Note: This page contains sample records for the topic vector-mediated presumed dog from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Leptospirosis in a dog with uveitis and presumed cholecystitis.  

PubMed

A 7 yr old castrated male Australian shepherd dog was examined for acute change in iris color, lethargy, and anorexia. Uveitis, acute renal failure, and presumed cholecystitis were diagnosed. Based on clinical findings, leptosporosis was suspected, and the dog was treated with antibiotics and supportive care. The dog made a complete recovery, and leptospirosis was confirmed on convalescent titers. Due to the zoonotic potential, leptospirosis should be considered in cases of uveitis, as well as possible cholecystitis. PMID:22058365

Gallagher, Alexander

2011-01-01

2

Presumed primary uveal melanoma with brain extension in a dog.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old, female, mixed, cocker spaniel was examined for a unilateral exophthalmia and protruding mass in episcleral region of the right eye. Mode B ocular ultrasonography revealed a mass extended intraocular from anterior chamber to posterior pole without evidence of extraocular extension. A presumptive diagnosis of melanocytic tumour was made. A complete blood count and chemistry and thoracic radiographs did not show any abnormal changes. The recommended treatment was enucleation, and melanocytic nature of the tumour was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Three months after surgery, the animal showed a status epilepticus refractory to treatment. Computed tomographic examination of the brain revealed changes compatible with a tumour. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was normal. Because of the poor clinical prognosis, the owners elected to have the dog euthanased. PMID:19527424

Galán, A; Martín-Suárez, E M; Molleda, J M; Raya, A; Gómez-Laguna, J; Martín De Las Mulas, J

2009-06-01

3

Magnetic resonance imaging signs of presumed elevated intracranial pressure in dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings associated with presumed elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in dogs and to evaluate whether MRI could be used to discriminate between dogs with and without elevated ICP. Of 91 dogs that underwent cranial MRI examination, 18 (19.8%) were diagnosed with elevated ICP based on neurological examination, fundoscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. The MRI findings that showed the strongest association with elevated ICP were mass effect (odds ratio [OR], 78.5), caudal transtentorial herniation (OR, 72.0), subfalcine herniation (OR, 45.6), perilesional oedema (OR, 34.0), displacement of the lamina quadrigemina (OR, 27.7) and effacement of the cerebral sulci (OR, 27.1). The presence of any two or more of the following MRI findings identified elevated ICP with a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 96%: compression of the suprapineal recess, compression of the third ventricle, compression of the fourth ventricle, effacement of the cerebral sulci and caudal transposition of the lamina quadrigemina. In conclusion, there is an association between MRI findings and elevated ICP in dogs; therefore, MRI might be useful to discriminate between dogs with and without elevated ICP. PMID:24888678

Bittermann, S; Lang, J; Henke, D; Howard, J; Gorgas, D

2014-07-01

4

Unusual congenital pulmonary anomaly with presumed left lung hypoplasia in a young dog.  

PubMed

A seven-month-old, entire, male miniature schnauzer dog was referred with acute vomiting, inappetence and depression primarily as a result of a gastric foreign body (pine cones). During investigations, thoracic radiographs revealed increased volume of the right lung lobes, deviated cardiomediastinal structures and elevation of the heart from the sternum. Thoracic computed tomography revealed left cranial lung lobe hypoplasia and extension of the right cranial lung parenchyma across the midline to the left hemithorax. Branches of the right pulmonary vessels and bronchi also crossed the midline and extended to the left caudal lung lobe. These findings suggested that the right and left lungs were fused. In humans this finding is consistent with horseshoe lung, which is an uncommon congenital malformation. To the authors' knowledge, this case represents the first report of such a pulmonary anomaly in a dog. PMID:24628409

Lee, C M; Kim, J H; Kang, M H; Eom, K D; Park, H M

2014-05-01

5

What is presumed when we presume consent?  

PubMed Central

Background The organ donor shortfall in the UK has prompted calls to introduce legislation to allow for presumed consent: if there is no explicit objection to donation of an organ, consent should be presumed. The current debate has not taken in account accepted meanings of presumption in law and science and the consequences for rights of ownership that would arise should presumed consent become law. In addition, arguments revolve around the rights of the competent autonomous adult but do not always consider the more serious implications for children or the disabled. Discussion Any action or decision made on a presumption is accepted in law and science as one based on judgement of a provisional situation. It should therefore allow the possibility of reversing the action or decision. Presumed consent to organ donation will not permit such reversal. Placing prime importance on the functionality of body organs and their capacity to sustain life rather than on explicit consent of the individual will lead to further debate about rights of ownership and potentially to questions about financial incentives and to whom benefits should accrue. Factors that influence donor rates are not fully understood and attitudes of the public to presumed consent require further investigation. Presuming consent will also necessitate considering how such a measure would be applied in situations involving children and mentally incompetent adults. Summary The presumption of consent to organ donation cannot be understood in the same way as is presumption when applied to science or law. Consideration should be given to the consequences of presuming consent and to the questions of ownership and organ monetary value as these questions are likely to arise should presumed consent be permitted. In addition, the implications of presumed consent on children and adults who are unable to object to organ donation, requires serious contemplation if these most vulnerable members of society are to be protected.

Pierscionek, Barbara K

2008-01-01

6

Long-term follow-up of foamy viral vector-mediated gene therapy for canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency.  

PubMed

The development of leukemia following gammaretroviral vector-mediated gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) has emphasized the need for long-term follow-up in animals treated with hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. In this study, we report the long-term follow-up (4-7 years) of four dogs with canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD) treated with foamy viral (FV) vector-mediated gene therapy. All four CLAD dogs previously received nonmyeloablative conditioning with 200 cGy total body irradiation followed by infusion of autologous, CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells transduced by a FV vector expressing canine CD18 from an internal Murine Stem Cell Virus (MSCV) promoter. CD18(+) leukocyte levels were >2% following infusion of vector-transduced cells leading to ongoing reversal of the CLAD phenotype for >4 years. There was no clinical development of lymphoid or myeloid leukemia in any of the four dogs and integration site analysis did not reveal insertional oncogenesis. These results showing disease correction/amelioration of disease in CLAD without significant adverse events provide support for the use of a FV vector to treat children with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) in a human gene therapy clinical trial. PMID:23531552

Bauer, Thomas R; Tuschong, Laura M; Calvo, Katherine R; Shive, Heather R; Burkholder, Tanya H; Karlsson, Eleanor K; West, Robert R; Russell, David W; Hickstein, Dennis D

2013-05-01

7

Long-Term Follow-up of Foamy Viral Vector-Mediated Gene Therapy for Canine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency  

PubMed Central

The development of leukemia following gammaretroviral vector-mediated gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) has emphasized the need for long-term follow-up in animals treated with hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. In this study, we report the long-term follow-up (4–7 years) of four dogs with canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD) treated with foamy viral (FV) vector-mediated gene therapy. All four CLAD dogs previously received nonmyeloablative conditioning with 200 cGy total body irradiation followed by infusion of autologous, CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells transduced by a FV vector expressing canine CD18 from an internal Murine Stem Cell Virus (MSCV) promoter. CD18+ leukocyte levels were >2% following infusion of vector-transduced cells leading to ongoing reversal of the CLAD phenotype for >4 years. There was no clinical development of lymphoid or myeloid leukemia in any of the four dogs and integration site analysis did not reveal insertional oncogenesis. These results showing disease correction/amelioration of disease in CLAD without significant adverse events provide support for the use of a FV vector to treat children with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) in a human gene therapy clinical trial.

Bauer, Thomas R; Tuschong, Laura M; Calvo, Katherine R; Shive, Heather R; Burkholder, Tanya H; Karlsson, Eleanor K; West, Robert R; Russell, David W; Hickstein, Dennis D

2013-01-01

8

Vector-mediated drug delivery to the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector-mediated drug delivery to the brain employs the chimeric peptide technology, wherein a non-transportable drug is conjugated to a blood–brain barrier (BBB) transport vector. The latter is a modified protein or receptor-specific monoclonal antibody that undergoes receptor-mediated transcytosis through the BBB in vivo. Conjugation of drug to transport vector is facilitated with either chemical linkers, avidin–biotin technology, polyethylene glycol linkers,

William M. Pardridge

1999-01-01

9

Presumed inflammatory maculopathies.  

PubMed

The macular disorders are classified according to the originally affected layer and the probable cause of the disease: presumed inflammatory or traumatic, iatrogenic, toxic, metabolic or trophic, and hereditary. Three young female patients are reported who had presumed inflammatory diseases: CBPE-complex (APMPPE), pigment epithelium (pigment epitheliitis), and neuroretina (acute macular neuroretinopathy). APMPPE is considered to be a choriocapillaritis closely related to a soft photocoagulate. They recommend careful follow-up of acute neuroretinopathy because through "disuse" a disease of one layer may progress to other layers as they are metabolically interdependent. PMID:285500

Neetens, A; Burvenich, H

1978-04-01

10

Genetic analysis of presumed inherited eye diseases in Tibetan Terriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed the systematic environmental influences and the additive genetic variation for the presumed inherited eye diseases (PIED), membrana pupillaris persistens, distichiasis, primary lens luxation, non-congenital cataract, and progressive retinal atrophy, in Tibetan Terriers. Data were obtained from the International Kennel Club for Tibetan dog breeds in Germany. PIED were recorded in the years 1987 to 2001 by standardised protocols

K Ketteritzsch; H Hamann; R Brahm; H Grußendorf; C. U Rosenhagen; O Distl

2004-01-01

11

Presumed diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the accuracy of the diagnosis of presumed ectopic pregnancy.METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort analysis at a tertiary care medical center. The patient population was composed of 1) clinically stable pregnant women with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) above 2000 mIU\\/mL and no evidence of an intrauterine pregnancy by ultrasound, or 2) women with an abnormal rise or fall of

Kurt T Barnhart; Ingrid Katz; Amy Hummel; Clarisa R Gracia

2002-01-01

12

Modulation of Treg function improves adenovirus vector-mediated gene expression in the airway.  

PubMed

Virus vector-mediated gene transfer has been developed as a treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease, a lethal inherited disorder caused by somatic mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. The pathological proinflammatory environment of CF as well as the naďve and adaptive immunity induced by the virus vector itself limits the effectiveness of gene therapy for CF airway. Here, we report the use of an HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), to enhance the activity of the regulatory T cells (T(reg)) and to improve the expression of virus vector-mediated gene transfer to the respiratory epithelium. Our study demonstrates the potential utility of VPA, a drug used for over 50 years in humans as an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizer, in controlling inflammation and improving the efficacy of gene transfer in CF airway. PMID:24385144

Nagai, Y; Limberis, M P; Zhang, H

2014-02-01

13

Reversal of gene expression profile in the phenylketonuria mouse model after adeno-associated virus vector-mediated gene therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency. Accumulation of phenylalanine leads to severe mental and psychomotor retardation, and hypopigmentation of skin and hair. We have demonstrated the cognitive outcome of biochemical and phenotypic reversal by the adeno-associated virus vector-mediated gene delivery of a human PAH transgene. In this study, we identified the expression

Hyun-Jeong Oh; Hyejin Lee; Joo-Won Park; Hwanseok Rhee; Soo Kyung Koo; Seongman Kang; Inho Jo; Sung-Chul Jung

2005-01-01

14

Adenovirus vector-mediated RNA interference for the inhibition of human parvovirus B19 replication.  

PubMed

Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) has been considered to cause acute and chronic myocarditis, which is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. Currently, no causative treatment option for B19V-infections is available. Since RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a highly potent antiviral approach, the aim of the current study was to develop an RNAi-based strategy to inhibit B19V replication. Three B19V-VP2-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were designed and tested for their silencing activity in reporter assays and the expression cassette of the best one was introduced into an adenoviral shuttle vector (Ad5). B19V-permissive UT7/Epo-S1 cells were infected with B19V and the RNAi triggers were delivered by the adenoviral vector (Ad5shVP2) 24h thereafter. The shRNA targeting the B19V-VP2 gene significantly suppressed VP2 mRNA levels as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Additionally, also the expression levels of the non-targeted non-structural B19V-NS1 mRNA were strongly reduced. Our results demonstrate that vector-mediated delivery of shRNA expression cassettes targeting the structural B19-VP2 gene is a suitable approach to inhibit B19V replication. PMID:23770153

Brandt, Marius R G; Kirste, Ariane G; Pozzuto, Tanja; Schubert, Steffen; Kandolf, Reinhard; Fechner, Henry; Bock, C-Thomas; Kurreck, Jens

2013-09-01

15

Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Vector-Mediated Enkephalin Gene Therapy on Bladder Overactivity and Nociception  

PubMed Central

Abstract We previously reported the effects of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector–mediated enkephalin on bladder overactivity and pain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of vHPPE (E1G6-ENK), a newly engineered replication-deficient HSV vector encoding human preproenkephalin (hPPE). vHPPE or control vector was injected into the bladder wall of female rats 2 weeks prior to the following studies. A reverse-transcription PCR study showed high hPPE transgene levels in L6 dorsal root ganglia innervating the bladder in the vHPPE group. The number of freezing behaviors, which is a nociceptive reaction associated with bladder pain, was also significantly lower in the vHPPE group compared with the control group. The number of L6 spinal cord c-fos–positive cells and the urinary interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 levels after resiniferatoxin (RTx) administration into the bladder of the vHPPE group were significantly lower compared with those of the control vector–injected group. In continuous cystometry, the vHPPE group showed a smaller reduction in intercontraction interval after RTx administration into the bladder. This antinociceptive effect was antagonized by naloxone hydrochloride. Thus, the HSV vector vHPPE encoding hPPE demonstrated physiological improvement in visceral pain induced by bladder irritation. Gene therapy may represent a potentially useful treatment modality for bladder hypersensitive disorders such as bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Goins, William F.; Goss, James R.; Nishizawa, Osamu; de Groat, William C.; Wolfe, Darren; Krisky, David M.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

16

Microinjection of HSV-1 amplicon vector-mediated human proenkephalin into the periaqueductal grey attenuates neuropathic pain in rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the antinociceptive effect of microinjection of HSV-1 amplicon vector-mediated human proenkephalin (hPPE) into the ventral periaqueductal grey (PAG) on neuropathic pain in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain were microinjected into the ventral PAG with normal saline (NS), pHSVIRES-lacZ (SHZ), or HSV-1 amplicon vector pHSVIRES-hPPE-lacZ (SHPZ), respectively. Pain thresholds in the SHPZ-treated rats were significantly higher at day 3, then reached peak at day 14 and lasted until day 35 after PAG administration, and these effects were reversed by naloxone. In contrast, NS or SHZ-treated rats did not significantly affect pain thresholds. These results demonstrated that microinjection of HSV-1 amplicon vector-mediated hPPE into the ventral PAG attenuates neuropathic pain in rats. PMID:22082315

Zou, Wangyuan; Huang, Changshen; Yang, Yong; Pan, Yundan; Yan, Jianqin; Guo, Qulian

2012-04-01

17

Herpes simplex virus vector-mediated gene transfer of kynurenine aminotransferase improves detrusor overactivity in spinal cord-injured rats.  

PubMed

Detrusor overactivity threatens the renal function of patients with spinal cord injury. Suppressing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors is known to improve detrusor overactivity in rats with spinal cord injury, whereas kynurenic acid, the endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, is irreversibly synthesized by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs). In this study, we investigated whether replication-defective herpes simplex virus vector-mediated gene transfer of human KAT II could treat detrusor overactivity by injecting the vectors into the rat bladder wall 1 week after spinal cord injury. Three weeks after injection, we evaluated the cystometry and gene expression of KAT II in L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia. The results showed that the vectors are transported to L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia and upregulate the expression of KAT II, and that they also improve the detrusor overactivity and voiding efficiency. We also proved that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors were blocked by kynurenic acid in the extracellular solution or the vector-mediated gene transfer of KAT II in cultured rat neurons of L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia by whole-cell patch clamp to explore the mechanisms of gene therapy. Therefore, replication-defective herpes simplex virus vector-mediated KAT II inhibits detrusor overactivity in spinal cord-injured rats, possibly by suppressing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in bladder afferent pathways. PMID:24598891

Jia, C; Yoshimura, N; Liao, L

2014-05-01

18

[Epidemiology of presumed benign ovarian tumors].  

PubMed

Ovarian cysts presumed benign can be organic or functional. Their prevalence is estimated between 14 and 18% in postmenopausal women and around 7% in asymptomatic women of childbearing age. Their incidence during pregnancy is between 0.2 and 5% and varies within the term of pregnancy. Ovarian cysts presumed benign have caused nearly 45,000 hospitalizations in France in 2012, bringing the annual risk of hospitalization for a woman residing in France to 1.3‰. Among the risk factors studied in the literature, tamoxifen increases the incidence of ovarian cysts in premenopausal patients and immunosuppressive treatments are associated with a high prevalence of benign ovarian cysts while estrogen contraception reduces the risk of developing functional cysts. PMID:24210235

Mimoun, C; Fritel, X; Fauconnier, A; Deffieux, X; Dumont, A; Huchon, C

2013-12-01

19

Lymphocyte transformation in presumed ocular histoplasmosis  

SciTech Connect

Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a higher mean response than the other two groups to pokeweed mitogen but not to phytohemagglutinin and had higher mean counts per minute to the specific antigens Toxoplasma gondii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M battery, and M gaus, but not to Candida albicans. These data would suggest that individuals with the disciform lesion of presumed ocular histoplasmosis have a hyperreactive cellular immune response; this response may play an important role in the development of the disciform.

Ganley, J.P.; Nemo, G.J.; Comstock, G.W.; Brody, J.A.

1981-08-01

20

[Is being licked by dogs not dirty?].  

PubMed

Being licked by pet dogs is frequently a common advice in articles for the uninitiated. An overview is given about the special antibacterial and wound healing properties of human and canine saliva. New developments in the human area are presumably assigned to dog saliva. Because of the presence of a quite different mouth flora including various potential zoonotic pathogens, it is strictly not advised to let dogs lick the wounds or face of the human. PMID:23025205

Overgaauw, Paul; van Knapen, Frans

2012-09-01

21

What does "presumed consent" might presume? Preservation measures and uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death.  

PubMed

One of the most controversial aspects in uncontrolled (out-of-hospital) donation of organs after circulatory death (uDCD) is the initiation of preservation measures before death. I argue that in so-called opting-out systems only under very stringent conditions we might presume consent to the instauration of those measures. Given its current legal framework, I claim that this is not the case of Spain, a well-known country in which consent is presumed-albeit only formally-and where uDCD is currently practiced. PMID:24481849

de Lora, Pablo

2014-08-01

22

Rescue from photoreceptor degeneration in the rd mouse by human immunodeficiency virus vector-mediated gene transfer.  

PubMed

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited retinal disease, in which photoreceptor cells degenerate, leading to blindness. Mutations in the rod photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase beta subunit (PDEbeta) gene are found in patients with autosomal recessive RP as well as in the rd mouse. We have recently shown that lentivirus vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 achieve stable and efficient gene transfer into retinal cells. In this study, we evaluated the potential of HIV vector-mediated gene therapy for RP in the rd mouse. HIV vectors containing a gene encoding a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged PDEbeta were injected into the subretinal spaces of newborn rd mouse eyes. One to three rows of photoreceptor nuclei were observed in the eyes for at least 24 weeks postinjection, whereas no photoreceptor cells remained in the eyes of control animals at 6 weeks postinjection. Expression of HA-tagged PDEbeta in the rescued photoreceptor cells was confirmed by two-color confocal immunofluorescence analysis using anti-HA and anti-opsin antibodies. HIV vector-mediated gene therapy appears to be a promising means for the treatment of recessive forms of inherited retinal degeneration. PMID:10438872

Takahashi, M; Miyoshi, H; Verma, I M; Gage, F H

1999-09-01

23

Dog Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... dog into your household. Dogs with histories of aggression are not suitable for households with children. Spend ... home: Spay/neuter your dog (this often reduces aggressive tendencies). Never leave infants or young children alone ...

24

[Diagnosis of presumed benign ovarian tumors].  

PubMed

Symptoms of presumed benign ovarian tumors (PBOT) are not specific (LE4). Personal or family history of gynecological cancers can guide the diagnostic strategy. Clinical examination is ineffective for positive, topographic and etiologic diagnosis of PBOT (LE4). Signs of hormonal impregnation may refer to certain types of tumors (LE4). For any patient presenting with a pelvic mass, pelvic ultrasound is in the first-line exam (grade A); it can classify most ovarian tumors. In case of pure liquid unilocular mass smaller than 7 cm, ultrasound is sufficient to characterize the mass (grade A). In case of indeterminate or complex ovarian mass on ultrasound, MRI is useful to characterize the mass (LE2). Beyond 7 cm, the diagnostic performance of ultrasound decreases (LE2). When a non-unilocular liquid ovarian formation is characterized using ultrasound as determinate mass, ultrasound scan is the only exam recommended (grade B). MRI is indicated as a second-line scan for indeterminate masses or greater than 7 cm (grade B). Cyst puncture for diagnostic purposes has no place in the diagnostic strategy of ovarian cysts (grade C). In case of PBOT in pre-pubertal period, dosing biomarkers is useful but should not delay care. In adult women with PBOT, the measurement of CA125 is not recommended for first-line diagnosis (grade C). Current literature data are not sufficient to specify the diagnostic strategy for an ovarian tumor discovered incidentally during laparoscopy. In case of discovery of a high CA125 value, pelvic ultrasound is the first-line examination. The literature data are still limited to define a CA125 threshold value requiring further exploration or special monitoring, in case of normal pelvic ultrasound. PMID:24210239

Laculle-Massin, C; Collinet, P; Faye, N

2013-12-01

25

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Amplicon Vector-Mediated siRNA Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibits Growth of Human Glioma Cells in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In primary glioblastomas and other tumor types, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently observed with alterations, such as amplification, structural rearrangements, or overexpression of the gene, suggesting an important role in glial tumorigenesis and progression. In this study, we investigated whether posttranscriptional gene silencing by vector-mediated RNAi to inhibit EGFR expression can reduce the growth of cultured human

Okay Saydam; Daniel L. Glauser; Irma Heid; Gulen Turkeri; Monika Hilbe; Andreas H. Jacobs; Mathias Ackermann; Cornel Fraefel

2005-01-01

26

Pathological features of polyneuropathy in three dogs.  

PubMed

Canine polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder characterized by a dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. The etiology of the disease is diverse; it may occur in cases of infectious, immune-mediated, or hereditary conditions or in association with endocrinopathy, neoplasm, or chemical intoxication. It is often difficult to determine the etiology through clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate pathological differences among three canine polyneuropathy cases with each presumably having a different etiology. Cases included a 13-month-old female border collie (Dog No.1), a 21-month-old male chihuahua (Dog No.2) and an 11-year-old male beagle (Dog No.3). Clinical examinations revealed hindlimb ataxia and sensory loss in Dog No.1, forelimb paralysis and vertebral pain in Dog No.2, and paddling-gait and hypothyroidism in Dog No.3. Histopathologically, axonal swelling and pale myelin were observed in Dog No.1. Giant axons mimicking giant axonal neuropathy were obvious in Dog No.2. Dog No.3 showed atrophic axons and severe interstitial edema. Distributions of peripheral nerve lesions coincided with respective clinical symptoms. According to their clinical and pathological features, Dogs No.1 and No.2 were suspected of hereditary polyneuropathy, while Dog No.3 seemed to have hypothyroidism-associated polyneuropathy. As each case demonstrated unique pathological features, different pathogeneses of peripheral nerve dysfunction were suggested. PMID:23123885

Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ide, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Mizue; Inagaki, Takehiko; Tamura, Shinji; Saito, Miyoko; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

27

Effects of adenovirus vectors mediated human lactoferrin cDNA on mice bearing EMT6 breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

Human lactoferrin (hLTF) is an 80KD iron-binding protein. It has been reported that hLTF exists anti-tumor effects. In this study Adenovirus Vectors Mediated Human Lactoferrin cDNA (ad-rhLTF) was constructed and an antitumor effects of ad-rhLTF were investigated in mice bearing EMT6 breast carcinoma. The results demonstrated that ad-rhLTF (5 x 10(8) and 25 x 10(8) pfu/ml local injection) had high expression in tumor tissues and effectively reduced the weight of EMT6 breast tumors. Compared with the control group, cell cycle assay by flow cytometry showed that ad-rhLTF increased the percentage of tumor cells in the Sub-G1 phase and G0/G1 phase and the apoptotic number reached to 23.2% in ad-rhLTF group (25 x 10(8) pfu/ml). Ad-rhLTF treatment also resulted in a decrease of Bcl-2 and an increase in Bax and caspase 3 expressions, which was demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and RT-PCR. These data suggest that the antitumor effects of ad-rhLTF might be associated with arresting tumor cells in the G0/G1 phase, inducing cell apoptosis and regulation of the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and activation of caspase 3. PMID:22026128

Wang, Jianjie; Li, Qingwang; Li, Kun; Ou, Yetao; Han, Zengsheng; Gao, Dawei; Li, Jian

2011-09-01

28

20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2012-04-01 true Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219.24 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but...

2013-04-01

29

Human immunodeficiency virus vector-mediated intra-articular expression of angiostatin inhibits progression of collagen-induced arthritis in mice.  

PubMed

We examined the feasibility of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vector-mediated local expression of angiostatin in the treatment of murine collagen-induced arthritis in a mouse model generated by immunization with bovine type II collagen and Freund's complete adjuvant. The HIV vector containing the murine angiostatin expression unit (HIV-angiostatin) was injected into right knee joints after arthritis development; the HIV vector containing the enhanced green fluorescein protein (EGFP) marker gene (HIV-EGFP) was injected into the left joints. Quantitative histological evaluation demonstrated that synovial cell hyperplasia and pannus formation were significantly reduced in the right knee joints as determined by this protocol. Suppression of radiographical changes in the ipsilateral paws was also observed. These results indicate that the HIV vector-mediated expression of angiostatin efficiently inhibits the progression of collagen-induced arthritis. Angiostatic gene therapy may provide a new approach to the effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:15205911

Kato, Ko; Miyake, Koichi; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Yoshino, Shinichi; Shimada, Takashi

2005-09-01

30

Human immunodeficiency virus vector-mediated intra-articular expression of angiostatin inhibits progression of collagen-induced arthritis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the feasibility of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vector-mediated local expression of angiostatin in the treatment of murine collagen-induced arthritis in a mouse model generated by immunization with bovine type II collagen and Freund’s complete adjuvant. The HIV vector containing the murine angiostatin expression unit (HIV-angiostatin) was injected into right knee joints after arthritis development; the HIV vector

Ko Kato; Koichi Miyake; Tsutomu Igarashi; Shinichi Yoshino; Takashi Shimada

2005-01-01

31

Preclinical demonstration of lentiviral vector-mediated correction of immunological and metabolic abnormalities in models of adenosine deaminase deficiency.  

PubMed

Gene transfer into autologous hematopoietic stem cells by ?-retroviral vectors (gRV) is an effective treatment for adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, current gRV have significant potential for insertional mutagenesis as reported in clinical trials for other primary immunodeficiencies. To improve the efficacy and safety of ADA-SCID gene therapy (GT), we generated a self-inactivating lentiviral vector (LV) with a codon-optimized human cADA gene under the control of the short form elongation factor-1? promoter (LV EFS ADA). In ADA(-/-) mice, LV EFS ADA displayed high-efficiency gene transfer and sufficient ADA expression to rescue ADA(-/-) mice from their lethal phenotype with good thymic and peripheral T- and B-cell reconstitution. Human ADA-deficient CD34(+) cells transduced with 1-5?×?10(7) TU/ml had 1-3 vector copies/cell and expressed 1-2x of normal endogenous levels of ADA, as assayed in vitro and by transplantation into immune-deficient mice. Importantly, in vitro immortalization assays demonstrated that LV EFS ADA had significantly less transformation potential compared to gRV vectors, and vector integration-site analysis by nrLAM-PCR of transduced human cells grown in immune-deficient mice showed no evidence of clonal skewing. These data demonstrated that the LV EFS ADA vector can effectively transfer the human ADA cDNA and promote immune and metabolic recovery, while reducing the potential for vector-mediated insertional mutagenesis. PMID:24256635

Carbonaro, Denise A; Zhang, Lin; Jin, Xiangyang; Montiel-Equihua, Claudia; Geiger, Sabine; Carmo, Marlene; Cooper, Aaron; Fairbanks, Lynette; Kaufman, Michael L; Sebire, Neil J; Hollis, Roger P; Blundell, Michael P; Senadheera, Shantha; Fu, Pei-Yu; Sahaghian, Arineh; Chan, Rebecca Y; Wang, Xiaoyan; Cornetta, Kenneth; Thrasher, Adrian J; Kohn, Donald B; Gaspar, H Bobby

2014-03-01

32

Remission of Invasive, Cancer Stem-Like Glioblastoma Xenografts Using Lentiviral Vector-Mediated Suicide Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Glioblastoma is the most frequent and most malignant primary brain tumor with a poor prognosis. The translation of therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma from the experimental phase into the clinic has been limited by insufficient animal models, which lack important features of human tumors. Lentiviral gene therapy is an attractive therapeutic option for human glioblastoma, which we validated in a clinically relevant animal model. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a rodent xenograft model that recapitulates the invasive and angiogenic features of human glioblastoma to analyze the transduction pattern and therapeutic efficacy of lentiviral pseudotyped vectors. Both, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein (LCMV-GP) and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) pseudotyped lentiviral vectors very efficiently transduced human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, pseudotyped gammaretroviral vectors, similar to those evaluated for clinical therapy of glioblastoma, showed inefficient gene transfer in vitro and in vivo. Both pseudotyped lentiviral vectors transduced cancer stem-like cells characterized by their CD133-, nestin- and SOX2-expression, the ability to form spheroids in neural stem cell medium and to express astrocytic and neuronal differentiation markers under serum conditions. In a therapeutic approach using the suicide gene herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-1-tk) fused to eGFP, both lentiviral vectors mediated a complete remission of solid tumors as seen on MRI resulting in a highly significant survival benefit (p<0.001) compared to control groups. In all recurrent tumors, surviving eGFP-positive tumor cells were found, advocating prodrug application for several cycles to even enhance and prolong the therapeutic effect. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, lentiviral pseudotyped vectors are promising candidates for gene therapy of glioma in patients. The inefficient gene delivery by gammaretroviral vectors is in line with the results obtained in clinical therapy for GBM and thus confirms the high reproducibility of the invasive glioma animal model for translational research.

Tsinkalovsky, Oleg; Euskirchen, Philipp; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Bjerkvig, Rolf

2009-01-01

33

West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. Foundation wall and pipes in foreground. Wood foundation in background with railroad tracks beyond. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

34

Lentiviral vector mediated modification of mesenchymal stem cells & enhanced survival in an in vitro model of ischaemia  

PubMed Central

Introduction A combination of gene and cell therapies has the potential to significantly enhance the therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The development of efficient gene delivery methods is essential if MSCs are to be of benefit using such an approach. Achieving high levels of transgene expression for the required period of time, without adversely affecting cell viability and differentiation capacity, is crucial. In the present study, we investigate lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of rat bone-marrow derived MSCs and examine any functional effect of such genetic modification in an in vitro model of ischaemia. Methods Transduction efficiency and transgene persistence of second and third generation rHIV-1 based lentiviral vectors were tested using reporter gene constructs. Use of the rHIV-pWPT-EF1-?-GFP-W vector was optimised in terms of dose, toxicity, cell species, and storage. The in vivo condition of ischaemia was modelled in vitro by separation into its associated constituent parts i.e. hypoxia, serum and glucose deprivation, in which the effect of therapeutic gene over-expression on MSC survival was investigated. Results The second generation lentiviral vector rHIV-pWPT-EF1-?-GFP-W, was the most efficient and provided the most durable transgene expression of the vectors tested. Transduction with this vector did not adversely affect MSC morphology, viability or differentiation potential, and transgene expression levels were unaffected by cryopreservation of transduced cells. Over-expression of HSP70 resulted in enhanced MSC survival and increased resistance to apoptosis in conditions of hypoxia and ischaemia. MSC differentiation capacity was significantly reduced after oxygen deprivation, but was preserved with HSP70 over-expression. Conclusions Collectively, these data validate the use of lentiviral vectors for efficient in vitro gene delivery to MSCs and suggest that lentiviral vector transduction can facilitate sustained therapeutic gene expression, providing an efficient tool for ex vivo MSC modification. Furthermore, lentiviral mediated over-expression of therapeutic genes in MSCs may provide protection in an ischaemic environment and enable MSCs to function in a regenerative manner, in part through maintaining the ability to differentiate. This finding may have considerable significance in improving the efficacy of MSC-based therapies.

2011-01-01

35

Efficacy of orbifloxacin tablets for the treatment of superficial and deep pyoderma due to Staphylococcus intermedius infection in dogs  

PubMed Central

Orbifloxacin tablets were administered orally to 23 dogs with superficial and/or deep staphylococcal pyoderma. Response to therapy was excellent in 95.6% of the dogs. Duration of therapy varied from 21 to 40 days (average 29 days) for dogs having only superficial infections, and from 25 to 150 days (average 72 days) for dogs having deep infections. Relapses occurred in 18% of the dogs within a 3-month period. One dog developed a presumed adverse cutaneous drug reaction. Under the conditions of this study, orbifloxacin was an effective, safe, and convenient antibiotic for the treatment of superficial and deep staphylococcal pyoderma in dogs.

Scott, Danny W.; Peters, Jeanine; Miller, William H.

2006-01-01

36

Dogs and Preventing Dog Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... frustrated enough to bite. For instance, if a dog has food or a toy, never try to take it away. You wouldn't like it if someone grabbed your snack while you were eating it! Only Pet With Permission: Never pet a dog without asking the owner if it's OK. Some ...

37

12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR FORCE INSIGNIA EMBLEM AFFIXED, 'AIR FORCE WEAPONS LABORATORY.' OTHER SIGN ON DOOR SAYS, 'BSD LIASON OFFICE.' INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6173, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

38

10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may presume that such a system is life cycle cost-effective without further...existing Federal building is not life cycle cost-effective for Federal investment...Occupied under a lease which includes the cost of utilities in the rent and...

2010-01-01

39

10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may presume that such a system is life cycle cost-effective without further...existing Federal building is not life cycle cost-effective for Federal investment...Occupied under a lease which includes the cost of utilities in the rent and...

2009-01-01

40

Dog Bite Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... records. Consult with your veterinarian about your dog’s aggressive action. Your veterinarian can examine your dog to ... or one they know. Some owners actually promote aggression in their dogs or allow aggression to go ...

41

Intrathecal herpes simplex virus type 1 amplicon vector-mediated human proenkephalin reduces chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) amplicon vector-mediated human proenkephalin (hPPE) on chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intrathecally administered normal saline (NS), pHSVIRES-lacZ (SHZ) or recombinant HSV-1 amplicon vector pHSVIRES-hPPE-lacZ (SHPZ), respectively. Once a week for 5 weeks after the intrathecal (i.t.) administration, the expression levels of hPPE mRNA and leu?enkephalin (L-EK) were determined. The paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) and paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL) were measured before CCI (baseline) on day 3 and once a week for 5 weeks after i.t. administration. The results showed that the PWMT and PWTL in the SHPZ group were significantly increased compared to the thresholds before i.t. administration. The antinociceptive effect of SHPZ reached its peak 3 weeks after i.t. administration and was maintained for 5 weeks. In the rats administered vehicle or SHZ, there were no significant differences between the PWMT or PWTL and the thresholds before i.t. administration. These results indicate that a single i.t. administration of HSV-1 amplicon vector-mediated hPPE attenuated CCI-induced hypersensitivity in rats. PMID:21468603

Zou, Wangyuan; Guo, Qulian; Chen, Chan; Yang, Yong; Wang, E

2011-01-01

42

Prevention of stroke recurrence with presumed paradoxical embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paradoxical cerebral embolism (PCE) through a patent foramen ovale (PFO) should be considered as a cause of ischemic stroke,\\u000a particularly in young patients without an altenative cause for stroke. PCE is even more important that it is potentially treatable.\\u000a However, PCE remains often presumed because it rests upon the rarely demonstrated findings of a deep venous thrombosis and a thrombus

J. Bogousslavsky; G. Devuyst; M. Nendaz; H. Yamamoto; F. Sarasin

1997-01-01

43

Renal clearance studies of effect of left atrial distension in the dog.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the water diuresis of left atrial distension in 16 dogs on the basis of clearance studies employing hydration, chronic and acute salt loading, deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess, and distal tubular nephron blockade with diuretics. The diuresis was found in hydrated and salt-loaded dogs and was independent of DOCA and presumed renin depletion. It was not found in five dogs after distal tubular blockade. No significant reproducible saluresis was ever documented. The water diuresis was always stopped by exogenous vasopressin (seven dogs). Antidiuretic hormone inhibition with distal tubular nephron water permeability changes appears to be the sole mechanism of the diuresis of left atrial distension in the dog.

Kinney, M. J.; Discala, V. A.

1972-01-01

44

Unilateral electronegative ERG in a presumed central retinal artery occlusion  

PubMed Central

A unilateral electronegative electroretinogram (ERG) was seen in a 94-year-old man with presumed central retinal artery occlusion. Goldmann perimetry revealed central scotoma in the right eye and no abnormalities in the left eye. Full-field ERG in the right eye described a reduction of the b-wave with a relative preservation of the a-wave which is characteristic of electronegative ERG. Hence, our case illustrates that ERG testing is essential for the work-up of individuals with suspected retinal vascular disorders.

Lima, Luiz H; Cella, Wener; Brue, Claudia; Tsang, Stephen H

2010-01-01

45

Ask Dog Lady  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What to do with a problem dog? What is the best book on dog training? Would Tony Soprano benefit from owning a dog? How can you trust your dog walker with your dog? All these questions are addressed by the Dog Lady, who gives advice, as she says herself, on "dogs, love, and life." Always readable and often funny, the Dog Lady answers emails from viewers with questions about their canine pets. Users can read recent columns or review the "Best in Show" archive, a collection of the Dog Lady's most memorable advice. [CH

2003-01-01

46

Optimized adeno-associated viral vector-mediated striatal DOPA delivery restores sensorimotor function and prevents dyskinesias in a model of advanced Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Viral vector-mediated gene transfer utilizing adeno-associated viral vectors has recently entered clinical testing as a novel tool for delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain. Clinical trials in Parkinson’s disease using adeno-associated viral vector-based gene therapy have shown the safety of the approach. Further efforts in this area will show if gene-based approaches can rival the therapeutic efficacy achieved with the best pharmacological therapy or other, already established, surgical interventions. One of the strategies under development for clinical application is continuous 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine delivery. This approach has been shown to be efficient in restoring motor function and reducing established dyskinesias in rats with a partial lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine projection. Here we utilized high purity recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors serotype 5 coding for tyrosine hydroxylase and its co-factor synthesizing enzyme guanosine-5'-triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1, delivered at an optimal ratio of 5 : 1, to show that the enhanced 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine production obtained with this optimized delivery system results in robust recovery of function in spontaneous motor tests after complete dopamine denervation. We found that the therapeutic efficacy was substantial and could be maintained for at least 6 months. The tyrosine hydroxylase plus guanosine-5'-triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 treated animals were resistant to developing dyskinesias upon peripheral l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine drug challenge, which is consistent with the interpretation that continuous dopamine stimulation resulted in a normalization of the post-synaptic response. Interestingly, recovery of forelimb use in the stepping test observed here was maintained even after a second lesion depleting the serotonin input to the forebrain, suggesting that the therapeutic efficacy was not solely dependent on dopamine synthesis and release from striatal serotonergic terminals. Taken together these results show that vector-mediated continuous 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine delivery has the potential to provide significant symptomatic relief even in advanced stages of Parkinson’s disease.

Carlsson, Thomas; Cederfjall, Erik Ahlm; Carta, Manolo; Kirik, Deniz

2010-01-01

47

Dog Fights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

Taylor, Kelley R.

2010-01-01

48

Training dogs to detect Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dogs have been used successfully to detect drugs and conventional high explosives. The world-wide rise in terrorist activities has placed emphasis on the detection of non-conventional explosive materials such as the multi-functional peroxides, triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD). This study demonstrates that dogs can detect both solid TATP and TATP adsorbed to cotton balls. An effective procedure to train dogs to detect TATP using cotton balls permeated with TATP vapor is provided. The various trials showed that dogs were capable of detecting as little as 200 ?g of TATP adsorbed to a one gram cotton ball under a variety of circumstances. However, since TATP vaporizes rapidly at room temperature, significant depletion of TATP from cotton balls can occur in as little as 20 minutes, hampering the ability of the dogs to detect it. The TATP depleted cotton ball can be refreshed by returning it to a sealed container with TATP residue for about 20 minutes. A presumed decomposition product of TATP, acetone, cannot be used in place of TATP to train dogs.

Oxley, Jimmie C.; Smith, James L.; Moran, Jesse; Nelson, Ken; Utley, William E.

2004-09-01

49

National Detector Dog Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Detector Dog Manual covers background information, procedures, health care, and training related to detector dog activities. The procedures have a national focus to guide detector dog activities, and they are supplemental to general operation...

2004-01-01

50

Dog Bite Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

51

Presumed symbolic use of diurnal raptors by Neanderthals.  

PubMed

In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ? 100-60 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (? 90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60-40 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions. PMID:22403717

Morin, Eugčne; Laroulandie, Véronique

2012-01-01

52

Subtracta's Dog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math activity related to volume, learners use problem solving skills to calculate and build a model house for Minus the dog. Learners are given certain parameters that they follow as they design and construct a house out of index cards and tape. This activity guide contains a material list, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2004-01-01

53

Genetic evaluation of Addison's disease in the Portuguese Water Dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Addison's disease, also known as hypoadrenocorticism, has been reported in many individual dogs, although some breeds exhibit a greater incidence than the population as a whole. Addison's is presumed to be an autoimmune mediated hereditary defect but the mode of inheritance remains unclear. In particular, the heritability and mode of inheritance have not been defined for the Portuguese Water

AM Oberbauer; JS Bell; JM Belanger; TR Famula

2006-01-01

54

Presumed Air by Vitrectomy Embolisation (PAVE) a potentially fatal syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Since first being reported in the ophthalmology literature in 2010, three cases (one fatal) of suspected venous air embolism (VAE) during vitrectomy have received little notice, and the vitrectomy/VAE connection has been described as unproven. We investigated the ability of air to exit the eye through vortex veins after accidental suprachoroidal air infusion. Methods Vitrectomy was performed on four donor eyes. Unsutured cannulas were partially withdrawn during air fluid exchange, producing choroidal detachments that emulated accidental suprachoroidal air infusion from a slipping cannula. Eyes with and without clamping of the vortex vein stumps were partially submerged in a water bath. Results Extensive choroidal detachment was created in all eyes during air infusion. All eyes with open vortex veins demonstrated rapid air extravasation/bubbling. An eye with clamped vortex vein stumps showed no air extravasation until the clamps were removed. Conclusions When combined with existing clinical reports of suspected VAE in the eyes of living patients during ocular air fluid exchange, this experiment justifies recognition of presumed air by vitrectomy embolisation (PAVE) as a rare but potentially fatal vitrectomy complication. Simple surgical precautions can change PAVE from a ‘rare event’ to a ‘never event’, beginning with acknowledgment of its existence.

