canadian dog population. PMID:18624067

  16. MRI characteristics of fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticula in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Bazelle, Julien; Caine, Abby; Palus, Viktor; Summers, Brian A; Cherubini, Giunio B

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial arachnoid diverticula (cysts) are rare accumulations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the arachnoid membrane. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticula in a group of dogs. The hospital's medical records were searched for dogs with MRI studies of the brain and a diagnosis of fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticulum. Clinical characteristics were recorded from medical records and MRI studies were reinterpreted by a board-certified veterinary radiologist. Five pediatric dogs fulfilled inclusion criteria. Clinical signs included cervical hyperaesthesia, obtundation, tetraparesis, and/or central vestibular syndrome. In all five dogs, MRI findings were consistent with obstructive hydrocephalus, based on dilation of all ventricles and compression of the cerebellum and brainstem. All five dogs also had cervical syringohydromyelia, with T2-weighted hyperintensity of the gray matter of the cord adjacent to the syringohydromyelia. A signal void, interpreted as flow disturbance, was observed at the mesencephalic aqueduct in all dogs. Four dogs underwent surgical treatment with occipitalectomy and durotomy. A cystic lesion emerging from the fourth ventricle was detected in all four dogs during surgery and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of arachnoid diverticula. Three dogs made excellent recovery but deteriorated shortly after surgery and were euthanized. Repeat MRI in two dogs revealed improved hydrocephalus but worsening of the syringohydromyelia. Findings from the current study supported theories that fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticula are secondary to partial obstruction of the central canal or lateral apertures and that arachnoid diverticula are developmental lesions in dogs. PMID:25385344

  17. Dogs can discriminate human smiling faces from blank expressions.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Murai, Kensuke; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2011-07-01

    Dogs have a unique ability to understand visual cues from humans. We investigated whether dogs can discriminate between human facial expressions. Photographs of human faces were used to test nine pet dogs in two-choice discrimination tasks. The training phases involved each dog learning to discriminate between a set of photographs of their owner's smiling and blank face. Of the nine dogs, five fulfilled these criteria and were selected for test sessions. In the test phase, 10 sets of photographs of the owner's smiling and blank face, which had previously not been seen by the dog, were presented. The dogs selected the owner's smiling face significantly more often than expected by chance. In subsequent tests, 10 sets of smiling and blank face photographs of 20 persons unfamiliar to the dogs were presented (10 males and 10 females). There was no statistical difference between the accuracy in the case of the owners and that in the case of unfamiliar persons with the same gender as the owner. However, the accuracy was significantly lower in the case of unfamiliar persons of the opposite gender to that of the owner, than with the owners themselves. These results suggest that dogs can learn to discriminate human smiling faces from blank faces by looking at photographs. Although it remains unclear whether dogs have human-like systems for visual processing of human facial expressions, the ability to learn to discriminate human facial expressions may have helped dogs adapt to human society. PMID:21359654

  18. "Like Owner, Like Dog": Correlation between the Owner's Attachment Profile and the Owner-Dog Bond

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the doghuman affectional bond can be characterized as an attachment. The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's strange situation. The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations. PMID:24205235

  19. "Like owner, like dog": correlation between the owner's attachment profile and the owner-dog bond.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog-human affectional bond can be characterized as an "attachment". The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's "strange situation". The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations. PMID:24205235

  20. Bile Duct Obstruction Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis in Seven Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Cribb, Alastair E.; Burgener, David C.; Reimann, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Seven icteric dogs were determined to have bile duct obstruction secondary to chronic pancreatitis. All dogs had histories of intermittent vomiting and diarrhea. Alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities and total bilirubin concentrations were markedly elevated. Diagnosis was based on exploratory laparotomy and histological examination. Each dog had a 3 to 10 cm mass in the body of the pancreas and obstruction of the common bile duct. Three dogs treated with pancreatectomy, gastrojejunostomy, and cholecystojejunostomy died within five weeks. Three dogs treated with conservative surgical procedures were alive at 8, 16, and 26 months postoperatively. One dog was euthanized because of suspected neoplasia. Hepatic enzyme activity and bilirubin levels decreased markedly in the surviving dogs. Histological examination of the pancreatic masses indicated chronic pancreatitis. Hepatic biopsies revealed evidence of cholestasis. Chronic pancreatitis should be included in the differential diagnoses of icterus, bile duct obstruction, and masses in the pancreas. PMID:17423102

