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1

Herpes simplex virus vector-mediated delivery of neurturin rescues erectile dysfunction of cavernous nerve injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurturin (NTN), a member of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family, is known as an important neurotrophic factor for penis-projecting neurons. We recently demonstrated significant protection from erectile dysfunction (ED) following a replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector-mediated GDNF delivery to the injured cavernous nerve. Herein, we applied HSV vector-mediated delivery of NTN to this ED model. Rat cavernous

R Kato; D Wolfe; C H Coyle; J B Wechuck; P Tyagi; T Tsukamoto; J B Nelson; J C Glorioso; M B Chancellor; N Yoshimura

2009-01-01

2

Nacystelyn enhances adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery to mouse airways.  

PubMed

Adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery has been vastly investigated for cystic fibrosis (CF) gene therapy; however, one of its drawbacks is the low efficiency of gene transfer, which is due to basolateral colocalization of viral receptors, immune responses to viral vectors and the presence of a thick mucus layer in the airways of CF patients. Therefore, enhancement of gene transfer can lead to reduction in the viral dosage, which could further reduce the acute toxicity associated with the use of adenoviral vectors. Nacystelyn (NAL) is a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and has been used clinically in CF patients to reduce mucus viscosity in the airways. In this study, we show that pretreatment of the airways with NAL followed by administration of adenoviral vectors in complex with DEAE-Dextran can significantly enhance gene delivery to the airways of mice without any harmful effects. Moreover, NAL pretreatment can reduce the airway inflammation, which is normally observed after delivery of adenoviral particles. Taken together, these results indicate that NAL pretreatment followed by adenoviral vector-mediated gene delivery can be beneficial to CF patients by increasing the efficiency of gene transfer to the airways, and reducing the acute toxicity associated with the administration of adenoviral vectors. PMID:17525704

Kushwah, R; Oliver, J R; Cao, H; Hu, J

2007-08-01

3

Prospects for lentiviral vector mediated prostaglandin F synthase gene delivery in monkey eyes in vivo.  

PubMed

Currently, the most effective outflow drugs approved for clinical use are prostaglandin F2? analogues, but these require daily topical self-dosing and have various intraocular, ocular surface and extraocular side effects. Lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of the prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) gene, resulting in long-term reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), may eliminate off-target tissue effects and the need for daily topical PGF2? self-administration. Lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of the PGFS gene to the anterior segment has been achieved in cats and non-human primates. Although these results are encouraging, our studies have identified a number of challenges that need to be overcome for prostaglandin gene therapy to be translated into the clinic. Using examples from our work in non-human primates, where we were able to achieve a significant reduction in IOP (2?mm Hg) for 5 months after delivery of the cDNA for bovine PGF synthase, we identify and discuss these issues and consider several possible solutions. PMID:24559478

Lee, Eun Suk; Rasmussen, Carol A; Filla, Mark S; Slauson, Sarah R; Kolb, Aaron W; Peters, Donna M; Kaufman, Paul L; Gabelt, B'Ann T; Brandt, Curtis R

2014-09-01

4

Improving adenovirus vector-mediated RNAi efficiency by lacking the expression of virus-associated RNAs.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was competitively inhibited by the expression of adenovirus (Ad)-encoded small RNAs (VA-RNAs), which are expressed from a replication-incompetent Ad vector, as well as a wild-type Ad; however, it remained to be clarified whether an shRNA-expressing Ad vector-mediated knockdown was inhibited by VA-RNAs transcribed from the same Ad vector genome. In this study, we demonstrated that a lack of VA-RNA expression from the Ad vector leads to an increase in knockdown efficiencies of Ad vector-mediated RNAi. In the cells transduced with a first-generation Ad vector (FG-Ad) expressing shRNA (FG-Ad-shRNA), the copy numbers of shRNA and VA-RNAs incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) was comparable. In contrast, higher amounts of shRNA were found in the RISC when the cells were transduced with an shRNA-expressing helper-dependent Ad (HD-Ad) vector, in which all viral genes, including VA-RNAs, were deleted (HD-Ad-shRNA), compared with FG-Ad-shRNA. HD-Ad vectors expressing shRNA against luciferase and p53 showed 7.4% and 37.3% increases in the knockdown efficiencies compared to the corresponding FG-Ad-shRNA, respectively, following in vitro transduction. Furthermore, higher levels of knockdown efficiencies were also found by the transduction with shRNA-expressing Ad vectors lacking VA-RNA expression (Ad?VR-shRNA) than by transduction with FG-Ad-shRNA. These results indicate that VA-RNAs expressed from an Ad vector inhibit knockdown by the shRNA-expressing Ad vector and that HD-Ad-shRNA and Ad?VR-shRNA are a powerful framework for shRNA-mediated knockdown. PMID:24055658

Machitani, M; Sakurai, F; Katayama, K; Tachibana, M; Suzuki, T; Matsui, H; Yamaguchi, T; Mizuguchi, H

2013-12-26

5

Baculovirus vector-mediated transfer of NIS gene into colon tumor cells for radionuclide therapy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the feasibility of radionuclide therapy of colon tumor cells by baculovirus vector-mediated transfer of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene. METHODS: A recombinant baculovirus plasmid carrying the NIS gene was constructed, and the viruses (Bac-NIS) were prepared using the Bac-to-Bac system. The infection efficiency in the colon cancer cell line SW1116 of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing baculovirus (Bac-GFP) at different multiplicities of infection (MOI) with various concentrations of sodium butyrate was determined by flow cytometry. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay was also conducted after infection of SW1116 cells with Bac-NIS. Iodine uptake of Bac-NIS infected SW1116 cells and inhibition of this uptake by sodium perchlorate was examined, and the effect of Bac-NIS-mediated 131I in killing tumor cells was evaluated by cell colony formation tests. RESULTS: Infection and transgene expression in SW1116 with Bac-GFP were significantly enhanced by sodium butyrate, as up to 72% of SW1116 cells were infected with the virus at MOI of 400 and sodium butyrate at 0.5 mmol/L. No obvious cytotoxicity was observed under these conditions. Infection of SW1116 with Bac-NIS allowed uptake of 131I in these tumor cells, which could be inhibited by sodium perchlorate. The viability of SW1116 cells infected with Bac-NIS was significantly lower than with Bac-GFP, suggesting that NIS gene-mediated 131I uptake could specifically kill tumor cells. CONCLUSION: Baculovirus vector-mediated NIS gene therapy is a potential approach for treatment of colon cancer. PMID:21072902

Yin, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Xiang; Wu, Hai-Fei; Li, Biao; Zhang, Yi-Fan

2010-01-01

6

Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Vector–Mediated Enkephalin Gene Therapy on Bladder Overactivity and Nociception  

PubMed Central

Abstract We previously reported the effects of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector–mediated enkephalin on bladder overactivity and pain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of vHPPE (E1G6-ENK), a newly engineered replication-deficient HSV vector encoding human preproenkephalin (hPPE). vHPPE or control vector was injected into the bladder wall of female rats 2 weeks prior to the following studies. A reverse-transcription PCR study showed high hPPE transgene levels in L6 dorsal root ganglia innervating the bladder in the vHPPE group. The number of freezing behaviors, which is a nociceptive reaction associated with bladder pain, was also significantly lower in the vHPPE group compared with the control group. The number of L6 spinal cord c-fos–positive cells and the urinary interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 levels after resiniferatoxin (RTx) administration into the bladder of the vHPPE group were significantly lower compared with those of the control vector–injected group. In continuous cystometry, the vHPPE group showed a smaller reduction in intercontraction interval after RTx administration into the bladder. This antinociceptive effect was antagonized by naloxone hydrochloride. Thus, the HSV vector vHPPE encoding hPPE demonstrated physiological improvement in visceral pain induced by bladder irritation. Gene therapy may represent a potentially useful treatment modality for bladder hypersensitive disorders such as bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:23316929

Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Goins, William F.; Goss, James R.; Nishizawa, Osamu; de Groat, William C.; Wolfe, Darren; Krisky, David M.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

7

Exponential Enhancement of Oncolytic VSV Potency by Vector-Mediated Suppression of Inflammatory Responses In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising strategy for treatment of malignancy, although its effectiveness is hampered by host anti-viral inflammatory responses. Indeed the treatment efficacy of oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) in rats bearing multi-focal Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) can be substantially elevated by antibody-mediated depletion of NK cells. To test the hypothesis that the oncolytic potency of VSV could be exponentially elevated by evading inflammatory responses in vivo, we constructed a recombinant VSV vector expressing equine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein G, which is a broad-spectrum viral chemokine binding protein (rVSV-gG). Hepatic artery infusion of rVSV-gG in immune-competent rats bearing syngeneic and multi-focal HCC in the livers resulted in a reduction of NK and NKT cells in the tumors and a one-log enhancement of intratumoral virus titer over a reference rVSV vector. The treatment led to elevated tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged animal survival without toxicities. These results indicate that rVSV-gG could be developed as an effective and safe oncolytic agent to treat advanced HCC patients in the future. Furthermore, the novel concept that oncolytic potency can be substantially enhanced by vector-mediated suppression of host anti-viral inflammatory responses might have general applicability in the field of oncolytic virotherapy for cancer. PMID:18071337

Altomonte, Jennifer; Wu, Lan; Chen, Li; Meseck, Marcia; Ebert, Oliver; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fallon, John; Woo, Savio L.C.

2010-01-01

8

Experimental study of adenovirus vector mediated-h VEGF 165 gene on prevention of restenosis after angioplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study evaluated the effects of adenovirus vector mediated human vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (hVEGF165) gene on prevention of restenosis after angioplasty. Rabbit models of bilateral carotid artery injury were established by\\u000a balloon denudation. The recombinant adenoviruses containing hVEGF165 cDNA was directly injected into left side of the injured carotid arteries. On day 3 and week 3 after transfection the

Liu Qigong; Lu Zaiying; Yue Yuankun; Lin Li; Zhang Weidong; Yan Jin

2004-01-01

9

Herpes simplex virus vector-mediated gene transfer of kynurenine aminotransferase improves detrusor overactivity in spinal cord-injured rats.  

PubMed

Detrusor overactivity threatens the renal function of patients with spinal cord injury. Suppressing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors is known to improve detrusor overactivity in rats with spinal cord injury, whereas kynurenic acid, the endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, is irreversibly synthesized by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs). In this study, we investigated whether replication-defective herpes simplex virus vector-mediated gene transfer of human KAT II could treat detrusor overactivity by injecting the vectors into the rat bladder wall 1 week after spinal cord injury. Three weeks after injection, we evaluated the cystometry and gene expression of KAT II in L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia. The results showed that the vectors are transported to L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia and upregulate the expression of KAT II, and that they also improve the detrusor overactivity and voiding efficiency. We also proved that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors were blocked by kynurenic acid in the extracellular solution or the vector-mediated gene transfer of KAT II in cultured rat neurons of L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia by whole-cell patch clamp to explore the mechanisms of gene therapy. Therefore, replication-defective herpes simplex virus vector-mediated KAT II inhibits detrusor overactivity in spinal cord-injured rats, possibly by suppressing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in bladder afferent pathways. PMID:24598891

Jia, C; Yoshimura, N; Liao, L

2014-05-01

10

[Is being licked by dogs not dirty?].  

PubMed

Being licked by pet dogs is frequently a common advice in articles for the uninitiated. An overview is given about the special antibacterial and wound healing properties of human and canine saliva. New developments in the human area are presumably assigned to dog saliva. Because of the presence of a quite different mouth flora including various potential zoonotic pathogens, it is strictly not advised to let dogs lick the wounds or face of the human. PMID:23025205

Overgaauw, Paul; van Knapen, Frans

2012-09-01

11

Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma.

Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

1990-05-01

12

Polyorchidism with presumed contralateral intrauterine testicular torsion  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Polyorchidism was first described by Blasius in 16701 during a routine autopsy. We report a child with unilateral polyorchidism and a contralateral absent testis, a combination not reported previously. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 2-year-old boy was referred to the outpatient clinic with an impalpable left testis. At laparoscopy, the left vas deferens and testicular vessels ended blindly proximal to a closed internal ring. No gonadal tissue was identified. On the right side, a single vas deferens and testicular vessels were seen entering the internal ring as normal. The right side of the scrotum was explored and two testes were identified within a single tunica vaginalis. DISCUSSION Polyorchidism is rare with a literature search identifying approximately 230 reported cases. Whilst prenatal testicular torsion is increasing being recognized and treated as a surgical emergency,9 prenatal testicular torsion in association with polyorchidism has not been previously reported. CONCLUSION We describe a unique case of a 2-year-old boy with right-sided polyorchidism and an absent left testis associated with a blind ending vas deferens and testicular vessels, presumed secondary to intrauterine testicular torsion. PMID:25462053

Leodoro, B.M.; Beasley, S.W.; Stringer, M.D.

2014-01-01

13

20 CFR 416.1140 - The presumed value rule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The presumed value rule. 416.1140 Section 416.1140 ...and Maintenance § 416.1140 The presumed value rule. (a) How we apply the presumed value rule. (1) When you receive...

2010-04-01

14

20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2012-04-01 true Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219.24 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but...

2013-04-01

15

20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219.24 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but...

2011-04-01

16

20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219.24 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but...

2012-04-01

17

20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2012-04-01 true Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section 219.24 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but...

2014-04-01

18

Colorblind Dogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into dogs' ability (or inability) to see color. Learners conduct an experiment by first performing a control test and then experimenting to see if dogs are able to fetch colored balls amid a background of gray balls. Learners collect, record, and graph the data to draw conclusions about colorblindness in dogs. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Colorblind Dogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

19

Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A prairie dog stands on alert. The USGS National Wildlife Health Center works to identify, track, and prevent wildlife disease. Better protection of prairie dogs against plague would minimize the risk of disease transfer to endangered black-footed ferrets, aid in prairie dog conservation, and protec...

20

10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit to an existing...agency may presume that an investment in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal...

2012-01-01

21

10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit to an existing...agency may presume that an investment in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal...

2013-01-01

22

10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit to an existing...agency may presume that an investment in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal...

2011-01-01

23

10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit to an existing...agency may presume that an investment in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal...

2014-01-01

24

10 CFR 436.13 - Presuming cost-effectiveness results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...If the investment and other costs for an energy or water conservation measure considered for retrofit to an existing...agency may presume that an investment in an energy or water conservation measure retrofit to an existing Federal...

2010-01-01

25

Functional metastatic parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a dog  

PubMed Central

A 12-year-old dachshund dog was presented for persistent hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism despite bilateral parathyroidectomy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head, neck, and cranial mediastinum identified an increased number of cranial mediastinal lymph nodes with heterogeneous signal intensity. Hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism resolved after surgery to remove multiple cranial mediastinal lymph nodes, one of which contained presumed metastatic parathyroid tissue. PMID:24688141

Kishi, Erin N.; Holmes, Shannon P.; Abbott, Jeffrey R.; Bacon, Nicholas J.

2014-01-01

26

Prairie Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prairie dogs are stocky burrowing rodents that live in colonies called “towns.” French explorers called them “little dogs” because of the barking noise they make. Their legs are short and muscular, adapted for digging. The tail and other extremities are short. Their hair is rather coarse with little underfur, and is sandy brown to cinnamon in color with grizzled black

Scott E. Hygnstrom; Dallas R. Virchow

1994-01-01

27

Vector-Mediated Delivery of a Polyamide ("Peptide") Nucleic Acid Analogue through the Blood-Brain Barrier in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyamide ("peptide") nucleic acids (PNAs) are molecules with antigene and antisense effects that may prove to be effective neuropharmaceuticals if these molecules are enabled to undergo transport through the brain capillary endothelial wall, which makes up the blood-brain barrier in vivo. The model PNA used in the present studies is an 18-mer that is antisense to the rev gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and is biotinylated at the amino terminus and iodinated at a tyrosine residue near the carboxyl terminus. The biotinylated PNA was linked to a conjugate of streptavidin (SA) and the OX26 murine monoclonal antibody to the rat transferrin receptor. The blood-brain barrier is endowed with high transferrin receptor concentrations, enabling the OX26-SA conjugate to deliver the biotinylated PNA to the brain. Although the brain uptake of the free PNA was negligible following intravenous administration, the brain uptake of the PNA was increased at least 28-fold when the PNA was bound to the OX26-SA vector. The brain uptake of the PNA bound to the OX26-SA vector was 0.1% of the injected dose per gram of brain at 60 min after an intravenous injection, approximating the brain uptake of intravenously injected morphine. The PNA bound to the OX26-SA vector retained the ability to bind to synthetic rev mRNA as shown by RNase protection assays. In summary, the present studies show that while the transport of PNAs across the blood-brain barrier is negligible, delivery of these potential neuropharmaceutical drugs to the brain may be achieved by coupling them to vector-mediated peptide-drug delivery systems.

Pardridge, William M.; Boado, Ruben J.; Kang, Young-Sook

1995-06-01

28

Preclinical demonstration of lentiviral vector-mediated correction of immunological and metabolic abnormalities in models of adenosine deaminase deficiency.  

PubMed

Gene transfer into autologous hematopoietic stem cells by ?-retroviral vectors (gRV) is an effective treatment for adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, current gRV have significant potential for insertional mutagenesis as reported in clinical trials for other primary immunodeficiencies. To improve the efficacy and safety of ADA-SCID gene therapy (GT), we generated a self-inactivating lentiviral vector (LV) with a codon-optimized human cADA gene under the control of the short form elongation factor-1? promoter (LV EFS ADA). In ADA(-/-) mice, LV EFS ADA displayed high-efficiency gene transfer and sufficient ADA expression to rescue ADA(-/-) mice from their lethal phenotype with good thymic and peripheral T- and B-cell reconstitution. Human ADA-deficient CD34(+) cells transduced with 1-5?×?10(7) TU/ml had 1-3 vector copies/cell and expressed 1-2x of normal endogenous levels of ADA, as assayed in vitro and by transplantation into immune-deficient mice. Importantly, in vitro immortalization assays demonstrated that LV EFS ADA had significantly less transformation potential compared to gRV vectors, and vector integration-site analysis by nrLAM-PCR of transduced human cells grown in immune-deficient mice showed no evidence of clonal skewing. These data demonstrated that the LV EFS ADA vector can effectively transfer the human ADA cDNA and promote immune and metabolic recovery, while reducing the potential for vector-mediated insertional mutagenesis. PMID:24256635

Carbonaro, Denise A; Zhang, Lin; Jin, Xiangyang; Montiel-Equihua, Claudia; Geiger, Sabine; Carmo, Marlene; Cooper, Aaron; Fairbanks, Lynette; Kaufman, Michael L; Sebire, Neil J; Hollis, Roger P; Blundell, Michael P; Senadheera, Shantha; Fu, Pei-Yu; Sahaghian, Arineh; Chan, Rebecca Y; Wang, Xiaoyan; Cornetta, Kenneth; Thrasher, Adrian J; Kohn, Donald B; Gaspar, H Bobby

2014-03-01

29

Dog Whisperer  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: As we mentioned in an earlier Postcard, dogs have only recently become favored pets rather than favorite meals here in China. And, if you needed further proof of this transformation, here it is: Cesar Millan has been tapped...

Hacker, Randi

2013-05-22

30

Presumed consent for transplantation: a dead issue after Alder Hey?  

PubMed Central

In the wake of scandals about the unauthorised retention of organs following postmortem examination, the issue of valid consent (or the lack of it) has returned to the forefront. Emphasis is put on obtaining explicit authorisation from the patient or family prior to any medical intervention, including those involving the dead. Although the controversies in the UK arose from the retention of human material for education or research rather than therapy, concern has been expressed that public mistrust could also adversely affect organ donation for transplantation. At the same time, however, the British Medical Association (BMA) continues to call for a shift to a system of presumed consent for organ transplantation. This apparent inconsistency can be justified because valid distinctions exist between the reasons requiring explicit consent for retention and the acceptability of presumed consent for transplantation. This paper argues for introducing a system of presumed consent for organ donation, given the overwhelming expressions of public support for transplantation. Ongoing legislative review in the UK provides an ideal chance to alter the default position to one where potential donors can simply acquiesce or opt out of donation. Combined with consultation with their relatives, this could be a much better method of realising individuals' wishes. It would also achieve a better balance between the duties owed to the deceased and those owed to people awaiting a transplant. PMID:12796433

English, V; Sommerville, A

2003-01-01

31

20 CFR 416.1141 - When the presumed value rule applies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1141 When the presumed value rule applies. The presumed value rule applies whenever we...This means that the presumed value rule applies if you are living...Public or private nonprofit educational or vocational training...

2013-04-01

32

20 CFR 416.1141 - When the presumed value rule applies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1141 When the presumed value rule applies. The presumed value rule applies whenever we...This means that the presumed value rule applies if you are living...Public or private nonprofit educational or vocational training...

2011-04-01

33

20 CFR 416.1141 - When the presumed value rule applies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1141 When the presumed value rule applies. The presumed value rule applies whenever we...This means that the presumed value rule applies if you are living...Public or private nonprofit educational or vocational training...

2012-04-01

34

20 CFR 416.1141 - When the presumed value rule applies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1141 When the presumed value rule applies. The presumed value rule applies whenever we...This means that the presumed value rule applies if you are living...Public or private nonprofit educational or vocational training...

2010-04-01

35

20 CFR 416.1141 - When the presumed value rule applies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...1141 When the presumed value rule applies. The presumed value rule applies whenever we...This means that the presumed value rule applies if you are living...Public or private nonprofit educational or vocational training...

2014-04-01

36

Dramatic regression of presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma with photodynamic therapy.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for treatment of various intraocular tumors including choroidal hemangioma, vasoproliferative tumor, amelanotic choroidal melanoma and choroidal neovascular membrane due to choroidal osteoma. This case report documents the effect of PDT for a presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma. A 42-year-old female with a juxtapapillary acquired astrocytoma was treated with a single session of PDT using standard parameters. The tumor showed dramatic regression over 6 months into a fibrotic scar. It remained regressed and stable with 20/20 vision after 51 months of follow-up. We believe that PDT can be used as a primary treatment for acquired retinal astrocytoma. PMID:25100919

Tuncer, Samuray; Cebeci, Zafer

2014-01-01

37

Renal clearance studies of effect of left atrial distension in the dog.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the water diuresis of left atrial distension in 16 dogs on the basis of clearance studies employing hydration, chronic and acute salt loading, deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess, and distal tubular nephron blockade with diuretics. The diuresis was found in hydrated and salt-loaded dogs and was independent of DOCA and presumed renin depletion. It was not found in five dogs after distal tubular blockade. No significant reproducible saluresis was ever documented. The water diuresis was always stopped by exogenous vasopressin (seven dogs). Antidiuretic hormone inhibition with distal tubular nephron water permeability changes appears to be the sole mechanism of the diuresis of left atrial distension in the dog.

Kinney, M. J.; Discala, V. A.

1972-01-01

38

Electroencephalographic studies of dogs with achalasia of the esophagus  

E-print Network

(14) of the 16 revealed high voltage, slow wave activity (HVSA), indicating that they had suffered brain damage, the degree of which was variable and presumably related to the voltage of the EEG tracing. Of the remaining two dogs, one had an EEG..., Necropsy was performed on two of the achalastic dogs and two of the suspected genetic carriers. Histopathological studies were performed on the vagus nerves and selected areas of brain tissue. Evidence of brain pathology was present in tissues from...

Hall, Charles Lynn

2012-06-07

39

Ask Dog Lady  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What to do with a problem dog? What is the best book on dog training? Would Tony Soprano benefit from owning a dog? How can you trust your dog walker with your dog? All these questions are addressed by the Dog Lady, who gives advice, as she says herself, on "dogs, love, and life." Always readable and often funny, the Dog Lady answers emails from viewers with questions about their canine pets. Users can read recent columns or review the "Best in Show" archive, a collection of the Dog Lady's most memorable advice. [CH

2003-01-01

40

Dog Fights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

Taylor, Kelley R.

2010-01-01

41

Dog Breeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.

;

2004-07-05

42

Dog Breeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online Flash game gets learners thinking like geneticists in order to breed a border collie puppy with select traits, including coat color, coat length, and ear length. Progressive levels of play encourage learners as they move from novice to master breeders. Learners can click on the Why button to learn more about genes and dog breeding.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

43

Cloning Dogs  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: For those of you who have put off cloning your favorite pet due to the exorbitant cost, good news! The process just got cheaper. A biotech company here in South Korea has discovered that stems cells from the fat tissue in a dog...

Hacker, Randi

2009-03-08

44

Presumed Symbolic Use of Diurnal Raptors by Neanderthals  

PubMed Central

In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH) assemblages conservatively dated to ?100–60 kilo-years (ka) ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5b (?90 ka) and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60–40 ka). The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions. PMID:22403717

Morin, Eugène; Laroulandie, Véronique

2012-01-01

45

The use of retroviral vectors for gene therapy-what are the risks? A review of retroviral pathogenesis and its relevance to retroviral vector-mediated gene delivery  

PubMed Central

Retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer has been central to the development of gene therapy. Retroviruses have several distinct advantages over other vectors, especially when permanent gene transfer is the preferred outcome. The most important advantage that retroviral vectors offer is their ability to transform their single stranded RNA genome into a double stranded DNA molecule that stably integrates into the target cell genome. This means that retroviral vectors can be used to permanently modify the host cell nuclear genome. Recently, retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer, as well as the broader gene therapy field, has been re-invigorated with the development of a new class of retroviral vectors which are derived from lentiviruses. These have the unique ability amongst retroviruses of being able to infect non-cycling cells. Vectors derived from lentiviruses have provided a quantum leap in technology and seemingly offer the means to achieve significant levels of gene transfer in vivo. The ability of retroviruses to integrate into the host cell chromosome also raises the possibility of insertional mutagenesis and oncogene activation. Both these phenomena are well known in the interactions of certain types of wild-type retroviruses with their hosts. However, until recently they had not been observed in replication defective retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer, either in animal models or in clinical trials. This has meant the potential disadvantages of retroviral mediated gene therapy have, until recently, been seen as largely, if not entirely, hypothetical. The recent clinical trial of ?c mediated gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) has proven the potential of retroviral mediated gene transfer for the treatment of inherited metabolic disease. However, it has also illustrated the potential dangers involved, with 2 out of 10 patients developing T cell leukemia as a consequence of the treatment. A considered review of retroviral induced pathogenesis suggests these events were qualitatively, if not quantitatively, predictable. In addition, it is clear that the probability of such events can be greatly reduced by relatively simple vector modifications, such as the use of self-inactivating vectors and vectors derived from non-oncogenic retroviruses. However, these approaches remain to be fully developed and validated. This review also suggests that, in all likelihood, there are no other major retroviral pathogenetic mechanisms that are of general relevance to replication defective retroviral vectors. These are important conclusions as they suggest that, by careful design and engineering of retroviral vectors, we can continue to use this gene transfer technology with confidence. PMID:15310406

Anson, Donald S

2004-01-01

46

Dog Bite Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... addition, consider asking your physician if post-exposure rabies prophylaxis is necessary. Dogs are wonderful companions. By ... your dog healthy. Have your dog vaccinated against rabies and preventable infectious diseases. Parasite control and overall ...

47

Monkeypox transmission and pathogenesis in prairie dogs.  

PubMed

During May and June 2003, the first cluster of human monkeypox cases in the United States was reported. Most patients with this febrile vesicular rash illness presumably acquired the infection from prairie dogs. Monkeypox virus was demonstrated by using polymerase chain reaction in two prairie dogs in which pathologic studies showed necrotizing bronchopneumonia, conjunctivitis, and tongue ulceration. Immunohistochemical assays for orthopoxviruses demonstrated abundant viral antigens in surface epithelial cells of lesions in conjunctiva and tongue, with less amounts in adjacent macrophages, fibroblasts, and connective tissues. Viral antigens in the lung were abundant in bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts. Virus isolation and electron microscopy demonstrated active viral replication in lungs and tongue. These findings indicate that both respiratory and direct mucocutaneous exposures are potentially important routes of transmission of monkeypox virus between rodents and to humans. Prairie dogs offer insights into transmission, pathogenesis, and new vaccine and treatment trials because they are susceptible to severe monkeypox infection. PMID:15109408

Guarner, Jeannette; Johnson, Bill J; Paddock, Christopher D; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K; Regnery, Russell L; Zaki, Sherif R

2004-03-01

48

PBS-Nova: Dogs And More Dogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nova website, designed to accompany a television Feature Program on the world of Dogs, asks "How and why did man's best friend evolve from wolves, and why are dogs so remarkably diverse today?" The site showcases a slide show on working dogs and an interactive matching game entitled, Dogs Around the World. Also included at this website are a Teacher's Guide, a Links and Books page, and an Inquiry Article about Dog diversity. Additionally, this site links to the TV program transcript and to a recent "washingtonpost.com discussion with biologist and dog expert Ray Coppinger."

49

Evaluation of Coccidioides Antigen Detection in Dogs with Coccidioidomycosis  

PubMed Central

Antigen detection has been reported to be a promising method for rapid diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in humans. Coccidioides antigen detection has not been previously reported in dogs with coccidioidomycosis and was evaluated in 60 cases diagnosed based on detection of anti-Coccidioides antibodies at titers of 1:16 or more in serum. Controls included dogs with presumed histoplasmosis or blastomycosis, other fungal infections, or nonfungal diseases and healthy dogs. Urine and serum specimens were tested using an enzyme immunoassay for Coccidioides galactomannan antigen. Antibody testing was performed at commercial veterinary reference laboratories. Antigen was detected in urine or serum of 12 of 60 (20.0%), urine only in 2 of 57 (3.5%), and serum only in 11 of 58 (19.0%) dogs with coccidioidomycosis. Antigen was detected in the urine of 3 of 43 (7.0%) and serum of 1 of 37 (2.7%) dogs with histoplasmosis or blastomycosis but not in 13 dogs with other fungal infections (serum, 9; urine, 13), 41 dogs with nonfungal diseases (urine, 41; serum, 18), or healthy dogs (serum, 21; urine, 21). Detection of antigen was an insensitive method for diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in dogs in which the diagnosis was based primarily upon detection of antibodies at titers of 1:16 or higher, and the highest sensitivity was in serum. PMID:22278324

Greene, Russell T.; Prahl, Annalisa; Rubin, Stanley I.; Sykes, Jane E.; Durkin, Michelle M.

2012-01-01

50

Management of presumed benign ovarian tumors: updated French guidelines.  

PubMed

Transvaginal pelvic ultrasound is the first-line imaging examination for presumed benign ovarian tumors (PBOT) in adult women (Grade A). Ultrasound is sufficient for characterizing a unilocular anechoic cyst smaller than 7cm (Grade A). Magnetic resonance imaging is the recommended second-line investigation for indeterminate masses or masses larger than 7cm (Grade B). Serum CA-125 assay is not recommended for first-line diagnosis in adult women (Grade C). In women with a unilocular anechoic cyst, hormone therapy is ineffective and not recommended (Grade A). Ultrasound-guided aspiration is not recommended (Grade B). Abstention is an option in adult women with a unilocular asymptomatic anechoic cyst smaller than 10cm and no history of cancer (Grade B). If symptoms develop, laparoscopy is the gold standard for surgical treatment of PBOT (Grade A). Conservative surgical treatment (cystectomy) should be preferred to oophorectomy in pre-menopausal women without a previous history of cancer (Grade C). In cases of suspected adnexal torsion, laparoscopic surgical exploration is recommended (Grade B). Conservative treatment or detorsion without oophorectomy is recommended for pre-menopausal women regardless of the estimated torsion duration and macroscopic appearance of the ovary (Grade B). During pregnancy, expectant management is recommended for unilocular asymptomatic anechoic cysts smaller than 6cm (Grade C). PMID:25461353

Brun, J-L; Fritel, X; Aubard, Y; Borghese, B; Bourdel, N; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Collinet, P; Deffieux, X; Dubernard, G; Huchon, C; Kalfa, N; Lahlou, N; Marret, H; Pienkowski, C; Sevestre, H; Thomassin-Naggara, I; Levêque, J

2014-12-01

51

Presumably bacterial remains in banded iron formations: beginning of investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient Archaean and Protherozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. Judging by their age these terrestrial rocks are the nearest to the rocks of meteorites. They are represented as a rule by deeply metamorphized layers of volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks and bacterial-paleontological investigations of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. But paleontological studies of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. One of these difficulties is usual high metamorphization of rocks. That is why investigation of Archaean banded iron formations is of great importance. Banded iron formations are known everywhere. The oldest banded iron formations are met in Archaean. Their widest distribution was in Proterozoic. They are constituent part of metamorphic complexes of all ancient shields. Formation of these units ended in Phanerozoic. Peculiarity of their development in time, thin layering, rhythmyc repetitiveness are reasons of great interest to these formations. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks. Interbedding of ferrigenous (magnetite, hematite, siderite etc.) interlayers and siliceous layers are typical to these formations. Stratificatification is thin, thickness of interlayers is less than 1-2 mm. Iron content exceeds 15%. Potentially all minerals of ferrigenous interlayers could be of biogenic nature because both for oxygenized (hematite) and reduced (magnetite and siderite) minerals direct mechanism of bacterial production is established by microbiologists. Basic ore mineral of banded iron formations is magnetite. But magnetite origin is not clear till nowadays and this problem is very actual [2]. Nevertheless bacterial remains by themselves have not been found and it is not surprising. It is proved that finely dispersed non-completely formed magnetite compose basic mass of magnetite formed for example by thermophylic iron-reducing bacteria. Processes of structure arrangement and crystal enlargement are occurred under sediment ageing and abiogenic magnetite recrystallization [1]. That is why in nature in case of ancient sediments and metamorphic rocks it is almost impossible to reveal biogenic origin of magnetite [3]. We decided to begin studying problem of banded iron formations origin because of its great interest. Archaean (2.75 GA) banded iron formations of Olenegorsk deposit (Kola Peninsula) were chosen as a model object. Material was kindly lent us by our colleagues from Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology - S. Felitsyn and N. Alfimova. Interesting results were received while bacterial-paleontological studying. Threadlike, coccoidal, dumbbell-like etc. forms presumably of bacterial nature were discovered. The most abundant and diverse forms are those close to coccoidal - the very cocci, oval, dumbbell-like etc. forms. Sizes of the most part of discovered objects about 1 ?m. Thread-like forms are met less often and mainly are represented by long thin single threads. The most part of biogenic structures was found in ferruginous interlayers. The whole rock fragments often consist almost completely from such structures, biogenic forms sink into rock matrix, some images show their location inside rock sample. There are no reasons to doubt that these biogenic forms were found in situ. In siliceous interlayers presumably biogenic forms are very rare. There are mainly long thin thread-like forms merged with the rock. As can be seen from the above it is possible to make preliminary conclusion about Archaean of banded iron formations biogenic origin and about microorganism participation in the process of banded iron formations formation. Investigations are continuing.