Morris, Robert E; Sapp, Mathew R; Oltmanns, Matthew H; Kuhn, Ferenc

2014-01-01

55

Dogs catch human yawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that

Ramiro M. Joly-Mascheroni; Atsushi Senju; Alex J. Shepherd

2008-01-01

56

Lentiviral vector-mediated stable expression of sTNFR-Fc in human macrophage and neuronal cells as a potential therapy for neuroAIDS  

PubMed Central

Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection frequently causes neurologic disease, which is the result of viral replication and activation of macrophages and microglia in the CNS, and subsequent secretion of high levels of neurotoxic products, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). We therefore hypothesized that a soluble TNF-? antagonist might have potential utility as a neuroprotective effecter molecule, and conducted proof-of-concept studies to test this hypothesis. Methods To develop novel therapeutics for the treatment of neuroAIDS, we constructed and characterized a soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR)-Fc fusion protein with the goal of neutralizing TNF-?, and tested the stability of expression of this gene following delivery by a lentiviral vector. Results High-titer lentiviral vectors were prepared, allowing efficient transduction of macrophage/glial and neuronal cell lines, as well as primary rat cerebellar neurons. Efficient, stable secretion of sTNFR-Fc was demonstrated in supernatants from transduced cell lines over 20 passages, using both western blot and ELISA. Biological activity of the secreted sTNFR-Fc was confirmed by TNF-specific in vitro protein binding and functional blocking assays. Finally, the secreted protein was shown to protect neuronal cells from TNF-?, HIV-1 Tat-, and gp120-mediated neurotoxicity. Conclusions These results demonstrate that lentiviral vector mediated expression of sTNFR-Fc may have potential as a novel therapy for neuroAIDS.

2011-01-01

57

Normative consent and presumed consent for organ donation: a critique.  

PubMed

Ben Saunders claims that actual consent is not necessary for organ donation due to 'normative consent', a concept he borrows from David Estlund. Combining normative consent with Peter Singer's 'greater moral evil principle', Saunders argues that it is immoral for an individual to refuse consent to donate his or her organs. If a presumed consent policy were thus adopted, it would be morally legitimate to remove organs from individuals whose wishes concerning donation are not known. This paper disputes Saunders' arguments. First, if death caused by the absence of organ transplant is the operational premise, then, there is nothing of comparable moral precedence under which a person is not obligated to donate. Saunders' use of Singer's principle produces a duty to donate in almost all circumstances. However, this premise is based on a flawed interpretation of cause and effect between organ availability and death. Second, given growing moral and scientific agreement that the organ donors in heart-beating and non-heart-beating procurement protocols are not dead when their organs are surgically removed, it is not at all clear that people have a duty to consent to their lives being taken for their organs. Third, Saunders' claim that there can be good reasons for refusing consent clashes with his claim that there is a moral obligation for everyone to donate their organs. Saunders' argument is more consistent with a conclusion of 'mandatory consent'. Finally, it is argued that Saunders' policy, if put into place, would be totalitarian in scope and would therefore be inconsistent with the freedom required for a democratic society. PMID:20663768

Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

2010-08-01

58

Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers  

MedlinePLUS

... wind to unintended targets (such as other non-aggressive dogs or yourself), and use caution. The best ... dogs or dogs that you know have shown aggression toward people or other dogs. Make sure that ...

59

Combined Use of Carboxyl-Directed Protein Pegylation and Vector-Mediated Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Delivery System Optimizes Brain Uptake of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Following Intravenous Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Peptide drug delivery to the brain requires optimization of (a) plasma pharmacokinetics and (b) blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. In the present studies, plasma pharmacokinetics are improved with protein pegylation and BBB transport is facilitated with the use of vector-mediated drug delivery using the OX26 monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the rat transferrin receptor, which undergoes receptor-mediated transcytosis through the BBB

William M. Pardridge; Dafang Wu; Toshiyasu Sakane

1998-01-01

60

Genetic modification of mouse bone marrow by lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of hypoxanthine-Guanine phosphoribosyltransferase short hairpin RNA confers chemoprotection against 6-thioguanine cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

We have recently developed a novel and highly efficient strategy that exclusively uses the purine analog 6-thioguanine (6TG) for both pretransplantation conditioning and post-transplantation chemoselection of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-deficient bone marrow (BM). In a mouse BM transplantation model, combined 6TG preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection consistently achieved >95% engraftment of HPRT-deficient donor BM and long-term reconstitution of histologically and immunophenotypically normal hematopoiesis in both primary and secondary recipients, without significant toxicity and in the absence of any other cytotoxic conditioning regimen. To translate this strategy for combined 6TG conditioning and chemoselection into a clinically feasible approach, it is necessary to develop methods for genetic modification of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to render them HPRT-deficient and thus 6TG-resistant. Here we investigated a strategy to reduce HPRT expression and thereby confer protection against 6TG myelotoxicity to primary murine BM cells by RNA interference (RNAi). Accordingly, we constructed and validated a lentiviral gene transfer vector expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) that targets the murine HPRT gene. Our results showed that lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of HPRT-targeted shRNA could achieve effective and long-term reduction of HPRT expression. Furthermore, in both an established murine cell line as well as in primary murine BM cells, lentiviral transduction with HPRT-targeted shRNA was associated with enhanced resistance to 6TG cytotoxicity in vitro. Hence this represents a translationally feasible method to genetically engineer HSC for implementation of 6TG-mediated preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection. PMID:23769104

Hacke, K; Treger, J A; Bogan, B T; Schiestl, R H; Kasahara, N

2013-06-01

61

A comparison of dog–dog and dog–human play behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the popular literature, it is often assumed that a single conceptual framework can be applied to both dog–dog and dog–human interactions, including play. We have, through three studies, tested the hypothesis that dog–dog and dog–human play are motivationally distinct. In an observational study of dogs being walked by their owners (N=402), dogs which were walked together, and had opportunities

Nicola J. Rooney; John W. S. Bradshaw; Ian H. Robinson

2000-01-01

62

Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis.  

PubMed

Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin. PMID:23843389

van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C R; Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

2013-09-01

63

Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis  

PubMed Central

Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin.

van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C. R.; Klutsch, Cornelya F. C.; Amorim, Antonio; Savolainen, Peter

2013-01-01

64

Otolithiasis in three dogs.  

PubMed

Mineral opacities within the tympanic bullae, termed otoliths, were detected in three dogs by means of radiography and computed tomography. Radiographic signs of otitis externa were present in two dogs. One dog had clinical signs of vestibular disease, whereas the other two dogs had no clinical evidence of ear disease. Otolithiasis may represent mineralized necrotic material of a current or previous case of otitis media. PMID:12620046

Ziemer, Lisa S; Schwarz, Tobias; Sullivan, Martin

2003-01-01

65

Hypomyelination in Weimaraner dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs from two separate litters of Weimaraners developed tremors by 3 weeks of age. Light and electron microscopic findings in one dog from each of the litters were compared to those of two age-matched controls. Many axons in the brain and spinal cord were either thinly myelinated or nonmyelinated in the affected dogs relative to the controls, while the peripheral

J. N. Kornegay; M. A. Goodwin; L. K. Spyridakis

1987-01-01

66

Tick-borne pathogens and disease in dogs on St. Kitts, West Indies.  

PubMed

Between 2009 and 2011, we conducted a case-control study of ticks and tick-associated pathogens affecting dogs on the island of St. Kitts, eastern Caribbean, including 55 cases of clinically suspected tick-borne disease (TBD) and 110 presumably healthy animals presented for elective surgeries. Rhipicephalus sanguineus caused year-round infestations of dogs, and 36% of the dogs in the study were infested at the time of examination. Overall, 62% of suspected TBD cases and 24% of presumably healthy dogs tested positive by PCR for infections with: Anaplasma platys (0% and 4%), Babesia canis vogeli (20% and 6%), Babesia gibsoni (18% and 5%), Ehrlichia canis (35% and 7%), and Hepatozoon canis (5% and 2%). Co-infections were documented in 15% of these PCR-positive dogs. Antibodies against A. platys or E. canis were noted in 36% of the dogs. Thrombocytopenia was the most common sign of infection, followed by anemia. This is the first detection of A. platys, B. canis vogeli, or H. canis on St. Kitts and the first detection of B. gibsoni in the Caribbean. We conclude that tick-borne pathogens of dogs are highly prevalent in this region and may present in dogs that appear healthy, in spite of hematologic abnormalities that may increase surgical risk. PMID:23481028

Loftis, Amanda D; Kelly, Patrick J; Freeman, Mark D; Fitzharris, Susan; Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Wang, Chengming

2013-09-01

67

Service dog selection tests: Effectiveness for dogs from animal shelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assistance dogs are trained to help people with various physical and mental handicaps. These dogs are selected using a test comprising several behavioral components. Anecdotal reports have shown that only about 50% of the dogs so selected successfully complete training and become assistance dogs. Traditionally training centers had used puppies, but recently some trainers have begun to use dogs from

Emily Weiss; Gary Greenberg

1997-01-01

68

Dog-human and dog-dog interactions of 260 dog-owning households in a community in Cheshire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the nature and frequency of the contacts that occur between dogs, and between dogs and people, by means of a questionnaire survey of 260 dog-owning households in a community in Cheshire, uk. The contacts were highly variable and were affected by the size, sex and age of the dog, individual dog behaviours, human behaviours and human preferences

C. Westgarth; G. L. Pinchbeck; J. W. S. Bradshaw; S. Dawson; R. M. Gaskell; R. M. Christley

2008-01-01

69

20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Evidence to presume a person is dead. 404.721 Section 404.721 Employees...404.721 Evidence to presume a person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but evidence of death is needed, we will...

2013-04-01

70

The Impact of Presumed Consent Legislation on Cadaveric Organ Donation: A Cross Country Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., Great Britain, and in many other countries, the gap between the demand and the supply of human organs for transplantation is on the rise, despite the efforts of governments and health agencies to promote donor registration. In some countries of continental Europe, however, cadaveric organ procurement is based on the principle of presumed consent. Under presumed consent

Alberto Abadie; Sebastien Gay

2004-01-01

71

The impact of presumed consent legislation on cadaveric organ donation: A cross-country study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., Great Britain and in many other countries, the gap between the demand and the supply of human organs for transplantation is on the rise, despite the efforts of governments and health agencies to promote donor registration. In some countries of continental Europe, however, cadaveric organ procurement is based on the principle of presumed consent. Under presumed consent

Alberto Abadie; Sebastien Gay

2006-01-01

72

Presumed Endocarditis Caused by BRO ?-Lactamase-Producing Moraxella lacunata in an Infant with Fallot's Tetrad  

PubMed Central

A case of presumed endocarditis caused by Moraxella lacunata in a 15-month-old male infant with Fallot's tetrad is described. This infection may have occurred as the result of transmission of this organism between the father and his son. This is the first report of BRO ?-lactamase-producing M. lacunata causing presumed endocarditis.

Nagano, Noriyuki; Sato, Junichi; Cordevant, Christophe; Nagano, Yukiko; Taguchi, Fumiaki; Inoue, Matsuhisa

2003-01-01

73

Presuming Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At least since the early 1990s, educators in inclusive schooling as well as scholars in Disability Studies have critiqued prevailing notions of intellectual ability and have suggested the importance of interpretive communities for constructing student competence (Biklen, 1990; Goode, 1992, 1994; Kliewer, 1998; Kluth, 2003; Linneman, 2001). This…

Biklen, Douglas; Burke, Jamie

2006-01-01

74

Impact of presumed consent for organ donation on donation rates: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the impact of a system of presumed consent for organ donation on donation rates and to review data on attitudes towards presumed consent. Design Systematic review. Data sources Studies retrieved by online searches to January 2008 of Medline, Medline In-Process, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, HMIC, PAIS International, and OpenSIGLE. Studies reviewed Five studies comparing donation rates before and after the introduction of legislation for presumed consent (before and after studies); eight studies comparing donation rates in countries with and without presumed consent systems (between country comparisons); 13 surveys of public and professional attitudes to presumed consent. Results The five before and after studies represented three countries: all reported an increase in donation rates after the introduction of presumed consent, but there was little investigation of any other changes taking place concurrently with the change in legislation. In the four best quality between country comparisons, presumed consent law or practice was associated with increased organ donation—increases of 25-30%, 21-26%, 2.7 more donors per million population, and 6.14 more donors per million population in the four studies. Other factors found to be important in at least one study were mortality from road traffic accidents and cerebrovascular causes, transplant capacity, gross domestic product per capita, health expenditure per capita, religion (Catholicism), education, public access to information, and a common law legal system. Eight surveys of attitudes to presumed consent were of the UK public. These surveys varied in the level of support for presumed consent, with surveys conducted before 2000 reporting the lowest levels of support (28-57%). The most recent survey, in 2007, reported that 64% of respondents supported a change to presumed consent. Conclusion Presumed consent alone is unlikely to explain the variation in organ donation rates between countries. Legislation, availability of donors, organisation and infrastructure of the transplantation service, wealth and investment in health care, and public attitudes to and awareness of organ donation may all play a part, but their relative importance is unclear. Recent UK surveys show support for presumed consent, though with variation in results that may reflect differences in survey methods.

2009-01-01

75

Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected dogs after antibiotic treatment.  

PubMed Central

In specific-pathogen-free dogs experimentally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick exposure, treatment with high doses of amoxicillin or doxycycline for 30 days diminished but failed to eliminate persistent infection. Although joint disease was prevented or cured in five of five amoxicillin- and five of six doxycycline-treated dogs, skin punch biopsies and multiple tissues from necropsy samples remained PCR positive and B. burgdorferi was isolated from one amoxicillin- and two doxycycline-treated dogs following antibiotic treatment. In contrast, B. burgdorferi was isolated from six of six untreated infected control dogs and joint lesions were found in four of these six dogs. Serum antibody levels to B. burgdorferi in all dogs declined after antibiotic treatment. Negative antibody levels were reached in four of six doxycycline- and four of six amoxicillin-treated dogs. However, in dogs that were kept in isolation for 6 months after antibiotic treatment was discontinued, antibody levels began to rise again, presumably in response to proliferation of the surviving pool of spirochetes. Antibody levels in untreated infected control dogs remained high.

Straubinger, R K; Summers, B A; Chang, Y F; Appel, M J

1997-01-01

76

Analysis of Short-Period P-Coda Measurements for Presumed Underground Nuclear Explosions in Eurasia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Characteristics of P-coda measurements at NORSAR were investigated for presumed underground nuclear explosions in the Soviet Union. For explosions in the Semipalatinsk region, coda magnitudes, measured in the time domain in 5-second windows averaged over ...

D. R. Baumgardt

1984-01-01

77

A Witnessed Short Fall Mimicking Presumed Shaken Baby Syndrome (Inflicted Childhood Neurotrauma)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A witnessed fall backwards of an infant from a sitting position resulted in the subdural hematoma and retinal hemorrhages characteristic of presumed shaken baby syndrome. Violent shaking is not necessary to produce these findings.

Horace B. Gardner

2007-01-01

78

Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

2007-01-01

79

Ultrasonographic characteristics of the cisterna chyli in eight dogs and four cats.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography of the cisterna chyli has been used in humans to diagnose increased lymphatic flow or lymph flow obstruction and to guide percutaneous embolization of the thoracic duct via the cisterna chyli. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic characteristics of the dorsal portion of cisterna chyli in dogs and cats with chylous ascites or chylothorax and in a group of healthy dogs and cats. The aorta and the cranial mesenteric artery were used as anatomic landmarks. Ultrasonography was performed before and 2 h after a fatty meal in healthy dogs and cats. The visualized structure was confirmed to be a dilated cisterna chyli at necropsy in a dog with chylous ascites. The confirmed or presumed cisterna chyli was consistently detected using ultrasonography in nonfasted healthy animals and clinically affected animals and appeared as an anechoic tubular structure, without detectable flow, at the right dorsolateral aspect of the aorta. It had a similar ultrasonographic appearance in patients with chyloabdomen and in nonfasted healthy dogs and cats. There was considerable overlap in diameters of the cisterna chyli for affected and healthy animals. The shape and size of the cisterna chyli in an individual animal were variable during the same ultrasound examination and between different examinations. This study demonstrated the appearance of the presumed dorsal portion of the cisterna chyli by ultrasonography and might provide useful preliminary data for further studies into the feasibility of ultrasound-guided injections or aspirations of the cisterna chyli in dogs and cats. PMID:23662920

Etienne, Anne-Laure; Cavrenne, Romain; Gommeren, Kris; Bolen, Géraldine; Busoni, Valeria

2013-01-01

80

Novel multi-targeted polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to report the use of multi-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis. Multi-targeted PCR using three targets specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, i.e., IS6110, MPB64, and protein b, was performed on intraocular fluid samples of 25 subjects. Nine had presumed tubercular uveitis, six had intraocular inflammation secondary to a nontubercular etiology (disease controls), and ten had no evidence of intraocular inflammation (normal controls). As described previously, response to antitubercular therapy was considered as the gold standard. Results Multi-targeted PCR was positive in seven out of nine patients with presumed tubercular uveitis and negative in all normal and disease controls. The sensitivity and specificity were 77.77% and 100%, respectively. For the diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis, multi-targeted PCR had a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 88.88%. Conclusion Multi-targeted PCR can be a valuable tool for diagnosing presumed tubercular uveitis.

2013-01-01

81

BigDog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

2006-06-01

82

20 CFR 10.740 - In what situations will OWCP automatically presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OWCP automatically presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by the FECA...Special Provisions Non-Federal Law Enforcement Officers § 10.740 In what...automatically presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by the...

2013-04-01

83

Jealousy in Dogs  

PubMed Central

It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans.

Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

2014-01-01

84

Presumed ocular histoplasmosis in the Netherlands--an area without histoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

AIMS/BACKGROUND—The syndrome of ocular histoplasmosis is usually prefaced by `presumed' as the aetiology is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of a similar ocular syndrome in the Netherlands where the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum is not endemic.?METHODS—A retrospective multicentre study in which all patients were included who were diagnosed with a syndrome similar to presumed ocular histoplasmosis and in whom both fluorescein angiogram and all complete patient data were available. Fluorescein angiograms were examined by three authors in a masked fashion. Eighty one patients were selected who fulfilled the ophthalmic criteria for presumed ocular histoplasmosis. Fifty one patients showed the classic clinical picture, while 30 patients had an incomplete form as they did not show numerous histospots.?RESULTS—No major difference in clinical characteristics could be identified when comparing the group of patients with the classic syndrome with the one with the incomplete syndrome. Final visual outcome of patients with macular subretinal neovascularisation after laser treatment was better when compared with untreated patients (p<0.01).?CONCLUSIONS—Since the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum is absent in the Netherlands, other aetiological agents must have led to this clinical entity similar to the presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome seen in the USA.??

Suttorp-Schulten, M.; Bollemeijer, J.; Bos, P.; Rothova, A.

1997-01-01

85

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2010-07-01

86

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2011-07-01

87

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2013-07-01

88

28 CFR 104.45 - Determination of presumed economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. 104.45 Section 104.45...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm. In reaching presumed determinations...economic loss for claimants who suffered physical harm (but did not die), the...

2012-07-01

89

Crusted scabies and tinea corporis after treatment of presumed bullous pemphigoid.  

PubMed

We report a case of scabies that immunohistochemically mimicked bullous pemphigoid (BP) in an 82-year-old woman who presented with intractable pruritus. Bullous pemphigoid initially was diagnosed by direct immunofluorescence (DIF), though no blisters were clinically present. Subsequent immunosuppressive therapy for treatment of presumed BP led to the development of crusted scabies and widespread tinea corporis. PMID:24195092

Hylwa, Sara A; Loss, Lesley; Grassi, Marcelle

2013-10-01

90

Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... than 10 years to treat Cushing's disease in dogs. Hyperadrenocorticism, commonly known as Cushing's disease, is a ...

91

76 FR 35162 - Service Dogs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by experts in the field of veterinary insurance. When determining...1), referencing ``veterinary treatment for guide dogs...4), referencing ``veterinary treatment for guide dogs...Budget, Attention: Desk Officer for the Department of...

2011-06-16

92

Black-Tailed Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory. The prairie dogs transmit the disease to endangered black-footed ferrets, who eat the prairie dogs and are also quite susceptible to the disease...

2009-08-03

93

Finite rate chemistry and presumed PDF models for premixed turbulent combustion  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of the prediction of mean reaction rates in turbulent premixed flames to presumed PDF shape is studied. Three different presumed PDF shapes are considered: (i) a beta function PDF, (ii) a twin delta function PDF, and (iii) a PDF based on unstrained laminar flame properties. The unstrained laminar flame has the same thermochemistry as the turbulent flame. Emphasis is placed on capturing the finite rate chemistry effects and obtaining a simple expression for the mean reaction rate. It is shown that, as the PDFs approach their bimodal limit, the mean reaction rate expressions obtained using the above three PDFs reduce to a common form. These expressions differ only in the numerical value of a multiplying factor. Predictions are compared with DNS data. Under the conditions of this comparison, the beta function and twin delta function PDFs lead to significant errors, while the PDF based on properties of an unstrained laminar flame gives good agreement with the DNS. (author)

Bray, K.N.C.; Swaminathan, N. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Champion, M. [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, UPR9028 CNRS, ENSMA, 86961 Futuroscope (France); Libby, P.A. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

2006-09-15

94

Disseminated carcinomatosis after laparoscopic surgery for presumably benign ruptured ovarian teratoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors reported the intraperitoneal carcinomatosis after laparoscopic surgery for presumably benign ruptured ovarian teratoma in a 28-year-old woman. A 28-year-old female patient exhibited intraperitoneal carcinomatosis after a laparoscopic surgery for ruptured mature teratoma of the ovary with occult malignant transformation. The complication was found two months after initial laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic surgery was smooth including oophorectomy, and removing all

Peng-Hui Wang; Wen-Ling Lee; Hsiang-Tai Chao; Chiou-Chung Yuan

2000-01-01

95

Presumed REM sleep behavior disorder arising from cataplexy and wakeful dreaming.  

PubMed

REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is an injurious parasomnia occasionally associated with narcolepsy. RBD usually occurs within REM sleep. We report a case of RBD in a narcoleptic patient arising from cataplexy and wakeful dreaming. The problem of state boundary control inherent in narcolepsy together with the pharmacological effects of tricyclic antidepressants used to treat cataplexy are usually the reason of RBD in narcoleptics. By similar mechanism our patient has presumed RBD out of REM intrusions into wakefulness. PMID:10767654

Attarian; Schenck; Mahowald

2000-04-01

96

Wound Drainage After Metal-On-Metal Hip Arthroplasty Secondary to Presumed Delayed Hypersensitivity Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging concern with metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty is metal-induced hypersensitivity. Currently, this is a diagnosis of exclusion in patients with groin pain after metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. We describe a patient presenting nearly a year after arthroplasty with incisional drainage. Infection was presumed; but preoperative studies were nondefinitive, and the wound was explored. The operative cultures were negative; the

Mark D. Earll; Patrick G. Earll; Russell S. Rougeux

2011-01-01

97

Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) from a Presumed Brown Recluse Spider Bite.  

PubMed

Systemic loxoscelism is a rare complication after Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider) envenomation. Loxosceles venom contains pro-inflammatory proteins, which have been shown to be elevated in patients with hemophagocytic lymph histiocytosis. We present a case of a 10-year-old male that developed presumed systemic loxoscelism, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with hepatic dysfunction and renal failure. He was treated with dexamethasone and made a full recovery. PMID:24737162

Dandoy, Christopher; Grimley, Michael

2014-07-01

98

[Usefulness of computerized tomography in the study of pleural effusion with no presumed diagnosis].  

PubMed

To establish the diagnostic yield of computerized tomography (CT) in pleural effusions with no presumed diagnosis arising from standard clinical examination. A prospective protocol study enrolling all cases of effusion admitted to our hospital between January 1994 through July 1995 without a presumed diagnosis after initial testing that included thoracocentesis. Twenty-two patients were enrolled. All were given a CT scan as well as other complementary examinations considered appropriate and were referred to our outpatient clinic for follow-up. The CT images were read by an expert radiologist and their contribution was classified as "diagnostic", "suggestive" or "nil". A definitive etiologic diagnosis was achieved in 14 cases (8 neoplasms, 4 benign due to asbestos, 1 tuberculosis and 1 pulmonary embolism). The CT contribution was nil in 13 cases (59%), "diagnostic" in 6 (2 mesotheliomas, 1 hypernephroma, 1 lymphoma, 1 adenocarcinoma of the colon and another of the ovary) and "suggestive" in 3 (2 benign due to asbestos and 1 lymphoma). Positive information was obtained in 9 cases (41%). CT gives good yield in the investigation of pleural effusions with no presumed diagnosis and should be made available to this group of patients before other more invasive procedures are resorted to. It is especially useful for detecting neoplastic disease of the upper abdomen, mesothelioma and sings of unsuspected exposure to asbestos. PMID:9453817

Cabriada, V; Antońana, J M; Sobradillo, V; Pascal, I; Gáldiz, J B; Peńa, J M

1997-11-01

99

Protective Effects of Combined Intervention with Adenovirus Vector Mediated IL-10 and IGF-1 Genes on Endogenous Islet ? Cells in Nonobese Diabetes Mice with Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the protective effects of combined intervention with adenovirus vector mediated interleukin 10 (IL-10) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) genes on islet ? cells in nonobese diabetes (NOD) mice with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) at early stage. Methods Twenty-four female NOD mice at onset of diabetes and aged 17–20 weeks old were randomly divided into four groups. Mouse 1, 2 and 3 groups were intraperitoneally injected 0.1 ml of Ad-mIGF-1, Ad-mIL-10, and combined Ad-mIGF-1 and Ad-mIL-10, respectively. Mouse 4 group were used as diabetes control. In addition, six age- and sex-matched non-diabetic NOD mice were intraperitoneally injected 0.1 ml of PBS and assigned 5 group as normal controls. All mice were weekly monitored for body weight, urine glucose and blood glycose, and sacrificed 3 weeks after injection. Their serum levels of IL-10, IGF-1, IFN-?, IL-4 and C-peptide were measured and the degree of insulitis and the local expression of IGF-1 and IL-10 gene were observed. Results 1) IL-10 and IGF-1 levels in serum and pancreas were enhanced in 1, 2, and 3 groups; 2) serum INF-? level was decreased while serum IL-10 and IL-4 levels were increased in 1, 2 and 3 groups, and these alterations were more significant in 3 group than 1 and 2 groups (P<0.01); 3) C-peptide level was not enhanced in 1 group, but significantly increased in 2 and 3 groups, and these increases were more significant in the latter (P<0.01); 4) Three weeks later, the body mass of mice in 2 and 3 groups decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion The administration of adenovirus vector mediated IL-10 and/or IGF-1 gene showed limited immune regulatory and protective effects on islet ?-cells in NOD mice with T1D at early stage, and no significant reduction in insulitis, blood glucose and body weight.

Li, Cheng; Lin, Xiaojie; Cheng, Xiaoli; Li, Tang

2014-01-01

100

Endostatin concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with selected neoplasms.  

PubMed

Endostatin prevents angiogenesis and tumor growth by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation and migration. The purpose of this study was to determine serum endostatin concentrations in 53 healthy dogs and in 38 dogs with confirmed malignant neoplasms. Endostatin concentration was determined with a competitive enzymatic immunoassay (EIA) with rabbit polyclonal antibody generated against a recombinant canine endostatin protein. Both the presence of cancer and increasing age were associated with increased serum concentration of endostatin. Endostatin concentration in healthy dogs was 87.7 +/- 3.5 ng/mL. Upper and lower limits of the reference range for serum endostatin concentration in healthy dogs were 60 and 113 ng/mL. Dogs with lymphoma (LSA) and hemangiosarcoma (HSA) had endostatin concentrations of 107 +/- 9.3 ng/mL. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that endostatin can be quantified in dogs and that endostatin concentrations are high in dogs with HSA and LSA. PMID:12322707

Rossmeisl, John H; Bright, Patricia; Tamarkin, Lawrence; Simpson, Byron W; Troy, Gregory C; Hueston, William; Ward, Daniel L

2002-01-01

101

Zen Hot Dog Molecules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

Ryan, Dennis

2009-01-01

102

Zen Hot Dog Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

Ryan, Dennis

2009-04-01

103

Long-Term Efficacy Following Readministration of an Adeno-Associated Virus Vector in Dogs with Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is the inherited deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), primarily found in liver and kidney, which causes life-threatening hypoglycemia. Dogs with GSD-Ia were treated with double-stranded adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding human G6Pase. Administration of an AAV9 pseudotyped (AAV2/9) vector to seven consecutive GSD-Ia neonates prevented hypoglycemia during fasting for up to 8?hr; however, efficacy eventually waned between 2 and 30 months of age, and readministration of a new pseudotype was eventually required to maintain control of hypoglycemia. Three of these dogs succumbed to acute hypoglycemia between 7 and 9 weeks of age; however, this demise could have been prevented by earlier readministration an AAV vector, as demonstrated by successful prevention of mortality of three dogs treated earlier in life. Over the course of this study, six out of nine dogs survived after readministration of an AAV vector. Of these, each dog required readministration on average every 9 months. However, two were not retreated until >34 months of age, while one with preexisting antibodies was re-treated three times in 10 months. Glycogen content was normalized in the liver following vector administration, and G6Pase activity was increased in the liver of vector-treated dogs in comparison with GSD-Ia dogs that received only with dietary treatment. G6Pase activity reached approximately 40% of normal in two female dogs following AAV2/9 vector administration. Elevated aspartate transaminase in absence of inflammation indicated that hepatocellular turnover in the liver might drive the loss of vector genomes. Survival was prolonged for up to 60 months in dogs treated by readministration, and all dogs treated by readministration continue to thrive despite the demonstrated risk for recurrent hypoglycemia and mortality from waning efficacy of the AAV2/9 vector. These preclinical data support the further translation of AAV vector–mediated gene therapy in GSD-Ia.

Demaster, Amanda; Luo, Xiaoyan; Curtis, Sarah; Williams, Kyha D.; Landau, Dustin J.; Drake, Elizabeth J.; Kozink, Daniel M.; Bird, Andrew; Crane, Bayley; Sun, Francis; Pinto, Carlos R.; Brown, Talmage T.; Kemper, Alex R.

2012-01-01

104

Presumed mass illness following a pyridine fumes incident: environmental contamination versus mass hysteria.  

PubMed

This case study is based on a chemical spill in a warehouse in Belgium. Two victims were hospitalized, and a confluence of symptoms among the warehouse personnel had to be managed medically. An on-scene medical station and medical management team were deployed. A total of 51 victims were examined. Medical, political, and labor management arguments occurred. Medical findings and results from a thorough investigation helped prevent a presumed illness epidemic. The primary goals of the medical management of victims must include ensuring the health and safety of the personnel involved. PMID:17591187

Van der Auwera, Marcel; Beckers, Rudi; Devue, Katleen; Claes, Petra; De Cock, Axelle; Deleu, Nico

2007-01-01

105

Orthognatic therapy for the resolution of a presumed mandibular follicular cyst. Clinical case.  

PubMed

The case of a presumed mandibular follicular cyst associated with the retention of 4.5 in a 12 year-old patient is described. Objective examination revealed the absence of 4.5 in the dental arch. Orthopantomography revealed a monofocal area of radiotransparency with a sharp outline by 4.5 tooth. The lesion was treated only by fixed multiband orthodontic therapy to reopen the space in the dental arch. This treatment permitted the total remission of the cystic lesion without any surgical action, as confirmed by the following radiographical exams. PMID:15894943

Buccheri, A; Stella, R; Mundula, P

2004-01-01

106

Antimicrobial management of presumed microbial keratitis: guidelines for treatment of central and peripheral ulcers  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To determine the quantitative relation between the major risk factors for microbial keratitis of previous ocular surface disease and contact lens wear and central and peripheral infiltration, often associated with ulceration, in order to establish a rational chemotherapeutic management algorithm.?METHODS—Data from 55 patients were collected over a 10 month period. All cases of presumed microbial keratitis where corneal scrapes had been subjected to microbiological examination were included. Risk factor data and laboratory outcome were recorded. Antimicrobial regimens used to treat each patient were documented.?RESULTS—57 episodes of presumed microbial keratitis were identified from 55 patients, 24 male and 31 female. There were 30 central infiltrates and 27 peripheral infiltrates of which 28 were culture positive (73% of central infiltrates, 22% of peripheral infiltrates). 26 patients had worn contact lenses of whom 12 had culture positive scrapes (9/14 for central infiltrates, 3/12 for peripheral infiltrates). 31 patients had an ocular surface disease of whom five previous herpes simplex virus keratitis patients developed secondary bacterial infection. Anterior chamber activity and an infiltrate size ? 4 mm2 were more common with culture positive central infiltrates than peripheral infiltrates (?2 test = 11.98, p<0.001).?CONCLUSIONS—Predisposing factors for "presumed" microbial keratitis, either central or peripheral, were: ocular surface disease (26/57 = 45.6%), contact lens wear (26/57 = 45.6%), and previous trauma (5/57 = 8.8%). Larger ulceration (?4 mm2) with inflammation was more often associated with positive culture results for central infiltration. None of these four variables (contact lens wear, ocular surface disease, ulcer size, anterior chamber activity) were of intrinsic value in predicting if a peripheral infiltrate would yield identifiable micro-organisms. Successful management of presumed microbial keratitis is aided by a logical approach to therapy, with the use of a defined algorithm of first and second line broad spectrum antimicrobials, for application at each stage of the investigative and treatment process considering central and peripheral infiltration separately.?? Keywords: ulcerative keratitis; antimicrobials; ulcers

Bennett, H; Hay, J; Kirkness, C; Seal, D; Devonshire, P.

1998-01-01

107

High sensitive troponin T in individuals with chest pain of presumed ischemic origin.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at assessing the bias of high sensitive cardiac troponin T vs. the standard cardiac troponin T in a selected population with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin. Serum cTnT was determined in 132 patients and in 106 apparently healthy controls by both assays. The hs-cTnT outperformed the standard generation assay by: i) allowing a larger and earlier diagnosis of AMI (74.2 percent vs. 64.3 percent patients resulted positive at the final diagnosis of AMI when tested with the hs-cTnT or the std-cTnT assay, respectively); ii) showing a better time-dependent dynamics in patients with AMI due to a higher precision at low concentrations; iii) identifying, within the controls, 6 subjects in whom a further examination revealed the presence of chronic asymptomatic cardiac ischemia. The results underscore the excellent performance of the hs-cTnT assay in our population. The use of this test can thus be strongly recommended in subjects presenting to the emergency unit with chest pain of presumed ischemic origin in order to increase the probability of earlier diagnosis of AMI, especially in non-STEMI. PMID:22652639

Cuda, Giovanni; Lentini, Margherita; Gallo, Luigia; Lucia, Fortunata G; Giacinto Carinci, Lorenzina; Mancuso, Serafina; Biondi, Rosa A; Sinopoli, Raffaella; Casadonte, Rita; Guzzi, Pietro H; Cannataro, Mario; Mongiardo, Annalisa; Iaconetti, Claudio; Bochicchio, Angela; Curcio, Antonio; Torella, Daniele; Ricci, Pietroantonio; Indolfi, Ciro; Costanzo, Francesco

2012-01-01

108

Key Facts about Canine Influenza (Dog Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Key Facts about Canine Influenza (Dog Flu) Questions & Answers On this Page What is ... more information on canine influenza virus? What is canine influenza (dog flu) ? Dog flu is a contagious ...

109

A de novo mutation in KIT causes white spotting in a subpopulation of German Shepherd dogs.  

PubMed

Although variation in the KIT gene is a common cause of white spotting among domesticated animals, KIT has not been implicated in the diverse white spotting observed in the dog. Here, we show that a loss-of-function mutation in KIT recapitulates the coat color phenotypes observed in other species. A spontaneous white spotting observed in a pedigree of German Shepherd dogs was mapped by linkage analysis to a single locus on CFA13 containing KIT (pairwise LOD = 15). DNA sequence analysis identified a novel 1-bp insertion in the second exon that co-segregated with the phenotype. The expected frameshift and resulting premature stop codons predicted a severely truncated c-Kit receptor with presumably abolished activity. No dogs homozygous for the mutation were recovered from multiple intercrosses (P = 0.01), suggesting the mutation is recessively embryonic lethal. These observations are consistent with the effects of null alleles of KIT in other species. PMID:23134432

Wong, A K; Ruhe, A L; Robertson, K R; Loew, E R; Williams, D C; Neff, M W

2013-06-01

110

An Extrarenal Role for Parathyroid Hormone in the Disposal of Acute Acid Loads in Rats and Dogs  

PubMed Central

Acid infusion studies were performed in nephrectomized rats and dogs with either intact parathyroid glands (intact) or after thyroparathyroidectomy (thyroparathyroidectomized [TPTX]) to determine the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in extrarenal disposal and buffering of acutely administered acid. 29 intact rats given 5 mM/kg HCl and 6 intact dogs given 7 mM/kg HCl developed severe metabolic acidosis but all survived. However, each of 12 TPTX rats and 4 TPTX dogs given the same acid loads died. Intact rats and dogs buffered 39 and 50% of administered acid extracellularly, respectively, whereas extracellular buffering of administered acid was 97 and 78% in TPTX rats and dogs, respectively. 17 TPTX rats and 6 TPTX dogs given synthetic PTH 2 h before acid infusion survived. The blood bicarbonate and extracellular buffering in these animals, measured 2 h after acid infusion, was similar to intact animals. Changes in liver, heart, and skeletal muscle pH determined from [14C]5,5-dimethyl-2,4 oxazolidinedione distribution seemed insufficient to account for the increased cell buffering of PTH-replaced animals. Indeed, muscle pH in TPTX dogs given PTH and acid was only 0.06 pH units lower than in control dogs given no acid, suggesting that another tissue, presumably bone, was the target for PTH-mediated increased cell buffering. This conclusion was supported by the observation that PTH did not alter the pH of intact rat diaphragms in vitro. These results indicate that PTH is necessary for the optimal buffering of large, acute acid loads presumably by increasing bone buffering.

Fraley, Donald S.; Adler, Sheldon

1979-01-01

111

Effects of a synbiotic on fecal quality, short-chain fatty acid concentrations, and the microbiome of healthy sled dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Sled dogs commonly suffer from diarrhea. Although multiple etiologies exist there are limited field studies using synbiotics as a supplement to prevent or treat diarrhea. The objective of this study was to examine alterations in fecal quality, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and the fecal microbiome in two groups of training sled dogs fed a synbiotic or microcrystalline cellulose placebo. Twenty clinically healthy training sled dogs randomized into two cohorts (9 synbiotic-fed, 8 placebo-fed) for a 6 week prospective study were examined. Fecal pH and fecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were measured and tag-encoded FLX 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) and quantitative real-time PCR were performed at baseline (10 d prior to the study) and after 2 weeks of treatment with a total treatment time of 6 weeks. Fecal scores for all dogs were assessed at baseline and every day for 6 wk after initiation of treatment. Results Alterations in the fecal microbiome were observed with a significant rise in Lactobacillaceae in the synbiotic group (P?=?0.004) after 2 wk of treatment. A positive correlation was found between Lactobacillaceae and overall butyrate concentration (R?=?0.62, p?=?0.011) in all dogs. After 5 wk of treatment, there was an improved fecal score and fewer days of diarrhea (?2?=?5.482, P?=?0.019) in the dogs given synbiotic, which coincided with a presumed contagious outbreak shared by all dogs in the study. Conclusions Use of this synbiotic results in an increase in presumed beneficial bacterial flora of the host colon which was associated with a decrease in the prevalence of diarrhea in training sled dogs.

2013-01-01

112

Laryngeal paralysis in dogs.  

PubMed

Laryngeal paralysis is a common cause of upper airway obstruction in older, large-breed dogs and is likely associated with a generalized polyneuropathy in most animals. Surgical therapy is frequently indicated, and UAL is currently the recommended treatment. Respiratory signs significantly improve in most patients after surgery; however, postoperative complication rates can be high, and patients have a lifelong risk of developing respiratory tract disease. PMID:19517415

Millard, Ralph P; Tobias, Karen M

2009-05-01

113

Identification of presumed ancestral DNA sequences of phaseolin in Phaseolus vulgaris.  

PubMed Central

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) consists of two major geographic gene pools, one distributed in Mexico, Central America, and Colombia and the other in the southern Andes (southern Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina). Amplification and sequencing of members of the multigene family coding for phaseolin, the major seed storage protein of the common bean, provide evidence for accumulation of tandem direct repeats in both introns and exons during evolution of the multigene family in this species. The presumed ancestral phaseolin sequences, without tandem repeats, were found in recently discovered but nearly extinct wild common bean populations of Ecuador and northern Peru that are intermediate between the two major gene pools of the species based on geographical and molecular arguments. Our results illustrate the usefulness of tandem direct repeats in establishing the polarity of DNA sequence divergence and therefore in proposing phylogenies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3

Kami, J; Velasquez, V B; Debouck, D G; Gepts, P

1995-01-01

114

Botulism in 2 urban dogs  

PubMed Central

Two dogs from the same owner were referred for ascending weakness and paresis of 2 to 3 days duration. Electromyography and electroneurography determined that there were normal F-waves, decreased compound action potential, and decreased activity on repetitive nerve stimulation. These findings were valuable in diagnosing botulism in the dogs.