  1. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy for shoulder lameness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Becker, Willem; Kowaleski, Michael P; McCarthy, Robert J; Blake, Cara A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the outcome of dogs with instability, calcifying, and inflammatory conditions of the shoulder treated with extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). Medical records for 15 dogs with lameness attributable to the shoulder that failed previous conservative management were retrospectively reviewed. ESWT was delivered to those dogs q 3-4 wk for a total of three treatments. Short-term, in-hospital subjective lameness evaluation revealed resolution of lameness in three of nine dogs and improved lameness in six of nine dogs available for evaluation 3-4 wk following the final treatment. Long-term lameness score via telephone interview was either improved or normal in 7 of 11 dogs (64%). ESWT may result in improved function based on subjective patient evaluation and did not have any negative side effects in dogs with lameness attributable to instability, calcifying, and inflammatory conditions of the shoulder. PMID:25415219

  2. Reclaiming identity through service to dogs in need.

    PubMed

    Alers, Elvin V; Simpson, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Dog Tags is an animal-assisted therapy offered by the Washington Humane Society (WHS) in partnership with the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC). The program is open to all ranks of enlisted service members using WRNMMC services. Dog Tags is a 3-tiered certificate program allowing Soldiers, recovering at WRNMMC, to learn and apply progressively complex and challenging elements of canine positive reinforcement training to dogs awaiting adoption at the WHS. Although each tier is a self-contained and complete curriculum, subsequent tiers build on the skills and knowledge acquired in the previous one(s). Dog Tags Warrior/trainers work with fully-screened (health and temperament) shelter dogs to provide these dogs with mental stimulation, environmental enrichment, and socialization that are vital to their successful adoption and integration into new homes. The Soldiers also benefit because they develop new skills, build positive bonds with the dogs, and continue to serve their community. PMID:22388686

  3. The prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Kirikkale.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Kader; Duru, Sibel Yasa; Ya?ci, Bu?rahan B; Ocal, Naci; Gazya?ci, Aycan N

    2008-01-01

    Heartworm infection is one of the most important parasitic diseases in dogs. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of heartworm in dogs in Kirikkale. Blood samples of 172 dogs were collected. Microfilariae were detected in 10 (5.8%). dogs with the Knott technique. The anal and excretory pores stained with acid phosphates showed that the microfilariae belonged to Dirofilaria immitis. Microfilariae were found in dogs aged between 2-10 years, and especially in Siberian huskies, setters, pointers and crossbred sheepdogs. The serum samples of 142 dogs were analyzed using the commercial ELISA test kit for detection of anti-D. immitis antibody. The occult infection rate was found to be 27.46% in dogs. According to these results, Kirikkale region has a high risk for heartworm infection. PMID:18985575

  4. Classifying dogs' (Canis familiaris) facial expressions from photographs.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Tina; Friedman, Harris

    2013-06-01

    Humans accurately read other humans' emotional facial expressions. Little research was found examining human ability to read dogs' expressions. Cross-species research extended facial expression research to chimpanzees, and there is much research on dogs' auditory signaling to humans. To explore humans' ability to identify dogs' facial displays, photographs of a dog's face were taken under behaviorally defined conditions expected to elicit specific emotions. Dog experts consistently rated these photographs. The photographs rated as best by experts were used as stimuli for people experienced and inexperienced with dogs. Both groups were able to read the dog's emotions. Paradoxically, experienced people were less accurate reading aggressiveness. Experienced people were better identifying behaviorally defined situations. Research using behaviorally anchored, standardized photographs is recommended. PMID:23485925

  5. Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs: cardiopulmonary biomarker levels.