Astafieva, M.

2014-04-01

52

KEEPING OURSELVES SAFE NEAR DOGS  

E-print Network

KEEPING OURSELVES SAFE NEAR DOGS Kendal Shepherd (BVSc, CCAB, MRCVS) Adapted for classroom use;2 Keeping ourselves safe near dogs 1 Do you have a pet dog? 2 Do you like dogs? 3 Does a relative of yours have a pet dog? 4 What makes dogs likely to bite? 5 How can we prevent a dog biting us? 6 Is a small

Little, Tony

53

Dogs catch human yawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that

Ramiro M. Joly-Mascheroni; Atsushi Senju; Alex J. Shepherd

2008-01-01

54

Plasma immunoreactive proopiomelanocortin peptides and cortisol in normal dogs and dogs with Cushing's syndrome: diurnal rhythm and responses to various stimuli.  

PubMed

We have studied the diurnal rhythm of pars distalis and pars intermedia-type immunoreactive (IR)-POMC peptides and cortisol in 3 normal dogs and 1 dog with Cushing's syndrome and have documented the responses to a variety of agents in 42 dogs with Cushing's disease, 2 of which were known or presumed to have pars intermedia tumors and another of which had both pars distalis and pars intermedia adenomas, and in 20 dogs with adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome. The normal dogs did not have a diurnal plasma POMC peptide rhythm; the dog with Cushing's disease appeared to have a similar number of secretory episodes of increased amplitude. Plasma POMC peptides and cortisol in animals with Cushing's disease did not suppress normally with low dose dexamethasone. Five animals with Cushing's disease did suppress with high dose dexamethasone, the dog with dual adenomas suppressed only partially, and 1 dog with a pars intermedia adenoma did not suppress at all. The response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia was similar in normal dogs and 4 dogs with Cushing's disease, but 3 animals with adrenal tumors did not respond. The response to metyrapone was normal in 6 dogs with Cushing's disease and, surprisingly, in 1 with adrenal tumor. Arginine vasopressin stimulated POMC peptide secretion in normal and 6 Cushing's dogs, as well as alpha MSH, a pars intermedia-type POMC peptide, in a dog presumed to have a pars intermedia tumor. Ovine CRF stimulated pars distalis-type POMC peptide secretion in normal dogs and 17 dogs with Cushing's disease, but not in 15 dogs with adrenal tumor; IR-alpha MSH was unaffected. TRH appeared to stimulate IR-ACTH in normal animals, but not in those with Cushing's disease. Dopamine had no apparent effect in 2 normal and 1 Cushing's dogs. Initial plasma disappearance t1/2 values of IR-ACTH and lipotropin were 22-27 min. In summary, responses in normal and Cushing's dogs were generally what would be predicted from previous human and animal studies, but some of those in animals with pars intermedia tumors and even in normal dogs were different from what had been anticipated. Canine Cushing's syndrome provides an interesting model for an uncommon human disorder. PMID:3126032

Orth, D N; Peterson, M E; Drucker, W D

1988-04-01

55

From Wolf to Dog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this video-enhanced lesson, students will learn that all dogs came from one ancestor- the wolf. Students will watch and discuss video segments from the NATURE film âDogs that Changed the World,â and explore different theories about how this transformation happened. Students will learn about different breeds of dogs and create a book with pictures and information about a variety of dog breeds. In the culminating activity, students will interview a dog owner and create a poster and/or a presentation about his/her dog.

2010-01-01

56

Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis.  

PubMed

Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin. PMID:23843389

van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C R; Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

2013-09-01

57

Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis  

PubMed Central

Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin. PMID:23843389

van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C. R.; Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

2013-01-01

58

Dog epilepsy gene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists have now identified a genetic mutation responsible for epilepsy in dogs. Further research on dogs with this mutation might help researchers better understand how to treat or prevent seizures in humans with Lafora disease, according to the authors.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-01-07

59

May-Hegglin anomaly in a dog.  

PubMed

An 8-year-old female spayed Pug dog was presented for evaluation of cutaneous lesions occurring secondary to immunosuppressive treatment of presumed immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. Abnormal hematologic findings included persistent thrombocytopenia, macrothrombocytes, and variably shaped, often fusiform, blue cytoplasmic inclusions in neutrophils. May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA) was suspected based on the morphologic appearance of platelets and neutrophils. Examination of cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed normal platelet ultrastructure; neutrophil inclusions had features similar to those reported for inclusions in human MHA. Neutrophil function was within normal limits based on flow cytometric analysis. Thrombelastography indicated a prolonged clotting time (r), and PlateletMapping showed a lack of response to 2 ?M ADP compared with a moderate response in the control dog. Immunocytochemical staining of blood smears using 2 commercially available antibodies against MYH9 protein (nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II) yielded negative results. However, genomic DNA sequencing analysis of the dog's MYH9 gene identified a single point mutation, resulting in substitution of lysine for glutamine at the 1841 amino acid position; this mutation is identical to one identified in people with MHA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an MYH9 mutation in the dog. MHA-associated macrothrombocytopenia may be mistaken for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. PMID:21554370

Flatland, Bente; Fry, Michael M; Baek, Seung J; Bahn, Jae H; LeBlanc, Casey J; Dunlap, John R; Carroll, Roger C; Kosiba, Deborah J; Millsaps, Doris J; Schleis, Stephanie E

2011-06-01

60

Spots over Dogs' Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

I WOULD have written a note on this subject long ago, had I not failed to see similar spots general amongst wild animals allied to the dog. The spots may, however, be more general than I am aware. The spots are by no means always tan; a black dog will sometimes have them white, and a white dog black. I

Worthington G. Smith

1894-01-01

61

Tick-borne pathogens and disease in dogs on St. Kitts, West Indies.  

PubMed

Between 2009 and 2011, we conducted a case-control study of ticks and tick-associated pathogens affecting dogs on the island of St. Kitts, eastern Caribbean, including 55 cases of clinically suspected tick-borne disease (TBD) and 110 presumably healthy animals presented for elective surgeries. Rhipicephalus sanguineus caused year-round infestations of dogs, and 36% of the dogs in the study were infested at the time of examination. Overall, 62% of suspected TBD cases and 24% of presumably healthy dogs tested positive by PCR for infections with: Anaplasma platys (0% and 4%), Babesia canis vogeli (20% and 6%), Babesia gibsoni (18% and 5%), Ehrlichia canis (35% and 7%), and Hepatozoon canis (5% and 2%). Co-infections were documented in 15% of these PCR-positive dogs. Antibodies against A. platys or E. canis were noted in 36% of the dogs. Thrombocytopenia was the most common sign of infection, followed by anemia. This is the first detection of A. platys, B. canis vogeli, or H. canis on St. Kitts and the first detection of B. gibsoni in the Caribbean. We conclude that tick-borne pathogens of dogs are highly prevalent in this region and may present in dogs that appear healthy, in spite of hematologic abnormalities that may increase surgical risk. PMID:23481028

Loftis, Amanda D; Kelly, Patrick J; Freeman, Mark D; Fitzharris, Susan; Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Wang, Chengming

2013-09-01

62

Genetic modification of mouse bone marrow by lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of HPRT shRNA confers chemoprotection against 6-thioguanine cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

We have recently developed a novel and highly efficient strategy that exclusively employs the purine analog 6-thioguanine (6TG) for both pre-transplant conditioning and post-transplant chemoselection of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-deficient bone marrow (BM). In a mouse BM transplant model, combined 6TG preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection consistently achieved >95% engraftment of HPRT-deficient donor BM and long-term reconstitution of histologically and immunophenotypically normal hematopoiesis in both primary and secondary recipients, without significant toxicity and in the absence of any other cytotoxic conditioning regimen. In order to translate this strategy for combined 6TG conditioning and chemoselection into a clinically feasible approach, it is necessary to develop methods for genetic modification of normal HSC to render them HPRT-deficient and thus 6TG-resistant. Here we investigated a strategy to reduce HPRT expression and thereby confer protection against 6TG myelotoxicity to primary murine bone marrow cells by RNA interference (RNAi). Accordingly, we constructed and validated a lentiviral gene transfer vector expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) that targets the murine HPRT gene. Our results showed that lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of HPRT-targeted shRNA could achieve effective and long-term reduction of HPRT expression. Furthermore, in both an established murine cell line as well as in primary murine bone marrow cells, lentiviral transduction with HPRT-targeted shRNA was associated with enhanced resistance to 6TG cytotoxicity in vitro. Hence this represents a translationally feasible method to genetically engineer HSC for implementation of 6TG-mediated preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection. PMID:23769104

Hacke, Katrin; Treger, Janet A.; Bogan, Brooke T.; Schiestl, Robert H.; Kasahara, Noriyuki

2014-01-01

63

Dogs catch human yawns.  

PubMed

This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation. PMID:18682357

Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

2008-10-23

64

Is That Dog a Pit Bull? A Cross-Country Comparison of Perceptions of Shelter Workers Regarding Breed Identification  

PubMed Central

Bull breeds are commonly kept as companion animals, but the pit bull terrier is restricted by breed-specific legislation (BSL) in parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom. Shelter workers must decide which breed(s) a dog is. This decision may influence the dog's fate, particularly in places with BSL. In this study, shelter workers in the United States and United Kingdom were shown pictures of 20 dogs and were asked what breed each dog was, how they determined each dog's breed, whether each dog was a pit bull, and what they expected the fate of each dog to be. There was much variation in responses both between and within the United States and United Kingdom. UK participants frequently labeled dogs commonly considered by U.S. participants to be pit bulls as Staffordshire bull terriers. UK participants were more likely to say their shelters would euthanize dogs deemed to be pit bulls. Most participants noted using dogs' physical features to determine breed, and 41% affected by BSL indicated they would knowingly mislabel a dog of a restricted breed, presumably to increase the dog's adoption chances. PMID:24673506

Hoffman, Christy L.; Harrison, Natalie; Wolff, London; Westgarth, Carri

2014-01-01

65

76 FR 35162 - Service Dogs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs...concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under current regulations, VA provides benefits to veterans with guide dogs, and this rulemaking would broaden...

2011-06-16

66

Selecting the Right Dog  

E-print Network

Bringing a dog into the family is a big decision. Many factors need to be analyzed to ensure that the best dog is chosen for your situation. The number one reason dogs are surrendered to animal shelters is that they don’t match the needs or the lifestyle of their human families. The purpose of this article is to assist you in selecting a dog, and minimize potential problems. Questions to Ask What are your living arrangements? How much room do you have for a dog? Do you live in an apartment or a house? Do you have a fenced-in yard? All dogs need some type of exercise, but there are considerable variations among breeds. Small breeds tend to adapt better than large breeds to the smaller space available in an apartment. However, some larger breeds

unknown authors

67

20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.721 Evidence to presume a person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but...

2011-04-01

68

20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.721 Evidence to presume a person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but...

2014-04-01

69

20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.721 Evidence to presume a person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but...

2012-04-01

70

20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.721 Evidence to presume a person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but...

2010-04-01

71

20 CFR 404.721 - Evidence to presume a person is dead.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.721 Evidence to presume a person is dead. If you cannot prove the person is dead but...

2013-04-01

72

Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.  

PubMed

We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. PMID:25150161

Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

2014-10-10

73

[Snake bites in dogs].  

PubMed

Altogether 11 cases of stings in dogs are reported. In at least nine cases, common vipers (Vipera berus) were identified to be the causes. The most frequently observed symptoms were haemorrhagic and oedematous inflammations of the area of the wounds, furthermore haemolysis and intense leukocytosis with relative and absolute neutrophilia and in some cases shock symptoms. One dog died 17 days after the accident from multiple organ insufficiencies, all the other dogs improved. As a therapy, bandage of the injured limb, quieting of the dog, snake antitoxin, corticosteroids, antihistaminics, antibiotics, and symptomatic therapy depending on the clinical signs are recommended. PMID:9587981

Kraft, W; Reiner, B; Bodner, C

1998-04-01

74

Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

2010-01-01

75

Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

2007-01-01

76

Carolyn with Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS National Wildlife Health Center works to identify, track, and prevent wildlife disease. A USGS technician works with a prairie dog as part of the center's efforts to protect prairie dogs, and in turn the endangered black-footed ferret, from plague....

77

One Dog Policy  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: First the one child policy and now the one dog policy. First in Beijing and now in Guangzhou, the government is limiting the number of dogs in any household to one. And the regulation wasn't grandfathered in, meaning if you had...

Hacker, Randi

2009-08-19

78

Dogs Over Babies  

E-print Network

wee babe you find a wee dog. In a frilly t-shirt. Meet Japan's newest demographic: Career-oriented women who choose dogs instead of babies, careers instead of motherhood. These women spend big bucks on doggie accessories, doggie parties and doggie spas...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-08-19

79

Sampling Prairie Dog Fur  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Fur samples are taken from an anaesthetized prairie dog in Wind Cave National Park.  Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvatic plague vaccine could help protect e...

80

Prairie Dog Tagging  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An anaesthetized prairie dog is tagged in Wind Cave National Park.  Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvatic plague vaccine could help protect endangered black-f...

81

Drawing Prairie Dog Blood  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Blood is taken from an anaesthetized prairie dog in Wind Cave National Park.  Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvatic plague vaccine could help protect endanger...

82

Trapped Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A prairie dog trapped outside its burrow in Wind Cave National Park waits for a crew of scientists to arrive. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This prairie dog will either be brought to a research van for blood ...

83

Marked Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The chin of an anaesthetized prairie dog in Wind Cave National Park is marked before the animal is released back into the wild. Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvat...

84

Prairie Dog in Trap  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A prairie dog trapped outside its burrow in Wind Cave National Park waits for a crew of scientists to arrive. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This prairie dog will either be brought to a research van for blood ...

85

Anesthetizing a Prairie Dog  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

National Park Service veterinarian Kevin Castle places a prairie dog under anesthesia in Wind Cave National Park. He will tag this trapped prairie dog and take hair, whisker, and blood samples before scientists release the animal back into the wild. Over 30 organizations and agencies are&...

86

Prairie Dog Under Anesthesia  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvatic plague vaccine could help protect endangered black-footed ferrets in the western U.S. because the ferrets rely on prairie dogs for ...

87

Novel multi-targeted polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to report the use of multi-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis. Multi-targeted PCR using three targets specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, i.e., IS6110, MPB64, and protein b, was performed on intraocular fluid samples of 25 subjects. Nine had presumed tubercular uveitis, six had intraocular inflammation secondary to a nontubercular etiology (disease controls), and ten had no evidence of intraocular inflammation (normal controls). As described previously, response to antitubercular therapy was considered as the gold standard. Results Multi-targeted PCR was positive in seven out of nine patients with presumed tubercular uveitis and negative in all normal and disease controls. The sensitivity and specificity were 77.77% and 100%, respectively. For the diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis, multi-targeted PCR had a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 88.88%. Conclusion Multi-targeted PCR can be a valuable tool for diagnosing presumed tubercular uveitis. PMID:23514226

2013-01-01

88

20 CFR 10.740 - In what situations will OWCP automatically presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OWCP automatically presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by the FECA...Special Provisions Non-Federal Law Enforcement Officers § 10.740 In what...automatically presume that a law enforcement officer is covered by the...

2010-04-01

89

Dogs Are Not for Dinner  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Dogs. They're not just for dinner anymore. Over the years, many a Chinese diner has cooked and served dog and there's a story about an emperor from ancient times whose favorite meat was dog meat. And while dog is still...

Hacker, Randi

2011-02-23

90

Animal Planet: Dog Breed Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you considering bringing a canine into the family, and wondering which type of dog would be the best fit? This website from Animal Planet provides potential dog owners with information about a variety of breeds. The site directory lists dogs under such categories as Hound, Sporting, Terrier, Working, Herding, and more. Site visitors can view profiles for many different types of dogs including the Bernese Mountain Dog, Irish Setter, Old English Sheepdog, and Tibetan Spaniel. Dog profiles contain a photograph, Rating of Characteristics; and concise sections addressing History, Temperament, Form and Function, Upkeep, and Health. Profiles also include a hyperlinked list of related dogs.

91

Intrarenal blood flow distribution during endotoxemia in dogs.  

PubMed

Intrarenal blood flow distribution during the stages of endotoxemia in the dog was studied using radioactive inert gas washout. Intrarenal blood flow distribution was determined: a) at control, b) 0.5 hours following injection of a lethal dose (3 mg/kg) of E coli endotoxin, and c) 2.5 hours following endotoxin injection in control dogs and dogs pretreated with 4 mg/kg of phenoxybenzamine. One-half hour following endotoxin injection, components I and II of the inert gas washout curve fused. Presumably this fusion occurred because component I flow decreased to a level indistinguishable from that of component II. Following 2.5 hours of endotoxemia, components I and II were both present. Pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine completely prevented the fusion of components I and II, although the mean arterial blood pressure was substantially lower than in dogs not pretreated with phenoxybenzamine. After 2.5 hours of endotoxemia, four of the five phenoxybenzamine pretreated dogs still had two clearly defined washout components. It is concluded that the renal cortical vascular response in endotoxemia is similar to that reported following hemorrhage and that the alpha-adrenergic nervous system plays a major role in decreasing renal cortical blood flow. PMID:378450

Neiberger, R E; Passmore, J C

1978-01-01

92

Exogenous thyrotoxicosis in dogs attributable to consumption of all-meat commercial dog food or treats containing excessive thyroid hormone: 14 cases (2008-2013).  

PubMed

Objective-To describe findings in dogs with exogenous thyrotoxicosis attributable to consumption of commercially available dog foods or treats containing high concentrations of thyroid hormone. Design-Retrospective and prospective case series. Animals-14 dogs. Procedures-Medical records were retrospectively searched to identify dogs with exogenous thyrotoxicosis attributable to dietary intake. One case was found, and subsequent cases were identified prospectively. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations were evaluated before and after feeding meat-based products suspected to contain excessive thyroid hormone was discontinued. Scintigraphy was performed to evaluate thyroid tissue in 13 of 14 dogs before and 1 of 13 dogs after discontinuation of suspect foods or treats. Seven samples of 5 commercially available products fed to 6 affected dogs were analyzed for thyroxine concentration; results were subjectively compared with findings for 10 other commercial foods and 6 beef muscle or liver samples. Results-Total serum thyroxine concentrations were high (median, 8.8 ?g/dL; range, 4.65 to 17.4 ?g/dL) in all dogs at initial evaluation; scintigraphy revealed subjectively decreased thyroid gland radionuclide in 13 of 13 dogs examined. At ? 4 weeks after feeding of suspect food or treats was discontinued, total thyroxine concentrations were within the reference range for all dogs and signs associated with thyrotoxicosis, if present, had resolved. Analysis of tested food or treat samples revealed a median thyroxine concentration for suspect products of 1.52 ?g of thyroxine/g, whereas that of unrelated commercial foods was 0.38 ?g of thyroxine/g. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that thyrotoxicosis can occur secondary to consumption of meat-based products presumably contaminated by thyroid tissue, and can be reversed by identification and elimination of suspect products from the diet. PMID:25517332

Broome, Michael R; Peterson, Mark E; Kemppainen, Robert J; Parker, Valerie J; Richter, Keith P

2015-01-01

93

Actin pegs and ultrastructure of presumed sensory receptors of Beroë (Ctenophora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the actin content and ultrastructure of two kinds of presumed sensory projections on the lip epidermis of beroid ctenophores. Transmission electron microscopy showed that conical pegs contain a large bundle of densely packed, parallel microfilaments. Rhodamine-phalloidin brightly stained the pegs, confirming that they contain filamentous actin. Epidermal cells with actin pegs also bear a single long cilium

Signhild Tamm; Sidney Tamm

1991-01-01

94

Molecular diagnosis of diphyllobothriasis in Spain, most presumably acquired via imported fish, or sojourn abroad  

PubMed Central

Human diphyllobothriasis is sporadically detected in Spain. Diphyllobothrium latum and Diplogonoporus balaenopterae have been identified. In the study, four cases of presumably imported diphyllobothriasis in Spanish patients were appraised. Molecular diagnosis allowed us to identify ‘exotic’ fish tapeworms such as Diplogonoporus balaenopterae in one patient and Diphyllobothrium pacificum in the others. PMID:25356331

Pastor-Valle, J; González, L M; Martín-Clemente, J P; Merino, F J; Gottstein, B; Gárate, T

2014-01-01

95

Host-related fitness trade-offs in a presumed generalist parasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)  

E-print Network

Host-related fitness trade-offs in a presumed generalist parasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae in Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), which has been described as a generalist that attacks more than brassicae) and Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia). Here, labora- tory experiments are described in which

Antolin, Michael F.

96

Jealousy in Dogs  

PubMed Central

It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

2014-01-01

97

Dog Bite Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... the dog's owner is present, request proof of rabies vaccination, and get the owner's name and contact ... seriousness of the wound and the risk of rabies or other infections. Call 911 if a response ...

98

Cat and Dog Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... of unknown vaccination status. Will I need a rabies shot? Probably not. Rabies is uncommon in dogs and cats in the ... the bite, it's unlikely that the animal had rabies. However, it's a good idea to take some ...

99

Nutrition of aging dogs.  

PubMed

Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. PMID:24951344

Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy

2014-07-01

100

Let the Dogs Out!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even the simplest of toys can be great tools for promoting interest in physical science principles. The author developed a strategy based on the 5E learning cycle (Engage, Explore, Explanation, Elaboration, and Evaluation) that uses bobble head dogs to explore the principles of force and motion, systems, and simple machines. The activity is designed to have students make predictions and ask questions about the internal mechanism that allows the dog's head to bobble, and then construct their own model using simple materials.

Foster, Andrea S.

2003-04-01

101

Dog ownership, dog walking, and children's and parents' physical activity.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog walking: 53% of families owned a dog, 41% of children who owned a dog did not walk their dog at all, and 32% reported never or rarely walking their dog as a family. Dog ownership was associated with an additional 29 min/day in PA among younger girls, and 70 and 59 min/week more in PA among mothers of younger boys and older girls, respectively. Among mothers of older girls, dog owners were 1.6 times as likely to meet PA guidelines. Mothers with older boys and girls, and fathers with younger boys, who reported walking the dog regularly as a family, spent more time in PA (105, 90, and 158 more min/week, respectively). Promoting dog ownership and dog walking among children and as a family are potential strategies for increasing PA participation in some families. PMID:20949846

Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

2010-09-01

102

Prairie dog care and husbandry.  

PubMed

The species of prairie dog most commonly found in the pet trade is the black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus ludovicianus. These prairie dogs are active, playful, and strong rodents that can make wonderful, affectionate pets when they are properly socialized and given attention. However, with a life span of 8 to 12 years, prairie dogs require a lot of care and a long-term commitment. Prairie dogs live in colonies; thus, they are highly social animals. Potential owners should understand a prairie dog's need for attention before adopting one. PMID:15145390

Pilny, Anthony A; Hess, Laurie

2004-05-01

103

4-H Dog Project Record Grade in Date  

E-print Network

4-H Dog Project Record Grade in Date Name___________________________________ Boy _____ Girl a photo of you & your dog in this space. Information about Your Dog My dog's name dog registered in American Kennel Club American Field Other ___________________ Dog's age _______ Year

Tullos, Desiree

104

Dog saliva – an important source of dog allergens  

PubMed Central

Background Allergy to dog (Canis familiaris) is a worldwide common cause of asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, dander extract in routine diagnostics is not an optimal predictor of IgE-mediated dog allergy. Our objective was to evaluate saliva as an allergen source for improved diagnostics of allergy to dog. Methods IgE-binding proteins in dog saliva and dander extract were analysed by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using pooled or individual sera from dog-allergic patients (n = 13). Sera from 59 patients IgE positive to dander and 55 patients IgE negative to dander but with symptoms to dog were analysed for IgE against saliva and dander by ELISA. Basophil stimulation with dog saliva and dander extract was measured by flow cytometry among three dog-allergic patients. Additionally, IgE-binding protein profiles of saliva from different breeds were investigated by immunoblot. Results Greater number and diversity of IgE-binding proteins was found in saliva compared to dander extract and varied among dog breeds. In saliva, Can f 1, 2, 3 and 6 were identified but also four new saliva allergen candidates. The majority of the 59 dog dander–positive sera (n = 44) were IgE positive to dog saliva. Among patients IgE negative to dander, but with symptoms to dog, 20% were IgE positive to saliva. The biological activity of saliva was confirmed by basophil degranulation. Conclusions Dog saliva is an allergen source for improved diagnostics of dog allergy. The IgE-binding protein profile of saliva from different dogs varies. PMID:23464525

Polovic, N; Wadén, K; Binnmyr, J; Hamsten, C; Grönneberg, R; Palmberg, C; Milcic-Matic, N; Bergman, T; Grönlund, H; van Hage, M; Crameri, Reto

2013-01-01

105

77 FR 54368 - Service Dogs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs...concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide...benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such...

2012-09-05

106

Prairie dogs: vectors and victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prairie dogs (Cymonys spp.) are native to North America. They have proved to be a relatively popular pet in North America and in multiple countries around the world. All or the vast majority of prairie dogs sold in the pet trade are wild caught. Two zoonotic diseases that naturally occur in wild prairie dogs are tularemia and plague. Epizootics of

David N Phalen

2004-01-01

107

Dicrocoeliosis in Cats and Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nesvadba J.: Dicrocoeliosis in Cats and Dogs. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 289-293. This paper is the first report of clinical cases of dicrocoeliosis in cats and dogs. In cats, symptoms manifested as inappetence, diarrhoea, loss of weight, changes of hair coat, and, in particular, conjunctivitis with mucoserous discharge and prolapse of the third eyelid. In dogs, clinical symptoms manifested

J. Nesvadba

2006-01-01

108

Dog Feeding and By: Jennifer Cooper  

E-print Network

Dog Feeding and Care By: Jennifer Cooper Trista Anderson Animal Science 405 Applied Animal://www.aspca.org/pet-care/ dog-care/feeding-your- puppy.html http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/ dog-care/dog-care-newborn- puppy-care.html http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/ dog-care/feeding-your-adult- dog.html http://www.hsus.org/pets/ pet_care/dog

Selmic, Sandra

109

Presumed stromal graft rejection after automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty: case report  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the development of presumed immune-mediated stromal rejection after automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty (ALTK) and its reversal after initiation of intensive topical corticosteroid therapy. Methods Observational case report. Results Stromal edema localized in the graft developed 42 days after ALTK for Avellino corneal dystrophy in a 65-year-old man. After one week of intensive topical corticosteroids, complete reversal of graft edema occurred, with full recovery of visual function. Conclusion The clinical appearance and response to therapy in this case supported the diagnosis of immune-mediated stromal rejection. Ophthalmologists should be aware that stromal rejection may occur in lamellar corneal grafts. PMID:17411422

Kawashima, Motoko; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Hatoh, Shin; Shimazaki, Jun; Yamada, Masakazu

2007-01-01

110

Vanishing native American dog lineages  

PubMed Central

Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

2011-01-01

111

Sequential Evaluation of Dogs Naturally Infected with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Bartonella vinsonii  

PubMed Central

Historically, disease manifestations in dogs seroreactive to Ehrlichia canis antigens by indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing have been attributed to infection with either E. canis or Ehrlichia ewingii. A 1996 study by Dawson and colleagues provided PCR evidence that healthy dogs from southeastern Virginia could be naturally infected with Ehrlichia chaffeensis. This observation stimulated us to determine which Ehrlichia spp. infected sick dogs that were referred to our hospital from the same region. Based upon PCR amplification with species-specific primers, sick dogs seroreactive to E. canis antigens were determined to be infected with four Ehrlichia species: E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. equi, and E. ewingii. Coinfection with three Ehrlichia species (E. canis, E. ewingii, and E. equi) was documented for one dog. An additional canine pathogen presumed to be tick transmitted, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, was identified in 7 of 12 dogs. Importantly, our results indicate that in naturally infected dogs, E. chaffeensis can cause severe disease manifestations that are clinically and serologically indistinguishable from disease manifestations of E. canis or E. ewingii. In addition, our findings support the efficacy of doxycycline for treatment of E. canis, E. equi, and E. ewingii infections but indicate that, based upon the persistence of E. chaffeensis DNA for 1 year following treatment, E. chaffeensis infection in dogs may be more refractory to doxycycline treatment. Undetected coinfection with Bartonella may also complicate the evaluation of treatment efficacy while resulting in disease manifestations that mimic ehrlichiosis. PMID:9705408

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Hancock, Susan I.

1998-01-01

112

Zen Hot Dog Molecules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

Ryan, Dennis

2009-01-01

113

Glow Dog Glow  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: South Korean researchers, ever striving to be top in science, have cloned a glow-in-the-dark dog. The little beagle was engineered by inserting genes from species--like jellyfish--that produce fluorescent proteins. The gene...

Hacker, Randi

2011-08-17

114

Hot Dog Champ Defeated  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Arthritic jaw? Recent wisdom tooth extraction? The universe saying "It is time"? Whatever. All we know is that Japan's six year domination of Nathan's Famous July 4th Hot Dog Eating contest at Coney Island came to an end...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; Bleier, R.H.

2007-07-25

115

Dogs and Their Owners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you look at drawings of people and their dogs, you'll notice they're often drawn alike: for instance, saggy-faced bulldogs with saggy-faced old men. But is the stereotype really true? A recent study looked into it.

Science Update;

2004-05-03

116

Cancer-Sniffing Dogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cancer-Sniffing Dogs is a Science Update which gives introduces the concept that diseases might be identified by examining the chemicals which are on a patients breath. A more in depth discussion of disease diagnosis by sampling a patients breath is given as well as links to other articles further reading.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2006-02-10

117

Presumed late recurrence of Acanthamoeba keratitis exacerbated by exposure to topical corticosteroids.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old female with a history of contact lens wear presented with a 1 week history of pain and photophobia in her left eye. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and corneal scrape confirmed the diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) which was treated with intensive topical propamidine isethionate (0.1%) and chlorhexidine (0.02%) with tapering dosage over 11 months. Five years after complete resolution of AK and cessation of all contact lens wear, the subject presented to her optometrist with a history of ocular discomfort and mild photophobia. Without further investigation she was prescribed topical corticosteroids. Three weeks later she presented with pain and reduced vision in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed focal, inferior corneal stromal edema. IVCM confirmed widespread Acanthamoeba cysts. Treatment with topical polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) 0.02% and propamidine isethionate 0.1% resulted in resolution of the AK. Despite an initially mild AK, this subject presumably retained viable Acanthamoeba cysts in her cornea 5 years after the initial episode. This report highlights the importance of caution when using corticosteroids in patients with a previous history of AK, even in the relatively distant past. Patients with AK should be warned regarding the risks of recurrence following presumed resolution. PMID:24391372

Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles Nj

2013-09-01

118

Presumed late recurrence of Acanthamoeba keratitis exacerbated by exposure to topical corticosteroids  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old female with a history of contact lens wear presented with a 1 week history of pain and photophobia in her left eye. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and corneal scrape confirmed the diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) which was treated with intensive topical propamidine isethionate (0.1%) and chlorhexidine (0.02%) with tapering dosage over 11 months. Five years after complete resolution of AK and cessation of all contact lens wear, the subject presented to her optometrist with a history of ocular discomfort and mild photophobia. Without further investigation she was prescribed topical corticosteroids. Three weeks later she presented with pain and reduced vision in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed focal, inferior corneal stromal edema. IVCM confirmed widespread Acanthamoeba cysts. Treatment with topical polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) 0.02% and propamidine isethionate 0.1% resulted in resolution of the AK. Despite an initially mild AK, this subject presumably retained viable Acanthamoeba cysts in her cornea 5 years after the initial episode. This report highlights the importance of caution when using corticosteroids in patients with a previous history of AK, even in the relatively distant past. Patients with AK should be warned regarding the risks of recurrence following presumed resolution. PMID:24391372

Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles NJ

2013-01-01

119

Protective Effects of Combined Intervention with Adenovirus Vector Mediated IL-10 and IGF-1 Genes on Endogenous Islet ? Cells in Nonobese Diabetes Mice with Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the protective effects of combined intervention with adenovirus vector mediated interleukin 10 (IL-10) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) genes on islet ? cells in nonobese diabetes (NOD) mice with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) at early stage. Methods Twenty-four female NOD mice at onset of diabetes and aged 17–20 weeks old were randomly divided into four groups. Mouse 1, 2 and 3 groups were intraperitoneally injected 0.1 ml of Ad-mIGF-1, Ad-mIL-10, and combined Ad-mIGF-1 and Ad-mIL-10, respectively. Mouse 4 group were used as diabetes control. In addition, six age- and sex-matched non-diabetic NOD mice were intraperitoneally injected 0.1 ml of PBS and assigned 5 group as normal controls. All mice were weekly monitored for body weight, urine glucose and blood glycose, and sacrificed 3 weeks after injection. Their serum levels of IL-10, IGF-1, IFN-?, IL-4 and C-peptide were measured and the degree of insulitis and the local expression of IGF-1 and IL-10 gene were observed. Results 1) IL-10 and IGF-1 levels in serum and pancreas were enhanced in 1, 2, and 3 groups; 2) serum INF-? level was decreased while serum IL-10 and IL-4 levels were increased in 1, 2 and 3 groups, and these alterations were more significant in 3 group than 1 and 2 groups (P<0.01); 3) C-peptide level was not enhanced in 1 group, but significantly increased in 2 and 3 groups, and these increases were more significant in the latter (P<0.01); 4) Three weeks later, the body mass of mice in 2 and 3 groups decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion The administration of adenovirus vector mediated IL-10 and/or IGF-1 gene showed limited immune regulatory and protective effects on islet ?-cells in NOD mice with T1D at early stage, and no significant reduction in insulitis, blood glucose and body weight. PMID:24663217

Li, Cheng; Lin, Xiaojie; Cheng, Xiaoli; Li, Tang

2014-01-01

120

Original article Immune responses in vaccinated dogs  

E-print Network

Original article Immune responses in vaccinated dogs with autoclaved Leishmania major promastigotes. The cellular immune response was evaluated by the lymphocyte transformation test. Dogs vacci- nated blotting. However, the lymphocyte proliferation of these dogs to the crude L. infantum antigen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

121

New Hampshire Guide 4-H Dog Shows  

E-print Network

New Hampshire Guide to 4-H Dog Shows UNH Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development Moiles House cooperating. #12;NH Guide to 4-H Dog Shows i Table of Contents INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................2 Purpose of the 4-H Dog Project

New Hampshire, University of

122

Scopulariopsis chartarum Systemic Mycosis in a Dog  

PubMed Central

Scopulariopsis chartarum was reported as the agent of a multisystemic infection in a dog. The clinical syndromes in this dog with a fulminating mycotic disease mimicked those observed in dogs infected with canine distemper virus. PMID:10325393

Welsh, Ronald D.; Ely, Ray W.