Uriarte, Ane; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Blot, Stephane

2010-01-01

115

Factors associated with dog ownership and contact with dogs in a UK community  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dogs are popular pets in many countries. Identifying differences between those who own dogs or have contact with dogs, and those who do not, is useful to those interested in the human-animal bond, human health and for provision of veterinary services. This census-based, epidemiological study aimed to investigate factors associated with dog ownership and contact with dogs, in a

Carri Westgarth; Gina L Pinchbeck; John WS Bradshaw; Susan Dawson; Rosalind M Gaskell; Robert M Christley

2007-01-01

116

Forced organ donation: the presumed consent to organ donation laws of the various states and the United States Constitution.  

PubMed

The issues presented in this Comment pertain to whether there are substantive limits imposed by the Fourteenth Amendment upon the state legislatures which would defeat the recent, tentative steps of many states to pass laws authorizing presumed consent to organ donation. The final and perhaps least effective presumed consent law creates a presumption of consent to organ donation. The potential organ donor makes the choice whether to donate or not during his lifetime. This form of the presumed consent law would probably have the least impact on increasing the number of available donor organs. It permitted the coroner to harvest the eyes and corneas of deceased individuals if the coroner was unaware of objections from either the decedent or the family of the decedent. Presumed consent statutes should be found unconstitutional because they infringe upon a family's property interest in a deceased relative's corpse. However, due to the family's property interest in a relative's deceased body, as set forth in the next section, the result is that presumed consent statutes are unconstitutional. In order to find the presumed consent law unconstitutional, the Court would have to find that either: (a) the Fourteenth Amendment's liberty component included the family's right to determine what happens to a relative's body after death, or (b) that the property component included a vested state law property interest in the dead body. PMID:16506330

Powhida, A

1999-01-01

117

Realization of a passive compliant robot dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs are capable of showing rich motor skills in complex environments. No such capabilities have yet been seen in quadruped robots. In this work we present the design and realization of a biologically inspired quadruped robot based on a real dogs' anatomy. This dog, referred to as the Reservoir Dog, is capable of autonomously showing multiple gaits such as walk,

Francis Wyffels; M. D'Haene; T. Waegeman; K. Caluwaerts; C. Nunes; B. Schrauwen

2010-01-01

118

Night Reconnoitering Capability for Military Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AN/PVS-5 Night Vision Goggles were evaluated as a potential viewing device to enable a military dog handler to work his dog, e.g., a scout dog, off-leash at night. Supplementary IR illuminating devices mounted on the dog were evaluated in conjunction ...

E. S. Tomlinson M. Krauss

1974-01-01

119

Assessment of a standard treatment protocol on visual outcome following presumed bacterial endophthalmitis  

PubMed Central

AIMS—The aim of this prospective study was, firstly, to judge the effect of early aggressive treatment with a standardised regimen of high dose broad spectrum intraocular and systemic antibiotics on visual outcome and, secondly, to assess the sensitivity of isolated organisms to the treatment regimen utilised.?METHODS—Thirty two consecutive patients presenting with presumed bacterial endophthalmitis were treated and completed follow up. In every case, intraocular sampling was undertaken and treatment with intraocular vancomycin, amikacin, and systemic ciprofloxacin was commenced immediately, followed by systemic steroids 1 day later.?RESULTS—In 69% of patients vision improved with 47% achieving a final visual acuity of 6/36 or better and 31% achieving 6/12 or better. Of the intraocular samples taken from post-surgical and post-traumatic cases, 10/27 (37%) and 3/5 (60%) were culture positive, respectively. All the bacteria isolated were sensitive to at least one of the three antibiotics used.?CONCLUSIONS—The study demonstrated that the combination of vancomycin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin is adequate as a standard regimen for the treatment of most patients with suspected bacterial endophthalmitis. The prognosis for a good visual outcome, however, remains poor with 15/27 (55%) post-surgical and 2/5 (40%) post-traumatic cases achieving a final acuity of 6/60 or less.??

Okhravi, N; Towler, H; Hykin, P; Matheson, M; Lightman, S

1997-01-01

120

A case of presumed acute retinal necrosis after intraocular foreign body injury  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to report a case of acute retinal necrosis (ARN) after intraocular foreign body removal. A 32-year-old male presented with visual loss in the left eye. He was hit by an iron fragment while he was hammering. An intraocular foreign body was found with corneal laceration and traumatic cataract. On the day he was injured, primary closure of the laceration, lensectomy, and vitrectomy were performed, and the foreign body was removed. The day after the operation, there was no sign of retinal detachment or retinitis. Two days after the operation, retinal necrosis and accompanying vitreous inflammation were noted in the far periphery. On day 3, the necrosis spread circumferentially and inflammation became more distinct. ARN was presumed and intravenous acyclovir was administered. The necrotic areas were reduced 2 days later, and were resolved in 1 month. The final visual acuity in his left eye was 20/20 after implantation of an intraocular lens. This case is the first report of ARN after penetrating injury and an intraocular foreign body. ARN may develop after open-globe injury.

Park, Sung Who; Byon, Ik Soo; Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Ji Eun; Oum, Boo Sup

2013-01-01

121

Presumed toxoplasmic central retinal artery occlusion and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing.  

PubMed

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation. PMID:24790408

Arai, Haruka; Sakai, Tsutomu; Okano, Kiichiro; Aoyagi, Ranko; Imai, Ayano; Takase, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Manabu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

122

Lethal outcome after percutaneous aspiration of a presumed ovarian cyst in a neonate.  

PubMed

Most surgeons agree that complex neonatal ovarian cysts, regardless of size, warrant operative intervention. Management of simple cysts >4 cm is still controversial, although many favor intervention because of the increased risk of torsion. Whereas laparoscopic cyst resection is favored by some, others prefer less invasive percutaneous needle aspiration. We present a newborn infant who was admitted with sepsis and respiratory failure after home delivery. Ultrasound done on day 8 to check for umbilical venous line placement incidentally showed a simple cyst measuring 3.6 x 5.9 x 6.9 cm that was presumed to be of ovarian origin. Percutaneous needle aspiration was atraumatic and revealed serous fluid, with a high estradiol level. Four days later, surgery was indicated for clinical deterioration with suspected hemorrhage into the cyst. We found a midgut volvulus with extensive necrosis secondary to a jejunal duplication cyst. Ovaries were normal and there was no evidence of malrotation. Postoperatively, after discussion with the parents, support was withdrawn and the child died. We should not rely solely on ultrasonographic features and fluid characteristics to diagnose a large neonatal abdominal cyst, but rather confirm the diagnosis with laparoscopy. PMID:19349004

Puligandla, Pramod S; Laberge, Jean-Martin

2009-05-01

123

MRI appearance of presumed self-inflicted trauma in the knees of military recruits.  

PubMed

When knee bone marrow edema is observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it usually follows a pattern that can be explained by certain etiologies. This article describes a series of unusual knee bone marrow edemas in soldiers presumed to represent self-inflicted trauma.Ten soldiers (9 men and 1 woman; age range, 19-24 years) underwent knee MRI. None reported recent trauma or stress, and all presented with nonspecific pain or failure to respond to therapy. All showed a similar unusual pattern of bone marrow edema in the medial femoral condyle. Three observers evaluated the location of the bone marrow edema within the medial femoral condyle and its distance from the articular surface, dimensions, overlying soft tissue abnormality, and internal derangements. The edema was always subcortical and located in the middle aspect (n=7) or mid-anterior aspect (n=3) of the medial femoral condyle but was never centered subarticularly. Edema size ranged between 8 × 10 × 8 and 32 × 46 × 40 mm. Overlying soft tissue abnormalities were common (n=4) and included organizing (n=1) and residual hematoma (n=3). Concomitant MRI abnormalities were seen in 3 patients, usually minor. Eight patients reported longstanding pain with no antecedent trauma, and 2 reported remote trauma. One patient had a negative 4-month follow-up MRI, and another had a negative arthroscopy. Poor correlation existed between MRI findings and the absence of stress and trauma. Soldier chat rooms were found that describe how to induce fractures at this location. PMID:22588411

Thein, Ran; Schweitzer, Mark E; Diprimio, Gina; Shabshin, Nogah

2012-05-01

124

Excimer Laser Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for the Treatment of Clinically Presumed Fungal Keratitis  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study was to evaluate treatment outcomes of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) for clinically presumed fungal keratitis. Forty-seven eyes of 47 consecutive patients underwent manual superficial debridement and PTK. All corneal lesions were located in the anterior stroma and were resistant to medication therapy for at least one week. Data were collected by a retrospective chart review with at least six months of follow-up data available. After PTK, infected corneal lesions were completely removed and the clinical symptoms resolved in 41 cases (87.2%). The mean ablation depth was 114.39 ± 45.51??m and diameter of ablation was 4.06 ± 1.07?mm. The mean time for healing of the epithelial defect was 8.8 ± 5.6 days. Thirty-four eyes (82.9%) showed an improvement in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of two or more lines. PTK complications included mild to moderate corneal haze, hyperopic shift, irregular astigmatism, and thinning cornea. Six eyes (12.8%) still showed progressed infection, and conjunctival flap covering, amniotic membrane transplantation, or penetrating keratoplasty were given. PTK is a valuable therapeutic alternative for superficial infectious keratitis. It can effectively eradicate lesions, hasten reepithelialization, and restore and preserve useful visual function. However, the selection of surgery candidates should be conducted carefully.

Li, Liang-Mao; Zhao, Li-Quan; Qu, Ling-Hui; Li, Peng

2014-01-01

125

Presumed toxoplasmic central retinal artery occlusion and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing  

PubMed Central

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation.

Arai, Haruka; Sakai, Tsutomu; Okano, Kiichiro; Aoyagi, Ranko; Imai, Ayano; Takase, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Manabu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

126

Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history  

PubMed Central

High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.

2009-01-01

127

Prolonged duration of fertility of dog ova.  

PubMed

The fertile period for natural mating in dogs extends from before ovulation until day 5 post ovulation (PO) and involves a delay in oocyte maturation until 2-3 days PO and viability of secondary oocytes for 48-60 h or more. Spermatozoa do not enter the uterus after vaginal insemination in late oestrus. Cervical closure appears to occur on average 5 days PO, but conception may occur following intrauterine artificial insemination (IUAI) up to 8 days PO. Therefore, the present study was conducted to clarify the duration of fertility of canine ova. Using IUAI at 6, 7, 8 and 9 days PO (n = 5 bitches each) conception rates were 100%, 71.4%, 37.5% and 0%, respectively, with an average litter resorption rate of 30.8%, and with mean litter sizes and times to delivery PO being 4.3 +/- 1.6 and 64.3 +/- 0.3 days, 4.0 +/- 1.4 and 66.3 +/- 0.4 days, and 2.5 and 68 days for IUAI at 6, 7 and 8 days, respectively. The high pregnancy rates with IUAI at 6 and 7 days PO confirm that many canine oocytes are fertile at 4-5 days after maturation. The high rate of resorption was presumably because of aging of ova or asynchrony between embryonic development and the intrauterine environment. PMID:19754575

Tsutsui, T; Takahashi, F; Hori, T; Kawakami, E; Concannon, P W

2009-07-01

128

Attitudes toward Financial Incentives, Donor Authorization, and Presumed Consent among Next-of-Kin Who Consented vs. Refused Organ Donation  

PubMed Central

Background Financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent are strategies designed to increase organ donation rates. Surveys designed to assess attitudes toward these initiatives have been conducted with the general public, transplant patients, and transplant professionals. Methods To assess attitudes toward financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent and to identify multivariate predictors of such attitudes, we conducted telephone interviews with 561 family members who had recently been asked for consent to donate the organs of a deceased family member (348 donors, 213 nondonors). Results Financial incentives would have made a difference in the donation decision for 54% of nondonors (vs. 46% of donors, P = 0.02), and a higher percentage of nondonors would themselves become donors if financial incentives were available (P = 0.03). Donors had significantly more favorable attitudes toward donor authorization (P < 0.0001) and presumed consent (P < 0.0001) policies. Overall, 54% of participants thought that family permission for donation was unnecessary when the deceased documented their donation intention, and 24% favored a presumed consent law with an opting out provision. Conclusions Of the three initiatives, donor authorization is likely supported by more donor and nondonor families than either financial incentives or presumed consent. Public education efforts should aim to better inform the public regarding existing and proposed donor authorization legislation and its benefits for registered organ donors and their families.

Rodrigue, James R.; Cornell, Danielle L.; Howard, Richard J.

2008-01-01

129

Management Plan to Reduce Risks in Perioperative Care of Patients with Presumed Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with increased perioperative morbidity and mortality. We initiated a protocol designed to screen patients preoperatively and monitor them postoperatively. The goal was to identify patients who were at risk for oxygen desaturation after discharge from the postanesthesia recovery room (PACU). Methods: Patients without previously diagnosed OSA presenting to the preoperative evaluation clinic were assessed over a 10.5-month period using a validated prediction rule to identify patients thought to be at high risk of OSA (sleep apnea clinical score, SACS ? 15). Following surgery, patients were monitored in the PACU for significant respiratory events: apnea, increased FiO2 requirement, pain-sedation mismatch, or episodes of desaturation. Patients were placed in 3 groups based on their SACS and the presence or absence of recurrent PACU respiratory events (group 1: SACS < 15, no recurrent events; group 2: SACS ?15, no recurrent events; and group 3: SACS ? 15, recurrent events.) The number of oxygen desaturations ? 4% per hour, the oxygen desaturation index (ODI), was calculated for each patient for 24 to 48 hours after PACU discharge. An ODI > 10 was the threshold chosen to indicate a high frequency of oxygen desaturation. Results: The percentage of patients with ODI > 10 differed significantly across the 3 study groups (12%, 37%, and 57%, for groups 1–3, p = 0.005). Mean ODI in group 1 was significantly different from groups 2 and 3 (5.8 compared to 10.0 group 2 and 11.4 group 3 with p = 0.001). Conclusions: We have shown that combining preoperative screening is useful for identifying patients at risk for oxygen desaturation after PACU discharge. Citation: Gali B; Whalen FX; Gay PC; Olson EJ; Schroeder DR; Plevak DJ; Morgenthaler TI. Management plan to reduce risks in perioperative care of patients with presumed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(6):582-588.

Gali, Bhargavi; Whalen, Francis X.; Gay, Peter C.; Olson, Eric J.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Plevak, David J.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.

2007-01-01

130

Performance of Thirteen Clinical Rules to Distinguish Bacterial and Presumed Viral Meningitis in Vietnamese Children  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Successful outcomes from bacterial meningitis require rapid antibiotic treatment; however, unnecessary treatment of viral meningitis may lead to increased toxicities and expense. Thus, improved diagnostics are required to maximize treatment and minimize side effects and cost. Thirteen clinical decision rules have been reported to identify bacterial from viral meningitis. However, few rules have been tested and compared in a single study, while several rules are yet to be tested by independent researchers or in pediatric populations. Thus, simultaneous test and comparison of these rules are required to enable clinicians to select an optimal diagnostic rule for bacterial meningitis in settings and populations similar to ours. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Infectious Department of Pediatric Hospital Number 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The performance of the clinical rules was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) using the method of DeLong and McNemar test for specificity comparison. Results Our study included 129 patients, of whom 80 had bacterial meningitis and 49 had presumed viral meningitis. Spanos's rule had the highest AUC at 0.938 but was not significantly greater than other rules. No rule provided 100% sensitivity with a specificity higher than 50%. Based on our calculation of theoretical sensitivity and specificity, we suggest that a perfect rule requires at least four independent variables that posses both sensitivity and specificity higher than 85–90%. Conclusions No clinical decision rules provided an acceptable specificity (>50%) with 100% sensitivity when applying our data set in children. More studies in Vietnam and developing countries are required to develop and/or validate clinical rules and more very good biomarkers are required to develop such a perfect rule.

Huy, Nguyen Tien; Thao, Nguyen Thanh Hong; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Khiem, Nguyen Tuan; Moore, Christopher C.; Thi Ngoc Diep, Doan; Hirayama, Kenji

2012-01-01

131

Dysmyelination in Chow Chow dogs: Further studies in older dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of myelin deficiency in Chow Chow dogs was studied in the spinal cord of a 15-month-old and a 3-year-old animal. It was found that myelination progresses with age in these dogs but is still deficient at the age of 3 years. The findings included axons with thin or uncompacted myelin sheaths, separated from each other by massive astrocytosis,

M. Vandevelde; K. G. Braund; P. J. Luttgen; R. J. Higgins

1981-01-01

132

[Mitochondrial DNA variation in Asian guardian dogs].  

PubMed

The hypervariable site of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region has been studied in several sheepdog breeds. The genetic diversity is high in the Central Asian guardian dog and the Northern Caucasian wolf dog (an aboriginal group of breeds) and low in the Caucasian guardian dog. Haplotypes of groups A, B, C, and E/W have been found in Central Asian guardian dogs; haplotypes of groups A and B, in Caucasian guardian dogs. There is evidence suggesting a gene flow from Scandinavian dog populations to the Northern Caucasus. The results of the analysis allow the Caucasian guardian dog, Northern Caucasian wolf dog, Central Asian guardian dog, and the Turkish breeds akbash and kangal to be combined into a single group with an extremely low degree of differentiation. PMID:16915922

Riabinina, O M

2006-07-01

133

Cranial mediastinal carcinomas in nine dogs.  

PubMed

Nine dogs were diagnosed with cranial mediastinal carcinomas. Based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis, four dogs were diagnosed with ectopic follicular cell thyroid carcinomas, one dog with ectopic medullary cell thyroid carcinoma, two dogs with neuroendocrine carcinomas and two dogs with anaplastic carcinomas. Clinical signs and physical examination findings were associated with a space-occupying mass, although one dog was diagnosed with functional hyperthyroidism. Surgical resection was attempted in eight dogs. The cranial mediastinal mass was invasive either into the heart or into the cranial vena cava in three dogs. Resection was complete in six dogs and unresectable in two dogs. All dogs survived surgery, but four dogs developed pulmonary thromboembolism and two dogs died of respiratory complications postoperatively. Adjunctive therapies included pre-operative radiation therapy (n=1) and postoperative chemotherapy (n=3). Three dogs had metastasis at the time of diagnosis, but none developed metastasis following surgery. The overall median survival time was 243 days. Local invasion, pleural effusion and metastasis did not have a negative impact on survival time in this small case series. PMID:19178660

Liptak, J M; Kamstock, D A; Dernell, W S; Ehrhart, E J; Rizzo, S A; Withrow, S J

2008-03-01

134

Training Dogs for Heroin Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The acquisition and maintenance of detection and search task behaviors are accomplished with positive control techniques. The principal controlling reinforcer (consequence) used is food. The dog is permitted to behave freely in the work environment withou...

J. J. Romba

1971-01-01

135

Training Dogs for Explosives Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A feasibility study was undertaken to determine whether dogs can be trained to discriminate the odor of commercial dynamite (straight nitroglycerin dynamite and ammonium nitrate dynamite), black powder and the plastic explosives, C3 and C4. Initial discri...

R. C. Phillips

1971-01-01

136

Frustration behaviors in domestic dogs.  

PubMed

During extinction a previously learned behavior stops being reinforced. In addition to the decrease in the rate of the instrumental response, it produces an aversive emotional state known as frustration. This state can be assimilated with the fear reactions that occur after aversive stimuli are introduced at both the physiological and behavioral levels. This study evaluated frustration reactions of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during a communicative situation involving interactions with a human. The task included the reinforcement and extinction of the gaze response toward the experimenter's face when the dogs tried to obtain inaccessible food. The dog's frustration reactions during extinction involved an increase in withdrawal and side orientation to the location of the human as well as lying down, ambulation, sniffing, and vocalizations compared with the last acquisition trial. These results are especially relevant for domestic dog training situations in which the extinction technique is commonly used to discourage undesirable behaviors. PMID:23282291

Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

2013-01-01

137

Virologic and Serologic Identification of Minute Virus of Canines (Canine Parvovirus Type 1) from Dogs in Japan  

PubMed Central

Minute virus of canines (MVC), also known as canine parvovirus type 1, was initially believed to be a nonpathogenic agent, since it was first isolated from canine fecal specimens in the late 1960s. However, subsequent pathological as well as epidemiological studies suggested that MVC is a pathogen of neonatal puppies and is widely distributed among domestic dogs in the United States. The virus also has been shown to cause fetal deaths. Nevertheless, the virus was not detected in dogs outside the United States until recently, presumably because of a lack of widespread availability of the only susceptible canine cell line, WRCC/3873D, used for MVC isolation. We examined 470 clinical specimens from 346 dogs by PCR and detected MVC-specific gene fragments from four diseased puppies (positive rate, 1.2%). Viruses were recovered from three PCR-positive rectal specimens by using WRCC/3873D and MDCK cells. The isolates possessed antigenic and genomic properties similar to those of the U.S. reference strain GA3 and were identified as MVC. In addition, seroepidemiological evidence that 5.0% of dogs possessed anti-MVC antibodies also indicated the presence of MVC infection among dogs in Japan. From this study and several recent European reports describing MVC field cases, it is evident that MVC is distributed among domestic dogs worldwide.

Mochizuki, Masami; Hashimoto, Michiru; Hajima, Takayuki; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Akira; Une, Yumi; Roerink, Frank; Ohshima, Takahisa; Parrish, Colin R.; Carmichael, Leland E.

2002-01-01

138

Molds Isolated from Pet Dogs  

PubMed Central

Pet dogs have been considered to be involved in the contamination of indoor air by serving as a source of providing molds at houses. Currently, information on the molds originated from pet dogs is rarely available in Korea. The present study was carried out to obtain basic information on the fungi present on pet dogs. For this, fungal isolation was performed to the skin and hairs of 70 pet dogs at different houses and veterinary hospitals. A total of 44 fungal isolates were obtained from skin (27 isolates) and hairs (17 isolates) of the dogs investigated. Based on the observation of microstructures and colony morphology, and the ITS rDNA sequence analysis, the fungal isolates were identified at the level of genus. The identified isolates belong to the genera of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Scopulariopsis, and Trichoderma. Among these genera, Aspergillus (25%), Cladosporium (23%) and Penicillium (20.5%) were 3 major genera. 63% of the 44 isolates showed color changes on dermatophyte test medium (DTM). When we tested the growth ability of 44 isolates at 37?, 45% of the isolates were able to grow. These results show that pet dogs could carry fungi having a potentiality of affecting on human health.

Jang, Kye-Seung; Yun, Yeo-Hong; Yoo, Hun-Dal

2007-01-01

139

Training methods and owner–dog interactions: Links with dog behaviour and learning ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods by which owners train their pet dogs range widely, with some exclusively using rewards, and others using a combination, or only punishment-based methods. This paper examines links between the way in which owners reported to have trained their dogs and observations of the dogs’ subsequent behaviour. It also explores associations between behaviour of owner and dog when tested

Nicola Jane Rooney; Sarah Cowan

2011-01-01

140

Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

2011-01-01

141

Dog recloning from muscle fibroblasts in transgenic cloned beagle: Regeneration of an identical transgenic dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs (Canis familiaris) share many common genetic diseases with humans and development of dog disease models using a transgenic approach has long been awaited. However, due to the technical difficulty in obtaining fertilizable eggs and the unavailability of embryonic stem cells, no recloned transgenic dog has been generated. Here, we attempted the recloning of dogs by nuclear transfer of canine

So Gun Hong; Hyun Ju Oh; Jung Eun Park; Min Jung Kim; Ji Eun Kim; Goo Jang; Byeong Chun Lee

2010-01-01

142

Megakaryocyte and Platelet Production in Normal Dogs and Dogs Subjected to Three Types of Marrow Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental studies on megakaryocytes and platelets were performed on normal dogs, hormone (testosterone, Premarin, and estrone) treated dogs, acutely bled dogs and dogs exposed to LD 36/30 doses of X-Rays. The irradiation studies included whole body and...

J. E. Traynor

1965-01-01

143

"I'm Just a'-Walking the Dog" correlates of regular dog walking.  

PubMed

Intrapersonal and environmental factors associated with dog walking (N = 483) were examined. A greater proportion of regular (80%) than irregular (59%) dog walkers met the recommended 150 minutes of physical activity per week. Owners who perceived greater social support and motivation from their dogs to walk, and who had access to a dog-supportive park within their neighborhood, were more likely to regularly walk with their dogs, even after adjustment for other well-known correlates of physical activity. The higher level of physical activity of regular dog walkers can be attributed to the additional walking these owners perform with their dogs. PMID:20010004

Christian nee Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew

2010-01-01

144

Retained surgical swabs in 13 dogs.  

PubMed

To report the signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnostic and surgical findings and outcome in dogs and cats with retained swabs, medical records of dogs and cats that were referred to four referral centres were reviewed. Cases in which a retained surgical swab was identified during surgery at the referral hospital were selected for further study. The signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnostic and surgical findings and outcome in these cases were reviewed. Thirteen dogs with retained surgical swabs were included in the study. Bodyweight ranged from 9 to 45 kg. The initial surgery was a 'non-routine' abdominal procedure in seven dogs, ovariohysterectomy in five dogs and perineal hernia repair in one dog. Time from initial surgery to presentation at the referral centre ranged from four days to seven years. Treatment involved major surgery in eight of the 13 dogs. Outcome was excellent in 12 of 13 cases, one dog was euthanased. PMID:21846684

Forster, K; Anderson, D; Yool, D A; Wright, C; Burrow, R

2011-09-24

145

Military Dog Training for Law Enforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes five courses involved in the intensive training that dogs and their handlers go through in the Military Dog Studies Branch at Lackland Air Force Base (San Antonio, Texas) in preparation for duties in law enforcement. (HD)

Atwell, Lou E.

1977-01-01

146

Family Dog Can Help Kids with Autism  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Family Dog Can Help Kids With Autism The bond between ... may find the "unconditional" love of the family dog a real help, a small new study finds. ...

147

Livestock Guarding Dogs: Protecting Sheep from Predators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A livestock guarding dog is one that generally stays with sheep without harming them and aggressively repels predators. The dog chooses to remain with sheep because it has been reared from puppyhood with them. Its protective behaviors are largely instinct...

1999-01-01

148

Effect of nitroglycerin on myocardial collateral conductance in awake dogs  

SciTech Connect

Conductance of the coronary collateral circulation during the course of two abrupt circumflex coronary occlusions was measured in awake dogs {approximately} 2 wk after collateral vessels were stimulated to develop. The pressure gradient from the central aorta to the distal circumflex coronary artery was measured, and myocardial blood flow was determined by 9-{mu}m radioactive microspheres at 30 s and 4 min after coronary occlusions. Collateral conductance was calculated as mean collateral blood flow divided by the mean aorta-coronary pressure gradient. Before nitroglycerin, collateral conductance increased in all eight dogs from 30 s to 4 min. After nitroglycerin administration, the conductance at 30 s increased from the prenitroglycerin control value to 0.014 {+-} 0.012 ml{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}{center dot}g{sup {minus}1}{center dot}mmHg{sup {minus}1}. The mean change in conductance from 30 s to 4 min postnitroglycerin was significantly less than during prenitroglycerin. These data indicate that an increase in conductance during coronary occlusion occurs even in the immature collateral circulation. This effect presumably takes place in the arterial smooth muscle at the origin of the collateral vasculature.

Brazzamano, S.; Rembert, J.C.; Greenfield, J.C. Jr. (Duke Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

1988-04-01

149

Predominance of Ehrlichia ewingii in Missouri Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the species distribution of Ehrlichia present in Missouri dogs, we tested 78 dogs suspected of having acute ehrlichiosis and 10 healthy dogs. Blood from each dog was screened with a broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR assay that detects known pathogenic species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. The species was determined by using species-specific PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing. Ehrlichia

Allison M. Liddell; Steven L. Stockham; Michael A. Scott; John W. Sumner; Christopher D. Paddock; Monique Gaudreault-Keener; Max Q. Arens; Gregory A. Storch

2003-01-01

150

Handler beliefs affect scent detection dog outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to evaluate how human beliefs affect working dog outcomes in an applied environment. We asked whether beliefs\\u000a of scent detection dog handlers affect team performance and evaluated relative importance of human versus dog influences on\\u000a handlers’ beliefs. Eighteen drug and\\/or explosive detection dog\\/handler teams each completed two sets of four brief search\\u000a scenarios (conditions). Handlers were falsely

Lisa LitJulie; Julie B. Schweitzer; Anita M. Oberbauer

2011-01-01

151

Stray Dogs: Danijel Zezelj  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website of the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston has a digitized version of its contemporary exhibition, from several years ago, that featured the drawings of graphic novelist Danijel Zezelj. The digital exhibition provides a written excerpt of an informative "Interview" with the artist by the curator of the exhibit, and visitors can find the interview under the "Artist Biography" link. To view the exhibition, visitors should click on the "Enter the Exhibition" link, which contains the drawings from the graphic novel "Stray Dogs", but without the accompanying text found in the novel. Each page is an artwork in itself, and contains several seemingly separate drawings per page. The beautiful drawings sometimes resemble paintings or lithographs, with their large swaths of ink. The "Exhibition Details" link is an interesting peek inside the business of lending out a museum exhibit, and visitors will find the criteria for borrowing the work including: the space requirements of the exhibition, the required color of the walls (Autumn Purple by Benjamin Moore), the cost to borrow it from the museum, the cost of multimedia performances related to the exhibit, and the cost of an artist talk.

152

Ceroid-lipofuscinosis in Border Collie dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five Border Collie dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis developed progressive neurological disease between 18 and 22 months of age. These dogs had behavioural abnormalities, gait and visual deficits and became progressively demented. All dogs examined had common ancestors. Light microscopic examination of tissues demonstrated extensive accumulation of granular, sudan black-staining autofluorescent material in the cytoplasm of neurones, retinal ganglion cells and some

R. M. Taylor; B. R. H. Farrow

1988-01-01

153

Seizure-alert dogs — fact or fiction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anecdotal evidence suggests that some dogs may be able to sense the onset of seizures and other medical conditions in humans, although this has never been explored scientifically. There is, however, evidence that dogs can be specially trained to recognize specific changes preceding a seizure and give an overt signal enabling the dog to warn his\\/her owner. The introduction of

V. Strong; S. W. Brown; R. Walker

1999-01-01

154

Factors Influencing Odor Sensitivity in the Dog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers an investigation of the possible influence of adaptation on the ability of dogs and human subjects to detect alpha-ionone; the form of the concentration-response function for alpha-ionone in dogs; the time trained dogs required to reach ...

D. G. Moulton

1975-01-01

155

Have Fun. Be Active with Your Dog!  

MedlinePLUS

... a plan with a neighbor to walk the dogs together. l Take a brisk walk to your local dog park. Be imaginative. Walks are great, but consider ... walks, bring water for both you and your dog. l In hot weather, go out in the ...

156

Amyloid arthropathy of the hip joint: MR demonstration of presumed amyloid lesions in 152 patients with long-term hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to determine the spectrum of MR findings of presumed amyloid arthropathy of the hip joints in patients\\u000a on long-term hemodialysis. We prospectively performed T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo imaging on 152 consecutive patients on\\u000a hemodialysis. The duration of hemodialysis ranged from 5 months to 24 years, 2 months (mean: 8 years, 8 months). The

S. Otake; Y. Tsuruta; D. Yamana; H. Mizutani; S. Ohba

1998-01-01

157

Craniocervical junction abnormalities in dogs.  

PubMed

Craniocervical junction abnormality (CJA) is a term that encompasses a number of developmental anatomical aberrations at the region of the caudal occiput and first two cervical vertebrae. Chiari-like malformation appears to be the most common CJA encountered in dogs, and there has been a tremendous amount of clinical investigation into this disorder in recent years. Other abnormalities in this region include atlanto-occipital overlap, dorsal constriction at C1/C2 and atlantoaxial instability. This review article presents an overview of the current understanding of CJA in dogs, as well as medical and surgical treatment options available. PMID:23556552

Dewey, C W; Marino, D J; Loughin, C A

2013-07-01

158

Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Caucasian patients with presumed neovascular age-related macular degeneration and poor ranibizumab response  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine the prevalence of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in patients with presumed neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who were considered poor responders to ranibizumab. Methods Caucasian patients with suspected neovascular AMD, presumed to be choroidal neovascularisation, previously treated with ?8 intravitreal injections of ranibizumab 0.5?mg (Lucentis; Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland) administered as required during optical coherence tomography-guided dosing were retrospectively included. Eyes were categorised according to the time from injection 1 to injection 6 (group 1: <12?months; group 2: ?12?months). Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) was used to re-evaluate eyes for PCV. Suitable candidates received reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy/ranibizumab combination therapy supplemented by ranibizumab monotherapy, as required. Results 202 eyes were included (group 1: 73.8%; group 2: 26.2%). The prevalence of PCV in group 1 (21.5%) was significantly higher than in group 2 (3.8%; p=0.003). After initiation of combination therapy, 16 eyes with PCV received 3.1±2.5 ranibizumab injections/year vs 8.4±2.4 injections/year before initiation of combination therapy (p<0.001). Conclusions In Caucasian patients with presumed neovascular AMD, PCV prevalence is increased in eyes that respond poorly to ranibizumab monotherapy. ICGA improved PCV diagnosis in poor responders; combination therapy may be beneficial for eyes with PCV.

Hatz, Katja; Prunte, Christian

2014-01-01

159

Increased Incidence of Benign Pancreatic Pathology following Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Presumed Malignancy over 10 Years despite Increased Use of Endoscopic Ultrasound.  

PubMed

Despite using imaging studies, tissue sampling, and serologic tests about 5-10% of surgeries done for presumed pancreatic malignancies will have benign findings on final pathology. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used with increasing frequency to study pancreatic masses. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of EUS on prevalence of benign diseases undergoing Whipple over the last decade. Patients who underwent Whipple procedure for presumed malignancy at Emory University Hospital from 1998 to 2011 were selected. Demographic data, history of smoking and drinking, history of diabetes and pancreatitis, imaging data, pathology reports, and tumor markers were extracted. 878 patients were found. 95 (10.82%) patients had benign disease. Prevalence of benign finding had increased over the recent years despite using more EUS. Logistic regression models showed that abdominal pain (OR: 5.829, 95% CI 2.681-12.674, P ? 0.001) and alcohol abuse (OR: 3.221, CI 95%: 1.362-7.261, P: 0.002) were predictors of benign diseases. Jaundice (OR: 0.221, 95% CI: 0.084-0.58, P: 0.002), mass (OR: 0.145, 95% CI: 0.043-0.485, P: 0.008), and ductal dilation (OR: 0.297, 95% CI 0.134-0.657, P: 0.003) were associated with malignancy. Use of imaging studies, ERCP, and EUS has not decreased the percentage of benign findings after surgery for presumed pancreatic malignancy. PMID:25002810

Yarandi, Shadi S; Runge, Thomas; Wang, Lei; Liu, Zhijian; Jiang, Yueping; Chawla, Saurabh; Woods, Kevin E; Keilin, Steven; Willingham, Field F; Xu, Hong; Cai, Qiang

2014-01-01

160

Increased Incidence of Benign Pancreatic Pathology following Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Presumed Malignancy over 10 Years despite Increased Use of Endoscopic Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Despite using imaging studies, tissue sampling, and serologic tests about 5–10% of surgeries done for presumed pancreatic malignancies will have benign findings on final pathology. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used with increasing frequency to study pancreatic masses. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of EUS on prevalence of benign diseases undergoing Whipple over the last decade. Patients who underwent Whipple procedure for presumed malignancy at Emory University Hospital from 1998 to 2011 were selected. Demographic data, history of smoking and drinking, history of diabetes and pancreatitis, imaging data, pathology reports, and tumor markers were extracted. 878 patients were found. 95 (10.82%) patients had benign disease. Prevalence of benign finding had increased over the recent years despite using more EUS. Logistic regression models showed that abdominal pain (OR: 5.829, 95% CI 2.681–12.674, P ? 0.001) and alcohol abuse (OR: 3.221, CI 95%: 1.362–7.261, P: 0.002) were predictors of benign diseases. Jaundice (OR: 0.221, 95% CI: 0.084–0.58, P: 0.002), mass (OR: 0.145, 95% CI: 0.043–0.485, P: 0.008), and ductal dilation (OR: 0.297, 95% CI 0.134–0.657, P: 0.003) were associated with malignancy. Use of imaging studies, ERCP, and EUS has not decreased the percentage of benign findings after surgery for presumed pancreatic malignancy.

Yarandi, Shadi S.; Wang, Lei; Liu, Zhijian; Jiang, Yueping; Woods, Kevin E.; Keilin, Steven; Willingham, Field F.; Xu, Hong; Cai, Qiang

2014-01-01

161

Impact of community-based vector control on house infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Triatoma infestans, dogs and cats in the Argentine Chaco  

PubMed Central

The relative impact of two community-based vector control strategies on house infestation by Triatoma infestans and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in bugs, domestic dogs and cats was assessed in two neighboring rural areas comprising 40 small villages and 323 houses in one of the regions most endemic for Chagas disease in northern Argentina. The prevalence and abundance of domestic infestation were 1.5- and 6.5-fold higher, respectively, in the area under pulsed, non-supervised control actions operating under the guidelines of the National Vector Control Program (NCVP) than in the area under sustained, supervised surveillance carried out jointly by the UBA research team and NCVP. The prevalence of infestation and infection varied widely among village groups within each area. In the pulsed control area, the prevalence of infection in bugs, dogs and cats was two- to three-fold higher than in the area under sustained surveillance, most of the infected animals qualified as autochthonous cases, and evidence of recent transmission was observed. Infection was highly aggregated at the household level and fell close to the 80/20 rule. Using multiple logistic regression analysis clustered by household, infection in dogs was associated positively and significantly with variables reflecting local exposure to infected T. infestans, thus demonstrating weak performance of the vector surveillance system. For high-risk areas in the Gran Chaco region, interruption of vector-mediated domestic transmission of T. cruzi requires residual insecticide spraying that is more intense, of a higher quality and sustained in time, combined with community participation and environmental management measures.

CARDINAL, M.V.; LAURICELLA, M.A.; MARCET, P.L.; OROZCO, M.M.; KITRON, U.; GURTLER, R.E.

2009-01-01

162

Handler beliefs affect scent detection dog outcomes.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate how human beliefs affect working dog outcomes in an applied environment. We asked whether beliefs of scent detection dog handlers affect team performance and evaluated relative importance of human versus dog influences on handlers' beliefs. Eighteen drug and/or explosive detection dog/handler teams each completed two sets of four brief search scenarios (conditions). Handlers were falsely told that two conditions contained a paper marking scent location (human influence). Two conditions contained decoy scents (food/toy) to encourage dog interest in a false location (dog influence). Conditions were (1) control; (2) paper marker; (3) decoy scent; and (4) paper marker at decoy scent. No conditions contained drug or explosive scent; any alerting response was incorrect. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used with search condition as the independent variable and number of alerts as the dependent variable. Additional nonparametric tests compared human and dog influence. There were 225 incorrect responses, with no differences in mean responses across conditions. Response patterns differed by condition. There were more correct (no alert responses) searches in conditions without markers. Within marked conditions, handlers reported that dogs alerted more at marked locations than other locations. Handlers' beliefs that scent was present potentiated handler identification of detection dog alerts. Human more than dog influences affected alert locations. This confirms that handler beliefs affect outcomes of scent detection dog deployments. PMID:21225441

Lit, Lisa; Schweitzer, Julie B; Oberbauer, Anita M

2011-05-01

163

Granulocytic ehrlichiosis in two dogs in Switzerland.  

PubMed Central

This case report describes two dogs with granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Dog 1 was a male Labrador retriever with clinical signs of lymphosarcoma. Dog 2 was a female Airedale terrier, whose clinical signs included apathy, pyrexia, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Examination of blood smears revealed Ehrlichia organisms in the neutrophils of both dogs. There was thrombocytopenia in both dogs, and dog 2 also had leukopenia. In both dogs, bands of identical length were amplified from DNA of leukocytes via nested PCR. The bands had identical nucleotide sequences, which differed from the gene sequences of Ehrlichia equi and E. phagocytophila in three and two positions, respectively. Interestingly, the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA was 100% homologous to that of a human granulocytic ehrlichia.

Pusterla, N; Huder, J; Wolfensberger, C; Litschi, B; Parvis, A; Lutz, H

1997-01-01

164

Hip dysplasia and dog breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hip dysplasia is considered to be one of the most serious problems in dog breeding. In the past 20 years the studies of, and the attempts to control, this condition have been directed mainly to the overall picture of the abnormality of the hips. The various efforts have resulted in a decrease in the incidence of HD in several breeds

J. Bouw

1982-01-01

165

Ocular Thelaziosis in Dogs, France  

PubMed Central

During 2005–2008, veterinary practitioners reported ocular infection by Thelazia spp. nematodes in 115 dogs and 2 cats in southwestern France. Most cases were detected in Dordogne, particularly in 3 counties with numerous strawberry farms, which may favor development of the fruit fly vector. Animal thelaziosis may lead to emergence of human cases.

Ruytoor, Perrine; Dean, Eric; Pennant, Olivier; Dorchies, Philippe; Chermette, Rene; Otranto, Domenico

2010-01-01

166

Sodium Chloride Toxicity in Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the research was to determine whether consistent, significant differences in response to life span dietary sodium chloride levels occur in dogs, and, if so, the influence of sex and genetics and exploration of the significance in the occu...

J. B. Youmans

1972-01-01

167

Intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Back pain is common in both dogs and humans, and is often associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The IVDs are essential structures of the spine and degeneration can ultimately result in diseases such as IVD herniation or spinal instability. In order to design new treatments halting or even preventing IVD degeneration, more basic knowledge of the disease process is

N. Bergknut

2011-01-01

168

Irrational fears in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using as criteria of fear reactions a turning away, crouching, or running, 26 home-reared dogs were tested with various stationary objects and objects with moving parts, including toy lizards, skulls, soap bubbles, etc. Avoidance responses were most frequent to objects with moving parts. Learning was found to play an important role.