    PubMed

    Carretn, E; Corbera, J A; Juste, M C; Morchn, R; Simn, F; Montoya-Alonso, J A

    2011-03-22

    Cardiopulmonary biomarkers are biological parameters that can be objectively measured and quantified as indicators of pathogenic processes (heartworm disease) or as indicators of response to therapeutic intervention. To determine levels of cardiopulmonary biomarkers in canine dirofilariasis, measurements of cardiac troponin T, cardiac troponin I, myoglobin, and D-dimer concentrations were performed for dogs with and without evidence of adult heartworm infection. The results showed that levels of cardiac troponin T were undetectable in all dogs studied while levels of cardiac troponin I were higher in dogs infected with Dirofilaria immitis. In healthy dogs, levels of myoglobin and D-dimer were below detection limits of the instrument and were significantly higher in heartworm-infected dogs, notably in microfilaremic dogs. The results suggest the possibility of using troponin I and myoglobin as markers for cardiac damage and the D-dimer as a supportive tool for a diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs with cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. PMID:21310535

  6. Associations between Domestic-Dog Morphology and Behaviour Scores in the Dog Mentality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Holly R.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Starling, Melissa J.; Forkman, Bjorn

    2016-01-01

    The domestic dog shows a wide range of morphologies, that humans have selected for in the process of creating unique breeds. Recent studies have revealed correlations between changes in morphology and behaviour as reported by owners. For example, as height and weight decrease, many undesirable behaviours (non-social fear, hyperactivity and attention seeking) become more apparent. The current study aimed to explore more of these correlations, but this time used reports from trained observers. Phenotypic measurements were recorded from a range of common dog breeds (n = 45) and included cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length), bodyweight, height and sex. These data were then correlated with results from the Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA), which involves trained observers scoring a dog’s reaction to stimuli presented over 10 standardised subtests. Each subtest is designed to evoke a behavioural response. Backward elimination and weighted step-wise regression revealed that shorter dogs demonstrated more aggressive tendencies, reacting defensively toward both assistants dressed as ghosts (p = 0.045), and to a dummy (p = 0.008). Taller dogs were more affectionate when greeting and being handled by humans (p = 0.007, p = <0.001, respectively). Taller dogs were also more cooperative (p = <0.001), and playful (p = 0.001) with humans than shorter dogs. Heavier dogs were more inquisitive toward a dummy (p = 0.011), to the source of a metallic noise (p = 0.010) and to an assistant (p = 0.003). Heavier dogs were also more attentive to the ghosts (p = 0.013). In comparison, lighter dogs were cautious of a dummy (p = <0.001) and fearful of the sound of a gunshot (p = <0.001). Lighter dogs were also cautious of, and demonstrated prolonged fearfulness toward, the source of metallic noise (p = <0.001, p = <0.034, respectively). With a far larger sample and the advantage of third-party reporting (which overcomes potential owner bias), the current findings build on previous studies in this field, further supporting covariance between morphology and behaviour. PMID:26919495

  7. Computed Tomography of the Prostate Gland in Healthy Intact Dogs and Dogs with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pasikowska, J; Hebel, M; Ni?a?ski, W; Nowak, M

    2015-10-01

    To date, there is only scarce data on the evaluation of the prostate gland in dogs using computed tomography (CT). The aims of our study were to describe CT features of BPH in dogs and to determine the size of the prostate gland in healthy male dogs and dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through CT. Additionally, we aimed to compare and establish the most useful parameters for CT measurements of the prostate in patients with BPH. The study population consisted of 20 healthy intact male dogs and 20 male intact dogs with confirmed BPH. Pre- and post-contrast CT studies were evaluated. The most common CT features in dogs with recognized BPH were symmetrical prostatomegaly and heterogeneity of the prostatic parenchyma. The mean prostatic density (D) was 56HU (4.39) in pre-contrast CT images and 84HU (8) in post-contrast images in dogs with BPH. The mean prostatic length (L) was 43.87 mm (11), the mean width (W) amounted to 48.95 mm (8.76) and the mean height (H) reached 44.9 mm (9.48) in clinically affected patients. The mean ratios were: rL - 2,12 (0.5); rW - 2.39 (0.53) and rH - 2.16 (0.39) in the BPH group. The prostate should be considered to be enlarged when rL exceeds 3.05; rW exceeds 3.38 and rH exceeds 2.94. Our findings indicated that CT is a useful tool in diagnosing prostate disorders, including BPH. The heterogeneity, density and ratios of prostatic length, width and height can be useful parameters in the diagnosis of BPH. PMID:26303126