1999-01-01

123

Can "presumed consent" justify the duty to treat infectious diseases? An analysis  

PubMed Central

Background AIDS, SARS, and the recent epidemics of the avian-flu have all served to remind us the debate over the limits of the moral duty to care. It is important to first consider the question of whether or not the "duty to treat" might be subject to contextual constraints. The purpose of this study was to investigate the opinions and beliefs held by both physicians and dentists regarding the occupational risks of infectious diseases, and to analyze the argument that the notion of "presumed consent" on the part of professionals may be grounds for supporting the duty to treat. Methods For this cross-sectional survey, the study population was selected from among physicians and dentists in Ankara. All of the 373 participants were given a self-administered questionnaire. Results In total, 79.6% of the participants said that they either had some degree of knowledge about the risks when they chose their profession or that they learned of the risks later during their education and training. Of the participants, 5.2% said that they would not have chosen this profession if they had been informed of the risks. It was found that 57% of the participants believed that there is a standard level of risk, and 52% of the participants stated that certain diseases would exceed the level of acceptable risk unless specific protective measures were implemented. Conclusion If we use the presumed consent argument to establish the duty of the HCW to provide care, we are confronted with problems ranging over the difficulty of choosing a profession autonomously, the constant level of uncertainty present in the medical profession, the near-impossibility of being able to evaluate retrospectively whether every individual was informed, and the seemingly inescapable problem that this practice would legitimize, and perhaps even foster, discrimination against patients with certain diseases. Our findings suggest that another problem can be added to the list: one-fifth of the participants in this study either lacked adequate knowledge of the occupational risks when they chose the medical profession or were not sufficiently informed of these risks during their faculty education and training. Furthermore, in terms of the moral duty to provide care, it seems that most HCWs are more concerned about the availability of protective measures than about whether they had been informed of a particular risk beforehand. For all these reasons, the presumed consent argument is not persuasive enough, and cannot be used to justify the duty to provide care. It is therefore more useful to emphasize justifications other than presumed consent when defining the duty of HCWs to provide care, such as the social contract between society and the medical profession and the fact that HCWs have a greater ability to provide medical aid. PMID:18325112

Civaner, Murat; Arda, Berna

2008-01-01

124

Honeybee sting of the sclera: occular features, treatment, outcome and presumed pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Ocular bee sting injury has caused several reactions in the eye but has rarely been reported among local African farmers, and Nigerians in particular. This case seeks to report the first ocular and external eye reactions following a honey bee sting of the eye through the sclera, highlighting the treatment and outcome. Oral interview, clinical examination and external photographs were used to obtain and document findings. Medical treatment was instituted as soon as subject presented. There was complete inflammatory resolution within a week, normal vision and no evidence of stinger migration after four weeks of follow up. The wound site healed with ciliary staphyloma. The role of physical properties, immunological and genetics interplay and the presumed pathogenesis is further discussed. Health education on early presentation and avoidance of harmful traditional eye medications should be promoted among the farming populations in our communities, in order to prevent blinding complications PMID:24932341

Isawumi, Michaeline Asuquo; Hassan, Mustapha B

2014-01-01

125

Cestode infection in 2 dogs: cytologic findings in liver and a mesenteric lymph node.  

PubMed

Mesocestoides cestode infections in dogs are well known for causing severe peritonitis with larvae or larval fragments (metacestodes, tetrathyridia, or calcareous corpuscles) frequently observed cytologically in peritoneal fluid samples. This case report describes the cytologic and clinical features of 2 dogs infected with cestode larvae, with one case confirmed and the other presumed to be Mesocestoides sp. In these 2 unusual cases, cestode larvae or larval fragments were found in fine-needle aspirates of the liver and a mesenteric lymph node, but no organisms were found in peritoneal fluid samples. The data presented in this report indicate that clinical pathologists should not rule out Mesocestoides sp cestodiasis based on the absence of larvae in peritoneal fluid samples from dogs. PMID:23278428

Patten, Penny K; Rich, Lon J; Zaks, Karen; Blauvelt, Melissa

2013-03-01

126

Thymofibrolipoma in two dogs.  

PubMed

Thymolipomas are unusual benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose and thymic tissue that represent less than 10% of all thymic tumours in man. A thymofibrolipoma is a histological variant of thymolipoma in which there is an additional abundance of fibrous connective tissue. Thymolipoma has been reported previously in one dog and one cat, but thymofibrolipoma has never been described. This report documents the clinical and pathological features of two cases of canine thymofibrolipoma. PMID:19426992

Morini, M; Bettini, G; Diana, A; Spadari, A; Casadio Tozzi, A; Santi, M; Romagnoli, N; Scarpa, F; Mandrioli, L

2009-07-01

127

48 CFR 50.205-4 - Authorization of awards made presuming SAFETY Act designation or certification after contract award.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01...awards made presuming SAFETY Act designation...Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY...ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support...

2010-10-01

128

Priapism in dogs.  

PubMed

Priapism is a persistent penile erection lasting longer than 4 hours, without sexual stimulation. Priapism is categorized as either nonischemic (arterial, high flow) or ischemic (veno-occlusive, low flow). Ischemic priapism is considered an emergency in people. Reports of priapism in dogs are uncommon. This report describes 3 dogs with priapism; the first was considered idiopathic, the second was due to acute disc extrusion and subsequent T12-T13 hemilaminectomy, and the third was secondary to a lumbar meningomyelocoele. All 3 cases were suspected to be nonischemic priapism. The pathophysiology of the canine erection and a review of priapism in dogs and cats are discussed. Distinguishing ischemic versus nonischemic priapism and identifying and treating the underlying cause are important. Aspiration to obtain blood gas analysis may help classify the priapism and may provide pain relief. Ultrasonography aids in evaluation for vascular abnormalities and identifying etiology. If determined to be ischemic, then aspiration with the patient under sedation or anesthesia with or without irrigation should be done. Intracavernosal injections of phenylephrine and lubrication of the exposed penis are also recommended. If intracavernosal drainage and injections are not successful, or significant tissue damage has occurred, then penile amputation and perineal urethrostomy may become necessary. Systemic therapy could be considered if the priapism is not considered an emergency, and if intracavernous injections or surgical treatment are declined. PMID:19501342

Lavely, James A

2009-05-01

129

Evaluation of Presumed Probability-Density-Function Models in Non-Premixed Flames by using Large Eddy Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four kinds of presumed probability-density-function (PDF) models for non-premixed turbulent combustion are evaluated in flames with various stoichiometric mixture fractions by using large eddy simulation (LES). The LES code is validated by the experimental data of a classical turbulent jet flame (Sandia flame D). The mean and rms temperatures obtained by the presumed PDF models are compared with the LES

Cao Hong-Jun; Zhang Hui-Qiang; Lin Wen-Yi

2012-01-01

130

Hybrid presumed pdf and flame surface density approaches for Large-Eddy Simulation of premixed turbulent combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended Coherent Flame Model for Large-Eddy Simulation (ECFM-LES) and Presumed Conditional Moments-Flame Prolongation of Intrisic Low Dimensional Manifolds (PCM-FPI) are some of the combustion models exploited for Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of turbulent premixed flames. Combustion is then either modeled by tracking the flame surface density or by combining computations of flamelets with presumed probability density functions (pdf). The first approach

Guillaume Lecocq; Stéphane Richard; Olivier Colin; Luc Vervisch

2011-01-01

131

Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

2008-01-01

132

Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?  

PubMed Central

This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog’s care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs’ attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs.

Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

2014-01-01

133

Consenting options for posthumous organ donation: presumed consent and incentives are not favored  

PubMed Central

Background Posthumous organ procurement is hindered by the consenting process. Several consenting systems have been proposed. There is limited information on public relative attitudes towards various consenting systems, especially in Middle Eastern/Islamic countries. Methods We surveyed 698 Saudi Adults attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital. Preference and perception of norm regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation were explored. Participants ranked (1, most agreeable) the following, randomly-presented, options from 1 to 11: no-organ-donation, presumed consent, informed consent by donor-only, informed consent by donor-or-surrogate, and mandatory choice; the last three options ± medical or financial incentive. Results Mean(SD) age was 32(9) year, 27% were males, 50% were patients’ companions, 60% had???college education, and 20% and 32%, respectively, knew an organ donor or recipient. Mandated choice was among the top three choices for preference of 54% of respondents, with an overall median[25%,75%] ranking score of 3[2,6], and was preferred over donor-or-surrogate informed consent (4[2,7], p?presumed consent (7[3,10], p?presumed consent system was the least preferred, 3) there was no difference between preference and perception of norm in consenting systems ranking, and 4) financial (especially in females) and medical (especially in males) incentives reduced preference. PMID:23173834

2012-01-01

134

Communal nursing in prairie dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a natural population of blacktailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), 68% of sampled juveniles received milk from foster mothers via communal nursing (Table 1). In proximate terms, communal nursing may result because prairie dog mothers seem unable to discriminate between their own and others' offspring. In ultimate terms, both indirect selection and reduced predation on juveniles resulting from the formation

J. L. Hoogland; R. H. Tamarin; C. K. Levy

1989-01-01

135

Botulism in 2 urban dogs  

PubMed Central

Two dogs from the same owner were referred for ascending weakness and paresis of 2 to 3 days duration. Electromyography and electroneurography determined that there were normal F-waves, decreased compound action potential, and decreased activity on repetitive nerve stimulation. These findings were valuable in diagnosing botulism in the dogs. PMID:21197207

Uriarte, Ane; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Blot, Stéphane

2010-01-01

136

Prairie Dog Released from Trap  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A prairie dog returns to its burrow in Wind Cave National Park after scientists free it from a trap. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This prairie dog was previously tagged, and its blood, hair, and whisker samp...

137

Presumed toxoplasmic central retinal artery occlusion and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing  

PubMed Central

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation. PMID:24790408

Arai, Haruka; Sakai, Tsutomu; Okano, Kiichiro; Aoyagi, Ranko; Imai, Ayano; Takase, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Manabu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

138

A discussion supporting presumed consent for posthumous sperm procurement and conception.  

PubMed

Conception of a child using cryopreserved sperm from a deceased man is generally considered ethically sound provided explicit consent for its use has been made, thereby protecting the man's autonomy. When death is sudden (trauma, unexpected illness), explicit consent is not possible, thereby preventing posthumous sperm procurement (PSP) and conception according to current European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine guidelines. Here, we argue that autonomy of a deceased person should not be considered the paramount ethical concern, but rather consideration of the welfare of the living (widow and prospective child) should be the primary focus. Posthumous conception can bring significant advantages to the widow and her resulting child, with most men supporting such practice. We suggest that a deceased man can benefit from posthumous conception (continuation of his 'bloodline', allowing his widow's wishes for a child to be satisfied), and has a moral duty to allow his widow access to his sperm, if she so wishes, unless he clearly indicated that he did not want children when alive. We outline the arguments favouring presumed consent over implied or proxy consent, plus practical considerations for recording men's wishes to opt-out of posthumous conception. PMID:25456161

Tremellen, Kelton; Savulescu, Julian

2015-01-01

139

Comparative Social Cognition of Dogs 26 Comparative Social Cognition: From wolf and dog to humans  

E-print Network

Comparative Social Cognition of Dogs 26 Comparative Social Cognition: From wolf and dog to humans Enik Kubinyi, Zsófia Virányi, and Ádám Miklósi Eötvös University Dogs' special domestication processes of dogs changed markedly during the process of domes- tication. The authors suggest that this model of dog

Indiana University

140

2014 NEW MEXICO STATE 4-H DOG SCHOOL What is a Dog School all about?  

E-print Network

2014 NEW MEXICO STATE 4-H DOG SCHOOL What is a Dog School all about? The New Mexico State 4-H Dog School was designed to help 4-H youth become familiar with the 4-H Dog Project. The first two days consists of training sessions for the youth with their dogs in Obedience, Rally-O, Agility, and Showmanship

141

Hypoadrenocorticism in a kindred of Pomeranian dogs.  

PubMed

Three adult Pomeranian dogs, full siblings from 2 litters, were diagnosed with primary hypoadrenocorticism following onset of hypoadrenal crisis. Review of the family history revealed the dogs' maternal grandmother also had hypoadrenocorticism. All 4 dogs were pedigree-certified by the American Kennel Club. An inherited basis for hypoadrenocorticism is proposed in these Pomeranian dogs. PMID:25565713

Mooney, Erin T; Hammond, Tara N; Mahony, Orla M

2015-01-01

142

The Human Role in Dog Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan asks students to investigate and think carefully about the human role in the domestication and evolution of ancient and modern dog breeds. Students will explore the relationship between wolves and dogs, the reasons why dogs have been bred, and the controversial wolf hybrid breed. They will conclude by writing essays explaining the role of humans in dog evolution, past and present.

143

Dog Obedience, Showmanship, and Contest Guide  

E-print Network

Dog Obedience, Showmanship, and Contest Guide 4-H 1202 Revised January 2013 Purpose Obedience and showmanship contests provide an opportunity for you to demonstrate how well you've trained your dog and how you and your dog work as a team. Eligibility You may enter 4-H dog obedience and showmanship trials

New Hampshire, University of

144

Correspondence Dog as an Outgroup to Human  

E-print Network

Correspondence Dog as an Outgroup to Human and Mouse Gerton Lunter In a recent contribution to PLo to human and dog [1], in disagreement with several recent studies suggesting that the dog is an outgroup to the primate­rodent clade [2,3]. The authors' arguments rest on a variety of analyses of human, mouse, and dog

Gerstein, Mark

145

38 CFR 17.148 - Service dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Service dogs. 17.148 Section 17.148 Pensions...Rehabilitative Aids § 17.148 Service dogs. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: Service dogs are guide or service dogs...

2013-07-01

146

38 CFR 17.148 - Service dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Service dogs. 17.148 Section 17.148 Pensions...Rehabilitative Aids § 17.148 Service dogs. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: Service dogs are guide or service dogs...

2014-07-01

147

4-H Sporting Dog Project Member Guide  

E-print Network

4-H Sporting Dog Project Member Guide 4-H 368 September 2011 4-H Sporting Dog Education and Shooting Sports Program Positive youth development is the primary goal of the 4-H Sporting Dog education program. The program helps young people learn the sport of hunting with dogs by doing activities

Tullos, Desiree

148

Rotary slot dog  

DOEpatents

A clamp or dog is disclosed which preferably comprises a slotted stepped cylindrical body which is inserted into a hole in a workpiece and then fastened to a base or fixture using a screw which is inserted through the slot. The stepped configuration provides an annular clamping surface which securely clamps the workpiece against the base or fixture. The slotted cylindrical configuration permits adjustment of the workpiece and retaining clamp in any direction, i.e., over 360.degree., relative to the mounting position of the screw in the base or fixture.

Cutburth, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA); Smauley, David A. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01

149

WASHINGTON STATE 4-H DOG OBEDIENCE PROGRAM NOVICE TEAMSCORE SHEET  

E-print Network

WASHINGTON STATE 4-H DOG OBEDIENCE PROGRAM NOVICE TEAMSCORE SHEET............................................ Forced into position............................................ Handler placed dog so it interfered with adjacent dog...................................................... Did not remain in place......... Went

New Hampshire, University of

150

Performance of Thirteen Clinical Rules to Distinguish Bacterial and Presumed Viral Meningitis in Vietnamese Children  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Successful outcomes from bacterial meningitis require rapid antibiotic treatment; however, unnecessary treatment of viral meningitis may lead to increased toxicities and expense. Thus, improved diagnostics are required to maximize treatment and minimize side effects and cost. Thirteen clinical decision rules have been reported to identify bacterial from viral meningitis. However, few rules have been tested and compared in a single study, while several rules are yet to be tested by independent researchers or in pediatric populations. Thus, simultaneous test and comparison of these rules are required to enable clinicians to select an optimal diagnostic rule for bacterial meningitis in settings and populations similar to ours. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Infectious Department of Pediatric Hospital Number 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The performance of the clinical rules was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) using the method of DeLong and McNemar test for specificity comparison. Results Our study included 129 patients, of whom 80 had bacterial meningitis and 49 had presumed viral meningitis. Spanos's rule had the highest AUC at 0.938 but was not significantly greater than other rules. No rule provided 100% sensitivity with a specificity higher than 50%. Based on our calculation of theoretical sensitivity and specificity, we suggest that a perfect rule requires at least four independent variables that posses both sensitivity and specificity higher than 85–90%. Conclusions No clinical decision rules provided an acceptable specificity (>50%) with 100% sensitivity when applying our data set in children. More studies in Vietnam and developing countries are required to develop and/or validate clinical rules and more very good biomarkers are required to develop such a perfect rule. PMID:23209715

Huy, Nguyen Tien; Thao, Nguyen Thanh Hong; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Khiem, Nguyen Tuan; Moore, Christopher C.; Thi Ngoc Diep, Doan; Hirayama, Kenji

2012-01-01

151

SEM/STEM observation of magnetic minerals in presumably unremagnetized Paleozoic carbonates from Indiana and Alabama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Silurian Wabash Formation in Indiana and the Mississippian Pride Mountain Formation in Alabama appear not to have been affected by a late Paleozoic remagnetization event. In an attempt to characterize the magnetic mineralogy in these (presumably) unremagnetized carbonates and in order to compare their magnetic mineralogy to that of remagnetized carbonates, scanning and scanning transmission microscope (SEM/STEM) observations and rock magnetic investigations were carried out. It is possible to recognize differences in magnetic mineralogy in the unremagnetized carbonate from that in remagnetized carbonates: (1) iron oxides associated with iron sulfides are hematite (in this study) as a result of replacement of pyrite (instead of magnetite as was found elsewhere); (2) occurrences of large euhedral pure-iron oxides of secondary origin are common in the unremagnetized carbonates (3) a rare occurrence of fine-grained single-crystal magnetite capable of carrying a remanence in the unremagnetized carbonates is noticeable as compared to the abundance of such grains in the remagnetized carbonates. Although the abundance of the fine-grained magnetite grains in remagnetized carbonates is inferred to be a diagnostic factor to distinguish the remagnetized from the unremagnetized carbonates, this clarifies only the carriers in the remagnetized rocks and leaves the question of the carriers in unremagnetized limestones unresolved to a large extent. The lack of remagnetization is commonly attributed to a restricted amount of fluid influx into the rocks. For the Wabash and the Pride Mountain Formations this may also be true; early cementation has significantly reduced the porosity and permeability in the Wabash Formation in Indiana, whereas the presence of the impermeable Chattanooga Shale may have 'protected' the Mississippian Pride Mountain Formation in Alabama.

Suk, Dongwoo; Van der Voo, Rob; Peacor, Donald R.

1992-12-01

152

Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. METHODS: RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up) measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal

Hayley E Cutt; Matthew W Knuiman; Billie Giles-Corti

2008-01-01

153

Do dogs ( Canis familiaris ) show contagious yawning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown\\u000a video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs\\u000a showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly\\u000a after viewing yawning videos than to

Aimee L. Harr; Valerie R. Gilbert; Kimberley A. Phillips

2009-01-01

154

Dog and cat bites.  

PubMed

Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites. PMID:25250997

Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

2014-08-15

155

Conditioning shelter dogs to sit.  

PubMed

Human contact in the shelter may lessen effects of change in environment and smooth transition into a home. Training can increase a dog's interaction with people in a shelter environment. Experiments were conducted to determine how rapidly shelter dogs learn to sit, if the dogs can retain sitting behavior over time, and if sitting transfers to novel locations and people. Two experiments trained shelter dogs (n = 21) to sit when a stranger approached over a 10-trial session. Food and a verbal cue or a clicker reinforced the sit. The experiments measured latency to sit for each trial. Latency to sit decreased significantly over trials. Another experiment included reinforcement given to dogs (n = 20) on a noncontingent basis or for sitting. Five days of the experiment (condition training) were in the same room with the same experimenter. The last 4 days (testing) varied by both experimenter and location (familiar or strange). Results indicate that short training sessions are effective for teaching shelter dogs to sit, that dogs can retain sitting behavior over 2 days, and that training transfers to novel people and situations. PMID:16649949

Thorn, Judith M; Templeton, Jennifer J; Van Winkle, Kimberly M M; Castillo, Roberto R

2006-01-01

156

Evolutionary genomics of dog domestication.  

PubMed

We review the underlying principles and tools used in genomic studies of domestic dogs aimed at understanding the genetic changes that have occurred during domestication. We show that there are two principle modes of evolution within dogs. One primary mode that accounts for much of the remarkable diversity of dog breeds is the fixation of discrete mutations of large effect in individual lineages that are then crossed to various breed groupings. This transfer of mutations across the dog evolutionary tree leads to the appearance of high phenotypic diversity that in actuality reflects a small number of major genes. A second mechanism causing diversification involves the selective breeding of dogs within distinct phenotypic or functional groups, which enhances specific group attributes such as heading or tracking. Such progressive selection leads to a distinct genetic structure in evolutionary trees such that functional and phenotypic groups cluster genetically. We trace the origin of the nuclear genome in dogs based on haplotype-sharing analyses between dogs and gray wolves and show that contrary to previous mtDNA analyses, the nuclear genome of dogs derives primarily from Middle Eastern or European wolves, a result more consistent with the archeological record. Sequencing analysis of the IGF1 gene, which has been the target of size selection in small breeds, further supports this conclusion. Finally, we discuss how a black coat color mutation that evolved in dogs has transformed North American gray wolf populations, providing a first example of a mutation that appeared under domestication and selectively swept through a wild relative. PMID:22270221

Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett M

2012-02-01

157

Do dogs (Canis familiaris) show contagious yawning?  

PubMed

We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs showed significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs showing contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans showing this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008). PMID:19452178

Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A

2009-11-01

158

Presumed Competence Reflected in the Educational Programs of Students with IDD before and after the Beyond Access Professional Development Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Judgements about students' competence influence the goals of their individualised education programs (IEPs), the location of service delivery, and their placement in general education (GE) as opposed to special education (SE) classes. The purpose of this study was to describe how presumed competence to learn the GE curriculum was…

Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; McSheehan, Michael; Sonnenmeier, Rae M.

2007-01-01

159

Analysis of PDE6D and PDE6G genes for generalised progressive retinal atrophy (gPRA) mutations in dogs  

PubMed Central

The ? and ? subunits of the cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE6D, PDE6G) genes were screened in order to identify mutations causing generalised progressive retinal atrophy (gPRA) in dogs. In the PDE6D gene, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were observed in exon 4, in introns 2 and 3 and in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of different dog breeds. In the coding region of the PDE6G gene, exclusively healthy Labrador Retrievers showed an A ? G transition in exon 4 without amino acid exchange. SNP were also observed in introns 1 and 2 in different dog breeds. The different SNP were used as intragenic markers to investigate the involvement of both genes in gPRA. The informative substitutions allowed us to exclude mutations in the PDE6D and PDE6G genes as causing retinal degeneration in 15 of the 22 dog breeds with presumed autosomal recessively transmitted (ar) gPRA. PMID:12927076

Dekomien, Gabriele; Epplen, Joerg T

2003-01-01

160

Why do adult dogs 'play'?  

PubMed

Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. PMID:25251020

Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

2015-01-01

161

Identification of telomerase in dog  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION OF TELOMERASE IN DOG A Senior Honors Thesis by ANNA LYUKSYUTOVA Submitted to the OIYice of Honors Programs It Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE... RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2000 Group: Cell Biology 1 IDENTIFICATION OF TELOMERASE IN DOG A Senior Honors Thesis By ANNA LYUKSYUTOVA Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs 8 Academic Scholarships Texas &M University In partial fulfillment...

Lyuksyutova, Anna

2013-02-22

162

[Solar glossitis in sled dogs].  

PubMed

In a colony of sledge dogs, an increased incidence of ulcerative glossitis was diagnosed. Several facts indicate that the lesions were directly caused by UV light. The presence of signs coincided with the use of the dogs of the glacier. The lesions were localized on the first part of the tongue. The histologic changes were consistent with a phototoxic reaction and other causes of glossitis were ruled out. PMID:9719731

Arnold, P; Arnold, S; Hauser, B; Staehelin, B; Löhrer, A

1998-01-01

163

Intracranial migration of Eucoleus (Capillaria) boehmi in a dog.  

PubMed

A 4-year-old, spayed-female great Dane was referred for surgical treatment of a suspected meningioma, diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging 10?days prior to presentation. The suspected meningioma was removed via image-guided stereotactic craniotomy. Histopathological diagnosis was severe, locally extensive, chronic meningoencephalitis with an intralesional nematode egg. The egg was morphologically consistent with Eucoleus boehmi, and aberrant migration into the cranial cavity was the presumed cause of this lesion. Three faecal samples were collected and revealed 4+ E. boehmi eggs. Treatment involved 110?mg/kg fenbendazole (Panacur, Intervet) orally twice daily for 14?days. Nematodes including E. boehmi are a previously un-recognised source of intracranial disease in dogs, and should be considered as a differential for mass-like lesions visualised by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23146113

Clark, A C; López, F R; Levine, J M; Cooper, J J; Craig, T M; Voges, A K; Johnson, M C; Porter, B F

2013-02-01

164

VSF Dog Department Entry Form 2014 In order to show your dog(s), you must have completed the Dog Approval/Identification form that was due to your Extension  

E-print Network

VSF Dog Department Entry Form 2014 In order to show your dog(s), you must have completed the Dog BE SUBMITTED FOR EACH DOG YOU'RE ENTERING to the UVM Extension Office, 1 Scale Avenue, Suite 55, Rutland, Vermont 05701-4457 ATTN: VSF Dog Department, or scanned and sent as an attachment to mary

Hayden, Nancy J.

165

Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs\\/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from

Sarah K. Brown; Niels C. Pedersen; Sardar Jafarishorijeh; Danika L. Bannasch; Kristen D. Ahrens; Jui-Te Wu; Michaella Okon; Benjamin N. Sacks

2011-01-01

166

Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

2011-01-01

167

Introduction There are many varieties of dog collars available to dog  

E-print Network

1 Introduction There are many varieties of dog collars available to dog owners today. The primary purpose of a collar is to provide an effective way for the owner to control his/her dog. In addition collars are appropriate for wear at all times, while others are specifically for walking the dog

168

Noninvasive radioisotopic technique for detection of platelet deposition in mitral valve prostheses and quantitation of visceral microembolism in dogs  

SciTech Connect

A noninvasive technique has been developed in the dog model for imaging, with a gamma camera, the platelet deposition on Bjoerk-Shiley mitral valve prostheses early postoperatively. At 25 hours after implantation of the prosthesis and 24 hours after intravenous administration of 400 to 500 microCi of platelets labeled with indium-111, the platelet deposition in the sewing ring and perivalvular cardiac tissue can be clearly delineated in a scintiphotograph. An in vitro technique was also developed for quantitation of visceral microemboli in brain, lungs, kidneys, and other tissues. Biodistribution of the labeled platelets was quantitated, and the tissue/blood radioactivity ratio was determined in 22 dogs in four groups: unoperated normal dogs, sham-operated dogs, prosthesis-implanted dogs, and prosthesis-implanted dogs treated with dipyridamole before and aspirin and dipyridamole immediately after operation. Fifteen to 20% of total platelets were consumed as a consequence of the surgical procedure. On quantitation, we found that platelet deposition on the components of the prostheses was significantly reduced in prosthesis-implanted animals treated with dipyridamole and aspirin when compared with prosthesis-implanted, untreated dogs. All prosthesis-implanted animals considered together had a twofold to fourfold increase in tissue/blood radioactivity ratio in comparison with unoperated and sham-operated animals, an indication that the viscera work as filters and trap platelet microemboli that are presumably produced in the region of the mitral valve prostheses. In the dog model, indium-111-labeled platelets thus provide a sensitive marker for noninvasive imaging of platelet deposition on mechanical mitral valve prostheses, in vitro evaluation of platelet microembolism in viscera, in vitro quantitation of surgical consumption of platelets, and evaluation of platelet-inhibitor drugs.

Dewanjee, M.K.; Fuster, V.; Rao, S.A.; Forshaw, P.L.; Kaye, M.P.

1983-05-01

169

Keep Dogs and Cats Safe During Winter  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Keep Dogs and Cats Safe During Winter Veterinarian offers tips for helping ... News) -- Winter can be tough on dogs and cats, but there are a number of safe and ...

170

49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog. A diagrammatic representation of the mechanical locking...

2011-10-01

171

49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog. A diagrammatic representation of the mechanical locking...

2010-10-01

172

49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog. A diagrammatic representation of the mechanical locking...

2013-10-01

173

49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog. A diagrammatic representation of the mechanical locking...

2012-10-01

174

Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

Frazier, Loy W.

1977-01-01

175

Factors Involved in Search Dog Training  

E-print Network

1 (TX TF-1), The National Narcotics Detector Dog Association (NNDDA), United States Homeland Emergency Response Organization (USHERO), ____________ This thesis follows the style of the Journal of Animal Science. 2 Greater Houston Search Dogs... Police Work Dog Association (IPWDA) and the National Narcotics Detector Dog Association (NNDDA). Local volunteer teams may utilize standards written by their own personnel which may or may not follow recommendations by NIMS. Local teams offering in...

Alexander, Michael B.

2010-07-14

176

Stray Dogs: Danijel Zezelj  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website of the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston has a digitized version of its contemporary exhibition, from several years ago, that featured the drawings of graphic novelist Danijel Zezelj. The digital exhibition provides a written excerpt of an informative "Interview" with the artist by the curator of the exhibit, and visitors can find the interview under the "Artist Biography" link. To view the exhibition, visitors should click on the "Enter the Exhibition" link, which contains the drawings from the graphic novel "Stray Dogs", but without the accompanying text found in the novel. Each page is an artwork in itself, and contains several seemingly separate drawings per page. The beautiful drawings sometimes resemble paintings or lithographs, with their large swaths of ink. The "Exhibition Details" link is an interesting peek inside the business of lending out a museum exhibit, and visitors will find the criteria for borrowing the work including: the space requirements of the exhibition, the required color of the walls (Autumn Purple by Benjamin Moore), the cost to borrow it from the museum, the cost of multimedia performances related to the exhibit, and the cost of an artist talk.

177

Presumed allograft stromal rejection after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in a boy presenting with interface fluid syndrome.  

PubMed

Selective anterior lamellar corneal replacement procedures have resulted in fewer allograft rejections compared with penetrating keratoplasty. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty offers several advantages over conventional penetrating keratoplasty, significantly reducing the lifetime endothelial rejection. We report the case of a child with a presumed immune-mediated stromal rejection after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty who presented with interface fluid, confirmed by optical coherence tomography, that subsequently resolved after prompt topical steroid treatment. PMID:24160982

Ramappa, Muralidhar; Bhalekar, Swapnil; Chaurasia, Sunita; Mulay, Kaustubh; Trivedi, Rupal H; Wilson, Marion Edward

2013-10-01

178

Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids in order to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution, and ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, reveal a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. PMID:24148003

Monzón, J.; Kays, R.; Dykhuizen, D. E.

2014-01-01

179

Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs.  