Ronald Melzack

1952-01-01

169

Mitochondrial profiling of dog hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make greater use of dog hairs as forensic evidence, we have developed a robust method for duplex amplification of adjacent 306 and 332bp amplicons within the 5? hypervariable region (5? HVR) of the canine mitochondrial control region. In support of this, a 595bp region covering 35 polymorphic sites has been sequenced from the blood of 105 UK

Jon H. Wetton; Jenny E. Higgs; Adrian C. Spriggs; Chris A. Roney; Carol S. F. Tsang; Aiden P. Foster

2003-01-01

170

Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine detection dogs have been found to be an effective method to locate buried landmines. The capabilities of the canine olfaction method are from a complex combination of training and inherent capacity of the dog for odor detection. The purpose of this effort was to explore the detection thresholds of a limited group of dogs that were trained specifically for landmine detection. Soils were contaminated with TNT and 2,4-DNT to develop chemical vapor standards to present to the dogs. Soils contained ultra trace levels of TNT and DNT, which produce extremely low vapor levels. Three groups of dogs were presented the headspace vapors from the contaminated soils in work environments for each dog group. One positive sample was placed among several that contained clean soils and, the location and vapor source (strength, type) was frequently changed. The detection thresholds for the dogs were determined from measured and extrapolated dilution of soil chemical residues and, estimated soil vapor values using phase partitioning relationships. The results showed significant variances in dog sensing thresholds, where some dogs could sense the lowest levels and others had trouble with even the highest source. The remarkable ultra-trace levels detectable by the dogs are consistent with the ultra-trace chemical residues derived from buried landmines; however, poor performance may go unnoticed without periodic challenge tests at levels consistent with performance requirements.

Phelan, James M.; Barnett, James L.

2002-08-01

171

Pharyngeal mucoceles in dogs: 14 cases.  

PubMed

This report describes the clinical features of a series of dogs with pharyngeal salivary mucoceles. A retrospective study of 14 dogs with pharyngeal mucocele was performed. Medical records from 1983 to 2003 were reviewed for information regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnosis, surgical procedures, and short-term and long-term outcome. Miniature and toy poodles were common breeds in the study population, and 79% of the dogs were male. The most common presenting sign was dyspnea (50%). Diagnosis was by fine-needle aspirate, which revealed a mucoid substance in 93% of dogs. Histopathology of the excised salivary glands revealed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation in all dogs that had histopathology performed. Forty-three percent of the dogs had a cervical mucocele on the same side as the pharyngeal mucocele. Surgical therapy was performed in 13 dogs, which consisted of excision of the mandibular and sublingual salivary glands, excision of the mucocele, or marsupulization of the mucocele. Only two dogs had recurrence of the pharyngeal mucocele. In this study, pharyngeal mucoceles occurred in predominantly small dogs that frequently presented with respiratory signs. Surgical treatment was successful in most dogs. PMID:22186721

Benjamino, Kevin P; Birchard, Stephen J; Niles, Jacqui D; Penrod, Kimberly D

2012-01-01

172

Urinary tract manifestations of protothecosis in dogs.  

PubMed

Records of 13 dogs with systemic infection with Prototheca sp. from 3 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. Acute renal failure secondary to disseminated infection with Prototheca zopfii was diagnosed in 2 dogs. In 1 dog, acute renal failure developed during administration of immunosuppressive drugs for treatment of anterior uveitis. During diagnostic evaluation of this dog, Prototheca sp. organisms were noted in urine sediment and renal biopsy specimens. In the 2nd dog, acute renal failure was diagnosed after treatment for bacterial cystitis. After diagnosis of protothecosis, organisms were successfully isolated by aerobic urine culture. Both dogs with acute renal failure did not respond to conventional medical therapy. In total, Prototheca sp. was noted in urine sediment in 4 of 8 dogs and successfully cultured from urine in 5 of 7 dogs. Four of 5 dogs had organisms noted in the kidneys on histopathologic examination. In all dogs, the species identified was P zopfii. Sensitivity testing of 3 isolates revealed wide differences in in vitro drug resistance. Examination and culture of urine is recommended as a practical method for diagnosis of systemic infection with Prototheca sp. PMID:15715059

Pressler, Barrak M; Gookin, Jody L; Sykes, Jane E; Wolf, Alice M; Vaden, Shelly L

2005-01-01

173

Prostacyclin inhibits gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit in rats and dogs  

SciTech Connect

Prostacyclin (PGI2) antagonizes 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2-induced diarrhea in rats, presumably by inhibiting the fluid accumulation of ''enteropooling'' in the small intestine. The effect of PGI2 on gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colonic transit was examined in rats and dogs to determine if interference with propulsion might also contribute to the antidiarrheal properties of this compound. Rats implanted with chronic duodenal cannulas were given subcutaneous PGI2 (0.1-1000 microgram/kg) followed 10 min later by intragastric /sup 2/Cr and a visually detectable duodenal transit marker. Forty-five minutes later, the animals were killed. Subcutaneous PGI2 inhibited gastric emptying maximally at 10 micrograms/kg. Small-intestinal transit was significantly decreased at 50 micrograms/kg and almost completely suppressed at 1.0 mg/kg. Subcutaneous naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) given 10 min before and 20 min after subcutaneous PGI2 administration did not block PGI2's effects. Intravenous or oral PGI2, had none of these effects. Small intestinal transit was only decreased by PGI2 infusion, suggesting that this parameter was more sensitive to a sustained blood level than gastric emptying. Hourly injections of subcutaneous PGI2 (0.5 mg/kg) had no effect on rat colonic transit measured over a 3-h period after deposition of the transit marker through a colonic cannula in a manner similar to that described for small-intestinal transit above. Small-intestinal transit was also measured in dogs given a barium suspension through a chronic duodenal cannula. In vehicle-treated dogs, barium reached the cecal area in an average of 2.8 h after instillation. In PGI2-treated dogs, barium never reached the cecum in the 5-h examination period. Thus, PGI2 inhibits gastric emptying in rat and small-intestinal transit in rat and dog but has no effect on rat colonic transit.

Ruwart, M.J.; Rush, B.D.

1984-08-01

174

Prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the pathogenesis of pyoderma, isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs were analyzed. According to reverse passive latex agglutination, 14/184 isolates (7.6%) from dogs with pyoderma and 9/87 (10.3%) from healthy dogs produced SEs (SEA, SEC or SED). According to multiplex PCR, 99 isolates (53.7%) from dogs with pyoderma and 97 (90.8%) from healthy dogs possessed one or more se genes. There was no significant difference regarding ses between dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs. Therefore, SEs may not be a direct virulence factor in pyoderma. PMID:23659343

Tanabe, Taishi; Toyoguchi, Midori; Hirano, Fumitaka; Chiba, Mei; Onuma, Kenta; Sato, Hisaaki

2013-09-01

175

Dog Bite Prevention Week: MedlinePlus Health News Video  

MedlinePLUS

... hand corner of the player. Dog Bite Prevention Week HealthDay May 23, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Animal ... sharing canine safety tips during Dog Bite Prevention Week. The Academy advises dog lovers to hold off ...

176

Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can make…

Carlson, Priscilla

2008-01-01

177

Reproductive potential of Echinococcus multilocularis in experimentally infected foxes, dogs, raccoon dogs and cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 15 red foxes, 15 raccoon dogs, 15 domestic dogs and 15 domestic cats were each infected with 20,000 protoscolices of Echinococcus multilocularis. At 35, 63, and 90 days post inoculation (dpi), five animals from each group were necropsied and the worm burdens determined. The highest worm burdens in foxes (mean of 16,792) and raccoon dogs (mean of

C. M. O. Kapel; P. R. Torgerson; R. C. A. Thompson; P. Deplazes

2006-01-01

178

"What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

Jalongo, Mary Renck

2005-01-01

179

Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

2008-01-01

180

Dog Bite Rates and Biting Dog Breeds in Texas, 1995-1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Almost 5 million people a year are bitten by dogs in the United States. The majority of dog bites occur in children under 15, and approximately 18 deaths each year are dog-bite related. Numerous studies have provided statistics on the incidence rates of d...

D. E. Blocker

2000-01-01

181

Dog bites: how big a problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude of the dog bite problem in the US. METHODS: Data on dog bites were gathered as part of a 1994 national telephone survey of 5,238 randomly dialed households. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. RESULTS: The weighted total number of dog bites was 4,494,083 (estimated incidence = 18\\/1,000 population); of these, 756,701 persons sustained

J. J. Sacks; M. Kresnow; B. Houston

1996-01-01

182

[Intraocular osteosarcoma in a dog].  

PubMed

The present case describes the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure of a dog with an intraocular osteosarcoma. According to the results of the diagnostic imaging studies, the tentative diagnosis of an intraocular neoplasm with perforation of the globe and orbital invasion of the tumour was made and an orbital exenteration was performed. The histopathological diagnosis of the extracted organ implied an intraocular, extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Seventy-seven days later the patient displayed an acute paraparesis. Clinical and diagnostic reevaluation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed and the dog was euthanized at the owner's request. By means of MRI and necropsy, an additional axial osteosarcoma of the 6th lumbar vertebra and a malignant melanoma of the right tonsil were diagnosed. PMID:24920146

Wiesner, L; Schröder, S; Gralla, S; Goeck, D; Kramer, M; Ondreka, N

2014-06-12

183

Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.  

PubMed

Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention. PMID:23071828

Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

2012-01-01

184

Dogs' Social Referencing towards Owners and Strangers  

PubMed Central

Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.

Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

2012-01-01

185

Dynamic gearing in running dogs.  

PubMed

Dynamic gearing is a mechanism that has been suggested to enhance the performance of skeletal muscles by maintaining them at the shortening velocities that maximize their power or efficiency. We investigated this hypothesis in three domestic dogs during trotting and galloping. We used ground force recordings and kinematic analysis to calculate the changes in gear ratio that occur during the production of the external work of locomotion. We also monitored length changes of the vastus lateralis muscle, an extensor muscle of the knee, using sonomicrometry in four additional dogs to determine the nature and rate of active shortening of this muscle. During both trotting and galloping, the gear ratios of the extensor muscles of the elbow, wrist and ankle joints were relatively constant early in limb support, but decreased rapidly during the second half of support. The gear ratio at the hip exerted an extensor moment initially, but decreased throughout limb support and became negative midway through support. This pattern of decreasing gear ratio during the second half of support indicates that dynamic gearing does not maximize muscle power or efficiency at the elbow, wrist, hip and ankle joints. In contrast, the extensor muscles of the shoulder and knee joints exhibited an increase in gear ratio during limb support. In two dogs, the vastus lateralis muscle shortened at a relatively constant rate of 3.7-4 lengths s-1 during intermediate-speed galloping. This pattern of increasing gear ratio and constant velocity of muscle shortening at the knee joint is consistent with the hypothesis of dynamic gearing. Given the amount of work done at the knee and shoulder joints of running dogs, dynamic gearing may contribute to the economy of constant-speed running and may be important to integrated limb function. PMID:9808832

Carrier, D R; Gregersen, C S; Silverton, N A

1998-12-01

186

The Shadow of the Dog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource uses an everyday example of walking a dog as a context where students can observe changes in shadows over the course of a day, and deduce that light travels and tends to maintain its direction of motion. The activity is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

187

Idiopathic pneumoperitoneum in a dog.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old, neutered male standard poodle with tachypnea and abdominal distension was diagnosed with pneumoperitoneum. Pneumoperitoneum can be due to a perforated gastrointestinal tract, penetrating abdominal wounds, gas-producing bacterial peritonitis, or it can be iatrogenically introduced during surgery. Idiopathic pneumoperitoneum is a condition diagnosed in humans after exclusion of perforated gastrointestinal tract and other known causes of free intra-abdominal gas. This report suggests that dogs may suffer from a similar syndrome. PMID:11716029

Mehl, M L; Seguin, B; Norrdin, R W; Geddes, S; Withrow, S J

2001-01-01

188

Quantum non-barking dogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn?t bark in Arthur Conan Doyle?s story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog?s non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

2014-06-01

189

MIP-3?/CCL19 is associated with the intrathecal invasion of mononuclear cells in neuroinflammatory and non-neuroinflammatory CNS diseases in dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Chemokines such as MIP-3?/CCL19 are important factors in the mechanism of cell migration and pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reactions. The hypothesis of this study is that CCL19, also known as MIP-3?, is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and non-inflammatory CNS diseases of dogs. Experiments were performed on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of dogs affected with steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) during the acute phase as well as during treatment. Dogs with SRMA were compared to dogs with presumed meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO), and both groups sub-categorized into dogs receiving no therapy and with patients receiving prednisolone therapy. Idiopathic epilepsy (IE), a group with normal CSF cell count, was used as a control. Additionally, dogs with intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) of varying severity were analyzed. Chemokine concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Migration assays were performed on seven selected CSF samples using a disposable 96-well chemotaxis chamber. Results CCL19 was detectable in CSF samples of all dogs. Dogs with untreated SRMA and MUO displayed pronounced CCL19 elevations compared to the control group and patients receiving glucocorticosteroid treatment. CSF cell counts of untreated SRMA and MUO patients were significantly positively correlated with the CCL19 CSF concentration. IVDD patients also had elevated CCL19 concentration compared to controls, but values were considerably lower than in inflammatory CNS diseases. Selected CSF samples displayed chemotactic activity for mononuclear cells in the migration assay. Conclusions CCL19 CSF concentrations were markedly elevated in patients affected with the neuroinflammatory diseases SRMA and MUO and showed a strong correlation with the CSF cell count. This chemokine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SRMA and MUO. The elevation of CSF CCL19 in IVDD suggests that it may also be involved in the secondary wave of spinal cord injuries.

2014-01-01

190

Mixed-Breed Dogs Increasing in Popularity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To the average person words such as cockapoo, yorkipoo, and dorgi may seem inappropriate for polite conversation, but in actuality they are the names of mixed-breed dogs. Previously, many of these mixed-breed dogs (formerly referred to as mutts), would have been of little interest. But in recent years more and more people have become entranced with having these animals as household pets. The labradoodle, for example, was originally bred in Australia in the 1970s, and was used as a guide dog for allergy sufferers. These dogs are not at all cheap however, as some of these labradoodles can cost up to $4000. Another interesting development is that the labradoodle may become eligible for American Kennel Club recognition if there are at least 300 of them in at least 20 states with three substantiated generations of labradoodle to labradoodle mixing. Some dog experts are also touting the merits of these new mixes, claiming that the are in fact healthier than purebreds. Other experts in the field remain skeptical, such as Allan Reznik, editor-in-chief of Dog Fancy and Dog World magazines, who opined thusly: "It's indicative of a society that loves labels. Having a dog that is part spaniel and part poodle isn't enough -- it has to be a cockapoo."The first link leads to a news story from CNN.com that documents this latest trend in designer dogs, along with a nice table that deciphers what the names of these mixed-breeds mean exactly. The second link leads to another story about these new hybrid dogs from the National Geographic website, authored by Bijal P. Trivedi. The third link will take visitors to the homepage of the American Kennel Club, where they may read about various purebred dogs, browse a calendar of related events, and learn about the upcoming national dog championship event sponsored by the Club that will take place in Long Beach, California. The fourth link leads to a page devoted to the Schnoodle (a cross between a poodle and a schnauzer) provided by the Dog Breeder Info Center website. The fifth link leads to a site created by Catherine N. Ball (an adjunct professor of linguistics at Georgetown University) that offers a list of the words for the sounds that dogs make in several dozen languages, including Croatian, Esperanto, and Bengali. The final link leads to a fun site that allows visitors to engage in a virtual dog simulation game where they can prepare their animals to compete in the show ring.

191

Dog Bite Risk: An Assessment of Child Temperament and Child-Dog Interactions  

PubMed Central

Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children’s interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.5–6 years interacted with a live dog. Dog and child behaviors were assessed through observational coding. Four child temperament constructs—impulsivity, inhibitory control, approach and shyness—were assessed via the parent-report Children’s Behavioral Questionnaire. Less shy children took greater risks with the dog, even after controlling for child and dog characteristics. No other temperament traits were associated with risk-taking with the dog. Based on these results, children’s behavior with unfamiliar dogs may parallel behavior with other novel or uncertain situations. Implications for dog bite intervention programs include targeting at-risk children and merging child- and parent-oriented interventions with existing programs geared toward the physical environment and the dog.

Davis, Aaron L.; Schwebel, David C.; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Stewart, Julia; Bell, Melissa

2012-01-01

192

Peritoneal implantations of papillary serous ovarian cystadenocarcinoma 13 days after initial laparoscopic treatment for a presumed benign ovarian cyst.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 24-year-old female who underwent laparoscopy for a presumed benign ovarian mass. Frozen sections at laparoscopy initially revealed a borderline papillary serous ovarian tumour. Final histology showed an invasive papillary serous ovarian tumor (grade 1). Subsequent staging laparotomy conducted 13 days later revealed peritoneal implantations thus upgrading the initially thought Stage Ia papillary serous ovarian tumour at laparoscopy to Stage IIc. The patient after laparotomy had an uneventful postoperative course and received six cycles of chemotherapy based on taxol and carboplatin. A short review of the literature is also presented, concerning the factors which affect the patient's prognosis in cases of unexpected ovarian malignancy found during laparoscopy that are treated with subsequent staging laparotomy. PMID:19317271

Papoutsis, D; Rodolakis, A; Haidopoulos, D; Sotiropoulou, M; Antsaklis, A

2009-01-01

193

The default option: Why a system of presumed consent may be effective at increasing rates of organ donation.  

PubMed

In Australia, general sentiment towards organ donation is somewhat positive, but actual donation rates languish amongst the poorest in the western world. Even for registered organ donors, the Australian system mandates obtaining family consent for posthumous donation; making non-donation the default option. A telephone survey in Central Queensland, Australia (n?=?1289), investigated people's confidence regarding their decision on whether to donate organs of a deceased family member; whether or not they had discussed donation with their family; and their support for an opt-out (presumed consent) system of donation. In accord with our expectations, each of these factors independently predicted the wishes of respondents to donate their own organs. The results suggest that promoting organ donation as the default option may improve rates of public acceptance for organ donations and consequently save lives. PMID:24083828

Rockloff, Matthew; Hanley, Christine

2014-10-01

194

Comparison between cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs.  

PubMed

Cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations have been reported to be rare in dogs due to the presence of the intercapital ligament, however some studies have proposed they may not be uncommon in German Shepherd dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs (control group). Medical records at the Ontario Veterinary College were searched for German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs that had magnetic resonance imaging studies including the T1-T9 region. For each dog and each disc space from T1-T9, three variables (compression, disc degeneration, and herniation) were recorded and graded based on review of sagittal T2-weighted images. Twenty-three German Shepherd dogs and 47 other large breed dogs met inclusion criteria. The German Shepherd dog group had higher scores than the control group for compression (P = 0.0099) and herniation (P < 0.001), but not disc degeneration (P = 0.97). In the German Shepherd dog group, intervertebral discs T2-T3 and T4-T5 had an increased risk for compression and T3-T4 had an increased risk for compression and herniation. Findings from this study indicated that German Shepherd dogs may be more likely than other large breed dogs to have spinal cord compression due to cranial thoracic disc herniations. Imaging of the cranial thoracic spine, including T2-T3, is recommended for German Shepherd dogs with T3-L3 neurological signs. PMID:23278950

Gaitero, Luis; Nykamp, Stephanie; Daniel, Rob; Monteith, Gabrielle

2013-01-01

195

The NC1 domain of collagen type IV in neonatal dog glomerular basement membranes. Significance in Samoyed hereditary glomerulopathy.  

PubMed Central

Patients with hereditary nephritis (HN) present with renal disease after infancy, suggesting that the lesion of glomerular basement membranes (GBM) may not be congenital. Therefore, the NC1 domain of collagen type IV in normal neonatal dog GBM was compared with NC1 in normal adult GBM by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, using two anti-NC1 antibodies. Similar results were obtained, indicating that the NC1 domain is present and immunoreactive in the neonatal period. Next, serial renal biopsies were performed on a family of Samoyed dogs with hereditary glomerulopathy (SHG), an animal model of HN, and assessed by immunofluorescence. One of the anti-NC1 antibodies produced global staining of GBM in unaffected dogs, and global/segmental staining in carrier females; however, no staining was seen in affected males as early as the neonatal period. Electron microscopy (EM) failed to demonstrate any lesion of GBM in neonatal dogs. Thus, in SHG, and presumably in human HN, the abnormality in the NC1 domain is congenital, and precedes the changes seen by EM in GBM. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Thorner, P.; Baumal, R.; Binnington, A.; Valli, V. E.; Marrano, P.; Clarke, H.

1989-01-01

196

Intradural spinal arachnoid cyst in a dog.  

PubMed Central

An 8-month-old, spayed female dog was presented with signs localizing a neurologic lesion between the 3rd thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae. An arachnoid cyst was diagnosed by myelography, and a dorsal laminectomy with durotomy was performed. The dog continues to do well 1-1/2 year after surgery. Images Figure 1.

Webb, A A

1999-01-01

197

Histoplasmosis in a dog from New Brunswick.  

PubMed

A young dog was presented with a history of chronic diarrhea, anorexia, and weight loss. Histoplasma capsulatum was suspected, based on cytologic examination of lymph node aspirates and peritoneal fluid, and confirmed by fungal culture. To our knowledge, this is the first case of histoplasmosis diagnosed in a dog in Atlantic Canada. PMID:17824159

Tyre, Erica; Eisenbart, David; Foley, Peter; Burton, Shelley

2007-07-01

198

Livestock Guarding Dogs: Protecting Your Sheep.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video examines the problem of predation and takes a look at one approach to cutting down losses that occur each year by using special breeds of guarding dogs. The video provides helpful advice about purchasing and raising dogs, training and caring for...

1994-01-01

199

Glucose Excretion in Man and Dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The normal rates of glucose excretion in man and dog were measured, and the effects of water diuresis, osmotic diuresis, and plasma glucose concentration on glucose excretion were studied by the clearance method. The possibilities of more complete glucose reabsorption and glucose secretion were examined with the stop-flow technique in dogs. In unfasted human subjects, glucose excretion rate was

D. M. Keller

1968-01-01

200

Histoplasmosis in a dog from New Brunswick  

PubMed Central

A young dog was presented with a history of chronic diarrhea, anorexia, and weight loss. Histoplasma capsulatum was suspected, based on cytologic examination of lymph node aspirates and peritoneal fluid, and confirmed by fungal culture. To our knowledge, this is the first case of histoplasmosis diagnosed in a dog in Atlantic Canada.

Tyre, Erica; Eisenbart, David; Foley, Peter; Burton, Shelley

2007-01-01

201

Hepatocellular carcinoma in a young dog  

PubMed Central

A 25-month-old Chihuahua dog with no clinical signs was evaluated for high serum liver enzymes. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a mass in the left hepatic medial lobe. The histological diagnosis reached using resected tissues was hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To the authors’ knowledge, this is the youngest dog diagnosed with HCC.

Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Shigihara, Kae; Sawada, Harumi; Michishita, Masaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Koyama, Hidekazu

2013-01-01

202

Utilization of police dogs: a Turkish perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The use of canines in the gathering of evidence is a valuable tool for law enforcement to discover crime and criminals. Narcotics, explosives, cadaver detection, search and rescue, or patrol dogs are prevalently used by most police organizations for combatting crime. Police service dogs decrease the time required and increase success in crime detection. The purpose of this

S. Sebnem Ozcan; Hulki Akin; Hakan Bayram; Musa Bas; Ahmet Yildiz; Atalay Ozdemiroglu

2009-01-01

203

Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid metabolism in dogs can be divided into exogenous and endogenous pathways and exhibits some unique characteristics compared to other species. Hyperlipidemia is common in dogs, and can be either primary or secondary to other diseases. Secondary hyperlipidemia is the most common form and can be a result of endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, cholestasis, protein-losing nephropathy, obesity, and high fat diets.

Panagiotis G. Xenoulis; Jörg M. Steiner

2010-01-01

204

Cultivable Oral Microbiota of Domestic Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaques of nine dogs and a sample of pooled saliva from five other dogs and were then identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among 339 isolates, 84 different phylotypes belonging to 37 genera were identified. Approximately half of the phylotypes were identified to the species level, and 28% of these were considered members

David R. Elliott; Michael Wilson; Catherine M. F. Buckley; David A. Spratt

2005-01-01

205

Testicular tumor in an XXY dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klinefelter syndrome has been described in various species in addition to humans, including cat, pig, horse, and dog. It is associated with low levels of male hormones, sterility, breast enlargement, and small testes. Patients with Klinefelter syndrome have a higher risk for several malignancies. Knowledge about genetic disorders of the dog is comparatively sparse. This is mainly due to the

Nicola Reimann-Berg; Hugo Murua Escobar; Ingo Nolte; Jörn Bullerdiek

2008-01-01

206

Prevalence of dental disorders in pet dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral disorders of the dog represent for veterinarians a medical challenge and an important field of interest from the economical point of view. Although many epidemiological studies on dental diseases in beagles bred under controlled conditions have been realized, information on frequency of these alterations in populations of pet dogs, especially in Central Europe, is far from complete. The aim

M. Kyllar; K. Witter

207

Motor laterality in 4 breeds of dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was designed to explore possible breed differences in a basic behavioral phenotype in dogs. It measured paw use during food-retrieval from a cylindrical, hollow, rubber toy to assess motor laterality (pawedness) in 4 breeds of dogs selected for their morphological differences: 45 greyhounds (males n = 23\\/females n = 22), 47 whippets (15\\/32), 46

Paul D. McGreevy; Alex Brueckner; Peter C. Thomson; Nicholas J. Branson

2010-01-01

208

Going to the 'Dogs' to Test Hypotheses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an alternative method for using live animals in the classroom. A toy dog, the "Trail Tracker Hound Dog" (manufactured by CPG Products Corporation, Cincinnati, Ohio), is used to encourage development of such skills as observation, hypothesis testing, and collection and analysis of scientific data. (Author/JN)

Kramm, Kenneth R.

1982-01-01

209

Aortic and cardiac mineralization in the dog.  

PubMed

Aortic and cardiac mineralization was found in 21 of 3443 (0.61%) canine thoracic radiographs. In none of 786 feline thoracic radiographs reviewed were such lesions present. Mineralizations were superimposed on the ascending aorta (19 dogs) or on the caudal cardiac silhouette (2 dogs). In 2 of 4 dogs mineralization was identified echocardiographically dorsal to the aortic valve in close proximity to coronary arteries. Computed tomography confirmed mineralization of the aortic arch and root in 2 of 2 dogs. Necropsy and histopathologic examination in 1 dog revealed multiple nodular aortic tunica media calcifications with adjacent areas of degeneration. Lesions were significantly overrepresented in older dogs and in Rottweilers, and regarded as dystrophic calcification, caused either by age-related degenerative changes or chronic disease-related processes. There was no evidence of clinical significance attributed to the mineralization in any dog. Aortic and cardiac mineralization should be recognized as an incidental, non-significant finding in dogs of advanced age and differentiated from pleural and pulmonary structures. PMID:12375775

Schwarz, Tobias; Sullivan, Martin; Störk, Christoph K; Willis, Ruth; Harley, Ross; Mellor, Dominic J

2002-01-01

210

Lingual calcinosis circumscripta in a dog.  

PubMed

Calcinosis circumscripta occurs rarely in dogs and cats, especially in the oral cavity. This case report describes the diagnosis and management of lingual calcinosis circumscripta in an eight-month-old, intact/male German shepherd-cross dog. An excellent prognosis for this disease may be achieved when the patient is managed as described in this report. PMID:11985121

Collados, J; Rodríguez-Bertos, A; Peńa, L; Rodríguez-Quirós, J; San Roman, F

2002-03-01

211

Heat stroke in a Great Pyrenees dog  

PubMed Central

Abstract A 2-year-old, male Great Pyrenees presented with a history and clinical signs suggesting heat exhaustion. Treatment with intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and surface cooling was unsuccessful, and euthanasia was elected. Histological evaluation of the dog’s tissues revealed lesions consistent with severe hyperthermia and shock.

2004-01-01

212

Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.  

PubMed Central

Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vazquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

1993-01-01

213

Compounding errors in 2 dogs receiving anticonvulsants  

PubMed Central

Two cases that involve drug compounding errors are described. One dog exhibited increased seizure activity due to a compounded, flavored phenobarbital solution that deteriorated before the expiration date provided by the compounder. The other dog developed clinical signs of hyperkalemia and bromine toxicity following a 5-fold compounding error in the concentration of potassium bromide (KBr).

McConkey, Sandra E.; Walker, Susan; Adams, Cathy

2012-01-01

214

Metazoan parasites of dogs in Sabah, Malaysia.  

PubMed

The parasites which occurred most frequently in 175 owned or stray dogs in Sabah were Ancylostoma spp. present in 68% of the animals. Dirofilaria immitis occurred in 70% of the adult dogs but neither D. immitis nor Spirocerca lupi were present in puppies under four months of age. The latter attained a prevalence of 30% in the adults. In contrast Toxocara canis occurred in 81% of the puppies but infrequently in older dogs. Dipylidium caninum was moderately prevalent (15 to 25%) in dogs of all ages. Ticks were the most common arthropod parasite being present on 26% of the dogs and were mainly Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Demodectic and sarcoptic mange were confirmed and fleas and lice were also recovered. PMID:6730003

MacAdam, I; Gudan, D; Timbs, D V; Urquhart, H R; Sewell, M M

1984-02-01

215

Hyperferritinemia in Dogs with Splenic Hemangiosarcoma  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Serum ferritin concentration increases in dogs in association with various diseases. In this study, we measured serum ferritin levels in dogs with splenic masses, using a sandwich ELISA assay. Eleven dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA), six with hematoma, 1 with hemangioma and 3 with lymphoma were enrolled. All dogs with HSA had serum ferritin concentrations above the normal limit (1,357 ng/ml, mean + 2× standard deviation of normal). Increased serum ferritin concentrations have also been observed in few cases of hematoma, hemangioma and lymphoma. Therefore, hyperferritinemia is not specific for splenic HSA, but may have clinical usefulness as a sensitive test for the disease. Further evaluation of serum ferritin concentrations in dogs with splenic HSA is needed.

CHIKAZAWA, Seishiro; HORI, Yasutomo; HOSHI, Fumio; KANAI, Kazutaka; ITO, Naoyuki; HIGUCHI, Seiichi

2013-01-01

216

Hyperferritinemia in dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma.  

PubMed

Serum ferritin concentration increases in dogs in association with various diseases. In this study, we measured serum ferritin levels in dogs with splenic masses, using a sandwich ELISA assay. Eleven dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA), six with hematoma, 1 with hemangioma and 3 with lymphoma were enrolled. All dogs with HSA had serum ferritin concentrations above the normal limit (1,357 ng/ml, mean + 2× standard deviation of normal). Increased serum ferritin concentrations have also been observed in few cases of hematoma, hemangioma and lymphoma. Therefore, hyperferritinemia is not specific for splenic HSA, but may have clinical usefulness as a sensitive test for the disease. Further evaluation of serum ferritin concentrations in dogs with splenic HSA is needed. PMID:23803459

Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Kanai, Kazutaka; Ito, Naoyuki; Higuchi, Seiichi

2013-11-01

217

Dog Models of Naturally Occurring Cancer  

PubMed Central

Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models of natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has vastly reduced genetic variation compared to humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five to eight-fold faster than humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age, and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the last decade, developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer.

Rowell, Jennie L.; McCarthy, Donna O.; Alvarez, Carlos E.

2011-01-01

218

Progressive ataxia due to central demyelination in Rottweiler dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinicopathological study of a neurologic disease in Rottweiler dogs was conducted. Clinical data were available on 16 dogs, 11 of which were examined pathologically. All dogs had a history of progressive gait abnormalities, which had commenced insidiously at an age varying from 1.5 to 3.5 years. In most dogs the fore limbs were affected prior to the hind limbs.

W. Wouda; J. J. van Nes

1986-01-01

219

Toxicity of abrin and ricin in mice and dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice and dogs were treated iv with the cytostatic proteins abrin and ricin and observed for clinical, biochemical, and morphological aberrations. In both mice and dogs death occurred within a narrow dose range. Dogs given toxic doses of ricin and abrin showed weakness, anorexia, apathy, and moderate fever. No signs attributable to the central nervous system were observed. Dogs dying

Ř. Fodstad; J. V. Johannessen; L. Schjerven; A. Pihl

1979-01-01

220

Intestinal Helminthoses in Dogs in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intestinal helminths in dogs provide a potential source of infection in humans due to the close contact be- tween humans and dogs. Due to the limited information on parasites infecting dogs in Kaduna State, Nigeria, a cross sec- tional study was conducted with the aim of determining the diversity and prevalence of intestinal helminths of dogs in the area.

Umar YA

2009-01-01

221

Dogs as Sentinels for Human Lyme Borreliosis in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples from hunters (n 5 440), their hunting dogs (n 5 448), and hunters without dog ownership (n 5 53) were collected in The Netherlands at hunting dog trials and were tested for antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi by a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, 75 healthy pet dogs were tested. The results of this study indicate that the seroprevalence

H. A. T. Goossens; A. E. van den Bogaard; M. K. E. Nohlmans

2001-01-01

222

Renal dysplasia in three young adult dutch kooiker dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic renal failure as consequence of renal dysplasia was diagnosed in three young adult Dutch kooiker dogs (Dutch decoy dogs). Two animals were anorectic from an early age and were thinner than healthy dogs of the same breed. All three were presented because of apathy and weakness. Laboratory examination revealed anaemia and uraemia. One dog was presented with severe dehydration

C. Schulze; H. P. Meyer; A. L. Blok; K. Schipper; T. S. G. A. M. van den Ingh

1998-01-01

223

Proteinuria in dogs and cats  

PubMed Central

Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria.

Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

2012-01-01

224

Vaginal leiomyoma in a dog.  

PubMed

The surgical treatment of vaginal leiomyoma in a seven year old Blue Heeler bitch is described. A smooth, 12 cm diameter submucosal, intraluminal, firm mass was found on vaginal examination. It appeared to arise from the left ventral vaginal wall, cranial to the clitoris but caudal to the cervix. There was no history of urinary problems and the dog was normal in all other aspects. The treatment was surgical excision of the mass via an episiotomy. Histological examination indicated a leiomyoma. The differential diagnoses, possible etiologies and control or prevention of the condition by ovariohysterectomy are also discussed. PMID:17422296

Kang, T B; Holmberg, D L

1983-08-01

225

Vaginal Leiomyoma in a Dog  

PubMed Central

The surgical treatment of vaginal leiomyoma in a seven year old Blue Heeler bitch is described. A smooth, 12 cm diameter submucosal, intraluminal, firm mass was found on vaginal examination. It appeared to arise from the left ventral vaginal wall, cranial to the clitoris but caudal to the cervix. There was no history of urinary problems and the dog was normal in all other aspects. The treatment was surgical excision of the mass via an episiotomy. Histological examination indicated a leiomyoma. The differential diagnoses, possible etiologies and control or prevention of the condition by ovariohysterectomy are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Kang, T. B.; Holmberg, D. L.

1983-01-01

226

Cutaneous protothecosis in a dog.  

PubMed

A dog was infected systemically with Prototheca wickerhamii but showed only cutaneous protothecosis. The lesions appeared progressively and consisted of non-pruritic scrotal swelling and ulceration, cutaneous nodules, crusty ulcerative lesions over the trunk and serous rhinitis. The diagnosis was based on skin biopsy findings and specific culture. Microscopic examination revealed a diffuse pyogranulomatous dermatitis and numerous protothecal organisms of different sizes within the cytoplasm of phagocytic cells. Treatment with oral ketoconazole for six months resolved all the clinical signs except the scrotal granuloma which, although it was significantly reduced, had to be removed surgically. However, after five months the condition returned. PMID:9226849

Ginel, P J; Pérez, J; Molleda, J M; Lucena, R; Mozos, E

1997-06-21

227

Calcipotriol toxicity in a dog.  

PubMed

A six-month-old Labrador retriever was presented for investigation of acute polyuria, polydipsia and haematemesis six hours following ingestion of a tube of the topical antipsoriatic vitamin D analogue, calcipotriol. Transient hypercalcaemia, azotaemia, proteinuria, thrombocytopenia and ventricular arrhythmias ensued. Abdominal ultrasonography and echocardiography revealed evidence of diffuse soft tissue mineralisation. Despite 13 days of intensive supportive care, the dog was euthanased due to continued haematemesis and anorexia. Necropsy confirmed mineralisation and necrosis of multiple organ systems consistent with vitamin D toxicity. PMID:9888112

Fan, T M; Simpson, K W; Trasti, S; Birnbaum, N; Center, S A; Yeager, A

1998-12-01

228

Decline in human dog-bite cases during a street dog sterilisation programme in Jaipur, India.  

PubMed

Human dog-bite injuries are a major public health problem, particularly where there are large populations of free-roaming or street dogs. Dog bites are also the major source of human rabies infections. There is little information on the means to reduce these injuries. Monthly human animal-bite injury records from January 2003 to June 2011 were obtained from the main government hospital in Jaipur, India. The data were analysed and compared with records of pregnancy in street dogs in Jaipur obtained from a street dog sterilisation programme. Human animal-bite injuries showed a seasonal pattern which followed by approximately 10 weeks the seasonal peak of street dog breeding. The number of human animal bites has declined significantly since 2003. It is concluded that a street dog sterilisation programme can reduce human dog-bite injuries by reducing the maternal protective behaviour of the street dogs, as well as reducing the total size of the roaming dog population. PMID:23492927

Reece, J F; Chawla, S K; Hiby, A R

2013-05-01

229

Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.  

PubMed

Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N

2011-01-01

230

Transnasal laryngoscopy for the diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis in dogs.  

PubMed

Four dogs with clinical signs of laryngeal paralysis and three normal dogs were evaluated with transnasal laryngoscopy. Six of these dogs subsequently underwent standard laryngoscopy. For transnasal laryngoscopy, a video endoscope was passed through the left nasal passage after intramuscular sedation and topical anesthesia. The laryngeal opening was observed during spontaneous ventilation. Laryngeal paralysis was diagnosed in four dogs and was confirmed with traditional laryngoscopy in three dogs. Normal motion of the arytenoid cartilages was present in the other three dogs; however, two required mechanical stimulation of the laryngeal mucosa for full evaluation. Transnasal laryngoscopy provided a means for diagnosing laryngeal paralysis in dogs without general anesthesia. PMID:15131101

Radlinsky, MaryAnn G; Mason, Diane E; Hodgson, David

2004-01-01

231

Magma-plumbing System of Asama Volcano after 2004 Eruption, Estimated from Vertical Deformation above the Presumed Pressure Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asama volcano is one of the active volcanoes in Japan, and it erupted on September 1, 2004. A shallow dike intrusion is estimated in the Takamine, 4 - 5 km west of the Asama crater from the ground deformation detected by GPS measurements (Aoki et al., 2005). Ground deformation observation close to the pressure source should clarify the depth and volume change of pressure sources. We establish the precise leveling routes ranging to Mt. Takamine above the presumed pressure source from Oiwake, at the southern foot of Asama volcano in May 2005.The precise levelings have practiced seven times for five years since May 2005 to June 2011. We calculated the vertical deformation for six-months or two-years between leveling epochs. Generally, deformations detected by the precise leveling are small of 10 mm. Deformations detected in the periods of May 2005 - Nov.2005. - May 2006 - May 2009 - June 2010 - June 2011, are grouping two patterns. One is definite subsidence, and another is slight uplift. Murakami (2005) discusses the line length changes between two GPS sites of Tsumagoi and Tobu, and he shows that the extension of line length just before the eruption in 2004 and 2009 and contraction between the eruption. Slight uplifts in the periods of May 2005 - May 2006 are corresponding to the period observed the extension, and subsidence in the periods of May 2006 - May 2007, May 2009 - June 2010, and June 2010 - June 2011. Two pressures sources are estimated from the ground deformation detected by precise leveling. One is a deeper spherical deflation source in the 6 km BSL depth beneath the mountainside, and another is the shallow dike intrusion beneath Mt. Takamine. A pressure source model was previously estimated from the leveling data for last 100 years (Murase et al., 2007), and it is suggestive a dominant source of the Asama volcano. They suggest a slight inflation after 1960, however our results show the deflation of -6.6 km3/6yr in the deeper sources for five years after the 2004 eruption. A shallow pressure source at 1.3 km BSL depth is corresponded to the presumed dike intrusion in 2004 eruption. It is very difficult to discuss the volume change of the dike, because of insignificant identification of dike length and width. Since May 2009, large deformation of 10 mm uplift and subsidence are detected around Mt. Takamine. It is suggested a drain back in May 2009 - June 2010 and an intrusion in June 2010 - June 2011.

Kimata, F.

2012-12-01

232

Effects of training paradigms on search dog performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of scent-detection dogs might be negatively affected when they have been trained to discriminate between scents according to a handler-issued verbal cue, compared to dogs trained to only locate one scent. The performance of scent-detection dogs trained to locate only live scent (live-only dogs) was compared to that of scent-detection dogs trained to locate either live or cadaver scent

Lisa Lit; Cynthia A. Crawford

2006-01-01

233

Dog Bites: How to Teach Your Children to Be Safe  

MedlinePLUS

... it will probably walk away. If a dog bites you, tell an adult right away. A dog is a wonderful addition to a family, but it can be a problem if you aren’t careful. Always talk to children about how they should act when they’re with a dog. Remember that dogs can ... Prevention and Treatment of Dog Bites by RJ Presutti, D.O. (American Family Physician ...

234

Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea  

PubMed Central

This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination schedule of dogs and cats in Korean animal hospitals.