  8. Positive affect and learning: exploring the "Eureka Effect" in dogs.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Rehn, Therese; Norling, Yezica; Keeling, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    Animals may experience positive affective states in response to their own achievements. We investigated emotional responses to problem-solving in dogs, separating these from reactions to rewards per se using a yoked control design. We also questioned whether the intensity of reaction would vary with reward type. We examined the response (behavior and heart rate) of dogs as they learned to gain access to different rewards: (1) food (2) human contact, and (3) dog contact. Twelve beagles were assigned to matched pairs, and each dog served as both an experimental and a control animal during different stages of the experiment. We trained all dogs to perform distinct operant tasks and exposed them to additional devices to which they were not trained. Later, dogs were tested in a new context. When acting as an experimental dog, access to the reward was granted immediately upon completion of trained operant tasks. When acting as a control, access to the reward was independent of the dog's actions and was instead granted after a delay equal to their matched partner's latency to complete their task. Thus, differences between the two situations could be attributed to experimental dogs having the opportunity to learn to control access to the reward. Experimental dogs showed signs of excitement (e.g., increased tail wagging and activity) in response to their achievements, whereas controls showed signs of frustration (e.g., chewing of the operant device) in response to the unpredictability of the situation. The intensity of emotional response in experimental dogs was influenced by the reward type, i.e., greatest response to food and least to another dog. Our results suggest that dogs react emotionally to problem-solving opportunities and that tail wagging may be a useful indicator of positive affective states in dogs. PMID:24096703

  9. Successful direct amplification of nuclear markers from single dog hairs using DogFiler multiplex.

    PubMed

    Blackie, Rene; Taylor, Duncan; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    We report on successful amplification of canine STR DNA profiles from single dog hairs. Dog hairs are commonly found on clothing or items of interest in forensic casework and may be crucial associative evidence if linked to an individual dog. We used direct amplification from these hairs to increase the DNA yield of the sample, as well as greatly reducing analysis time. Hairs from different somatic regions were used from several different dog breeds to amplify a selection of eight loci from the validated DogFiler multiplex. Naturally shed canine hairs were processed, with a mix of coarse topcoat (guard) hairs and thinner soft undercoat hairs. Multiple sections of single hairs were amplified in 5 mm segments to determine the viability of DNA recovery from the shaft of the hair. Single guard hairs were cut into 5 mm sections and added directly into a PCR tube. Undercoat hairs, which are very fine, were amplified together in a single tube (approximately ten small hairs). Coarse hairs were found to be the most successful in producing full DNA profiles at all eight loci, matching the corresponding reference profile for that dog. PMID:25994427

  10. Nipah virus infection in dogs, Malaysia, 1999.

    PubMed

    Mills, James N; Alim, Asiah N M; Bunning, Michel L; Lee, Ong Bee; Wagoner, Kent D; Amman, Brian R; Stockton, Patrick C; Ksiazek, Thomas G

    2009-06-01

    The 1999 outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in humans and pigs in Peninsular Malaysia ended with the evacuation of humans and culling of pigs in the epidemic area. Serologic screening showed that, in the absence of infected pigs, dogs were not a secondary reservoir for Nipah virus. PMID:19523300

  11. Congenital oesophageal achalasia in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Earlam, Richard J.; Zollman, Paul E.; Ellis, F. Henry

    1967-01-01

    A 3-month-old German shepherd puppy with a congenitally dilated oesophagus had radiographic, cinefluoroscopic, and oesophageal motility studies before a modified Heller operation was performed. Subsequent examination of the oesophagus revealed no ganglion cells, and the condition was considered to be identical with human achalasia. In dogs, this appears to be more common in the German shepherd breed. Images PMID:6069217

  12. Dogs Don't Need Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Many optimization problems can be solved without resorting to calculus. This article develops a new variational method for optimization that relies on inequalities. The method is illustrated by four examples, the last of which provides a completely algebraic solution to the problem of minimizing the time it takes a dog to retrieve a thrown ball,…

  13. 38 CFR 17.148 - Service dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... beneficiary under 38 U.S.C. 111 and 38 CFR part 70, without regard to whether the veteran meets the eligibility criteria as set forth in 38 CFR part 70. Note: VA will provide payment for travel expenses related... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Service dogs....