PubMed

The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution and the ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, revealed a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. PMID:24148003

Monzón, J; Kays, R; Dykhuizen, D E

2014-01-01

180

Evaluation of Presumed Probability-Density-Function Models in Non-Premixed Flames by using Large Eddy Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four kinds of presumed probability-density-function (PDF) models for non-premixed turbulent combustion are evaluated in flames with various stoichiometric mixture fractions by using large eddy simulation (LES). The LES code is validated by the experimental data of a classical turbulent jet flame (Sandia flame D). The mean and rms temperatures obtained by the presumed PDF models are compared with the LES results. The ?-function model achieves a good prediction for different flames. The predicted rms temperature by using the double-? function model is very small and unphysical in the vicinity of the maximum mean temperature. The clip-Gaussian model and the multi-? function model make a worse prediction of the extremely fuel-rich or fuel-lean side due to the clip at the boundary of the mixture fraction space. The results also show that the overall prediction performance of presumed PDF models is better at mediate stoichiometric mixture fractions than that at very small or very large ones.

Cao, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Hui-Qiang; Lin, Wen-Yi

2012-05-01

181

Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Caucasian patients with presumed neovascular age-related macular degeneration and poor ranibizumab response  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine the prevalence of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in patients with presumed neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who were considered poor responders to ranibizumab. Methods Caucasian patients with suspected neovascular AMD, presumed to be choroidal neovascularisation, previously treated with ?8 intravitreal injections of ranibizumab 0.5?mg (Lucentis; Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland) administered as required during optical coherence tomography-guided dosing were retrospectively included. Eyes were categorised according to the time from injection 1 to injection 6 (group 1: <12?months; group 2: ?12?months). Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) was used to re-evaluate eyes for PCV. Suitable candidates received reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy/ranibizumab combination therapy supplemented by ranibizumab monotherapy, as required. Results 202 eyes were included (group 1: 73.8%; group 2: 26.2%). The prevalence of PCV in group 1 (21.5%) was significantly higher than in group 2 (3.8%; p=0.003). After initiation of combination therapy, 16 eyes with PCV received 3.1±2.5 ranibizumab injections/year vs 8.4±2.4 injections/year before initiation of combination therapy (p<0.001). Conclusions In Caucasian patients with presumed neovascular AMD, PCV prevalence is increased in eyes that respond poorly to ranibizumab monotherapy. ICGA improved PCV diagnosis in poor responders; combination therapy may be beneficial for eyes with PCV. PMID:24246375

Hatz, Katja; Prünte, Christian

2014-01-01

182

4-H Family Dog Score Sheet This class is designed for 4-H members enrolled in the Family Dog Project. While in the ring the dog will  

E-print Network

___________________________ Maximum Points Points Awarded 1. Dog's Behavior Sit/Stay 10 Come 10 Walk on a Leash 10 Total for Behavior4-H Family Dog Score Sheet This class is designed for 4-H members enrolled in the Family Dog Project. While in the ring the dog will be on display and the member will demonstrate that the dog can sit

New Hampshire, University of

183

Severe hematometra in a dog with cystic endometrial hyperplasia/pyometra complex.  

PubMed

An 18-month-old, intact female German shepherd dog was presented for evaluation of severe, frank hemorrhage from the vulva. A complete blood count, serum biochemical analysis, and urinalysis supported acute hemorrhage. Abdominal radiographs were unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated that the uterine body and cranial vaginal lumen were fluid-filled and contained hyperechoic, polypoid masses that were suspected to be blood clots. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a mildly enlarged uterus with a diffuse, cystic endometrium; significant amounts of blood and blood clots within the lumen; and several focal accumulations of yellow fluid presumed to be a purulent exudate. Histopathology confirmed severe, cystic, endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra complex. PMID:11804322

Troxel, Mark T; Cornetta, Angelyn M; Pastor, Karen F; Hartzband, Lori E; Besancon, Michael F

2002-01-01

184

A study of dogs with kennel cough  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of a population of dogs with kennel cough was undertaken. Twenty-seven (77 per cent) of a total of 35 dogs had pathological evidence of respiratory disease in the form of tracheobronchitis with, in some animals, exudative pneumonia. A variety of viral and bacterial agents were isolated from the respiratory tract of diseased dogs but Bordetella bronchiseptica and

IA McCandlish; H Thompson; HJ Cornwell; NG Wright

1978-01-01

185

49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to...

2010-10-01

186

50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216...Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

2010-10-01

187

50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216...Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

2011-10-01

188

49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to...

2011-10-01

189

49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to...

2012-10-01

190

50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216...Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

2012-10-01

191

49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation...DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to...

2013-10-01

192

50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216...Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

2013-10-01

193

Chronic mesenteric volvulus in a dog  

PubMed Central

A chronic, partial mesenteric volvulus was found on laparotomy of an adult Bernese mountain dog with a 4-month history of intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. The dog had elevated cholestatic and hepatocellular leakage enzymes, increased bile acids, azotemia, isosthenuria, and a hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis. The dog recovered fully following reduction of the volvulus. PMID:20357947

Spevakow, Andrea B.; Nibblett, Belle Marie D.; Carr, Anthony P.; Linn, Kathleen A.

2010-01-01

194

NEONATAL NEOSPORA CANINUM INFECTIONS IN DOGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neosporosis was diagnosed ante-mortem in a litter of neonatally-infected dogs. Three pups developed weakness of limbs 7-9 weeks after birth. One of the dogs developed megaesophagus. Treatment with clindamycin improved clinical signs but did not eradicate the parasite. All 3 dogs were euthanized and ...

195

Give a dog a genome.  

PubMed

In 2004 the dog became only the fifth mammal to have its entire genome fully sequenced. The canine genome was sequenced in the hope that it would help scientists understand the complex evolutionary mechanisms that shape genes and genomes and provide a powerful tool for identifying genetic factors that contribute to human health and disease. It is expected that over the coming years the genome of man's best friend will help in the understanding of the genetic cause of many inherited diseases that humans and dogs have in common. Not only of obvious benefit to humans, these studies will enable the development of DNA diagnostic tests that breeders can use to identify which of their dogs carry mutations that put them at risk of developing particular conditions and thus, over time, eliminate those diseases from the breed. PMID:17851102

Mellersh, Cathryn

2008-10-01

196

Endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations in healthy dogs, dogs with selected neoplasia, and dogs with nonneoplastic diseases.  

PubMed

To evaluate the relationship between endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancers of dogs, circulating concentrations of these 2 tumor-associated markers were measured prospectively in healthy dogs (n = 44), dogs with tumors (n = 54), and dogs with nonneoplastic diseases (n = 42 for endostatin; n = 16 for VEGF). A canine-directed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used for determination of endostatin, and a human-directed kit was validated for detection of canine VEGF. Concentrations of endostatin for all dogs were 28-408 ng/mL. Increasing serum endostatin concentration was associated with increasing age (P = .0396). Concentrations of endostatin were not different among groups of dogs (P = .1989) when adjusted for age. Mean endostatin concentrations for all dogs were higher in dogs (P = .0124) with detectable VEGF concentrations. Endostatin concentrations, when corrected for age, were related to decreasing PCV (P = .032) but not white blood cell count (P = .225) or platelet count (P = .1990). Measurable VEGF (> or = 2.5 pg/mL) was detected in 3 (7.0%) of 43 healthy dogs. Dogs with tumors had detectable VEGF in 24 (44%) of 54 dogs, with concentrations ranging from 2.5-274 pg/mL; only 1 dog with a nonneoplastic disease process had detectable VEGF. VEGF concentrations for all dogs after correcting for age, endostatin, and disease categories were associated with increased white blood cell count (P = .0032) and platelet counts (P = .0064) and decreased PCV (P = .0017). Linkage between increased endostatin and VEGF concentrations suggests that similar factors may influence concentrations of these markers. Further evaluation of endostatin and VEGF associations in dogs with tumors may provide information on the extent and progression of the disease. PMID:16496934

Troy, G C; Huckle, W R; Rossmeisl, J H; Panciera, D; Lanz, O; Robertson, J L; Ward, D L

2006-01-01

197

Continued Distress among Abandoned Dogs in Fukushima  

PubMed Central

In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5–10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

2012-01-01

198

9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93.600 Animals and Animal...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any...

2013-01-01

199

Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma or both.  

PubMed

In veterinary medicine, Staphylococcus schleiferi was previously assumed to be an inhabitant of carnivore skin, however, more recently, it has been repeatedly documented in the literature as both an inhabitant and as a pathogen. In order to determine the frequency of nasal carriage, and the methicillin susceptibility pattern of S. schleiferi from healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and/or pyoderma, a prospective study including 24 dogs with healthy ears and skin, 27 dogs with healthy ears and pyoderma, 15 dogs with otitis without pyoderma and 20 dogs with both otitis and pyoderma was performed. Specimens were obtained and cultured and isolates were identified as S. schleiferi based on growth and biochemical characteristics. S. schleiferi was isolated from the nares of 1 healthy dog, 3 dogs with recurrent pyoderma, 2 dogs with recurrent otitis, and 1 dog with both recurrent otitis and pyoderma. One of the S. schleiferi isolates was methicillin resistant. Nasal carriage of S. schleiferi does occur in healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and pyoderma. Methicillin resistant and sensitive S. schleiferi can be found in the nares of dogs with diseased ears and skin. PMID:22771206

May, Elizabeth R; Kinyon, Joann M; Noxon, James O

2012-12-01

200

WASHINGTON STATE 4-H DOG OBEDIENCE PROGRAM LONG SIT / LONG DOWN GROUP EXAMINATION CHART  

E-print Network

WASHINGTON STATE 4-H DOG OBEDIENCE PROGRAM LONG SIT / LONG DOWN GROUP EXAMINATION CHART SHOW LONG DOWN Long Sit Sit your dog Leave your dog Back to your dog Exercise finished Long Down Down your dog Leave your dog Back to your dog Exercise finished A Did not remain in place B Went to another dog

New Hampshire, University of

201

Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers' constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption  

PubMed Central

Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers’ alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's ‘presumed media influence’ theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers’ constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers’ drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. PMID:24443822

Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

2014-01-01

202

Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can make…

Carlson, Priscilla

2008-01-01

203

9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8 Animals...Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

2011-01-01

204

9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8 Animals...Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

2010-01-01

205

4-H Dog Fitting and Show Score Sheet Date _______________________ Class _________________  

E-print Network

4-H Dog Fitting and Show Score Sheet Date _______________________ Class _________________ Breed ______________________ Armband# ____________ Possible Points Points Earned Dog Condition and Appearance ____ Brushed without matting ____ Clean ears ____ Nails trimmed ____ Dog in good condition, not underweight 10 Handler

New Hampshire, University of

206

Systemic arterial dirofilariasis in five dogs.  

PubMed

Systemic arterial dirofilariasis is an unusual manifestation of heartworm disease of dogs that results from aberrant migration of Dirofilaria immitis into the peripheral arterial circulation. To expand the clinical characterization of systemic arterial dirofilariasis, 5 dogs evaluated at the North Carolina State University's College of Veterinary Medicine were reviewed. Common clinical presentations included hindlimb lameness, paresthesia of hindlimbs, and interdigital ischemic necrosis resulting from thromboembolic disease. Visualization of heartworms with angiography or ultrasonography confirmed the diagnosis in all cases. All 5 dogs were treated with an adulticide; 3 dogs were treated with thiacetasamide sodium and 2 with melarsomine dihydrochloride. Four of the 5 dogs survived the initial treatment period; 1 dog died of severe thromboembolic complications after thiacatarsamide sodium therapy. The treatment of systemic arterial dirofilariasis creates a therapeutic challenge because of multiple potential complications resulting from thromboembolic disease. PMID:9183772

Frank, J R; Nutter, F B; Kyles, A E; Atkins, C E; Sellon, R K

1997-01-01

207

"What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

Jalongo, Mary Renck

2005-01-01

208

Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

2008-01-01

209

Reproductive potential of Echinococcus multilocularis in experimentally infected foxes, dogs, raccoon dogs and cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 15 red foxes, 15 raccoon dogs, 15 domestic dogs and 15 domestic cats were each infected with 20,000 protoscolices of Echinococcus multilocularis. At 35, 63, and 90 days post inoculation (dpi), five animals from each group were necropsied and the worm burdens determined. The highest worm burdens in foxes (mean of 16,792) and raccoon dogs (mean of

C. M. O. Kapel; P. R. Torgerson; R. C. A. Thompson; P. Deplazes

2006-01-01

210

Some effects of sarcoptic mange on dogs.  

PubMed

Sequential changes in pathology were examined for scabies-infested dogs to determine the effects of infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. During 8 wk of infestation with S. scabiei, the progression of the disease was evaluated weekly by skin scrape, clinical examination, and blood analyses. At 8 wk, selected organs were microscopically examined for histopathology. All infested dogs developed an advanced level of scabies infestation by 8 wk. Of the 36 blood parameters evaluated, only values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) deviated significantly from the normal ranges for dogs. However, infested dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) lower average hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations after 8 wk of infestation compared to their values prior to infestation or to the values for the control dogs. Red blood cell levels for infested dogs dropped significantly (P < 0.01) from preinfestation concentrations by week 8. Conversely, by 8 wk total white blood cell and neutrophil concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) greater than uninfested controls. Also, whereas average eosinophil concentrations were not statistically different for infested dogs compared to controls, some individual infested dogs exhibited eosinophilia at 4-8 wk of infestation. The ESRs for infested dogs were significantly (P < 0.01) greater at week 6 and 8 than for experimental dogs prior to infestation or control dogs. All parameters except neutrophils had returned to preinfestation levels by 2 wk after treatment for scabies. Neutrophil concentrations were no longer significantly different by 4 wk posttreatment. There were no significant differences in serum enzyme, biochemical and electrolyte concentrations between infested and control dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7472858

Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Rapp, C M; Vyszenski-Moher, D L

1995-10-01

211

Ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Albania  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania were examined for ectoparasite\\u000a infestation. The dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (December–February),\\u000a spring (March–May), and summer (June–August); the cats were examined in late autumn (November). In addition, deep ear swab\\u000a specimens of 30 dogs were examined for

Dashamir Xhaxhiu; Ilir Kusi; Dhimiter Rapti; Martin Visser; Martin Knaus; Thomas Lindner; Steffen Rehbein

2009-01-01

212

NEW ENGLAND 4-H DOG CLINIC  

E-print Network

NEW ENGLAND 4-H DOG CLINIC Saturday, May 5, 2012 Tolland Agricultural Center, Route 30, Vernon CT Registration ­ 8am-8:45am Workshops begin at 9am Event ends at 4:00pm #12;Enrollment in the New England 4-H Dog Clinic is limited to 30 participants and their dogs. All youth ages referred to in this brochure are ages

Holsinger, Kent

213

CANINE: a robotic mine dog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

2013-01-01

214

Dogs' Social Referencing towards Owners and Strangers  

PubMed Central

Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention. PMID:23071828

Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

2012-01-01

215

What Do Dogs know about Hidden Objects?  

PubMed Central

Previous research has found that dogs will search accurately for an invisibly displaced object when the task is simplified and contextual ambiguity is eliminated (Doré et. al., 1996; Miller et. al., 2008). For example, when an object is placed inside of one of two identical occluders attached to either end of a rotating beam and that beam is rotated 90°, dogs search inside of the appropriate occluder. The current research confirmed this finding and tested the possibility that the dogs were using a perceptual/conditioning mechanism (i.e., their gaze was drawn to the occluder as the object was placed inside and they continued looking at it as it rotated). The test was done by introducing a delay between the displacement of the object and the initiation of the dogs’ search. In Experiment 1, during the delay, a barrier was placed between the dog and the apparatus. In Experiment 2, the lights were turned off during the delay. The search accuracy for some dogs was strongly affected by the delay, however, search accuracy for other dogs was not affected. These results suggest that although a perceptual/conditioning mechanism may be involved for some dogs, it cannot account for the performance of others. It is likely that these other dogs showed true object permanence. PMID:19520244

Miller, Holly C.; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca; Zentall, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

216

Diagnostic imaging of the pituitary gland in dogs.  

E-print Network

??Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) is a frequently encountered endocrinopathy in dogs. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is an effective treatment of PDH in dogs. However, for pituitary surgery to… (more)

Vlugt-Meijer, R.H. van der

2006-01-01

217

Blastomycosis in a postpartum dog  

PubMed Central

Transplacental infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis is rare in humans and unknown in the dog. A Doberman pinscher bitch was diagnosed with blastomycosis 25 days after whelping. Clinical signs were noted after whelping and were progressive. All 9 pups were free of clinical signs and had negative urine Blastomyces antigen tests at 6 weeks of age and remained free of signs of illness through 11 months of age. The bitch responded to treatment with itraconazole. PMID:25379395

Panciera, David L.; Troy, Gregory C.; Purswell, Beverly J.

2014-01-01

218

Blastomycosis in a postpartum dog.  

PubMed

Transplacental infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis is rare in humans and unknown in the dog. A Doberman pinscher bitch was diagnosed with blastomycosis 25 days after whelping. Clinical signs were noted after whelping and were progressive. All 9 pups were free of clinical signs and had negative urine Blastomyces antigen tests at 6 weeks of age and remained free of signs of illness through 11 months of age. The bitch responded to treatment with itraconazole. PMID:25379395

Panciera, David L; Troy, Gregory C; Purswell, Beverly J

2014-10-01

219

Clifford the Big Red Dog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS Kids has companion sites for their programs that offer a number of activities for young users. This one features everyone's favorite enormous, bright-red pooch, Clifford. At Clifford's site, visitors can play a matching game, read a story, print a cut-out dog house, and print out pages to color. The site also offers some Clifford video clips. THe site is compact, easy to navigate, and well suited for their target audience.

2000-01-01

220

The Shadow of the Dog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource uses an everyday example of walking a dog as a context where students can observe changes in shadows over the course of a day, and deduce that light travels and tends to maintain its direction of motion. The activity is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

221

Ototoxicity in dogs and cats  

PubMed Central

Synopsis A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of “ototoxicity” in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows us to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy. PMID:23122180

Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E.; Schacht, Jochen

2012-01-01

222

Super-Athletes ... sled dogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. It would be impossible for a human to complete a 1,000-mile race, even if it were done in chunks, with plenty of recovery time. Unlike humans, sled dogs are able to maintain a high level of exercise for over two weeks without experiencing fatigue. Why is that?

2009-11-02

223

Self-induced seizures presumably by peri-orbital somatosensory self-stimulation: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Self-induced seizures by somatosensory stimulation are rare. We describe two epileptic patients with self-induced seizures presumably by peri-orbital somatosensory stimulation. Two infants with severely delayed psychomotor development and poor visual acuity after acute subdural hemorrhage in early infancy had been diagnosed as having West syndrome. They evolutionally became to show serial self-induced seizures preceded by rubbing eye with finger in one case and touching right eyebrow with the back of left hand in the other case. Video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring was useful to confirm self-induced seizure by peri-orbital self-stimulation. In patients with serial seizures preceded by peculiar behaviors, we need to consider the possibility of self-induced seizures, even if they have a history of West syndrome and severe psychomotor retardation. PMID:22154490

Takayama, Rumiko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Mogami, Yukiko; Ikegami, Mariko; Mukaida, Souichi; Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Yushi

2012-09-01

224

Dexamethasone/Povidone Eye Drops versus Artificial Tears for Treatment of Presumed Viral Conjunctivitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To determine whether topical dexamethasone 0.1%/povidone-iodine 0.4% reduces the duration of presumed viral conjunctivitis better than artificial tears and whether the treatment relieves the symptoms of this disease. Methods: Randomized, masked and controlled trial. One-hundred twenty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of presumed viral conjunctivitis were randomized to either the treatment group or the control group. Physicians and patients were masked to the treatment. Swabs were taken from the conjunctival fornix for adenovirus PCR analyses. Patients in the treatment group received topical dexamethasone 0.1%/povidone-iodine 0.4% eye drops four times daily, and patients in the placebo group received artificial tears four times daily, both for seven days. Symptoms were recorded on the day of recruitment and at the time of a follow-up examination 5, 10 and 30?d later. The main outcome was duration of the disease. The others outcomes were overall discomfort, itching, foreign body sensation, tearing, redness, eyelid swelling, side effects of the eye drops, intraocular pressure and the incidence of subepithelial corneal infiltrates. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment group and the control group in terms of the patients' symptoms, intraocular pressure and incidence of subepithelial cornea infiltrates during the entire follow-up period. Patients of the treatment group reported more stinging (p?

Pinto, Roberto Damian Pacheco; Lira, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti; Abe, Ricardo Yuji; Zacchia, Rafael Santos; Felix, João Paulo Fernandes; Pereira, Andre Venancio Fernandes; Arieta, Carlos Eduardo Leite; de Castro, Rosane Silvestre; Bonon, Sandra Helena Alves

2014-10-13

225

Load-dependent left ventricular relaxation in conscious dogs.  

PubMed

Load-dependent relaxation was studied in eight conscious dogs by inflating an intra-aortic balloon during late systole. Initially, the balloon was inflated at the aortic dicrotic notch and deflated before the next systole; subsequently, the inflation time was moved progressively earlier in 30-ms steps. This intervention produced an abrupt increment in left ventricular (LV) systolic pressure. The contraction duration was assessed by measuring the time required for LV pressure to fall by 50% of its maximum value (P50). The rate of LV pressure decline was assessed by measuring its peak negative first time derivative (-dP/dt) and the time constant of relaxation (tau). When the balloon was inflated during late systole (50 +/- 5 ms before aortic dicrotic notch), the time to peak -dP/dt fell, P50 fell, peak -dP/dt increased, and tau was unchanged. Thus the initial rate of LV pressure decline was accelerated, and the duration of the contraction was abbreviated. These data indicated that myocardial relaxation in the intact conscious dog is load dependent. Late systolic balloon inflations were performed after treatment with propranolol, verapamil, or caffeine. During propranolol and verapamil, the rate of LV relaxation (peak -dP/dt and tau) was slowed; however, the effects of balloon inflation on LV pressure transients were qualitatively similar to that seen in the baseline state. By contrast, caffeine prevented the abbreviation in the contraction duration caused by late-systolic balloon inflation. Thus LV relaxation remained load dependent when myocardial relaxation was slowed by propranolol or verapamil; load-dependent relaxation was attenuated by caffeine, presumably due to its influence on the sarcoplasmic reticulum. PMID:1887917

Zile, M R; Gaasch, W H

1991-09-01

226

Fungal pericarditis and endocarditis secondary to porcupine quill migration in a dog.  

PubMed

A dog evaluated for acute onset of neurologic clinical signs was discovered to have a porcupine quill traversing the left atrium with fungal endocarditis. The dog had been quilled by a porcupine one month prior to presentation and had had several quills removed from the thoracic inlet and left dorsal shoulder areas. A new murmur was identified during the initial examination. Echocardiographic changes consistent with mitral valve endocarditis were identified, in addition to a linear, hyperechoic structure in the left atrium. A thoracic CT identified a possible mediastinal migrating foreign body tract. The foreign body was surgically removed and confirmed as a porcupine quill. Routine aerobic cultures of blood and pericardial samples resulted in growth of presumptive candidal organisms. PCR amplification and sequencing of samples from pericardial cultures identified the presence of a fungal organism, Lodderomyces elongisporus. The neurologic signs were attributed to a left-sided central vestibular lesion presumed secondary to an embolic event from infective endocarditis. After 3 months of antimicrobial and antifungal therapy the valvular changes had markedly improved and the clinical signs resolved. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of fungal endocarditis secondary to an intracardiac foreign body in a dog. PMID:25465340

Costa, Ana; Lahmers, Sunshine; Barry, Sabrina L; Stanton, James; Stern, Joshua A

2014-12-01

227

Effects of ventricular pacing on regional left ventricular performance in the dog.  

PubMed

Changes in regional left ventricular (LV) performance induced by ventricular pacing were studied in two groups of open-chest anesthetized dogs. In the first group of five dogs, local function at the LV anterior base, anterior apex, and posterior apex was assessed by ultrasonic crystal pairs with atrial, right ventricular, LV apical, and LV base pacing. Ventricular pacing produced asynchrony of contraction and marked changes in the shortening pattern at each site, as well as an average 27% reduction in peak systolic pressure and peak dP/dt compared to atrial pacing. Moreover, the extent of shortening during LV ejection was reduced or unchanged at all sites measured during ventricular pacing. In the second group of five dogs, function of the septum and opposing LV lateral wall was studied with atrial and LV lateral wall pacing. Lateral function was assessed with a crystal pair and septal function by cineradiography of a lead bead implanted in the septum. Ventricular pacing produced reciprocal interaction between the two walls, with early lateral shortening inducing septal bulging and late septal shortening inducing lateral wall systolic lengthening. We conclude that ventricular pacing produces significant changes in regional myocardial function, likely induced by reciprocal interaction of opposing myocardial regions. Furthermore, such interaction appears deleterious to global ventricular function, presumably because volume is sequestered and pressure is dissipated into relatively inactive segments that are out of phase with the bulk of contracting myocardium. PMID:7386645

Badke, F R; Boinay, P; Covell, J W

1980-06-01

228

MIP-3?/CCL19 is associated with the intrathecal invasion of mononuclear cells in neuroinflammatory and non-neuroinflammatory CNS diseases in dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Chemokines such as MIP-3?/CCL19 are important factors in the mechanism of cell migration and pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reactions. The hypothesis of this study is that CCL19, also known as MIP-3?, is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and non-inflammatory CNS diseases of dogs. Experiments were performed on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of dogs affected with steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) during the acute phase as well as during treatment. Dogs with SRMA were compared to dogs with presumed meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO), and both groups sub-categorized into dogs receiving no therapy and with patients receiving prednisolone therapy. Idiopathic epilepsy (IE), a group with normal CSF cell count, was used as a control. Additionally, dogs with intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) of varying severity were analyzed. Chemokine concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Migration assays were performed on seven selected CSF samples using a disposable 96-well chemotaxis chamber. Results CCL19 was detectable in CSF samples of all dogs. Dogs with untreated SRMA and MUO displayed pronounced CCL19 elevations compared to the control group and patients receiving glucocorticosteroid treatment. CSF cell counts of untreated SRMA and MUO patients were significantly positively correlated with the CCL19 CSF concentration. IVDD patients also had elevated CCL19 concentration compared to controls, but values were considerably lower than in inflammatory CNS diseases. Selected CSF samples displayed chemotactic activity for mononuclear cells in the migration assay. Conclusions CCL19 CSF concentrations were markedly elevated in patients affected with the neuroinflammatory diseases SRMA and MUO and showed a strong correlation with the CSF cell count. This chemokine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SRMA and MUO. The elevation of CSF CCL19 in IVDD suggests that it may also be involved in the secondary wave of spinal cord injuries. PMID:25016392

2014-01-01

229

Mixed-Breed Dogs Increasing in Popularity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To the average person words such as cockapoo, yorkipoo, and dorgi may seem inappropriate for polite conversation, but in actuality they are the names of mixed-breed dogs. Previously, many of these mixed-breed dogs (formerly referred to as mutts), would have been of little interest. But in recent years more and more people have become entranced with having these animals as household pets. The labradoodle, for example, was originally bred in Australia in the 1970s, and was used as a guide dog for allergy sufferers. These dogs are not at all cheap however, as some of these labradoodles can cost up to $4000. Another interesting development is that the labradoodle may become eligible for American Kennel Club recognition if there are at least 300 of them in at least 20 states with three substantiated generations of labradoodle to labradoodle mixing. Some dog experts are also touting the merits of these new mixes, claiming that the are in fact healthier than purebreds. Other experts in the field remain skeptical, such as Allan Reznik, editor-in-chief of Dog Fancy and Dog World magazines, who opined thusly: "It's indicative of a society that loves labels. Having a dog that is part spaniel and part poodle isn't enough -- it has to be a cockapoo."The first link leads to a news story from CNN.com that documents this latest trend in designer dogs, along with a nice table that deciphers what the names of these mixed-breeds mean exactly. The second link leads to another story about these new hybrid dogs from the National Geographic website, authored by Bijal P. Trivedi. The third link will take visitors to the homepage of the American Kennel Club, where they may read about various purebred dogs, browse a calendar of related events, and learn about the upcoming national dog championship event sponsored by the Club that will take place in Long Beach, California. The fourth link leads to a page devoted to the Schnoodle (a cross between a poodle and a schnauzer) provided by the Dog Breeder Info Center website. The fifth link leads to a site created by Catherine N. Ball (an adjunct professor of linguistics at Georgetown University) that offers a list of the words for the sounds that dogs make in several dozen languages, including Croatian, Esperanto, and Bengali. The final link leads to a fun site that allows visitors to engage in a virtual dog simulation game where they can prepare their animals to compete in the show ring.

230

Dog obesity: owner attitudes and behaviour.  

PubMed

Animal (dog) factors that contribute to obesity are classified into three broad categories: genetic pre-disposition, reproductive management and dietary/exercise (human) management. This paper examined the latter-dietary/exercise (human) management. A quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses from dog owners and veterinarians was used to determine the routine care and obesity management strategies for dogs. A total of 550 questionnaires were distributed to dog owners in Victoria, Australia. Owners were asked to score the body condition of their animal by comparison with photographic images of animals with condition score ranging from 2 to 5. The management routines of 219 dog owners were received, including data on 302 dogs. There were 168 households with normal weight animals (BCS 2 and 3) and 51 with obese animals (BCS 4 and 5). The mean number of people per household (normally involved with caring for the animal(s)) with normal weight dogs was significantly lower than that of households with dogs categorised as overweight or obese (Kruskal-Wallis, Chi; chi(2)=6.28; 2.2 (s=0.79) vs. 2.5 (s=1.66); d.f.=2, P<0.05). Dog owners identified a preference for main meal feeding of 'twice a day' (60%), followed by 'once daily' (33%), 'greater than or equal to three times daily' (2%), and 'always feed available' (5%). There was a significant difference (Chi; chi(2)=6.30; d.f.=1; P<0.05) in the frequency of main meal feeding between households. Normal weight animals had food divided into two portions, whereas obese animals or animals from mixed households were more often fed their meal in either one or three-plus portions. Almost all owners fed treats (99%) in the daily feed. Households with normal weight dogs gave treats significantly less frequently than households with obese or mixed weight dogs (Chi; chi(2)=31.81; d.f.=6; P<0.001). The frequency of exercise differed between households (Chi; chi(2)=9.9; d.f.=1; P<0.01), with normal weight dogs being exercised daily compared to weekly for overweight or mixed weight dogs. Owners who indicated that their dog was confined to a yard as its exercise regime rather than walked were also significantly more likely to be an obese or mixed weight household (Chi; chi(2)=18.4; d.f.=1; P<0.001). In conclusion, there is clear evidence that obesity in dogs is affected by the interrelationships between food management, exercise and social factors. PMID:19766333

Bland, I M; Guthrie-Jones, A; Taylor, R D; Hill, J

2009-12-01

231

Dog ownership, dog behaviour and transmission of Echinococcus spp. in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan.  

PubMed

Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities. PMID:23985326

Van Kesteren, Freya; Mastin, Alexander; Mytynova, Bermet; Ziadinov, Iskender; Boufana, Belgees; Torgerson, Paul R; Rogan, Michael T; Craig, Philip S

2013-11-01

232

Faecal microbiota in lean and obese dogs.  

PubMed

Previous work has shown obesity to be associated with changes in intestinal microbiota. While obesity is common in dogs, limited information is available about the role of the intestinal microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alterations in the intestinal microbiota may be associated with canine obesity. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated the composition of the faecal microbiota in 22 lean and 21 obese pet dogs, as well as in five research dogs fed ad libitum and four research dogs serving as lean controls. Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla. The phylum Actinobacteria and the genus Roseburia were significantly more abundant in the obese pet dogs. The order Clostridiales significantly increased under ad libitum feeding in the research dogs. Canine intestinal microbiota is highly diverse and shows considerable interindividual variation. In the pet dogs, influence on the intestinal microbiota besides body condition, like age, breed, diet or lifestyle, might have masked the effect of obesity. The study population of research dogs was small, and further work is required before the role of the intestinal microbiota in canine obesity is clarified. PMID:23301868

Handl, Stefanie; German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Dowd, Scot E; Steiner, Jörg M; Heilmann, Romy M; Grant, Ryan W; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

2013-05-01

233

Cultivable Oral Microbiota of Domestic Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaques of nine dogs and a sample of pooled saliva from five other dogs and were then identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among 339 isolates, 84 different phylotypes belonging to 37 genera were identified. Approximately half of the phylotypes were identified to the species level, and 28% of these were considered members

David R. Elliott; Michael Wilson; Catherine M. F. Buckley; David A. Spratt

2005-01-01

234

Nutritional evaluation of extruded cereals for dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestibility of extruded raw materials of vegetal origin (corn, degerminated corn, sorghum, and brewer s rice) was evaluated in this experiment. Eight similar male dogs from AMERICAN FOXHOUND breed had been selected, at the ages of three years old and average weight of 32,0 kg + 2,4 kg. Each treatment, from a total of four, was offered to two dogs,

Anderson Duarte; Flávia Maria de Oliveira; Borges Saad; James Jim Corbim

235

Ileal cannulation and associated complications in dogs.  