2014-01-01

235

Heart rate turbulence in healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is modulated by the baroreceptor reflex and it was suggested that it could be used as a measure of autonomic dysfunction. Impaired HRT is of a significant prognostic value in humans after myocardial infarction, suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy and patients with heart failure. So far no studies were performed assessing the importance of HRT in dogs. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the HRT turbulence onset (TO) and the turbulence slope (TS) in healthy dogs and in dogs with DCM and to compare the HRT in dogs with DCM that died during the first 30 days of observation and dogs with DCM that survived the first 30 days after the HRT analysis. The current study was aimed at determining reference value of the TO and TS of HRT in healthy dogs (control group) and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM group). The tests were carried out on 30 healthy dogs and 30 dogs with DCM composed of Boxers, Doberman pinschers and Great Danes, of different sexes and body weights from 22 to 72 kg, aged between 1.5 and 11.5 years, submitted to the 24-hour Holter monitoring. HRT parameters were calculated using an HolCard software algorithm. TO is a percentage difference between the heart rate immediately following ventricular premature complex (VPC) and the heart rate immediately preceding VPC. TS corresponds to the steepest slope of the linear regression line for each sequence of five consecutive normal intervals in the local tachogram. The average TO in healthy dogs was determined as -13.55 +/- 11.12%, TS was 21.33 +/- 9.66 ms/RR. TO in dogs with DCM was determined as - 2.61 +/- 2.1% and TS was 6.15 +/- 3.86 ms/RR. Parameters of HRT were statistically significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in dogs with DCM. HRT TO and TS were statistically significantly decreased in dogs with DCM. Dogs with DCM that survived more than 30 days of observation had HRT statistically significantly decreased in comparison to dogs with DCM that died after the 30'th day of observation. Decreased HRT parameters in dogs with DCM suggest an autonomic neuropathy which principally consists of the withdrawal of the cardiac parasympathetic tone. The more the autonomic neuropathy is advanced the faster the death of the dog with DCM might occur, with no correlation with the level of the heart failure. PMID:23214366

Noszczyk-Nowak, A

2012-01-01

236

Metabolism of cibenzoline in dogs  

SciTech Connect

The disposition of /sup 14/C-cibenzoline in male dogs after oral administration of 13.8 mg/kg of cibenzoline base, 4,5-dihydro-2-(2,2-diphenylcyclopropyl)-1H-imidazole, was investigated. Unchanged drug was the major excreted component in 0-24 h urine from 3 dogs, ranging from 32.2-56.6% of the dose. A phenolic metabolite was purified by TLC after Glusulase hydrolysis and identified by NMR and MS as p-hydroxycibenzoline in rearranged form, rac-4-(5-phenyl(2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-pyrrolo-(1,2-a)imidazol-5-yl)) phenol. The 0-24 h urine contained 4-5% of the dose as this compound. The conditions leading to rearrangement of synthetic p-hydroxycibenzoline, trans-rac-4-(2-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-phenylcyclopropyl) phenol, were investigated. These studies suggested that unrearranged p-hydroxycibenzoline was excreted and that rearrangement occurred predominantly during the purification procedure. Unchanged cibenzoline, purified from urine, was analyzed by ORD/CD and found to display slight optical activity, corresponding to an optical purity of 15%. Shape of the spectra and sign (minus) were those of reference S(-) cibenzoline. p-Hydroxycibenzoline and its rearranged analog were only slightly active in inhibiting ventricular arrhythmia in rats induced by i.v. infusion of aconitine.

Loh, A.C.; Williams, T.H.; Tilley, J.W.; Sasso, G.J.; Carbone, J.J.; Leinweber, F.J.; Cazes, M.

1986-03-05

237

Diagnostic testing of dogs for food hypersensitivity.  

PubMed

Thirteen food-allergic dogs were studied to evaluate the efficacy of feeding a commercially available egg and rice diet, intradermal skin testing, and serologic testing by ELISA for diagnosing and/or characterizing food hypersensitivity. Feeding of a home-cooked whole lamb meat and rice diet for 3 weeks, followed by challenge with each dog's regular diet, served as the standard for diagnosing food hypersensitivity. Each dog underwent provocative testing with 6 individual ingredients to determine as many of its dietary allergens as possible. Prior to skin testing and serologic testing by ELISA, most dogs had been recently exposed to the offending diet and subsequently manifested clinical signs of allergy. All dogs that tolerated the aforementioned commercial diet were exposed to it for at least 7 weeks; 84.6% of food-hypersensitive dogs ate the commercial diet with impunity. Of the 2 reactors to the commercial diet, only 1 became pruritic in response to provocation testing with chicken eggs. Low sensitivity and high specificity were found for skin testing and the ELISA, indicating a lack of true- and false-positive reactions. Neither the positive nor negative predictive values adequately predicted positive and negative reactions, respectively, for either test. On the basis of these results, the commercial diet, skin testing, and anti-IgE ELISA cannot replace an owner-prepared food elimination diet for food hypersensitivity testing in dogs. PMID:2004984

Jeffers, J G; Shanley, K J; Meyer, E K

1991-01-15

238

Hierarchical stimulus processing by dogs (Canis familiaris).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the visual processing of global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli in domestic dogs. Fourteen dogs were trained to recognise a compound stimulus in a simultaneous conditioned discrimination procedure and were then tested for their local/global preference in a discrimination test. As a group, dogs showed a non-significant trend for global precedence, although large inter-individual variability was observed. Choices in the test were not affected by either dogs' sex or the type of stimulus used for training. However, the less time a dog took to complete the discrimination training phase, the higher the probability that it chose the global level of test stimulus. Moreover, dogs that showed a clear preference for the global level in the test were significantly less likely to show positional responses during discrimination training. These differences in the speed of acquisition and response patterns may reflect individual differences in the cognitive requirements during discrimination training. The individual variability in global/local precedence suggests that experience in using visual information may be more important than predisposition in determining global/local processing in dogs. PMID:24337824

Pitteri, Elisa; Mongillo, Paolo; Carnier, Paolo; Marinelli, Lieta

2014-07-01

239

Correlation of leucocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate with the day of illness in presumed bacterial pneumonia of childhood.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of the duration of illness on the white blood cell (WBC) and total neutrophil counts and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in untreated children with clinical and roentgenographic findings compatible with bacterial pneumonia. According to the duration of illness before admission, the patients were divided into: Group I, 48 patients ill for < 24 h; Group II, 39 patients ill for 24-48 h; Group III, 21 patients ill for 48-72 h; and Group IV, eight patients ill for 72-96 h. In children with presumably bacterial pneumonia the number of the WBC was greater during the first 2 days of illness. Thereafter, the leucocyte count declined, reaching the lowest levels on the fourth day. A similar course was followed by the absolute number of total neutrophils. During the second day of illness, 92% and 72% of the patients had leucocyte counts > 10,000 and > 15,000/mm3, respectively, whereas on the fourth day of illness only half of the patients had > 10,000 and one-quarter > 15,000 WBC/mm3. The ESR followed an opposite course to that of the WBC. During the first day of illness it was normal or mildly elevated, increasing steadily thereafter. The validity of the WBC and total neutrophil counts in conjunction with the ESR in the evaluation of bacterial pneumonia is augmented when the day of illness is taken into consideration. PMID:9515671

Triga, M G; Syrogiannopoulos, G A; Thoma, K D; Fezoulidis, I B; Pastromas, V G; Beratis, N G

1998-01-01

240

Association of a NOD2 Gene Polymorphism and T-Helper 17 Cells With Presumed Ocular Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Retinochoroiditis manifests in patients infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we assessed 30 sibships and 89 parent/case trios of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis (POT) to evaluate associations with polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene. Three haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within the NOD2 gene were genotyped. The family-based association test showed that the tag-SNP rs3135499 is associated with retinochoroiditis (P = .039). We then characterized the cellular immune response of 59 cases of POT and 4 cases of active ocular toxoplasmosis (AOT). We found no differences in levels of interferon ? (IFN-?) and interleukin 2 produced by T-helper 1 cells when comparing patients with AOT or POT to asymptomatic individuals. Unexpectedly, we found an increased interleukin 17A (IL-17A) production in patients with POT or OAT. In patients with POT or AOT, the main cellular source of IL-17A was CD4+CD45RO+T-bet?IFN-?? T-helper 17 cells. Altogether, our results suggest that NOD2 influences the production of IL-17A by CD4+ T lymphocytes and might contribute to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis.

Dutra, Miriam S.; Bela, Samantha R.; Peixoto-Rangel, Alba L.; Fakiola, Michaela; Cruz, Ariane G.; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Quites, Humberto F.; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M. G.; Peixe, Ricardo G.; Campos, Wesley R.; Higino-Rocha, Anna C.; Miller, Nancy E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Antonelli, Lis R.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

2013-01-01

241

A Case of Presumably Rathke's Cleft Cyst Associated with Postoperative Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage through Persisting Embryonal Infundibular Recess.  

PubMed

Persisting embryonal infundibular recess (PEIR) is a rare anomaly of the third ventricular floor. Only eight cases have been published. In this report, a case of presumably Rathke's cleft cyst associated with cerebrospinal fluid leakage caused by PEIR is described. An 81-year-old woman underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for the intra- and supra-sellar cystic lesion. Intraoperatively a hole was confirmed over the sella turcica connecting the sellar cyst and the infundibular recess. Liquorrhea did not occur throughout the procedure. A computed tomography (CT) scan obtained immediately after surgery disclosed accumulation of air in the third and lateral ventricles, in addition to the intra- and supra-sellar region. Air accumulation resolved spontaneously after bed rest for 11 days and she was discharged without neurological deficits. However, she required the second transsphenoidal surgery to repair the sellar floor because of bacterial meningitis caused by liquorrhea on the postoperative day 23. A postoperative 3-tesla magnetic resonance image revealed a deep infundibular recess connecting the sella turcica and the third ventricle, which was considered to be PEIR. To the best our knowledge, this is the first reported case describing the intraoperative findings of PEIR. PMID:24305020

Kuroiwa, Masafumi; Kusano, Yoshikazu; Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Takemae, Toshiki; Hongo, Kazuhiro

2014-07-15

242

[A posterior horn syndrome presumably due to direct trauma to the sacral cord: a rare complication of epidural anesthesia].  

PubMed

I report here a case of a posterior horn syndrome presumably due to sacral cord injury during the procedure of epidural anesthesia. A 43-year-old female underwent hysterectomy for myoma uteri. The operation was initially planned to be performed under epidural anesthesia. When a needle was inserted at the level of Th 12/L 1, she felt severe pain in the medial aspect of the left thigh. After the operation under general anesthesia, intolerable pain continued in the buttocks, the medial aspect of the left thigh, and the posterolateral aspect of the left lower leg. Lumbar MR images demonstrated slight disc hernia but no intra- and extramedullary hematomas. Seven weeks after the operation, she was referred to my clinic for neurologic evaluation. Motor functions were intact. Knee jerks on both sides were hyperactive; other tendon reflexes were normal. Plantar reflexes were indifferent. Thermal and pin-prick sensations were lost in the left S1 dermatome, and moderately impaired in the left S2 dermatome. Light touch and vibration sense showed no remarkable changes. Her sensory disturbance could have been caused by a lesion involving the left posterior horn and lateral spinothalamic tract within the S1 segment of the spinal cord. PMID:10402822

Arai, M

1999-06-01

243

Association of a NOD2 gene polymorphism and T-helper 17 cells with presumed ocular toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Retinochoroiditis manifests in patients infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we assessed 30 sibships and 89 parent/case trios of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis (POT) to evaluate associations with polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene. Three haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within the NOD2 gene were genotyped. The family-based association test showed that the tag-SNP rs3135499 is associated with retinochoroiditis (P = .039). We then characterized the cellular immune response of 59 cases of POT and 4 cases of active ocular toxoplasmosis (AOT). We found no differences in levels of interferon ? (IFN-?) and interleukin 2 produced by T-helper 1 cells when comparing patients with AOT or POT to asymptomatic individuals. Unexpectedly, we found an increased interleukin 17A (IL-17A) production in patients with POT or OAT. In patients with POT or AOT, the main cellular source of IL-17A was CD4(+)CD45RO(+)T-bet(-)IFN-?(-) T-helper 17 cells. Altogether, our results suggest that NOD2 influences the production of IL-17A by CD4(+) T lymphocytes and might contribute to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:23100559

Dutra, Míriam S; Béla, Samantha R; Peixoto-Rangel, Alba L; Fakiola, Michaela; Cruz, Ariane G; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Quites, Humberto F; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M G; Peixe, Ricardo G; Campos, Wesley R; Higino-Rocha, Anna C; Miller, Nancy E; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Antonelli, Lis R; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

2013-01-01

244

Efficacy of oxfendazole for the treatment of giardiosis in dogs. Experiments in dog breeding kennels.  

PubMed

Giardiosis is one of the most frequent parasites of dogs and cats. Since several years, the treatment is based on the use of metronidazole. A coproscopic study in four dog kennels was conducted to demonstrate, at a significant level, the efficacy of oxfendazole (Dolthčne, Merial). At the posology of 11.3 mg/kg each day during three days (D1, D2 and D3), no dogs eliminated Giardia cysts and all dogs are clinically cured. The importance of hygienic measures is underlined. In kennels 1 and 2 where hygienic conditions were poor, dogs reexcreted cysts again after treatment. In kennels where the boxes were disinfected, no dogs, treated with 22.6 or 11.3 mg/kg, reexcreted Giardia cysts. PMID:11031759

Villeneuve, V; Beugnet, F; Bourdoiseau, G

2000-09-01

245

The response of guide dogs and pet dogs ( Canis Familiaris ) to cues of human referential communication (pointing and gaze)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study raises the question of whether guide dogs and pet dogs are expected to differ in response to cues of referential\\u000a communication given by their owners; especially since guide dogs grow up among sighted humans, and while living with their\\u000a blind owners, they still have interactions with several sighted people. Guide dogs and pet dogs were required to respond

Miriam Ittyerah; Florence Gaunet

2009-01-01

246

Comparison of the nutrient composition of commercial dog milk replacers with that of dog milk.  

PubMed

Objective-To compare the nutrient composition of commercially available dog milk replacers with that of dog milk. Design-Prospective, cross-sectional study. Sample-5 dog milk samples and 15 samples of commercial dog milk replacers. Procedures-Dog milk and milk replacers were analyzed for concentrations of total protein, essential amino acids, sugars, total fat, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus. Energy density was calculated. Results from milk replacers were compared with the range of the concentration of each nutrient in milk samples from mature dogs as well as the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations for puppy growth. Results-Milk replacers varied widely in caloric density and concentration of nutrients such as calcium, protein, and fat. Calcium concentration was lower in 14 of 15 milk replacers than in the dog milk samples. Docosahexaenoic acid was undetectable in 12 of 15 milk replacers but present in all dog milk samples. All milk replacers had numerous essential nutrients outside of the range of the dog milk samples, and many had concentrations of amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus less than the NRC minimal requirement or recommended allowance. Compared with NRC recommendations, some dog milk samples had concentrations of total protein, linoleic acid, calcium, or phosphorus less than the recommended allowance. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that there was substantial variation in nutrient composition of 15 dog milk replacers and that some products were closer approximations of dog milk than others. Nearly all products would benefit from more appropriate calcium, amino acids, and essential fatty acids concentrations and better feeding directions. PMID:24871064

Heinze, Cailin R; Freeman, Lisa M; Martin, Camilia R; Power, Michael L; Fascetti, Andrea J

2014-06-15

247

Neophilia in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and its implication for studies of dog cognition.  

PubMed

This study examined novel-object preference in dogs. In a free choice test 17 dogs were presented with a novel toy in a line up with two familiar toys. The unfamiliar object was chosen first in 38 out 50 tests suggesting a strong preference for novel over familiar items. Neophilia may be an adaptive trait for domestic dogs that has helped their adaptation towards man. PMID:18183436

Kaulfuss, Patricia; Mills, Daniel S

2008-07-01

248

Neophilia in domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and its implication for studies of dog cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined novel-object preference in dogs. In a free choice test 17 dogs were presented with a novel toy in a line\\u000a up with two familiar toys. The unfamiliar object was chosen first in 38 out 50 tests suggesting a strong preference for novel\\u000a over familiar items. Neophilia may be an adaptive trait for domestic dogs that has helped

Patricia Kaulfuß; Daniel S. Mills

2008-01-01

249

Transthoracic lung ultrasound in normal dogs and dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Pulmonary edema is the most common complication of left-sided heart failure in dogs and early detection is important for effective clinical management. In people, pulmonary edema is commonly diagnosed based on transthoracic ultrasonography and detection of B line artifacts (vertical, narrow-based, well-defined hyperechoic rays arising from the pleural surface). The purpose of this study was to determine whether B line artifacts could also be useful diagnostic predictors for cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. Thirty-one normal dogs and nine dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema were prospectively recruited. For each dog, presence or absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema was based on physical examination, heartworm testing, thoracic radiographs, and echocardiography. A single observer performed transthoracic ultrasonography in all dogs and recorded video clips and still images for each of four quadrants in each hemithorax. Distribution, sonographic characteristics, and number of B lines per thoracic quadrant were determined and compared between groups. B lines were detected in 31% of normal dogs (mean 0.9 ± 0.3 SD per dog) and 100% of dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (mean 6.2 ± 3.8 SD per dog). Artifacts were more numerous and widely distributed in dogs with congestive heart failure (P < 0.0001). In severe cases, B lines increased in number and became confluent. The locations of B line artifacts appeared consistent with locations of edema on radiographs. Findings from the current study supported the use of thoracic ultrasonography and detection of B lines as techniques for diagnosing cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. PMID:24620777

Rademacher, Nathalie; Pariaut, Romain; Pate, Julie; Saelinger, Carley; Kearney, Michael T; Gaschen, Lorrie

2014-07-01

250

Laryngeal disease in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

The most common disease process involving the larynx is laryngeal paralysis, which occurs much more frequently in dogs than in cats. Diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis requires close attention to anesthetic plane and coordination of respiratory effort with laryngeal motion. Surgical arytenoid lateralization improves respiration and quality of life in dogs with laryngeal paralysis; however, aspiration pneumonia is a recognized complication, and generalized neuropathy can progress. Laryngeal collapse can result from any cause of chronic upper airway obstruction, but is most often associated with unaddressed brachycephalic airway syndrome. Laryngeal neoplasia, while generally uncommon, occurs more frequently in cats than in dogs. PMID:24268331

Macphail, Catriona

2014-01-01

251

Detection of toxin genes in Escherichia coli isolated from normal dogs and dogs with diarrhea.  

PubMed Central

The etiology of acute, nonviral diarrhea in dogs is poorly understood. Enterotoxigenic and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli are causal agents of diarrhea in humans, pigs, and cattle, but the association of these toxigenic E. coli with diarrhea in dogs has not been explored to a significant extent. In this study, DNA hybridization and PCR amplification were used to identify the frequency with which the genes for E. coli enterotoxins (STap, STb, and LTI) and verotoxins (VT1 and VT2) occur in association with diarrhea in dogs. Genes for VT1 (8.9%), VT2 (22.2%), STa (26.7%), and STb (4.4%) were identified in E. coli cultured from feces of 20 of 45 dogs (44.4%) with diarrhea. Genes for VT2, STa, and STb were not identified in feces from normal dogs. Genes for VT1 were observed in similar proportions in fecal samples from diarrheic (8.9%) and normal (12.3%) dogs. Heat labile enterotoxin (LTI) was not detected in fecal samples from either diarrheic or normal dogs. Our results suggest that heat stable enterotoxins and VT2 may be causally associated with diarrhea in dogs. Dogs appear to be able to carry VT1-producing E. coli without showing overt signs of disease.

Hammermueller, J; Kruth, S; Prescott, J; Gyles, C

1995-01-01

252

Characteristics of persons with overactive bladder of presumed neurologic origin: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey  

PubMed Central

Aims To compare the descriptive epidemiology of overactive bladder (OAB) of presumed neurologic origin (NOAB) to OAB of non-neurologic origin (N-NOAB). Methods 5,503 community-dwelling persons aged 30-79 were interviewed regarding urologic symptoms (2002-2005). NOAB was defined as symptoms of urgency and/or urgency incontinence among those with a self-reported history of health care provider diagnosed stroke (N=98), multiple sclerosis (N=21), or Parkinson’s disease (N=7). N-NOAB was defined identically but occurring among those not reporting neurologic disease (ND). Prevalence estimates were weighted to reflect sampling design; chi-square, Fisher’s exact, or t-tests were used to test differences. Urologic symptom interference was assessed using the Epstein scale, while the impact of urinary incontinence (UI) on health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) was measured using a modification of the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7. Results 45 (31.0%) of 125 persons with ND and 994 (16.7%) of 5378 persons without ND reported OAB symptoms. The overall prevalence of NOAB and N-NOAB was 0.6% and 16.4%, respectively. Persons with NOAB had higher (worse) mean American Urologic Association Symptom Index scores (13.0 vs. 10.0, p=0.09) compared to those with N-NOAB, and were significantly more likely to have diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiac disease and fair/poor self-reported health (all p<0.05). Mean symptom interference and UI HRQOL scores were significantly higher (worse) in the NOAB group compared to persons with N-NOAB (all p<0.05). Conclusions Persons with NOAB appeared to have a greater burden of urologic illness with respect to symptom interference and HRQOL compared to persons with N-NOAB.

Hall, Susan A.; Curto, Teresa M.; Onyenwenyi, Ahunna; Lemack, Gary E.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Link, Carol L.; McKinlay, John B.

2012-01-01

253

Regulatory Mechanisms in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in First Internodes of Sorghum vulgare: Effect of Presumed Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis 1  

PubMed Central

There was a 6 to 24-hour lag in the production of anthocyanins in the light after excision of 4-day-old etiolated internodes of Sorghum vulgare variety Wheatland milo. In internodes infiltrated with water, apigeninidin was formed first at 12 to 24 hours and continued to be produced slowly. Luteolinidin was formed slightly later, but its formation rapidly exceeded that of apigeninidin. Cyanidin was the last type to be produced, but equaled the amounts of luteolinidin by 4 days. In noninfiltrated internodes, the production of cyanidin was greatly accelerated, beginning at about 6 hours. Data from experiments with inhibitors that presumably affect protein synthesis at different loci indicated that protein synthesis was necessary for maximum production of all 3 anthocyanins, but that different steps were rate limiting. Light independent synthesis of apigeninidin and luteolinidin was inhibited by chloramphenicol and l-ethionine but not by actinomycin D and 8-azaguanine. However, the synthesis of these 2 anthocyanins was not inhibited by puromycin, but was sometimes stimulated. The light-induced synthesis of cyanidin was inhibited by actinomycin, azaguanine, chloramphenicol and ethionine. Actinomycin no longer was inhibitory if added after incubation for 6 hours in air. All inhibitors were capable of inhibiting to various degrees either the incorporation of 14C-uracil into RNA or 14C-leucine into protein. The inhibitor data suggest that the light insensitive synthesis of apigeninidin and luteolinidin may be controlled by enzyme synthesis at the level of ribosomes via stable mRNA, while the light-induced production of cyanidin is dependent initially on the production of mRNA. The latter hypothesis is similar to that recently proposed by Lange and Mohr for a cyanidin produced in Sinapis seedlings.

Stafford, Helen A.

1966-01-01

254

Short-term synchrony in diverse motor nuclei presumed to receive different extents of direct cortical input  

PubMed Central

Motor units within human muscles usually exhibit a significant degree of short-term synchronization. Such coincident spiking typically has been attributed to last-order projections that provide common synaptic input across motor neurons. The extent of branched input arising directly from cortical neurons has often been suggested as a critical factor determining the magnitude of short-term synchrony. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to quantify motor unit synchrony in a variety of human muscles differing in the presumed extent of cortical input to their respective motor nuclei. Cross-correlation histograms were generated from the firing times of 551 pairs of motor units in 16 human muscles. Motor unit synchrony tended to be weakest for proximal muscles and strongest for more distal muscles. Previous work in monkeys and humans has shown that the strength of cortical inputs to motor neurons also exhibits a similar proximal-to-distal gradient. However, in the present study, proximal-distal location was not an exclusive predictor of synchrony magnitude. The muscle that exhibited the least synchrony was an elbow flexor, whereas the greatest synchrony was most often found in intrinsic foot muscles. Furthermore, the strength of corticospinal inputs to the abductor hallucis muscle, an intrinsic foot muscle, as assessed through transcranial magnetic stimulation, was weaker than that projecting to the tibialis anterior muscle, even though the abductor hallucis muscle had higher synchrony values compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. We argue, therefore, that factors other than the potency of cortical inputs to motor neurons, such as the number of motor neurons innervating a muscle, significantly affects motor unit synchrony.

Keen, Douglas A.; Chou, Li-Wei; Nordstrom, Michael A.

2012-01-01

255

Comparison of P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs, dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction  

PubMed Central

Background P-wave dispersion (Pd) is a new ECG index used in human cardiology and veterinary medicine. It is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different ECG leads. So far no studies were performed assessing the importance of P-wave dispersion in dogs. Methods The current study was aimed at determining proper value of Pd in healthy dogs (group I), dogs with chronic valvular disease (group II) and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction (group III). The tests were carried out in 53 healthy dogs, 23 dogs with chronic valvular disease and 12 dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction of various breeds, sexes and body weight from 1,5 to 80 kg, aged between 0,5 and 17 years, submitted to the ECG examination. ECG was acquired in dogs in a standing position with BTL SD-8 electrocardiographic device and analyzed once the recording was enlarged. P-wave duration was calculated in 9 ECG leads (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, V1, V2, V4) from 5 cardiac cycles. Results The proper P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs was determined at up to 24 ms. P-wave dispersion was statistically significant increased (p < 0.01) in dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction. In dogs with the atrial enlargement the P-wave dispersion is also higher than in healthy dogs, although no significant correlation between the size of left atria and Pd was noticed (p = 0.1, r = 0,17). Conclusions The P-wave dispersion is a constant index in healthy dogs, that is why it can be used for evaluating P wave change in dogs with chronic valvular disease and in dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction.

2011-01-01

256

Testicular tumor in an XXY dog.  

PubMed

Klinefelter syndrome has been described in various species in addition to humans, including cat, pig, horse, and dog. It is associated with low levels of male hormones, sterility, breast enlargement, and small testes. Patients with Klinefelter syndrome have a higher risk for several malignancies. Knowledge about genetic disorders of the dog is comparatively sparse. This is mainly due to the difficult canine karyotypic pattern. We present the case of a canine patient with clinically and cytogenetically confirmed Klinefelter syndrome who developed a testicular tumor at a very early age. Testicular tumors are common in dogs, normally affecting elderly patients (median age, >9 years). In the present case, however, the dog was only 5 years old, allowing the conclusion that the XXY constitution may have promoted the early onset of testicular tumor disease. PMID:18503830

Reimann-Berg, Nicola; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Nolte, Ingo; Bullerdiek, Jörn

2008-06-01

257

Theileria annae in a young Swedish dog  

PubMed Central

A severe regenerative anemia was detected in a 12-week-old mixed breed puppy in Sweden. A small protozoan parasite was observed in erythrocytes on a blood smear. It was initially suspected to be Babesia gibsoni based on its size and because B. gibsoni was previously recorded in Sweden. Surprisingly, specific polymerase chain reaction analysis identified the protozoan as Theileria annae. T. annae is endemic in Northwest Spain, is very uncommonly reported elsewhere and has never been recorded in Scandinavia. T. annae has been identified in dogs used for dog fighting, and it is thought to be transmitted by dog bites. This puppy was a mixed pit bull terrier. Pit bull terriers are sometimes used for dog fighting. T. annae has been reported to be transmitted vertically, and in light of the puppy’s age, this transmission was suspected in the present case.

2013-01-01

258

Dog DNA---A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover how DNA will "code" for traits by performing a lab activity where segments of paper DNA (genes) are picked at random, a list of traits is made, and a dog is drawn featuring its genetic traits.

Perrault, Tanya

2012-02-20

259

Pharmacokinetics of oral dichloroacetate in dogs.  

PubMed

We characterized the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of dichloroacetate (DCA), an investigational drug for mitochondrial diseases, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cancer. Adult Beagle dogs were orally administered 6.25 mg/kg q12h DCA for 4 weeks. Plasma kinetics was determined after 1, 14, and 28 days. The activity and expression of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1), which biotransforms DCA to glyoxylate, were determined from liver biopsies at baseline and after 27 days. Dogs demonstrate much slower clearance and greater inhibition of DCA metabolism and GSTZ1 activity and expression than rodents and most humans. Indeed, the plasma kinetics of DCA in dogs is similar to humans with GSTZ1 polymorphisms that confer exceptionally slow plasma clearance. Dogs may be a useful model to further investigate the toxicokinetics and therapeutic potential of DCA. PMID:24038869

Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Shroads, Albert L; Zhong, Guo; Daigle, Adam D; Abdelmalak, Monica M; Samper, Ivan Sosa; Mincey, Brandy D; James, Margaret O; Stacpoole, Peter W

2013-12-01

260

Latent Viral Diseases in the Dog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Respiratory disease is one of the most common causes of illness in the domestic dog. Veterinary clinicians have recognized canine distemper for many years, but minor respiratory complications have not received much attention until recently. Today pet owne...

E. L. Massie

1966-01-01

261

Leather Substitute for Military Dog Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reinforced poromeric material (Corfam) in industrial-grade thicknesses was evaluated as a leather substitute for fabrication of military dog equipment. User evaluations indicate that industrial-grade Corbam substrate, alone or laminated with polyurethane-...

E. S. Tomlinson

1973-01-01

262

The March of the robot dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the success of Sony Corporation's`AIBO,' robot cats and dogs are multiplyingrapidly. ``Robot pets'' employing sophisticatedartificial intelligence and animatronictechnologies are now being marketed as toys andcompanions by a number of large consumerelectronics corporations.

Robert Sparrow

2002-01-01

263

Long Term Cryopreservation of Dog Granulocytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Granulocytes isolated by counterflow centrifugation eluriation (CCE) from leukapheresed dog blood, frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196 C, were studied. The effects of long term cryopreservation on cell recovery and in vitro function were determined. In eigh...

F. J. Lionetti F. W. Luscinskas C. R. Valeri A. J. Melaragno

1981-01-01

264

Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluate...

R. E. Weller

1991-01-01

265

Pentobarbital Sodium Anesthesia in the Dog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies have been done in the dog to determine some of the circulatory effects of anesthetic amounts of pentobarbital sodium. The results indicate that (1) except for the initial transient hypotension that occurs on injection of the anesthetic, pentobarbi...

J. P. Gilmore

1965-01-01

266

The Training of Dogs for Field Reconnaissance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report investigated the feasibility of training a free-ranging dog to perform personnel reconnaissance. The assumptions about terrain, weather and other pertinent conditions of the military problem were changed as the development of the project progr...

R. W. McIntire

1965-01-01

267

Nocturnal hemodynamic patterns in dogs.  

PubMed

Several species which have a single daily wake-sleep cycle show a progressive fall in cardiac output and rise in total peripheral resistance during sleep, a cardiovascular response which may reflect a progressive decrease in plasma volume. The present study showed that no such progressive overnight changes in cardiac output or total peripheral resistance occur in the dog, a carnivore which tends to be awake and to drink intermittently during the night. Progressive overnight bradycardia (-12.7 +/- 3.1%) and compensatory increase in stroke volume (14.8 +/- 6.0%) were observed in this species, however. These findings are consistent with the view that differences between primates and carnivores in overnight hemodynamic function are related to species differences in sleep and ingestive behavior. PMID:2267257

Anderson, D E; Talan, M I; Engel, B T

1990-09-01

268

Disseminated chlorellosis in a dog.  

PubMed

An adult dog with ataxia and a lingual mass, previously diagnosed as protothecosis, was euthanized. At the postmortem examination, the lingual mass, regions of the lungs and hilar lymph nodes, liver, mesenteric and sublumbar lymph nodes, and spinal meninges had pronounced green discoloration. Histologically, pyogranulomatous inflammation and algal organisms were found in the tongue, spinal meninges, hilar and mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and lung. The algae had cell walls positive for periodic acid-Schiff and cytoplasmic granules. Ultrastructurally, the algae had a well-defined cell wall, stacks of grana and thylakoid membrane, and dense bodies, typical of starch granules. The organisms were identified as Chlorella, a green alga, based on the results of histochemistical and electron microscopic examination. To the author's knowledge this is the first report of disseminated Chlorella infection and the first report in a companion animal. PMID:19176504

Quigley, R R; Knowles, K E; Johnson, G C

2009-05-01

269

Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Iscoll, Eileen; Lourduraj, Leena T.; Pasculle, A. W.

2008-11-17

270

Right ventricular tissue PO 2 in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Right ventricular (RV) epicardial tissue oxygen pressure (PtO2) was measured polarographically by means of a platinum multiwire surface electrode on the in situ beating heart of ten anesthetized dogs prior to and after moderate (Hct 28%) normovolemic hemodilution (HD) with dextran 60. In five dogs the effect of acute occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA) on PtO2 was

H. Forst; J. Racenberg; R. Schosser; K. Messmer

1987-01-01

271

Training dogs to detect Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs have been used successfully to detect drugs and conventional high explosives. The world-wide rise in terrorist activities has placed emphasis on the detection of non-conventional explosive materials such as the multi-functional peroxides, triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD). This study demonstrates that dogs can detect both solid TATP and TATP adsorbed to cotton balls. An effective procedure

Jimmie C. Oxley; James L. Smith; Jesse Moran; Ken Nelson; William E. Utley

2004-01-01

272

Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds  

PubMed Central

Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have historically created dog breeds are still ongoing, and create further subdivision within current dog breeds.

2008-01-01

273

WILDLIFE RESPONSES TO PEDESTRIANS AND DOGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We measured the responses of two grassland passerines, one forest passerine, and one large mammal exposed to recreational treatments both on- and off-trail, including a pedestrian alone, a pedestrian accompanied by a dog-on-leash, and a dog alone. Responses measured included flush response (whether the animal flushed or not), flush distance (distance between disturbance and animal when flushed), distance of

Richard L. Knight

274

Littoral cell angiosarcoma in a dog.  

PubMed

This report describes the microscopical and immunohistochemical characteristics of littoral cell angiosarcoma in a 12-year-old, neutered female, beagle dog. The dog succumbed to metastatic disease 3 months after diagnosis of a mid-splenic mass. The tumour was characterized by two histological patterns: anastomosing microvascular channels and microvascular papillary fronds. The neoplastic cells expressed both endothelial and histiocytic markers and were erythrophagocytic. Immunohistochemical findings consistent with malignancy were CD34 expression and high Ki67 nuclear immunoreactivity. PMID:23453493

Gal, A; Yamate, J; Golbar, H M; Spoerer, K; Fredrickson, R

2013-01-01

275

Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog  

PubMed Central

An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery.

Gojska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech

2012-01-01

276

Gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a disease in which there is gross distension of the stomach with fluid or gas and gastric malpositioning. It causes pathology of multiple organ systems and is rapidly fatal. It is common in large- and giant-breed dogs. The disease appears to have a familial predisposition. Thoracic depth\\/width ratio also appears to predispose dogs to GDV. Implicated

CJ Broome; VP Walsh

2003-01-01

277

Portal vein aneurysm in a dog.  

PubMed

Portal vein aneurysm (PVA) is a rare abnormal dilatation of the portal vein, which has not been reported in dogs. We describe the findings of ultrasound and computed tomography in a case of PVA in a young male toy poodle, with the final diagnosis established by explorative surgical observation. The dog had an aneurysmal fusiform dilatation in the extrahepatic portal vein with portal hypertension and multiple portsystemic shunts. This is the first report of canine PVA. PMID:22571895

Miyawaki, Shingo; Washizu, Makoto; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Shibata, Sanae; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

2012-09-01

278

Treatment of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs with milbemycin oxime.  

PubMed

An examination was made as to the ability of Sentinel Flavor Tabs (milbemycin oxime/lufenuron) to treat Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs. The study was designed as a critical trial and included five naturally infected dogs and two dogs that were experimentally infected. Another dog from a prior clinical trial that was treated with Sentinel Flavor Tabs as part of the original FDA submission package for intestinal nematode infections was also included with the treated dogs. Of the five naturally infected dogs treated as part of the critical trial, three were cleared of their infections. These five dogs passed a total of 52 worms after treatment; one dog retained 23 worms and the other retained 1 worm at necropsy 7 days after treatment. Two of five experimentally infected Beagle dogs that had been given mice that had been fed 200 infectious eggs, developed patent infections with the parasite. These dogs were treated, and one of the dogs passed one worm and the other passed two worms after treatment with no worms being detected at necropsy 7 days after treatment. The one dog that was treated with milbemycin oxime as part of the FDA submission was clear of worms at necropsy. Overall, the mean efficacy of Sentinel Flavor Tabs was found to be 91.0%. Of the eight dogs that were treated, six were totally cleared of their infections, a cure rate of 75%. The two dogs that did not clear their infections had very large numbers of adult B. procyonis within their intestinal tracts at the time of treatment, one dog had 40 worms (23 remaining) and the other had 26 worms (1 remaining). It is suggested that the treatment of dogs with monthly Sentinel Flavor Tabs could markedly reduce the chance of infected dogs contaminating the environment. Also, additional monthly treatments are highly likely to clear dogs of any worms not killed with the initial treatment. PMID:15845284

Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael A; Gregory, Dawn E; Neumann, Norwood R; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David

2005-05-15

279

A dog rabies vaccination campaign in rural Africa: impact on the incidence of dog rabies and human dog-bite injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the availability of safe and effective rabies vaccines, the incidence of dog rabies has been increasing throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Here we describe a vaccination strategy that has resulted in successful control of rabies in a rural dog population of Northwestern Tanzania. From October 1996 to February 2001, four central-point dog vaccination campaigns were conducted in villages within

S Cleaveland; M Kaare; P Tiringa; T Mlengeya; J Barrat

2003-01-01

280

Antinuclear antibodies in dogs with leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

An indirect immunofluorescence method using rat liver as material was developed to determine the incidence of antinuclear antibodies in serum from 44 adult dogs naturally infected with leishmaniasis and, for comparative purposes, in a control group of 30 healthy dogs. Animals in both groups were of different breeds with a similar age distribution. Antinuclear antibodies were not detected in the healthy dogs and only 15.9% of the diseased dogs, 12.0% males and 21.1% females, were positive. The results indicate that in contrast to previously reported figures, the incidence of antinuclear antibodies is low in canine leishmaniasis at least when diagnosis is first made. In order to investigate whether antinuclear antibodies may play a role in the development of the renal damage observed in canine leishmaniasis, the concentrations of serum creatinine were related to the presence of antinuclear antibodies. Only 28.5% of the antinuclear antibodies positive infected dogs showed hypercreatininemia as did 32.4% of the antinuclear antibodies negative infected dogs. Thus, antinuclear antibodies are not significantly cause-effect related to the development of the renal lesions seen in canine leishmaniasis. PMID:8767735

Lucena, R; Ginel, P J; Lopez, R; Novales, M; Martin, E; Molleda, J M

1996-06-01

281

Hemostatic abnormalities in dogs with hemangiosarcoma.  

PubMed

The hemostasis profiles of 24 dogs with histologically confirmed hemangiosarcoma were prospectively evaluated. Microangiopathic hemolysis was defined as the presence of schistocytes; disseminated intravascular coagulation was defined as 1) thrombocytopenia, 2) fibrin(ogen) degradation products greater than 10 micrograms/mL, 3) prolongation of one or more coagulation times (activated partial thromboplastin time or one-stage prothrombin time) by greater than 25% of the control, 4) fragmented red blood cells (greater than or equal to 1+ based on a semiquantitative grading scale), and 5) fibrinogen less than or equal to 80 mg/dL. Three of the five criteria listed above had to be met for disseminated intravascular coagulation to be diagnosed. Fifty percent of the dogs were considered to have disseminated intravascular coagulation at presentation. Thrombocytopenia was present in 75% of the dogs and was the most common abnormality. The mean platelet count was 137,800/microL. Twenty-five percent of the dogs died as a result of the hemostatic abnormalities. Only 12% of the dogs had microangiopathic hemolysis without other evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hemostatic abnormalities are present in many dogs with hemangiosarcoma at the initial clinical presentation and represent an important clinical finding. PMID:2020011

Hammer, A S; Couto, C G; Swardson, C; Getzy, D

1991-01-01

282

Comparison of oral and intramuscular recombinant canine distemper vaccination in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).  

PubMed

A series of three doses of recombinant canary-pox-vectored canine distemper virus vaccine was administered at 1-mo intervals, orally (n = 8) or intramuscularly (n = 13), to 21 previously unvaccinated juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo. Titers were measured by serum neutralization at each vaccination and at intervals over a period of 3.5-21.5 mo after the initial vaccination. All postvaccination titers were negative for orally vaccinated animals at all sampling time points. Of the animals that received intramuscular vaccinations, 100% had presumed protective titers by the end of the course of vaccination, but only 50% of those sampled at 6.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. None of the three animals sampled at 21.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. PMID:24450046

Connolly, Maren; Thomas, Patrick; Woodroffe, Rosie; Raphael, Bonnie L

2013-12-01

283

Human Perception of Fear in Dogs Varies According to Experience with Dogs  

PubMed Central

To investigate the role of experience in humans’ perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the “fearful” category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the “happy” category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain.

Wan, Michele; Bolger, Niall; Champagne, Frances A.

2012-01-01

284

Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain. PMID:23284765

Wan, Michele; Bolger, Niall; Champagne, Frances A

2012-01-01

285

Efficacy of a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray in presumed feline allergic dermatitis: an open label pilot study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the efficacy of a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate (HCA) spray (Cortavance(®); Virbac SA) in 10 cats with presumed allergic dermatitis. The cats initially received two sprays/100 cm(2) of skin once daily. Clinical lesions (a Feline Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index; FeDESI), pruritus (10 cm visual analog scale with grade descriptors) and owner assessments of efficacy, tolerance and ease of use (from 1=very poor to 5=excellent) were assessed every 14 days. The frequency of treatment was reduced after day 28 in cats with a >50% reduction in FeDESI and pruritus scores. One cat was lost to follow up at day 28 and two at day 42. Intention-to-treat data were analysed. The FeDESI [mean (SD): day 0, 42.2 (15.7) and day 56, 9.9 (11.7); P<0.0001] and pruritus scores [day 0, 61.2 mm (20.1) and day 56, 14.6 mm (16.1); P<0.0001] significantly decreased throughout the trial. The owner scores for tolerance [median (range): day 14, 4 (1-5) and day 56, 4 (3-5); P=0.003] and ease of administration [day 14, 3 (2-5) and day 56, 4 (2-5); P=0.02] significantly increased during the trial, but there was no significant change in efficacy scores [day 14, 4 (3-5) and day 56, 4 (2-5); P=0.5]. There were no adverse effects attributable to the HCA spray, no significant changes in weight [mean (SD): day 0, 5.0 kg (1.4) and day 56, 5.0 kg (1.6); P=0.51] and no significant changes in haematology, biochemistry or urinalysis (n=4). Six cats required every-other-day treatment and four required daily treatment. In conclusion, HCA spray appeared to be effective and safe in these cats, although it is not licensed for use in this species. PMID:21718369

Schmidt, Vanessa; Buckley, Laura M; McEwan, Neil A; Rčme, Christophe A; Nuttall, Tim J

2012-02-01

286

Analysis of neuroretinal rim distribution and vascular pattern in eyes with presumed large physiological cupping: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate possible differences in neuroretinal rim distribution, vascular pattern, and peripapillary region appearance between eyes with presumed large physiological optic disc cupping (pLPC) and eyes with minimal optic disc excavation. Methods We prospectively enrolled consecutive subjects with pLPC and individuals with minimal excavation (optic disc excavation within normal limits; control group). All eyes had normal visual fields and untreated intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mmHg. Eyes with pLPC required vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) ?0.6 and ?30 months of follow-up with no evidence of glaucomatous neuropathy. For controls, VCDR was limited to ?0.5. We compared ocular signs and characteristics related to the neuroretinal rim distribution, vascular pattern, peripapillary region appearance and disc size between groups. Whenever both eyes were eligible, one was randomly selected for analysis. Results A total of 74 patients (mean age, 45.6?±?14.9 years) with pLPC and 45 controls (mean age, 44.8?±?11.6 years) were enrolled (p?=?0.76). Median disc size and VCDR was significantly larger in eyes with pLPC compared to controls (p?