  14. 38 CFR 17.148 - Service dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... beneficiary under 38 U.S.C. 111 and 38 CFR part 70, without regard to whether the veteran meets the eligibility criteria as set forth in 38 CFR part 70. Note: VA will provide payment for travel expenses related... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Service dogs....

  15. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  16. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  17. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  18. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  19. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  20. Dog Therapy: The Importance of Just Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schusser, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Excerpts from the book, "The Advantage of Being Useless"; anecdotes from the author's experiences; and observations of his dog illustrate how counselors can be so busy counseling that they miss the human connection. Outdoor activities are conducive to unself-conscious spontaneity and unconditional acceptance--a just "letting it happen," which

  1. Hedgehog ringworm in humans and a dog.

    PubMed

    Pirard-Franchimont, C; Hermanns, J F; Collette, C; Pirard, G E; Quatresooz, P

    2008-01-01

    We report 3 related cases of human dermatophytosis and 1 dog dermatophytosis likely caused by contact with a European hedgehog. Trichophyton erinacei was isolated from stratum corneum samples. This type of zoophilic dermatophytosis is rare in south-east Belgium and probably in the rest of the country as well. PMID:19186564

  2. Clinical aspects of dermatophytosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lechowski, R; Kara?-Tecza, J; Mieczkowska, J

    2004-01-01

    Dermatophytosis in dogs is variable and can clinically mimics other skin diseases. Diagnosis based on clinical presentation may be misleading and additional laboratory tests are needed for a final diagnosis. A systematic diagnostic procedure can prevent a wrong diagnosis and allow for the right treatment. PMID:15633794

  3. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  4. Disseminated aspergillosis in two dogs in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bruchim, Y; Elad, D; Klainbart, S

    2006-03-01

    Aspergillus terreus, normally a soil or plant saprophyte, causes disseminated systemic infection, involving primarily the skeletal and the cardiopulmonary system in humans and dogs.(1, 2) We describe two cases of German shepherd dogs that were referred to Koret School of Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital with a history of anorexia and weakness. Case 1 suffered from neurological deficits, paraparesis and lumbar pain whereas case 2 suffered from unilateral uveitis and exophthalmus. Both dogs were treated symptomatically, but deteriorated progressively despite therapy and were therefore euthanised. Necropsy revealed disseminated aspergillosis, and numerous organs had multiple, miliary, white-yellow foci. Microscopically, these were identified as granulomas, containing fungal hyphae. Affected tissue included brain, heart, kidneys, spleen, lymph nodes and bones (case 2). Aspergillus terreus was isolated from different organs and from urine culture. We suggest that disseminated aspergillosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in German shepherd dogs presenting with ocular disease, neurological deficits, spinal column pain, urinary system disorders, and radiographic evidence of skeletal and/or respiratory pathology. PMID:16466447

  5. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  6. [Occipital dysplasia in a Pomeranian dog].

    PubMed

    van Herpen, H; Voorhout, G

    1993-05-15

    Occipital dysplasia, a congenital malformation of the foramen magnum, was diagnosed in a 4-year-old Pomeranian dog. The diagnosis was made by clinical and radiographic findings. Caudal displacement of the cerebellum and hydrocephalus were diagnosed postmortem, using a radiographic contrast study of the subarachnoid space. PMID:8506541