PubMed

Accurate measurement of small intestinal digestibility is important in dogs because it allows the formulation of pet foods that provide optimal nutrition at minimal cost. Digestibility measured by comparing nutrient intake to fecal excretion in intact animals does not distinguish small intestinal digestion from large intestinal bacterial fermentation. Ileal cannulation allows small intestinal digestion to be measured alone by comparing nutrient intake with ileal excretion of chyme. Nevertheless, ileal cannulation and its associated complications are not well documented in dogs. We describe the implantation of a simple T-cannula in the ileum of nine dogs for an average duration of 26 weeks. Established cannulas were well tolerated, and one dog retained the cannula for 14 months. Nevertheless, ileal effluent proved extremely caustic, and the incidence of complications in the immediate postoperative period was high. Only one dog had an unremarkable postoperative course. Complications included abscessation and cannula extrusion, followed by severe excoriation and ulceration of the skin. This excoriation could be prevented only by immediate surgical closure of the fistula. Chronic ileal cannulation is therefore a viable technique in dogs, but careful monitoring of the cannula site is essential. Dogs should be subjected to this procedure only if adequate veterinary and nursing care is available. It is preferable to maintain a colony of long-term cannulated dogs rather than to implant cannulas as needed. PMID:8699825

Hill, R C; Ellison, G W; Burrows, C F; Bauer, J E; Carbia, B

1996-02-01

236

Dog ecology and demography in Antananarivo, 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and a serious public health problem in developing countries. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. This paper reports the results of a cross-sectional study of dog ecology in the Antananarivo urban community in Madagascar. A questionnaire

Maherisoa Ratsitorahina; Jhon H Rasambainarivo; Soloherilala Raharimanana; Hary Rakotonandrasana; Marie-Perle Andriamiarisoa; Fidilalao A Rakalomanana; Vincent Richard

2009-01-01

237

4-H Dog Project Senior Record Book  

E-print Network

Virginia 4-H Dog Project Senior Record Book (ages 14-19) Publication 388-130 #12;Virginia 4-H Dog county/city 4-H program are you enrolled in with this project __________________________________ 4-H Club______________________________________________ Years in 4-H (including this year) ________ Date Project Started:________________________ Date Project

Liskiewicz, Maciej

238

Going to the 'Dogs' to Test Hypotheses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an alternative method for using live animals in the classroom. A toy dog, the "Trail Tracker Hound Dog" (manufactured by CPG Products Corporation, Cincinnati, Ohio), is used to encourage development of such skills as observation, hypothesis testing, and collection and analysis of scientific data. (Author/JN)

Kramm, Kenneth R.

1982-01-01

239

49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742 Dog, locking. A steel block attached to a locking bar or...

2010-10-01

240

Pavlov's Dog - Nobel Prize Educational Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pavlov's Dog game and related reading are based on some of the scientific achievements of Ivan Pavlov, who was awarded the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Even though the first image that comes to mind with Ivan Pavlov is his drooling dogs, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his pioneering studies of how the digestive system works.

2009-01-01

241

49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742 Dog, locking. A steel block attached to a locking bar or...

2011-10-01

242

Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

2014-01-01

243

POLLUTION DETECTION DOGS: PROOF OF CONCEPT  

EPA Science Inventory

Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

244

Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.  

PubMed Central

Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8226288

Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vázquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

1993-01-01

245

A Folk Tale of a Dog  

E-print Network

Folk Tale of a Dog Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshe 'dzin tells a folktale in which a dog helps three girls escape from a demon. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual) Folktale Name of recorder (if...

Bkra shis bzang po

2009-11-17

246

Genetic Structure of the Purebred Domestic Dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used molecular markers to study genetic relationships in a diverse collection of 85 domestic dog breeds. Differences among breeds accounted for ~30% of genetic variation. Microsatellite genotypes were used to correctly assign 99% of individual dogs to breeds. Phylogenetic analysis separated several breeds with ancient origins from the remaining breeds with modern European origins. We identified four genetic clusters,

Heidi G. Parker; Lisa V. Kim; Nathan B. Sutter; Scott Carlson; Travis D. Lorentzen; Tiffany B. Malek; Gary S. Johnson; Hawkins B. DeFrance; Elaine A. Ostrander; Leonid Kruglyak

2004-01-01

247

The Domestication of Social Cognition in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs are more skillful than great apes at a number of tasks in which they must read human communicative signals indicating the location of hidden food. In this study, we found that wolves who were raised by humans do not show these same skills, whereas domestic dog puppies only a few weeks old, even those that have had little human

Brian Hare; Michelle Brown; Christina Williamson; Michael Tomasello

2002-01-01

248

49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742 Dog, locking. A steel block attached to a locking bar or...

2013-10-01

249

49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742 Dog, locking. A steel block attached to a locking bar or...

2012-10-01

250

Interactions of wolves and dogs in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article reports on the nature and extent of wolf-dog interactions in Minnesota, based on investigations of complaints received by personnel of the federal government dealing with wolf-depredation control. Findings may indicate the wolf-dog interactions that can be expected in other recovery areas.

Fritts, S.H.; Paul, W.J.

1989-01-01

251

Checking a Prairie Dog for Fleas  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

National Park Service veterinarian Kevin Castle checks an anaesthetized prairie dog for fleas in Wind Cave National Park.  Over 30 organizations and agencies are testing a USGS-developed oral vaccine to prevent the spread of plague in prairie dogs. If successful, the sylvat...

252

Histoplasmosis in a dog from New Brunswick  

PubMed Central

A young dog was presented with a history of chronic diarrhea, anorexia, and weight loss. Histoplasma capsulatum was suspected, based on cytologic examination of lymph node aspirates and peritoneal fluid, and confirmed by fungal culture. To our knowledge, this is the first case of histoplasmosis diagnosed in a dog in Atlantic Canada. PMID:17824159

Tyre, Erica; Eisenbart, David; Foley, Peter; Burton, Shelley

2007-01-01

253

Histiocytic typhlocolitis in two colony Beagle dogs.  

PubMed

Two young female Beagle dogs in a laboratory colony with clinical signs of loose stools and fecal blood were confirmed to have histiocytic ulcerative colitis by histologic evaluation. This syndrome is well recognized in other dog breeds such as Boxers and related French Bulldogs, Mastiffs, Alaskan malamutes and Doberman Pinschers. Formalin-fixed paraffin sections of large intestine from one dog demonstrated the presence of Escherichia coli strain LF82 by immunohistochemistry and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. E coli strain LF82 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and similar bacteria have been cultured from cases of histiocytic ulcerative colitis in Boxer dogs. Spontaneous histiocytic ulcerative colitis must be differentiated from test article-related findings in nonclinical toxicity studies in Beagle dogs. PMID:25467750

Carvallo, Francisco R; Kerlin, Roy; Fredette, Claudine; Pisharath, Harshan; DebRoy, Chitrita; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Pardo, Ingrid D

2015-02-01

254

Dog Models of Naturally Occurring Cancer  

PubMed Central

Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models of natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has vastly reduced genetic variation compared to humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five to eight-fold faster than humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age, and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the last decade, developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer. PMID:21439907

Rowell, Jennie L.; McCarthy, Donna O.; Alvarez, Carlos E.

2011-01-01

255

36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504.10 Section 504.10...SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2010-07-01

256

31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11...TREASURY BUILDING AND THE TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2011-07-01

257

31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11...BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2011-07-01

258

4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12...ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or...

2011-01-01

259

44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13...THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2011-10-01

260

4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12...ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or...

2010-01-01

261

36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504.10 Section 504.10...SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2011-07-01

262

31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11...TREASURY BUILDING AND THE TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2010-07-01

263

44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13...THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2010-10-01

264

36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11...PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION § 520.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2010-07-01

265

36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11...PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION § 520.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2011-07-01

266

31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11...BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2010-07-01

267

MYOCARDIAL CONCENTRATIONS OF FATTY ACIDS IN DOGS WITH DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To compare the myocardial concentrations of fatty acids in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with control dogs using myocardium from 7 dogs with DCM, 16 control dogs. Myocardial tissues were homogenized and total fatty acids extracted and converted to methyl esters. Myocardial fatty acids conce...

268

4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12...ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or...

2013-01-01

269

Gather information and determine the best dog for  

E-print Network

Gather information and determine the best dog for your family . Learn about proper care, grooming, and feeding of your dog. Create a plan to prevent your dog from getting lost and/or finding it if it gets lost. Purchase and use the appro- priate grooming equipment and techniques. Train your dog basic com

New Hampshire, University of

270

36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11...PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION § 520.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2014-07-01

271

31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11...BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2013-07-01

272

31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11...BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2014-07-01

273

4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12...ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or...

2014-01-01

274

31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11...TREASURY BUILDING AND THE TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2012-07-01

275

36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504.10 Section 504.10...SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2014-07-01

276

31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11...TREASURY BUILDING AND THE TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2013-07-01

277

Clever hounds: social cognition in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)  

E-print Network

Clever hounds: social cognition in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) Jonathan J. Cooper* , Clare, Riseholme, Lincoln LN2 2LG, UK Abstract This paper reviews the reasons why domestic dogs make good models be adopted to investigate such processes in dogs. Domestic dogs are suitable models for investigating social

278

44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13...THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2012-10-01

279

44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13...THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2014-10-01

280

4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12...ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or...

2012-01-01

281

36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11...PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION § 520.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2012-07-01

282

Fluffiness of dog Fluffiness of towel Inferring Analogous Attributes  

E-print Network

Fluffiness of dog Fluffiness of towel = ?? Inferring Analogous Attributes Chao-Yeh Chen and Kristen dogs A striped dog? Yes. + Prediction3 ?? = Inferred attribute21 Learned category-sensitive attributes Dog Equine Spotted BrownStriped + - + - + - + - No training examples ?? Attribute Category No training

Grauman, Kristen

283

44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13...THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2013-10-01

284

36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Dogs and other animals. 504.10 Section 504.10...SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2013-07-01

285

31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11...TREASURY BUILDING AND THE TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2014-07-01

286

36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11...PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION § 520.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2013-07-01

287

36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504.10 Section 504.10...SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2012-07-01

288

31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11...BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs,...

2012-07-01

289

KEEPING OURSELVES SAFE NEAR DOGS Kendal Shepherd (BVSc, CCAB, MRCVS)  

E-print Network

1 KEEPING OURSELVES SAFE NEAR DOGS Kendal Shepherd (BVSc, CCAB, MRCVS) Adapted for classroom use 2012 Dogs have lived in the company of humans for many thou- sands of years. The domestic dog remain in terms of body language and behaviour, the dog we know today is a very different animal compared

Little, Tony

290

Insulinoma in dogs: a review.  

PubMed

Insulinomas are rare malignant functional pancreatic tumors of the ? cells that retain the ability to produce and secrete insulin. Insulinomas are the most common pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in dogs that can induce a variety of clinical signs that result from hypoglycemia and secondary neuroglycopenic and adrenergic effects. Diagnosis and treatment is considered challenging, and the prognosis can be extremely variable depending on the therapeutic choices. This review aims to summarize and update classic knowledge with current trends in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of insulinomas. PMID:22474047

Goutal, Caroline M; Brugmann, Bonnie L; Ryan, Kirk A

2012-01-01

291

Subconjunctival hibernoma in a dog.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old, castrated male, German Shepherd mixed-breed dog was presented to Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center for evaluation of a subconjunctival swelling in the ventral fornix of the left orbit. The owner elected to pursue excision of the mass 2 years after initial consultation following a sudden change in the size and color of the lesion. An excisional biopsy was performed, and the mass along with its associated capsule were submitted to the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin for histopathologic evaluation, which confirmed the diagnosis of a hibernoma. Fourteen months following excision, the patient showed no evidence of tumor regrowth. PMID:24238154

Stuckey, Jane A; Rankin, Amy J; Romkes, Gwendolyna; Slack, Jessica; Kiupel, Matti; Dubielzig, Richard R

2015-01-01

292

Proteinuria in dogs and cats  

PubMed Central

Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

2012-01-01

293

Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.  

PubMed

Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N

2011-01-01

294

Microvasculature of the Dog Left Ventricular Myocardium1  

PubMed Central

One of the main branches of the left main coronary artery of normally beating dog hearts was perfused with a silicone elastomer which solidified within the vasculature. Prolonged immersion in increasingly concentrated ethanol and in methyl salicylate rendered the tissue translucent and the vasculature clearly visible. Surfaces were photographed by reflected or transmitted light microscopy, showing large groups of capillaries running parallel to muscle fibers and extending for up to a few centimeters. The arrangement of arteriolar inflows to the capillary network and venular outflows (two to four times as frequent) suggested that functional capillary lengths were 500–1000 ?m. Estimates of capillary diameters, presumably at maximal dilatation, were 5.6 ± 1.3 ?m. Capillary densities within muscle groups were 3100–3800/mm2, giving intercapillary distances of 19–17.5 ?m. With the lesser density value, the capillary surface area is estimated to be 500 cm2/g of myocardium. Inclusion of interfascial spaces lowered the average density to about 2500/mm2. Unbranched capillary lengths averaged 100 ?m, with a strongly right-skewed distribution. The anatomic arrangement provides a basis mainly for concurrent flow in neighboring capillaries, and also for some diffusional exchange between inflow and outflow regions. PMID:4596001

Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Yipintsoi, Tada; Harvey, Rodney B.

2010-01-01

295

Ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Albania.  

PubMed

One hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. The dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (December-February), spring (March-May), and summer (June-August); the cats were examined in late autumn (November). In addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. The arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus), three mite species (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, Otodectes cynotis, and Demodex canis), three flea species (Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, and Pulex irritans), and one louse species (Trichodectes canis). In the dogs, rates of infestation were 23.8% for R. sanguineus, 0.6% for I. ricinus, 4.4% for S. scabiei var. canis, 6.7% for O. cynotis, 0.6% for D. canis, 75.7% for C. canis, 5.0% for C. felis, 8.3% for P. irritans, and 6.6% for T. canis. Mixed infestation with two or three species of ectoparasites was recorded on 38.1% of the dogs. Fleas infested 75.7% dogs (geometric mean, 3.96; range, 1-80) and were observed in winter, spring, and summer with increasing prevalences of 64.3%, 75.9%, and 100%. Ticks parasitized 24.3% of the dogs (geometric mean, 0.41; range, 1-331). R. sanguineus ticks were recorded on 34.2% and 50% of the dogs examined in spring and summer, respectively, but were absent on the dogs during winter except for a single I. ricinus specimen observed. Prevalence of infestation with R. sanguineus, S. scabiei var. canis, C. felis, P. irritans, and T. canis did not differ between dogs < or = 6 months and dogs > 6 months of age; however, prevalence of infestation with C. canis was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in dogs > 6 months old. There was no difference between the sexes for the prevalences of infestation with those parasites. The examination of the cats revealed infestation with only one species of ectoparasite, C. felis (prevalence, 100%; geometric mean, 2.5; range, 1-9). PMID:19690887

Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimiter; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Lindner, Thomas; Rehbein, Steffen

2009-11-01

296

Experimental infection of dogs with Sarcocystis from wapiti.  

PubMed

Ten domestic dogs became infected with Sarcocystis when fed simple portions of heart, esophagus and diaphragm from a two-year-old female wapiti (Cervus canadensis). The prepatent period was 14 days in all exposed dogs; the patent period ranged from 8 to 20 days. Neither the 10 control dogs, nor two dogs fed sporocysts collected from the infected dogs passed sporocysts within the study period. Sporocysts averaged 16.5 by 11.1 micron in size. PMID:113562

Margolin, J H; Jolley, W R

1979-04-01

297

How to Steal a Dog and Other Lessons in Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author relates how a lost dog gave her the idea for writing her book, "How to Steal a Dog." Her tale of serendipity began when she, a dog-lover, walked into a garden center near her home and saw a sign for a lost dog taped beside the cash register. She states that, although her story is about a girl who stole a dog and…

O'Connor, Barbara

2007-01-01

298

Review on Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Africa: A Question of Dog Accessibility or Cost Recovery?  

PubMed Central

Background Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged). Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP), Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP) and AJOL (African Journal Online) for peer reviewed articles on 1) rabies control, 2) dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3) dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ? 1990), type of study (cross sectional), objective(s) of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs), language of publication (English) and geographical focus (Africa). The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1) the majority (up to 98.1%) of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible), 2) puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30%) of the dog population and 3) male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population). Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between “free of charge” and “owner charged” vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68%) is closer to the World Health Organization recommended coverage rate (70%) than the achieved coverage rate in owner-charged dog rabies vaccination schemes (18%). Conclusions/Significance Most dogs in Africa are owned and accessible for parenteral vaccination against rabies if the campaign is performed “free of charge”. PMID:25646774

Jibat, Tariku; Hogeveen, Henk; Mourits, Monique C. M.

2015-01-01

299

Neutrophil kinetics in the dog.  

PubMed Central

The production of neutrophils in dogs has been estimated from the number of postmitotic neutrophils in the marrow and the transit time of a [3H]-thymidine pulse. The number of postmitotic neutrophils was derived from the erythron iron turnover measurement of erythroid number and the neutrophil-erythroid ratio in bone marrow sections. The mean value for marrow postmitotic neutrophils in dogs was 5.61 plus or minus 0.56 times 10-9 cells/kg. The mean transit time of these neutrophils was calculated to be 82.1 h. A marrow production of 1.65 times 10-9 neutrophils/kg/day was calculated from these data. The turnover of circulating neutrophils was measured by [3H]thymidine and [32P]diisopropylphospho-fluoridate (DF32P) labeling of blood neutrophils. [3H]-Thymidine labeling gave a calculated recovery of 65 per cent, a t1/2 disappearance time of 6.7 h, and a calculated turnover of 1.66 times 10-9 cells/kg/day. Corresponding results with DF32P tagging were 51 per cent, 5.4 h, and 2.89 times 10-9 cells/kg/day. The discrepancy between these two tags persisted in doubly tagged cells and was considered to be due to elution of DF32P. PMID:1120785

Deubelbeiss, K A; Dancey, J T; Harker, L A; Finch, C A

1975-01-01

300

Quantum non-barking dogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

2014-06-01

301

Are owners' reports of their dogs' 'guilty look' influenced by the dogs' action and evidence of the misdeed?  

PubMed

While dog owners claim that their dogs' greeting behaviour after having performed a misdeed indicates the dogs' 'guilt', current experimental evidence suggests that dogs show these 'guilty look' behaviours as a response to being scolded by their owners. Given reports that 'guilty look' behaviours are shown also in the absence of being scolded, we investigated whether the dogs' own actions or the evidence of a misdeed might serve as triggering cues. We manipulated whether or not dogs ate a 'forbidden' food item and whether or not the food was visible upon the owners' return. Based on their dogs' greeting behaviour, owners stated that their dog had eaten the food no more than expected by chance. In addition, dogs' greeting behaviours were not affected by their own action or the presence or absence of the food. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that dogs show the 'guilty look' in the absence of a concurrent negative reaction by their owners. PMID:25562192

Ostoji?, Ljerka; Tkal?i?, Mladenka; Clayton, Nicola S

2015-02-01

302

Are owners' reports of their dogs’ ‘guilty look’ influenced by the dogs’ action and evidence of the misdeed?  

PubMed Central

While dog owners claim that their dogs’ greeting behaviour after having performed a misdeed indicates the dogs' ‘guilt’, current experimental evidence suggests that dogs show these ‘guilty look’ behaviours as a response to being scolded by their owners. Given reports that ‘guilty look’ behaviours are shown also in the absence of being scolded, we investigated whether the dogs' own actions or the evidence of a misdeed might serve as triggering cues. We manipulated whether or not dogs ate a ‘forbidden’ food item and whether or not the food was visible upon the owners’ return. Based on their dogs’ greeting behaviour, owners stated that their dog had eaten the food no more than expected by chance. In addition, dogs’ greeting behaviours were not affected by their own action or the presence or absence of the food. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that dogs show the ‘guilty look’ in the absence of a concurrent negative reaction by their owners. PMID:25562192

Ostoji?, Ljerka; Tkal?i?, Mladenka; Clayton, Nicola S.

2015-01-01

303

Molecular evidence for host-adapted races of the fungal endophyte Epichloë bromicola after presumed host shifts.  

PubMed

Host shifts of plant-feeding insects and parasites promote adaptational changes that may result in the formation of host races, an assumed intermediate stage in sympatric speciation. Here, we report on genetically differentiated and host-adapted races of the fungal endophyte Epichloë bromicola, which presumably emerged after a shift from the grass Bromus erectus to other Bromus hosts. Fungi of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota) and related anamorphs of Neotyphodium are widespread endophytes of cool-season grasses. Sexually reproducing strains sterilize the host by formation of external fruiting structures (stromata), whereas asexual strains are asymptomatic and transmitted via seeds. In E. bromicola, strains infecting B. erectus are sexual, and strains from two woodland species, B. benekenii and B. ramosus, are asexual and seed transmitted. Analyses of amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and of intron sequences of the tub2 and tef1 genes of 26 isolates from the three Bromus hosts collected at natural sites in Switzerland and nearby France demonstrated that isolates are genetically differentiated according to their host, indicating that E. bromicola does not form a single, randomly mating population. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence data did not unambiguously resolve the exact origin of asexual E. bromicola strains, but it is likely they arose from within sexual populations on B. erectus. Incongruence of trees derived from different genes may have resulted from recombination at some time in the recent history of host strains. Reciprocal inoculations of host plant seedlings showed that asexual isolates from B. benekenii and B. ramosus were incapable of infecting B. erectus, whereas the sexual isolates from B. erectus retained the assumed ancestral trait of broad compatibility with Bromus host seedlings. Because all isolates were interfertile in experimental crosses, asexual strains may not be considered independent biological species. We suggest that isolates infecting B. benekenii and B. ramosus represent long-standing host races or incipient species that emerged after host shifts and that may evolve through host-mediated reproductive isolation toward independent species. PMID:12643566

Brem, Dominik; Leuchtmann, Adrian

2003-01-01

304

Characteristics of persons with overactive bladder of presumed neurologic origin: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey  

PubMed Central

Aims To compare the descriptive epidemiology of overactive bladder (OAB) of presumed neurologic origin (NOAB) to OAB of non-neurologic origin (N-NOAB). Methods 5,503 community-dwelling persons aged 30-79 were interviewed regarding urologic symptoms (2002-2005). NOAB was defined as symptoms of urgency and/or urgency incontinence among those with a self-reported history of health care provider diagnosed stroke (N=98), multiple sclerosis (N=21), or Parkinson’s disease (N=7). N-NOAB was defined identically but occurring among those not reporting neurologic disease (ND). Prevalence estimates were weighted to reflect sampling design; chi-square, Fisher’s exact, or t-tests were used to test differences. Urologic symptom interference was assessed using the Epstein scale, while the impact of urinary incontinence (UI) on health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) was measured using a modification of the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7. Results 45 (31.0%) of 125 persons with ND and 994 (16.7%) of 5378 persons without ND reported OAB symptoms. The overall prevalence of NOAB and N-NOAB was 0.6% and 16.4%, respectively. Persons with NOAB had higher (worse) mean American Urologic Association Symptom Index scores (13.0 vs. 10.0, p=0.09) compared to those with N-NOAB, and were significantly more likely to have diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiac disease and fair/poor self-reported health (all p<0.05). Mean symptom interference and UI HRQOL scores were significantly higher (worse) in the NOAB group compared to persons with N-NOAB (all p<0.05). Conclusions Persons with NOAB appeared to have a greater burden of urologic illness with respect to symptom interference and HRQOL compared to persons with N-NOAB. PMID:22674347

Hall, Susan A.; Curto, Teresa M.; Onyenwenyi, Ahunna; Lemack, Gary E.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Link, Carol L.; McKinlay, John B.

2012-01-01

305

Regulatory Mechanisms in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in First Internodes of Sorghum vulgare: Effect of Presumed Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis 1  

PubMed Central

There was a 6 to 24-hour lag in the production of anthocyanins in the light after excision of 4-day-old etiolated internodes of Sorghum vulgare variety Wheatland milo. In internodes infiltrated with water, apigeninidin was formed first at 12 to 24 hours and continued to be produced slowly. Luteolinidin was formed slightly later, but its formation rapidly exceeded that of apigeninidin. Cyanidin was the last type to be produced, but equaled the amounts of luteolinidin by 4 days. In noninfiltrated internodes, the production of cyanidin was greatly accelerated, beginning at about 6 hours. Data from experiments with inhibitors that presumably affect protein synthesis at different loci indicated that protein synthesis was necessary for maximum production of all 3 anthocyanins, but that different steps were rate limiting. Light independent synthesis of apigeninidin and luteolinidin was inhibited by chloramphenicol and l-ethionine but not by actinomycin D and 8-azaguanine. However, the synthesis of these 2 anthocyanins was not inhibited by puromycin, but was sometimes stimulated. The light-induced synthesis of cyanidin was inhibited by actinomycin, azaguanine, chloramphenicol and ethionine. Actinomycin no longer was inhibitory if added after incubation for 6 hours in air. All inhibitors were capable of inhibiting to various degrees either the incorporation of 14C-uracil into RNA or 14C-leucine into protein. The inhibitor data suggest that the light insensitive synthesis of apigeninidin and luteolinidin may be controlled by enzyme synthesis at the level of ribosomes via stable mRNA, while the light-induced production of cyanidin is dependent initially on the production of mRNA. The latter hypothesis is similar to that recently proposed by Lange and Mohr for a cyanidin produced in Sinapis seedlings. PMID:16656361

Stafford, Helen A.

1966-01-01

306

Parvovirus enteritis in vaccinated juvenile bush dogs.  

PubMed

Parvovirus enteritis developed in 10 of 17 vaccinated juvenile bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) from 4 litters in a 5-month period. Nine dogs died. The first outbreak involved 6 of 9 bush dogs from 2 litters. Each had been vaccinated with a killed feline-origin parvovirus vaccine at 11 and 14 weeks of age. The 6 affected dogs became ill at 29 weeks of age and died. The second outbreak involved a litter of 6 bush dogs. Each had been vaccinated every 2 weeks starting at 5 weeks of age. Two were isolated from the colony at 16 weeks of age for treatment of foot sores. Three of the 4 nonisolated dogs developed parvovirus enteritis at 20 weeks of age; 2 died at 6 and 8 days, respectively, after onset of signs. The 3rd outbreak involved a litter of 2 bush dogs. Both had been vaccinated every 2 to 3 weeks, starting at 6 weeks of age. One of these dogs became ill at 17 weeks and died 13 days later. A litter of 6 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and a litter of 3 bush dogs were isolated from their parent colonies at 13 and 15 weeks of age, respectively. Each animal had been vaccinated weekly, beginning at 8 weeks of age, using an inactivated canine-origin parvovirus vaccine. None of the isolated animals developed the disease. Serologic testing during isolation did not reveal protective titers (greater than or equal to 1:80) against canine parvovirus in the bush dogs until they were 23 weeks old, whereas protective titers developed in the maned wolves when they were 14 to 18 weeks old. One hand-raised bush dog was vaccinated weekly, beginning at 8 weeks of age, and a protective titer developed by 21 weeks of age. It was concluded that the juvenile bush dogs went through a period during which maternal antibodies interfered with immunization, yet did not protect against the disease. When the pups were isolated from the colony during this period, then vaccinated repeatedly until protective titers developed, the disease was prevented. PMID:6890953

Janssen, D L; Bartz, C R; Bush, M; Marchwicki, R H; Grate, S J; Montali, R J

1982-12-01

307

How Dogs Navigate to Catch Frisbees  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT—Using micro-video cameras,attached,to the heads of 2 dogs, we examined their optical behavior while catching Frisbees. Our findings reveal,that dogs,use the same,viewer- based,navigational,heuristics previously,found,with,baseball players (i.e., maintaining the target along a linear optical tra- jectory, LOT, with optical speed constancy). On trials in which the Frisbee dramatically changed direction, the dog maintained an LOTwith speed constancy,until it apparently,could no longer

Dennis M. Shaffer; Scott M. Krauchunas; Marianna Eddy; Michael K. McBeath

2004-01-01

308

[Hepatitis in dogs; a review].  

PubMed

As with most liver diseases, the symptoms of hepatitis in dogs are nearly always aspecific: the dogs eat less, are apathetic, sometimes have polyuria/polydipsia, and sometimes have diarrhoea. Hepatoencephalopathy and ascites only occur with these symptoms in very advanced stages of chronic hepatitis. Only a part of the dogs have jaundice. Because of these aspecific symptoms, the diagnosis hepatitis is often not taken into consideration, even though the presence of a liver disease can be easily detected by measuring plasma concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and bile acids, one or both of which are elevated. The diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination of a liver biopsy sample. The most common forms of hepatitis are non-specific reactive hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis. Non-specific reactive hepatitis is a reaction against endotoxin as a result of sepsis or an increased gastrointestinal absorption. Treatment is directed to the primary process. Leptospirosis also causes non-specific reactive hepatitis, but then renal insufficiency is the most prominent feature. The diagnosis is made not on the basis of a liver biopsy but on the basis of increased IgM titres against Leptospira. Immediate treatment with antibiotics and infusions at the first signs (jaundice and uraemia) can save the animal's life. Acute hepatitis can develop as a result of infection, toxins, or liver hypoxia. There is no specific treatment, but adequate recovery often occurs with supportive treatment. Corticosteroids are contraindicated. Chronic hepatitis, which can lead to cirrhosis, is the most common form of hepatitis. It is an autoimmune inflammatory reaction that is usually caused by a virus infection but sometimes by poisoning (intoxication). Long treatment with prednisolone or azathioprine is usually successful, but early recognition of the disease increases the likelihood of success. Nowadays, chronic hepatitis due to hepatic copper accumulation in Beddlington terriers can be detected by DNA tests. Such tests make it possible to distinguish between carriers and non-carriers. Affected animals can be kept symptom-free by life-long treatment with zinc gluconate or penicillamine. PMID:9584348

Rothuizen, J; van den Ingh, T S

1998-04-15

309

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains isolated from dog faeces.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to identify and characterize dog bifidobacterial isolates and compare them with commercial probiotic strains. Sixteen isolates of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis from dog faeces (German Shepherd Dog) were identified by subspecies-specific PCR, MALDI-TOF MS and sequencing. This study is the first describing B. animalis ssp. lactis occurring within the intestinal tract of dogs. Our dog isolates showed slightly different fingerprinting profiles obtained by RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR from those isolated from yogurt and type strains of B. animalis ssp. lactis. Both, dog and yogurt origin strains indicated survival in the simulated in vitro digestion assay and were resistant to low pH and bile salts. Moreover, strong auto-aggregation activity was observed only in dog origin B. animalis ssp. lactis strains. Dog strains showed good properties predicting their survival ability in GIT and could be tested as a potential new probiotics for dogs or other hosts. PMID:22749610

Bunešová, V?ra; Vlková, Eva; Rada, Vojt?ch; Ro?ková, Sárka; Svobodová, Ivona; Jebavý, Lukáš; Kme?, Vladimír

2012-12-01

310

Analysis of neuroretinal rim distribution and vascular pattern in eyes with presumed large physiological cupping: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate possible differences in neuroretinal rim distribution, vascular pattern, and peripapillary region appearance between eyes with presumed large physiological optic disc cupping (pLPC) and eyes with minimal optic disc excavation. Methods We prospectively enrolled consecutive subjects with pLPC and individuals with minimal excavation (optic disc excavation within normal limits; control group). All eyes had normal visual fields and untreated intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mmHg. Eyes with pLPC required vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) ?0.6 and ?30 months of follow-up with no evidence of glaucomatous neuropathy. For controls, VCDR was limited to ?0.5. We compared ocular signs and characteristics related to the neuroretinal rim distribution, vascular pattern, peripapillary region appearance and disc size between groups. Whenever both eyes were eligible, one was randomly selected for analysis. Results A total of 74 patients (mean age, 45.6?±?14.9 years) with pLPC and 45 controls (mean age, 44.8?±?11.6 years) were enrolled (p?=?0.76). Median disc size and VCDR was significantly larger in eyes with pLPC compared to controls (p?

2014-01-01

311

Theileria annae in a young Swedish dog  

PubMed Central

A severe regenerative anemia was detected in a 12-week-old mixed breed puppy in Sweden. A small protozoan parasite was observed in erythrocytes on a blood smear. It was initially suspected to be Babesia gibsoni based on its size and because B. gibsoni was previously recorded in Sweden. Surprisingly, specific polymerase chain reaction analysis identified the protozoan as Theileria annae. T. annae is endemic in Northwest Spain, is very uncommonly reported elsewhere and has never been recorded in Scandinavia. T. annae has been identified in dogs used for dog fighting, and it is thought to be transmitted by dog bites. This puppy was a mixed pit bull terrier. Pit bull terriers are sometimes used for dog fighting. T. annae has been reported to be transmitted vertically, and in light of the puppy’s age, this transmission was suspected in the present case. PMID:23842507

2013-01-01

312

Pharmacokinetics of oral dichloroacetate in dogs.  

PubMed

We characterized the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of dichloroacetate (DCA), an investigational drug for mitochondrial diseases, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cancer. Adult Beagle dogs were orally administered 6.25 mg/kg q12h DCA for 4 weeks. Plasma kinetics was determined after 1, 14, and 28 days. The activity and expression of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1), which biotransforms DCA to glyoxylate, were determined from liver biopsies at baseline and after 27 days. Dogs demonstrate much slower clearance and greater inhibition of DCA metabolism and GSTZ1 activity and expression than rodents and most humans. Indeed, the plasma kinetics of DCA in dogs is similar to humans with GSTZ1 polymorphisms that confer exceptionally slow plasma clearance. Dogs may be a useful model to further investigate the toxicokinetics and therapeutic potential of DCA. PMID:24038869

Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Shroads, Albert L; Zhong, Guo; Daigle, Adam D; Abdelmalak, Monica M; Samper, Ivan Sosa; Mincey, Brandy D; James, Margaret O; Stacpoole, Peter W

2013-12-01

313

Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Bacteremia in a Dog  

PubMed Central

Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was isolated from the blood of a dog presenting with fever, anorexia, and rear limb stiffness. The isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. PMID:10747176

Shukla, Sanjay K.; Reed, Kurt D.