2014-01-01

287

Prevalence and clinical outcome of subclinical bacteriuria in female dogs.  

PubMed

Objective-To determine the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria and its natural clinical course over a 3-month period in healthy female dogs. Design-Observational, prospective, cross-sectional study. Animals-101 healthy client-owned female dogs. Procedures-In all dogs, screening clinicopathologic tests and bacteriologic culture of urine were performed. In culture-positive dogs, subclinical bacteriuria was confirmed by 2 positive culture results within 2 weeks and dogs were reevaluated at 3 months. Results-The prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria in healthy female dogs was 9 of 101 (8.9%). Three-month follow-up data were available for 8 of 9 dogs with subclinical bacteriuria. Four dogs had persistent bacteriuria, and 4 had transient bacteriuria. No dogs with subclinical bacteriuria developed clinical signs during the 3-month observation period. Subclinical bacteriuria was diagnosed in 6 of 51 (12%) young and middle-aged dogs and 3 of 50 (6.0%) senior and geriatric dogs. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria with age. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that subclinical bacteriuria is a nonprogressive condition in healthy female dogs and can be persistent or transient. No significant difference in the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria in young and middle-aged dogs versus senior and geriatric dogs was detected. No dogs with subclinical bacteriuria developed clinical signs requiring antimicrobial treatment during the 3-month observation period. Healthy female dogs with subclinical bacteriuria may be a population of dogs in which antimicrobial treatment is unnecessary. PMID:24941394

Wan, Stephanie Y; Hartmann, Faye A; Jooss, Michelle K; Viviano, Katrina R

2014-07-01

288

Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity. PMID:24576383

Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

2014-03-01

289

Analysis of pediatric facial dog bites.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize and report the epidemiological data regarding pediatric facial dog bites. For this study, a retrospective chart review was used. This study was performed at a large tertiary pediatric hospital. All children younger than 18 years who sought medical attention after a facial dog bite between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, were included. Demographic and epidemiologic data were collected and analyzed. A total of 537 children were identified. The average age was 4.59?±?3.36 years, with a slight male preponderance (52.0%). The majority of dog bites occurred in children 5 years of age or younger (68.0%). Almost all (89.8%) of the dogs were known to the children. When circumstances surrounding the bite were documented, over half (53.2%) of the cases were provoked. The most common breeds were mixed breed (23.0%), Labrador retriever (13.7%), Rottweiler (4.9%), and German shepherd (4.4%). Inpatient treatment was required in 121 (22.5%) patients with an average length of stay of 2.96?±?2.77 days. Children 5 years or younger were more likely to be hospitalized than older children. Children 5 years old and younger are at high risk for being bitten in the face by a familiar dog and are more likely to require hospitalization than older children. Certain dog breeds are more likely to bite, and there is often a history of provocation. There is a tremendous financial and psychosocial burden associated with dog bites, and prevention strategies should focus on education with the aid of public policies and better documentation and reporting systems. PMID:24436765

Chen, Henry H; Neumeier, Anna T; Davies, Brett W; Durairaj, Vikram D

2013-12-01

290

Pet dogs as sentinels for environmental contamination.  

PubMed

The presence of environmental contaminants in air, water and food may pose significant health risks to the exposed human population. However, problems associated with assessing chronic exposure to low doses of environmental chemicals, multiple exposure routes, diseases with long latency periods, and non-specific health outcomes make it difficult to conduct the appropriate human epidemiologic studies. It may be useful to complement human epidemiology with animal studies. Animals monitored or evaluated in situ for the appropriate suite of endpoints can provide information about both exposure levels and potential adverse health effects. Animals have served as sentinel indicators for health effects associated with a number of environmental exposures, including pesticides and asbestos. Pet dogs may be particularly valuable sentinels because they share the human environment. In addition, dogs respond to many toxic insults in ways analogous to humans, they have physiologically compressed life spans, and they are free from some important lifestyle risk factors for disease. An example of how pet dogs may be used as sentinels for potential human health hazards involves a study of the genotoxic effects resulting from exposure to a mixture of chemicals from nearby Superfund sites. We conducted a cross-sectional study of exposed dogs (living in the community with the Superfund sites) and controls (living in a nearby community). The pet owners completed a questionnaire, and we collected a blood sample from each dog. The blood samples were analyzed for standard clinical parameters and assays for possible genotoxic effects (peripheral blood lymphocyte micronucleus frequency and lymphocyte subtyping). Pet dogs living near the Superfund sites had a higher micronucleus frequency than control animals, suggesting that the dogs may have been exposed to environmental contaminants from these sites. PMID:11453293

Backer, L C; Grindem, C B; Corbett, W T; Cullins, L; Hunter, J L

2001-07-01

291

Dog Ownership and Adolescent Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Positive associations between dog ownership and adult health outcomes have been observed, but research involving youth is lacking. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of family dog ownership to adolescent and parent physical activity, weight status, and metabolic risk factors. Methods Data were collected on dog ownership in 618 adolescent/parent pairs between 9/2006 and 6/2008 and analyzed in 2010. Adolescent physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph accelerometers. Trained staff measured blood pressure, height and weight, and percentage body fat was calculated by impedance. A subsample of adolescents (n=318) opted for a fasting blood draw used to derive a metabolic risk cluster score. Parents and adolescents provided consent and assent, respectively. Results Adolescents’ mean age was 14.6±1.8 years and 49% were male. White and higher SES adolescents were more likely to own a dog. In models adjusted for age, puberty, gender, race, total household members and SES, adolescent physical activity (mean counts min?1 day?1) remained significantly associated with dog ownership (?=24.3, SE=12.4, p=0.05) while the association with minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity day?1 became nonsignificant (?=2.2, SE=1.2, p=0.07). No significant results were observed for other adolescent characteristics. Conclusions Dog ownership was associated with more physical activity among adolescents. Further research using longitudinal data will help clarify the role that dog ownership may have on adolescent physical activity.

Sirard, John R.; Patnode, Carrie D.; Hearst, Mary O.; Laska, Melissa N.

2011-01-01

292

A Presumably New Arbovirus 'Tulenity' (seal) Isolated from Ixodes Putus Ticks Collected at a Seashore Bird Colony in the Okhotsk Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study has been made of three strains (LEIV-4C, LEIV-6C, LEIV-62C) of a presumably new arbovirus named 'Seal', which has been isolated in 1969 from Ixodes (Ceratixodes) putus ticks collected in the seashore bird colony (Uria Aalge) on the Tuylen' island ...

D. A. Lvov A. A. Timoffeeva V. I. Chervonsky V. L. Gromachevsky G. A. Klisenko

1974-01-01

293

Mutagenicity of the halogenated olefin, 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1-difluoroethylene, a presumed metabolite of the inhalation anesthetic halothane.  

PubMed Central

The presumed halothane metabolite, 2-bromo-1,1-difluoroethylene, produces both base substitution and frameshift mutations in Salmonella typhimurium. Direct mutagenesis of isolated DNA also was observed by using a Bacillus subtils transformation assay to score the production of mutagenic lesions in transforming DNA.

Garro, A J; Phillips, R A

1977-01-01

294

First Case of Pulmonary Disease Caused by a Mycobacterium avium Complex Strain of Presumed Veterinary Origin in an Adult Human Patient  

PubMed Central

We report the first case of pulmonary disease caused by a strain of Mycobacterium avium complex of presumed veterinary origin in an elderly patient. All serial isolates were identified by multilocus sequence analysis based on rpoB, hsp65, and 16S rRNA fragments. Disease persisted despite macrolide-based combination antibiotic therapy.

Kim, Su-Young; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Nam Yong

2013-01-01

295

First case of pulmonary disease caused by a Mycobacterium avium complex strain of presumed veterinary origin in an adult human patient.  

PubMed

We report the first case of pulmonary disease caused by a strain of Mycobacterium avium complex of presumed veterinary origin in an elderly patient. All serial isolates were identified by multilocus sequence analysis based on rpoB, hsp65, and 16S rRNA fragments. Disease persisted despite macrolide-based combination antibiotic therapy. PMID:23554206

Kim, Su-Young; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

2013-06-01

296

Hybrid presumed pdf and flame surface density approaches for Large-Eddy Simulation of premixed turbulent combustion. Part 2: Early flame development after sparking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the second part of a work addressing the coupling of presumed probability density function (pdf) with flame surface density (FSD) for the premixed flame modeling in a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) framework. The main objective of this work is to propose approaches able to correctly describe local flame speed as well as detailed chemistry. Models based on the

Guillaume Lecocq; Stéphane Richard; Olivier Colin; Luc Vervisch

2011-01-01

297

Even Lesbian Youths or Those Presumed to Be Lesbians Are Protected by the Constitution of Uganda--But to a Limited Extent: Rules the High Court  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ugandan Penal Code criminalizes same-sex relationships. The author analyzes the Ugandan High Court decision where the judge relied on the Constitution and international human rights instruments to hold that law enforcement officers must respect the rights to privacy and human dignity even of those people presumed to be in same-sex…

Mujuzi, Jamil Ddamulira

2009-01-01

298

Biochemical Parameters of Dogs Infected with 'Babesia gibsoni'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Serum was collected from mongrel dogs, and the 'normal' values of sodium, potassium, carbon dioxide, chloride, glucose, BUN, calcium, total protein, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and SGOT were established. Eight dogs were then infected with Babesia gib...

D. E. Ferguson J. L. Fowler M. D. Ruff R. C. Fernau

1971-01-01

299

Efficacy of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene combination spot-on for dogs against adult dog fleas ( Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel spot-on formulation combining fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study to determine its adulticidal efficacy against the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826). Sixteen dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups: 8 dogs served as untreated controls, and 8 dogs were treated once. Treatment consisted of applying

Emilie Bouhsira; Stephen S. Yoon; Martine Roques; Coralie Manavella; Solange Vermot; Luiz G. Cramer; Catherine Ollagnier; Michel Franc

2011-01-01

300

The role of police dogs as companions and working partners.  

PubMed

Written responses to a questionnaire by 255 officers who used canines in police work were assessed. Almost all officers frequently played with, talked to, petted, and brushed their dogs and believed the dogs benefitted their health and well-being. Officers whose dogs slept indoors, often in the same bedroom, generally said they loved their dogs and they described their dogs as calm rather than active, as indicated by a multiple correspondence analysis. These 96 officers more than the 154 officers whose dogs slept outdoors or in kennels also planned to remain in canine work. Although departments often assumed responsibility for purchasing the dogs, the more experienced officers usually were involved in the final selection of dogs (logistic regression: p < .0001). Compared with 94 officers not involved in selecting their dogs, 106 officers with a specific role in selecting their dogs planned to stay in canine work, as shown by a multiple correspondence analysis. They believed the dogs had saved their lives (p < .01). Over-all, officers reported spending 4.1 hr. on-duty and 2.9 hr. off-duty per week training their dogs, and also played with them for 6.5 hr. per week, assuring a regular pattern of exercise for the officers. Virtually all officers valued canine service and believed the dogs enhanced the department's effectiveness. This study showed that both close companionship with the dog and involvement in selecting the dog were associated both with satisfaction with the dog and with working as a canine officer. PMID:10778270

Hart, L A; Zasloff, R L; Bryson, S; Christensen, S L

2000-02-01

301

Outcomes of Dogs Presented for Cataract Evaluation: A Retrospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and forty-four dogs were evaluated for cataracts at the University of Tennessee from January 2001 to December 2002. Fifty-four canine breeds were affected. Odds ratios for cataracts were significantly higher for six purebred dogs (including the cocker spaniel, miniature schnauzer, toy poodle, Boston terrier, miniature poodle, and bichon frise) compared with mixed-breed dogs. One hundred fifty-nine dogs did

EA Hendrix; Diane Hendrix

2005-01-01

302

Pharmacokinetics of fenbendazole in dogs.  

PubMed

Fenbendazole was administered to dogs at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight on a single occasion in gelatin capsules, on 5 consecutive days in feed, and on a single occasion as an alginate suspension. It was also administered at a dose rate of 100 mg/kg body weight on a single occasion in feed. Following single administration of 20 mg/kg fenbendazole mean maximum concentrations (Cmax) of the parent drug and its known active sulphoxide metabolite were 0.42 +/- 0.05 and 0.31 +/- 0.05 microgram/ml, respectively. Mean times until maximum concentrations were achieved (tmax) were 12.67 +/- 4.18 and 15.33 +/- 2.81 h, respectively, and areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) were 5.83 +/- 0.65 and 4.60 +/- 0.57 microgram.h/ml, respectively. Administration in feed increased the apparent bioavailability and administration for 5 consecutive days provided sustained plasma concentrations, generally greater than 0.2 microgram/ml. Administration as an alginate did not increase bioavailability or extend the persistence in plasma. It did increase the tmax to 16.80 +/- 2.93 and 20.00 +/- 2.53 h for fenbendazole and its sulphoxide metabolite, respectively. Increasing the dose from 20 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg did not substantially increase the Cmax or AUC. PMID:2287030

McKellar, Q A; Harrison, P; Galbraith, E A; Inglis, H

1990-12-01

303

Training shelter volunteers to teach dog compliance.  

PubMed

This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions conditions was low across all participants. Although performance increased with use of a video model, integrity did not reach criterion levels until performance feedback and modeling were provided. Moreover, the integrity of the discrete-trial training procedure was significantly and positively correlated with dog compliance to instructions for all dyads. Correct implementation and compliance were observed when participants were paired with a novel dog and trainer, respectively, although generalization of procedural integrity from the discrete-trial sit procedure to the discrete-trial wait procedure was not observed. Shelter consumers rated the behavior change in dogs and trainers as socially significant. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:24924218

Howard, Veronica J; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D

2014-06-01

304

Oxytocin promotes social bonding in dogs.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that enduring social bonds have fitness benefits. However, very little is known about the neural circuitry and neurochemistry underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social bonds outside reproductive contexts. Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide synthetized by the hypothalamus in mammals, regulates many complex forms of social behavior and cognition in both human and nonhuman animals. Animal research, however, has concentrated on monogamous mammals, and it remains unknown whether OT also modulates social bonds in nonreproductive contexts. In this study we provide behavioral evidence that exogenous OT promotes positive social behaviors in the domestic dog toward not only conspecifics but also human partners. Specifically, when sprayed with OT, dogs showed higher social orientation and affiliation toward their owners and higher affiliation and approach behaviors toward dog partners than when sprayed with placebo. Additionally, the exchange of socio-positive behaviors with dog partners triggered the release of endogenous OT, highlighting the involvement of OT in the development of social relationships in the domestic dog. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance of close social bonds beyond immediate reproductive interest or genetic ties and complement a growing body of evidence that identifies OT as one of the neurochemical foundations of sociality in mammalian species. PMID:24927552

Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi

2014-06-24

305

Neoplasms in young dogs after perinatal irradiation  

SciTech Connect

For a study of the life-time effects of irradiation during development, 1,680 beagles were given single, whole-body exposures to /sup 60/Co gamma-radiation at one of three prenatal (preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal) or at one of three postnatal (neonatal, juvenile, and young adult) ages. Mean doses were 0, 0.16, or 0.83 Gy. For comparison with data on childhood cancer after prenatal irradiation, examination was made of tumors occurring in young dogs in this life-span experiment. Up to 4 years of age, 18 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed, 2 of these being in controls. Four dogs that were irradiated in the perinatal (late fetal or neonatal) period died of cancers prior to 2 years of age. This risk was of significant increase compared to the risks for other experimental groups and for the canine population in general. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of all cancers and 56% (10 of 18) of all benign and malignant neoplasms seen in the first 4 years of life occurred in 29% (480 of 1680) of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation in dogs.

Benjamin, S.A.; Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Williams, J.S.; Brewster, R.D.; Long, R.I.

1986-08-01

306

Ureteral fibroepithelial polyps in four dogs.  

PubMed

Four dogs with ureteral fibroepithelial polyps, ranging from 9-12 years of age, are presented in this report. The patients presented with urinary incontinence, urinary tract infection, and/or polydypsia and pollakiuria. All dogs were intact at the time of diagnosis or for the majority of their lives and three were male. Various diagnostic procedures were performed including ultrasonography, contrast radiography, and nuclear scintigraphy. Not all procedures were performed in all patients. Findings included ureteral dilation proximal to the level of an intraluminal mass and ipsilateral hydronephrosis. Unilateral ureteronephrectomy was performed in three dogs with masses in the proximal ureter; ureteral resection and anastamosis was performed in the remaining patient with a mass located in the distal ureter. The same pathologist (RAP) reviewed all four lesions. The lesions appeared polypoid and were attached to the ureteral wall by a thin stalk. Histopathologically, they contained a superficial layer of well-differentiated transitional epithelial cells overlying a prominent fibrovascular stroma with a mild (three dogs) or marked (one dog) degree of lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. This disease may represent a benign neoplasm or a chronic inflammatory reaction and has a good prognosis with surgical removal. Its histopathological characteristics, higher incidence in males, and location more commonly within the upper third of the ureter is remarkably similar to the disease in humans. PMID:12939061

Reichle, Jean K; Peterson, Richard A; Mahaffey, Mary B; Schelling, Curtis G; Barthez, Paul Y

2003-01-01

307

The dog and rat olfactory receptor repertoires  

PubMed Central

Background Dogs and rats have a highly developed capability to detect and identify odorant molecules, even at minute concentrations. Previous analyses have shown that the olfactory receptors (ORs) that specifically bind odorant molecules are encoded by the largest gene family sequenced in mammals so far. Results We identified five amino acid patterns characteristic of ORs in the recently sequenced boxer dog and brown Norway rat genomes. Using these patterns, we retrieved 1,094 dog genes and 1,493 rat genes from these shotgun sequences. The retrieved sequences constitute the olfactory receptor repertoires of these two animals. Subsets of 20.3% (for the dog) and 19.5% (for the rat) of these genes were annotated as pseudogenes as they had one or several mutations interrupting their open reading frames. We performed phylogenetic studies and organized these two repertoires into classes, families and subfamilies. Conclusion We have established a complete or almost complete list of OR genes in the dog and the rat and have compared the sequences of these genes within and between the two species. Our results provide insight into the evolutionary development of these genes and the local amplifications that have led to the specific amplification of many subfamilies. We have also compared the human and rat ORs with the human and mouse OR repertoires.

Quignon, Pascale; Giraud, Mathieu; Rimbault, Maud; Lavigne, Patricia; Tacher, Sandrine; Morin, Emmanuelle; Retout, Elodie; Valin, Anne-Sophie; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Nicolas, Jacques; Galibert, Francis

2005-01-01

308

Genetics of aggressive behaviour in Golden Retriever dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs have been living in close proximity to humans since the last Ice Age. Like their progenitor the grey wolf, dogs may respond with aggressive behaviour to certain stimuli. This is natural behaviour in the majority of cases. However, canine aggression can develop into a dangerous problem. There is individual variation in the tendency of dogs to display aggressive behaviour.

L. van den Berg

2006-01-01

309

Gait analysis using accelerometry in dystrophin-deficient dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs affected with Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) exhibit striking clinical similarities with patients suffering from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), particularly gait impairments. The purpose of this study was to describe the use and reliability of accelerometry in gait assessment of dogs with muscular dystrophy. Eight healthy and 11 GRMD adult dogs underwent three gait assessment sessions, using accelerometry. Three-axial

Inčs Barthélémy; Eric Barrey; Jean-Laurent Thibaud; Ane Uriarte; Thomas Voit; Stéphane Blot; Jean-Yves Hogrel

2009-01-01

310

44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15...ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

2010-10-01

311

The training of guide dogs for the blind  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractThis subject will be covered in three sections, first, a brief history of how the idea of using trained dogs to help the blind was conceived, then the present-day methods of training guide dogs, and, finally, how the blind person is trained with their guide dog to work together as a team.

B. W. Peel

1975-01-01

312

44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15...ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

2009-10-01

313

Rabies seroprevalence of street dogs from Săo Paulo City, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 602 street dogs captured by the Săo Paulo zoonosis-control municipal service was analyzed for the presence of serum antibodies against the rabies virus and compared to a control sample of 37 dogs from the kennel of the police of Săo Paulo. Data were stratified into 4 age intervals and the age from the street-dog sample was estimated

P. C. Sallum; M. F. Almeida; E. Massad

2000-01-01

314

Cyclophosphamide intoxication because of pharmacy error in two dogs.  

PubMed

Case Description-An 8-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier and 5-year-old castrated male West Highland White Terrier were evaluated because of cyclophosphamide intoxication subsequent to pharmacy error. Both dogs received cumulative doses of approximately 1,080 mg of cyclophosphamide/m(2) after cyclophosphamide was erroneously dispensed instead of cyclosporine by different pharmacies. Clinical Findings-Both dogs became lethargic, and 1 dog also had anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea within 2 days after initiation of cyclophosphamide administration. The other dog developed anorexia on the seventh day after initiation of cyclophosphamide administration. The dogs were evaluated by their primary-care veterinarians 9 and 11 days after administration of the first dose of cyclophosphamide, and both had severe leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Treatment and Outcome-One dog was treated on an outpatient basis with broad-spectrum antimicrobials, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and an appetite stimulant. The other dog was more severely affected and was hospitalized for 7 days, during which it was treated with broad-spectrum antimicrobials, gastroprotectants, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and cryopreserved platelet and packed RBC transfusions. Both dogs fully recovered after treatment. Clinical Relevance-This was the first report of survival for dogs with inadvertent prolonged cyclophosphamide intoxication subsequent to pharmacy error. Although the 2 dogs had similar clinical signs and clinicopathologic findings, the severity of disease and treatment required differed for each dog. Dogs can recover from prolonged cyclophosphamide intoxication provided appropriate supportive care is administered. PMID:24984134

Wells, Jennifer E; Sabatino, Bethany R; Whittemore, Jacqueline C

2014-07-15

315

Pathobiology and oncogenesis of pituitary corticotroph adenomas in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) or Cushing's disease is a common endocrinopathy in the elderly dog caused by a pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) producing tumor (corticotroph adenoma) of unknown pathogenesis. Surgical removal of the pituitary tumor is applied as routine treatment of dogs with PDH at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University. Since 1993, more than 230 dogs have been operated.

J. M. Hanson

2007-01-01

316

Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) as reservoir hosts for Rickettsia conorii.  

PubMed

Rickettsia conorii is the causative agent of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) and Israeli spotted fever (ISF) transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. In areas where MSF or ISF are prevalent, dogs have high prevalence of R. conorii -neutralizing antibodies. However, the true role of dogs in the persistence of the R. conorii transmission cycle is unknown, and their reservoir competence for this pathogen has remained untested. We assessed the ability of dogs infected with R. conorii to transmit the pathogen to previously uninfected Rh. sanguineus ticks. Dogs were infected either via needle-inoculation of cultured rickettsiae or naturally via infected tick bite. Dogs were monitored for clinical signs of infection, for rickettsemia by PCR, and for seroconversion and were subjected to infestation with uninfected ticks at different time points. Rh. sanguineus larvae and nymphs successfully acquired the agent from both needle-inoculated and tick-infected dogs and transmitted it transtadially. Tick-infected dogs remained infectious to ticks for at least a month postinfection. The molted ticks were, in turn, infectious to naďve dogs. These results demonstrate that dogs are capable of acquiring R. conorii from infected Rh. sanguineus ticks and transmitting infection to cohorts of uninfected ticks, thus confirming for the first time that dogs are indeed competent reservoirs for R. conorii. In addition, dogs with different genetic backgrounds appear to differ in their susceptibility to R. conorii infection. PMID:21923270

Levin, Michael L; Killmaster, Lindsay F; Zemtsova, Galina E

2012-01-01

317

Resistance of dogs to Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis leachi leachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been sho wn experimentally from three repeated infestations that dogs were unable to develop effective resistance against dog ticks: rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 and haemaphysalis leachi leachi Audouin, 1826. The number of successive engorged females recovered from dogs at the second and third infestations in both species were not significantly less (P>0.05) than the number recovered at the

Johnson Olayide Adejinmi; Oluwole Ayodele Akinboade

318

Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy in the dog and cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy were diagnosed in 36 dogs from 11 litters, and myoendocarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy were diagnosed in 51 cats. Most of the dogs and cats died unexpectedly. Spontaneous parvoviral infection in the dogs caused acute (myocytolysis with presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the myocytes), subacute (inflammatory reaction and myocytolysis), and chronic (fibrosis and myocytolysis) myocarditis, which

Si-Kwang Liu

1985-01-01

319

Pregnancy following homologous prepubertal ovarian transplantation in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several canine models of hereditary human disease the homozygote dogs die prior to puberty, or have substantially reduced fertility. To create a clinically healthy animal that can be bred, but can also transmit the gene of interest, a model of homologous ovarian transplantation in prepubertal dogs was developed. Six dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) identical littermates underwent transplantation of ovarian

Jennifer K Pullium; Ross Milner; Gary A Tuma

2008-01-01

320

Fecundity and longevity of roaming dogs in Jaipur, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Estimates of demographic parameters, such as age-specific survival and fecundity, age at first pregnancy and litter size, are required for roaming dogs (i.e. dogs that are neither confined nor restricted) to assess the likely effect of proposed methods of population control. Data resulting from individual identification of dogs spayed as part of an Animal Birth Control (ABC) programme in

John F Reece; Sunil K Chawla; Elly F Hiby; Lex R Hiby

2008-01-01

321

Problem of Dog-Related Incidents and Encounters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Americans love dogs. There is roughly one dog for every four people in the United States, and they live in a variety of relationships with humans. Because dogs are so much a part of American society, police routinely deal with them in the line of duty, an...

C. Bathurst D. Cleary K. Delise L. VanKavage P. Rushing

2011-01-01

322

Lead poisoning in dogs: occurrence, source, clinical pathology, and electroencephalography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 236 dogs. The disease incidence increased annually after 1963 and was more common in Poodles and dogs less than 1 year old. The incidence was greatest in summer and early fall and was more common in dogs which dwelt in slum areas than was expected. Lead-based paints were the most frequent source

B. C. Zook; J. L. Carpenter; R. M. Roberts

1972-01-01

323

Effect of Disulfiram on Oxygen Toxicity in Beagle Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The protection of Beagle dogs with disulfiram from high oxygen pressure convulsions and lung damage was investigated. Disulfiram was administered in a dose of 200 mg/kg ip. to both male and female Beagle dogs, and the dogs exposed to four atmospheres of 1...

M. D. Faiman R. J. Nolan F. W. Oehme

1974-01-01

324

Dogs' ( Canis familaris ) responsiveness to human pointing gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of 3 experiments, dogs (Canis familiaris) were presented with variations of the human pointing gesture: gestures with reversed direction of movement, cross-pointing, and different arm extensions. Dogs performed at above chance level if they could see the hand (and index finger) protruding from the human body contour. If these minimum requirements were not accessible, dogs still could

Krisztina Soproni; Ádám Miklósi; József Topál; Vilmos Csányi

2002-01-01

325

Behavioural Differences of Dogs of Various Ages in Czech Households  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baranyiová E., A. Holub, M. Tyrlík, B. Janáăková, M. Ernstová: Behavioural Differences of Dogs of Various Ages in Czech Households. Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 229-233. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behaviour of dogs of various ages as viewed by their owners in the Czech Republic. The data were obtained in a questionnaire. The dogs were

E. BARANYIOVÁ; A. HOLUB; M. TYRLÍK; B. JANÁâKOVÁ; M. ERNSTOVÁ

2004-01-01

326

A review of environmental enrichment for kennelled dogs, Canis familiaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic dogs can be housed in a variety of confined conditions, including kennels, shelters and laboratories. Concern over the well-being of dogs housed in human care has prompted much research in recent years into the enrichment of environments for kennelled dogs. This paper highlights the findings and recommendations arising from this work. Two types of general enrichment method are discussed,

Deborah L. Wells

2004-01-01

327

Explosives detection by sniffer dogs following strenuous physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced olfactory efficiency in sniffer dogs results mainly from overheating, and causes physiological and behavioural resources to be diverted from concentration on the assigned task and applied instead to methods of body cooling. Dogs do not possess sweat glands, and panting is the main means of cooling the body. Since a dog can either sniff or pant, but can never

Irit Gazit; Joseph Terkel

2003-01-01

328

Purification of classical pancreatic lipase from dog pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purification of canine classical pancreatic lipase from canine pancreatic juice, but not from pancreatic tissue, has been reported previously. Given the logistic difficulties associated with collection of pancreatic juice in dogs and efforts to minimize experiments in live animals the objective of this project was to purify canine classical pancreatic lipase from dog pancreas. Dog pancreata were collected from

Jörg M Steiner; David A Williams

2002-01-01

329

Evaluation of mitoxantrone for the treatment of lymphoma in dogs.  

PubMed

Mitoxantrone was administered to 74 dogs with lymphoma at a dosage of 5.0 mg/m2 of body surface, IV, every 3 weeks. Thirty-four dogs had failed to respond to prior treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, which included doxorubicin (33 dogs). The remaining 40 dogs had not received prior treatment. Complete remission was determined in 19 of 74 dogs (26%), 10 of which had not received prior treatment. The median duration of remission for these 10 dogs was 94 days (range, 49 to 440 days, with 2 dogs still alive at 370 and 440 days, respectively). Nine dogs that had received prior treatment had complete remission that lasted for a median of 126 days (range, 42 to 792 days, with 1 dog still alive at 792 days). The combined remission rate (complete remission plus partial remission) was 41%. Toxicosis was minimal, developing in only 9 dogs and requiring hospitalization of 2 dogs. We concluded that the complete remission rate ascertained when mitoxantrone was the only treatment administered was low, compared with treatments that involved other chemotherapeutic agents; however, the combined remission rate of 41% indicated that mitoxantrone may be beneficial in the treatment of lymphoma in dogs. PMID:8077132

Moore, A S; Ogilvie, G K; Ruslander, D; Rand, W S; Cotter, S M; Getzy, D M; L'Heureux, D A; Dennis, R A

1994-06-15

330

Clinical peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes mellitus in 3 dogs.  

PubMed

Clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in 3 spontaneously diabetic dogs with clinical peripheral neuropathy (PN) are reported. Clinical signs of a PN may develop in diabetic dogs with adequate glycemic control. In addition, laryngeal paralysis may develop in association with diabetes mellitus in dogs with clinical PN. PMID:18624068

Morgan, Megan J; Vite, Charles H; Radhakrishnan, Anant; Hess, Rebecka S

2008-06-01

331

Thrombocytosis associated with a myeloproliferative disorder in a dog  

SciTech Connect

A dog with a myeloproliferative disorder and thrombocytosis had clinical signs that were consistent with a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The dog was treated with aspirin, radioactive phosphorus, and melphalan. Eighteen months after referral, the disorder progressed to chronic granulocytic leukemia, and treatment was switched to hydroxyurea. Fourteen months later, the dog was euthanatized because of uncontrollable atrial fibrillation.

Degen, M.A.; Feldman, B.F.; Turrel, J.M.; Goding, B.; Kitchell, B.; Mandell, C.P. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1989-05-15

332

Vector-mediated cancer gene therapy: an overview.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in developing gene therapy approaches for the treatment of cancer. The two events that have permitted the formulation of concept of cancer gene therapy are the new understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenesis, and the development of the DNA-delivery vehicles or vectors. Many approaches to cancer gene therapy have been proposed, and several viral and non-viral vectors have been utilized. The purpose of this review article is to describe the various strategies of cancer gene therapy (transfer of tumor suppressor genes, suicide genes-enzyme/pro-drug approach, inhibition of dominant oncogenes, immunomodulation approaches, expression of molecules that affect angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis, chemosensitization and radiosensitization approaches, and chemoprotection of stem cells). The chapter also reviews the commonly used vectors (retroviral vectors, adenoviral vectors, adeno-associated viral vectors, pox viruses, herpes simplex viruses, HIV- vectors, non-viral vectors and targetable vectors) for cancer gene therapy. Some of the important issues in cancer gene therapy, and the potential future directions are also being discussed. PMID:15908802

Seth, Prem

2005-05-01

333

Vector-mediated peptide drug delivery to the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptides are potential new CNS pharmaceuticals should these highly water soluble compounds be made transportable through the brain capillary endothelial wall, which makes up the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. One strategy for peptide drug delivery to the brain is the use of chimeric peptides. The latter are formed when a transportable vector, such as cationized albumin or a receptor-specific

William M. Pardridge

1995-01-01

334

How do guide dogs of blind owners and pet dogs of sighted owners ( Canis familiaris ) ask their owners for food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are some indications that dogs (Canis familiaris) use the eyes of humans as a cue during human–dog interactions, the exact conditions under which this holds true are unclear.\\u000a Analysing whether the interactive modalities of guide dogs and pet dogs differ when they interact with their blind, and sighted\\u000a owners, respectively, is one way to tackle this problem; more

Florence Gaunet

2008-01-01

335

DOG-SPOT database for comprehensive management of dog genetic research data  

PubMed Central

Research laboratories studying the genetics of companion animals have no database tools specifically designed to aid in the management of the many kinds of data that are generated, stored and analyzed. We have developed a relational database, "DOG-SPOT," to provide such a tool. Implemented in MS-Access, the database is easy to extend or customize to suit a lab's particular needs. With DOG-SPOT a lab can manage data relating to dogs, breeds, samples, biomaterials, phenotypes, owners, communications, amplicons, sequences, markers, genotypes and personnel. Such an integrated data structure helps ensure high quality data entry and makes it easy to track physical stocks of biomaterials and oligonucleotides.

2010-01-01

336

Allogeneic Astrocytoma In Immune Competent Dogs  

PubMed Central

Abstract We have induced in canines long-term immune tolerance to an allogeneic cell line derived from a spontaneous canine astrocytoma. Allogeneic astrocytoma cells were implanted endoscopically into the subcutaneous space of fetal dogs before the onset of immune competency (<40th gestational day). At adulthood, dogs rendered tolerant successfully serve as recipients of intracranial transplants of their growing allogeneic, subcutaneous tumor. Transplanted dogs subsequently develop a solid brain tumor with histological features similar to the original astrocytoma. This model may allow rapid development and evaluation of new therapies for brain tumors, as well as afford tumor biology studies that are untenable in smaller, immune incompetent, or inbred animals harboring less representative tumors.

Berens, Michael E; Giese, Alf; Shapiro, Joan R; Coons, Stephen W

1999-01-01

337

Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in dogs.  

PubMed

Lipid metabolism in dogs can be divided into exogenous and endogenous pathways and exhibits some unique characteristics compared to other species. Hyperlipidemia is common in dogs, and can be either primary or secondary to other diseases. Secondary hyperlipidemia is the most common form and can be a result of endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, cholestasis, protein-losing nephropathy, obesity, and high fat diets. Primary hyperlipidemia is less common and usually associated with certain breeds. Hypertriglyceridemia of Miniature Schnauzers is the most common type of primary hyperlipidemia in dogs in the United States, and appears to have a genetic basis although its etiology remains unknown. Possible complications of canine hyperlipidemia include pancreatitis, liver disease, atherosclerosis, ocular disease, and seizures. Management is achieved by administration of low fat diets with or without the administration of lipid-lowering agents such as omega-3 fatty acids, gemfibrozil, and niacin. PMID:19167915

Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Steiner, Jörg M

2010-01-01

338

A Dog's Got Personality: A Cross-Species Comparative Approach to Personality Judgments in Dogs and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research offers a blueprint for how a cross-species comparative approach can be realized empirically. In a single design, parallel procedures and instruments were used in 2 species, dogs (Canis familiaris) and humans (Homo sapiens), to test whether personality differences exist and can be judged in dogs as accurately as in humans. Personality judgments of humans and dogs were compared

Samuel D. Gosling; Virginia S. Y. Kwan; Oliver P. John

2003-01-01

339

Evaluation of K9 Advantix™ vs. Frontline Plus® topical treatments to repel brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of pesticides to repel or kill ticks before they attach to a host and feed is important for the prevention of tick born pathogens. A study design was developed to evaluate the transfer and attachment of ticks from the environment to dogs. Eighteen preconditioned laboratory dogs were allocated in to 3 treatment groups (6 dogs\\/group): Group 1- K9

D. R. Young; R. G. Arther; W. L. Davis

2003-01-01

340

Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats  

PubMed Central

Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW) were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment). Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight) were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment) at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 ?mol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL). In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

2010-01-01

341

An Old Dog and New Tricks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As I approach my 55th birthday, the old adage 'you can't teach an old dog new tricks' keeps coming to mind. I'm not sure why, because I don't feel old and I'm still interested in taking on new challenges and learning new tricks. However, as I mentor new project managers, I am also aware that others may consider me an old dog unable to learn new tricks. To the contrary, the people I mentor continue to teach me new tricks and challenge my assumptions about project management.

Cameron, W. Scott

2003-01-01

342

A case of hypospadias in a dog  

PubMed Central

This clinical case report described a three-month-old mongrel dog that had the urethral orifice opening 3 cm from the tip of the penis and lacked a completely formed preputial sheath. It was presented to the clinic with an exposed penile shaft that was dry. The dog had urinary incontinence that was not of neurological origin. It also had unilateral agenesis of the right testicle. The preputial sheath was successfully reconstructed. Urinary incontinence stopped soon after surgery, suggesting that it had been probably due to an ascending urethritis. A large preputial opening was left because of the location of the urethral opening.

2005-01-01

343

Ototoxicity in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Ears are special sense organs whose principal functions are hearing and maintaining equilibrium. Aminoglycoside antibiotics, erythromycin, polymyxin B, and cisplatin can affect either or both of these functions by binding with, injuring, and/or destroying special receptor cells associated with these functions. Severe hearing loss manifests itself as deafness, whereas loss of equilibrium will present as abnormal righting reflexes, nausea, and vomiting. Damage is proportional to levels of these ototoxins in the endolymphatic fluids. Evidence suggests that toxicity may be influenced by endolymphatic calcium concentrations, and levels of cAMP and cGMP are altered in specialized cochlear cells during ototoxicity, suggesting an additional mechanism for ototoxicity. The administration of salicylates and loop diuretics may potentiate the action of ototoxins, especially aminoglycoside antibiotics, probably by increasing the levels of these toxins in the endolymphatic fluid. Although many of these assessments have been made in laboratory animals, applicability may also be expected in small domestic animals, and extreme care should be taken in prescribing potentially ototoxic drugs to small animals. Cochlear damage from ototoxic compounds occurs initially in the cells detecting high-frequency sounds located at the lower basal region. In aging dogs and humans, this sensitivity of receptors in the lower basal region is enhanced. Early auditory damage is detectable by BAER and cochlear microphonic potentials. Vestibular responses can also be detected early as vestibular ocular reflexes and visual-vestibulo-ocular reflexes. Early detection is especially important because early changes can sometimes be reversible. Cavinton (apovincaminic acid) and fosfomycin represent examples of experimental agents being evaluated in laboratory animals for application as potential treatments to limit the ototoxicity associated with various drugs. PMID:8456203

Pickrell, J A; Oehme, F W; Cash, W C

1993-02-01

344

Efficacy of eprinomectin against Toxacara canis in dogs.  

PubMed

This study was made to investigate efficacy of eprinomectin against to Toxocara canis in dogs. In the study, 20 stray dogs naturally infected with T. canis were divided into two groups as treatment (ten dogs) and control (ten dogs). Eprinomectin (100 microg/kg, Eprinex 250 ml) was given to treatment group dogs orally, and eggs per gram were determined in the faeces on the day of pre-treatment and the second, fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth days of post-treatment. No side effects associated with nervous, respiratory, gastrointestinal systems and some haematological parameters were observed. In conclusion, eprinomectin was determined to be 100% effectual against T. canis. PMID:17992540

Kozan, Esma; Sevimli, Feride Kircali; Birdane, Fatih Mehmet; Adanir, Ramazan

2008-02-01

345

Outcomes of dogs presented for cataract evaluation: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

Two hundred and forty-four dogs were evaluated for cataracts at the University of Tennessee from January 2001 to December 2002. Fifty-four canine breeds were affected. Odds ratios for cataracts were significantly higher for six purebred dogs (including the cocker spaniel, miniature schnauzer, toy poodle, Boston terrier, miniature poodle, and bichon frise) compared with mixed-breed dogs. One hundred fifty-nine dogs did not have cataract surgery. The most common reason for dogs not having surgery was retinal degeneration (n=66). PMID:15995160

Adkins, Elizabeth A; Hendrix, Diane V H

2005-01-01

346

Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii.

Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barron, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

2013-01-01

347

Fatal dog attacks in Canada, 1990-2007  

PubMed Central

In Canada, public debates on dog attacks are dominated by studies from the United States. An electronic search of media reports in the Canadian Newsstand database, for the years 1990 to 2007, identified 28 fatalities from dog-bite injuries. Predominant factors in this case series were owned, known dogs; residential location; children’s unsupervised access to area with dogs; and rural/remote areas, including aboriginal reserves in the prairies. A higher proportion of sled dogs and, possibly, mixed-breed dogs in Canada than in the United States caused fatalities, as did multiple dogs rather than single dogs. Free-roaming dog packs, reported only from rural communities, caused most on-reserve fatalities. Future studies are needed to assess if this rural/urban divide is observed in nonfatal attacks and if the breeds that bite in Canada are different from the breeds that killed. Breed representation in this paper and, perhaps, multiple-dog overrepresentation should be understood in the context of the overall Canadian dog population.

Raghavan, Malathi

2008-01-01

348

Fatal dog attacks in Canada, 1990-2007.  

PubMed

In Canada, public debates on dog attacks are dominated by studies from the United States. An electronic search of media reports in the Canadian Newsstand database, for the years 1990 to 2007, identified 28 fatalities from dog-bite injuries. Predominant factors in this case series were owned, known dogs; residential location; children's unsupervised access to area with dogs; and rural/remote areas, including aboriginal reserves in the prairies. A higher proportion of sled dogs and, possibly, mixed-breed dogs in Canada than in the United States caused fatalities, as did multiple dogs rather than single dogs. Free-roaming dog packs, reported only from rural communities, caused most on-reserve fatalities. Future studies are needed to assess if this rural/urban divide is observed in nonfatal attacks and if the breeds that bite in Canada are different from the breeds that killed. Breed representation in this paper and, perhaps, multiple-dog overrepresentation should be understood in the context of the overall Canadian dog population. PMID:18624067

Raghavan, Malathi

2008-06-01

349

Dogs can discriminate human smiling faces from blank expressions.  