  7. Can Seizure-Alert Dogs predict seizures?

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen W; Goldstein, Laura H

    2011-12-01

    An index observation where a dog was trained to alert to, as well as respond to, human tonic-clonic seizures led to further research and refinement of training techniques. This was followed by anecdotal reports of pet dogs spontaneously anticipating human epileptic seizures. An industry has since developed training Seizure-Alert Dogs (SADs) to give humans warnings of their seizures. In some cases this has been accompanied by a reduction in seizure frequency. SADs may be trained along with the person with epilepsy, responding specifically to that person's seizures, or may be trained separately. Recent sceptical reports of non-epileptic seizures in some people with SADs have cast doubt on dogs' ability to anticipate true epileptic seizures. This may reflect selection criteria for training programmes as well as training methods used, but does not necessarily indicate that SADs might not be able to predict epileptic seizures. Whether the seizures are epileptic or non-epileptic, it is speculated that SADs probably alert to subtle pre-ictal human behaviour changes, but may also be sensitive to heart rate or olfactory cues. As yet, however, no rigorous data exist as to whether seizure prediction by SADS is better than chance, and what false positive and negative prediction rates might be. PMID:22050976

  8. Intraocular epithelial downgrowth in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Kostuik, Holly

    2007-01-01

    A 14-year-old, female dog was presented for a recheck following intracapsular lens removal 1 year earlier. On examination, epithelial downgrowth was identified in the anterior chamber, and an evisceration was performed. The intraocular contents were submitted for histopathologic examination, which confirmed the presence of epithelial downgrowth. PMID:17966337

  9. Listeria monocytogenes septicemia in an immunocompromised dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An 11-year-old, male castrated, Boston terrier was presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Small Animal Emergency Service (NCSU-CVM-SAER) with a two-day history of progressive ataxia, left-sided head tilt, and anorexia. The dog had previously been diagnosed wi...

  10. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  11. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Buchweitz, John P; Raverty, Stephen A; Johnson, Margaret B; Lehner, Andreas F

    2014-11-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  12. Trapped Prairie Dog for SPV Testing

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This prairie dog was trapped by scientists outside its burrow in Wind Cave National Park as part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This animal will be brought to a research van for tagging and blood, whisker, and hair sampling, and...

  13. Trapping Prairie Dogs for Vaccine Testing

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Greg Schroeder (National Park Service) and a pair of Auburn University graduate students approach a prairie dog that has been trapped outside its burrow in Wind Cave National Park. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine...

  14. Management of dog bites in children

    PubMed Central

    Sabhaney, Vikram; Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Question A 4-year-old girl was playing with her neighbours dog. The dog became excited and bit the girl on the forearm, leaving a puncture wound. As a result of the injury, she has presented to my office. Should she be treated with antibiotics? If so, which antibiotic should be used and for how long? Answer Initiation of prophylactic antibiotics is indicated if the dog bite has undergone primary closure; if there is a moderate or severe bite wound; for puncture wounds (especially if penetration of bone, tendon sheath, or joint), facial bites, bites to the hands or feet, or genital area bites; or wounds sustained by victims who are immunocompromised or asplenic. The first-line choice of antibiotic is amoxicillin-clavulanate. Appropriate tetanus and rabies prophylaxis as indicated should also be a part of caring for a patient who has sustained a dog bite, as well as local debridement and thorough cleaning of the wound. PMID:23064918

  15. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  16. Dogs Don't Need Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Many optimization problems can be solved without resorting to calculus. This article develops a new variational method for optimization that relies on inequalities. The method is illustrated by four examples, the last of which provides a completely algebraic solution to the problem of minimizing the time it takes a dog to retrieve a thrown ball,

  17. Acute phase proteins response in hunting dogs.

    PubMed

    Casella, Stefania; Fazio, Francesco; Russo, Carmelo; Giudice, Elisabetta; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cells (WBC) were assessed in 20 dogs divided into 2 groups. The dogs of group A were not subjected to hunting exercise (control group), while the dogs of group B were subjected to hunting exercise for 3 hr (experimental group). Blood samples were collected from each animal before hunting (T0), immediately after 3 hr of hunting (T1), and after 1 hr of recovery (T2). The general linear model (GLM) repeated measures procedure showed a significant difference between the 2 groups (P < 0.0001) and a significant rise (P < 0.0001) in concentration of Hp, SAA, and CRP after hunting exercise, with a consequent decline during recovery period in group B. These parameters could be considered valid and easily obtainable biomarkers in relation to hunting stress in dogs. Additional studies will continue to elucidate the magnitude and the time of response of other acute phase proteins. PMID:23864258