2000-01-01

314

Dog DNA---A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover how DNA will "code" for traits by performing a lab activity where segments of paper DNA (genes) are picked at random, a list of traits is made, and a dog is drawn featuring its genetic traits.

Perrault, Tanya

2012-02-20

315

Comparison of P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs, dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction  

PubMed Central

Background P-wave dispersion (Pd) is a new ECG index used in human cardiology and veterinary medicine. It is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different ECG leads. So far no studies were performed assessing the importance of P-wave dispersion in dogs. Methods The current study was aimed at determining proper value of Pd in healthy dogs (group I), dogs with chronic valvular disease (group II) and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction (group III). The tests were carried out in 53 healthy dogs, 23 dogs with chronic valvular disease and 12 dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction of various breeds, sexes and body weight from 1,5 to 80 kg, aged between 0,5 and 17 years, submitted to the ECG examination. ECG was acquired in dogs in a standing position with BTL SD-8 electrocardiographic device and analyzed once the recording was enlarged. P-wave duration was calculated in 9 ECG leads (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, V1, V2, V4) from 5 cardiac cycles. Results The proper P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs was determined at up to 24 ms. P-wave dispersion was statistically significant increased (p < 0.01) in dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction. In dogs with the atrial enlargement the P-wave dispersion is also higher than in healthy dogs, although no significant correlation between the size of left atria and Pd was noticed (p = 0.1, r = 0,17). Conclusions The P-wave dispersion is a constant index in healthy dogs, that is why it can be used for evaluating P wave change in dogs with chronic valvular disease and in dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction. PMID:21396110

2011-01-01

316

Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Iscoll, Eileen; Lourduraj, Leena T.; Pasculle, A. W.

2008-11-17

317

Meningeal osteosarcoma in a dog.  

PubMed

A meningeal osteosarcoma was diagnosed in a dog displaying neurologic signs compatible with a space-occupying cerebellar lesion. Gross lesions, restricted to the brain, consisted of a solitary, compressive mass attached to the dura mater overlying the left cerebellum. The mass was composed of single and multinucleated, atypical polygonal cells that lined or rested within lacuna surrounded by eosinophilic, mineralized matrix. The matrical component stained dark green-yellow to blue with Movat's pentachrome stain, deep blue to red with Heidenhain aniline blue stain, and brown-black with Von Kossa stain. Results of these stains were interpreted as tumor osteoid. Foci of dural mineralization and osseous metaplasia were present at the point of tumor attachment. The microscopic observations were interpreted as an osteosarcoma of extraskeletal origin. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first documented case of a meningeal osteosarcoma in a domestic animal species. PMID:11105956

Ringenberg, M A; Neitzel, L E; Zachary, J F

2000-11-01

318

Dogs  

MedlinePLUS

... disease can be fatal. More MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) Staphylococcus aureus is a common type of bacteria that is ... the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become ...

319

Circulating prostacyclin metabolites in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to determine the concentration of prostacyclin (PGI2) metabolites in the blood of the dog. After a bolus i.v. dose of (11 beta-³H)PGI2 (5 micrograms\\/kg) into each of five dogs, blood samples were withdrawn at 0.33, 0.67, 1, 3, 5, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min postdrug administration. Plasma samples were extracted and the radioactive components

B. M. Taylor; R. J. Shebuski; F. F. Sun

1983-01-01

320

Antitussive effects of levodropropizine in the dog.  

PubMed

The antitussive activity of levodropropizine (S(-)3-(4-phenyl-piperazine-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526, CAS 99291-25-5) was evaluated after oral administration to the conscious dog. Levodropropizine had a good antitussive activity, comparable with, but having a longer duration of action than dropropizine, the racemate from which it is derived. The antitussive activity of levodropropizine in the dog was approximately 1/20 of that of codeine phosphate. PMID:8147948

Munt, P L; Clavenna, G; Algate, D R; Leach, R M

1994-02-01

321

Comparison of oral and intramuscular recombinant canine distemper vaccination in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).  

PubMed

A series of three doses of recombinant canary-pox-vectored canine distemper virus vaccine was administered at 1-mo intervals, orally (n = 8) or intramuscularly (n = 13), to 21 previously unvaccinated juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo. Titers were measured by serum neutralization at each vaccination and at intervals over a period of 3.5-21.5 mo after the initial vaccination. All postvaccination titers were negative for orally vaccinated animals at all sampling time points. Of the animals that received intramuscular vaccinations, 100% had presumed protective titers by the end of the course of vaccination, but only 50% of those sampled at 6.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. None of the three animals sampled at 21.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. PMID:24450046

Connolly, Maren; Thomas, Patrick; Woodroffe, Rosie; Raphael, Bonnie L

2013-12-01

322

Chronic compressive myelopathy and progressive neurologic signs associated with melarsomine dihydrochloride administration in a dog.  

PubMed

A 7 yr old castrated male Great Dane presented with a history of progressive myelopathy following the intramuscular injection of melarsomine dihydrochloride 8 wk previously. MRI revealed paraspinal and epidural abscesses at the 13th thoracic (T13) and first lumbar (L1) disc space. The dog's condition worsened despite medical management, necessitating surgical decompression. Surgical decompression resulted in rapid improvement of the patient's clinical signs. Histopathologic evaluation of the lesions revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation. Cultures of fluid and tissue within the lesions were negative for bacterial growth, and no infectious organisms were visualized histologically. Melarsomine-associated neurologic signs can be chronic and progressive in nature, presumably secondary to ongoing sterile inflammation that may result in spinal cord compression. PMID:24051262

Moore, Sarah A; Mariani, Christopher L; Van Wettere, Arnaud; Borst, Luke B

2013-01-01

323

A dog rabies vaccination campaign in rural Africa: impact on the incidence of dog rabies and human dog-bite injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the availability of safe and effective rabies vaccines, the incidence of dog rabies has been increasing throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Here we describe a vaccination strategy that has resulted in successful control of rabies in a rural dog population of Northwestern Tanzania. From October 1996 to February 2001, four central-point dog vaccination campaigns were conducted in villages within

S Cleaveland; M Kaare; P Tiringa; T Mlengeya; J Barrat

2003-01-01

324

Genomic Analyses of Modern Dog Breeds  

PubMed Central

A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized world-wide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other. PMID:22231497

Parker, Heidi G.

2013-01-01

325

9. DEPRIVATION AND DEVELOPMENT The slit shape of the pupil found in many nocturnal animals such as this cat presumably allows more  

E-print Network

a simple experiment. By about 1962 some of the main facts about the visual cortex of the adult cat were such as this cat presumably allows more effective light reduction than a circular pupil. Up to now we have been with the degree to which the system can be affected by the environment. In the first few stages of the cat

Hubel, David

326

Hybrid presumed pdf and flame surface density approaches for Large-Eddy Simulation of premixed turbulent combustion. Part 2: Early flame development after sparking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the second part of a work addressing the coupling of presumed probability density function (pdf) with flame surface density (FSD) for the premixed flame modeling in a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) framework. The main objective of this work is to propose approaches able to correctly describe local flame speed as well as detailed chemistry. Models based on the

Guillaume Lecocq; Stéphane Richard; Olivier Colin; Luc Vervisch

2011-01-01

327

KEY TO NICROSCOPIC FRAGMENTS OF PLANT TISSUE IN PRAIRIE DOG AND FOOD HABITS OF  

E-print Network

KEY TO NICROSCOPIC FRAGMENTS OF PLANT TISSUE IN PRAIRIE DOG AND FOOD HABITS OF PRAIRIE DOGS OF PLANT TISSUE IN PRAIRIE DOG STOMACHS AND FOOD HABITS OF PRAIRIE DOGS IN SOUTH DAKOTA Abstract Carol A occurring on prairie dog towns in southwest South Dakota; (2) determine plant species eaten by prairie dogs

328

Dog Obesity: Can Dog Caregivers' (Owners') Feeding and Exercise Intentions and Behaviors Be Predicted From Attitudes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dog obesity is a common nutritional disorder affecting up to 40% of the companion animal (pet) dog population in Australia and other developed nations. A clear understanding of factors determining relevant caregiver (owner) behaviors underpins effective treatment for this disorder. The theory of planned behavior can be used to understand factors contributing to human behavior. This article describes research informed

Vanessa I. Rohlf; Samia Toukhsati; Grahame J. Coleman; Pauleen C. Bennett

2010-01-01

329

Who Let the Dog in? How to Incorporate a Dog into a Self-Contained Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described in this article are outcomes, procedures, and suggestions for incorporating a dog into a classroom for students with emotional or behavioral disorders. First, the outcomes for the inclusion of a dog are presented and are reported from an empirical study conducted by the author. Next, details are provided on how teachers would initially…

Anderson, Katherine L.

2007-01-01

330

Contact with Domestic Dogs Increases Pathogen Exposure in Endangered African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus)  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. Serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic) “reservoir” hosts, and spill over into less abundant host species. If this is the case, disease control directed at the reservoir host might be most appropriate. However, pathogen transmission within threatened host populations may also be important, and may not be controllable by managing another host species. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated interspecific and intraspecific transmission routes, by comparing African wild dogs' exposure to six canine pathogens with behavioural measures of their opportunities for contact with domestic dogs and with other wild dogs. Domestic dog contact was associated with exposure to canine parvovirus, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and perhaps rabies virus, but not with exposure to canine distemper virus or canine coronavirus. Contact with other wild dogs appeared not to increase the risk of exposure to any of the pathogens. Conclusions/Significance These findings, combined with other data, suggest that management directed at domestic dogs might help to protect wild dog populations from rabies virus, but not from canine distemper virus. However, further analyses are needed to determine the management approaches – including no intervention – which are most appropriate for each pathogen. PMID:22238695

Woodroffe, Rosie; Prager, Katherine C.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

2012-01-01

331

The genomics of selection in dogs and the parallel evolution between dogs and humans.  

PubMed

The genetic bases of demographic changes and artificial selection underlying domestication are of great interest in evolutionary biology. Here we perform whole-genome sequencing of multiple grey wolves, Chinese indigenous dogs and dogs of diverse breeds. Demographic analysis show that the split between wolves and Chinese indigenous dogs occurred 32,000 years ago and that the subsequent bottlenecks were mild. Therefore, dogs may have been under human selection over a much longer time than previously concluded, based on molecular data, perhaps by initially scavenging with humans. Population genetic analysis identifies a list of genes under positive selection during domestication, which overlaps extensively with the corresponding list of positively selected genes in humans. Parallel evolution is most apparent in genes for digestion and metabolism, neurological process and cancer. Our study, for the first time, draws together humans and dogs in their recent genomic evolution. PMID:23673645

Wang, Guo-dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-chuan; Fan, Ruo-xi; Cao, Xue; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Liu, Fei; Wu, Hong; Cheng, Lu-guang; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Poyarkov, Nikolai A; Tang, Shu-sheng; Zhao, Wen-ming; Gao, Yun; Lv, Xue-mei; Irwin, David M; Savolainen, Peter; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-ping

2013-01-01

332

Molecular Genetic Diversity of the Gyeongju Donggyeong Dog in Korea  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to analyze the genetic characteristics of the Donggyeong dog and establish parentage conservation systems for it by using 10 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). A total of 369 dogs from 12 dog breeds including the Donggyeong dog were genotyped using 10 microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus varied from 5 to 10 with a mean value of 7.6 in the Donggyeong dog. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.4706 to 0.9020 (mean 0.7657) and from 0.4303 to 0.8394 (mean 0.7266), respectively. The total exclusion probability of 10 microsatellite loci was 0.99955. Of the 10 microsatellite markers, the AHT121, AHTh260 and CXX279 markers had relatively high PIC values (?0.7). This study found that there were specific alleles, 116 allele at AHT121 in the Donggyeong dog when compared with other dog breeds. Also, the results showed two (Korean native dogs and the foreign dog breeds) distinct clusters. The closest distance (0.1184) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Jindo dog, and the longest distance (0.3435) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Bulgae. The Korean native dog breeds have comparatively near genetic distances between each other. PMID:25030603

LEE, Eun-Woo; CHOI, Seong-Kyoon; CHO, Gil-Jae

2014-01-01

333

Molecular genetic diversity of the Gyeongju Donggyeong dog in Korea.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to analyze the genetic characteristics of the Donggyeong dog and establish parentage conservation systems for it by using 10 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). A total of 369 dogs from 12 dog breeds including the Donggyeong dog were genotyped using 10 microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus varied from 5 to 10 with a mean value of 7.6 in the Donggyeong dog. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.4706 to 0.9020 (mean 0.7657) and from 0.4303 to 0.8394 (mean 0.7266), respectively. The total exclusion probability of 10 microsatellite loci was 0.99955. Of the 10 microsatellite markers, the AHT121, AHTh260 and CXX279 markers had relatively high PIC values (?0.7). This study found that there were specific alleles, 116 allele at AHT121 in the Donggyeong dog when compared with other dog breeds. Also, the results showed two (Korean native dogs and the foreign dog breeds) distinct clusters. The closest distance (0.1184) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Jindo dog, and the longest distance (0.3435) was observed between the Donggyeong dog and Bulgae. The Korean native dog breeds have comparatively near genetic distances between each other. PMID:25030603

Lee, Eun-Woo; Choi, Seong-Kyoon; Cho, Gil-Jae

2014-10-01

334

Dogs and their human companions: The effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.  

PubMed

There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:24548652

Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

2015-01-01

335

Effects of sheep digoxin-specific antibodies and their Fab fragments on digoxin pharmacokinetics in dogs.  

PubMed Central

Intact sheep antidigoxin antibodies and their Fab fragments have both been found to exert profound effects on digoxin pharmacokinetics in [3H] digoxin-treated dogs. Both classes of molecule remove digoxin from the extravascular space and sequester it in the circulation in protein-bound form, a form in which the digoxin is presumably inactive. These two classes of molecule differ, however, in that the intact antibody molecules interfere with digoxin excretion, thereby promoting the retention of the glycoside; this retained digoxin is eventually released in free, active form when the administered antibody is metabolically degraded. In contrast, urinary excretion of digoxin continues in Fab-treated dogs, with significant quantities of digoxin being excreted promptly in the urine in complex with Fab fragments. These differences in urinary excretion, together with the probable decreased immunogenicity of sheep antidigoxin Fab fragments, suggest that such fragments possess potential advantages over intact antibody molecules for use in the therapy of life-threatening digoxin intoxication in man. PMID:299860

Butler, V P; Schmidt, D H; Smith, T W; Haber, E; Raynor, B D; Demartini, P

1977-01-01

336

Self-regulatory depletion in dogs: Insulin release is not necessary for the replenishment of persistence.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that self-control is constrained by a limited energy resource that can be depleted through exertion. Once depleted, this resource can be replenished by the consumption or even the taste of glucose. For example, the need to inhibit reduces subsequent persistence at problem solving by humans and dogs, an effect that is not observed when a glucose drink (but not a placebo) is administered following initial inhibition. The mechanism for replenishment by glucose is currently unknown. Energy transfer is not necessary, although insulin secretion may be involved. This possibility was investigated in the current study by having dogs exert self-control (sit-stay) and subsequently giving them (1) glucose that causes the release of insulin, (2) fructose that does not result in the release of insulin nor does it affect glucose levels (but it is a carbohydrate), or (3) a calorie-free drink. Persistence measures indicated that both glucose and fructose replenished canine persistence, whereas the calorie-free drink did not. These results indicate that insulin release is probably not necessary for the replenishment that is presumed to be responsible for the increase in persistence. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:25264236

Miller, Holly C; Pattison, Kristina F; Laude, Jennifer R; Zentall, Thomas R

2015-01-01

337

Bounding on Rough Terrain with the LittleDog Robot  

E-print Network

A motion planning algorithm is described for bounding over rough terrain with the LittleDog robot. Unlike walking gaits, bounding is highly dynamic and cannot be planned with quasi-steady approximations. LittleDog is modeled ...

Shkolnik, Alexander C.

338

A Study of Dog Bites and their Prevention   

E-print Network

Previous studies have suggested that children are more at risk of suffering from serious dog bite injuries than adults. In order to generate an overview of characteristics of dog bite victims in Europe, different ...

Lakestani, Nelly N

2007-01-01

339

From Nanny Chips to Data Dogs, Binghamton innovations  

E-print Network

Binghamton ReseaRch From Nanny Chips to Data Dogs, Binghamton innovations will make computing safer Welcome 4 Briefs 8 Digital defenders From Nanny Chips to Data Dogs, Binghamton innovations will make

Suzuki, Masatsugu

340

MyDogDNA is a simple and easy-to-use testing service that helps you understand your dog's health and increase  

E-print Network

MyDogDNA is a simple and easy-to-use testing service that helps you understand your dog's health: Password: Home MyDogDNA Pass Breeds How It Works News Puppy Search Engine Contact us MyDogDNA news Exploring dog DNA testing, breed health and discoveries in canine genetics Authors Languages Deutsch

Lacy, Bob

341

Nutrition, care, and behavior of captive prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Prairie dogs are burrowing mammals that inhabit the grasslands of western North America. This article discusses the black-tailed prairie dog, the most common species and the one most likely to be found in zoos and private homes. The authors discuss several topics related to having prairie dogs as pets, such as why they make good pets, types of housing, diet, diseases, and injuries. The article concludes with information about where to obtain prairie dogs as pets. PMID:19341952

Hoogland, John L; James, Dianne A; Watson, Lynda

2009-05-01

342

Clindamycin for treatment of Toxoplasma polymyositis in a dog.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma polymyositis was diagnosed in a dog given repeated injections of glucocorticoids for a skin condition. The dog developed generalized lower motor neuron paralysis, with generalized hyperesthesia, myoglobinuria, and high serum muscle enzyme activities. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed by muscle biopsy and seroconversion. Despite supportive care, the dog's neurologic status deteriorated progressively until parenteral treatment with clindamycin was instituted. The dog made a gradual recovery, with complete return of locomotor function and muscle mass within 2 months. PMID:4086374

Greene, C E; Cook, J R; Mahaffey, E A

1985-09-15

343

Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs  

E-print Network

Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs: an in vivo-in vitro study geldings and three male beagle dogs, following intravenous doses of racemic FPF (1 mg/kg in horses), R(-)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs), and S(+)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

344

Special Report Breeds of dogs involved in fatal human attacks  

E-print Network

Objective—To summarize breeds of dogs involved in fatal human attacks during a 20-year period and to assess policy implications. Animals—Dogs for which breed was reported involved in attacks on humans between 1979 and 1998 that resulted in human dog bite-related fatalities (DBRF). Procedure—Data for human DBRF identified previously for the period of 1979 through 1996 were combined with human DBRF newly identified for 1997 and 1998. Human DBRF were identified by searching news accounts and by use of The Humane Society of the United States ’ registry databank. Results—During 1997 and 1998, at least 27 people died of dog bite attacks (18 in 1997 and 9 in 1998). At least 25 breeds of dogs have been involved in 238 human DBRF during the past 20 years. Pit bull-type dogs and Rottweilers were involved in more than half of these deaths. Of 227 reports with relevant data, 55 (24%) human deaths involved unrestrained dogs off their owners ’ property, 133 (58%) involved unrestrained dogs on their owners ’ property, 38 (17%) involved restrained dogs on their owners ’ property, and 1 (dog off its owner’s property. Conclusions—Although fatal attacks on humans appear to be a breed-specific problem (pit bull-type dogs and Rottweilers), other breeds may bite and cause fatalities at higher rates. Because of difficulties inherent in determining a dog’s breed with certainty, enforcement of breed-specific ordinances raises constitutional and practical issues. Fatal attacks represent a small proportion of dog bite injuries to humans and, therefore, should not be the primary factor driving public policy concerning dangerous dogs. Many practical alternatives to breed-specific ordinances exist and hold promise for prevention of dog bites. (J Am Vet

Gail C. Golab; Dvm R; All Lockwood

345

WISE Discovers Hyperluminous Hot DOGs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary science objectives for NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is to find the most luminous galaxies in the Universe. We have used WISE photometry to select an extraordinary all-sky sample of galaxies, which are prominent at 12 microns (W3) or 22 microns (W4), but faint or undetected at 3.4 microns (W1) and 4.6 microns (W2). Follow-up observations reveal that most of these galaxies are at redshift > 1.5, that they are hyperluminous (> 10^13 Lsun; with ~10% exceeding 10^14 Lsun, comparable to the most luminous optical QSOs). The follow-up observations also show that they are at least twice as hot as other types of infrared luminous galaxies, so that they are hot dust-obscured-galaxies, or Hot DOGs. Their SEDs have a very high mid-IR to submillimeter luminosity ratio, which is quite different from any existing galaxy templates. They may represent a rare, new phase in the galaxy evolution, possibly hosting extremely powerful super massive black holes.

Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, J.; WISE Team

2013-01-01

346

Oxytocin promotes social bonding in dogs  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that enduring social bonds have fitness benefits. However, very little is known about the neural circuitry and neurochemistry underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social bonds outside reproductive contexts. Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide synthetized by the hypothalamus in mammals, regulates many complex forms of social behavior and cognition in both human and nonhuman animals. Animal research, however, has concentrated on monogamous mammals, and it remains unknown whether OT also modulates social bonds in nonreproductive contexts. In this study we provide behavioral evidence that exogenous OT promotes positive social behaviors in the domestic dog toward not only conspecifics but also human partners. Specifically, when sprayed with OT, dogs showed higher social orientation and affiliation toward their owners and higher affiliation and approach behaviors toward dog partners than when sprayed with placebo. Additionally, the exchange of socio-positive behaviors with dog partners triggered the release of endogenous OT, highlighting the involvement of OT in the development of social relationships in the domestic dog. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance of close social bonds beyond immediate reproductive interest or genetic ties and complement a growing body of evidence that identifies OT as one of the neurochemical foundations of sociality in mammalian species. PMID:24927552

Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi

2014-01-01

347

Oxytocin promotes social bonding in dogs.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that enduring social bonds have fitness benefits. However, very little is known about the neural circuitry and neurochemistry underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social bonds outside reproductive contexts. Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide synthetized by the hypothalamus in mammals, regulates many complex forms of social behavior and cognition in both human and nonhuman animals. Animal research, however, has concentrated on monogamous mammals, and it remains unknown whether OT also modulates social bonds in nonreproductive contexts. In this study we provide behavioral evidence that exogenous OT promotes positive social behaviors in the domestic dog toward not only conspecifics but also human partners. Specifically, when sprayed with OT, dogs showed higher social orientation and affiliation toward their owners and higher affiliation and approach behaviors toward dog partners than when sprayed with placebo. Additionally, the exchange of socio-positive behaviors with dog partners triggered the release of endogenous OT, highlighting the involvement of OT in the development of social relationships in the domestic dog. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance of close social bonds beyond immediate reproductive interest or genetic ties and complement a growing body of evidence that identifies OT as one of the neurochemical foundations of sociality in mammalian species. PMID:24927552

Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi

2014-06-24

348

Training shelter volunteers to teach dog compliance.  

PubMed

This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions conditions was low across all participants. Although performance increased with use of a video model, integrity did not reach criterion levels until performance feedback and modeling were provided. Moreover, the integrity of the discrete-trial training procedure was significantly and positively correlated with dog compliance to instructions for all dyads. Correct implementation and compliance were observed when participants were paired with a novel dog and trainer, respectively, although generalization of procedural integrity from the discrete-trial sit procedure to the discrete-trial wait procedure was not observed. Shelter consumers rated the behavior change in dogs and trainers as socially significant. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:24924218

Howard, Veronica J; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D

2014-01-01

349

Pharmacokinetics of intravenous tramadol in dogs  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and the active metabolite mono-O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in 6 healthy male mixed breed dogs following intravenous injection of tramadol at 3 different dose levels. Verification of the metabolism to the active metabolite M1, to which most of the analgesic activity of this agent is attributed to, was a primary goal. Quantification of the parent compound and the M1 metabolite was performed using gas chromatography. Pharmacodynamic evaluations were performed at the time of patient sampling and included assessment of sedation, and evaluation for depression of heart and respiratory rates. This study confirmed that while these dogs were able to produce the active M1 metabolite following intravenous administration of tramadol, the M1 concentrations were lower than previously reported in research beagles. Adverse effects were minimal, with mild dose-related sedation in all dogs and nausea in 1 dog. Analgesia was not documented with the method of assessment used in this study. Tramadol may be useful in canine patients, but additional studies in the canine population are required to more accurately determine the effective clinical use of the drug in dogs and quantification of M1 concentrations in a wider population of patients. PMID:18783021

McMillan, Chantal J.; Livingston, Alex; Clark, Chris R.; Dowling, Patricia M.; Taylor, Susan M.; Duke, Tanya; Terlinden, Rolf

2008-01-01

350

Polioencephalomyelopathy in a mixed breed dog resembling Leigh's disease.  

PubMed

A 14-month-old mixed-breed dog was presented with acute onset of exercise intolerance that quickly progressed to quadriparesis. Gross and microscopic autopsy findings indicated a type of degenerative polioencephalomyelopathy resembling subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy in dogs or Leigh's disease in humans. This syndrome has previously been reported only in purebred dogs. PMID:25565716

Chai, Orit; Milgram, Joshua; Shamir, Merav H; Brenner, Ori

2015-01-01

351

Prospective medical evaluation of 7 dogs presented with fly biting  

PubMed Central

Fly biting describes a syndrome in which dogs appear to be watching something and then snapping at it. Medical work-up of fly biting in dogs has never been reported. The aims of this case series were to characterize fly biting and perform a complete medical evaluation of dogs displaying fly biting. PMID:23729825

Frank, Diane; Bélanger, Marie C.; Bécuwe-Bonnet, Véronique; Parent, Joane

2012-01-01

352

A Prairie Dog Abatement Program in San Juan County, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of prairie dogs are native to the plains and plateaus of the western United States. The most abundant and widely distributed of these is the blacktailed prairie dog, (Cynomys ludovicianus). This species has been a frequent topic of discussion at previous Great Plains Wildlife Damage Control workshops. Black-tailed prairie dog ecology and management was the topic of a

Terry A. Messmer; Jim Keyes; Roy McDonald

1993-01-01

353

A genealogical survey of Australian registered dog breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding practices were analysed for 32 registered dog breeds representing very small registries (120 Central Asian shepherd dogs) through to very large registries (252,521 German shepherd dogs) in Australia. The vast majority (91%) of registered kennels in Australia that were sampled did not regularly employ either close breeding or popular sire usage in their kennels and the weighted mean inbreeding

Mohammad R. Shariflou; John W. James; Frank W. Nicholas; Claire M. Wade

2011-01-01

354

The role of apoptosis in immunosuppression of dogs with demodicosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the status of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes of dogs with demodicosis. A total of 26 dogs suffering from demodicosis, and positive for Demodex canis mites by skin scraping, participated in the study, 13 with localized demodicosis (LD) and 13 with generalized demodicosis (GD). A further 13 clinically healthy dogs, all

Shanker K. Singh; Umesh Dimri; Mahesh C. Sharma; Devendra Swarup; Bhaskar Sharma; Hari Om Pandey; Priyambada Kumari

355

76 FR 54392 - Animal Welfare; Importation of Live Dogs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0579-AD23 Animal Welfare; Importation of Live Dogs AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...restrict the importation of certain live dogs. Consistent with this amendment, this...exceptions, prohibit the importation of dogs from any part of the world into the...

2011-09-01

356

9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113...REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided...biological product recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be...

2010-01-01

357

50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and... Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats running at large on a national wildlife...

2011-10-01

358

42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51...QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As... Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other...

2011-10-01

359

36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11 Section 262.11 Parks, Forests, and...Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National...

2011-07-01

360

46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section...STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy...

2011-10-01

361

46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section...STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy...

2010-10-01

362

50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets. 36.36 Section... Other Refuge Uses § 36.36 Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass...household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their...

2010-10-01

363

How Dogs Know when Communication Is Intended for Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of…

Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

2012-01-01

364

50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets. 36.36 Section... Other Refuge Uses § 36.36 Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass...household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their...

2011-10-01

365

42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51...QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As... Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other...

2010-10-01

366

9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113...REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided...biological product recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be...

2011-01-01

367

50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and... Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats running at large on a national wildlife...

2010-10-01

368

36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11 Section 262.11 Parks, Forests, and...Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National...

2010-07-01

369

Hypercholeresis with cholate infusion in dogs with pigment gallstones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported that dogs with pigment gallstones infused with taurocholate produce higher bile flow than normal dogs due to an increase in bile-acid independent bile flow. Since dogs with pigment gallstones are taurine-depleted and secrete large amounts of unconjugated bile salt, we hypothesized that the observed increased bile flow is secondary to the presence of unconjugated bile salts in

Jon S. Matsumura; Karen Neri; Robert V. Rege

1996-01-01

370

Biology and ecology of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) is the most widespread tick in the world and a well-recognized vector of many pathogens affecting dogs and occasionally humans. This tick can be found on dogs living in both urban and rural areas, being highly adapted to live within human dwellings and being active throughout the year not only in tropical and subtropical

Filipe Dantas-Torres

2010-01-01

371

Dog population management for the control of human echinococcosis.  

PubMed

Cystic and alveolar hydatid disease of humans caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis are significant zoonoses in developing countries. For human infections, the main definitive host is the dog, and reduction in the population of unwanted dogs, together with anthelmintic treatment of wanted dogs, are recommended control procedures for these zoonoses. Both owned and unowned dogs have been shown to be a major source of Echinococcus spp. infection in developing countries. Unowned dogs are the most challenging category in dog population management for the control of major zoonotic diseases. Unowned dogs are those dogs that do not have an owner, and those dogs whose owner cannot readily be identified. Control of numbers of unowned dogs can be done in various ways if funds are available. Fertility control and humane euthanasia are likely to be the most effective procedures in developing countries. Fertility control requires significant funding, and where resources are scarce humane euthanasia may be the most effective option. Both procedures are ongoing events, with no predictable end point. This paper examines the sociology and technology for the population management of owned and unowned dogs, specifically for the reduction of human hydatid disease. Examples are given for developing and developed countries. Although a "One Health" approach is desirable, the technology for hydatid control is different from that for rabies, and FAO Animal Welfare recommendations for dog population management should be adjusted accordingly. PMID:25046696

Kachani, Malika; Heath, David

2014-11-01

372

Original article Determination of selamectin in dog plasma by high  

E-print Network

Original article Determination of selamectin in dog plasma by high performance liquid of selamectin in dog plasma, using High-Per- formance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection and its suitability was demonstrated by a pharmacokinetic study on a dog receiving the therapeutic dose

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

Port-access mitral valve replacement in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to assess mitral valve replacement in a minimally invasive fashion by means of port-access technology. Methods: Fifteen dogs, 28 ± 3 kg (mean ± standard deviation), were studied with the port-access mitral valve replacement system (Heartport, Inc., Redwood City, Calif.). Eleven dogs underwent acute studies and were sacrificed immediately after the procedure. Four dogs were allowed

Mario F. Pompili; John H. Stevens; Thoms A. Burdon; Lawrence C. Siegel; William S. Peters; Greg H. Ribakove; Bruce A. Reitz

1996-01-01

374

36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11 Section 262.11 Parks, Forests, and...Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National...

2012-07-01

375

Inheritance of coat colour in the field spaniel dog  

E-print Network

Note Inheritance of coat colour in the field spaniel dog R Robinson St Stephens Nursery, Stephens known as roan. dog genetics / coat colour / field spaniel / breed Résumé - Hérédité de la couleur du for the heredity of coat colour in the dog (Little, 1957; Robinson, 1990), it has become apparent as work

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and... Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats running at large on a national wildlife...

2014-10-01

377

GENETIC MANAGEMENT OF DOG BREED POPULATIONS Ir. Ed. J. Gubbels  

E-print Network

GENETIC MANAGEMENT OF DOG BREED POPULATIONS Ir. Ed. J. Gubbels May 2002 1. Introduction be combated with this system of individual selection at all. In the world of pure-bred dog breeding of inbreeding is gradually raised (via line breeding). The purpose is to fix the superior traits of dogs

Lacy, Bob

378

Original article Cytokeratin immunostaining in normal dog major  

E-print Network

Original article Cytokeratin immunostaining in normal dog major and minor salivary glands Mahmut for cytokeratins 5, 6, 8, 17 and 19 of dog submandibular, sublingual, parotid, palatine, tongue and zygomatic sali. Mucous cells were not stained in any of the glands. © Inra/Elsevier, Paris salivary gland / dog

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

379

36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11 Section 262.11 Parks, Forests, and...Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National...

2014-07-01

380

LATEX circa 2010 Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks  

E-print Network

LATEX circa 2010 Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks Mark Hickman Department of Mathematics & Statistics 2010 Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks Mark Hickman Department of Mathematics & Statistics UniversityTeX\\ {\\em c i r c a } 2010}\\\\[3mm] 2 Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks } 3 \\ author {Mark Hickman\\\\ 4

Hickman, Mark

381

50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and... Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats running at large on a national wildlife...

2012-10-01

382

46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section...STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy...

2014-10-01

383

46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section...STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy...

2013-10-01

384

50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and... Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats running at large on a national wildlife...

2013-10-01

385

Genetic Evidence for an East Asian Origin of Domestic Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of the domestic dog from wolves has been established, but the number of founding events, as well as where and when these occurred, is not known. To address these questions, we examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation among 654 domestic dogs representing all major dog populations worldwide. Although our data indicate several maternal origins from wolf, >95%

Peter Savolainen; Ya-ping Zhang; Jing Luo; Joakim Lundeberg; Thomas Leitner

2002-01-01

386

46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section...STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy...