PubMed

Dogs have a unique ability to understand visual cues from humans. We investigated whether dogs can discriminate between human facial expressions. Photographs of human faces were used to test nine pet dogs in two-choice discrimination tasks. The training phases involved each dog learning to discriminate between a set of photographs of their owner's smiling and blank face. Of the nine dogs, five fulfilled these criteria and were selected for test sessions. In the test phase, 10 sets of photographs of the owner's smiling and blank face, which had previously not been seen by the dog, were presented. The dogs selected the owner's smiling face significantly more often than expected by chance. In subsequent tests, 10 sets of smiling and blank face photographs of 20 persons unfamiliar to the dogs were presented (10 males and 10 females). There was no statistical difference between the accuracy in the case of the owners and that in the case of unfamiliar persons with the same gender as the owner. However, the accuracy was significantly lower in the case of unfamiliar persons of the opposite gender to that of the owner, than with the owners themselves. These results suggest that dogs can learn to discriminate human smiling faces from blank faces by looking at photographs. Although it remains unclear whether dogs have human-like systems for visual processing of human facial expressions, the ability to learn to discriminate human facial expressions may have helped dogs adapt to human society. PMID:21359654

Nagasawa, Miho; Murai, Kensuke; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

2011-07-01

350

"Like Owner, Like Dog": Correlation between the Owner's Attachment Profile and the Owner-Dog Bond  

PubMed Central

During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog–human affectional bond can be characterized as an “attachment”. The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's “strange situation”. The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations.

Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

2013-01-01

351

Classifying dogs' (Canis familiaris) facial expressions from photographs.  

PubMed

Humans accurately read other humans' emotional facial expressions. Little research was found examining human ability to read dogs' expressions. Cross-species research extended facial expression research to chimpanzees, and there is much research on dogs' auditory signaling to humans. To explore humans' ability to identify dogs' facial displays, photographs of a dog's face were taken under behaviorally defined conditions expected to elicit specific emotions. Dog experts consistently rated these photographs. The photographs rated as best by experts were used as stimuli for people experienced and inexperienced with dogs. Both groups were able to read the dog's emotions. Paradoxically, experienced people were less accurate reading aggressiveness. Experienced people were better identifying behaviorally defined situations. Research using behaviorally anchored, standardized photographs is recommended. PMID:23485925

Bloom, Tina; Friedman, Harris

2013-06-01

352

?-Opioid receptor agonist injections into the presumed pre-B?tzinger complex and the surrounding region of awake goats do not alter eupneic breathing  

PubMed Central

Opioids are clinically important in the alleviation of pain. An undesirable side effect of opioids is depression of breathing. Data from isolated preparations suggest this effect is due to attenuation of discharge activity of neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötzC), a medullary area with respiratory rhythmogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to examine how [d-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), a ?-opioid receptor agonist, affected breathing after injection into the presumed preBötzC of the adult awake goat. We hypothesized that DAMGO would cause breathing to decrease and become irregular when injected into the presumed preBötzC and the surrounding region of the conscious animal. We further hypothesized that ventilatory sensitivity to CO2 and hypoxia would be blunted after the injection of DAMGO. Microtubules were bilaterally implanted into the presumed preBötzC of 10 adult female goats. After recovery from the surgery, DAMGO (0.5–10 ?l, 1 nM–10 ?M) was injected into the presumed preBötzC during the awake state. DAMGO had no effect on pulmonary ventilation [inspiratory minute ventilation (V?i)], respiratory rhythm and pattern, the activation pattern of inspiratory and expiratory muscles, or arterial blood gases during eupneic breathing conditions (P > 0.10). However, DAMGO attenuated (P < 0.05) the evoked increase in breathing frequency when inspired CO2 was increased, and DAMGO attenuated the V?i response to reduction of inspired O2 to 10.8% (P < 0.05). We conclude that our data do not provide support for the concept that in awake mammals opioid depression of breathing is due to a directed action of opioids on preBötzC neurons.

Neumueller, S. E.; Marshall, B. D.; Kiner, T.; Bonis, J. M.; Pan, L. G.; Qian, B.; Forster, H. V.

2009-01-01

353

The authority of next-of-kin in explicit and presumed consent systems for deceased organ donation: an analysis of 54 nations  

PubMed Central

Background. The degree of involvement by the next-of-kin in deceased organ procurement worldwide is unclear. We investigated the next-of-kin’s authority in the procurement process in nations with either explicit or presumed consent. Methods. We collected data from 54 nations, 25 with presumed consent and 29 with explicit consent. We characterized the authority of the next-of-kin in the decision to donate deceased organs. Specifically, we examined whether the next-of-kin’s consent to procure organs was always required and whether the next-of-kin were able to veto procurement when the deceased had expressed a wish to donate. Results. The next-of-kin are involved in the organ procurement process in most nations regardless of the consent principle and whether the wishes of the deceased to be a donor were expressed or unknown. Nineteen of the 25 nations with presumed consent provide a method for individuals to express a wish to be a donor. However, health professionals in only four of these nations responded that they do not override a deceased’s expressed wish because of a family’s objection. Similarly, health professionals in only four of the 29 nations with explicit consent proceed with a deceased’s pre-existing wish to be a donor and do not require next-of-kin’s consent, but caveats still remain for when this is done. Conclusions. The next-of-kin have a considerable influence on the organ procurement process in both presumed and explicit consent nations.

Rosenblum, Amanda M.; Horvat, Lucy D.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Prakash, Versha; Beitel, Janice

2012-01-01

354

Comparison of eddy dissipation model and presumed probability density function model for temperature prediction in a non-premixed turbulent methane flame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature distribution is predicted through numerical simulation of a turbulent non-premixed methane flame using the standard Eddy Dissipation Model (EDM) and a model based a presumed shape of probability density function (PDF) along with an equilibrium chemistry model. Results are validated against existing experimental data. Two models are compared to each other in terms of accuracy and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

Rohani, Behzad; Wahid, M. A.; Sies, Mohsin Mohd; Saqr, Khalid M.

2012-06-01

355

Laser lithotripsy for removal of uroliths in dogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: This study evaluated the ability to fragment and remove naturally occurring uroliths in dogs using a holmium: YAG laser. Methods: Twenty four dogs with naturally occurring uroliths including 10 spayed females and 14 neutered males. The dogs were 8.7 +/- 2.8 years old and weighed 13.7 +/- 8.0 kg. All dogs had bladder stones and 5 male dogs also had urethral stones. In female dogs, cystoscopy was performed using a rigid cystoscope with sheath diameter of 14 to 19 french. Cystoscopy was performed in males dogs using a 7.5 french diameter pediatric ureteroscope. Uroliths were fragmented using a 20 watt Holmium: YAG laser and the fragments were removed by basket extraction and voiding urohydropropulsion. Results: Average laser parameters for urolith fragmentation were 0.7 Joules at 8 Hertz (range: 0.5 to 1.3 Joules at 5 to 13 Hertz). All urolith fragments were successfully removed in all 10 female dogs and 11 of 14 male dogs. In one male dog, the urethra was too small to allow passage of the ureteroscope. In one of the male dogs, the urethral stones were successfully removed by laser lithotripsy, but removal of the bladder stones was performed by cystotomy. There was one complication of urethral perforation during attempts to pass an access sheath transurethrally in a dog with extensive proliferative urethritis. Conclusions: Laser lithotripsy is a safe and effective method of removing bladder and urethral stones in dogs provided the dog is large enough to permit transurethral passage of a cystoscope or ureteroscope.

Adams, Larry G.; Lulich, Jody P.

2006-03-01

356

Leptospira Canicola Isolated from Dogs in Taiwan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Isolation of L. canicola from two dogs establishes a source of L. canicola in Taiwan. Two isolates were obtained by direct culture of specimens of kidney and urine and by inoculating guinea pigs with 10 percent kidney suspension. Identification of the two...

C. C. Tsai J. W. Fresh

1969-01-01

357

Hedgehog ringworm in humans and a dog.  

PubMed

We report 3 related cases of human dermatophytosis and 1 dog dermatophytosis likely caused by contact with a European hedgehog. Trichophyton erinacei was isolated from stratum corneum samples. This type of zoophilic dermatophytosis is rare in south-east Belgium and probably in the rest of the country as well. PMID:19186564

Piérard-Franchimont, C; Hermanns, J F; Collette, C; Piérard, G E; Quatresooz, P

2008-01-01

358

Dog Therapy: The Importance of Just Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excerpts from the book, "The Advantage of Being Useless"; anecdotes from the author's experiences; and observations of his dog illustrate how counselors can be so busy counseling that they miss the human connection. Outdoor activities are conducive to unself-conscious spontaneity and unconditional acceptance--a just "letting it happen," which…

Schusser, Eric

1998-01-01

359

Peptide-Induced Emesis in Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systemic administration of several but not all neuropeptides induces emesis in dogs. The threshold dose for leucine-enkephalin was 0.05 mg/kg, for angiotensin II was 0.20 mg/kg, and for neurotensin was 0.05 mg/kg. These values compare to a threshold of 0....

D. O. Carpenter D. B. Briggs N. Strominger

1983-01-01

360

Radioimmunoassy for phencyclidine (PCP) in serum. [Dogs  

SciTech Connect

This accurate, sensitive radioimmunoassay for determining phencyclidine concentrations in serum specimens involves the use of anti-phencyclidine sera, 0.1 mL of serum specimen, an iodinated tracer, and a solid-phase separation. Phencyclidine metabolities do not show significant cross reactivity, but several phencyclidine analogs do cross react. Within-run coefficients of variation for human and dog serum ranged from 2.5 to 13% for concentrations from 2.0 to 500 ..mu..g/L. Day-to-day coefficients of variation for human and dog serum ranged from 4.3 to 16.7% for concentrations ranging from 2.0 to 09.0 ..mu..g/L. The sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay is <0.5 ..mu..g/L. Thirty serum specimens from two dogs given 1 mg of phencyclidine per kilogram body weight were analyzed by radioimmunoassay and a gas-chromatographic method. Nonparametris statistical comparison and linear regression showed that results from the two procedures correlate well (r/sup 2/ = 0.952). Concentration-time data from the two dogs are presented to illustrate the utility of the radioimmunoassay for examining phencyclidine disposition.

Owens, S.M.; Woodworth, J.; Mayersohn, M.

1982-07-01

361

Dog tick-borne diseases in Sicily.  

PubMed

In Sicily many tick borne diseases are endemic, in particular way those that see like main carrier ticks that prefer, for their vital cycle, climatic conditions characterized by high temperatures and a warmth-humid atmosphere. The more important pathologies transmitted by ticks causing diseases in dogs are babesiosis and ehrlichiosis. Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia conorii, Coxiella burnetii and tick transmitted encephalitis virus assume particular relevance because they are agents of zoonosis. Our centre, C.R.A.Ba.R.T, have conducted many researches and carried out many tests for diagnostic aim in order to estimate the spread of the main tick borne diseases in Sicilians' dogs. A study lead on 342 dogs has evidenced seroprevalence for Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia respective of 5.17%, 21.70% and 53.43%. A study on zoonotic agent seroprevalences in dogs gave the following percentages: C. burnetii 31.50%, R. conorii 73.60% and A. phagocytophilum 32.80%. The data carried out from IZS Sicily diagnostic service on 5,634 tests done in 2004-2005, confirm the experimental results on the presence of B. canis, E. canis, R. conorii, A. phagocytophilum, C. burnetii, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in all the Sicilian areas. PMID:16881419

Torina, A; Caracappa, S

2006-06-01

362

Cystoscopic examination of male and female dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cystoscopy is advocated as an aid to the early differential diagnosis of disease of the canine bladder. Techniques are described for carrying out urethroscopy and cystoscopy in both male and female dogs using modern medical diagnostic instruments. Males were examined with flexible paediatric bronchofibrescopes, which permitted urethroscopy and cystoscopy, but to obtain extensive biopsies or undertake cauterisation

JE Cooper; EJ Milroy; JA Turton; N Wedderburn; RM Hicks

1984-01-01

363

Nipah Virus Infection in Dogs, Malaysia, 1999  

PubMed Central

The 1999 outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in humans and pigs in Peninsular Malaysia ended with the evacuation of humans and culling of pigs in the epidemic area. Serologic screening showed that, in the absence of infected pigs, dogs were not a secondary reservoir for Nipah virus.

Alim, Asiah N.M.; Bunning, Michel L.; Lee, Ong Bee; Wagoner, Kent D.; Amman, Brian R.; Stockton, Patrick C.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

2009-01-01

364

Myocardial Metabolism in Dogs during Hemorrhagic Shock.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nine mongrel dogs under Nembutal anesthesia, receiving a constant infusion of palmitate-1-C14 and oleate-9-10-H(3) in the form of free fatty acids (FFA), were subjected to a total blood loss of 4.4% of body weight. Metabolites were analyzed in blood sampl...

J. J. Spitzer J. A. Spitzer

1971-01-01

365

Gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.  

PubMed

Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a disease in which there is gross distension of the stomach with fluid or gas and gastric malpositioning. It causes pathology of multiple organ systems and is rapidly fatal. It is common in large- and giant-breed dogs. The disease appears to have a familial predisposition. Thoracic depth/width ratio also appears to predispose dogs to GDV. Implicated dietary factors include dietary particle size, frequency of feeding, speed of eating, aerophagia and an elevated feed bowl. A fearful temperament and stressful events may also predispose dogs to GDV. Abdominal distension, non-productive retching, restlessness, signs of shock, tachypnoea and dyspnoea are possible clinical signs. Initial treatment includes treatment of shock and gastric decompression. Surgical treatment should be performed promptly. There are no studies comparing the use of different anaesthetic agents in the anaesthetic management of GDV. Pre-medication with an opioid/benzodiazepine combination has been recommended. Induction agents that cause minimal cardiovascular changes such as opioids, neuroactive steroidal agents and etomidate are recommended. Anaesthesia should be maintained with an inhalational agent. Surgical therapy involves decompression, correction of gastric malpositioning, debridement of necrotic tissue, and gastropexy. Options for gastropexy include incisional, tube, circumcostal, belt-loop, incorporating, and laparoscopic gastropexy. Expected mortality with surgical therapy is 15-24%. Prognostic factors include mental status on presentation, presence of gastric necrosis, presence of cardiac arrhythmia and plasma lactate levels. Prophylactic gastropexy should be considered in dogs identified as being at high risk. PMID:16032341

Broome, C J; Walsh, V P

2003-12-01

366

Uveitis in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uveitis is a common disease in dogs with a multitude of causes, one of them being ehrlichiosis. This article reviews several uveitis etiologies, as well as the important aspects of canine ehrlichiosis, including its diagnosis and the main ophthalmic signs presented in these cases. It also reports the therapy that should be used.

Arianne Pontes Oriá; Patrícia Mendes Pereira; José Luiz Laus

2004-01-01

367

Common causes of male dog infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete breeding soundness evaluation is essential for assessment of the infertile male dog. Cryptorchidism, a sex-limited autosomal recessive trait, is more common as a unilateral condition. Azoospermia is an ejaculate consisting of seminal plasma but lacking sperm; repeated semen collections in the presence of an estrual bitch will rule out inadequate experience and lack of sexual stimulation. Both carnitine

M. A. Memon

2007-01-01

368

[Acute zinc poisoning in a dog].  

PubMed

Zinc-induced haemolytic anaemia was diagnosed in a young dog. The origin of the zinc intoxication was the ingestion of a toy material which contained a high percentage of zinc. The level of zinc in the liver and kidneys was resp. 1050 and 1320 ppm. PMID:15551629

Borst, G H A; Peperkamp, N H M T; Soethout, N C J

2004-10-15

369

Biosynthetic Corneal Substitute Implantation in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess integration of a biosynthetic corneal implant in dogs. Methods Three normal adult laboratory Beagles underwent ophthalmic examinations, including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, applanation tonometry, and Cochet–Bonnet aesthesiometry. Biosynthetic corneas fabricated from glutaraldehyde crosslinked collagen and copolymers of collagen and poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid-co-acryloxysuccinimide, denoted as TERP) were implanted into dogs by a modified epikeratoplasty technique. Ophthalmic examinations and aesthesiometry were performed daily for 5 days and then weekly thereafter for 16 weeks. Corneal samples underwent histopathological and transmission electron microscopy examination at 16 weeks. Results Implants were epithelialized by 7 days. Intraocular pressure was within normal range throughout the study. Aesthesiometry values dropped from an average of 3.67 cm preoperatively to less than 1 mm for all dogs for the first postoperative weeks. By week 16, the average Cochet–Bonnet value was 1.67 cm, demonstrating partial recovery of functional innervation of the implant. No inflammation or rejection of the implant occurred, and minimal haze formation was noted. Light microscopy revealed thickened but normal epithelium over the implant with fibroblast migration into the scaffold. On transmission electron microscopy, the basement membrane was irregular but present and adhesion complexes were noted. Conclusion Biosynthetic corneal implantation is well tolerated in dogs, and the collagen–polymer hybrid construct holds promise for clinical application in animals and humans.

Bentley, Ellison; Murphy, Christopher J.; Li, Fengfu; Carlsson, David J.; Griffith, May

2012-01-01

370

Prenatal olfactory learning in the domestic dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of individuals to learn about chemosensory stimuli in the prenatal, or immediate postnatal, period may be advan- tageous in acquiring information about ''safe'' foods after weaning. In this study, we examined the influence of perinatal exposure to aniseed via the mother's diet on a two-choice food test in the domestic dog. Pups were tested at 10 weeks of

Deborah L. Wells; Peter G. Hepper

2006-01-01

371

Heartworm in Dogs in Canada in 1986  

PubMed Central

In late December 1986, 1224 institutional veterinarians and small and mixed animal clinics across Canada were sent a questionnaire in order to assess the status of Dirofilaria immitis in Canada in 1986; 46% of them responded. Veterinarians reported that 150,989 dogs were blood-tested for microfilariae and 869 dogs were found with heartworm. Another 65 dogs were amicrofilaremic but diagnosed with heartworm disease and one was found with heartworm at necropsy to give the total number diagnosed in 1986 as 935 (0.62%). Heartworm was reported from Manitoba, New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec, but most (810) of the cases were from Ontario. South-western Ontario continued to be the primary focus of the infection in Canada. There were 103 cases reported from Quebec, mostly from and around Montreal, and 21 cases from Manitoba, from Winnipeg and surrounding areas. Heartworm was found most frequently in companion dogs over three years of age maintained mainly outdoors in rural areas. About 33% of the cases were observed with clinical signs of heartworm disease and 81% had a history of not having left Canada. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Owen, J.; Slocombe, D.; McMillan, Ian

1987-01-01

372

Control of Hemotropic Diseases of Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past year of support, answers to 3 research objectives have been sought and serodiagnostic services in support of control of blood diseases of military dogs in endemic areas performed. These objectives were (A) the effect of low level tetracycl...

M. Ristic

1978-01-01

373

Dogs' use of the solidity principle: revisited.  

PubMed

A wealth of comparative data has been accumulated over the past decades on how animals acquire and use information about the physical world. Domestic dogs have typically performed comparably poorly in physical cognition tasks, though in a recent study Kundey et al. (Anim Cogn 13:497-505, 2010) challenged this view and concluded that dogs understand that objects cannot pass through solid barriers. However, the eight subjects in the study of Kundey et al. may have solved the task with the help of perceptual cues, which had not been controlled for. Here, we tested dogs with a similar task that excluded these cues. In addition, unlike the set-up of Kundey et al., our set-up allowed the subjects to observe the effect of the solid barrier. Nevertheless, all 28 subjects failed to solve this task spontaneously and showed no evidence of learning across 50 trials. Our results therefore call into question the earlier suggestion that dogs have, or can acquire, an understanding of the solidity principle. PMID:24253452

Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

2014-05-01

374

Clifford, The Big Red Dog K-1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning to read and write can be so much fun. Clifford, The Big Red Dog, wants to help you. Listen to a story. Here, Clifford Write a message to Clifford. Send a Note Play the Sound Match Game with Clifford. Clifford s Sound Match Game Help Clifford at the beach. Games Match your letters in the Letter Match Game. Letter Match ...

Bourne, Mrs.

2006-10-16

375

The effect of ostensive cues on dogs’ performance in a manipulative social learning task  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to animal social learning (e.g. dogs learning from observing another dog), humans typically teach by attracting the attention of the learner. Also during the training of dogs, humans tend to attract their attention in a similar way. Here, we investigated dogs’ ability to learn both from a dog and a human demonstrator in a manipulative task, where the

Friederike Range; Silke L. Heucke; Christina Gruber; Astrid Konz; Ludwig Huber; Zsófia Virányi

2009-01-01

376

Nematode infections in dog breeding kennels in the Netherlands, with special reference to Toxocara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faecal samples from 286 adult dogs and 159 pups and dust and soil samples from 32 dog breeding kennels in the Netherlands were examined for nematode eggs. Dogs that shed nematode eggs were found in 41% of the kennels. The kennel prevalence of nematode infection of adult dogs was 33%. The kennel prevalence for infection of adult dogs and pups

P. A. M. Overgaauw; J. H. Boersema

1998-01-01

377

Detection of spinal cord compression in dogs with cervical intervertebral disc disease by magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical records and magnetic resonance images of 33 dogs with surgically confirmed Hansen type I cervical intervertebral disc disease were reviewed. Fourteen of the dogs were chondrodystrophic and 19 were not chondrodystrophic. The most common clinical sign was neck pain, which affected 28 of the dogs, and 23 of the dogs were able to walk. Fifteen of the dogs

T. M. Ryan; S. R. Platt; F. J. Llabres-Diaz; J. F. McConnell; V. J. Adams

2008-01-01

378

Retrospective study of clinical complications occurring after arterial punctures in 111 dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical complications occurring after 111 dogs had undergone arterial punctures were reviewed in relation to the dogs' breed, bodyweight, age, sex and underlying diseases. Seven of the dogs had moderate to extensive ecchymoses, which were significantly more common in dogs under 3-5 kg in bodyweight and in dogs with disorders of the cardiovascular system.

Y. Shiroshita; R. Tanaka; A. Shibazaki; Y. Yamane

2000-01-01

379

Dogs: Toxic Effects of Oral and Intravenous Administration of Azaserine (Nsc-742).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 2 dogs received a single oral dose of Azaserine 50 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg. Four weekly 24 hour infusions of Azaserine were scheduled with 40 mg/kg/day (1 dog), 30 mg/kg/day (1 dog), 20 mg/kg/day (2 dogs), 10 mg/kg/day (2 dogs), and with an adequate ...

U. H. Schaeppi D. A. Cooney R. D. Davis

1968-01-01

380

STS-69 Crew members display 'Dog Crew' patches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following their arrival at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, the five astronauts assigned to Space Shuttle Mission STS-69 display the unofficial crew patch for their upcoming spaceflight: the Dog Crew II patch. Mission Commander David M. Walker (center) and Payload Commander James S. Voss (second from right) previously flew together on Mission STS-53, the final dedicated Department of Defense flight on the Space Shuttle. A close comradery formed among Walker, Voss and the rest of the crew, and they dubbed themselves the 'dogs of war', with each of the STS-53 'Dog Crew' members assigned a 'dog tag' or nickname. When the STS-69 astronauts also became good buddies, they decided it was time for the Dog Crew II to be named. Walker's dog tag is Red Dog, Voss's is Dogface, Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell (second from left) is Cujo, space rookie and Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt (left) is Under Dog, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman (right) is Pluato. The Dog Crew II patch features a bulldog peering out from a doghouse shaped like the Space Shuttle and lists the five crew member's dog names. The five astronauts are scheduled to lift off on the fifth Shuttle flight of the year at 11:04 a.m. EDT, August 31, aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

1995-01-01

381

Mediastinectomy for management of chronic pyogranulomatous pleural disease in dogs.  

PubMed

The medical records of 12 dogs with chronic pyogranulomatous pleural disease unresponsive to medical management were reviewed retrospectively. Resection of the mediastinal pleura (mediastinectomy) was performed through a median sternotomy to remove all diseased and surgically accessible mediastinal pleural tissue. Dogs were re-examined two weeks postoperatively, and long-term outcome was evaluated by contacting owners by phone. Twelve dogs underwent mediastinectomy; additional surgeries included subtotal pericardiectomy (8), lung lobectomy (4) and partial diaphragmatic resection (2). Histology of resected tissue consistently revealed neutrophilic, pyogranulomatous cellulitis/serositis. Foreign material was evident in the mediastinal tissue of five dogs and microorganisms were recovered from three dogs. Two dogs developed pneumothorax immediately postoperatively; one dog developed haemothorax one month postoperatively and was euthanased. Median follow-up time was eight months (range: 6-43?months); eleven dogs were alive and considered to be symptom-free by their owners. Mediastinectomy resulted in complete resolution of symptoms in most dogs (92 per cent) and was associated with a low incidence of major complications. The results of this study indicated that mediastinectomy results in favourable outcome for dogs with chronic pleural pyogranulomatous pleural disease unresponsive to medical management. PMID:24686857

Trinterud, T; Nelissen, P; Caine, A R; White, R A S

2014-06-14

382

Prevalence and varieties of Helicobacter species in dogs from random sources and pet dogs: animal and public health implications.  

PubMed Central

Gastric bacteria of a variety of ultrastructural morphologies have been identified in or isolated from domestic carnivores, but their prevalence in different populations of animals and their clinical significance are still unknown. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate the prevalence and morphologic types of gastric bacterial in three different populations of dogs; (ii) to determine which of the organisms were culturable, and if the cultured organisms were morphologically similar to the organisms seen in situ; (iii) to identify the isolated organisms; and (iv) to determine if gastric bacteria were associated with gastritis. Three groups of dogs were examined: healthy laboratory dogs, healthy dogs from an animal shelter, and pet dogs with various nongastric illnesses. Of these, 100% of laboratory and shelter dogs and 67% of pet dogs were colonized by large, tightly coiled gastric spiral bacteria morphologically similar to Gastrospirillum hominis or Helicobacter felis (referred to as gastrospirilla). Regardless of the presence or density of gastric bacteria, all of the dogs in the study except one had mild to moderate gastritis. Helicobacter spp. were isolated from only 6 of 39 stomachs cultured, and only three of the organisms isolated were morphologically similar to the bacteria seen in situ. Five helicobacters were identified by 16S rDNA (genes coding for rRNA) sequence analysis. Three were strains of H. felis, one was H. bilis, and one was a novel helicobacter morphologically similar to "Flexispira rappini." Gastrospirilla are almost universal in the stomachs of domestic dogs, and in most infected dogs, they do not appear to be associated with clinical signs or histologic lesions compared with uninfected dogs. Nongastrospirillum helicobacters are rare in dogs and are not histologically detectable. Helicobacter pylori was not isolated from domestic dogs.

Eaton, K A; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Tzellas, N; Coleman, B E; Paola, J; Sherding, R

1996-01-01

383

Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in pet dogs, racing greyhounds, and shelter dogs in Florida.  

PubMed

Arthropod vectors of canine infectious diseases are present throughout Florida. Since crowded housing has the potential to bring vectors and infected dogs into close proximity, it is possible that prevalence of infection is higher in intensely housed dogs. In this study, the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs residing in two types of intensive housing, greyhound kennels and animal shelters, was compared to dogs residing in low-intensity housing, private homes. Serum was collected from a cross-section of 1500 adult dogs from Florida, including 500 pet dogs referred to the Veterinary Medical Center of the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida, 500 racing greyhounds, and 500 dogs residing in animal shelters. Serum was tested for D. immitis antigen, E. canis antibodies, and B. burgdorferi antibodies by ELISA. Seroprevalence of D. immitis was significantly higher (14.6%) in shelter dogs and in pet dogs (1.4%) than in racing greyhounds (0.2%) (P<0.04). There were no significant differences in the seroprevalence of E. canis (0.4-1.6%) or B. burgdorferi (0-0.8%) among the groups. There was no association of sex or age with D. immitis infection, but pit bull type dogs were more than twice as likely to be infected than other breeds (P=0.003). Evidence for vector-borne infections, particularly D. immitis, was found in dogs throughout the state. The prevalence was greatest for D. immitis infection in shelter dogs, likely due to lack of preventive medications prior to impoundment. Although heartworm infection is considered to be a treatable condition, insufficient resources in shelters may lead to euthanasia of infected dogs that would otherwise be considered adoptable. PMID:20399018

Tzipory, Nirit; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K

2010-07-15

384

33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. 147...ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon...

2010-07-01

385

Phasic Right Coronary Artery Blood Flow in Conscious Dogs with Normal and Elevated Right Ventricular Pressures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phasic right coronary blood flow in well trained normal dogs and dogs with pulmonic stenosis was studied. In normotensive dogs, systolic flow amplitude equaled early diastolic flow levels. The ratio os systolic to diastolic flow at rest was substantially ...

H. S. Lowensohn E. M. Khouri D. E. Gregg R. L. Pyle R. E. Patterson

1976-01-01

386

Breed-predispositions to cancer in pedigree dogs.  

PubMed

Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared to humans, and by using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be a powerful tool for unravelling complex disorders. This paper will review the literature on canine breed susceptibility to histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, haemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumours, lymphoma, melanoma, and mammary tumours including the recent advances in knowledge through molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and genome wide association studies. PMID:23738139

Dobson, Jane M

2013-01-01

387

Plasma cytokine concentrations in dogs with a congenital portosystemic shunt.  

PubMed

Congenital portosystemic shunts (cPSS) are a well-recognised vascular anomaly in dogs. Recent studies have shown an association between inflammation and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), which is a common clinical syndrome in dogs with a cPSS. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? are frequently increased in the plasma of human patients with liver disease and have been implicated in the development of HE. In the current study, plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? were measured using a multiplex electrochemiluminescence immunoassay in 36 dogs with a cPSS and compared to 25 healthy dogs. There were no significant differences in plasma IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-? concentrations between the two groups; however, plasma concentrations of IL-6 were significantly higher in dogs with a cPSS compared to healthy dogs (P=0.02). PMID:24518641

Kilpatrick, Scott; Gow, Adam G; Foale, Rob D; Tappin, Simon W; Carruthers, Harvey; Reed, Nicola; Yool, Donald A; Woods, Samantha; Marques, Ana I; Jalan, Rajiv; Mellanby, Richard J

2014-04-01

388

Occurrence of hard ticks in dogs from Warsaw area.  

PubMed

Ticks are known as a vector of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and protozoan infections of dogs. The threat with particular tick-transmitted disease depends very much on the tick species which feeds on the dog. In this paper we present results of research designed to identify tick species which attack dogs in the Warsaw area. Ticks were collected from dogs presented for medical examination in veterinary clinics in different parts of Warsaw. All of 590 tick specimens found on dogs belonged to the family Ixodidae (hard ticks). The majority (64.6 %) of the collected ticks were identified as Dermacentor reticulatus--vector of Babesia canis. The other tick species found on examined dogs was Ixodes ricinus. The male to female ratio was more than 3 times higher in D. reticulatus than in I. ricinus. PMID:17196014

Zygner, Wojciech; Wedrychowicz, Halina

2006-01-01

389

Electroencephalographic olfactometry (EEGO) analysis of odour responses in dogs.  

PubMed

Scientists in many fields have studied olfaction in dogs, but no simple method exists to study this function. The olfactory ability of dogs is used in many fields. However, the owners of the dogs have a frustrating experience because there is not an easy method to measure olfactory function. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of olfactory function of the dog with electroencephalographic olfactometry (EEGO) recording. It was found that slow waves decreased and rapid waves increased in response to odours. From these results, it is suggested that the rapid waves of EEGO activity are important in determining a dog's olfactory ability. The EEGO recording is effective in diagnosing anosmia in the dog and is easier than a behavioural experiment. Additionally, this method may not cause distress to an animal. PMID:11124098

Hirano, Y; Oosawa, T; Tonosaki, K

2000-12-01

390

Mitochondrial DNA sequence heteroplasmy levels in domestic dog hair.  

PubMed

To assess the level of mtDNA sequence heteroplasmy in dog hair, we sequenced a 612 base pair fragment of the hypervariable region 1 (HVI) in 576 hairs from six dogs representing a range of age, sex, breed, and hair color. Blood and buccal samples were collected from each dog for reference. Three instances of sequence heteroplasmy were observed at nucleotide positions 15627 (G/A), 15628 (T/C) and 15639 (G/A) in two hairs from different dogs. An HVI sequence heteroplasmy frequency of 0.0034 was obtained. The Probability of Identity (PI) value, or probability that two random, unrelated dog hairs share an HVI sequence, and the Power of Discrimination (PD), or probability that two random unrelated dog hairs have different HVI sequences, were determined from the 88 HVI haplotypes represented in the Veterinary Genetics Laboratory database (n=1006) and found to be 0.086 and 0.914, respectively. PMID:24631692

Spicer, Ashley M; Kun, Teri J; Sacks, Benjamin N; Wictum, Elizabeth J

2014-07-01

391

In dogs we trust? Intersubjectivity, response-able relations, and the making of mine detector dogs.  

PubMed

The utility of the dog as a mine detector has divided the mine clearance community since dogs were first used for this purpose during the Second World War. This paper adopts a historical perspective to investigate how, why, and to what consequence, the use of minedogs remains contested despite decades of research into their abilities. It explores the changing factors that have made it possible to think that dogs could, or could not, serve as reliable detectors of landmines over time. Beginning with an analysis of the wartime context that shaped the creation of minedogs, the paper then examines two contemporaneous investigations undertaken in the 1950s. The first, a British investigation pursued by the anatomist Solly Zuckerman, concluded that dogs could never be the mine hunter's best friend. The second, an American study led by the parapsychologist J. B. Rhine, suggested dogs were potentially useful for mine clearance. Drawing on literature from science studies and the emerging subdiscipline of "animal studies," it is argued that cross-species intersubjectivity played a significant role in determining these different positions. The conceptual landscapes of Zuckerman and Rhine's disciplinary backgrounds are shown to have produced distinct approaches to managing cross-species relations, thus explaining how diverse opinions on minedog can coexist. In conclusion, it is shown that the way one structures relationships between humans and animals has profound impact on the knowledge and labor subsequently produced, a process that cannot be separated from ethical consequence. PMID:24318987

Kirk, Robert G W

2014-01-01

392

In Dogs We Trust? Intersubjectivity, Response-Able Relations, and the Making of Mine Detector Dogs  

PubMed Central

The utility of the dog as a mine detector has divided the mine clearance community since dogs were first used for this purpose during the Second World War. This paper adopts a historical perspective to investigate how, why, and to what consequence, the use of minedogs remains contested despite decades of research into their abilities. It explores the changing factors that have made it possible to think that dogs could, or could not, serve as reliable detectors of landmines over time. Beginning with an analysis of the wartime context that shaped the creation of minedogs, the paper then examines two contemporaneous investigations undertaken in the 1950s. The first, a British investigation pursued by the anatomist Solly Zuckerman, concluded that dogs could never be the mine hunter's best friend. The second, an American study led by the parapsychologist J. B. Rhine, suggested dogs were potentially useful for mine clearance. Drawing on literature from science studies and the emerging subdiscipline of “animal studies,” it is argued that cross-species intersubjectivity played a significant role in determining these different positions. The conceptual landscapes of Zuckerman and Rhine's disciplinary backgrounds are shown to have produced distinct approaches to managing cross-species relations, thus explaining how diverse opinions on minedog can coexist. In conclusion, it is shown that the way one structures relationships between humans and animals has profound impact on the knowledge and labor subsequently produced, a process that cannot be separated from ethical consequence.

Kirk, Robert G W

2014-01-01

393

Do disrupted early attachments affect the relationship between guide dogs and blind owners?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the affectional bond developed by dogs (Canis familiaris) towards their human companions during the selection process to become guide dogs and compared this bond with that formed by pet dogs with their owners. One hundred and nine dog-owner pairs were tested using a modified version of the Strange Situation Test: custody dogs-puppy walkers (n=34), apprentice dogs-trainers (n=26),

Gaia Fallani; Emanuela Prato Previde; Paola Valsecchi

2006-01-01

394

Ancient DNA evidence for Old World origin of New World dogs.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA sequences isolated from ancient dog remains from Latin America and Alaska showed that native American dogs originated from multiple Old World lineages of dogs that accompanied late Pleistocene humans across the Bering Strait. One clade of dog sequences was unique to the New World, which is consistent with a period of geographic isolation. This unique clade was absent from a large sample of modern dogs, which implies that European colonists systematically discouraged the breeding of native American dogs. PMID:12446908

Leonard, Jennifer A; Wayne, Robert K; Wheeler, Jane; Valadez, Raúl; Guillén, Sonia; Vilŕ, Carles

2002-11-22

395

Age relationships of postmortem observations in Portuguese Water Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dog model has been used to evaluate histological changes arising from senescence. Autopsies of 145 Portuguese Water Dogs\\u000a have been used to evaluate the individual and group “state of health” at time of death. For each dog, weights or dimensions\\u000a of organs or tissues were obtained, together with histological evaluation of tissues. Twenty-three morphological metrics correlated\\u000a significantly to age

Kevin Chase; Dennis F. Lawler; Lawrence D. McGill; Shawn Miller; Mark Nielsen; Karl G. Lark

396

The seeing-eye dog: an infection risk in hospital?  

PubMed Central

Because an increasing number of blind people are using guide dogs, hospital administrators may receive more frequent requests to allow a guide dog to accompany its blind owner during visit with a hospital patient. This article considers the risks and problems for all concerned if seeing-eye dogs are permitted in hospitals, and proposes a reasonable set of guidelines for hospital personnel to apply when considering these requests.

Hardy, G J

1981-01-01

397

Measurement of bite force in dogs: a pilot study.  

PubMed

A force transducer was developed to measure bite force in dogs. A total of 101 readings was obtained from 22 pet dogs ranging in size from 7 to 55 kg. Bite forces ranged from 13 to 1394 Newtons with a mean for all dogs of 256 Newtons and a median of 163 Newtons. Most measurements fell within the low end of the range, with 55% of the biting episodes less than 200 Newtons and 77% less than 400 Newtons. PMID:9693626

Lindner, D L; Marretta, S M; Pijanowski, G J; Johnson, A L; Smith, C W

1995-06-01

398

Lack of Homology between Dog and Human Placental Alkaline Phosphatases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline phosphatases [ALPases; orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum), EC 3.1.3.1] from dog and human placenta, liver, bone, kidney, and intestine were investigated by inhibition studies with L-homoarginine, L-phenylalanine, and L-phenylalanylglycylglycine; by thermostability studies; and by electrophoresis, both before and after treatment with neuraminidase. The inhibitions obtained for each inhibitor with dog placental ALPase closely match those obtained with dog and human

Gary Moak; Harry Harris

1979-01-01

399

Occurrence of Malassezia species in healthy and dermatologically diseased dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of Malassezia spp. yeasts was investigated in dermatological specimens of 224 dogs, 164 dermatologically diseased and 60 normal dogs. Subjects\\u000a included in the study were of different breed, age, sex and habitat. Malassezia spp. positive cultures were obtained in 142 (63.4%) specimens: 67.6% from dermatologically diseased subjects and 51.6% from\\u000a healthy dogs. Malassezia pachydermatis, either as a pure

S. Nardoni; F. Mancianti; M. Corazza; A. Rum

2004-01-01

400

Ethiopian village dogs: Behavioural responses to a stranger's approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the behavioural ecological characteristics of free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris) in four Ethiopian villages via observational surveys. The Ethiopian village dogs surveyed in this study have similar characteristics to other free-roaming dog populations in the world: (1) they are almost entirely unrestrained, (2) there is a male-skewed sex ratio in the adult population, (3) the majority appear not to

Alessia Ortolani; Hans Vernooij; Raymond Coppinger

2009-01-01

401

Dogs are able to solve a means-end task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs, although very skilled in social-communicative tasks, have shown limited abilities in the domain of physical cognition.\\u000a Consequently, several researchers hypothesized that domestication enhanced dogs’ cognitive abilities in the social realm,\\u000a but relaxed selection on the physical one. For instance, dogs failed to demonstrate means-end understanding, an important\\u000a form of relying on physical causal connection, when tested in a string-pulling

Friederike Range; Marleen Hentrup; Zsófia Virányi

2011-01-01

402

A Comparison of Tethering and Pen Confinement of Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared general activity and specific behaviors of 30 adult Alaskan sled dogs, 19 male and 11 female dogs, on 3.5 m tethers and in 5.9 m2 pens. The investiga- tors used activity level and steriotypies as indicators of welfare. The dogs spent most of their time inactive, either lying or sitting both on the tether and in the

Seong C. Yeon; Glen Golden; Wailani Sung; Hollis N. Erb; Arleigh J. Reynolds; Katherine A. Houpt

2001-01-01

403

Zinc-induced hemolytic anemia in a dog.  

PubMed

A dog ingested a zinc nut that was retained in the stomach and caused a life-threatening hemolytic crisis with renal, gastrointestinal, and hepatic dysfunction. The dog was stabilized by blood transfusion and was anesthetized, and the zinc nut was removed with a fiberoptic endoscope. With continued supportive care, the dog recovered. Metallic zinc is found in high concentrations in nuts, bolts, and pennies. Zinc toxicosis should be considered in cases of unexplained hemolytic anemia. PMID:3654320

Torrance, A G; Fulton, R B

1987-08-15

404

Attacks by packs of dogs involving predation on human beings  

PubMed Central

Dog bites are a medical problem for millions of people, children being the most common victims. Human deaths attributable to dog bite injury (not rabies) are relatively infrequent. There have been some epidemiologic reviews, but this study is the first attempt to arrive at an understanding of bites involving predation on human beings by conducting behavioral examinations under controlled conditions of the dogs involved, and by interviewing victims, witnesses, and people familiar with the animals. The three cases studied involved two fatalities and an attack that was nearly fatal. The victims were 11, 14, and 81. In each case, owned pet dogs consumed some human tissue. The severity of the victims' injuries was not the consequence of a single dog bite, but the result of repeated attacks by dogs behaving as a social group. Factors that might contribute to a dog's regarding human beings as potential prey were examined, including hunger, prior predation, group behaviors, defense of territory, previous interactions with people, the presence of estrous female dogs, and environmental stimuli. In two of the cases, it was possible, by using similar stimuli, to duplicate the circumstances at the time of the attack. The results of the observations showed the value of behavioral analysis and simulations methods in evaluating possible factors in dog attacks. Among the many factors probably involved in severe dog attacks are the size, number, and nutritional status of the dogs; the dogs' previous aggressive contacts with people; the victim's age, size, health, and behavior; and the absence of other human beings in the vicinity. Imagesp61-ap61-bp61-c

Borchelt, Peter L.; Lockwood, Randall; Beck, Alan M.; Voith, Victoria L.