  18. Four hot DOGs in the microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Sándor; Paragi, Zsolt; Gabányi, Krisztina Éva; An, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs) are a rare class of hyperluminous infrared galaxies identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite. The majority of them are at high redshifts (z ˜ 2-3), at the peak epoch of star formation in the Universe. Infrared, optical, radio, and X-ray data suggest that hot DOGs contain heavily obscured, extremely luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN). This class may represent a short phase in the life of the galaxies, signifying the transition from starburst- to AGN-dominated phases. Hot DOGs are typically radio-quiet, but some of them show mJy-level emission in the radio (microwave) band. We observed four hot DOGs using the technique of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). The 1.7 GHz observations with the European VLBI Network (EVN) revealed weak radio features in all sources. The radio is free from dust obscuration and, at such high redshifts, VLBI is sensitive only to compact structures that are characteristic of AGN activity. In two cases (WISE J0757+5113, WISE J1603+2745), the flux density of the VLBI-detected components is much smaller than the total flux density, suggesting that ˜70-90 per cent of the radio emission, while still dominated by AGN, originates from angular scales larger than that probed by the EVN. The source WISE J1146+4129 appears a candidate compact symmetric object, and WISE J1814+3412 shows a 5.1 kpc double structure, reminiscent of hotspots in a medium-sized symmetric object. Our observations support that AGN residing in hot DOGs may be genuine young radio sources where starburst and AGN activities coexist.

  19. STS-69 Crew members display 'Dog Crew' patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Following their arrival at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, the five astronauts assigned to Space Shuttle Mission STS-69 display the unofficial crew patch for their upcoming spaceflight: the Dog Crew II patch. Mission Commander David M. Walker (center) and Payload Commander James S. Voss (second from right) previously flew together on Mission STS-53, the final dedicated Department of Defense flight on the Space Shuttle. A close comradery formed among Walker, Voss and the rest of the crew, and they dubbed themselves the 'dogs of war', with each of the STS-53 'Dog Crew' members assigned a 'dog tag' or nickname. When the STS-69 astronauts also became good buddies, they decided it was time for the Dog Crew II to be named. Walker's dog tag is Red Dog, Voss's is Dogface, Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell (second from left) is Cujo, space rookie and Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt (left) is Under Dog, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman (right) is Pluato. The Dog Crew II patch features a bulldog peering out from a doghouse shaped like the Space Shuttle and lists the five crew member's dog names. The five astronauts are scheduled to lift off on the fifth Shuttle flight of the year at 11:04 a.m. EDT, August 31, aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  20. Mediastinectomy for management of chronic pyogranulomatous pleural disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Trinterud, T; Nelissen, P; Caine, A R; White, R A S

    2014-06-14

    The medical records of 12 dogs with chronic pyogranulomatous pleural disease unresponsive to medical management were reviewed retrospectively. Resection of the mediastinal pleura (mediastinectomy) was performed through a median sternotomy to remove all diseased and surgically accessible mediastinal pleural tissue. Dogs were re-examined two weeks postoperatively, and long-term outcome was evaluated by contacting owners by phone. Twelve dogs underwent mediastinectomy; additional surgeries included subtotal pericardiectomy (8), lung lobectomy (4) and partial diaphragmatic resection (2). Histology of resected tissue consistently revealed neutrophilic, pyogranulomatous cellulitis/serositis. Foreign material was evident in the mediastinal tissue of five dogs and microorganisms were recovered from three dogs. Two dogs developed pneumothorax immediately postoperatively; one dog developed haemothorax one month postoperatively and was euthanased. Median follow-up time was eight months (range: 6-43?months); eleven dogs were alive and considered to be symptom-free by their owners. Mediastinectomy resulted in complete resolution of symptoms in most dogs (92 per cent) and was associated with a low incidence of major complications. The results of this study indicated that mediastinectomy results in favourable outcome for dogs with chronic pleural pyogranulomatous pleural disease unresponsive to medical management. PMID:24686857