2012-10-01

387

36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11 Section 262.11 Parks, Forests, and...Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National...

2013-07-01

388

50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets. 36.36 Section... Other Refuge Uses § 36.36 Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass...household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their...

2013-10-01

389

Therapeutic neonatal hepatic gene therapy in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs  

E-print Network

Therapeutic neonatal hepatic gene therapy in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs Katherine Parker Ponder 12, 2002) Dogs with mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) were injected in- travenously at 2­3 days alone, and two dogs received hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) before RV in an attempt to increase

Ponder, Katherine P.

390

50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets. 36.36 Section... Other Refuge Uses § 36.36 Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass...household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their...

2012-10-01

391

50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets. 36.36 Section... Other Refuge Uses § 36.36 Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass...household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their...

2014-10-01

392

Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a dog with thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

This case report describes a dog with thyroid carcinoma and paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. Following thyroidectomy the dog became hypocalcemic and required supplementation with calcitriol and calcium carbonate. During the following 2 years, attempts to reduce the supplementation resulted in hypocalcemia. The dog died from renal failure with no evidence of thyroid carcinoma. PMID:23543930

Lane, Amy E; Wyatt, Kenneth M

2012-10-01

393

Soil change induced by prairie dogs across three ecological sites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) can influence vegetation dynamics and landscape hydrology by altering soil properties, yet few studies have evaluated soil responses to prairie dog activities across a range of soil types. This study was conducted to quantify prairie dog effects on soil properties within...

394

REVIEW ARTICLE Prevention of spontaneous bleeding in dogs with haemophilia  

E-print Network

REVIEW ARTICLE Prevention of spontaneous bleeding in dogs with haemophilia A and haemophilia B T. C of Pediatrics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA Summary. Dogs with haemophilia in humans with severe haemophilia. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of haemophilic dogs have

Kay, Mark A.

395

The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus)  

E-print Network

The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) M.A.J. Frantzen, J.W.H. Ferguson the long-term survival of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). To aid this, a studbook was assembled the largest existing regional population of captive African wild dogs. These populations were investigated

Altwegg, Res

396

Thrombocytosis associated with a myeloproliferative disorder in a dog  

SciTech Connect

A dog with a myeloproliferative disorder and thrombocytosis had clinical signs that were consistent with a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The dog was treated with aspirin, radioactive phosphorus, and melphalan. Eighteen months after referral, the disorder progressed to chronic granulocytic leukemia, and treatment was switched to hydroxyurea. Fourteen months later, the dog was euthanatized because of uncontrollable atrial fibrillation.

Degen, M.A.; Feldman, B.F.; Turrel, J.M.; Goding, B.; Kitchell, B.; Mandell, C.P. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1989-05-15

397

Prairie Dog Overpopulation: Value Judgement or Ecological Reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) overpopulation is complex, and judgements of overpopulation may not be based on prairie dog population size or density. Caughley's (1981) model of animal overpopulation is applied here to prairie dogs to clarify the basis for a judgement of overpopulation in each of several cases. There are ecological components to all such cases, but

Kirsten Krueger

1987-01-01

398

Genetics of aggressive behaviour in Golden Retriever dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dogs have been living in close proximity to humans since the last Ice Age. Like their progenitor the grey wolf, dogs may respond with aggressive behaviour to certain stimuli. This is natural behaviour in the majority of cases. However, canine aggression can develop into a dangerous problem. There is individual variation in the tendency of dogs to display aggressive behaviour.

L. van den Berg

2006-01-01

399

Lifetime Dog and Cat Exposure and Dog and Cat Specific Sensitization at Age 18 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research about whether keeping a dog or cat in the home causes allergies to that pet has been limited to outcomes in early childhood. Objective Evaluate the association between lifetime dog and cat exposure and allergic sensitization to the specific animal at age 18 years. Methods Participants enrolled in the Detroit Childhood Allergy Study birth cohort in 1987–1989 were contacted at age 18 years. Sensitization to dog or cat was defined as animal-specific IgE ?0.35 kU/L. Annual interview data from childhood and follow-up interviews at age 18 years were used to determine lifetime indoor dog and cat exposure (indoor defined as the animal spent >50% of their time in the home). Exposure was considered in various ways: first year, age groups and cumulative lifetime. Analyses were conducted separately for dogs and cats. Results Among males, those with an indoor dog in the first year of life had half the risk (RR=0.50, 95% confidence Interval=CI 0.27, 0.92) of being sensitized to dogs at age 18 compared to those who did not have an indoor dog in the first year. This was also true for males and females born via c-section (RR=0.33, 95%CI 0.07, 0.97). Overall, teens with an indoor cat in the first year of life had decreased risk (RR=0.52, 95% CI 0.31, 0.90) of being sensitized to cats. Neither cumulative exposure nor exposure at any other particular age was associated with either outcome. Conclusions and clinical relevance The first year of life is the critical period during childhood when indoor exposure to dogs or cats influences sensitization to these animals. PMID:21668818

Wegienka, Ganesa; Johnson, Christine Cole; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R.; Nicholas, Charlotte; Zoratti, Edward M.

2013-01-01

400

Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs of different dogs  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs in the beagle dog was investigated at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of programs to evaluate the biological effects of both radionuclides in atomic bomb fallout and internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. In the ITRI study, young adult dogs were exposed once by intravenous injection to a range of {sup 137}Cs concentrations; the results have recently been published. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the ANL study and to compare the results of the two studies. At ANL, 63 dogs in three age groups (15 juveniles, 142-151 days old; 38 young adults, 388-427 days old; and 10 middle-aged dogs, 1387-2060 days old) were given {sup 137}Cs intravenously at levels (61-162f MBq/kg) near those expected to be lethal within 30 days after injection. There were 17 control dogs from the same colony. Twenty-three of the dogs injected with {sup 137}Cs, including all middle-aged dogs, died within 52 days after injection due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia that led to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. The other significant early effect was damage to the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. The design of the ANL study revealed an age- and gender-related differential radiosensitivity for early effects. The middle-aged dogs died significantly earlier due to complications of hematological dyscrasia compared to the juvenile and young adult dogs, and the middle-aged females died significantly earlier than the middle-aged males. The most significant non-neoplastic late effects in the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs from ANL and ITRI were atrophy of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules with azoospermia, and a significant dose-dependent decrease in survival. The survival of the ANL dogs was decreased more than that of the ITRI dogs at similar radiation doses from {sup 137}Cs. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Nikula, K.J.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01

401

Country Dog Gentlemen Travel to Extraordinary Worlds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive gallery designed for children of all ages was produced by the Education Department of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA). In the interactive, the "Country Dog Gentlemen", characters first depicted in a 1972 painting of the same name by the late Bay Area artist Roy De Forest (1930-2007), lead explorations of paintings and sculpture by Frieda Kahlo, Jackson Pollack, and Sargent Johnson. Students can watch the dogs sniffing out the story of each work, or create their own art, in various activities inspired by the originals. For example, the activity based on Kahlo's portrait, Frieda and Diego Rivera, 1931, is to swap the clothing and pets in Kahlo's work. The questions the Country Dog Gentlemen ask about Sargent Johnson's sculpture Forever Free, 1933, could make a good Black History Month lesson.

402

Keloidal fibromas and fibrosarcomas in the dog.  

PubMed

Sixteen dogs (2-12 years of age) presented with one (n = 15) or two (n = 1) cutaneous nodules (n = 16) or a dermal plaque (n = 1). Intact males (n = 9) and neutered males (n = 4) were more affected than were females (n = 3). Histologically, these lesions were characterized by focal dermal and subcutaneous deposition of thick hyalinized collagen fibers intermingled with fibroblasts, and in 13 of 17 lesions, a variable number of CD18-positive cells were interpreted as reactive macrophages. Fibroblasts in three dogs formed intersecting fascicles, interpreted as evidence of malignant transformation. The terms keloidal fibroma and keloidal fibrosarcoma can be applied to these lesions. Excision was curative in five dogs with keloidal fibroma for which follow-up was available. However, because malignant transformation may occur, wide excision of canine keloidal lesions is warranted. PMID:12102210

Mikaelian, I; Gross, T L

2002-01-01

403

OIE guidelines on dog population control.  

PubMed

At the 73rd General Session the OIE decided to develop guidance for Members on humane methods for the control of stray animal populations. In 2006, an ad hoc Group was convened under the leadership of the OIE Permanent Animal Welfare Working Group. With valuable assistance from the OIE Collaborating Centre on Animal Welfare, a Questionnaire was developed and sent to OIE Members, of which 81 countries submitted responses. In light of this information, the ad hoc Group prepared a first draft report, which notes the importance of controlling stray dog populations to help prevent zoonotic diseases and non-disease related nuisances to society and the environment. In choosing the preferred method of control, the risks to operators must be taken into account, as well as religious, cultural and economic contexts of the country concerned. Depending on the situation, methods requiring individual animal restraint or methods for use at a distance may be recommended. While activities that aim to physically reduce the numbers of stray dogs are important, achievement of the long term goals of dog population control and avoidance of risks to human health depends on the education of dog owners and the general public as to their responsibilities. The draft report notes that sub-national jurisdictions are often those responsible for the control of stray dog populations. The key role played by non-governmental organisations in stray dog management in many countries is acknowledged. The draft report emphasises that the close involvement of veterinarians and of official Veterinary Services, working in collaboration with public health authorities, is necessary to realise long term goals. PMID:18634514

Kahn, S; Stuardo, L; Rahman, S A

2008-01-01

404

Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism in the Dog  

PubMed Central

In six adult pedigreed dogs the effects of high-cholesterol diets or bile diversion on the sizes of body cholesterol pools were studied at autopsy. Total body cholesterol was determined by measuring the cholesterol content of discrete organs and of the eviscerated carcass: neither cholesterol feeding nor bile diversion had altered total body cholesterol or the cholesterol content of individual organs and tissues. These results validated the conclusion based on sterol balance data obtained during life, that high-cholesterol feeding did not lead to substantial expansion of tissue cholesterol pools. The total amount of exchangeable cholesterol in the animals with an intact enterohepatic circulation, when estimated from isotopic data, was essentially the same as that measured chemically: this indicated that there was little or no nonexchangeable cholesterol in these dogs, except in skin and nervous tissue, regardless of the cholesterol content of the diet. This correspondence of estimates was not obtained in the bile-diverted dogs: we propose that the defect in the isotopic estimates was due to the accelerated rate of cholesterol synthesis in these animals. Gross and microscopic morphology of all organs and tissues was examined. Abnormal findings were limited to the biliary tract and the urinary collecting system of the two bile-diverted dogs: multiple bilirubinate gallstones were found, and mild pyelitis and ureteritis were present on the side of the bilio-renal shunt, but the urinary bladder was normal. Histologic evidence of moderate degree of cholangitis was found in one of the two bile-shunted dogs, but in neither dog was there evidence of impedance of bile flow. PMID:4727465

Pertsemlidis, Demetrius; Kirchman, Ernest H.; Ahrens, E. H.

1973-01-01

405

Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs.  

PubMed

To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11-16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is necessary. PMID:24453982

Freedman, Adam H; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R; Parker, Heidi G; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D; Harkins, Timothy T; Nelson, Stanley F; Ostrander, Elaine A; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K; Novembre, John

2014-01-01

406

Genome Sequencing Highlights the Dynamic Early History of Dogs  

PubMed Central

To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11–16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is necessary. PMID:24453982

Freedman, Adam H.; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M.; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi G.; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K.; Novembre, John

2014-01-01

407

Pediatric seizure disorders in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Seizure disorders in young animals pose different considerations as to cause and therapeutic decisions compared with adult animals. Infectious diseases of the nervous system are more likely in puppies and kittens compared with adults. The diagnosis of canine distemper is often based on clinical signs. Idiopathic epilepsy typically occurs in dogs between 1 and 5 years of age; however, inflammatory brain diseases such as necrotizing encephalitis and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis also commonly occur in young to middle-aged small-breed dogs. The choice of which anticonvulsant to administer for maintenance therapy is tailored to each individual patient. PMID:24580991

Lavely, James A

2014-03-01

408

An Old Dog and New Tricks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As I approach my 55th birthday, the old adage 'you can't teach an old dog new tricks' keeps coming to mind. I'm not sure why, because I don't feel old and I'm still interested in taking on new challenges and learning new tricks. However, as I mentor new project managers, I am also aware that others may consider me an old dog unable to learn new tricks. To the contrary, the people I mentor continue to teach me new tricks and challenge my assumptions about project management.

Cameron, W. Scott

2003-01-01

409

Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism in the Dog  

PubMed Central

Six adult pedigreed dogs were studied as long as 3 yr in order to determine the effects of cholesterol feeding and of bile diversion on absorption, synthesis, and storage of cholesterol. These measurements were based on cholesterol balance and isotope kinetic studies. In the six dogs fed a “cholesterol-free” diet with their enterohepatic circulations undisturbed, the rate of cholesterol synthesis ranged from 225 to 508 mg/day (mean 325 mg/day or 12.4 mg/kg/day). In two dogs studied subsequently on cholesterol-containing diets, absorption of cholesterol averaged 81% (range 71-94%) on a dietary intake of 0.5 g/day; on high cholesterol intakes (2.7-3.0 g/day) the rate of absorption dropped to 43-51% of daily intake, but the absolute amounts absorbed were increased. Feeding of cholesterol resulted in acceleration of bile acid formation and excretion, as well as nearly total inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. These two compensatory mechanisms were sufficient to maintain zero balance of cholesterol in the face of a high cholesterol intake. Plasma cholesterol concentrations in the two dogs increased by 37 and 44%. In two other dogs bile was completely diverted into the urinary system for nearly 2 yr. When these dogs were studied on a cholesterol-free diet, the sum of acidic steroids excreted daily in urine plus neutral steroids excreted in feces was seven times as high as before the operation. Since these massive excretory losses could not have been sustained by mobilization from tissue cholesterol pools, and since the rate of disappearance of [4-14C]cholesterol from the plasma after single intravenous injection was greatly increased after complete biliary diversion, total daily synthesis of cholesterol must have been greatly accelerated, for synthesis was totally unsuppressed. The increased output of fecal neutral steroids could be the result of transfer of plasma cholesterol across the gut wall or due to increased synthesis in the gut. Plasma cholesterol levels were reduced in these two dogs by 20 and 27%, and triglycerides decreased by 36 and 43%. Accumulation of cholesterol in body pools in the cholesterol-fed dogs appeared to have been prevented, according to antemortem measurements: increased absorption of dietary cholesterol was exactly balanced by suppression of cholesterol synthesis and enhanced bile acid excretion. In the bile-shunted animals, depletion of tissue stores of cholesterol could not be predicted by antemortem measurements. PMID:4727464

Pertsemlidis, Demetrius; Kirchman, Ernest H.; Ahrens, E. H.

1973-01-01

410

Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea  

PubMed Central

This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination schedule of dogs and cats in Korean animal hospitals. PMID:25003099

2014-01-01

411

Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs  

PubMed Central

Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1?64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ?1?256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

2013-01-01

412

"Like Owner, Like Dog": Correlation between the Owner's Attachment Profile and the Owner-Dog Bond  

PubMed Central

During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog–human affectional bond can be characterized as an “attachment”. The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's “strange situation”. The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations. PMID:24205235

Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

2013-01-01

413

Reclaiming identity through service to dogs in need.  

PubMed

Dog Tags is an animal-assisted therapy offered by the Washington Humane Society (WHS) in partnership with the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC). The program is open to all ranks of enlisted service members using WRNMMC services. Dog Tags is a 3-tiered certificate program allowing Soldiers, recovering at WRNMMC, to learn and apply progressively complex and challenging elements of canine positive reinforcement training to dogs awaiting adoption at the WHS. Although each tier is a self-contained and complete curriculum, subsequent tiers build on the skills and knowledge acquired in the previous one(s). Dog Tags Warrior/trainers work with fully-screened (health and temperament) shelter dogs to provide these dogs with mental stimulation, environmental enrichment, and socialization that are vital to their successful adoption and integration into new homes. The Soldiers also benefit because they develop new skills, build positive bonds with the dogs, and continue to serve their community. PMID:22388686

Alers, Elvin V; Simpson, Kevin M

2012-01-01

414

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy for shoulder lameness in dogs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article was to describe the outcome of dogs with instability, calcifying, and inflammatory conditions of the shoulder treated with extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). Medical records for 15 dogs with lameness attributable to the shoulder that failed previous conservative management were retrospectively reviewed. ESWT was delivered to those dogs q 3-4 wk for a total of three treatments. Short-term, in-hospital subjective lameness evaluation revealed resolution of lameness in three of nine dogs and improved lameness in six of nine dogs available for evaluation 3-4 wk following the final treatment. Long-term lameness score via telephone interview was either improved or normal in 7 of 11 dogs (64%). ESWT may result in improved function based on subjective patient evaluation and did not have any negative side effects in dogs with lameness attributable to instability, calcifying, and inflammatory conditions of the shoulder. PMID:25415219

Becker, Willem; Kowaleski, Michael P; McCarthy, Robert J; Blake, Cara A

2015-01-01

415

Effects of steroids on the olfactory function of the dog.  

PubMed

Twenty-four (24) mature, mixed breed, healthy dogs weighing from 14.6 kg to 27.6 kg were used to study the effects of various steroids on the olfactory function of the dog using olfactory detection threshold as an index. Two odorants were used, viz; benzaldehyde and eugenol. Of the various steroids used, only dexamethasone produced classical signs of Cushing's syndrome in the dogs. However, all dogs that received either dexamethasone alone or hydrocortisone plus DOCA exhibited a significant elevation in the olfactory detection threshold for both odorants without any observable structural alteration of the olfactory tissue using light microscopy. On the other hand, neither DOCA, hydrocortisone alone, nor any of the vehicles used in the study significantly altered the olfactory function of the dogs. The results show that Cushing's syndrome can be experimentally produced in dogs using exogenous steroids and that this condition diminishes the olfactory capability of the dog without producing classical signs of the disease. PMID:1641419

Ezeh, P I; Myers, L J; Hanrahan, L A; Kemppainen, R J; Cummins, K A

1992-06-01

416

Biosynthetic Corneal Substitute Implantation in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess integration of a biosynthetic corneal implant in dogs. Methods Three normal adult laboratory Beagles underwent ophthalmic examinations, including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, applanation tonometry, and Cochet–Bonnet aesthesiometry. Biosynthetic corneas fabricated from glutaraldehyde crosslinked collagen and copolymers of collagen and poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid-co-acryloxysuccinimide, denoted as TERP) were implanted into dogs by a modified epikeratoplasty technique. Ophthalmic examinations and aesthesiometry were performed daily for 5 days and then weekly thereafter for 16 weeks. Corneal samples underwent histopathological and transmission electron microscopy examination at 16 weeks. Results Implants were epithelialized by 7 days. Intraocular pressure was within normal range throughout the study. Aesthesiometry values dropped from an average of 3.67 cm preoperatively to less than 1 mm for all dogs for the first postoperative weeks. By week 16, the average Cochet–Bonnet value was 1.67 cm, demonstrating partial recovery of functional innervation of the implant. No inflammation or rejection of the implant occurred, and minimal haze formation was noted. Light microscopy revealed thickened but normal epithelium over the implant with fibroblast migration into the scaffold. On transmission electron microscopy, the basement membrane was irregular but present and adhesion complexes were noted. Conclusion Biosynthetic corneal implantation is well tolerated in dogs, and the collagen–polymer hybrid construct holds promise for clinical application in animals and humans. PMID:20539221

Bentley, Ellison; Murphy, Christopher J.; Li, Fengfu; Carlsson, David J.; Griffith, May

2012-01-01

417

Ebola Virus Antibody Prevalence in Dogs  

E-print Network

observed that several dogs were highly exposed to Ebola virus by eating infected dead animals. To examine whether these animals became infected with Ebola virus, we sampled 439 dogs and screened them by Ebola virus–specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G assay, antigen detection, and viral polymerase chain reaction amplification. Seven (8.9%) of 79 samples from the 2 main towns, 15 (15.2%) of 99 samples from Mekambo, and 40 (25.2%) of 159 samples from villages in the Ebola virus–epidemic area had detectable Ebola virus–IgG, compared to only 2 (2%) of 102 samples from France. Among dogs from villages with both infected animal carcasses and human cases, seroprevalence was 31.8%. A significant positive direct association existed between seroprevalence and the distances to the Ebola virus–epidemic area. This study suggests that dogs can be infected by Ebola virus and that the putative infection is asymptomatic. *Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville,

Human Risk; Loïs Allela; Olivier Bourry; Régis Pouillot; André Délicat; Brice Kumulungui; Pierre Rouquet; Jean-paul Gonzalez; Eric M. Leroy

418

Paraneoplastic hypertrophic osteopathy in 30 dogs.  

PubMed

Paraneoplastic hypertrophic osteopathy (pHO) is known to occur in both canine and human cancer patients. While the pathology of pHO is well-described in the dog, very little information exists regarding the true clinical presentation of dogs affected with pHO. The primary objective of this study was to provide a more comprehensive clinical picture of pHO. To this end, we retrospectively identified 30 dogs and recorded data regarding presenting complaints and physical examination (PE) findings on the date of pHO diagnosis. As a secondary objective, any blood test results were also collected from the computerized records. The most common clinical signs included leg swelling, ocular discharge and/or episcleral injection, lameness, and lethargy. The most common haematological and serum biochemical abnormalities included anaemia, neutrophilia and elevated alkaline phosphatase. In addition to presenting a more detailed clinical description of pHO in the dog, these data support the previously described haematological, serum biochemical and PE abnormalities published in individual case reports. PMID:23489591

Withers, S S; Johnson, E G; Culp, W T N; Rodriguez, C O; Skorupski, K A; Rebhun, R B

2013-03-14

419

Viral reproductive pathogens of dogs and cats.  

PubMed

This article reviews the current literature on the viral agents that cause reproductive failures in domestic carnivores (dogs and cats). A meaningful update is provided on the etiologic, clinical, pathologic, diagnostic, and prophylactic aspects of the viral infections impacting canine and feline reproduction as a consequence of either direct virus replication or severe debilitation of pregnant animals. PMID:22482820

Decaro, Nicola; Carmichael, Leland E; Buonavoglia, Canio

2012-05-01

420

Clifford, The Big Red Dog K-1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning to read and write can be so much fun. Clifford, The Big Red Dog, wants to help you. Listen to a story. Here, Clifford Write a message to Clifford. Send a Note Play the Sound Match Game with Clifford. Clifford s Sound Match Game Help Clifford at the beach. Games Match your letters in the Letter Match Game. Letter Match ...

Bourne, Mrs.

2006-10-16

421

Dogs Don't Need Calculus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many optimization problems can be solved without resorting to calculus. This article develops a new variational method for optimization that relies on inequalities. The method is illustrated by four examples, the last of which provides a completely algebraic solution to the problem of minimizing the time it takes a dog to retrieve a thrown ball,…

Bolt, Mike

2010-01-01

422

Dog Therapy: The Importance of Just Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excerpts from the book, "The Advantage of Being Useless"; anecdotes from the author's experiences; and observations of his dog illustrate how counselors can be so busy counseling that they miss the human connection. Outdoor activities are conducive to unself-conscious spontaneity and unconditional acceptance--a just "letting it happen," which…

Schusser, Eric

1998-01-01

423

Disseminated aspergillosis in two dogs in Israel.  

PubMed

Aspergillus terreus, normally a soil or plant saprophyte, causes disseminated systemic infection, involving primarily the skeletal and the cardiopulmonary system in humans and dogs.(1, 2) We describe two cases of German shepherd dogs that were referred to Koret School of Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital with a history of anorexia and weakness. Case 1 suffered from neurological deficits, paraparesis and lumbar pain whereas case 2 suffered from unilateral uveitis and exophthalmus. Both dogs were treated symptomatically, but deteriorated progressively despite therapy and were therefore euthanised. Necropsy revealed disseminated aspergillosis, and numerous organs had multiple, miliary, white-yellow foci. Microscopically, these were identified as granulomas, containing fungal hyphae. Affected tissue included brain, heart, kidneys, spleen, lymph nodes and bones (case 2). Aspergillus terreus was isolated from different organs and from urine culture. We suggest that disseminated aspergillosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in German shepherd dogs presenting with ocular disease, neurological deficits, spinal column pain, urinary system disorders, and radiographic evidence of skeletal and/or respiratory pathology. PMID:16466447

Bruchim, Y; Elad, D; Klainbart, S

2006-03-01

424

Intraocular epithelial downgrowth in a dog  

PubMed Central

A 14-year-old, female dog was presented for a recheck following intracapsular lens removal 1 year earlier. On examination, epithelial downgrowth was identified in the anterior chamber, and an evisceration was performed. The intraocular contents were submitted for histopathologic examination, which confirmed the presence of epithelial downgrowth. PMID:17966337

Kostuik, Holly

2007-01-01

425

Nipah Virus Infection in Dogs, Malaysia, 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1999 outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in hu- mans and pigs in Peninsular Malaysia ended with the evac- uation of humans and culling of pigs in the epidemic area. Serologic screening showed that, in the absence of infected pigs, dogs were not a secondary reservoir for Nipah virus.

James N. Mills; Asiah N. M. Alim; Michel L. Bunning; Ong Bee Lee; Kent D. Wagoner; Brian R. Amman; Patrick C. Stockton; Thomas G. Ksiazek

2009-01-01

426

Trapping Prairie Dogs for Vaccine Testing  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Greg Schroeder (National Park Service) and a pair of Auburn University graduate students approach a prairie dog that has been trapped outside its burrow in Wind Cave National Park. The animal is part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine...

427

Trapped Prairie Dog for SPV Testing  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This prairie dog was trapped by scientists outside its burrow in Wind Cave National Park as part of a field test to determine the effectiveness of a USGS-developed oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV). This animal will be brought to a research van for tagging and blood, whisker, and hair sampling, and...

428

Radioimmunoassy for phencyclidine (PCP) in serum. [Dogs  

SciTech Connect

This accurate, sensitive radioimmunoassay for determining phencyclidine concentrations in serum specimens involves the use of anti-phencyclidine sera, 0.1 mL of serum specimen, an iodinated tracer, and a solid-phase separation. Phencyclidine metabolities do not show significant cross reactivity, but several phencyclidine analogs do cross react. Within-run coefficients of variation for human and dog serum ranged from 2.5 to 13% for concentrations from 2.0 to 500 ..mu..g/L. Day-to-day coefficients of variation for human and dog serum ranged from 4.3 to 16.7% for concentrations ranging from 2.0 to 09.0 ..mu..g/L. The sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay is <0.5 ..mu..g/L. Thirty serum specimens from two dogs given 1 mg of phencyclidine per kilogram body weight were analyzed by radioimmunoassay and a gas-chromatographic method. Nonparametris statistical comparison and linear regression showed that results from the two procedures correlate well (r/sup 2/ = 0.952). Concentration-time data from the two dogs are presented to illustrate the utility of the radioimmunoassay for examining phencyclidine disposition.

Owens, S.M.; Woodworth, J.; Mayersohn, M.

1982-07-01

429

Prenatal olfactory learning in the domestic dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of individuals to learn about chemosensory stimuli in the prenatal, or immediate postnatal, period may be advan- tageous in acquiring information about ''safe'' foods after weaning. In this study, we examined the influence of perinatal exposure to aniseed via the mother's diet on a two-choice food test in the domestic dog. Pups were tested at 10 weeks of

Deborah L. Wells; Peter G. Hepper

2006-01-01

430

Pulmonary Vascular Response to Nitroprusside in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Although the effects of nitroprusside (NP) on myocardial function have been studied extensively, the effects of this vasodilator on the pulmonary vasculature have received less attention. In closed-chest anesthetized dogs, we used indicator dilution measurements of pulmonary blood volume (PBV), along -with measurements of pulmonary artery (Ppa) and left atrial (Pla) pressures, to address this problem in three experimental

EDWARD D. SIVAK; BARRY A. GRAY; H. TIM MCCURDY; ARDIS K. PHILLIPS

431

DOG AGGRESSION: CANINE BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO AGGRESSION TOWARD HUMANS  

E-print Network

DOG AGGRESSION: CANINE BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO AGGRESSION TOWARD HUMANS J. Kottferova1: kottfer@uvm.sk; Phone: 1421 915 984 670 Our study focused on dog aggression toward people dog owners about their dog's aggression toward unknown persons. More than half of the dogs surveyed

Champagne, Frances A.

432

STS-69 Crew members display 'Dog Crew' patches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following their arrival at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, the five astronauts assigned to Space Shuttle Mission STS-69 display the unofficial crew patch for their upcoming spaceflight: the Dog Crew II patch. Mission Commander David M. Walker (center) and Payload Commander James S. Voss (second from right) previously flew together on Mission STS-53, the final dedicated Department of Defense flight on the Space Shuttle. A close comradery formed among Walker, Voss and the rest of the crew, and they dubbed themselves the 'dogs of war', with each of the STS-53 'Dog Crew' members assigned a 'dog tag' or nickname. When the STS-69 astronauts also became good buddies, they decided it was time for the Dog Crew II to be named. Walker's dog tag is Red Dog, Voss's is Dogface, Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell (second from left) is Cujo, space rookie and Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt (left) is Under Dog, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman (right) is Pluato. The Dog Crew II patch features a bulldog peering out from a doghouse shaped like the Space Shuttle and lists the five crew member's dog names. The five astronauts are scheduled to lift off on the fifth Shuttle flight of the year at 11:04 a.m. EDT, August 31, aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

1995-01-01

433

Oocysts and high seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia.  

PubMed

Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum. PMID:22245069

King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan

2012-06-01

434

Distance Traveled by Lost Dogs from Lost Location to Found Location  

E-print Network

Spatial and statistical analyses were performed on data submitted by government-run animal care agencies (ACAs) from three southeast Minnesota municipalities for the purpose of using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine the distance traveled by lost dogs from lost location to found location. Data submitted included descriptions of each dog and the location where the dog was lost and was found. An individual or ACA that finds a dog expends time and money attempting to reunite the dog with its owner. Likewise, a dog’s owner expends time and money attempting to find his or her dog. Determining the distance traveled by lost dogs has the potential to help owners refine their search efforts for their lost dogs, as well as to assist ACAs in locating owners of found dogs impounded. Knowledge of the distance traveled by lost dogs also will be useful for developing proactive strategies for reuniting dogs and owners. The proactive reunification strategy discussed in this research is a GIS application which ACAs could use to identify households with licensed dogs nearby the location where a dog is found. A GIS application would help reunite dog and owner regardless of whether a dog was found wearing a collar with an attached license tag. Using a GIS application to proactively reunite dogs and owners could reduce monetary and nonmonetary costs incurred by dogs, owners, finders and ACAs.

Ashley Ignatius

435

Analysis of short-period P-coda measurements for presumed underground nuclear explosions in Eurasia. Final report 1 January 1983-31 January 1984  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of P-coda measurements at NORSAR were investigated for presumed underground nuclear explosions in the Soviet Union. For explosions in the Semipalatinsk region, coda magnitudes, measured in the time domain in 5-second windows averaged over 50 seconds of P coda, were found to vary by about 0.1 magnitude units across NORSAR as compared with about 0.2 to 0.3 units for P-wave magnitudes. Also, array-averaged estimates of coda magnitude varied more smoothly with time into the coda than single channel estimates. This result indicates that local subarray scattering causes random perturbations in coda levels which are smoothed out by the averaging process. NORSAR P-coda magnitudes, like the Lg measurements of Rindal (1983), are more consistent with network averaged P-wave magnitudes than NORSAR single-channel magnitudes. There is some indication that Lg measurements may be slightly better than P-coda measurements in terms of reducing scatter and bias. In the analysis of P-codas from seismic events north of the Caspian Sea, codas of presumed explosions in the Astrakhan region are more intense and variable as a function of time into the coda than those for events near Azgir. These differences are attributed to lateral variations in geologic structure in the Pri-Caspian salt basin.

Baumgardt, D.R.

1984-04-13

436

Safety and efficacy of tolterodine extended release in men with overactive bladder symptoms and presumed non-obstructive benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Patients with presumed non-obstructive BPH (Q (max )>or= 15 ml/s) treated with tolterodine ER 4 mg/day for OAB symptoms, alone or added to unsuccessful alpha-blocker treatment of >or=6 weeks duration, were observed for 12 weeks in a non-interventional study to generate real-life efficacy and safety data. Patients completed the IPSS, the OAB-q and a 2-day micturition diary at baseline and 12 weeks. PVR was determined sonographically. Seven hundred and forty one patients were analysed. Mean PVR did not increase (25.4 +/- 26.5 vs. 29.3 +/- 30.9 ml at baseline). AUR requiring catheterization occurred in two patients, acute UTI in four patients. Median IPSS total scores decreased from 17 to 10, IPSS QoL scores from 4 to 2, OAB-q symptom bother scores from 50.0 to 22.5 and OAB-q HRQL scores increased from 59.2 to 81.6. In men with OAB symptoms and presumed non-obstructive BPH, tolterodine ER provided considerable symptomatic and QoL improvements with a low risk of AUR, acute UTI, or increased PVR. PMID:17906864

Höfner, K; Burkart, M; Jacob, G; Jonas, U

2007-12-01

437

49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338...required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in...

2011-10-01

438

9 CFR 318.12 - Manufacture of dog food or similar uninspected article at official establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Manufacture of dog food or similar uninspected article at official... General § 318.12 Manufacture of dog food or similar uninspected article at official establishments. (a) When dog food, or similar...

2011-01-01

439

33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. 147...ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782...