1983-01-01

405

The ocular effects of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the ocular safety of a single intravitreal dose of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) in dogs. Eleven healthy dogs received a single IVTA injection (8mg) through the mid-temporal pars-plana of the left eye (OS) using a 27G needle. The dogs were re-evaluated immediately post-IVTA, every 5min until pre-IVTA values had returned, then daily for

José M. Molleda; Rodrigo H. Tardón; José M. Gallardo; Eva M. Martín-Suárez

2008-01-01

406

Plasma Cortisol Levels of Dogs at a County Animal Shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hennessy, M. B., H. N. Davis, M. T. Williams, C. Mellott and C. W. Douglas. Plasma cortisol levels of dogs in a county animal shelter. Physiol Behav 62(3) 485–490, 1997.—Plasma cortisol levels were examined to assess the stress of dogs in a county animal shelter. Groups of dogs confined in the shelter for their 1st, 2nd, or 3rd day had

Michael B Hennessy; Harry N Davis; Michael T Williams; Carolyn Mellott; Chet W Douglas

1997-01-01

407

Study on biological variability of haematological components in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to estimate the between-dog, within-dog and analytical components of variance for red blood\\u000a cell (RBC) concentration, white blood cell (WBC) concentration, haematocrit (HT) and haemoglobin (HGB) in clinically healthy\\u000a dogs and to use these estimates to calculate the critical difference for significance between serial results, to assess the\\u000a utility of the conventional population-based

A. L. Jensen; L. Iversen; T. K. Petersen

1998-01-01

408

Neuropathology of normothermic circulatory arrest in newborn dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropathologic findings are described, for the first time, in a neonatal dog model of circulatory arrest in normothermic\\u000a conditions, and the findings are compared to those reported in neonatal dogs with hypothermic circulatory arrest. Total circulatory\\u000a arrest was produced in 3- to 6-day-old anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated, normothermic dogs either by asphyxiation or\\u000a cardioplegia. Duration of circulatory arrest was 8–20

Javad Towfighi; Robert C. Vannucci

1997-01-01

409

The prevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic dogs in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the prevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic dogs in Finland, which is known to have a high prevalence of Trichinella infection in sylvatic hosts. Altogether 727 dog serum samples were tested serologically by ELISA with ES-antigen in dilutions 1:50, 1:100, 1:200, and 1:400. Additionally, muscle samples from 102 dogs’ front leg extensors were tested parasitologically

Leena Oivanen; Anu Näreaho; Saija Jokela; Ulla Rikula; Ray Gamble; Antti Sukura

2005-01-01

410

Renal parameter estimates in unrestrained dogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical formulation has been developed to describe the hemodynamic parameters of a conceptualized kidney model. The model was developed by considering regional pressure drops and regional storage capacities within the renal vasculature. Estimation of renal artery compliance, pre- and postglomerular resistance, and glomerular filtration pressure is feasible by considering mean levels and time derivatives of abdominal aortic pressure and renal artery flow. Changes in the smooth muscle tone of the renal vessels induced by exogenous angiotensin amide, acetylcholine, and by the anaesthetic agent halothane were estimated by use of the model. By employing totally implanted telemetry, the technique was applied on unrestrained dogs to measure renal resistive and compliant parameters while the dogs were being subjected to obedience training, to avoidance reaction, and to unrestrained caging.

Rader, R. D.; Stevens, C. M.

1974-01-01

411

Scedosporium inflatum osteomyelitis in a dog.  

PubMed

Scedosporium inflatum Malloch et Salkin was found to cause osteomyelitis in a 6-year-old spayed female beagle. The previously healthy dog suddenly developed right-forelimb lameness. Bony changes consisting of proliferation with some lysis were noted on radiographic examinations. Microscopic observations of stained sections of tissue obtained by biopsy of the distal humerus revealed the presence of septate branching hyphae. Cultures inoculated with tissue from a later biopsy yielded a mold subsequently identified as S. inflatum. Tissue sections stained with specific Scedosporium fluorescent-antibody conjugate were positive, further substantiating the diagnosis. Although the dog was treated with oral itraconazole, no improvement in the animal's condition was noted, and it was euthanized. Autopsy revealed dissemination of the etiologic agent to the lungs. PMID:1452649

Salkin, I F; Cooper, C R; Bartges, J W; Kemna, M E; Rinaldi, M G

1992-11-01

412

Electrophysiology of the chemically sympathectomised dog.  

PubMed

The contribution of the sympathetic nervous system in the definition of various electrophysiological variables was studied in chemically sympathectomised dogs. Chemical sympathectomy was obtained following intravenous injection of 50 mg X kg-1 of 6-hydroxydopamine. Sympathectomised dogs presented significant increases in: basic sinus period, sino-atrial conduction time (SACT), AH and HV intervals of the His bundle electrogram, atrial functional (AFRP) and effective (AERP) refractory periods, atrio-ventricular node functional (AVNFRP) and effective (AVNERP) refractory periods, ventricular functional (VFRP) and effective (EVRP) refractory periods and atrial (AMAP) and ventricular (VMAP) monophasic action potential durations. Corrected sinus recovery time (CSRT) was not affected by chemical sympathectomy. Neither was the atrial ERP/MAP duration ratio. This new form of sympathectomy affects all the levels of the cardiac conduction system. Such results are in accordance with those obtained with surgical sympathectomy or the use of beta-blocking agents. PMID:6816469

Godin, D; Guimond, C; Nadeau, R A; Leblanc, A R

1982-09-01

413

Immunoglobulins in stimulated tears of dogs.  

PubMed

Immunoelectrophoresis and single radial immunodiffusion were used to identify and measure tear immunoglobulin concentrations in 50 healthy dogs. Immunoglobulin A and IgG were detected in all samples analyzed, whereas IgM was not detected in any sample. Mean IgA concentration was 25.28 +/- 1.9 mg/dl, adult dogs (> 18 months) having significantly higher mean value. The IgA concentration related to age had significant (P < 0.006) positive correlation; mean IgG concentration was 23.10 +/- 1.72 mg/dl. Linear correlation analysis revealed significant (P < 0.0007) correlation coefficient between tear total protein and IgA concentrations. The IgA and IgG concentrations also were significantly (P < 0.0001) correlated when expressed as milligrams per 100 mg of protein. Relation with sex was not established for either immunoglobulin. PMID:8368599

Ginel, P J; Novales, M; García, M; Martín, E M; López, R; Molleda, J M

1993-07-01

414

Fibrodysplasia ossificans in a German shepherd dog.  

PubMed

Bilateral cervical heterotopic ossification, associated with a thoracic limb lameness, occurred in an adult German shepherd dog. One of the lesions, thought to be the cause of the lameness, was surgically removed and the lameness resolved. The lesion was classified morphologically as fibrodysplasia ossificans. A similar, smaller lesion was present over the cranial distal scapular border. The causes of ectopic ossification, as described in the veterinary literature, are reviewed and compared with myositis ossificans in humans. Non-progressive fibrodysplasia ossificans has been described in cats, but this appears to be the first report in the dog. It is postulated that the heterotopic ossification resulted from the metaplastic change of calcinosis circumscripta lesions. PMID:11721984

Guilliard, M J

2001-11-01

415

Presuming Consent, Presuming Refusal: Organ Donation and Communal Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donating, distributing and ultimately transplantingorgans each has distinct ethical problems. In thispaper I suggest that the first ethical question is notwhat should be done but what is a fair way in whicheach of these problems can be addressed. Experts –whether these be transplant surgeons, policy analysts,political scientists or ethicists – can help guidebut cannot by themselves make such decisions. Inmaking

Erich H. Loewy

2000-01-01

416

Demographic and ecological survey of dog population in aba, abia state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (? (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

417

Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (?2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area.

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

418

Imaging findings in dogs with caudal intervertebral disc herniation.  

PubMed

The radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for four dogs with herniation of the Cd1-Cd2 intervertebral disc are described. All dogs were 7 years of age at the time of presentation, with one neutered male and three neutered females. Breeds included one Beagle, one Bassett hound, and two large, mixed breed dogs. All dogs had tail pain on manipulation, two had pain during defecation, and two maintained an abnormal tail position. Three dogs had radiographs in which mineralization within the disc space was apparent. Two of these dogs also had mineralization within the vertebral canal. Three dogs underwent MRI, which was characterized by varying degrees of disc herniation and nerve root compression at Cd1-Cd2. Mobility may be a factor predisposing to disc herniation in the cranial aspect of the caudal spine. We documented that caudal disc herniation does occur occasionally in dogs and that radiography and MRI may be used to identify this disease. Caudal intervertebral disc herniation should be considered as a differential for dogs with caudal vertebral pain, pain with tail manipulation, pain during defecation, or abnormal tail carriage. PMID:21689201

Lawson, Caitlin M; Reichle, Jean K; McKlveen, Tori; Smith, Mary O

2011-01-01

419

Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atypical atrial flutter in dogs.  

PubMed

Five dogs were presented to our institution for fatigue caused by an incessant supraventricular tachycardia. In all dogs, an ECG on admission showed a narrow QRS complex tachycardia with a median ventricular cycle length of 220 ms (range 180-360 ms), and a positive atrial depolarization identifiable in the ST segment following the previous QRS complex. There was a 1:1 atrioventricular conduction ratio in all but one dog, which presented with 2:1 atrioventricular block. Electrophysiologic studies identified the underlying arrhythmogenic mechanism as a right atrial macro-reentrant tachycardia with two distinct isthmic areas: right septal (RS) in three dogs and right atrial free wall (RAFW) in two dogs. Linear radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed during tachycardia in all dogs at the identified isthmic area, which acutely blocked the macroreentrant circuit. At 18-month follow-up, 3 dogs (1 with RAFW isthmus and 2 with RS isthmus) showed no recurrence of the arrhythmia on Holter monitoring. One dog with RS isthmus showed recurrence of the supraventricular tachycardia 15 days post-ablation, and 1 dog with RAFW isthmus presented with persistent atrial fibrillation 2 months post-ablation. PMID:24461642

Santilli, Roberto A; Ramera, Lucia; Perego, Manuela; Moretti, Paolo; Spadacini, Giammario

2014-03-01

420

Clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs.  

PubMed

Salivary mucocele is one of the causes of submandibular swelling in dogs and is due to a collection of mucoid saliva that has leaked from a damaged salivary gland. The purpose of this case series report was to describe the clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of confirmed salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs admitted to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Cairo University. The final diagnosis of salivary mucocele was based on aspirate cytology for all dogs and additional surgical excision for seven dogs. For dogs admitted from 2 weeks to 1 month from the onset of clinical signs, the cervical mucocele appeared as a round echogenic structure with a large volume of central anechoic content. The wall was a clearly identified hyperechoic structure surrounding the gland. For dogs admitted between 1 to 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the volume of anechoic material appeared less than that seen in the acute cases. The overall appearance of the salivary mucocele was heterogenous. For dogs admitted after 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele appeared grainy or mottled, with a heterogenous appearance and a further decrease in anechoic content. For one dog that presented after 3 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele was hard on palpation and appeared hyperechoic with distal acoustic shadowing. Findings from this study indicated that ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in dogs vary depending on the chronological stage of the disease. PMID:23442204

Torad, Faisal A; Hassan, Elham A

2013-01-01

421

HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS THE GREAT CIRCUS - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

422

Penile amputation and scrotal urethrostomy in 18 dogs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to report the signalment, indications for surgery, postoperative complications and outcome in dogs undergoing penile amputation and scrotal urethrostomy. Medical records of three surgical referral facilities were reviewed for dogs undergoing penile amputation and scrotal urethrostomy between January 2003 and July 2010. Data collected included signalment, presenting signs, indication for penile amputation, surgical technique, postoperative complications and long-term outcome. Eighteen dogs were included in the study. Indications for surgery were treatment of neoplasia (n=6), external or unknown penile trauma (n=4), penile trauma or necrosis associated with urethral obstruction with calculi (n=3), priapism (n=4) and balanoposthitis (n=1). All dogs suffered mild postoperative haemorrhage (posturination and/or spontaneous) from the urethrostomy stoma for up to 21 days (mean 5.5 days). Four dogs had minor complications recorded at suture removal (minor dehiscence (n=1), mild bruising and swelling around the urethrostomy site and mild haemorrhage at suture removal (n=2), and granulation at the edge of stoma (n=1)). One dog had a major complication (wound dehiscence and subsequent stricture of the stoma). Long-term outcome was excellent in all dogs with non-neoplastic disease. Local tumour recurrence and/or metastatic disease occurred within five to 12 months of surgery in two dogs undergoing penile amputation for the treatment of neoplasia. Both dogs were euthanased. PMID:21968541

Burrow, R D; Gregory, S P; Giejda, A A; White, R N

2011-12-17

423

Thunderstorm phobia in dogs: an Internet survey of 69 cases.  

PubMed

To learn more about predispositions for, signs, and progression of canine thunderstorm phobia, a survey for owners was posted on the Internet. Questions addressed signalment, age of onset, behavior during storms, and treatments tried. Sixty-nine responses were received. Herding dogs and herding crossbreeds accounted for the majority of dogs. Seventeen of 41 dogs with a known age of onset began exhibiting thunderstorm phobia <1 year of age. Various characteristic responses of dogs to storms were described. Improved knowledge of the demographics of thunderstorm phobia, its development, and presentation will assist in understanding the genesis and progression of the condition. PMID:11450831

McCobb, E C; Brown, E A; Damiani, K; Dodman, N H

2001-01-01

424

VAC protocol for treatment of dogs with stage III hemangiosarcoma.  

PubMed

Hemangiosarcomas (HSAs) are aggressive tumors with a high rate of metastasis. Clinical stage has been considered a negative prognostic factor for survival. The study authors hypothesized that the median survival time (MST) of dogs with metastatic (stage III) HSA treated with a vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) chemotherapy protocol would not be different than those with stage I/II HSA. Sixty-seven dogs with HSA in different anatomic locations were evaluated retrospectively. All dogs received the VAC protocol as an adjuvant to surgery (n = 50), neoadjuvant (n = 3), or as the sole treatment modality (n = 14). There was no significant difference (P = 0.97) between the MST of dogs with stage III and stage I/II HSA. For dogs presenting with splenic HSA alone, there was no significant difference between the MST of dogs with stage III and stage I/II disease (P = 0.12). The overall response rate (complete response [CR] and partial response [PR]) was 86%). No unacceptable toxicities were observed. Dogs with stage III HSA treated with the VAC protocol have a similar prognosis to dogs with stage I/II HSA. Dogs with HSA and evidence of metastases at the time of diagnosis should not be denied treatment. PMID:24051260

Alvarez, Francisco J; Hosoya, Kenji; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Kisseberth, William; Couto, Guillermo

2013-01-01

425

Coronary blood flow in chronic insulin-dependent diabetic dogs.  

PubMed

Diabetic patients appear to be at an increased risk for perioperative morbidity and mortality following coronary artery bypass grafting. Many have suggested that microangiopathy is a primary cause. Using radionuclide labelled microspheres, we measured the perfusion of the subendocardium, midmyocardium, subepicardium, and the subendocardium/subepicardium ratio in alloxan-induced diabetic and normal dogs. We found no statistical difference in the myocardial perfusion of dogs made diabetic for five months when compared to normal dogs. By using repeated measures two-factor analysis of variance-regression model, changing blood glucose levels had no effect on coronary blood flow in either the diabetic or normal dogs. PMID:2629449

Small, K W; Stefansson, E; Hatchell, D L

1989-01-01

426

Brunfelsia spp (yesterday, today, tomorrow) toxicity in four dogs.  

PubMed

Four dogs were treated for acute toxicity following ingestion of the popular garden shrub 'Yesterday, today, tomorrow' (Brunfelsia spp). Clinical signs included vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle tremors, anxiousness, opisthotonus and seizures. All dogs recovered following treatment with any or all of general anaesthetic, gastric lavage, enema, diazepam, phenobarbitone or propofol sedation. Brunfelsia spp toxicity should be considered in young, previously healthy dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs that rapidly progress to muscle tremors and seizures. Examination of faeces was required for diagnosis in all cases. Owners should also be questioned thoroughly about their dogs' access to such plants. PMID:18498554

Singh, M; Cowan, S; Child, G

2008-06-01

427

Creatinine in the dog: a review.  

PubMed

Creatinine is the analyte most frequently measured in human and veterinary clinical chemistry laboratories as an indirect measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Although creatinine metabolism and the difficulties of creatinine measurement have been reviewed in human medicine, similar reviews are lacking in veterinary medicine. The aim of this review is to summarize information and data about creatinine metabolism, measurement, and diagnostic significance in the dog. Plasma creatinine originates from the degradation of creatine and creatine phosphate, which are present mainly in muscle and in food. Creatinine is cleared by glomerular filtration with negligible renal secretion and extrarenal metabolism, and its clearance is a good estimate of GFR. Plasma and urine creatinine measurements are based on the nonspecific Jaffé reaction or specific enzymatic reactions; lack of assay accuracy precludes proper interlaboratory comparison of results. Preanalytical factors such as age and breed can have an impact on plasma creatinine (P-creatinine) concentration, while many intraindividual factors of variation have little effect. Dehydration and drugs mainly affect P-creatinine concentration in dogs by decreasing GFR. P-creatinine is increased in renal failure, whatever its cause, and correlates with a decrease in GFR according to a curvilinear relationship, such that P-creatinine is insensitive for detecting moderate decreases of GFR or for monitoring progression of GFR in dogs with severely reduced kidney function. Low sensitivity can be obviated by determining endogenous or exogenous clearance rates of creatinine. A technique for determining plasma clearance following IV bolus injection of exogenous creatinine and subsequent serial measurement of P-creatinine does not require urine collection and with additional studies may become an established technique for creatinine clearance in dogs. PMID:14655101

Braun, J P; Lefebvre, H P; Watson, A D J

2003-01-01

428

GM1 gangliosidosis in shiba dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six-month-old shiba dog with a one-month history of progressive motor dysfunction showed clinical signs of a cerebellar disorder, including ataxia, dysmetria and intention tremor of the head. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies revealed distended neurons packed with membranous cytoplasmic bodies throughout the central nervous system. The activities of lysosomal acid ?-galactosidase in its leucocytes and liver were less than 2

O. Yamato; Y. Masuoka; M. Tajima; S. Omae; Y. Maede; K. Ochiai; E. Hayashida; T. Umemura; M. lijima

2000-01-01

429

Hemodynamic Changes In Dogs During Isoflurane Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Isoflurane is known to produce slight tachycardia in humans. This study examined the effects of isoflurane on cardiovascular parameters in dogs. Four groups, with six dogs per group, were anesthetized with isoflurane. Prior to isoflurane administration, a femoral artery catheter was inserted. Group 1 was anesthetized with isoflurane alone. Group 2 was pretreated with fentanyl prior to administration of isoflurane. Group 3, anesthetized with isoflurane alone, had a Swan-Ganz catheter introduced through the external jugular vein. Group 4 was pre-treated with fentanyl prior to administration of isoflurane, and had a Swan-Ganz catheter. Physiologic parameters were recorded at 15-min intervals as isoflurane was reduced from 3.5% to 1.5% by 0.5% increments. Heart rate increased while blood pressure decreased during induction (8.5 min) in Group 1 and then returned to control values. In Group 2, heart rate declined with no changes in blood pressure over all isoflurane concentrations. The induction time (time from initiation of the anesthetic until intubation was achieved) was 2 min. In Group 3, the heart rate increased and the blood pressure decreased, with an induction time of 10 min. Cardiac output and pulmonary artery pressure varied inversely to the isoflurane concentration. In Group 4, heart rate decreased with a minimal decrease in blood pressure, and an induction time of 3.5 min. Cardiac output and pulmonary artery pressure varied inversely to the isoflurane concentration. A fifth group of 6 dogs was monitored for heart rate only, while a mask was placed over their noses to simulate the procedure for the administration of an anesthetic. The heart rate increased similar to that of the dogs in Groups 1 and 3, but the tachycardia was abolished with the administration of fentanyl. Increased heart rate could not be directly attributed to isoflurane but was probably due to catecholamines released during induction. Fentanyl blocked this effect, resulting in a decrease in heart rate.

Brahim, Jaime S.; Thut, Paul D.

1984-01-01

430

Object permanence in cats and dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object permanence was assessed for cats and dogs, using tasks analogous to those typically employed for human infants. Neither\\u000a species solved all of the problems correctly when rewarded only by the discovery of a hidden toy. However, both species showed\\u000a that they had fully developed concepts of object permanence when the problems were changed so that the animals had to

Estrella Triana; Robert Pasnak

1981-01-01

431

Biovailability of ivermectin administered orally to dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioavailability of three formulations of ivermectin was determined following oral administration to dogs. The average peak plasma level (Cmax) of ivermectin administered in the standard tablet formulation at 6 and 100 µg\\/kg of body weight was 2.97 and 44.31 ng\\/g, respectively. This suggest dose-dependent pharmacokinetics.Cmax and total ivermectin bioavailability, as assessed from the area under the plasma curve (AUC),

C. P. Daurio; E. N. Cheung; A. R. Jeffcoat; B. J. Skelly

1992-01-01

432

"Not just a dog": an attachment perspective on relationships with assistance dogs.  

PubMed

We explored individuals' relationships with an assistance dog from an attachment-theory perspective. We used both inductive and deductive thematic methods to analyze semi-structured interviews with 25 participants who had lost an assistance dog to retirement or death. Analyses revealed attachment processes of safe haven, secure base, and separation anxiety. Although attachment dynamics were an important feature of these relationships, caregiving was equally important. When confronted with the loss of their dog, almost all participants experienced intense grief. Most grief responses were consistent with the loss of a caregiving relationship. Findings suggest that grief is a natural response to the loss of a beloved companion who fulfilled fundamental needs for attachment and caregiving. PMID:21838644

Kwong, Marilyn J; Bartholomew, Kim

2011-09-01

433

The prevalence and epidemiology of cestodes in dogs in Clwyd, Wales. II. Hunting dogs.  

PubMed

Studies of a foxhound pack and gundog kennel in Clwyd, Wales showed 47 of 162 foxhounds (29%) and six of 25 gundogs (24%) to be infested with cestodes. Taeniia species were found in both groups, T. hydatigena being most common. Echinococcus granulosus and Dipylidium caninum were found in hounds only. The husbandry of the dogs was investigated and close relationships were found between diet, worming procedures and cestode infestation. These dogs play an important role in disseminating cestode eggs in the environment. Recommendations for control of the problem are made. Foxhounds and other hunting dogs play a particularly important role in the life-cycle of cestodes because their diet frequently includes uncooked carcasses and because they hunt over large areas of countryside, facilitating the widespread dissemination of infective eggs. PMID:3675042

Stallbaumer, M

1987-02-01

434

Analysis of short-period P-coda measurements for presumed underground nuclear explosions in Eurasia. Final report 1 January 1983-31 January 1984  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of P-coda measurements at NORSAR were investigated for presumed underground nuclear explosions in the Soviet Union. For explosions in the Semipalatinsk region, coda magnitudes, measured in the time domain in 5-second windows averaged over 50 seconds of P coda, were found to vary by about 0.1 magnitude units across NORSAR as compared with about 0.2 to 0.3 units for P-wave magnitudes. Also, array-averaged estimates of coda magnitude varied more smoothly with time into the coda than single channel estimates. This result indicates that local subarray scattering causes random perturbations in coda levels which are smoothed out by the averaging process. NORSAR P-coda magnitudes, like the Lg measurements of Rindal (1983), are more consistent with network averaged P-wave magnitudes than NORSAR single-channel magnitudes. There is some indication that Lg measurements may be slightly better than P-coda measurements in terms of reducing scatter and bias. In the analysis of P-codas from seismic events north of the Caspian Sea, codas of presumed explosions in the Astrakhan region are more intense and variable as a function of time into the coda than those for events near Azgir. These differences are attributed to lateral variations in geologic structure in the Pri-Caspian salt basin.

Baumgardt, D.R.

1984-04-13

435

Hemodynamic effects of stable strontium in dogs  

SciTech Connect

The current study was undertaken to ascertain the effect of prolonged IV infusion of Sr/sup 2 +/ on Sr:Ca ratios, as well as on hemodynamic changes. Sr gluconate was infused IV at constant rate of 0.7 ml/min. to 9 adult dogs, anesthetized with Nembutal for periods of 300 min. 3 dogs were infused with normal saline for the same periods. Samples for Sr/sup 2 +/ and Ca/sup 2 +/ and hemodynamic data were taken at q 30 min. The normal Sr:Ca ratio in dogs (1:507) was found to be much higher than in humans (1:2000). Sr/sup 2 +/ infusion resulted in a gradual increase of Sr/sup 2 +/ without significant change in serum Ca/sup 2 +/; fluctuations in Ca/sup 2 +/ conc. returned to normal values in the 2 mg/ml group. In the 8 mg/ml group, some decrease in serum Ca/sup 2 +/ was observed. Serum Sr/sup 2 +/ conc. increased X 163 (+/- 80) in the 2 mg Sr/ml group; x 727 (+/- 204) in the 8 mg Sr/ml group. Hemodynamic studies included measurements of Pa, Pw, CO, P syst, HR, PVR and SVR. No significant hemodynamic changes were observed following 2 mg/ml Sr/sup 2 +/ infusion. In the 8 mg/ml group, HR and CO were decreased while PVR and SVR were significantly increased. 11 references, 8 figures.

Skoryna, S.C.; Pivon, R.J.; Hakim, T.S.; Mayer, S.K.; Stara, J.F.

1986-01-01

436

Disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a dog.  

PubMed

An uncommon disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is described in a 12-year-old female dog presenting with fever, dyspnea, cough, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, melena, epistaxis, and emesis. The dog had a history of close contact with its owner, who died of pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographic examination revealed diffuse radio-opaque images in both lung lobes, diffuse visible masses in abdominal organs, and hilar and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Bronchial washing samples and feces were negative for acid-fast organisms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based species identification of bronchial washing samples, feces, and urine revealed M. tuberculosis using PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis-PRA. Because of public health concerns, which were worsened by the physical condition of the dog, euthanasia of the animal was recommended. Rough and tough colonies suggestive of M. tuberculosis were observed after microbiological culture of lung, liver, spleen, heart, and lymph node fragments in Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. The PRA analysis enabled diagnosis of M. tuberculosis strains isolated from organs. PMID:23339199

Martinho, Anna Paula Vitirito; Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Perrotti, Isabella Belletti Mutt; Mangia, Simone Henriques; Megid, Jane; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Carvalho Sanches, Osimar; Paes, Antonio Carlos

2013-03-01

437

Microsatellite characterization of Cimarron Uruguayo dogs  

PubMed Central

Various genetic markers, including microsatellites, have been used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in canine breeds. In this work, we used nine microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic variability in Cimarron Uruguayo dogs, the only officially recognized native canine breed in Uruguay. DNA from 30 Cimarron Uruguayo dogs from northeastern and southern Uruguay was analyzed. The allelic frequencies for each microsatellite, the genetic variability and the consanguinity were calculated, as were the polymorphic information content (PIC) and the probability of exclusion (PE). All of the microsatellites studied were polymorphic. FH 2361, FH 2305 and PEZ 03 were the most informative, with PIC values > 0.7, in agreement with results for other canine breeds. The PE values for the markers were within the ranges previously described and were generally greater for microsatellites with higher PIC values. The heterozygosity value (0.649) was considered high since only nine microsatellites were analyzed. Compared with data for other breeds, the results obtained here indicate that Cimarron Uruguayo dogs have high genetic diversity.

Gagliardi, Rosa; Llambi, Silvia; Garcia, Cristina; Arruga, Maria Victoria

2011-01-01

438

Pharmacokinetics of pidotimod in rats and dogs.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetic studies on pidotimod ((R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl) carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, PGT/1A, CAS 121808-62-6) a new biological response modifier, following intravenous, intramuscular or oral administrations in rats and dogs are reported in this paper. Plasma, urine and organ concentrations were determined by HPLC. Analytical methods were validated for specificity, sensitivity, recovery, accuracy and reproducibility; recovery was very close to 100%, the coefficients of variation of accuracy and reproducibility showed low values. In the rat the pharmacokinetic parameters obtained after oral administration demonstrate that pidotimod is a very fast absorbed, distributed and eliminated drug (t1/2el = 1 h) and that it shows high total clearance and distribution volume. Bioavailability was 100% in the intramuscular route and 27% in the oral route. Pidotimod distributes quickly in the main organs, in particular in kidneys and liver; the time course of the levels in organs follows that of plasma levels after intramuscular administration. After repeated intramuscular administrations no phenomena of accumulation or autoinduction were evident. The urinary excretion of the unmodified drug is 75.6% after intravenous and 31.1% after oral administration. The behaviour of pidotimod in dog after oral administration is quite similar to that observed in rat, with a t1/2el of 1.47 h, absolute bioavailability of 37%, high total clearance and distribution volume. Also in the dog the repeated intravenous and oral administrations do not cause any accumulation or autoinduction phenomena. PMID:7857342

Coppi, G; Silingardi, S

1994-12-01

439

[Dogs babesiosis--still actually problem].  

PubMed

Babesiosis (piroplasmosis) is a tick-borne disease with a symptoms of hemolytic anemia. For the first time babesiosis was described in dogs in United States in 1934. The etiological factor of this disease in Poland is protozoa Babesia canis, and its vector--Dermacentor-tick. The most common symptoms of babesiosis are: icterus, hemoglobinuria, occasionally vomits and diarrhea. The biochemical examination of blood serum from sick animals can reveal the increase of activity of AST, ALT, the increase of total bilirubine, urea and creatynine concentrations. The results of hematological examinations can show anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis of babesiosis bases on anamnesis, clinical examinations of dogs, microscopical examinations of blood smears from sick animals; IF-assay and PCR can also be helpful for the diagnosis of babesiosis. Till now does not exist the effective immunoprophylaxis against this disease. Babesiosis is well-known disease, however there are still problems with therapy of infected animals. Most effective drug in therapy of dog piroplasmosis is imidocarb, but sometimes can be observed side effects after it application. It is possible that the genetically differences which are detected in subspecies may have an influence on the severity of disease and the effectiveness of therapy. PMID:18702315

Adaszek, ?ukasz; Winiarczyk, Stanis?aw

2008-01-01

440

Biofilm formation of Malassezia pachydermatis from dogs.  

PubMed

Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are commensals of the normal skin microbial flora of humans and animals. These yeasts may become pathogenic under certain circumstances and their pathogenic role may be related to host immune system as well to yeast virulence factors (e.g., phospholipase production and biofilm formation). This study aims to evaluate the in vitro ability of M. pachydermatis strains to produce biofilm, and its relationship with phospholipase activity and the genetic make-up of isolates from lesioned (n=32) and healthy (n=30) dog skin. The production of biofilm was determined by crystal violet staining and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Biofilm was produced by almost all M. pachydermatis isolates (95.2%) from dogs with and without skin lesions at variable level and different structure. At the SEM, biofilm matrix presented adhering blastoconidia clustered in multi- or monolayer structures with variable quantity of extracellular production. Of the three genotypes detected, genotype B showed the lowest ability to produce biofilm. Of the 59 isolates producing biofilm, 33 (55.9%) produced phospholipase, with a higher biofilm formation (p<0.05) in strains collected from animals with skin lesions. It is here suggested that phospholipase production might act in synergism with the biofilm formation by inducing or exacerbating skin lesions in dogs. The results provide evidences for a better understanding of the interactions between yeasts and host immune system, toward revealing the pathogenicity of M. pachydermatis in animals. PMID:22682201

Figueredo, Luciana A; Cafarchia, Claudia; Desantis, Salvatore; Otranto, Domenico

2012-11-01

441

Thirst following water deprivation in dogs.  

PubMed

Eight dogs were prepared with unilateral carotid loops, and trained to stand quietly in a modified Pavlov stand. They were deprived of water for 24 h, which significantly depleted both the cellular and extracellular fluid (ECF) compartments. When they were allowed access to water for 5 min, they promptly drank amounts sufficient to make up their fluid deficits. Infusion of water into the unilateral carotid loop to reduce the cerebral blood osmolality to normal did not consistently reduce drinking because of inadequate mixing in the Circle of Willis. The eight dogs were then prepared with bilateral loops and deprived of water. Infusion of water at 0.6 ml-kg-1-,min-1 reduced the jugular plasma osmolality to control levels but did not affect systemic osmolality and reduced the drinking by 72%. Intracarotid infusion of water at differing rates reduced drinking in a dose related fashion. Intravenous infusion of 0.15 M NaCl in an amount designed to expand the ECF volume to normal reduced drinking by 27%. Expansion of the ECF volume plus bilateral intracarotid infusion of water to remove the central osmotic stimulus completely inhibited drinking. It is concluded that drinking following water deprivation in dogs is controlled by both central osmotic and by extracellular fluid volume factors, and that the osmotic factor is the more important. The drinking stopped well before these fluid deficits, as judged by body fluid analysis, had been restored. Some other mechanisms, therefore, must be involved in satiety. PMID:842698

Ramsay, D J; Rolls, B J; Wood, R J

1977-03-01

442

Disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in a Dog  

PubMed Central

An uncommon disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is described in a 12-year-old female dog presenting with fever, dyspnea, cough, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, melena, epistaxis, and emesis. The dog had a history of close contact with its owner, who died of pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographic examination revealed diffuse radio-opaque images in both lung lobes, diffuse visible masses in abdominal organs, and hilar and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Bronchial washing samples and feces were negative for acid-fast organisms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based species identification of bronchial washing samples, feces, and urine revealed M. tuberculosis using PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis-PRA. Because of public health concerns, which were worsened by the physical condition of the dog, euthanasia of the animal was recommended. Rough and tough colonies suggestive of M. tuberculosis were observed after microbiological culture of lung, liver, spleen, heart, and lymph node fragments in Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. The PRA analysis enabled diagnosis of M. tuberculosis strains isolated from organs.

Martinho, Anna Paula Vitirito; Franco, Marilia Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia; Perrotti, Isabella Belletti Mutt; Mangia, Simone Henriques; Megid, Jane; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Carvalho Sanches, Osimar; Paes, Antonio Carlos

2013-01-01

443

[The importance of the guide dog--does the guide dog still have a place in the next century?].  

PubMed

The guide dog is the sole living sensory aid recognized by Germany's statutory health insurance and medical rehabilitation system to help a blind person to compensate for the loss of eyesight. The guide dog is also the only recognized mobility aid that enables a blind person to reach destinations with greater speed and confidence by locating obstacles such as steps and ditches and avoiding them. Leading a person through traffic is not a dog's natural trait. Therefore, training and safety standards are essential to ensure smooth teamwork and communication between handler and dog. The guide dog offers much more than a simple technical aid such as a walking stick but not as much as a seeing human companion. To make up for this deficit, the blind person must also learn how to orientate him or herself and not just depend on the dog. For people blinded later in life a reliable guide dog can be an "aid with soul" that provides pet-facilitated therapy and companionship. On the other hand, a guide dog with character disturbances, physical deficiencies or insufficient training can become an additional burden and social hindrance--even a danger for the person it is supposed to be protecting and others such as motorists. The puppy chosen to become a guide dog requires expert trainers and host families to rear and socialize it to interact appropriately with other dogs and other human beings. This stable upbringing is particularly important for the dog as it grows up and is confronted with negative influences. The blind person too learns to conceptualize the animal's own "dog world" so that he or she can build a firmer bond of trust. PMID:10198938

Riederle, G

1999-02-01

444

Hyperthyroid dog left ventricle has the same oxygen consumption versus pressure-volume area (PVA) relation as euthyroid dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We studied the effects of hyperthyroidism on the relation between O2 consumption (Vo2) and the pressure-volume area (PVA) of the left ventricle (LV) in dogs. PVA is a measure of the total mechanical energy generated per beat of LV. Dogs were treated by daily intramuscular injection of 0.3 or 1.0 mg\\/kgl-thyroxine over 2–5 weeks. Hyperthyroid dogs had a 40

Hiroyuki Suga; Nobuaki Tanaka; Yuichi Ohgoshi; Yasutake Saeki; Toshio Nakanishi; Shiho Futaki; Hitoshi Yaku; Yoichi Goto

1991-01-01

445

Prevalence of Dog Intestinal Parasites and Risk Perception of Zoonotic Infection by Dog Owners in Sao Paulo State  

Microsoft Academic Search

• The overall prevalence of dog intestinal parasites detected in this study was 54.33% and most dogs (31.4%) were harbouring only one parasite. • Relevant parasites in terms of zoonotic potential were the most frequently observed, i.e. Ancylostoma spp. (37.8%), Giardia spp.(16.9%) and Toxocara canis (8.7%). • The lack of knowledge showed by dog owners on the zoonotic potential of

S. Katagiri; T. C. G. Oliveira-Sequeira

2008-01-01

446

Craniomandibular trauma and tooth loss in northern dogs and wolves: implications for the archaeological study of dog husbandry and domestication.  

PubMed

Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma. PMID:24941003

Losey, Robert J; Jessup, Erin; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail

2014-01-01

447

Craniomandibular Trauma and Tooth Loss in Northern Dogs and Wolves: Implications for the Archaeological Study of Dog Husbandry and Domestication  

PubMed Central

Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma.

Losey, Robert J.; Jessup, Erin; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail

2014-01-01

448

Methamphetamine intoxication in a dog: case report  

PubMed Central

Background Methamphetamine abuse has undergone a dramatic worldwide increase, and represents a significant and global issue for public health. Incidents of methamphetamine intoxication and death in humans are relatively commonplace. Because of its increasing illicit availability, together with legitimate use in human medicine, accidental or intentional exposure to methamphetamine in dogs is becoming a more likely scenario. Case presentation A 3-year-old, 3.7 kg intact female Miniature Poodle who had been intentionally fed an unknown amount of a crystalline-like substance developed extreme agitation, seizures, tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypertension, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), bloody diarrhea, and dilated pupils. Blood work revealed leukocytosis, erythropenia, lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, but all to a mild extent, together with mild elevation in both alanine aminotranferease (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), and a mild decreased in glucose. Radiologic diagnosis revealed generalized, severe distension of the stomach and small intestinal tract with air. Immunochromatographic screening tests and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis confirmed methamphetamine intoxication and revealed concentrations of methamphetamine in blood and urine of 0.32 ?g/mL and 2.35 ?g/mL respectively. The dog demonstrated progressive improvement after supportive care, with the high fever resolved over the initial 24 hours of hospitalization, and agitation was successfully controlled beyond 48 hours after initial hospitalization. Hemostatic abnormalities were progressive improved after heparin therapy and supportive care. By the sixth day of hospitalization the dog was clinically well, and all laboratory data had returned to normal with the exception of a mild elevateion of ALKP. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge, this is the second case report of methamphetamine intoxication in dogs presented in veterinary practice in open literature so far. Although rare, methamphetamine intoxication should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with a toxic substance ingestion history and with typical nervous and cardiovascular system symptoms. In such cases rapid diagnosis and aggressive intervention is important for prognosis. Blood methamphetamine concentration may be a helpful value for assessment of the severity of intoxication and prediction of clinical outcomes.

2014-01-01

449

Bartonella infection in urban and rural dogs from the tropics: Brazil, Colombia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.  

PubMed

Dogs can be infected by a wide range of Bartonella spp., but limited studies have been conducted in tropical urban and rural dog populations. We aimed to determine Bartonella antibody prevalence in 455 domestic dogs from four tropical countries and detect Bartonella DNA in a subset of these dogs. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 38 (8·3%) dogs, including 26 (10·1%) from Colombia, nine (7·6%) from Brazil, three (5·1%) from Sri Lanka and none from Vietnam. DNA extraction was performed for 26 (63%) of the 41 seropositive and 10 seronegative dogs. Four seropositive dogs were PCR positive, including two Colombian dogs, infected with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and two Sri Lankan dogs harbouring sequences identical to strain HMD described in dogs from Italy and Greece. This is the first detection of Bartonella infection in dogs from Colombia and Sri Lanka and identification of Bartonella strain HMD from Asia. PMID:22459880

Brenner, E C; Chomel, B B; Singhasivanon, O-U; Namekata, D Y; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Cortés-Vecino, J A; Gennari, S M; Rajapakse, R P; Huong, L T; Dubey, J P

2013-01-01

450

Prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in dogs from dairy cattle farms in Parana, Brazil.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 134 dogs from 22 cattle dairy farms in the northern region of Parana State, Brazil, were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum in an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies (> or = 1:50) to N. caninum were found in 29 (21.6%) of the 134 dogs, and seropositive dogs were found on 14 (63.6%) of the 22 dairy cattle farrms. The antibody titers of dogs were 1:50 (3 dogs), 1:100 (7 dogs), 1:200 (7 dogs), 1:400 (6 dogs), and > or = 1:800 (6 dogs). The low prevalence (9%) in < 1-yr-old dogs compared with the 2- to 3-fold higher prevalence in older dogs (17-29%) suggests postnatal exposure to N. caninum infection. PMID:12054023

de Souza, S L P; Guimarăes, J S; Ferreira, F; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

2002-04-01

451

Humans Process Dog and Human Facial Affect in Similar Ways  

PubMed Central

Humans share aspects of their facial affect with other species such as dogs. Here we asked whether untrained human observers with and without dog experience are sensitive to these aspects and recognize dog affect with better-than-chance accuracy. Additionally, we explored similarities in the way observers process dog and human expressions. The stimulus material comprised naturalistic facial expressions of pet dogs and human infants obtained through positive (i.e., play) and negative (i.e., social isolation) provocation. Affect recognition was assessed explicitly in a rating task using full face images and images cropped to reveal the eye region only. Additionally, affect recognition was assessed implicitly in a lexical decision task using full faces as primes and emotional words and pseudowords as targets. We found that untrained human observers rated full face dog expressions from the positive and negative condition more accurately than would be expected by chance. Although dog experience was unnecessary for this effect, it significantly facilitated performance. Additionally, we observed a range of similarities between human and dog face processing. First, the facial expressions of both species facilitated lexical decisions to affectively congruous target words suggesting that their processing was equally automatic. Second, both dog and human negative expressions were recognized from both full and cropped faces. Third, female observers were more sensitive to affective information than were male observers and this difference was comparable for dog and human expressi