2011-07-01

440

9 CFR 318.12 - Manufacture of dog food or similar uninspected article at official establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of dog food or similar uninspected article at official... General § 318.12 Manufacture of dog food or similar uninspected article at official establishments. (a) When dog food, or similar...

2010-01-01

441

9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers...Miscellaneous § 2.132 Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers...dealer may obtain live random source dogs and cats only from: (1) Other...

2011-01-01

442

49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking... Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be...

2011-10-01

443

49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking... Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be...

2010-10-01

444

33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. 147...ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782...

2010-07-01

445

9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers...Miscellaneous § 2.132 Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers...dealer may obtain live random source dogs and cats only from: (1) Other...

2010-01-01

446

9 CFR 355.29 - Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora. 355...CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION... Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora....

2011-01-01

447

9 CFR 355.29 - Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora. 355...CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION... Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora....

2010-01-01

448

49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338...required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in...

2010-10-01

449

9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers...Miscellaneous § 2.132 Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers...dealer may obtain live random source dogs and cats only from: (1) Other...

2013-01-01

450

33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. 147...ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782...

2014-07-01

451

49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338...required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in...

2012-10-01

452

33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. 147...ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782...

2013-07-01

453

WASHINGTON STATE 4-H DOG OBEDIENCE PROGRAM PRE-NOVICE SCORE SHEET  

E-print Network

WASHINGTON STATE 4-H DOG OBEDIENCE PROGRAM PRE-NOVICE SCORE SHEET............................................ Forced into position............................................ Handler placed dog so it interfered with adjacent dog..................................................... Did not remain in place......... Went

New Hampshire, University of

454

49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking... Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be...

2012-10-01

455

9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers...Miscellaneous § 2.132 Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers...dealer may obtain live random source dogs and cats only from: (1) Other...

2014-01-01

456

9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers...Miscellaneous § 2.132 Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers...dealer may obtain live random source dogs and cats only from: (1) Other...

2012-01-01

457

49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338...required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in...

2013-10-01

458

49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking... Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be...

2013-10-01

459

33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. 147...ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782...

2012-07-01

460

SOCIAL GROUP FISSION AND GENE DYNAMICS AMONG BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS  

E-print Network

SOCIAL GROUP FISSION AND GENE DYNAMICS AMONG BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS fission. Key words: coancestry, competition, cooperation, Cynomys ludovicianus, dispersal, fission, gene al. 1990). Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus; hereafter, simply ``prairie dogs

Foltz, David W.

461

Mitochondrial DNA sequence heteroplasmy levels in domestic dog hair.  

PubMed

To assess the level of mtDNA sequence heteroplasmy in dog hair, we sequenced a 612 base pair fragment of the hypervariable region 1 (HVI) in 576 hairs from six dogs representing a range of age, sex, breed, and hair color. Blood and buccal samples were collected from each dog for reference. Three instances of sequence heteroplasmy were observed at nucleotide positions 15627 (G/A), 15628 (T/C) and 15639 (G/A) in two hairs from different dogs. An HVI sequence heteroplasmy frequency of 0.0034 was obtained. The Probability of Identity (PI) value, or probability that two random, unrelated dog hairs share an HVI sequence, and the Power of Discrimination (PD), or probability that two random unrelated dog hairs have different HVI sequences, were determined from the 88 HVI haplotypes represented in the Veterinary Genetics Laboratory database (n=1006) and found to be 0.086 and 0.914, respectively. PMID:24631692

Spicer, Ashley M; Kun, Teri J; Sacks, Benjamin N; Wictum, Elizabeth J

2014-07-01

462

Response and adaptation of Beagle dogs to hypergravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight male Beagle dogs, five months old, were centrifuged continuously for three months at progressively increasing loads. Heart rate and deep body temperature were monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry. Initially, centrifuged dogs showed transient decreases in heart rate and body temperature along with changes in their diurnal rhythm patterns. Compared with normal gravity controls, exposed dogs showed a slower growth rate and a reduced amount of body fat. Blood protein, total lipids, cholesterol, calcium, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin were also decreased significantly. Absolute weights of the leg bones of centrifuged dogs were significantly greater than controls. Photon absorptiometry revealed significant density increases in selective regions of the femur and humerus of centrifuged dogs. In spite of the various changes noted, results from this and other studies affirm the view that dogs can tolerate and adapt to sustained loads as high as 2.5 g without serious impairment of their body structure and function.

Oyama, J.

1975-01-01

463

Blood vitamin levels in dogs with chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may affect excretion and metabolism of vitamins but data for dogs are limited. In this study, blood vitamin levels were investigated in 19 dogs with chronic renal failure. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, ascorbic acid and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations, whereas cobalamin, folate, biotin and pantothenic acid were measured by microbiological methods. Levels of retinol, retinyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, and vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were increased compared to healthy dogs. Dogs with CKD showed decreased concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and folate. Alpha-tocopherol, biotin, pantothenate and cobalamin levels were not significantly different between controls and dogs with CKD. Whether lower vitamin D and folate concentrations in dogs with CKD justify supplementation has to be evaluated in future studies. PMID:21767966

Galler, A; Tran, J L; Krammer-Lukas, S; Höller, U; Thalhammer, J G; Zentek, J; Willmann, M

2012-05-01

464

Radiotherapy of metastatic seminoma in the dog. Case reports  

SciTech Connect

Four dogs with metastatic seminoma were treated with cesium 137 teleradiotherapy. Minimum total tumor dose ranged from 17 to 40 gray (Gy) and was usually given through bilateral opposing sublumbar ports in eight to ten fractions, with three fractions given weekly. The tumor regressed in all four dogs. The first dog (case 1) was free of tumor and died of non-tumor related causes at 57 months. The second dog (case 2) was free of tumor but was euthanatized at 37 months for a limb fracture. The third dog (case 3) was euthanatized for undertermined pulmonary disease 43 months after radiotherapy. The fourth dog (case 4) was euthanatized 6 months following radiotherapy because of transitional cell carcinoma and renal failure. No evidence of seminoma was found at necropsy. Radiotherapy was shown to be effective treatment for seminoma with regional metastasis.

McDonald, R.K.; Walker, M.; Legendre, A.M.; vanEe, R.T.; Gompf, R.E.

1988-04-01

465

Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs  

SciTech Connect

In humans, chronic infection with the gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus is usually asymptomatic; however some infected individuals develop hematological and epithelial malignancies. The exact role of EBV in lymphomagenesis is poorly understood partly because of the lack of clinically relevant animal models. Here we report the detection of serological responses against EBV capsid antigens in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous lymphoma and that dogs with the highest antibody titers have B cell lymphoma. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of EBV-like viral DNA and RNA sequences and Latent Membrane Protein-1 in malignant lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma. Finally, electron microscopy of canine malignant B cells revealed the presence of classic herpesvirus particles. These findings suggest that dogs can be naturally infected with an EBV-like gammaherpesvirus that may contribute to lymphomagenesis and that dogs might represent a spontaneous model to investigate environmental and genetic factors that influence gammaherpesvirus-associated lymphomagenesis in humans.

Huang, Shih-Hung, E-mail: ncku309@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States)] [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Kozak, Philip J., E-mail: philj@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Kim, Jessica, E-mail: jesskim820@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States)] [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Habineza-Ndikuyeze, Georges, E-mail: georgesh@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States)] [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Meade, Charles, E-mail: cmeade@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States)] [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita, E-mail: anitag@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States)] [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Patel, Reema, E-mail: rtpatel@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 315 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States)] [Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 315 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Robertson, Erle, E-mail: erle@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Microbiology, and Abramson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Tumor Virology Program, University of Pennsylvania, 202A Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6076 (United States)] [Department of Microbiology, and Abramson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Tumor Virology Program, University of Pennsylvania, 202A Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6076 (United States); and others

2012-06-05

466

Experimental infection of equine herpesvirus 9 in dogs.  

PubMed

Equine herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9), a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus, was inoculated intranasally at 107 plaque-forming units in five dogs to assess its pathogenicity. Dogs showed weight loss, pyrexia, anorexia, and neurologic signs on the fourth day. The EHV-9 virus was recovered from the examined brains. Histologically, dogs had a fulminant nonsuppurative encephalitis characterized by severe neuronal degeneration and loss, with intranuclear inclusions, slight glial reactions, perivascular cuffing, and multifocal hemorrhage. The olfactory bulb and the frontal and temporal lobes were predominantly affected. Immunohistochemistry revealed reactivity for EHV-9 antigen in neurons. All dogs had mild bronchopneumonia and various degrees of lymphoid necrosis. These findings indicate that dogs are fully susceptible to EHV-9 and that EHV-9 can cause fulminant encephalitis with high mortality in dogs, as in gazelles and goats. PMID:12724566

Yanai, T; Fujishima, N; Fukushi, H; Hirata, A; Sakai, H; Masegi, T

2003-05-01

467

Canine Connection: Dog 2--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08167  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth explore more about dog health, nutrition, and care, genetic problems, population control, showmanship, training, ethics and budgeting. Youth who engage in this curriculum will develop essential dog project skills such as selecting a dog; investigating breeds; appreciating dogs' places and roles in society; practicing grooming, fitting,…

National 4-H Council, 2005

2005-01-01

468

Leading the Pack: Dog 3--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08168  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experienced youth investigate responsible breeding, diseases, caring for geriatric dogs, training, service dogs, dog roles and careers related to dogs. This guide provides youth with numerous leadership opportunities. Because youth development programs help build tomorrow's leaders, leadership is a strong theme in Level 3 activities. One will be…

National 4-H Council, 2005

2005-01-01

469

All About the Dogs 4-H Weekend -2012 In June, the Rolling Bones 4-H Dog Club of Merrimack county held its fifteenth  

E-print Network

All About the Dogs 4-H Weekend - 2012 In June, the Rolling Bones 4-H Dog Club of Merrimack county held its fifteenth annual All About the Dogs weekend at the 4-H Youth Center in New Boston, NH. This clinic provides a canine training-themed weekend for children enrolled in the 4-H Dog Program

New Hampshire, University of

470

SOURCE: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-11-18/living/intelligent.dog.psychology_1_dogs-brian-hare-problems?_s=PM:LIVING accessed 12 Nov 2012  

E-print Network

SOURCE: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-11-18/living/intelligent.dog.psychology_1_dogs-brian-hare- problems?_s=PM:LIVING accessed 12 Nov 2012 Inside the science of how dogs think CNN Living: WORLD November toy! Ever wonder what your dog is thinking as it gazes at you while you are barking commands? Duke

Packard, Jane M.

471

Survival of Skin Graft between Transgenic Cloned Dogs and Non-Transgenic Cloned Dogs  

PubMed Central

Whereas it has been assumed that genetically modified tissues or cells derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) should be accepted by a host of the same species, their immune compatibility has not been extensively explored. To identify acceptance of SCNT-derived cells or tissues, skin grafts were performed between cloned dogs that were identical except for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and foreign gene. We showed here that differences in mtDNA haplotypes and genetic modification did not elicit immune responses in these dogs: 1) skin tissues from genetically-modified cloned dogs were successfully transplanted into genetically-modified cloned dogs with different mtDNA haplotype under three successive grafts over 63 days; and 2) non-transgenic cloned tissues were accepted into transgenic cloned syngeneic recipients with different mtDNA haplotypes and vice versa under two successive grafts over 63 days. In addition, expression of the inserted gene was maintained, being functional without eliciting graft rejection. In conclusion, these results show that transplanting genetically-modified tissues into normal, syngeneic or genetically-modified recipient dogs with different mtDNA haplotypes do not elicit skin graft rejection or affect expression of the inserted gene. Therefore, therapeutically valuable tissue derived from SCNT with genetic modification might be used safely in clinical applications for patients with diseased tissues. PMID:25372489

Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Jung; Lim, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Byung Il; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

2014-01-01

472

Characterization of the dog agouti gene and a nonagouti mutation in german shepherd dogs  

SciTech Connect

The interaction between two genes, Agouti and Melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r), produces diverse pigment patterns in mammals by regulating the type, amount, and distribution pattern of the two pigment types found in mammalian hair: eumelanin (brown/black) and pheomelanin (yellow/red). In domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), there is a tremendous variation in coat color patterns between and within breeds; however, previous studies suggest that the molecular genetics of pigment-type switching in dogs may differ from that of other mammals. Here we report the identification and characterization of the Agouti gene from domestic dogs, predicted to encode a 131-amino-acid secreted protein 98 percent identical to the fox homolog, and which maps to chromosome CFA24 in a region of conserved linkage. Comparative analysis of the Doberman Pinscher Agouti cDNA, the fox cDNA, and 180 kb of Doberman Pinscher genomic DNA suggests that, as with laboratory mice, different pigment-type-switching patterns in the canine family are controlled by alternative usage of different promoters and untranslated first exons. A small survey of Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, Australian Shepherds, and German Shepherd Dogs did not uncover any polymorphisms, but we identified a single nucleotide variant in black German Shepherd Dogs predicted to cause an Arg-to-Cys substitution at codon 96, which is likely to account for recessive inheritance of a uniform black coat.

Kerns, Julie A.; Newton, J.; Berryere, Tom G.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Schmutz, Sheila M.; Barsh, Gregory S.

2004-07-08

473

Attacks by packs of dogs involving predation on human beings.  

PubMed

Dog bites are a medical problem for millions of people, children being the most common victims. Human deaths attributable to dog bite injury (not rabies) are relatively infrequent. There have been some epidemiologic reviews, but this study is the first attempt to arrive at an understanding of bites involving predation on human beings by conducting behavioral examinations under controlled conditions of the dogs involved, and by interviewing victims, witnesses, and people familiar with the animals.The three cases studied involved two fatalities and an attack that was nearly fatal. The victims were 11, 14, and 81. In each case, owned pet dogs consumed some human tissue. The severity of the victims' injuries was not the consequence of a single dog bite, but the result of repeated attacks by dogs behaving as a social group. Factors that might contribute to a dog's regarding human beings as potential prey were examined, including hunger, prior predation, group behaviors, defense of territory, previous interactions with people, the presence of estrous female dogs, and environmental stimuli. In two of the cases, it was possible, by using similar stimuli, to duplicate the circumstances at the time of the attack.The results of the observations showed the value of behavioral analysis and simulations methods in evaluating possible factors in dog attacks.Among the many factors probably involved in severe dog attacks are the size, number, and nutritional status of the dogs; the dogs' previous aggressive contacts with people; the victim's age, size, health, and behavior; and the absence of other human beings in the vicinity. PMID:6828639

Borchelt, P L; Lockwood, R; Beck, A M; Voith, V L

1983-01-01

474

The Skin Microbiome in Healthy and Allergic Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n?=?12) and allergic dogs (n?=?6) from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. Conclusions/Significance The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between healthy and allergic dogs, with allergic dogs having lower species richness when compared to healthy dogs. PMID:24421875

Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline; Patterson, Adam P.; Diesel, Alison; Lawhon, Sara D.; Ly, Hoai Jaclyn; Stephenson, Christine Elkins; Mansell, Joanne; Steiner, Jörg M.; Dowd, Scot E.; Olivry, Thierry; Suchodolski, Jan S.

2014-01-01

475

Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r?=?0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

2013-01-01

476

Serum protein alterations in dogs naturally infected with Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted this study to describe the serum electrophoretic pattern in dogs associated with the infection of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). The serum protein pattern of 25 dogs with confirmed T. gondii infection and 15 clinically healthy dogs were evaluated using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Albumin, alpha-1\\u000a globulin, alpha-2 globulin, beta globulin, and gamma globulin bands were seen from the

Gul Fatma Yarim; Cevat Nisbet; Taraneh Oncel; Sena Cenesiz; Gulay Ciftci

2007-01-01

477

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the oxime HI6 in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the oxime HI6 were investigated in conscious and anesthetized beagle dogs following intramuscular injection. The absorption of HI6 (100 µmol\\/kg) was slower in conscious dogs as compared to the anesthetized dogs, and the maximum concentrations in plasma were lower (200 instead of 300 µmol\\/l). In comparison, the elimination of HI6 (100µmol\\/kg) was twice as rapid

R. Klimmek; P. Eyer

1986-01-01

478

[Functional activity of leucocytes in postnatal ontogenesis of dogs].  

PubMed

Studies have been made on motile and phagocytic activity, osmotic fragility of neutrophilic leucocytes, as well as on their glycogen content in dogs of various age groups. Within the first 3 months of postnatal life of animals (especially during the 1st month), functional activity of leucocytes is lower than in adult dogs. With respect to functional activity of leucocytes, 6-month puppies stand closer to adult dogs, although exhibit some differences from the latter. PMID:1217305

Luchinina, N A

1975-01-01

479

Comparative aspects of Cushing's syndrome in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's syndrome) is extremely common in dogs, with an incidence far greater than that in humans. The incidence of the syndrome in cats, much less frequently diagnosed than in dogs, probably is similar to that in humans. Many features of canine hyperadrenocorticism are strikingly similar to those in humans; however, several alterations in dogs are unique and not observed in other species. Clinical features and hospital testing abnormalities are reviewed in this article. PMID:7805662

Feldman, E C; Nelson, R W

1994-09-01

480

Nutrition and behavior in senior dogs.  

PubMed

With increasing age, some dogs develop a neurogenerative disease that is commonly referred to as canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS). Diagnosis of CDS can be clinical or based on laboratory tests. The main behavioral changes associated with CDS are disorientation, altered interactions with people or other animals, sleep-wake cycle alterations, house-soiling, and changes in activity level. Ruling out medical conditions that can cause similar changes in behavior is important when performing a clinical diagnosis. Management of CDS includes dietary and pharmacological intervention. Dietary treatment of CDS has been based on the use of antioxidants and mitochondrial cofactors, and recent work has shown that long-term supplementation with medium-chain triglycerides can improve cognitive function in aged dogs. CDS must be considered an animal welfare issue and the implications of this are discussed in this article. PMID:21435624

Manteca, Xavier

2011-02-01

481

Cytopathology of parasitic dermatitis in dogs.  

PubMed

Out of 44 cases of dermatitis in dogs, 11 cases of parasitic origin were analyzed by cytopathology. Histopathologic examination of punch biopsies was also done for correlation with cytologic findings. Sarcoptic dermatitis was recorded in six cases, wherein, besides sarcoptic mites, neutrophils, macrophages, and plasma cells and keratinizing epithelial cells were also seen. Hematology revealed a relative neutrophilia and mild eosinophilia. Four cases of severe and generalized demodicosis complicated with bacteria and/or Malassezia sp. infection were also recorded. Histopathologically numerous Demodex sp. mites in varying stage of maturation were found damaging the hair follicles along with associated pathological changes and foreign body granulomas in one case. In addition, flea allergy dermatitis was also observed in one dog. In nutshell, cytology was found to be unequivocally effective in diagnosing parasitic dermatitis. PMID:23543297

Sood, N K; Mekkib, Berhanu; Singla, L D; Gupta, K

2012-04-01

482

Clinical pharmacology of clemastine in healthy dogs.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetic properties of clemastine were investigated in six healthy dogs and compared with the effect of the drug recorded as inhibition of wheal formation induced by intradermal injections of histamine. Clemastine clearance was high (median: 2.1 L h(-1) kg(-1)) and the volume of distribution large (13.4 L kg(-1)). The half-life after intravenous administration was 3.8 h and the plasma protein binding level in vitro was 98%. After oral administration, the bioavailability was only 3%. Given intravenously, clemastine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) inhibited wheal formation completely for 7 h, whereas the effect after oral administration (0.5 mg kg(-1)) was minor. The data show that most dosage regimens suggested in the literature for the oral administration of clemastine to dogs are likely to give too low a systemic exposure of the drug to allow effective therapy. PMID:15214951

Hansson, H; Bergvall, K; Bondesson, U; Hedeland, M; Törneke, K

2004-06-01

483

Lack of arrhythmogenicity of aminophylline in dogs.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine if doses of aminophylline up to 10 mg/kg given i.v. would produce ventricular arrhythmias in seven healthy dogs anaesthetized with fentanyl-droperidol-pentobarbital. Arrhythmias were sought by inspection of ECGs before and after attempts at provoking them with 5 micrograms/kg boluses of epinephrine given i.v., or by programmed electrical stimulation. After cumulative doses of 10 mg aminophylline/kg body weight, producing an estimated plasma concentration of greater than 30 micrograms/ml, no ventricular ectopia other than escape depolarizations were observed. We were unable to document an arrhythmogenic effect of aminophylline when given rapidly by the i.v. route. It is possible that the anaesthetic regimen reduced the arrhythmogenic property of aminophylline, or that arrhythmias might be produced in either obese or ill dogs; but it is unlikely that chronic administration of aminophylline would be more arrhythmogenic. PMID:8478996

Hamlin, R L; Sally, J L

1993-03-01

484

The role of apoptosis in immunosuppression of dogs with demodicosis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the status of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes of dogs with demodicosis. A total of 26 dogs suffering from demodicosis, and positive for Demodex canis mites by skin scraping, participated in the study, 13 with localized demodicosis (LD) and 13 with generalized demodicosis (GD). A further 13 clinically healthy dogs, all of whom were negative for mites upon skin scraping, were used as controls. The dogs with GD revealed significantly higher (P ? 0.0001) percentage of leukocytes with externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potentials (??m) as compared with the dogs with LD and healthy controls. These dogs also revealed significantly lower values (P ? 0.0001) of hematological parameters viz. hemoglobin, total erythrocytes count total leukocytes count, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils. Significantly higher (P ? 0.0001) percentages of leukocytes with externalization of PS and depolarized ??m were also found in dogs with LD as compared with the healthy controls. These dogs also revealed significantly lower values of Hb (P ? 0.0001), TEC (P=0.025), TLC (P ? 0.0001), lymphocytes (P=0.008), monocytes (P ? 0.0001) and neutrophils (P=0.03). It is concluded that premature apoptosis of PBL may be implicated in the immunosuppression of the dogs with demodicosis. PMID:21890219

Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Mahesh C; Swarup, Devendra; Sharma, Bhaskar; Pandey, Hari Om; Kumari, Priyambada

2011-12-15

485

RESPIRATORY DYSFUNCTION IN UNSEDATED DOGS WITH GOLDEN RETRIEVER MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY  

PubMed Central

Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a well-established model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The value of this model would be greatly enhanced with practical tools to monitor progression of respiratory dysfunction during treatment trials. Arterial blood gas analysis, tidal breathing spirometry, and respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) were performed to determine if quantifiable abnormalities could be identified in unsedated, untrained, GRMD dogs. Results from 11 dogs with a mild phenotype of GRMD and 11 age-matched carriers were compared. Arterial blood gas analysis was successfully performed in all dogs, spirometry in 21 of 22 (95%) dogs, and RIP in 18 of 20 (90%) dogs. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentration were higher in GRMD dogs. Tidal breathing peak expiratory flows were markedly higher in GRMD dogs. Abnormal abdominal motion was present in 7 of 10 (70%) GRMD dogs. Each technique provided objective, quantifiable measures that will be useful for monitoring respiratory function in GRMD dogs during clinical trials while avoiding the influence of sedation on results. Increased expiratory flows and the pattern of abdominal breathing are novel findings, not reported in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and might be a consequence of hyperinflation. PMID:24295812

DeVanna, Justin C.; Kornegay, Joe N.; Bogan, Daniel J.; Bogan, Janet R.; Dow, Jennifer L.; Hawkins, Eleanor C.

2013-01-01

486

Penile amputation and scrotal urethrostomy in 18 dogs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to report the signalment, indications for surgery, postoperative complications and outcome in dogs undergoing penile amputation and scrotal urethrostomy. Medical records of three surgical referral facilities were reviewed for dogs undergoing penile amputation and scrotal urethrostomy between January 2003 and July 2010. Data collected included signalment, presenting signs, indication for penile amputation, surgical technique, postoperative complications and long-term outcome. Eighteen dogs were included in the study. Indications for surgery were treatment of neoplasia (n=6), external or unknown penile trauma (n=4), penile trauma or necrosis associated with urethral obstruction with calculi (n=3), priapism (n=4) and balanoposthitis (n=1). All dogs suffered mild postoperative haemorrhage (posturination and/or spontaneous) from the urethrostomy stoma for up to 21 days (mean 5.5 days). Four dogs had minor complications recorded at suture removal (minor dehiscence (n=1), mild bruising and swelling around the urethrostomy site and mild haemorrhage at suture removal (n=2), and granulation at the edge of stoma (n=1)). One dog had a major complication (wound dehiscence and subsequent stricture of the stoma). Long-term outcome was excellent in all dogs with non-neoplastic disease. Local tumour recurrence and/or metastatic disease occurred within five to 12 months of surgery in two dogs undergoing penile amputation for the treatment of neoplasia. Both dogs were euthanased. PMID:21968541

Burrow, R D; Gregory, S P; Giejda, A A; White, R N

2011-12-17

487

Science Sampler: You can learn a lot from your dog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, dogs have been the focus of a great deal of scientific research. In fact, dogs were the inspiration for Professor Bruce Blumberg's class, The Cognitive Dog: Savant or Slacker, at Harvard University. This course serves as the impetus for the thematic unit presented here--You Can Learn A Lot From Your Dog. The unit incorporates cooperative learning, data analysis, and presentations while providing a powerful approach to teaching science. This unit is meaningful for middle school students as they develop an understanding of selected aspects of the inquiry process.

Worsham, Sherry

2007-11-01

488

Thunderstorm phobia in dogs: an Internet survey of 69 cases.  

PubMed

To learn more about predispositions for, signs, and progression of canine thunderstorm phobia, a survey for owners was posted on the Internet. Questions addressed signalment, age of onset, behavior during storms, and treatments tried. Sixty-nine responses were received. Herding dogs and herding crossbreeds accounted for the majority of dogs. Seventeen of 41 dogs with a known age of onset began exhibiting thunderstorm phobia <1 year of age. Various characteristic responses of dogs to storms were described. Improved knowledge of the demographics of thunderstorm phobia, its development, and presentation will assist in understanding the genesis and progression of the condition. PMID:11450831

McCobb, E C; Brown, E A; Damiani, K; Dodman, N H

2001-01-01

489

Do dogs follow behavioral cues from an unreliable human?  

PubMed

Dogs are known to consistently follow human pointing gestures. In this study, we asked whether dogs "automatically" do this or whether they flexibly adjust their behavior depending upon the reliability of the pointer, demonstrated in an immediately preceding event. We tested pet dogs in a version of the object choice task in which a piece of food was hidden in one of the two containers. In Experiment 1, Phase 1, an experimenter pointed at the baited container; the second container was empty. In Phase 2, after showing the contents of both containers to the dogs, the experimenter pointed at the empty container. In Phase 3, the procedure was exactly as in Phase 1. We compared the dogs' responses to the experimenter's pointing gestures in Phases 1 and 3. Most dogs followed pointing in Phase 1, but many fewer did so in Phase 3. In Experiment 2, dogs followed a new experimenter's pointing in Phase 3 following replication of procedures of Phases 1 and 2 in Experiment 1. This ruled out the possibility that dogs simply lost motivation to participate in the task in later phases. These results suggest that not only dogs are highly skilled at understanding human pointing gestures, but also they make inferences about the reliability of a human who presents cues and consequently modify their behavior flexibly depending on the inference. PMID:25348065

Takaoka, Akiko; Maeda, Tomomi; Hori, Yusuke; Fujita, Kazuo

2015-03-01

490

Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife.  

PubMed

Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a major disease of domestic dogs that develops as a serious systemic infection in unvaccinated or improperly vaccinated dogs. Domesticated dogs are the main reservoir of CDV, a multihost pathogen. This virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae occurs in other carnivorous species including all members of the Canidae and Mustelidae families and in some members of the Procyonidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Viverridae families. Canine distemper also has been reported in the Felidae family and marine mammals. The spread and incidences of CDV epidemics in dogs and wildlife here and worldwide are increasing. PMID:22041204

Kapil, Sanjay; Yeary, Teresa J

2011-11-01

491

Association between passive smoking and atopic dermatitis in dogs.  

PubMed

Onset of atopic dermatitis and occurrence of related skin lesions are influenced by various environmental factors in humans, and companion animals. Several studies have demonstrated an association between passive smoking and the development of atopic dermatitis in children. This association has never been investigated in the dog to our knowledge. We enrolled 161 dogs seen at dermatology and vaccination consultations over a six-month period for this study. Dog owners were asked to complete a questionnaire, to evaluate the exposure of the dog to tobacco smoke. The atopic or non-atopic status of the dog was assessed on the basis of Favrot's criteria (history, clinical examination and cutaneous cytology for Malassezia). Analysis of the data for the 161 dogs enrolled revealed a significant association between high levels of passive exposure to tobacco smoke (cigarette consumption divided by the area of the home) and the presence of atopic dermatitis in the dogs (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.10-17.44; p=0.03; NNH (number needed to harm) 3, 95% CI 2-52). The prevalence of atopic dermatitis showed a slight, but non-significant association with breed predisposition. Dogs with high levels of exposure to tobacco smoke may have a higher risk of atopic dermatitis than non-exposed dogs. PMID:24491262

Ka, D; Marignac, G; Desquilbet, L; Freyburger, L; Hubert, B; Garelik, D; Perrot, S

2014-04-01

492

HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS THE GREAT CIRCUS - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

493

Lipoprotein metabolism and LCAT activity in chronic renal failure dogs supplemented with PUFA oils.  

E-print Network

??Serum total cholesterol (TC), lipoprotein cholesterol distribution, and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities of chronic renal failure dogs were investigated. Control dogs (n = 14) and… (more)

Malcik, Kimberly L

2012-01-01

494

Breed Characteristics of Abandoned and Lost Dogs in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Records on sheltered dogs were collected from 3 municipal dog shelters situated in different regions of the Czech Republic from 2010 to 2013. A total of 3,875 dogs were analyzed in this study. Among these, 1,614 dogs were subsequently reclaimed (lost dogs) and 2,261 dogs were abandoned and offered for adoption. The ratio of purebred dogs and crossbred dogs differed significantly when comparing lost (66.4% vs. 33.6%) and abandoned dogs (35.0% vs. 65.0%). The median time until lost dogs were reclaimed was 1 day, and it was not affected by purebred status. The median time until abandoned dogs were adopted was 23 days. In abandoned dogs, purebred status had a significant effect on the time the dog spent at the shelter before adoption. The median time until adoption for crossbred dogs was 27 days, whereas the median time until adoption for purebred dogs was 19 days. The breed group influenced the length of stay (LOS) in abandoned dogs. Small companion dogs had the shortest LOS (median = 15 days) and guard dogs had the longest LOS (median = 25 days). PMID:25491085

Voslarova, Eva; Zak, Jiri; Vecerek, Vladimir; Bedanova, Iveta

2014-12-01

495

Demographic and ecological survey of dog population in aba, abia state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (? (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

496

Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (?2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

497

Continent colostomy: An experimental study in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A method for constructing a continent colostomy has been tested in dogs. The sigmoid colon was divided and the distal end\\u000a closed. The proximal end was used for constructing the colostomy. Approximately 5 cm proximal to the colostomy, a short segment\\u000a of the sigmoid wall was intussuscepted into the bowel lumen and secured in position by use of electrocauterization and

N. G. Kock; S. Geroulanos; P. HAHNLOSER; H. Schauwecker; H. Säuberli

1974-01-01

498

Ileocecocolic volvulus in a German shepherd dog.  

PubMed

This report describes an ileocecocolic volvulus in a German shepherd dog with risk factors of previous abdominal surgeries and concurrent chronic enteropathy. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) with multiplanar reformatting was more sensitive than abdominal radiographs or ultrasound to obtain a diagnosis, because of the presence of a "whirl-sign" on CT. A combination of colopexy and cecopexy was succesfully used to treat the patient's condition. PMID:25392556

Javard, Romain; Specchi, Swan; Benamou, Jérôme; Lapointe, Catherine; Deffontaines, Jean-Baptiste; Planté, Jérôme; d'Anjou, Marc-André

2014-11-01

499

Top dogs: wolf domestication and wealth  

PubMed Central

A phylogeographic analysis of gene sequences important in determining body size in dogs, recently published in BMC Biology, traces the appearance of small body size to the Neolithic Middle East. This finding strengthens the association of this event with the development of sedentary societies, and perhaps even has implications for the inception of human social inequality. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/16/ PMID:20236496

2010-01-01

500

Pharmacokinetics of pidotimod in rats and dogs.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetic studies on pidotimod ((R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl) carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, PGT/1A, CAS 121808-62-6) a new biological response modifier, following intravenous, intramuscular or oral administrations in rats and dogs are reported in this paper. Plasma, urine and organ concentrations were determined by HPLC. Analytical methods were validated for specificity, sensitivity, recovery, accuracy and reproducibility; recovery was very close to 100%, the coefficients of variation of accuracy and reproducibility showed low values. In the rat the pharmacokinetic parameters obtained after oral administration demonstrate that pidotimod is a very fast absorbed, distributed and eliminated drug (t1/2el = 1 h) and that it shows high total clearance and distribution volume. Bioavailability was 100% in the intramuscular route and 27% in the oral route. Pidotimod distributes quickly in the main organs, in particular in kidneys and liver; the time course of the levels in organs follows that of plasma levels after intramuscular administration. After repeated intramuscular administrations no phenomena of accumulation or autoinduction were evident. The urinary excretion of the unmodified drug is 75.6% after intravenous and 31.1% after oral administration. The behaviour of pidotimod in dog after oral administration is quite similar to that observed in rat, with a t1/2el of 1.47 h, absolute bioavailability of 37%, high total clearance and distribution volume. Also in the dog the repeated intravenous and oral administrations do not cause any accumulation or autoinduction phenomena. PMID:7857342

Coppi, G; Silingardi, S

1994-12-01